WorldWideScience

Sample records for building-integrated energy-producing components

  1. Building-integrated photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    This is a study of the issues and opportunities for building-integrated PV products, seen primarily from the perspective of the design community. Although some quantitative analysis is included, and limited interviews are used, the essence of the study is qualitative and subjective. It is intended as an aid to policy makers and members of the technical community in planning and setting priorities for further study and product development. It is important to remember that the success of a product in the building market is not only dependent upon its economic value; the diverse group of building owners, managers, regulators, designers, tenants and users must also find it practical, aesthetically appealing and safe. The report is divided into 11 sections. A discussion of technical and planning considerations is followed by illustrative diagrams of different wall and roof assemblies representing a range of possible PV-integration schemes. Following the diagrams, several of these assemblies are then applied to a conceptual test building which is analyzed for PV performance. Finally, a discussion of mechanical/electrical building products incorporating PVs is followed by a brief surveys of cost issues, market potential and code implications. The scope of this report is such that most of the discussion does not go beyond stating the questions. A more detailed analysis will be necessary to establish the true costs and benefits PVs may provide to buildings, taking into account PV power revenue, construction costs, and hidden costs and benefits to building utility and marketability.

  2. Task 5. Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems. International guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and grid-connected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W.

    2002-02-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme presents a guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and grid-connected systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and distributed PV power systems. This generic international guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and complete grid-connected photovoltaic systems describes a set of recommended methods and tests that may be used to verify the integrity of hardware and installations, compliance with applicable standards/codes and can be used to provide a measure of the performance of components or of entire systems. The guideline is to help ensure that photovoltaic installations are both safe for equipment as well as for personnel when used according to the applicable installation standards and codes. The guideline may be used in any country using the rules stipulated by the applicable standards and codes and by applying them to the guideline's recommended tests. This document uses examples for some tests but does not specify exact test set-ups, equipment accuracy, equipment manufacturers or calibration procedures.

  3. Building integrated photovoltaic; Photovaltaique integre aux batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Durable, modular and flexible in use, as demonstrated by the different case studies in this publication, photovoltaic can replace diverse building elements, from glass facades to weather proof roofs. This leaflet towards architects describes aesthetic, technical, economic and environmental interest of building integrated photovoltaic. (author)

  4. Building Integrated Photovoltaic Systems: specific non-idealities from solar cell to grid

    OpenAIRE

    Corona, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    After an initial phase of great diffusion of large Photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on the ground, the recent evolution of the feed-in tariffs makes the Building Integrated PV (BIPV) systems for residential, commercial and industrial users, the more befitting application of the PV technology. Unfortunately, the building integration implies some critical issues on the operation of principal components, such as the PV panels or the grid-connected inverter, typical of this kind of installatio...

  5. Building integrated concentrating photovoltaics: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For building integration, Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) systems can offer a host of advantages over conventional flat panel devices, the most notable being: a higher electrical conversion efficiency in the PV cells, better use of space, ease of recycling of constituent materials, and reduced use of toxic products involved in the PV cells' production process. However, the viability of Building-Integrated Concentrating PV (BICPV) systems is dependent on their ability to offer a comparative economic advantage over flat panel photovoltaic technologies whose market prices are decreasing from day to day and which offer other advantages such as ease of replacement of structural elements. A comparative analysis is presented of the main existing CPV systems' suitability for use in buildings, in which the different challenges specific to integration of each system are discussed. The systems are categorized by type of concentration technology and concentration factor. (author)

  6. Holographic lenses for building integrated concentrating photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A holographic solar concentrator has been designed, constructed and characterised. • The system configuration is suitable for building integration. • The holographic lens diffracts in the bandwidth to which the cell is more sensitive. • The system prevents the cell overheating. • The use of the holographic element increases the electrical efficiency of the system. - Abstract: A volume transmission phase holographic element was designed and constructed to perform as a building integrated photovoltaic concentrator. The holographic lens diffracts light in the spectral bandwidth to which the cell presents the highest sensitivity with a concentration factor of 3.6X. In this way, the cell is protected from overheating because the infrared for which the solar cell is not sensitive is not concentrated. In addition, based on the asymmetric angular selectivity of the volume hologram and based on the linear concentration, only single-axis tracking is needed. The use of the holographic element increases the efficiency of the PV cell by 3% and the fill factor by 8%

  7. Building-integrated photovoltaics: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, G.; Kinkead, J.; Raman, M.

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Kiss Cathcart Anders Architects performed a study for NREL on Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) issues as seen from the perspective of the building community. In general, the purpose of the study was to list major issues and potential applications; by it`s nature it asked more questions than it answered. This second phase study was to produce quantitative data on the performance of specific BIPV systems. Only roof systems are evaluated. The energy performance, construction cost and simple payback for five different BIPV roof options are evaluated in six different locations: Oakland, New York, Miami, Phoenix, Chicago, and Cincinnati. The roof options evaluated include the following: single-glazed PV roof using glass-substrate PVs; double-glazed PV roof with insulating PV modules; ballasted roof-mounted system; sawtooth light monitor roof with indirect north daylighting; sawtooth roof with north light and active heat recovery.

  8. Linear Fresnel concentrators for building integrated applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an exhaustive study of a stationary wide angle Fresnel lens combined with a moving compound parabolic concentrator to track the Sun during the year is presented. The concentrating optical systems is proposed for building integrated solar applications. In the first section, the sensitivity analysis of design key parameters and its relationships is addressed. The parameters under study are the lens curvature, the maximum concentration and the compactness or the related aspect ratio. In the second section, it is concluded that a concentration ratio of 12.5 suns is the optimum geometric concentration for the Fresnel lens to satisfy both architectural features and solar concentration requirements. In the third section, the combination of the optimum Fresnel two compound parabolic concentrator designs is evaluated. The deep analysis of the optical system presented offers useful results for future designers.

  9. Myth of energy competitiveness in energy producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the relative comparative advantage, focusing on energy prices, of an energy producing developing country (Indonesia) and a non-energy producing developed country (Japan). For energy producing developing countries, it is strategically important to increase the competitiveness of energy dependent industries, and encourage the development of value-added industries. Much work has been done on relative advantage analysis, but the effects of the energy price formation mechanisms on price competitiveness have not been analysed. In this paper a comprehensive approach, using production and cost functions and synchronized price formation by means of principal component analysis, is introduced. (Author)

  10. Optimal building-integrated photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, G.; Kinkead, J. [Kiss and Co. Architects, New York, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules are clean, safe and efficient devices that have long been considered a logical material for use in buildings. Recent technological advances have made PVs suitable for direct integration into building construction. PV module size, cost, appearance and reliability have advanced to the point where they can function within the architectural parameters of conventional building materials. A building essentially provides free land and structural support for a PV module, and the module in turn displaces standard building components. This report identifies the highest-value applications for PVs in buildings. These systems should be the first markets for BIPV products in the commercial buildings, and should remain an important high-end market for the foreseeable future.

  11. Power of design - the future of building-integrated PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbate, Cinzia [ENEL, Rome (Italy). Officine di Architettura

    2001-04-01

    This paper discusses strategies to make building integrated photovoltaic (PV) systems more acceptable and to allow PV material to compete with conventional construction material. The history of developments in building integration and difficulties encountered by architects wishing to use PV products are explored, and the Dutch Amersfoot project in Utrecht involving a new suburb of 501 house covered with PV panels is described. Questions raised regarding architectural integration of PV systems, and PV systems and the construction market are discussed. The Italian PV programme, financial and political constraints, and the positioning of PV on existing structures are reported.

  12. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-01-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. This report helps to identify the key research and development (R&D) needs that will be required for BIST to make a substantial contribution toward that goal. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  13. Power of design - the future of building-integrated PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses strategies to make building integrated photovoltaic (PV) systems more acceptable and to allow PV material to compete with conventional construction material. The history of developments in building integration and difficulties encountered by architects wishing to use PV products are explored, and the Dutch Amersfoot project in Utrecht involving a new suburb of 501 house covered with PV panels is described. Questions raised regarding architectural integration of PV systems, and PV systems and the construction market are discussed. The Italian PV programme, financial and political constraints, and the positioning of PV on existing structures are reported

  14. Building integration of photovoltaic systems in cold climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Candanedo, José A.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents some of the research activities on building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems developed by the Solar and Daylighting Laboratory at Concordia University. BIPV systems offer considerable advantages as compared to stand-alone PV installations. For example, BIPV systems can play a role as essential components of the building envelope. BIPV systems operate as distributed power generators using the most widely available renewable source. Since BIPV systems do not require additional space, they are especially appropriate for urban environments. BIPV/Thermal (BIPV/T) systems may use exterior air to extract useful heat from the PV panels, cooling them and thereby improving their electric performance. The recovered thermal energy can then be used for space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) heating, supporting the utilization of BIVP/T as an appropriate technology for cold climates. BIPV and BIPV/T systems are the subject of several ongoing research and demonstration projects (in both residential and commercial buildings) led by Concordia University. The concept of integrated building design and operation is at the centre of these efforts: BIPV and BIPV/T systems must be treated as part of a comprehensive strategy taking into account energy conservation measures, passive solar design, efficient lighting and HVAC systems, and integration of other renewable energy systems (solar thermal, heat pumps, etc.). Concordia Solar Laboratory performs fundamental research on heat transfer and modeling of BIPV/T systems, numerical and experimental investigations on BIPV and BIPV/T in building energy systems and non-conventional applications (building-attached greenhouses), and the design and optimization of buildings and communities.

  15. ACCURATE BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM (BIPV) ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the leading areas of renewable energy applications for the twenty-first century is building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). Integrating photovoltaics into building structures allows the costs of the PV system to be partially offset by the solar modules also serving a s...

  16. Building-integrated renewable energy policy analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚春妮; 郝斌

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic development of renewable energy all over the world,and for purpose of adjusting energy structure,the Ministry of Construction of China plans to promote the large scale application of renewable energy in buildings. In order to ensure the validity of policy-making,this work firstly exerts a method to do cost-benefit analysis for three kinds of technologies such as building-integrated solar hot water (BISHW) system,building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) technology and ground water heat pump (GWHP). Through selecting a representative city of every climate region,the analysis comes into different results for different climate regions in China and respectively different suggestion for policy-making. On the analysis basis,the Ministry of Construction (MOC) and the Ministry of Finance of China (MOF) united to start-up Building-integrated Renewable Energy Demonstration Projects (BIREDP) in 2006. In the demonstration projects,renewable energy takes place of traditional energy to supply the domestic hot water,electricity,air-conditioning and heating. Through carrying out the demonstration projects,renewable energy related market has been expanded. More and more relative companies and local governments take the opportunity to promote the large scale application of renewable energy in buildings.

  17. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report

  18. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  19. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  20. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations

  1. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Regulation of Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Ahmad, (Thesis)

    2010-01-01

    In outdoor deployed photovoltaics (PV), standard test conditions (STC) of 25 °C PV temperature, 1000 Wm-2 solar radiation intensity and 1.5 air-mass rarely prevail. PV temperature can rise 40-100 °C above STC inducing a power drop in crystalline silicon PV with a coefficient of -0.4 to -0.65 %/K above STC. Increased operating temperature also results in accelerated PV degradation due to cell delamination allowing moisture ingress. vConventional building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) cooling...

  2. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  3. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  4. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs

  5. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  6. Energy Simulation of a Holographic PVT Concentrating System for Building Integration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Marín-Sáez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A building integrated holographic concentrating photovoltaic-thermal system has been optically and energetically simulated. The system has been designed to be superimposed into a solar shading louvre; in this way the concentrating unit takes profit of the solar altitude tracking, which the shading blinds already have, to increase system performance. A dynamic energy simulation has been conducted in two different locations—Sde Boker (Israel and Avignon (France—both with adequate annual irradiances for solar applications, but with different weather and energy demand characteristics. The simulation engine utilized has been TRNSYS, coupled with MATLAB (where the ray-tracing algorithm to simulate the holographic optical performance has been implemented. The concentrator achieves annual mean optical efficiencies of 30.3% for Sde Boker and 43.0% for the case of Avignon. Regarding the energy production, in both locations the thermal energy produced meets almost 100% of the domestic hot water demand as this has been considered a priority in the system control. On the other hand, the space heating demands are covered by a percentage ranging from 15% (Avignon to 20% (Sde Boker. Finally, the electricity produced in both places covers 7.4% of the electrical demand profile for Sde Boker and 9.1% for Avignon.

  7. Comparison of Fresnel concentrators for building integrated photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop concentrating photovoltaic systems for building integration applications, two optical devices are proposed. The concentrators are based in stationary linear Fresnel lenses and secondary CPC. The moving focal area is ten times smaller than the Fresnel lens aperture. Concentrator characteristics are studied in detail: shadowing effect, placement of the focal area and optical concentration efficiency. The main contribution of this paper is the three-dimensional optical analysis of the non-imaging concentrating systems. In terms of solar radiation, photovoltaic moving modules placed in the focal area of stationary concentrators are compared with simply fixed photovoltaic modules. In favourable weather locations, the beam radiation incident on the concentrating modules would be a large percentage, more than 50%, of the global radiation received by the fixed photovoltaic devices

  8. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  9. Building-integrated PV installations in the Netherlands: examples and operational experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building-integrated PV started receiving attention in the Netherlands around 1990. Attention has ever since been focusing on the integration of PV into new dwellings. Efforts have resulted in cost reductions, performance improvements, the development of new integration products and the creation of a network with utilities, property developers, architects, building companies and local authorities. PV system costs have been reduced by one third, to 5 Euro in 2000. System performance has gone up slightly during the reporting period, further reducing the cost per unit energy produced. Inverter costs have gone down from 1.5 Euro/Wp in 1991 to 0.5 Euro/Wp in 2000. Concerning integration into buildings and the building process, the Netherlands PV programme has been concentrating on developing products for low-cost integration into sloped roofs of new buildings. Watertight profile systems have been developed, tested, and applied in projects on a growing scale. The costs for building integration have came down due to improvements in integration systems, the electric system and in installation procedures. Projects have also been carried out on an increasing scale to learn about the integration of PV into the building process. In total, a capacity of more than 8 MW was installed by the end of the year 1999, with projects ranging from individual dwellings and offices to solar cities such as the Nieuw Sloten project in Amsterdam (250 kWp) and Nieuwland in Amersfoort (1 MW). Now, at the turn of the century, plans are being derived to give PV the 'boost' to become commercially viable within the next 7 to 10 years. For this, an ambitious goal is being formulated by government together with the PV industry, utilities, the building sector and others involved in PV in the Netherlands. Already in the mid-1990s, the long-term energy programme of the ministry of Economic Affairs set the target at an installed PV capacity of 250 MWp by the year 2010. In order to achieve a commercially

  10. Effect of urban climate on building integrated photovoltaics performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally recognized that BIPV (building integrated photovoltaics) has the potential to become a major source of renewable energy in the urban environment. The actual output of a PV module in the field is a function of orientation, total irradiance, spectral irradiance, wind speed, air temperature, soiling and various system-related losses. In urban areas, the attenuation of solar radiation due to air pollution is obvious, and the solar spectral content subsequently changes. The urban air temperature is higher than that in the surrounding countryside, and the wind speed in urban areas is usually less than that in rural areas. Three different models of PV power are used to investigate the effect of urban climate on PV performance. The results show that the dimming of solar radiation in the urban environment is the main reason for the decrease of PV module output using the climatic data of urban and rural sites in Mexico City for year 2003. The urban PV conversion efficiency is higher than that of the rural PV system because the PV module temperature in the urban areas is slightly lower than that in the rural areas in the case. The DC power output of PV seems to be underestimated if the spectral response of PV in the urban environment is not taken into account based on the urban hourly meteorological data of Sao Paulo for year 2004

  11. Building integration of concentrating solar systems for heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new solar collection system integrated on the façade of a building is investigated for Dutch climate conditions. The solar collection system includes a solar façade, a receiver tube and 10 Fresnel lenses. The Fresnel lenses Fresnel lenses considered were linear, non-imaging, line – focused with a system tracking the position of the sun that ensures vertical incidence of the direct solar radiation on the lenses. For the heating system a double-effect absorption heat pump, which requires high temperature of the heating fluid, was used, working with water and lithium-bromide as refrigerant and solution respectively. The Fresnel lens system is connected with the absorption heat pump through a thermal energy storage tank which accumulates the heat from the Fresnel lens system to provide it to the high pressure generator of the absorption heat pump. - Highlights: • The integration of Fresnel lenses in solar thermal building façades is investigated. • Using building integrated Fresnel lenses, 43% heating energy can be saved. • Energy savings in Mediterranean countries are significantly larger. • The absorption heat pump could make great contribution to energy savings for Dutch climate conditions

  12. Transparent building-integrated PV modules. Phase 1: Comprehensive report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-28

    This Comprehensive Report encompasses the activities that have been undertaken by Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with Energy Photovoltaics, Incorporated (EPV), to develop a flexible patterning system for thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules for building applications. There are two basic methods for increasing transparency/light transmission by means of patterning the PV film: widening existing scribe lines, or scribing a second series of lines perpendicular to the first. These methods can yield essentially any degree of light transmission, but both result in visible patterns of light and dark on the panel surface. A third proposed method is to burn a grid of dots through the films, independent of the normal cell scribing. This method has the potential to produce a light-transmitting panel with no visible pattern. Ornamental patterns at larger scales can be created using combinations of these techniques. Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with EPV are currently developing a complementary process for the large-scale lamination of thin-film PVs, which enables building integrated (BIPV) modules to be produced in sizes up to 48 in. x 96 in. Flexible laser patterning will be used for three main purposes, all intended to broaden the appeal of the product to the building sector: To create semitransparent thin-film modules for skylights, and in some applications, for vision glazing.; to create patterns for ornamental effects. This application is similar to fritted glass, which is used for shading, visual screening, graphics, and other purposes; and to allow BIPV modules to be fabricated in various sizes and shapes with maximum control over electrical characteristics.

  13. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  14. MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Randall

    2014-07-03

    The initial goal of the MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Installation Project was for the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to gain experience using the integrated higher efficiency solar photovoltaic (PV) single-ply membrane product, as it differs from the conventional, low efficiency, thin-film PV products, to determine the feasibility of success of larger deployment. As several of CCSF’s municipal rooftops are constrained with respect to weight restrictions, staff of the Energy Generation Group of the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) proposed to install a solar PV system using single-ply membrane The installation of the 100 kW (DC-STC) lightweight photo voltaic (PV) system at the MUNI Ways and Structures Center (700 Pennsylvania Ave., San Francisco) is a continuation of the commitment of the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to increase the pace of municipal solar development, and serve its municipal facilities with clean renewable energy. The fourteen (14) solar photovoltaic systems that have already been installed at CCSF municipal facilities are assisting in the reduction of fossil-fuel use, and reduction of greenhouse gases from fossil combustion. The MUNI Ways & Structures Center roof has a relatively low weight-bearing capacity (3.25 pounds per square foot) and use of traditional crystalline panels was therefore rejected. Consequently it was decided to use the best available highest efficiency Building-Integrated PV (BIPV) technology, with consideration for reliability and experience of the manufacturer which can meet the low weight-bearing capacity criteria. The original goal of the project was to provide an opportunity to monitor the results of the BIPV technology and compare these results to other City and County of San Francisco installed PV systems. The MUNI Ways and Structures Center was acquired from the Cookson Doors Company, which had run the Center for many decades. The building was

  15. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

  16. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area

  17. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in the Residential Section: An Analysis of Installed Rooftop Prices (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, T.; Goodrich, A.; Woodhouse, M.; Margolis, R.; Ong, S.

    2012-06-01

    This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 17, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) in the residential section and includes an analysis of installed rooftop prices.

  18. Large-scale building integrated photovoltaics field trial. First technical report - installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of the first eighteen months of the Large-Scale Building Integrated Photovoltaic Field Trial focussing on technical aspects. The project aims included increasing awareness and application of the technology, raising the UK capabilities in application of the technology, and assessing the potential for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). Details are given of technology choices; project organisation, cost, and status; and the evaluation criteria. Installations of BIPV described include University buildings, commercial centres, and a sports stadium, wildlife park, church hall, and district council building. Lessons learnt are discussed, and a further report covering monitoring aspects is planned.

  19. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in the Residential Sector: An Analysis of Installed Rooftop System Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, T.; Goodrich, A.; Woodhouse, M.; Margolis, R.; Ong, S.

    2011-11-01

    For more than 30 years, there have been strong efforts to accelerate the deployment of solar-electric systems by developing photovoltaic (PV) products that are fully integrated with building materials. This report examines the status of building-integrated PV (BIPV), with a focus on the cost drivers of residential rooftop systems, and explores key opportunities and challenges in the marketplace.

  20. Design and optical performance of a nonimaging Fresnel transmissive concentrator for building integration applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The designed concentrator has an important potential for building integration. → The device concentrates radiation toward a static receiver. → Tracking performed by a single driver, representing an important mechanical advantage. → The system reaches a global optical efficiency value of 56.38%. - Abstract: A transmissive Fresnel reflector is designed to match the needs of building integration for concentrating photovoltaic (PV), thermal (T) or hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) generation. The device concentrates radiation toward a static receiver by means of an array of reflectors which rotate collectively. All rotation axes are coplanar and parallel. A deep analytical ray tracing study has been made of the design characteristics and concentrator performance, thus determining the configuration which optimises efficiency. Numerous ray tracing numerical simulations have been performed which contrast and support the analytical results.

  1. Simulation of temperature in office with building integrated heating and cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter

    2002-01-01

    examined, as well as various heat loads in the office. The effect of different control strategies and supply temperatures are examined. It has been found that building integrated heating and cooling to a large extent can replace air condition without decreasing the thermal comfort, while only ventilating......In this paper a numerical investigation of the thermal indoor environment has been performed for an office with building integrated hydronic heating and cooling system. Today office buildings are designed in such a way, and have such high internal heat loads and solar gains, that some kind of......, temperatures and thermal comfort parameters. The model is based on a numerical Finite Control Volume (FCV) method for the heat transfer in walls, ceiling, windows and floor. The model uses both convective and radiative heat transfer to the room air and between the room surfaces. The simulation model can be...

  2. Antireflective Nanocomposite Based Coating on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gangopadhyay, Utpal; Jana, Sukhendu; Das, Sayan; Garain, Sutapa; Ray, Soma

    2013-01-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems represent an interesting, alternative approach for increasing the available area for electricity production and potentially for further reducing the cost of solar electricity. In BIPV systems, the visual impression of a solar module becomes important, including its color. However, the range of solar cell colours and shapes currently on offer to architects and BIPV system designers is still very limited, and this is a barrier to the widespread us...

  3. See-Through Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photonic Reflectors for Tandem and Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Heiniger, Leo-Philipp

    2013-08-21

    See-through dye-sensitized solar cells with 1D photonic crystal Bragg reflector photoanodes show an increase in peak external quantum efficiency of 47% while still maintaining high fill factors, resulting in an almost 40% increase in power conversion efficiency. These photoanodes are ideally suited for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A heuristic-based approach for reliability importance assessment of energy producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability of energy supply is one of the most important issues of service quality. On one hand, customers usually have different expectations for service reliability and price. On the other hand, providing different level of reliability at load points is a challenge for system operators. In order to take reasonable decisions and obviate reliability implementation difficulties, market players need to know impacts of their assets on system and load-point reliabilities. One tool to specify reliability impacts of assets is the criticality or reliability importance measure by which system components can be ranked based on their effect on reliability. Conventional methods for determination of reliability importance are essentially on the basis of risk sensitivity analysis and hence, impose prohibitive calculation burden in large power systems. An approach is proposed in this paper to determine reliability importance of energy producers from perspective of consumers or distribution companies in a composite generation and transmission system. In the presented method, while avoiding immense computational burden, the energy producers are ranked based on their rating, unavailability and impact on power flows in the lines connecting to the considered load points. Study results on the IEEE reliability test system show successful application of the proposed method. - Research highlights: → Required reliability level at load points is a concern in modern power systems. → It is important to assess reliability importance of energy producers or generators. → Generators can be ranked based on their impacts on power flow to a selected area. → Ranking of generators is an efficient tool to assess their reliability importance.

  5. Technoeconomic assessment of a building-integrated PV system for electrical energy saving in residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the installation, technical characteristics, operation and economic evaluation of a grid-connected building-integrated photovoltaic system (BIPV) installed in Northern Greece, and in particular in the city of Kastoria. The technical and economical factors are examined using a computerized renewable energy technologies (RETs) assessment tool. A number of different economic and financial feasibility indices are calculated for different financing scenarios in order to assess the gross return of the investment. Useful conclusions were drawn regarding the feasibility of BIPV systems and their potential for increased energy market penetration. (Author)

  6. Designing with solar power a source book for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV)

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Deo

    2014-01-01

    Designing with Solar Power is the result of international collaborative research and development work carried out within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) and performed within its Task 7 on 'Photovoltaic power systems in the built environment'.Each chapter of this precisely detailed and informative book has been prepared by an international expert in a specific area related to the development, use and application of building-integrated photovoltaics (BiPV). Chapters not only cover the basics of solar power and electrical concepts, bu

  7. Modelling and performance evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell for building integrated co- and polygeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazempoor, P. [Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Building Science and Technology Laboratory, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Mechanical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dorer, V. [Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Building Science and Technology Laboratory, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Ommi, F. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Models of fuel cell based combined heat and power systems, used in building energy performance simulation codes, are often based on simple black or grey box models. To model a specific device, input data from experiments are often required for calibration. This paper presents an approach for the theoretical derivation of such data. A generic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system model is described that is specifically developed for the evaluation of building integrated co- or polygeneration. First, a detailed computational cell model is developed for a planar SOFC and validated with available numerical and experimental data for intermediate and high temperature SOFCs with internal reforming (IT-DIR and HT-DIR). Results of sensitivity analyses on fuel utilisation and air excess ratio are given. Second, the cell model is extended to the stack model, considering stack pressure losses and the radiative heat transfer effect from the stack to the air flow. Third, two system designs based on the IT-DIR and HT-DIR SOFCs are modelled. Electric and CHP efficiencies are given for the two systems, as well as performance characteristics, to be used in simulations of building integrated co- and polygeneration systems. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. A Solar Atlas for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Electricity Resource Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Nielsen, Steffen; Sperling, Karl

    While photovoltaic energy gathers momentum as power costs increase and panel costs decrease, the total technical and economic potentials for building integrated solar energy in Denmark remain largely unidentified. The current net metering feed-in scheme is restricted to 6kW plant size, limiting...... large scale application. This paper presents a solar atlas based on a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of all 2.9 million buildings in the country, combined with a building register. The 1.6 m resolution DEM has been processed into global radiation input, solar energy output and production....... The continuous assessment of solar electricity generation potentials by marginal costs, ownership and plant type presented in the paper may be used for defining long term policies for the development of photovoltaic energy, as well as political instruments such as a multi-tier feed-in tariff....

  9. Economical, environmental and technical analysis of building integrated photovoltaic systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia has identified photovoltaic systems as one of the most promising renewable sources. A great deal of efforts has been undertaken to promote the wide applications of PV systems. With the recent launch of a PV market induction programme known as SURIA 1000 in conjunction with other relevant activities undertaken under the national project of Malaysia Building Integrated Photovoltaic (MBIPV), the market of PV systems begins to be stimulated in the country. As a result, a wide range of technical, environmental and economic issues with regard to the connection of PV systems to local distribution networks becomes apparent. Numerous studies were therefore carried out in collaboration with Malaysian Energy Centre to address a number of those important issues. The findings of the studies are presented in the paper and can be served as supplementary information to parties who are directly and indirectly involved in the PV sector in Malaysia. (author)

  10. Economical, environmental and technical analysis of building integrated photovoltaic systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia has identified photovoltaic systems as one of the most promising renewable sources. A great deal of efforts has been undertaken to promote the wide applications of PV systems. With the recent launch of a PV market induction programme known as SURIA 1000 in conjunction with other relevant activities undertaken under the national project of Malaysia Building Integrated Photovoltaic (MBIPV), the market of PV systems begins to be stimulated in the country. As a result, a wide range of technical, environmental and economic issues with regard to the connection of PV systems to local distribution networks becomes apparent. Numerous studies were therefore carried out in collaboration with Malaysian Energy Centre to address a number of those important issues. The findings of the studies are presented in the paper and can be served as supplementary information to parties who are directly and indirectly involved in the PV sector in Malaysia

  11. Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV): Analysis and US market potential. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frantzis, L.; Friedman, D.; Hill, S.; Teagan, P. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Strong, S.; Strong, M. [Solar Design Associates, Harvard, MA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., in conjunction with Solar Design Associates, conducted a study for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies (OBT) to determine the market potential for grid-connected, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study defines BIPV as two types of applications: (1) where the PV modules are an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering skin; and (2) the PV modules are mounted on the existing building exterior. Both of these systems are fully integrated with the energy usage of the building and have potential for significant market penetration in the US. Off-grid building applications also offer a near-term market for BIPV, but are not included in the scope of this study.

  12. High-performance vacuum tubes for more energy efficiency. Building-integrated CPC vacuum tube collectors unite several functions.; Hochleistungs-Vakuumroehren fuer mehr Energieeffizienz. Gebaeudeintegrierte CPC-Vakuumroehren-Kollektoren vereinen mehrere Funktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, Eric

    2013-10-15

    The performance of solar collectors primarily contributes to increased efficiency and reduced operating costs of solar thermal systems. With the use of building-integrated CPC vacuum tube collectors an extremely high energy yield is achieved on a smaller collector gross area. As a building-integrated system solution the CPC facade provide panels in addition to its use as spandrel panels within the glazed buildings not only an architectural design element, but unite as a multifunctional component for several functions. [German] Die Leistungsfaehigkeit der Solarkollektoren traegt primaer zur Effizienzsteigerung und Reduzierung der Betriebskosten einer Solarthermieanlagen bei. Mit dem Einsatz gebaeudeintegrierter CPC-Vakuumroehrenkollektoren wird auf einer kleineren Kollektorbruttoflaeche ein extrem hoher Energieertrag erreicht. Als gebaeudeintegrierte Systemloesung bieten die CPC-Fassadenkollektoren neben dem Einsatz als Bruestungselemente auch innerhalb der verglasten Gebaeuden nicht nur ein architektonisches Gestaltungselement, sondern vereinen als multifunktionaler Bestandteil noch mehrere Funktionen.

  13. Whole systems appraisal of a UK Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system: Energy, environmental, and economic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy analysis, environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) and economic appraisals have been utilised to study the performance of a domestic building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) system on a ‘whole systems’ basis. Energy analysis determined that the system paid back its embodied energy in just 4.5 years. LCA revealed that the embodied impacts were offset by the electricity generated to provide a net environmental benefit in most categories. Only carcinogens, ecotoxicity and minerals had a small net lifetime burden. A financial analysis was undertaken from the householder's perspective, alongside cost-benefit analysis from a societal perspective. The results of both indicated that the systems are unlikely to pay back their investment over the 25 year lifetime. However, the UK is in an important period (2010/11) of policy transition with a move away from the ‘technology subsidies’ of the Low Carbon Buildings Programme (LCBP) and towards a ‘market development policy’ of feed-in tariffs. Representing the next stage on an innovation S-curve this is expected to facilitate rapid PV uptake, as experienced in countries such as Germany, Denmark, and Spain. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate the importance of the new government support scheme to the future uptake of BIPV. - Highlights: ► LCA and economic appraisals of a UK domestic building integrated PV system. ► Energy analysis determined that the system paid back its embodied energy in 4.5 years. ► UK moved towards a market development policy of feed-in tariffs. ► Financial analysis shows the importance of the new FiT scheme to the uptake of PV.

  14. Efficiencies and improvement potential of building integrated photovoltaic thermal (BIPVT) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Performances analysis of BIPVT solar collector based on energy and exergy analyses. • A new absorber design of BIPVT solar collector is presented. • BIPVT solar collector is produced primary-energy saving efficiency from about 73% to 81%. • PVT energy efficiency varies between 55% and 62% where as the variation in the PVT exergy efficiency is from 12% to 14%. • The improvement potential is between 98 and 404 W. - Abstract: Building integrated photovoltaic thermal (BIPVT) system has been designed to produce both electricity and hot water and later integrated to building. The hot water is produced at the useful temperatures for the applications in Malaysia such as building integrated heating system and domestic hot water system as well as many industrial including agricultural and commercial applications. The photovoltaic thermal (PVT) system comprises of a high efficiency multicrystal photovoltaic (PV) module and spiral flow absorber for BIPVT application, have been performed and investigated. In this study, it was assumed that the absorber was attached underneath the flat plate single glazing sheet of polycrystalline silicon PV module and water has been used as a heat transfer medium in absorber. Performances analysis of BIPVT system based on energy and exergy analyses. It was based on efficiencies including energy and exergy, and exergetic improvement potential (IP) based on the metrological condition of Malaysia has been carried out. Results show that the hourly variation for BIPVT system, the PVT energy efficiency of 55–62% is higher than the PVT exergy efficiency of 12–14%. The improvement potential increases with increasing solar radiation, it is between 98 and 404 W. On the other hand, BIPVT system was produced primary-energy saving efficiency from about 73% to 81%

  15. Plug and Play Components for Building Integrated PV Systems, Phase II Final Report, 20 February 2003 - 31 May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, D.

    2008-04-01

    Progress by Schott Solar, Inc. under NREL's PV Manufacturing R&D Project. Details progress on meter-interconnect device; free-standing mounting system; dark I-V curves to unearth problems with PV module strings; new 34-V version of ASE-300 PV module; and updated source-circuit protectors.

  16. A New Building-Integrated Wind Turbine System Utilizing the Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongsu Park

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an innovative building-integrated wind turbine (BIWT system by directly utilizing the building skin, which is an unused and unavailable area in all conventional BIWT systems. The proposed system has been developed by combining a guide vane that is able to effectively collect the incoming wind and increase its speed and a rotor with an appropriate shape for specific conditions. To this end, several important design issues for the guide vane as well as the rotor were thoroughly investigated and accordingly addressed in this paper. A series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD analyses was performed to determine the optimal configuration of the proposed system. Finally, it is demonstrated from performance evaluation tests that the prototype with the specially designed guide vane and rotor for the proposed BIWT system accelerates the wind speed to a sufficient level and consequently increases the power coefficient significantly. Thus, it was confirmed that the proposed system is a promising environment-friendly energy production system for urban areas.

  17. Building integration of thin-film photovoltaics. New architectural possibilities and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawietz, Silke [University of Catania, Roma (Italy). Faculty of Architecture

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of the paper is the advanced research in photovoltaics and their integration into buildings, in particular the thin-film photovoltaics into bioclimatic architectural projects. Buildings are responsible for 50% of the world's generation of CO2.The urgent task is to forge an environmentally responsible modern architecture, to use technology to achieve beneficial ends. The further development of the photovoltaics technology, in combination with the development of the area of Building integration of photovoltaics (BIPV), are the basis of this paper. The results of the research, undertaken for the thin-film BIPV are presented. Key features of this technology are lower cost and higher aesthetical values, making this an important new area of research. The research consists in an exploration of the architectural possibilities of the thin-film Photovoltaic technology with high-profile architects and engineers. The results of the project underline the importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration between architects, industry and engineers. (orig.)

  18. Annual performance of building-integrated photovoltaic/water-heating system for warm climate application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A building-integrated photovoltaic/water-heating (BiPVW) system is able to generate higher energy output per unit collector area than the conventional solar systems. Through computer simulation with energy models developed for this integrative solar system in Hong Kong, the results showed that the photovoltaic/water-heating (PVW) system has economic advantages over the conventional photovoltaic (PV) installation. The system thermal performance under natural water circulation was found better than the pump-circulation mode. For a specific BiPVW system at a vertical wall of a fully air-conditioned building and with collectors equipped with flat-box-type thermal absorber and polycrystalline silicon cells, the year-round thermal and cell conversion efficiencies were found respectively 37.5% and 9.39% under typical Hong Kong weather conditions. The overall heat transmission through the PVW wall is reduced to 38% of the normal building facade. When serving as a water pre-heating system, the economical payback period was estimated around 14 years. This greatly enhances the PV market opportunities. (author)

  19. Crossflex: Concept and early development of a true building integrated wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the concept development and work to date, of an innovative 'true' building integrated wind turbine. The context for this is the role of small-scale renewable energy in addressing climate change. In the UK a number of small wind turbines have reached the market, however, in almost all cases, these are existing HAWT or VAWT tower mounted systems. Due to their inherent design qualities, and issues such as planning requirements, these have much reduced output due to their form and siting and are unable to take advantage of augmented airflow around buildings. The Crossflex proposal is a radical new development of a Darrieus turbine form. As well as having a technically innovative flexible blade system, it also utilises a lightweight cowling system that can provide both augmented airflow and improved visual integration into new and existing building forms. It is a modular form that can be sited on ridges and corners of buildings to provide useful levels of generation. (author)

  20. Crossflex: Concept and early development of a true building integrated wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Tim [Mackintosh Environmental Architecture Research Unit (MEARU), Glasgow School of Art, Glasgow, G3 6RQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Proven, Gordon [Proven Energy Ltd. Wardhead Park, Stewarton, Ayrshire, KA3 5LH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes the concept development and work to date, of an innovative 'true' building integrated wind turbine. The context for this is the role of small-scale renewable energy in addressing climate change. In the UK a number of small wind turbines have reached the market, however, in almost all cases, these are existing HAWT or VAWT tower mounted systems. Due to their inherent design qualities, and issues such as planning requirements, these have much reduced output due to their form and siting and are unable to take advantage of augmented airflow around buildings. The Crossflex proposal is a radical new development of a Darrieus turbine form. As well as having a technically innovative flexible blade system, it also utilises a lightweight cowling system that can provide both augmented airflow and improved visual integration into new and existing building forms. It is a modular form that can be sited on ridges and corners of buildings to provide useful levels of generation. (author)

  1. Reactor building integrity testing: A novel approach at Gentilly 2 - principles and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987, Hydro-Quebec embarked on an ambitious development program to provide the Gentilly 2 nuclear power station with an effective, yet practical reactor building Integrity Test. The Gentilly 2 Integrity Test employs an innovative approach based on the reference volume concept. It is identified as the Temperature Compensation Method (TCM) System. This configuration has been demonstrated at both high and low test pressure and has achieved extraordinary precision in the leak rate measurement. The Gentilly 2 design allows the Integrity Test to be performed at a nominal 3 kPa(g) test pressure during an (11) hour period with the reactor at full power. The reactor building Pressure Test by comparison, is typically performed at high pressure 124 kPa(g)) in a 7 day window during an annual outage. The Integrity Test was developed with the goal of demonstrating containment availability. Specifically it was purported to detect a leak or hole in the 'bottled-up' reactor building greater in magnitude than an equivalent pipe of 25 mm diameter. However it is considered feasible that the high precision of the Gentilly 2 TCM System Integrity Test and a stable reactor building leak characteristic will constitute sufficient grounds for the reduction of the Pressure Test frequency. It is noted that only the TCM System has, to this date, allowed a relevant determination of the reactor building leak rate at a nominal test pressure of 3 kPa(g). Classical method tests at low pressure have lead to inconclusive results due to the high lack of precision

  2. Semantic Bim and GIS Modelling for Energy-Efficient Buildings Integrated in a Healthcare District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, R.; Böhms, H. M.; Bonsma, P.; van den Helm, P. W.

    2013-09-01

    The subject of energy-efficient buildings (EeB) is among the most urgent research priorities in the European Union (EU). In order to achieve the broadest impact, innovative approaches to EeB need to resolve challenges at the neighbourhood level, instead of only focusing on improvements of individual buildings. For this purpose, the design phase of new building projects as well as building retrofitting projects is the crucial moment for integrating multi-scale EeB solutions. In EeB design process, clients, architects, technical designers, contractors, and end-users altogether need new methods and tools for designing energy-efficiency buildings integrated in their neighbourhoods. Since the scope of designing covers multiple dimensions, the new design methodology relies on the inter-operability between Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Geospatial Information Systems (GIS). Design for EeB optimisation needs to put attention on the inter-connections between the architectural systems and the MEP/HVAC systems, as well as on the relation of Product Lifecycle Modelling (PLM), Building Management Systems (BMS), BIM and GIS. This paper is descriptive and it presents an actual EU FP7 large-scale collaborative research project titled STREAMER. The research on the inter-operability between BIM and GIS for holistic design of energy-efficient buildings in neighbourhood scale is supported by real case studies of mixed-use healthcare districts. The new design methodology encompasses all scales and all lifecycle phases of the built environment, as well as the whole lifecycle of the information models that comprises: Building Information Model (BIM), Building Assembly Model (BAM), Building Energy Model (BEM), and Building Operation Optimisation Model (BOOM).

  3. Secondary Re-Use of Batteries From Electric Vehicles for Building Integrated Photo-Voltaic (BIPV) applications

    OpenAIRE

    McLoughlin, Fintan; Conlon, Michael

    2015-01-01

    PV Crops is evaluating the use of battery technologies such as Vanadium Redox within Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) applications. However, their inclusion into BIPV systems will inevitably raise the overall costs of such systems. As a result, PV Crops is looking at other measures in parallel to help lower the costs associated with such systems. One particular area of interest is the potential secondary re-use of battery technology from Electric Vehicle (EV) market as a way of mitigat...

  4. Thermoelectric Coupling Analysis of the Building Integrated Photovotage Unit%光伏建筑一体化部件的热电耦合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽佳; 杨瑞霞; 田汉民

    2013-01-01

    The temperature of the building integrated photovotage ( BIPV ) unit will be greatly increased during servicing, and the output characteristics of the solar cell in the component will be affected, then the output power declines and directly affects the electrical properties. So it is very important that the temperature distribution of the components in service was simuletal auurately and the output power in this thermal field was calculated. Firstly, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cell under different temperatures was calculated·using iterative algorithm of the implicit function approximation solution which based on the equivalent circuit. Then, the temperature field of the unit was simulated by the use of the finite element analysis method when it was installed on the rooftop of the building. After all of that, combining them to realize thermoelectric coupling of the photoelectric conversion efficiency and working temperature. Under such condition, temperature field of the component and output power at that time should be calculated. It could serve as useful markers for analyzing the building integrated photovotage unit under service conditions.%光伏建筑一体化部件服役过程中组件温度会大幅度升高,使组件中太阳电池的输出特性受到影响导致输出功率下降,直接影响到一体化部件的电性能,因此准确地模拟出组件在服役过程中的温度场分布并计算出此热场下电池的输出功率十分重要.基于等效电路利用隐函数近似解的迭代算法,首先分析不同温度下一体化部件中太阳电池的光电转换效率,然后用有限元分析法模拟部件安装在建筑物屋顶后服役过程中的温度场,再将二者相结合实现部件中单晶硅太阳电池的光电转换效率与工作温度的热电耦合,模拟出部件热电耦合后的温度场,并计算出部件当时的输出功率,为分析光伏建筑一体化部件服役期间的具体热电性能提供理论参考.

  5. Modelling the heat dynamics of a monitored Test Reference Environment for Building Integrated Photovoltaic systems using stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodi, C.; Bacher, Peder; Cipriano, J.;

    2012-01-01

    and heat transfer coefficients is fundamental in order to improve the thermo-electrical production.The considered grey-box models are composed of a set of continuous time stochastic differential equations, holding the physical description of the system, combined with a set of discrete time measurement...... equations, which represent the data driven part.In the present work, both one-state and two-state non-linear grey-box models are considered. In order to validate the results, the residuals are analysed for white-noise properties.......This paper deals with grey-box modelling of the energy transfer of a double skin Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system. Grey-box models are based on a combination of prior physical knowledge and statistics, which enable identification of the unknown parameters in the system and accurate...

  6. See-through amorphous silicon solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal back reflectors for building integrated photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin semi-transparent hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal (STCPC) back-reflectors are demonstrated. Short circuit current density of a 135 nm thick a-Si:H cell with a given STCPC back-reflector is enhanced by as much as 23% in comparison to a reference cell with an ITO film functioning as its rear contact. Concurrently, solar irradiance of 295 W/m2 and illuminance of 3480 lux are transmitted through the cell with a given STCPC back reflector under AM1.5 Global tilt illumination, indicating its utility as a source of space heating and lighting, respectively, in building integrated photovoltaic applications

  7. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Natural Convection in Open-Ended Channels with Application to Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timchenko V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical and experimental investigations of the flow and heat transfer in open-ended channel formed by the double skin façade have been undertaken in order to improve understanding of the phenomena and to apply it to passive cooling of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Both uniform heating and non-uniform heating configurations in which heat sources alternated with unheated zones on both skins were studied. Different periodic and asymmetric heating modes have been considered for the same aspect ratio 1/15 of wall distance to wall height and for periodicity 1/15 and 4/15 of heated/unheated zones and heat input, 220 W/m2. In computational study three dimensional transient LES simulation was carried out. It is shown that in comparison to uniformly heating configuration, non-uniformly heating configuration enhances both convective heat transfer and chimney effect.

  8. An overview of worldwide development activity in building-integrated photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, S.J. [Solar Design Associates, Inc., Harvard, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The last two decades have brought significant charges to the design profession. Architects with vision have come to understand it is no longer the goal of good design to simply create a building that is pleasing; buildings of the future must be environmentally responsive as well. Increased levels of thermal insulation, healthier interiors, higher-efficiency lighting, better glazings and HVAC equipment, air to air heat exchangers and heat recovery ventilation systems are important steps in the right direction. However, more needs to be done and the area of photovoltaics is one of the most promising renewable energy technologies. This paper is a country by country description of component and system development along with selected examples of Solar Electric architecture. Countries described include Japan, Germany, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Spain, Sweden, Italy, Canada, Norway.

  9. Dynamic performance assessment of a residential building-integrated cogeneration system under different boundary conditions. Part I: Energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A building-integrated micro-cogeneration system was dynamically simulated. • Simulation data were analyzed from an energy point of view. • The proposed system was compared with a conventional supply system. • The proposed system allows to save energy under heat-led operation. • Electric vehicle charging enhances the energy saving under electric load-led logic. - Abstract: This work examines the energy performance of a residential building-integrated micro-cogeneration system during the winter season by means of a whole building simulation software; a 6.0 kWel natural gas-fuelled internal combustion engine-based cogeneration unit was coupled with a multi-family house composed of three floors, compliant with the thermal transmittances of both walls and windows equated to the threshold values suggested by the Italian Law. The main purpose of the paper is to compare the proposed system with a conventional system composed of a natural gas-fired boiler (for thermal energy production) and a power plant mix connected to the Italian central grid (for electric energy production) in order to assess the potential energy saving under various operating scenarios. The simulations were performed by considering the multi-family house located into four different Italian cities (Palermo, Napoli, Roma and Milano) representative of different climatic regions of Italy in order to estimate the influence of climatic conditions; a parametric analysis was also performed with the aim to evaluate the sensitivity of the energy flows when varying the volume of the combined storage tank; taking into consideration that the economic viability of the cogeneration unit strongly depends also on the value of the co-produced electricity, the system performance was also evaluated by considering two different electric demand profiles (with and without the electric consumption associated to the overnight charging of an electric vehicle); the operation of the micro

  10. SunFlash -- An entirely new concept for building-integrated PV. Final technical report, October 1997--June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, M.A.

    1998-10-01

    This project team has investigated an innovative and entirely new building product concept, the SunFlash, incorporating a photovoltaic module with integral mounting and sealing for watertight building integration. It can be used as a roof-integrated shingle for slant roofs, for vertical curtain walls, or in other applications. Key features of the SunFlash include the following: an integrated module concept whereby the module, backskin, edge seal and mounting and sealing are all a single molded unit of the same material; an extension of this concept to include the possibility of molded-in electrical connections; a novel encapsulant material with better adhesion, sealing, thermal creep, and UV stability properties than EVA; a crystalline silicon, glass-front module incorporating the advanced string ribbon solar cells; and accessories and features, including a module-integrated inverter, laminated exit wiring, mounting, and raceway wiring, that provide high-performance consistent with building practice. The objective of the SunFlash is a standardized, cost-effective, long-lasting solution to integrating and water-sealing modules into residential and commercial buildings, both new and retrofit.

  11. Assay of the multiple energy-producing pathways of mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry R Bochner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To elucidate metabolic changes that occur in diabetes, obesity, and cancer, it is important to understand cellular energy metabolism pathways and their alterations in various cells. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a technology for simultaneous assessment of cellular energy metabolism pathways. The technology employs a redox dye chemistry specifically coupled to catabolic energy-producing pathways. Using this colorimetric assay, we show that human cancer cell lines from different organ tissues produce distinct profiles of metabolic activity. Further, we show that murine white and brown adipocyte cell lines produce profiles that are distinct from each other as well as from precursor cells undergoing differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: This technology can be employed as a fundamental tool in genotype-phenotype studies to determine changes in cells from shared lineages due to differentiation or mutation.

  12. building integrated wind energy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jialin

    2013-01-01

    In considering methods of reducing the emission of carbon dioxide; there is a growing interest for use of wind power at domestic building in U.K. But the technology of wind turbines development in building environment is more complicated than in open areas. Small wind turbines in suburban areas have been reported as having unsatisfactory energy output, but it is not clear whether this is due to insufficient wind resource or low turbine efficiency. The aim of this research is to discover wheth...

  13. The impact of building-integrated photovoltaics on the energy demand of multi-family dwellings in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil faces a continuous increase of energy demand and a decrease of available resources to expand the generation system. Residential buildings are responsible for 23% of the national electricity demand. Thus, it is necessary to search for new energy sources to both diversify and complement the energy mix. Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) is building momentum worldwide and can be an interesting alternative for Brazil due its solar radiation characteristics. This work analyses the potential of seven BIPV technologies implemented in a residential prototype simulated in three different cities in Brazil (Natal, Brasilia and Florianopolis). Simulations were performed using the software tool EnergyPlus to integrate PV power supply with building energy demand (domestic equipment and HVAC systems). The building model is a typical low-cost residential building for middle-class families, as massively constructed all over the country. Architectural input and heat gain schedules are defined from statistical data (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica - Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and Sistema de Informacoes de Posses de Eletrodomesticos e Habitos de Consumo - Consumer Habits and Appliance Ownership Information System (SIMPHA)). BIPV is considered in all opaque surfaces of the envelope. Results present an interesting potential for decentralized PV power supply even for vertical surfaces at low-latitude sites. In each facade, BIPV power supply can be directly linked to local climatic conditions. In general, for 30% of the year photovoltaic systems generate more energy than building demand, i.e., during this period it could be supplying the energy excess to the public electricity grid. Contrary to the common belief that vertical integration of PV is only suitable for high latitude countries, we show that there is a considerable amount of energy to be harvested from vertical facades at the sites investigated. (Author)

  14. The impact of building-integrated photovoltaics on the energy demand of multi-family dwellings in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordenes, Martin; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Braun, Priscila; Ruther, Ricardo [Laboratorio de Eficiencia Energetica em Edificacoes (LabEEE), Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina/UFSC, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900, (Brazil); Laboratorio de Energia Solar (LABSOLAR), Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina/UFSC, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900, (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    Brazil faces a continuous increase of energy demand and a decrease of available resources to expand the generation system. Residential buildings are responsible for 23% of the national electricity demand. Thus, it is necessary to search for new energy sources to both diversify and complement the energy mix. Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) is building momentum worldwide and can be an interesting alternative for Brazil due its solar radiation characteristics. This work analyses the potential of seven BIPV technologies implemented in a residential prototype simulated in three different cities in Brazil (Natal, Brasilia and Florianopolis). Simulations were performed using the software tool EnergyPlus to integrate PV power supply with building energy demand (domestic equipment and HVAC systems). The building model is a typical low-cost residential building for middle-class families, as massively constructed all over the country. Architectural input and heat gain schedules are defined from statistical data (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica - Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and Sistema de Informacoes de Posses de Eletrodomesticos e Habitos de Consumo - Consumer Habits and Appliance Ownership Information System (SIMPHA)). BIPV is considered in all opaque surfaces of the envelope. Results present an interesting potential for decentralized PV power supply even for vertical surfaces at low-latitude sites. In each facade, BIPV power supply can be directly linked to local climatic conditions. In general, for 30% of the year photovoltaic systems generate more energy than building demand, i.e., during this period it could be supplying the energy excess to the public electricity grid. Contrary to the common belief that vertical integration of PV is only suitable for high latitude countries, we show that there is a considerable amount of energy to be harvested from vertical facades at the sites investigated. (Author)

  15. Comparative study of solar cooling systems with building-integrated solar collectors for use in sub-tropical regions like Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Performance of building-integrated solar collectors analyzed. ► Comparisons made with solar collectors installed on roof. ► Use of building-integrated solar collectors increased the total primary consumption. ► Reduction in the building load could not compensate drop in solar collector output. ► Building-integrated solar collectors only used when roof space insufficient. -- Abstract: The performance of solar cooling systems with building-integrated (BI) solar collectors was simulated and the results compared with those having the solar collectors installed conventionally on the roof based on the weather data in Hong Kong. Two types of solar collectors and the corresponding cooling systems, namely the flat-plate collectors for absorption refrigeration and the PV panels for DC-driven vapour compression refrigeration, were used in the analysis. It was found that in both cases, the adoption of BI solar collectors resulted in a lower solar fraction (SF) and consequently a higher primary energy consumption even though the zone loads were reduced. The reduction in SF was more pronounced in the peak load season when the solar radiation was nearly parallel to the solar collector surfaces during the daytimes, especially for those facing the south direction. Indeed, there were no outputs from the BI flat-plate collectors facing the south direction between May and July. The more severe deterioration in the system performance with the BI flat-plate type collectors made them technically infeasible in terms of the energy-saving potential. It was concluded that the use of BI solar collectors in solar cooling systems should be restricted only to situations where the availability of the roof was limited or insufficient when applied in sub-tropical regions like Hong Kong.

  16. With building integrated photovoltaic in a daylight optimized passive house to energy autonomy; Mit gebaeudeintegrierter PV im tageslichtoptimierten Passivhaus zur bilanziellen Energieautarkie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miloni, R.P. [Miloni Lichtplanung und Architektur, Hausen (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    With the introduction of a cost recovering energy feeding law, new possibilities open up for the building integration of photovoltaics and for the solar power generation at the ''Point of sale ''. Still, the appropriate Swiss market is marginal. Not all legal, technical and financial hurdles are removed. Here the photovoltaics with its building integration is in touch with an emotional factor of revaluation: An integration of photovoltaics adresses the building owner beyond their technical-economic value at a culturally abstract level - a wing of a butterfly oscillating in the sunlight also touches on a completely different level. Exactly the same the integration of photovoltaics makes the building to a unique piece of jewellery. In the pioneer phase of the photovoltaics market, architectonically successful integrations of photovoltaics succeeded in a break-through of the solar power generation. Photovoltaics at building coverings is more than a ''fashion '': it becomes a lever arm, with which the solarization of our society transports significant values. Apart from rational-technical considerations this effect has to be used to favour a broad application of photovoltaics with the building integration more purposefully.

  17. Estimation of non-linear continuous time models for the heat exchange dynamics of building integrated photovoltaic modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, M.J.; Madsen, Henrik; Bloem, J.J.;

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on a method for linear or non-linear continuous time modelling of physical systems using discrete time data. This approach facilitates a more appropriate modelling of more realistic non-linear systems. Particularly concerning advanced building components, convective and radiative...... heat interchanges are non-linear effects and represent significant contributions in a variety of components such as photovoltaic integrated facades or roofs and those using these effects as passive cooling strategies, etc. Since models are approximations of the physical system and data is encumbered...... with measurement errors it is also argued that it is important to consider stochastic models. More specifically this paper advocates for using continuous-discrete stochastic state space models in the form of non-linear partially observed stochastic differential equations (SDE's)-with measurement noise...

  18. A design of fluorescent fiber solar concentrator (FFSC and outdoor testing for remote indoor day lighting and power producing evaluation for building integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Different from the conventional luminescent solar concentrator (LSC, a 1200mmx1200m m solar concentrator consisting of 150 pieces of three-color 1m long, 2mm diameter fluorescent fibers (FFSC has been designed and mounted on a University building roof and the concentrated light is transported to a remote dark room through 10m long, 201m diameter clear optical fibers. Outdoor testing for remote indoor day lighting and power producing evaluation has been conducted. A 31-day monitored data from 24 May2ooS to 23 june200S has been presented and the results reveal that even though FFSC is not practical yet to replace the conventional BIPV approach for power producing, it has a pleasant potential in remote indoor day lighting {or large amount application in building integration.

  19. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems as a Strategy for Predicting and Controling the Energy Produced from Renewable Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Elena Dragomir

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The challenge for our paper consists in controlling the performance of the future state of a microgrid with energy produced from renewable energy sources. The added value of this proposal consists in identifying the most used criteria, related to each modeling step, able to lead us to an optimal neural network forecasting tool. In order to underline the effects of users’ decision making on the forecasting performance, in the second part of the article, two Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS models are tested and evaluated. Several scenarios are built by changing: the prediction time horizon (Scenario 1 and the shape of membership functions (Scenario 2.

  20. Dynamic performance assessment of a residential building-integrated cogeneration system under different boundary conditions. Part II: Environmental and economic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A building-integrated micro-cogeneration system was dynamically simulated. • Simulation data were analyzed from both environmental and economic point of views. • The proposed system was compared with a conventional supply system. • The proposed system reduces the environmental impact under heat-led operation. • The proposed system reduces the operating costs whatever the control logic is. - Abstract: This work examines the performance of a residential building-integrated micro-cogeneration system during the winter by means of a whole building simulation software. The cogeneration unit was coupled with a multi-family house composed of three floors, compliant with the transmittance values of both walls and windows suggested by the Italian Law; a stratified combined tank for both heating purposes and domestic hot water production was also used for storing heat. Simulations were performed considering the transient nature of the building and occupant driven loads as well as the part-load characteristics of the cogeneration unit. This system was described in detail and analyzed from an energy point of view in the companion paper. In this paper the simulation results were evaluated in terms of both carbon dioxide equivalent emissions and operating costs; detailed analyses were performed in order to estimate the influence of the most significant boundary conditions on both environmental and economic performance of the proposed system: in particular, three volumes of the hot water storage, four climatic zones corresponding to four Italian cities, two electric demand profiles, as well as two control strategies micro-cogeneration unit were considered. The assessment of environmental impact was performed by using the standard emission factors approach, neglecting the effects of local pollutants. The operating costs due to both natural gas and electric energy consumption were evaluated in detail, whereas both the capital and maintenance costs were

  1. Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This extensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) by the Swiss Central Association for Window and Facade Construction (SZFF) takes a look at the research project it launched to develop a basis for estimating existing potentials between facade builders and solar specialists and for the reduction of the technical impediments and mental barriers involved. The goals of the project are listed and the results expected are noted. Part-projects included are described and the results obtained so far are examined. These include information acquisition and analysis, surveys developed in co-operation with the University of Applied Sciences in Horw, Switzerland, a market survey and the development of a handbook and argumentation-aid available on the Internet and as a CD-ROM

  2. The role of grid-connected, building-integrated photovoltaic generation in commercial building energy and power loads in a warm and sunny climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For large commercial buildings, power load delivery limits are contracted with the local electricity distribution utility, and are usually fixed at one or more levels over the year, according to the seasonal building loads, and depending on the specific country regulations. Especially in warm and sunny climates, solar electricity generation using building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) can assist in reducing commercial building loads, offering peak-shaving (power) benefits on top of the on-site generation of electricity (energy). This on-site power delivery capability gives these consumers the possibility of renegotiating demand contracts with their distribution utility. Commercial buildings that operate during daytime quite often have an energy consumption profile that is well matched by solar radiation availability, and depending on the building's available surface areas, BIPV can generate considerable portions of the energy requirements. In this work we present the role of grid-connected BIPV in reducing the load demands of a large and urban commercial building located in a warm climate in Brazil. The building and adjacent car parking lots can accommodate a 1 MWp BIPV generator, which closely matches the building's typical maximum power demands. Based on real solar radiation data and simultaneous building electricity demands for the year 2007, simulation of the annual solar generation profile of this on-site generator showed that the 1 MWp BIPV system could account for around 30% of the total building's energy consumption. In addition to the energy benefit, maximum power demands were reduced due to a good match between midday air-conditioning cooling loads and solar radiation availability on both a daily and seasonal basis. Furthermore, we have simulated the effect of this considerably large urban-sited generator on the local distribution network load, and have shown that the 1 MWp BIPV installation can also offer considerable benefits to the local utility in

  3. Development of Tandem Amorphous/Microcrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Large-Area See-Through Color Solar Panels with Reflective Layer and 4-Step Laser Scribing for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Yi Tsai; Chin-Yao Tsai

    2014-01-01

    In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film large-area see-through color solar modules were successfully designed and developed for building-integrated photovoltaic applications. Novel and key technologies of reflective layers and 4-step laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to produce solar panels with various colors, such as purple, dark blue, light blue, silver, golden, orange, red wine, and coffee. The highest module power...

  4. Numerical modelling and experimental studies of thermal behaviour of building integrated thermal energy storage unit in a form of a ceiling panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new concept of heat storage in ventilation ducts is described. • Ceiling panel as a part of ventilation system is made of a composite with PCM. • A set-up for experimental investigation of heat storage unit was built. • Numerical model of heat transfer in the storage unit was developed. • Numerical code was validated on the base of experimental measurements. - Abstract: Objective: The paper presents a new concept of building integrated thermal energy storage unit and novel mathematical and numerical models of its operation. This building element is made of gypsum based composite with microencapsulated PCM. The proposed heat storage unit has a form of a ceiling panel with internal channels and is, by assumption, incorporated in a ventilation system. Its task is to reduce daily variations of ambient air temperature through the absorption (and subsequent release) of heat in PCM, without additional consumption of energy. Methods: The operation of the ceiling panel was investigated experimentally on a special set-up equipped with temperature sensors, air flow meter and air temperature control system. Mathematical and numerical models of heat transfer and fluid flow in the panel account for air flow in the panel as well as real thermal properties of the PCM composite, i.e.: thermal conductivity variation with temperature and hysteresis of enthalpy vs. temperature curves for heating and cooling. Proposed novel numerical simulator consists of two strongly coupled sub models: the first one – 1D – which deals with air flowing through the U-shaped channel and the second one – 3D – which deals with heat transfer in the body of the panel. Results: Spatial and temporal air temperature variations, measured on the experimental set-up, were used to validate numerical model as well as to get knowledge of thermal performance of the panel operating in different conditions. Conclusion: Preliminary results of experimental tests confirmed the ability of

  5. Detailed measurements and modelling of thermo active components using a room size test facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Svendsen, Svend

    This paper describes an investigation of thermo active components based on prefabricated hollow core concrete decks. Recent years have given an increased awareness of the use of thermo active components as an alternative to mechanical cooling systems in office buildings. The investigation covers...... measurements in an office sized test facility with thermo active ceiling and floor as well as modelling of similar conditions in a computer program designed for analysis of building integrated heating and cooling systems. A method for characterizing the cooling capacity of thermo active components is described...

  6. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  7. Nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features of the EPR concerning the fabrication of the reactor are: -) the size of the components, -) the modification of the design compared with classical PWR, and -) an intensive use of forging (in particular the cold and hot legs of the primary circuit are forged). This series of slides overviews the fabrication of the components for the EPR by highlighting the differences with the previous generation of reactors. 4 types of components are reviewed: the reactor vessel and internals, steam generators, primary circuit pipes, and primary coolant pumps. (A.C.)

  8. Development of Tandem Amorphous/Microcrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Large-Area See-Through Color Solar Panels with Reflective Layer and 4-Step Laser Scribing for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film large-area see-through color solar modules were successfully designed and developed for building-integrated photovoltaic applications. Novel and key technologies of reflective layers and 4-step laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to produce solar panels with various colors, such as purple, dark blue, light blue, silver, golden, orange, red wine, and coffee. The highest module power is 105 W and the highest visible light transmittance is near 20%.

  9. Development of the nuclear energy producing as a main factor of preserving the ecological balance on the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers in detail one of the sustainable development components - energy. lt is power availability that determines living standards (life quality) and capability to influence the environment in a proper manner. Today, people spend energy not only to meet their needs but more and more to compensate negative consequences of human activities (including reprocessing of wastes). The paper considers in detail advantages and disadvantages of different types of energy, including alternative ones, and analyzes prospects of their development in the XXl century. In the paper special attention is given to different types of atomic energy, including both conventional methods of atomic energy production and alternative ones, such as deuterium energy. (authors)

  10. Benefit Analysis on Cleaning Photovoltaic Module Surface of Building Integrated Photovoltaic%光伏建筑一体化光伏组件表面清洁的效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田智华; 段凯

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes importance of cleaning photovoltaic module surface of building integrated photovoltaic,and summarizes detail requirements of building integrated photovoltaic ministerial standards on cleaning photovoltaic module surface.On the basis of test result of a project,comparative analysis effect on transfer efficiency,economic indicators,and environmental indicators of cleaning before and after photovoltaic module surface.%本文首先分析光伏建筑一体化中光伏组件清洁的重要性,分析国家现有光伏建筑一体化标准对太阳能光伏组件清洁和维护的具体要求,结合某实际项目的测试结果,对比分析该项目光伏组件清洗前后对系统转换效率、经济指标和环境指标的影响。

  11. Component Rhinoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mohmand, Muhammad Humayun; Ahmad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND According to statistics of American Society of Plastic Surgeons, cosmetic rhinoplasty was the second most frequently performed cosmetic surgery. This study shares the experiences with component rhinoplasty. METHODS From 2004 to 2010, all patients underwent aesthetic nasal surgery were enrolled. The patients requiring only correction of septal deviation and those presenting with cleft lip nasal deformity were excluded. All procedures were performed under general anaesthesia with ope...

  12. Component Separations

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H.; Ramirez, Oscar M.

    2012-01-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-...

  13. Component separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H; Ramirez, Oscar M

    2012-02-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-cm wide defects in the midline area. Since its original description, components separation technique underwent multiple modifications with the ultimate goal to decrease the morbidity associated with the traditional procedure. The extensive subcutaneous lateral dissection had been associated with ischemia of the midline skin edges, wound dehiscence, infection, and seroma. Although the current trend is to proceed with minimally invasive component separation and to reinforce the fascia with mesh, the basic principles of the techniques as described by Ramirez et al in 1990 have not changed over the years. Surgeons who deal with the management of abdominal wall defects are highly encouraged to include this technique in their collection of treatment options. PMID:23372455

  14. Graphite components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reflector of the AVR reactor consists of needle coke graphite ARS/AMT made by the firm of Sigri GmbH. Although its orientation anisotropy is greater than those of materials developed in the last few years, the reflector graphite shows comparatively good dimensional stability in the conditions prevailing in the AVR reactor, as shown by tests on irradiation samples. It was also found that the strength increased. No damage was found during inspections in 1984 of the upper side and ceiling reflector. After a 20 year operating period, the graphite components of the AVR reactor should be in an excellent state. This will be possible to prove when samples are taken from the graphite reflector and examined in the context of a dismantling program. (orig.)

  15. Component Compatibility in Component Based Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Hardeep Singh; Anitpal Kaur

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a research on component compatibility in component based development. Component-based software engineering is a process that emphasizes the design and construction of computer-based systems using reusable software components. Commercial components repositories contain hundred thousand components that make component selection an extremely difficult and time expensive task. Often component selected by functional features are incompatible or the integration effort...

  16. Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. Update 2010. Methodology for the calculation and recording of the amounts of energy produced from renewable sources in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Te Buck, S.; Van Keulen, B.; Bosselaar, L.; Gerlagh, T.; Skelton, T.

    2010-07-15

    This is the fifth, updated edition of the Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. The protocol, compiled on behalf of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, can be considered as a policy document that provides a uniform calculation method for determining the amount of energy produced in the Netherlands in a renewable manner. Because all governments and organisations use the calculation methods described in this protocol, this makes it possible to monitor developments in this field well and consistently. The introduction of this protocol outlines the history and describes its set-up, validity and relationship with other similar documents and agreements. The Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol is compiled by NL Agency, and all relevant parties were given the chance to provide input. This has been incorporated as far as is possible. Statistics Netherlands (CBS) uses this protocol to calculate the amount of renewable energy produced in the Netherlands. These data are then used by the Ministry of Economic Affairs to gauge the realisation of policy objectives. In June 2009 the European Directive for energy from renewable sources was published with renewable energy targets for the Netherlands. This directive used a different calculation method - the gross energy end-use method - whilst the Dutch definition is based on the so-called substitution method. NL Agency was asked to add the calculation according to the gross end use method, although this is not clearly defined on a number of points. In describing the method, the unanswered questions become clear, as do, for example, the points the Netherlands should bring up in international discussions.

  17. Structure of the nucleotide-binding subunit B of the energy producer A1A0 ATP synthase in complex with adenosine diphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Manimekalai, Malathy Sony Subramanian; Grüber, Gerhard

    2008-11-01

    A1A0 ATP synthases are the major energy producers in archaea. Like the related prokaryotic and eukaryotic F1F0 ATP synthases, they are responsible for most of the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. The catalytic events of A1A0 ATP synthases take place inside the A3B3 hexamer of the A1 domain. Recently, the crystallographic structure of the nucleotide-free subunit B of Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 A1A0 ATP synthase has been determined at 1.5 A resolution. To understand more about the nucleotide-binding mechanism, a protocol has been developed to crystallize the subunit B-ADP complex. The crystallographic structure of this complex has been solved at 2.7 A resolution. The ADP occupies a position between the essential phosphate-binding loop and amino-acid residue Phe149, which are involved in the binding of the antibiotic efrapeptin in the related F1F0 ATP synthases. This trapped ADP location is about 13 A distant from its final binding site and is therefore called the transition ADP-binding position. In the trapped ADP position the structure of subunit B adopts a different conformation, mainly in its C-terminal domain and also in the final nucleotide-binding site of the central alphabeta-domain. This atomic model provides insight into how the substrate enters into the nucleotide-binding protein and thereby into the catalytic A3B3 domain. PMID:19020348

  18. Buildings' integral role in good health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As reported in last month's HEJ, the new Sustainable Development Strategy for the Health, Public Health and Social Care System for 2014-20 rightly emphasises the importance of the built environment to health and well-being. Chris Hall, the BRE's health sector lead, says this message 'stretches far beyond hospitals and healthcare buildings into the communities and homes that people live in'. Here he highlights some of the key elements relating to the current carbon efficiency of healthcare buildings, considers the impact of 'good' housing on health and preventing illness, and looks forward to a series of joint IHEEM and BRE 'Building Sustainable Development' mini-conference events planned in the run-up to October's Healthcare Estates 2014 event in response to the new Strategy, designed to share ideas and good practice on sustainable estates issues. The first takes place in London later this month (see panel below). PMID:24930185

  19. Building Integrated Mobile Robots for Soccer Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Robot soccer competition provides an excellent opportunity for robotics research. We have built a soccer robot system to participate in internal and oversea matches. Firstly, we propose a new learning control scheme adaptive PID learning controller. It means to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional PID type control methods. Secondly, we introduce our vision recognition algorithm. It remarkably increases the speed of recognition. Finally, we refer the communication system. We adopt bulletin board system to prevent communication confusion.

  20. Integrated Model of Balanced Score Card and Technology Component Measurement: A Strategic Perspective in Indonesia Biofuel Engineering Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukardi Sukardi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of biofuel as an ecofriendly energy alternative has a value chain problem in alignment policies between related parties. Identifiying its alignment, we make a strategic mapping by building integrated base scorecard, so the strategic target in the subsequent perspective layer can be developed more realistically. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM modeling was used to examine horizontal connection validity to show strong relation between objectives strategy, and it will be measured of constructed component on the internal process by Technology Coefficient Contribution indexes.

  1. A Kind of Building-integrated Photovoltaic Power Generation System with High Efficiency and Low Cost%一种高效低成本与建筑一体化的光伏发电系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟承尧; 李宁

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一种与建筑一体化的光伏发电系统,提出固定的二次反射多平面镜聚光系统,可成倍地增大太阳电池的输出功率,大幅度降低系统成本.在金数龙仿真物理实验室仿真软件设计的基础上,经过分析,得出下方与上方反射镜的数据;实验表明,太阳光线能够均匀地聚光在太阳电池上,达到二倍光强的效果.系统功能完善,安装简单而且抗风能力强,有很好的应用前景.%This paper introduces a kind of building-integrated photovoltaic power generation system and puts forwards fixed concentrating system which consists of poly-faceted mirrors of two-stage reflections. The system can multiply the output power of solar cells and decrease cost on large scale. On the base of simulation by means of Jin Shulong physics laboratory software,the data above and below the reflecting mirrors are obtained by analyzing. The experiment indicates that sun ray can focus on solar cells on average with twice the light intensity. The system is of perfect function, simple installation and good wind load. There will be a good prospect of application.

  2. Case Analysis on Various Installation Methods of Building Integrated Photovoltaic%光伏建筑一体化项目不同安装方式的案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江恩; 孙杰; 冯博; 麦耀华

    2014-01-01

    作为分布式光伏发电的重要应用方式,光伏建筑一体化(BIPV)受到越来越多的重视,但是实现光伏组件和建筑的美观、可靠和低成本的结合仍是一个具有挑战性的难题。在一个获得财政部和住建部“光伏建筑一体化”资金资助的项目中实验了不同的BIPV组件安装方式,包括隐框光伏幕墙、彩钢瓦屋顶夹具安装、彩钢瓦屋顶黏接安装方式,其中采用粘贴的方式在彩钢瓦屋顶安装双玻组件为我们独创的施工方法,具有快捷、质轻、低成本和高可靠性等特点,而且不需要在彩钢瓦上打孔,避免漏水隐患。发电量结果表明,在干燥、多粉尘的季节,在立面安装的光伏组件的单位装机容量的发电量也可能大大高于安装于斜面屋顶的组件,说明光伏玻璃幕墙有着很大的发展前途。%Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) as an important application of distributed photo-voltaic power generation, has being focused more and more, but it still faces challenges of achieving the aesthetics with PV modules, and combining of reliability and low cost. Various BIPV application methods are studied, and experimented in the project funded by Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, including curtain wall hidden frame, color steel tile roof with clamps, and color steel tile roof bonding. The color steel tile roof bonding is our original one, characterized by fast installing, light weight, low cost and high reliability. More important, this method does not need holing the color steel tile to avoid leakage risk. Power generation results show, during the dry and dusty seasons, the power gen-eration of modules in facades may higher than slope-roof modules’.

  3. Supporting software components production

    OpenAIRE

    Asirelli, Patrizia; Aquilino, Domenico; Inverardi, Paola

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to the management of large-scale object-oriented applications based on a sharp distinction between the object-oriented language in which components are described and the way components are assembled into a specific application. In particular, we propose a database component schema which allows for a free development of components and permits to define at the database level all the policies connected to the grouping of components into a specific application...

  4. Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV); GISS Gebaeude-Integrierte Solarstrom-Systeme (Building Integrated Photovoltaic BIPV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hof, R. [Geilinger Fassaden AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Mikesch, W. [Colt Solar Technology AG, Baar (Switzerland); Miloni, R. [Lichtplanung und Architektur, Muelligen (Switzerland); Kaelin, T. [Jaakko Poeyry Infra, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nordmann, T. [TNC Consulting AG, Erlenbach (Switzerland); Meier, Ch. [Energiebuero Die Solarplaner, Zuerich (Switzerland); Locher, R. [Schweizerische Zentrale Fenster und Fassaden (SZFF), Dietikon (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This extensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) by the Swiss Central Association for Window and Facade Construction (SZFF) takes a look at the research project it launched to develop a basis for estimating existing potentials between facade builders and solar specialists and for the reduction of the technical impediments and mental barriers involved. The goals of the project are listed and the results expected are noted. Part-projects included are described and the results obtained so far are examined. These include information acquisition and analysis, surveys developed in co-operation with the University of Applied Sciences in Horw, Switzerland, a market survey and the development of a handbook and argumentation-aid available on the Internet and as a CD-ROM.

  5. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  6. Software component quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  7. Gas Quenching Small Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Stratton

    2004-01-01

    Gas quenching is an environmentally friendly and effective way of quenching components. However it has not been possible to apply it to small components because of the difficulties of jigging. A method of gas quenching such small components is described in which they are levitated in a confined gas stream. The method is suitable for quenching low alloy steel components that weigh between 1 and 10g.

  8. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  9. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  10. Control component retainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus is described for retaining an undriven control component assembly disposed in a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor of the type having a core grid plate. The first part of the mechanism involves a housing for the control component and the second part is a brace with a number of arms that reach under the grid plate. The brace and the housing are coupled together to firmly hold the control components in place even under strong flows of th coolant

  11. SNRS component positioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the stationary neutron radiography system (SNRS) with respect to the component positioning systems (CPSs) and the rationale behind their design. As design work is on-going at Science Applications International Corporation, this report gives a current update of progress. The SNRS has four separate radiography bays, Bays 1 through 4. The first three bays have automated positioning systems for real-time and near real-time neutron radiography of aircraft components. Bay 4 has been designed to accommodate components from the solid rocket booster, but will be used first for film radiography of pyrotechnic components

  12. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings. PMID:27008268

  13. Scientific Software Component Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.

    2000-02-16

    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  14. Principal dynamical components

    CERN Document Server

    de la Iglesia, Manuel D

    2010-01-01

    A new procedure is proposed for the dimensional reduction of time series. Similarly to principal components, the procedure seeks a low-dimensional manifold that minimizes information loss. Unlike principal components, however, the new procedure involves dynamical considerations, through the proposal of a predictive dynamical model in the reduced manifold. Hence the minimization of the uncertainty is not only over the choice of a reduced manifold, as in principal components, but also over the parameters of the dynamical model. Further generalizations are provided to non-autonomous and non-Markovian scenarios, which are then applied to historical sea-surface temperature data.

  15. Performance of a Parabolic Concentrating Solar photovoltaic module of Building integrated Photovoltaic%应用于建筑光伏一体化的聚光光伏组件性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常泽辉; 文麒麟

    2013-01-01

      构造一种可应用于建筑光伏一体化的聚光光伏组件,在典型天气下对聚光光伏组件的性能展开实验研究,并能接收一部分散射光。这为建筑光伏一体化的设计和优化提供了参考。%Construct a concentrating photovoltaic components that can be applied to BIPV, expand the experimental study of the performance concentrating photovoltaic components in a typical weather,and be able to receive a portion of the scattered light. This is th reference for the design and optimization of BIPV.

  16. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  17. Component maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A component maintenance system having a network linked to a data acquisition system, a data analysis system, a historical file of component design and inspection information, and a diagnostic system having the capability to perform structural analysis of discontinuities identified by the data acquisition system. The network nodes may be located apart from each other, for example in the maintenance of a nuclear power plant steam generator, the data acquisition system may be located in a high radiation area while the data analysis system is safely located away from the radiation areas. Furthermore, the diagnostic system and the file of component design and inspection history information may be centrally located and sheared to support component evaluations being conducted in numerous geographic locations. Network communication facilitates the rapid evaluation of discontinuities, thereby permitting the inspection plan to be modified as the inspection results are obtained. (author) figs

  18. Space laser components reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Space environment presents unique challenges for operation of optics and optical coatings as part of laser systems. Besides testing components and sub-systems on the component qualification level, the extended testing of complete laser systems like flight modules under acceptance level conditions is an effective way to determine the reliability and long term stability, mitigating the mission risk. Hence, optics as part of high power space laser systems have to be extensively tested in view...

  19. Stochastic component mode synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bah, Mamadou T.; Nair, Prasanth B.; Bhaskar, Atul; Keane, Andy J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a stochastic component mode synthesis method is developed for the dynamic analysis of large-scale structures with parameter uncertainties. The main idea is to represent each component displacement using a subspace spanned by a set of stochastic basis vectors in the same fashion as in stochastic reduced basis methods [1, 2]. These vectors represent however stochastic modes in contrast to the deterministic modes used in conventional substructuring methods [3]. The Craig-Bampton r...

  20. Component fragility research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate how ''high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  2. LMFBR fuel component costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant portion of the cost of fabricating LMFBR fuels is in the non-fuel components such as fuel pin cladding, fuel assembly ducts and end fittings. The contribution of these to fuel fabrication costs, based on FFTF experience and extrapolated to large LMFBR fuel loadings, is discussed. The extrapolation considers the expected effects of LMFBR development programs in progress on non-fuel component costs

  3. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to examine year-to-year developments in the operations of 26 major US energy companies on a corporate level and also by major line of energy business and by major functions within each line of business. The period covered is 1977 to 1979. Comparisons of income and investment flow are featured and related to functionally allocated net investment in place. The presentation seeks to identify similarities and dissimilarities in results across lines-of-business activity or by firm size

  4. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  5. Connecting energy producers in an intelligent way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this interview with Dr. Thomas Erge, researcher at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, the prospects for renewable and environment-friendly energy carriers are discussed. The author comments that, today, electrical power is mostly generated in large-scale power stations. Renewable forms of energy and combined heat and power (CHP) installations are, however, beginning to appear on the market as sources of electricity. Questions dealt with in the interview include political, social, economical and technical questions, the reliability of electricity supply, emergency power systems, decentralised generation, power pricing, energy management and control systems. Also, the effects of a reduced number of power suppliers in Germany and the associated increase in power prices are discussed. The question if this situation offers wider opportunities for decentralised power generation is posed.

  6. Very Big Accelerators as Energy Producers

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, R R

    2010-01-01

    One consequence of the application of superconductivity to accelerator construction is that the power consumption of accelerators will become much smaller. This raises the old possibility of using high energy protons to make neutrons which are then absorbed by fertile uranium or thorium to make a fissionable material like plutonium that can be burned in a nuclear reactor. The Energy Doubler/Saver being constructed at Fermilab is to be a superconducting accelerator that will produce 1000 GeV protons. The expected intensity of about $10^{12}$ protons per second corresponds to a beam power of about 0.2 MW. The total power requirements of the Doubler will be about 20 MW of which the injector complex will use approximately 13 MW, and the refrigeration of the superconducting magnets will use about 7 MW. Thus the beam power as projected is only a few orders of magnitude less than the accelerator power. But each 1000 GeV proton will produce about 60,000 neutrons in each nuclear cascade shower that is releaseq in a bl...

  7. NASTRAN component-mode synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyan, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Procedure for dynamic substructuring analysis technique is generally as follows: calculation of component modes; selection of component normal modes, calculation of component generalized matrices, assembly of system matrices, and computation of normal modes; and retrieval of component response.

  8. Multiscale principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is an important tool in exploring data. The conventional approach to PCA leads to a solution which favours the structures with large variances. This is sensitive to outliers and could obfuscate interesting underlying structures. One of the equivalent definitions of PCA is that it seeks the subspaces that maximize the sum of squared pairwise distances between data projections. This definition opens up more flexibility in the analysis of principal components which is useful in enhancing PCA. In this paper we introduce scales into PCA by maximizing only the sum of pairwise distances between projections for pairs of datapoints with distances within a chosen interval of values [l,u]. The resulting principal component decompositions in Multiscale PCA depend on point (l,u) on the plane and for each point we define projectors onto principal components. Cluster analysis of these projectors reveals the structures in the data at various scales. Each structure is described by the eigenvectors at the medoid point of the cluster which represent the structure. We also use the distortion of projections as a criterion for choosing an appropriate scale especially for data with outliers. This method was tested on both artificial distribution of data and real data. For data with multiscale structures, the method was able to reveal the different structures of the data and also to reduce the effect of outliers in the principal component analysis

  9. Scientific Component Technology Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S; Bosl, B; Dahlgren, T; Kumfert, G; Smith, S

    2003-02-07

    The laboratory has invested a significant amount of resources towards the development of high-performance scientific simulation software, including numerical libraries, visualization, steering, software frameworks, and physics packages. Unfortunately, because this software was not designed for interoperability and re-use, it is often difficult to share these sophisticated software packages among applications due to differences in implementation language, programming style, or calling interfaces. This LDRD Strategic Initiative investigated and developed software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address problems of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology is an extension of scripting and object-oriented software development techniques that specifically focuses on the needs of software interoperability. Component approaches based on CORBA, COM, and Java technologies are widely used in industry; however, they do not support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. Our research focused on the unique requirements of scientific computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections among components, language interoperability for scientific languages, and data distribution support for massively parallel SPMD components.

  10. Adaptable component frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki; Simonsen, Bo

    of balanced search tree. Also, we do provide safe and compact versions of each container. To ease the maintenance of this large collection of implementations, we have developed component frameworks for the STL containers. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a component...... framework for vector, which is undoubtedly the most used container of the C++ standard library. In particular, we specify the details of a vector implementation that is safe with respect to referential integrity and strong exception safety. Additionally, we report the experiences and lessons learnt from the...... development of component frameworks which we hope to be of benefit to persons engaged in the design and implementation of generic software libraries....

  11. An integrated magnetics component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics component comprising a magnetically permeable core comprising a base member extending in a horizontal plane and first, second, third and fourth legs protruding substantially perpendicularly from the base member. First, second, third and...... fourth output inductor windings are wound around the first, second, third and fourth legs, respectively. A first input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a first conductor axis and extends in-between the first, second, third and fourth legs to induce a first magnetic flux through a first...... flux path of the magnetically permeable core. A second input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a second coil axis extending substantially perpendicularly to the first conductor axis to induce a second magnetic flux through a second flux path of the magnetically permeable core...

  12. Blood Component Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kelton, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Human blood has been transfused for about 60-70 years. Over this time, the practice of blood transfusion has changed dramatically. One major change is the separation of blood into its various components. As a result, the patient can receive only the blood component in which he is deficient. In this way, the risk of side effects—particularly hepatitis—is lessened. This article briefly reviews the various blood products, the indications for their use, and some associated risks. These products i...

  13. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representing...... semantics, not only in text, but also in dynamic text (chat), images, and combinations of text and images. Here we further expand on the relevance of the ICA model for representing context, including two new analyzes of abstract data: social networks and musical features....

  14. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  15. Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling

    2008-01-01

    audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined as the...... unsupervised learning discovers statistical regularities. However human cognition is too complicated and not yet fully understood. Nevertheless, in our approach we represent human cognitive processes as a classification rule in supervised learning. Thus we have devised a testable protocol to test the...

  16. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...

  17. Component Reengineering Workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2004-01-01

    reengineering workshops, for assessing reengineering costs of reusing components between different product lines. The approach works on the level of software architectures, and relies critically on input from various (technical) stakeholders. It has been validated through case studies that are also presented...

  18. ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented in an...... online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  20. Ubiquitous Fractal Components

    OpenAIRE

    Hoareau, Didier; Mahéo, Yves

    2006-01-01

    In this article we present a distribution scheme for Fractal-based applications that is namely based on a user-transparent extension to the Fractal component model. This scheme allows any Fractal application to expose it provided services in an ubiquitous way on several machines. The mechanisms implemented support network disconnections and let the application run in a degraded mode if necessary.

  1. Complement component 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have lower-than-normal levels of the complement proteins C3 and C4 . Complement activity varies throughout the body. ... Saunders; 2013:chap 6. Read More Cirrhosis Complement Complement component 3 (C3) Glomerulonephritis Hepatitis Hereditary angioedema Kidney transplant Lupus nephritis ...

  2. LABVirt – basic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codrin NISIOIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some aspects about a project integrated in a national research and development project "Information society" (INFOSOC financed by Romanian Government. A iLab called LABVirt is available for use by Universities, college, high-school.The goal of this paper is to present the main components of LABVirt, Romanian solution for remote lab access.

  3. Compressive Principal Component Pursuit

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, John; Min, Kerui; Ma, Yi

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of recovering a target matrix that is a superposition of low-rank and sparse components, from a small set of linear measurements. This problem arises in compressed sensing of structured high-dimensional signals such as videos and hyperspectral images, as well as in the analysis of transformation invariant low-rank recovery. We analyze the performance of the natural convex heuristic for solving this problem, under the assumption that measurements are chosen uniformly at random. We prove that this heuristic exactly recovers low-rank and sparse terms, provided the number of observations exceeds the number of intrinsic degrees of freedom of the component signals by a polylogarithmic factor. Our analysis introduces several ideas that may be of independent interest for the more general problem of compressed sensing and decomposing superpositions of multiple structured signals.

  4. Defining talent management components

    OpenAIRE

    Golchin Shafieian

    2014-01-01

    In today's world of global trade, it can guarantee success and excellence of organizations against competitors is talented human resources in an organization, especially at the managerial level. But the challenges that organizations face include: attracting, evaluating, exploring, and developing and keeping talent. The main objective of this study is to define the components of talent management in the University of Chaloos, in order to provide a way to reduce the challenges and short comings...

  5. Functional Components of Foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Lima, Maria João; Barroca, Maria João

    2010-01-01

    The primary role of diet is to provide sufficient nutrients to meet the nutritional requirements of an individual. However, many professionals recognise that health promoting foods have a major role in health enhancement, which justifies the focus on research on the identification of biologically active components in foods that have the potential to optimise physical and mental well being and which may also reduce the risk of disease. Recent increases on research also aimed the identification...

  6. Components of aging

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Age-related cognitive decline has been linked to a reduction in attentional resources that are assumed to result from alterations in the aging brain. A core ability that is subject to age-related decline is visual attention, which enables individuals to select the most important information for conscious processing and action. However, visual attention is considered a conglomerate of various functions and the specific components underlying age differences in performance remain little understo...

  7. Enterprise Architecture Evaluation Components

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Eetu; Ylimäki, Tanja

    2008-01-01

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a holistic view of an organization, including the viewpoints of business, information, systems and technology. It is stated to provide significant benefits to organizations, and is therefore of interest for both academics and practitioners. However, evaluating EA, or its benefits, is difficult. Moreover, the studies on EA evaluation are mostly inconsistent, and almost omit the planning aspect of evaluation. This study suggests the evaluation components that nee...

  8. Components of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic deals with the components of the environment. The results of monitoring of air (emission situation), ambient air quality, atmospheric precipitation, tropospheric ozone, water (surface water, groundwater resources, waste water and drinking water), geological factors (geothermal energy, fuel deposits, ore deposits, non-metallic ore deposits), soil (area statistics, soil contamination. soil reaction and active extractable aluminium, soil erosion), flora and fauna (national strategy of biodiversity protection) are presented

  9. Components of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of a simple strategy for testing the validity of QCD perturbation theory are examined. The importance of explicit evaluation of higher-order contributions is illustrated by considering Z0 decays. The recent progress toward understanding exclusive processes in QCD is discussed and some simple examples are given of how to isolate and test the separate components of the perturbation expansion in a hypothetical series of jet experiments

  10. Defining talent management components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golchin Shafieian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In today's world of global trade, it can guarantee success and excellence of organizations against competitors is talented human resources in an organization, especially at the managerial level. But the challenges that organizations face include: attracting, evaluating, exploring, and developing and keeping talent. The main objective of this study is to define the components of talent management in the University of Chaloos, in order to provide a way to reduce the challenges and short comings and also to look for ways to improve employee performance is discussed. This study is based on data collected from all employees of the University of Chaloos in August 2013; through two questionnaires have been developed. The statistical population has been considered 407 persons in these universities and according the Morgan Table, 198 persons were selected as sample of among research society. More over, 28 questions are used for determining components of talent management. Finally, we concluded that the component of talent management have been properly defined in the Universities of Chaloos.

  11. Electronic components and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sangwine, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Most introductory textbooks in electronics focus on the theory while leaving the practical aspects to be covered in laboratory courses. However, the sooner such matters are introduced, the better able students will be to include such important concerns as parasitic effects and reliability at the very earliest stages of design. This philosophy has kept Electronic Components and Technology thriving for two decades, and this completely updated third edition continues the approach with a more international outlook.Not only does this textbook introduce the properties, behavior, fabrication, and use

  12. Making Components Fit: SPINing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kofroň, Jan; Poch, T.; Šerý, O.

    Los Alamitos : IEEE Computer Society, 2009, s. 65-74. ISBN 978-0-7695-3617-0. [SEW 2008. Annual IEEE/NASA Software Engineering Workshop /32./. Kassandra (GR), 15.10.2008-16.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD201/05/H014 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0770 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : software components * behavior specification * model-checking Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  13. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...

  14. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  15. Interactions between photodegradation components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Yadollah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of p-cresol photocatalytic degradation components were studied by response surface methodology. The study was designed by central composite design using the irradiation time, pH, the amount of photocatalyst and the p-cresol concentration as variables. The design was performed to obtain photodegradation % as actual responses. The actual responses were fitted with linear, two factor interactions, cubic and quadratic model to select an appropriate model. The selected model was validated by analysis of variance which provided evidences such as high F-value (845.09, very low P-value (2 = 0.999, adjusted R-squared (Radj2 = 0.998, predicted R-squared (Rpred2 = 0.994 and the adequate precision (95.94. Results From the validated model demonstrated that the component had interaction with irradiation time under 180 min of the time while the interaction with pH was above pH 9. Moreover, photocatalyst and p-cresol had interaction at minimal amount of photocatalyst (p-cresol. Conclusion These variables are interdependent and should be simultaneously considered during the photodegradation process, which is one of the advantages of the response surface methodology over the traditional laboratory method.

  16. Laser generating metallic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.

    1997-04-01

    Recent developments in rapid prototyping have led to the concept of laser generating, the first additive manufacturing technology. This paper presents an innovative process of depositing multi-layer tracks, by fusing successive powder tracks, to generate three dimensional components, thereby offering an alternative to casting for small metal component manufacture. A coaxial nozzle assembly has been designed and manufactured enabling consistent omni-directional multi-layer deposition. In conjunction with this the software route from a CAD drawing to machine code generation has been established. The part is manufactured on a six axes machining center incorporating a 1.8 kW carbon-dioxide laser, providing an integrated opto-mechanical workstation. The part build-up program is controlled by a P150 host computer, linked directly to the DNC machining center. The direct manufacturing route is shown, including initial examples of simple objects (primitives -- cube, cylinder, cone) leading to more complex turbine blade generation, incorporating build-up techniques and the associated mechanical properties.

  17. 基于水文模型的滦河流域综合干旱指数研究%Based on the Hydrological Model to Build Integrated Drought Index in Luanhe Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈海晨; 胡艳阳; 刘晓东

    2015-01-01

    Soil moisture is an important indicator of watershed judgment of drought,which was measured with a one-sided, and unpredictable,but hydrological model can effectively simulate soil moisture throughout the basin. With Luan River basin above the county hydrological station as a research area,based on soil moisture runoff model to simulate vertical mixing basin, the relative soil moisture drought index is constructed. Through the principal component analysis the relative soil moisture, precipitation anomaly percentage and relative wetting degree are integrated to build a comprehensive drought index in order to make a quantitative assessment of the frequency of the different time scales Watershed(year,month,quarter scale)drought. The results show that:the comprehensive drought index can be used to Luan River drought assessment,and drought events that have occurred have better goodness of fit;1960—1989 in Luan River Basin the maximum frequency of special drought for three months is 18.23 percent ,the highest frequency of continuous drought for five months is 17.26 percent,the frequency of light drought for seven months is 9.24 percent;in Luan River Basin the highest frequency of drought in winter is 37.8 percent , the lower frequency of drought in summer is 22.6 percent,the frequencies of severe drought and average drought in winter are respectively 6.0 percent and 11.3 percent,the maximum frequency of special drought in spring is 3.5 percent,the frequency of light drought in summer is 18.1 percent.The results is important to predict the drought in Luanhe basin.%土壤墒情是判定流域干旱的一个重要指标,其测定具有片面性且无法预测,而水文模型可有效模拟整个流域的土壤含水量。以滦河滦县水文站以上流域作为研究区域,基于垂向混合产流模型模拟流域土壤含水量,构建土壤相对湿润度干旱指数,并运用主成分分析法将土壤相对湿润度、降水距平

  18. Component failure data handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentillon, C.D.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents generic component failure rates that are used in reliability and risk studies of commercial nuclear power plants. The rates are computed using plant-specific data from published probabilistic risk assessments supplemented by selected other sources. Each data source is described. For rates with four or more separate estimates among the sources, plots show the data that are combined. The method for combining data from different sources is presented. The resulting aggregated rates are listed with upper bounds that reflect the variability observed in each rate across the nuclear power plant industry. Thus, the rates are generic. Both per hour and per demand rates are included. They may be used for screening in risk assessments or for forming distributions to be updated with plant-specific data.

  19. Hyaluronan: A Matrix Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rügheimer, Louise

    2008-09-01

    The glucosaminoglycan hyaluronan is a key component of the extracellular matrix. It is a large, negatively charged molecule that can act as an ion exchange reservoir for positive ions. Hyaluronan is involved in renomedullary water handling through its water-binding capacity. In the renal medulla, the main source for hyaluronan production is the renomedullary interstitial cells. Hyaluronan synthases are found in the inner part of the plasma membrane and polymerize hyaluronan chains which are extruded into the extracellular space. Hyaluronidases are a family of enzymes involved in the degradation of hyaluronan. They have a wide range of properties, including differences in size, inhibitor sensitivities, catalytic mechanisms, substrate specificities and pH optima.

  20. Impedance and component heating

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E; Mounet, N; Pieloni, T; Salvant, B

    2015-01-01

    The impedance is a complex function of frequency, which represents, for the plane under consideration (longitudinal, horizontal or vertical), the force integrated over the length of an element, from a “source” to a “test” wave, normalized by their charges. In general, the impedance in a given plane is a nonlinear function of the test and source transverse coordinates, but it is most of the time sufficient to consider only the first few linear terms. Impedances can influence the motion of trailing particles, in the longitudinal and in one or both transverse directions, leading to energy loss, beam instabilities, or producing undesirable secondary effects such as excessive heating of sensitive components at or near the chamber wall, called beam-induced RF heating. The LHC performance limitations linked to impedances encountered during the 2010-2012 run are reviewed and the currently expected situation during the HL-LHC era is discussed.

  1. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides, and...... alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...... supplements and contaminants can compete directly with drug oxidation, induce or suppress the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, change the bioavailability of drugs, and, in the case of live bacteria, bring in their own xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. In numerous...

  2. Solar bowl component efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hair, E.A.; Green, B.L. (College of Engineering, Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States))

    1992-11-01

    Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory has published two volumes on the economic evaluation of various proposed configurations and plant sizes for the four solar thermal technologies. These are the latest in a series of publications sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) on plant and operational costs and are more complete in that they include calculations of electrical output. These latest Battelle volumes use the 1976 solar data from Barstow, Calif., and by calculating or estimating the energy conversion efficiency of each element in the process from sun to electricity predict the output and cost of electricity from different plant sizes for each of the four technologies. In this paper a comparison is presented of the component efficiencies developed by Battelle and those of the solar bowl at Crosbyton, Tex.

  3. The mechanical components market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolution of CANDU power station design is described and installed nuclear power in Canada to 2000 is forecast. The predicted value of various mechanical components is depicted. Improvements are being made in reliability and speed of repair, which reduce man-rem expenditure in concert with radiation field reduction. Actual reactor operating performance is very good; a significant portion of power plant downtime is associated with steam turbine and generator unreliability. Heavy water upkeep has been reduced by improved equipment layout, live loading of valve stem packing, improved flange seals, and improved leak detection techniques. Steam generator tube reliability is 1000 times better than that of light water reactors. Pump seal reliability has progressed to the point that current station design eliminates pump redundancy. Fuel bundle defect rates are now less than 0.03%. (E.C.B.)

  4. Optical communication components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldada, Louay

    2004-03-01

    We review and contrast key technologies developed to address the optical components market for communication applications. We first review the component requirements from a network perspective. We then look at different material systems, compare their properties, and describe the functions achieved to date in each of them. The material systems reviewed include silica fiber, silica on silicon, silicon on insulator, silicon oxynitride, sol-gels, polymers, thin-film dielectrics, lithium niobate, indium phosphide, gallium arsenide, magneto-optic materials, and birefringent crystals. We then describe the most commonly used classes of optical device technology and present their pros and cons as well as the functions achieved to date in each of them. The technologies reviewed include passive, actuation, and active technologies. The passive technologies described include fused fibers, dispersion-compensating fiber, beam steering, Bragg gratings, diffraction gratings, holographic elements, thin-film filters, photonic crystals, microrings, and birefringent elements. The actuation technologies include thermo-optics, electro-optics, acousto-optics, magneto-optics, electroabsorption, liquid crystals, total internal reflection technologies, and mechanical actuation. The active technologies include heterostructures, quantum wells, rare-earth doping, dye doping, Raman amplification, and semiconductor amplification. We also investigate the use of different material systems and device technologies to achieve building-block functions, including lasers, amplifiers, detectors, modulators, polarization controllers, couplers, filters, switches, attenuators, isolators, circulators, wavelength converters, chromatic dispersion compensators, and polarization mode dispersion compensators. Some of the technologies presented are well established in the industry and in some cases have reached the commodity stage, others have recently become ready for commercial introduction, while some others

  5. Distributed and Parallel Component Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zheng-quan; XU Yang; YAN Ai-ping

    2005-01-01

    Software component library is the essential part of reuse-based software development. It is shown that making use of a single component library to store all kinds of components and from which components are searched is very inefficient. We construct multi-libraries to support software reuse and use PVM as development environments to imitate largescale computer, which is expected to fulfill distributed storage and parallel search of components efficiently and improve software reuse.

  6. Surface Active Components: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Shafiei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant or surface active components are produced by many different microorganisms. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic (generally hydrocarbon moieties that partition preferentially a within the interface between fluid phases with some other degrees of polarity and hydrogen bonding including oil/water or air/water interfaces. These properties render surfactants able to reducing surface and interfacial tension and forming microemulsion where hydrocarbons can solubilize in water or where water can solubilize in hydrocarbons, the majority of surfactants have gained importance in the fields of enhanced oil recovery, environmental bioremediation, food processing and pharmaceuticals. However, large-scale production of these molecules has not been realized as a result of low yields in production processes and high recovery and purification costs. This review article represents a classification of biosurfactant in addition to their microbial origin and effect of some nutrition and environmental factor for high production of biosurfactant. The nitrogen, carbon sources and environmental factors can make a difference key to the regulating biosurfactants synthesis Fascination with microbial surfactants have been steadily increasing recently because of advantages over the chemical surfactants for example environmentally friendly nature, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability, higher selectivity and specific gravity at extreme temperature, pH and salinity. For this reason the demand of biosurfactant are increasing day by day.

  7. RTD Component 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Integrated Project FUNMIG RTD Component 6 plays the role of the coordinator for linking the scientific work with the application of its results in Performance Assessment. The linking itself is in the custody of RTDCs 1-5. To play its role as coordinator an information exchange forum was furnished: On one hand all the Waste Management Organisations (WMOs) involved in FUNMIG participate in RTDC 6; on the other hand an Integration Monitoring Group (IMG) representing RTDCs 1-5 was established. RTDC 6 is divided into three work packages (WPs): WP 6.1 deals with the boundary conditions to the near field and will consider the outcome of NF-PRO, a sister project within the sixth Framework Programme. WP 6.2 is the core task of RDTC 6. It monitors the scientific results of the project with respect to their application in PA and will give feedback to researchers. Within WP 6.3 Sorption data bases currently used by participating WMOs were compiled and a frame to compile sorption data acquired within FUNMIG will be established

  8. Towards Prognostics for Electronics Components

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electronics components have an increasingly critical role in avionics systems and in the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is...

  9. Cooling system for electronic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2016-05-17

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  10. Multilevel Contracts for Trusted Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Messabihi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the design and the verification of trusted components and services. The contracts are declined at several levels to cover then different facets, such as component consistency, compatibility or correctness. The article introduces multilevel contracts and a design+verification process for handling and analysing these contracts in component models. The approach is implemented with the COSTO platform that supports the Kmelia component model. A case study illustrates the overall approach.

  11. Cooling system for electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2015-12-15

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  12. Formalization in Component Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Jens Peter; Knudsen, John; Makowski, Piotr;

    2006-01-01

    We present a unifying conceptual framework for components, component interfaces, contracts and composition of components by focusing on the collection of properties or qualities that they must share. A specific property, such as signature, functionality behaviour or timing is an aspect. Each aspe...

  13. Building integrated solar thermal collectors for heating & cooling applications

    OpenAIRE

    Buker, Mahmut Sami

    2015-01-01

    International Energy Agency Solar Heating & Cooling (IEA SHC) programme states the fact that space/water heating and cooling demand account for over 75% of the energy consumed in single and multi-family homes. Solar energy technology can meet up to 100% of this demand depending on the size of the system, storage capacity, the heat load and the region’s climate. Solar thermal collectors are particular type of heat extracting devices that convert solar radiation into thermal energy through a...

  14. Building Integrated Remote Control Systems for Electronic Boards

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobsson, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of implementing a remote control system for a large number of electronics boards in order to perform remote Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) programming, hardware configuration, data register access, and monitoring, as well as interfacing it to a configuration database and an expert system. The paper presents a common strategy for the representation of the boards in the abstraction layer of the control system, and generic communication protocols for the access to the board resources. In addition, an implementation is proposed in which the mapping between the functional parameters and the physical registers of the different boards is represented by descriptors in the board representation such that the translation can be handled automatically by a generic translation manager. Using the Distributed Information Management (DIM) package for the control communication with the boards, and the industry SCADA system PVSS II from ETM, a complete control system has been built for...

  15. Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). Review, potentials, barriers and myths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinstein, Patrick; Ballif, Christophe [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Neuchatel (Switzerland). Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Lab.; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle [CSEM, Neuchatel (Switzerland). PV-Center

    2013-07-01

    To date, none of the predictions that have been made about the emerging BIPV industry have really hit the target. The anticipated boom has so far stalled and despite developing and promoting a number of excellent systems and products, many producers around the world have been forced to quit on purely economic grounds. The authors believe that after this painful cleansing of the market, a massive counter trend will follow, enlivened and carried forward by more advanced PV technologies and ever-stricter climate policies designed to achieve energy neutrality in a cost-effective way. As a result, the need for BIPV products for use in construction will undergo first a gradual and then a massive increase. The planning of buildings with multifunctional, integrated roof and facade elements capable of fulfilling the technical and legal demands will become an essential, accepted part of the architectonic mainstream and will also contribute to an aesthetic valorisation. Until then, various barriers need to be overcome in order to facilitate and accelerate BIPV. Besides issues related to mere cost-efficiency ratio, psychological and social factors also play an evident role. The goal of energy change linked to greater use of renewables can be successfully achieved only when all aspects are taken into account and when visual appeal and energy efficiency thus no longer appear to be an oxymoron. (orig.)

  16. Building integrated multi PV/T/A solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous development in solar energy for residential applications proved that there is merit in further development and improvement of combined electricity and hot water and hot air collectors. The justification stems from the fact that waste heat is generated when PV cells are producing electricity but it decrease its efficiency dramatically, and any effective way to cool the cells can improve their efficiency and long while the heat that generated from this cooling process could be stored and used as standard solar hot water/air system. The core unit comprises of integrated PV cells mounted on a flat-plate collector for water and air, hot water storage tank hot air inlet pips to the house electric battery bank, inverter, connecting cables and controller. Double-glazing serving as solar trap to triple the amount of sun ray reaching the PV cells and other technical innovation make the system more cost effective and cost benefit for stand alone and grid connected domestic application. Two way interconnection with the electric grid like in all the roof top program may bring it to economic viability by selling excess electricity during the costly peak hours while buying low cost electricity during the night off-peak hours, and free electricity from the sun plus free hot water and hot air for domestic use as by-product. A basic domestic two-collector system may deliver up to 4 kWh of electricity and 12000 kcal of hot water and air daily. Some 22 systems are currently operating at various locations in Israel, some for 8 years with very good results. (Author)

  17. Design of fibre reinforced PV concepts for building integrated applications

    OpenAIRE

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Wit, de, S.; Boer

    2009-01-01

    Fibre reinforced polymers present an interesting encapsulation medium for PV-modules. Glass fibres can provide increased strength and stiffness to thin polymer layers overcoming the brittleness and limited deformability of glass-panes. Glass fibre reinforced polymers allows for transparency over a broad range of the solar spectrum while the material properties and integral production processes create possibilities for novel product concepts with embedded PV technology. To explore such possibi...

  18. Building Integrated Remote Control Systems for Electronics Boards

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobsson, R

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of implementing a remote control system for a large number of electronics boards in order to perform remote Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) programming, hardware configuration, data register access, and monitoring, as well as interfacing it to an expert system. The paper presents a common strategy for the representation of the boards in the abstraction layer of the control system, and generic communication protocols for the access to the board resources. In addition, an implementation is proposed in which the mapping between the functional parameters and the physical registers of the different boards is represented by descriptors in the board representation such that the translation can be handled automatically by a generic translation manager. Using the Distributed Information Management (DIM) package for the control communication with the boards, and the industry SCADA system PVSS II from ETM, a complete control system has been built for the Timing and Fast Control ...

  19. Results. Building integrated energy supply; Resultater. Bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Rasmus L.; Noergaard, J.; Daniels, O.; Justesen, R.O.

    2011-08-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The analysis was conducted by making a large number of simulations of which the best combinations were selected. The final result takes form of a single top-50 list with the best combinations of energy systems according to CO{sub 2} emission, energy consumption and economics. The present report contains the conclusions of and comments on the project's results. (ln)

  20. Involving Stakeholders in Building Integrated Fisheries Models Using Bayesian Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasaari, Päivi; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Kuikka, Sakari

    2013-06-01

    A participatory Bayesian approach was used to investigate how the views of stakeholders could be utilized to develop models to help understand the Central Baltic herring fishery. In task one, we applied the Bayesian belief network methodology to elicit the causal assumptions of six stakeholders on factors that influence natural mortality, growth, and egg survival of the herring stock in probabilistic terms. We also integrated the expressed views into a meta-model using the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method. In task two, we used influence diagrams to study qualitatively how the stakeholders frame the management problem of the herring fishery and elucidate what kind of causalities the different views involve. The paper combines these two tasks to assess the suitability of the methodological choices to participatory modeling in terms of both a modeling tool and participation mode. The paper also assesses the potential of the study to contribute to the development of participatory modeling practices. It is concluded that the subjective perspective to knowledge, that is fundamental in Bayesian theory, suits participatory modeling better than a positivist paradigm that seeks the objective truth. The methodology provides a flexible tool that can be adapted to different kinds of needs and challenges of participatory modeling. The ability of the approach to deal with small data sets makes it cost-effective in participatory contexts. However, the BMA methodology used in modeling the biological uncertainties is so complex that it needs further development before it can be introduced to wider use in participatory contexts.

  1. Strategy towards solar architecture by photovoltaic for building integration

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanara, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In a time when climate change has got so much attention on account of fossil-driven fuel overuse, recognition and implementation of solar-driven energies play a crucial role in human being’s future career. The traditional system of heating, lighting, cooling uses huge amount of fossil energy and produces harmful pollution to the environment. Existing buildings and constructions have a great responsibility in using, undamaging and wasting. In recent decades, the focus has been on the...

  2. Multi-criteria assesment of building integrated photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Motuzienė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To make reasonable solutions concerning integration of PV into the façade, complex assessment must be performed at the design stage of the building, taking into account all benefits and losses. The paper presents multi-criteria analysis of semi-transparent BIPV. It is based on 4 criteria: energy, ecology, economy, comfort – 3e+c. Results show that because of twice lower solar heat gains, PV window enables to save almost half of cooling energy, it also significantly improves thermal comfort. Total primary energy demand of the office after application of PV drops from 171 kWh/m2 to 96 kWh/m2. Multi-criteria analysis shows that office with BIPV is more sustainable than the one with transparent window.

  3. Calculation steps. Building integrated energy supply; Beregningsgang. Bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Rasmus L.; Noergaard, J.; Daniels, O.; Justesen, R.O.

    2011-08-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The analysis was conducted by making a large number of simulations. The present report describes the applied simulation models, and explains the results and computer codes. The parameter variations are described for each house as well as the common calculation steps for each house. The results are presented in case sheets, as performance graphs, and top-50 lists for the best cases regarding CO{sub 2} emission, energy consumption and economics. (ln)

  4. Multi-criteria assesment of building integrated photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Motuzienė; Kęstutis Valančius

    2015-01-01

    To make reasonable solutions concerning integration of PV into the façade, complex assessment must be performed at the design stage of the building, taking into account all benefits and losses. The paper presents multi-criteria analysis of semi-transparent BIPV. It is based on 4 criteria: energy, ecology, economy, comfort – 3e+c. Results show that because of twice lower solar heat gains, PV window enables to save almost half of cooling energy, it also significantly improves thermal comfort. T...

  5. Component-specific modeling. [jet engine hot section components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Maffeo, R. J.; Tipton, M. T.; Weber, G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for a 3 year program to develop methodology for component-specific modeling of aircraft hot section components (turbine blades, turbine vanes, and burner liners). These accomplishments include: (1) engine thermodynamic and mission models, (2) geometry model generators, (3) remeshing, (4) specialty three-dimensional inelastic structural analysis, (5) computationally efficient solvers, (6) adaptive solution strategies, (7) engine performance parameters/component response variables decomposition and synthesis, (8) integrated software architecture and development, and (9) validation cases for software developed.

  6. Multi-component assembly casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Allister W.

    2015-10-13

    Multi-component vane segment and method for forming the same. Assembly includes: positioning a pre-formed airfoil component (12) and a preformed shroud heat resistant material (18) in a mold, wherein the airfoil component (12) and the shroud heat resistant material (18) each comprises an interlocking feature (24); preheating the mold; introducing molten structural material (46) into the mold; and solidifying the molten structural material such that it interlocks the pre-formed airfoil component (12) with respect to the preformed shroud heat resistant material (18) and is effective to provide structural support for the shroud heat resistant material (18). Surfaces between the airfoil component (12) and the structural material (46), between the airfoil component (12) and the shroud heat resistant material (18), and between the shroud heat resistant material (18) and the structural material (46) are free of metallurgical bonds.

  7. Frameworks Between Components And Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Belal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Before the emergence of Component-Based Frameworks, similar issues have been addressed by othersoftware development paradigms including e.g. Object-Oriented Programming (OOP, Component-Based Development (CBD, and Object-Oriented Framework. In this study, these approaches especiallyobject-oriented Frameworks are compared to Component-Based Frameworks and their relationship arediscussed. Different software reuse methods impacts on architectural patterns and support forapplication extensions and versioning. It is concluded that many of the mechanisms provided byComponent-Based Framework can be enabled by software elements at the lower level. The maincontribution of Component-Based Framework is the focus on Component development. All of them can bebuilt on each other in layered manner by adopting suitable design patterns. Still some things such aswhich method to develop and upgrade existing application to other approach.

  8. Tree-dependent Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Francis R.; Jordan, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    We present a generalization of independent component analysis (ICA), where instead of looking for a linear transform that makes the data components independent, we look for a transform that makes the data components well fit by a tree-structured graphical model. Treating the problem as a semiparametric statistical problem, we show that the optimal transform is found by minimizing a contrast function based on mutual information, a function that directly extends the contrast function used for c...

  9. On verification of software components

    OpenAIRE

    Basem Y. Alkazem

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing third party software components in the development of new systems became somewhat unfavourable approach among many organizations nowadays. This reluctance is primarily built due to the lack of support to verify the quality attributes of software components in order to avoid potential mismatches with systems requirements. This paper presents an approach to overcome this problem by providing a tool support to check component compatibility to a specification provided by developers. So,...

  10. Component separation in abdominal trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Rawstorne, Edward; Smart, Christopher J.; Fallis, Simon A.; Suggett, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Component separation is established for complex hernia repairs. This case presents early component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath to facilitate closure of the abdominal wall following emergency laparotomy, reinforcing the repair with a biological mesh. On Day 11 following an emergency laparotomy for penetrating trauma, this patient underwent component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath. An intra-abdominal biological mesh was secured, and t...

  11. Application of Anisotropic Texture Components

    OpenAIRE

    Eschner, Th.; Fundenberger, J.-J.

    1997-01-01

    The description of textures in terms of texture components is an established conception in quantitative texture analysis. Recent developments lead to the representation of orientation distribution functions as a weighted sum of model functions, each corresponding to one anisotropic texture component. As was shown previously, an adequate texture description is possible with only a very small number of anisotropic texture components. As a result, textures and texture changes can be described by...

  12. Facets of Software Component Repository

    OpenAIRE

    Vaneet Kaur; Shivani Goel

    2011-01-01

    The software repository is used for storing, managing, and retrieving large numbers of software components. Repositories should be designed to meet the growing and changing needs of the software development organizations. Storage and representation of reusable software components in software repositories to assist retrieval is a key concern area. In this paper we have discussed various assets of thecomponent repository like component searching mechanisms and classifications such as Free Text,...

  13. Methods of component mode synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A generalized substructure coupling, or component mode synthesis, procedure is described. Specific methods, applications, and such special topics as damping and experimental verification are surveyed.

  14. Component separation in abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawstorne, Edward; Smart, Christopher J; Fallis, Simon A; Suggett, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Component separation is established for complex hernia repairs. This case presents early component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath to facilitate closure of the abdominal wall following emergency laparotomy, reinforcing the repair with a biological mesh. On Day 11 following an emergency laparotomy for penetrating trauma, this patient underwent component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath. An intra-abdominal biological mesh was secured, and the fascia and skin closed successfully. Primary abdominal closure can be achieved in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma with the use of component separation and insertion of intra-abdominal biological mesh, where standard closure is not possible. PMID:24876334

  15. Connected Component Labeling Using Components Neighbors-Scan Labeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Rakhmadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many approaches have been proposed in previous such as the classic sequential connected components labeling algorithm which is relies on two subsequent raster-scans of a binary image. This method produced good performance in terms of accuracy, but because of the implementation of the image processing systems now requires faster process of the computer, the speed of this technique’s process has become an important issue. Approach: A computational approach, called components neighbors-scan labeling algorithm for connected component labeling was presented in this study. This algorithm required scanning through an image only once to label connected components. The algorithm started by scanning from the head of the component’s group, before tracing all the components neighbors by using the main component’s information. This algorithm had desirable characteristics, it is simple while promoted accuracy and low time consuming. By using a table of components, this approach also gave other advantages as the information for the next higher process. Results: The approach had been tested with a collection of binary images. In practically all cases, the technique had successfully given the desired result. Averagely, from the results the algorithm increased the speed around 67.4% from the two times scanning method. Conclusion: Conclusion from the comparison with the previous method, the approach of components neighbors-scan for connected component labeling promoted speed, accuracy and simplicity. The results showed that the approach has a good performance in terms of accuracy, the time consumed and the simplicity of the algorithm.

  16. Components selection for ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The paper presents a synthesis of methods and activities realized for the selection of critical components to assure plant safety and availability (as electricity supplier). There are presented main criteria for selection, screening process. For the resulted categories of components shall be applied different category of maintenance (condition oriented, scheduled or corrective), function of the importance and financial effort necessary to fulfil the task. 1. Systems and components screening for plant safety assurance For the systems selection, from Safety point of view, was necessary first, to define systems which are dangerous in case of failure (mainly by rupture/ release of radioactivity) and the safety systems which have to mitigate the effects. This is realized based on accident analysis (from Safety Report). Also where taken in to account the 4 basic Safety Principles: 'Reactor shut down; Residual heat removal; Radioactivity products confinement; NPP status monitoring in normal and accident conditions'. Following step is to establish safety support systems, which have to action to assure main safety systems operation. This could be realized based on engineering judgement, or on PSA Level I analysis. Finally shall be realized chains of the support systems, which have to work, till primary systems. For the critical components selection, was realized a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), considering the components effects of failures, on system safety function. 2. Systems and components screening for plant availability assurance The work was realized in two steps: Systems screening; Components screening The systems screening, included: General, analyze of the plant systems list and the definition of those which clearly have to run continue to assure the nominal power; Realization of a complex diagram to define interdependence between the systems (e.g. PHT and auxiliaries, moderator and auxiliaries, plant electrical diagram); Fill of special

  17. APS beamline standard components handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction

  18. New Components for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Di Carlo; Carlo Alberto Bignozzi; Rita Boaretto; Roberto Argazzi; Vito Cristino; Stefano Caramori

    2010-01-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) are among the most promising solar energy conversion devices of new generation, since coupling ease of fabrication and low cost offer the possibility of building integration in photovoltaic windows and facades. Although in their earliest configuration these systems are close to commercialization, fundamental studies are still required for developing new molecules and materials with more desirable properties as well as improving our understanding of the funda...

  19. Complement component 3 (C3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003539.htm Complement component 3 (C3) To use the sharing features on this page, ... be some throbbing. Why the Test is Performed C3 and C4 are the most commonly measured complement components. A complement test may be used to monitor ...

  20. Secure coupling of hardware components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knobbe, J.W.; Hoepman, J.H.; Joosten, H.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A method and a system for securing communication between at least a first and a second hardware components of a mobile device is described. The method includes establishing a first shared secret between the first and the second hardware components during an initialization of the mobile device and, f

  1. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2000-01-01

    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue her

  2. Unblockable Compositions of Software Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Ruzhen; Faber, Johannes; Liu, Zhiming;

    2012-01-01

    end, we develop an algorithm to compute the unblockable interaction behavior, called the interface model of a component, from its execution model. Based on this model, we introduce composition operators for the components and prove important compositionality results, showing the conditions under which...... composition of interface models preserves unblockable sequences of provided services....

  3. Component reliability for electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bajenescu, Titu-Marius I

    2010-01-01

    The main reason for the premature breakdown of today's electronic products (computers, cars, tools, appliances, etc.) is the failure of the components used to build these products. Today professionals are looking for effective ways to minimize the degradation of electronic components to help ensure longer-lasting, more technically sound products and systems. This practical book offers engineers specific guidance on how to design more reliable components and build more reliable electronic systems. Professionals learn how to optimize a virtual component prototype, accurately monitor product reliability during the entire production process, and add the burn-in and selection procedures that are the most appropriate for the intended applications. Moreover, the book helps system designers ensure that all components are correctly applied, margins are adequate, wear-out failure modes are prevented during the expected duration of life, and system interfaces cannot lead to failure.

  4. Apparatus for remotely handling components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkrybalo, Gregory A.; Griffin, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    The inventive apparatus for remotely handling bar-like components which define a longitudinal direction includes a gripper mechanism for gripping the component including first and second gripper members longitudinally fixedly spaced from each other and oriented parallel to each other in planes transverse to the longitudinal direction. Each gripper member includes a jaw having at least one V-groove with opposing surfaces intersecting at a base and extending radially relative to the longitudinal direction for receiving the component in an open end between the opposing surfaces. The V-grooves on the jaw plate of the first and second gripper members are aligned in the longitudinal direction to support the component in the first and second gripper members. A jaw is rotatably mounted on and a part of each of the first and second gripper members for selectively assuming a retracted mode in which the open end of the V-groove is unobstructed and active mode in which the jaw spans the open end of the V-groove in the first and second gripper members. The jaw has a locking surface for contacting the component in the active mode to secure the component between the locking surface of the jaw and the opposing surfaces of the V-groove. The locking surface has a plurality of stepped portions, each defining a progressively decreasing radial distance between the base of the V-groove and the stepped portion opposing the base to accommodate varying sizes of components.

  5. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

    2012-11-01

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  6. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  7. Bacterial contamination of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatchian, J

    2001-10-01

    Despite considerable advances in the safety of blood components, transfusion associated bacterial infection (TABI) remains an unresolved problem. As yet there are no perfect preventative, screening and/or detection methodologies for eliminating contaminated units. Until a practical, rapid, cost-effective and logistically acceptable test becomes available, we should be satisfied with the choice of various limited solutions that at least partially improve the bacterial safety of blood components. It is also necessary to establish standardised guidelines and agreed upon systematic procedures for the recognition and reporting of the laboratory and clinical evaluation of adverse reactions in recipients of contaminated blood components. PMID:11761277

  8. Electronic components, tubes and transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, G W A

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Components, Tubes and Transistors aims to bridge the gap between the basic measurement theory of resistance, capacitance, and inductance and the practical application of electronic components in equipments. The more practical or usage aspect of electron tubes and semiconductors is given emphasis over theory. The essential characteristics of each main type of component, tube, and transistor are summarized. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins with a discussion on the essential characteristics in terms of the parameters usually required in choosing a resistor, including s

  9. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the use of composite components in commercial aircraft. NASA has been active in sponsoring flight service programs with advanced composites for the last 10 years, with 2.5 million total composite component hours accumulated since 1970 on commercial transports and helicopters with no significant degradation in residual strength of composite components. Design, inspection, and maintenance procedures have been developed; a major NASA/US industry technology program has been developed to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites.

  10. Ceramic components for MHD electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, D.D.

    A ceramic component which exhibits electrical conductivity down to near room temperatures has the formula: Hf/sub x/In/sub y/A/sub z/O/sub 2/ where x = 0.1 to 0.4, y = 0.3 to 0.6, z = 0.1 to 0.4 and A is a lanthanide rare earth or yttrium. The component is suitable for use in the fabrication of MHD electrodes or as the current leadout portion of a composite electrode with other ceramic components.

  11. Metallurgical Laboratory and Components Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In the field of metallurgy, TTC is equipped to run laboratory tests on track and rolling stock components and materials. The testing lab contains scanning-electron,...

  12. Ageing of zirconium alloy components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has two types (pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs)) of commercial nuclear reactors in operation, in addition to research reactors. Many of the life limiting critical components in these reactors are fabricated from zirconium alloys. The progressive degradation of these components caused by the cumulative exposure of high energy neutron irradiation with increasing period of reactor operation was monitored to assess the degree of ageing. The components/specimens examined included fuel element claddings removed from BWRs, pressure tubes and garter springs removed from PHWRs and calandria tube specimens used in PHWRs. The tests included tension test (for cladding, garter spring), fracture toughness test (for pressure tube), crush test (for garter spring), and measurement of irradiation induced growth (for calandria tube). Results of various tests conducted are presented and applications of the test results are elaborated for residual life estimation/life extension of the components

  13. US LMFBR coolant system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development and use of LMFBR coolant system components in the United States has progressed through more than two decades, with both the government and private sectors participating significantly in the support and conduct of the work. The purpose of this paper is to present the major functional requirements that these components are expected to meet, their current status and future direction of development, and recent test results. The components to be discussed are: (1) primary and intermediate system large sodium piping; (2) primary and intermediate system large sodium valves; (3) primary and intermediate main sodium pumps; (4) intermediate heat exchanger (IHX); and (5) sodium-heated steam generators. The major near-term activities associated with the above components are focused primarily on the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP), and the anticipated commercial LMFBR's

  14. Principles of Principal Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Durham, Catherine A.; King, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing frequency consumer studies are supplementing demographic and price variables with responses to an extended set of Likert-scale questions to elicit information on consumer motivations and attitudes. Principal compo­nent analysis (PCA) is a statistical tool that reduces a large number of variables to a smaller set of "components" that describe as much as possible of the variation in the original variables. Attitudinal responses can then be represented by component scores in sta...

  15. Plasmonic components fabrication via nanoimprint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A review report on nanoimprinted plasmonic components is given. The fabrication of different metal–dielectric geometries and nanostructured surfaces that support either propagating or localized surface plasmon modes is discussed. The main characteristics and advantages of the nanoimprint technolo...... surfaces for enhanced transmission studies and sensor applications is also discussed. Throughout the report, the main fabrication schemes are described, as well as the challenges facing future manufacturing of plasmonic components for device applications....

  16. Formal aspects of component software

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Meng; Schatz, B.

    2014-01-01

    This issue includes extended versions of selected best papers from the 7th International Workshop on Formal Aspects of Component Software (FACS 2010) held in Guimarães, Portugal on October 14–16, 2010. The component-based software development approach has emerged as a promising paradigm to cope with an ever increasing complexity of present-day software solutions by bringing sound production and engineering principles into software engineering. However, many conceptual and technological iss...

  17. RELATIVE PRINCIPLE COMPONENT AND RELATIVE PRINCIPLE COMPONENT ANALYSIS ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Chenglin; Wang Tianzhen; Hu Jing

    2007-01-01

    In this letter, the new concept of Relative Principle Component (RPC) and method of RPC Analysis (RPCA) are put forward. Meanwhile, the concepts such as Relative Transform (RT), Rotundity Scatter (RS) and so on are introduced. This new method can overcome some disadvantages of the classical Principle Component Analysis (PCA) when data are rotundity scatter. The RPC selected by RPCA are more representative, and their significance of geometry is more notable, so that the application of the new algorithm will be very extensive. The performance and effectiveness are simply demonstrated by the geometrical interpretation proposed.

  18. Component protection based automatic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control and safety systems as well as operation procedures are designed on the basis of critical process parameters limits. The expectation is that short and long term mechanical damage and process failures will be avoided by operating the plant within the specified constraints envelopes. In this paper, one of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design duty cycles events is discussed to corroborate that the time has come to explicitly make component protection part of the control system. Component stress assessment and aging data should be an integral part of the control system. Then transient trajectory planning and operating limits could be aimed at minimizing component specific and overall plant component damage cost functions. The impact of transients on critical components could then be managed according to plant lifetime design goals. The need for developing methodologies for online transient trajectory planning and assessment of operating limits in order to facilitate the explicit incorporation of damage assessment capabilities to the plant control and protection systems is discussed. 12 refs

  19. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  20. Towards Prognostics for Electronics Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Celaya, Jose R.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Goebel, Kai F.

    2013-01-01

    Electronics components have an increasingly critical role in avionics systems and in the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is becoming a very important research field as a result of the need to provide aircraft systems with system level health management information. This paper focuses on a prognostics application for electronics components within avionics systems, and in particular its application to an Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). This application utilizes the remaining useful life prediction, accomplished by employing the particle filter framework, leveraging data from accelerated aging tests on IGBTs. These tests induced thermal-electrical overstresses by applying thermal cycling to the IGBT devices. In-situ state monitoring, including measurements of steady-state voltages and currents, electrical transients, and thermal transients are recorded and used as potential precursors of failure.

  1. Modelling of power system components

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, PSR

    2008-01-01

    Relationsof Power System Components is a prerequisite course for the Study of Power System Analysis, Operation and control. Models for several electric power network components are not readily available for dynamic studies. In this book these models are presented in a lucid way. In chapter 1 per Unit Relations and primitive network models are reviewed. Chapter 2 deals with graph theory that is relevant to various incidence Matrices required in network modeling and these different incidence matrices are presented in Chapter 3. In chapter 4 the various methods of obtaining network matrices in bo

  2. Radioactive resistance of EEPROM components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to examine the resistance of EEPROM components under the influence of gamma radiation. This paper is significant for military industry and space technology. Therefore the analysis of the degradation mechanisms of these components as well as the possibilities to increase their radiation resistance have been considered by many authors. Total dose results are presented for 28C64C EEPROM there is evidence that the first failure appeared for 1000 Gy total dose level. The obtained result are analyzed and explained theoretically via the interaction of gamma radiation with oxide layer. (author)

  3. Space storable propulsion components development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The current development status of components to control the flow of propellants (liquid fluorine and hydrazine) in a demonstration space storable propulsion system is discussed. The criteria which determined the designs for the pressure regulator, explosive-actuated valves, propellant shutoff valve, latching solenoid-actuated valve and propellant filter are presented. The test philosophy that was followed during component development is outlined. The results from compatibility demonstrations for reusable connectors, flange seals, and CRES/Ti-6Al4V transition tubes and the evaluations of processes for welding (hand-held TIG, automated TIG, and EB), cleaning for fluorine service, and decontamination after fluorine exposure are described.

  4. Formal Component-Based Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Madlener, Ken; van Eekelen, Marko; 10.4204/EPTCS.62.2

    2011-01-01

    One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. This formalization constitutes a contribution towards modular meta theoretic formalizations in theorem provers. As a small example, a modular proof of determinism of a mini-language is developed.

  5. Component Reification in Systems Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendisposto, Jens; Hallerstede, Stefan

    When modelling concurrent or distributed systems in Event-B, we often obtain models where the structure of the connected components is specified by constants. Their behaviour is specified by the non-deterministic choice of event parameters for events that operate on shared variables. From a certa...

  6. Opinions about Component Energetic Security

    OpenAIRE

    Elena GOLUMBEANU (GEORGESCU)

    2012-01-01

    Collective security (international) represent the morphological expression of individual security components. According to the Report presented at the United Nations Development Programme, collective security (international) as well as national security, is the expression of seven synergistic dimensions as follows: economic security, food security, environmental security, personal security, community security, political security and individual security. As part of economic security, energy an...

  7. Fractionalization of graphitic reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the scope of this project, a stock taking took place that comprised graphic components in German research and prototype reactors. From a long set of experiments mechanical breaking was determined to represent the optimal solution for the problem of fractionalizing graphitic components with a reasonable tritium content. Be sides the very low dust emission and the total lack of secondary waste emission, the small and mobile tool are outstanding advantages of this technique. Graphitic dust which was emitted throughout the different experiments was characterized and analyzed with respect to its explosion properties. Choosing the right conditions, a graphite dust explosion can safety be expelled during the trials on activated graphite. Successful fractionalization experiments performed on activated graphite clearly show that a planar mechanical breaking of graphite as well as a yawing of graphitic components is possible. The performance of the filter installation is evidenced by the fact that all tools and components - with exception of the filters themselves - applied during the experiments could be decontaminated and measured for free release. (orig.)

  8. Fabrication of plastic microfluidic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter M.; Matson, Dean W.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Hammerstrom, D. J.

    1998-09-01

    Plastic components have many advantages, including ease of fabrication, low cost, chemical inertness, lightweight, and disposability. We report on the fabrication of three plastics-based microfluidic components: a motherboard, a dialysis unit, and a metal sensor. Microchannels, headers, and interconnects were produced in thin sheets (>=50 microns) of polyimide, PMMA, polyethylene, and polycarbonate using a direct-write excimer laser micromachining system. Machined sheets were laminated by thermal and adhesive bonding to form leak-tight microfluidic components. The microfluidic motherboard borrowed the `functionality on a chip' concept from the electronics industry and was the heart of a complex microfluidic analytical device. The motherboard platform was designed to be tightly integrated and self-contained (i.e., liquid flows are all confined within machined microchannels), reducing the need for tubing with fluid distribution and connectivity. This concept greatly facilitated system integration and miniaturization. As fabricated, the motherboard consisted of three fluid reservoirs connected to micropumps by microchannels. The fluids could either be pumped independently or mixed in microchannels prior to being directed to exterior analytical components via outlet ports. The microdialysis device was intended to separate electrolytic solutes from low volume samples prior to mass spectrometric analysis. The device consisted of a dialysis membrane laminated between opposed serpentine microchannels containing the sample fluid and a buffer solution. The laminated metal sensor consisted of fluid reservoirs, micro-flow channels, micropumps, mixing channels, reaction channels, and detector circuitry.

  9. Nitrogen laser with additional components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and construction of a Nitrogen laser with low cost domestic components is described. The model built is operated at 50 pulses per second with a 50 kW power per pulse at the ultraviolet 337.1 nm wavelength. (Author)

  10. Placement of the acetabular component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverland, D E; O'Neill, C K J; Rutherford, M; Molloy, D; Hill, J C

    2016-01-01

    Ideal placement of the acetabular component remains elusive both in terms of defining and achieving a target. Our aim is to help restore original anatomy by using the transverse acetabular ligament (TAL) to control the height, depth and version of the component. In the normal hip the TAL and labrum extend beyond the equator of the femoral head and therefore, if the definitive acetabular component is positioned such that it is cradled by and just deep to the plane of the TAL and labrum and is no more than 4mm larger than the original femoral head, the centre of the hip should be restored. If the face of the component is positioned parallel to the TAL and psoas groove the patient specific version should be restored. We still use the TAL for controlling version in the dysplastic hip because we believe that the TAL and labrum compensate for any underlying bony abnormality. The TAL should not be used as an aid to inclination. Worldwide, > 75% of surgeons operate with the patient in the lateral decubitus position and we have shown that errors in post-operative radiographic inclination (RI) of > 50° are generally caused by errors in patient positioning. Consequently, great care needs to be taken when positioning the patient. We also recommend 35° of apparent operative inclination (AOI) during surgery, as opposed to the traditional 45°. PMID:26733639

  11. Factor Analysis via Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentler, Peter M.; de Leeuw, Jan

    2011-01-01

    When the factor analysis model holds, component loadings are linear combinations of factor loadings, and vice versa. This interrelation permits us to define new optimization criteria and estimation methods for exploratory factor analysis. Although this article is primarily conceptual in nature, an illustrative example and a small simulation show…

  12. Factor Analysis via Components Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bentler, Peter M.; Jan de Leeuw

    2011-01-01

    Under the null hypothesis, component loadings are linear combinations of factor loadings, and vice versa. This interrelation permits defining new optimization criteria and estimation methods for exploratory factor analysis. Although this note is primarily conceptual in nature, an illustrative example shows the methodology to be promising.

  13. Inspection of disposal canisters components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the inspection techniques of disposal canister components. Manufacturing methods and a description of the defects related to different manufacturing methods are described briefly. The defect types form a basis for the design of non-destructive testing because the defect types, which occur in the inspected components, affect to choice of inspection methods. The canister components are to nodular cast iron insert, steel lid, lid screw, metal gasket, copper tube with integrated or separate bottom, and copper lid. The inspection of copper material is challenging due to the anisotropic properties of the material and local changes in the grain size of the copper material. The cast iron insert has some acoustical material property variation (attenuation, velocity changes, scattering properties), which make the ultrasonic inspection demanding from calibration point of view. Mainly three different methods are used for inspection. Ultrasonic testing technique is used for inspection of volume, eddy current technique, for copper components only, and visual testing technique are used for inspection of the surface and near surface area

  14. Components of Co-creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2009-01-01

    . However, these typically focus on the study, discussion and analysis of a small number of cases using deep, ethnographic description of their practices aiming at conceptualization and categorization of the different types of interactions between end users, the firm and the value network. Although useful...... the benefits of both qualitative and quantitative research approaches for studying the nature of value co-creation. The article provides a first attempt to identify the main research steps of such a methodology. It provides some preliminary results on the key components of value co-creation between firms...... and end customers based on the application of web search and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) techniques. The analysis of these preliminary results is then used as an opportunity to identify a number of research questions to be addressed in future research. The emerging research questions follow...

  15. Cylinder components properties, applications, materials

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the ever-increasing requirements to be met by gasoline and diesel engines in terms of CO2 reduction, emission behavior, weight, and service life, a comprehensive understanding of combustion engine components is essential today. It is no longer possible for professionals in automotive engineering to manage without the corresponding expertise, whether they work in the field of design, development, testing, or maintenance. This technical book provides in-depth answers to questions about design, production, and machining of cylinder components. In this second edition, every section has been revised and expanded to include the latest developments in the combustion engine. Content Piston rings Piston pins and piston pin circlips Bearings Connecting rods Crankcase and cylinder liners Target audience Engineers in the field of engine development and maintenanceLecturers and students in the areas of mechanical engineering, engine technology, and vehicle constructionAnyone interested in technology Publisher MAH...

  16. Tritium in fusion reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When tritium is used in a fusion energy experiment or reactor, several implications affect and usually restrict the design and operation of the system and involve questions of containment, inventory, and radiation damage. Containment is expected to be particularly important both for high-temperature components and for those components that are prone to require frequent maintenance. Inventory is currently of major significance in cases where safety and environmental considerations limit the experiments to very low levels of tritium. Fewer inventory restrictions are expected as fusion experiments are placed in more-remote locations and as the fusion community gains experience with the use of tritium. However, the advent of power-producing experiments with high-duty cycle will again lead to serious difficulties based principally on tritium availability; cyclic operations with significant regeneration times are the principal problems

  17. Centrifugal slip casting of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research in layered and functionally gradient materials has emerged because of the increasing demand for high-performance engineering materials. Many techniques have been used to produce layered and functionally gradient components. Common examples include thermal spray processing, powder processing, chemical and physical vapor deposition, high-temperature or combustion synthesis, diffusion treatments, microwave processing and infiltration. Of these techniques, powder processing routes offer excellent microstructural control and product quality, and they are capable of producing large components. Centrifugal slip casting is a powder-processing technique combining the effects of slip casting and centrifugation. In slip casting, consolidation takes place as fluid is removed by the porous mold. Particles within the slip move with the suspending fluid until reaching the mold wall, at which point they are consolidated. In centrifugation, particles within the slip move through the fluid at a rate dependent upon the gravitational force and particle drag

  18. Modelling Livestock Component in FSSIM

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, P.J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Louhichi, K.; Keulen, van, M.; Thornton, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    This document summarises the development of a ruminant livestock component for the Farm System Simulator (FSSIM). This includes treatments of energy and protein transactions in ruminant livestock that have been used as a basis for the biophysical simulations that will generate the input production parameters for FSSIM. The treatments are derived principally from the “French” feed evaluation and rationing system for protein and energy. Currently, we have constructed routines that are capable o...

  19. Substructuring and Component Mode Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Seshu

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Substructuring and component mode synthesis (CMS, is a very popular method of model reduction for large structural dynamics problems. Starting from the pioneering works on this technique in the early 1960s, many researchers have studied and used this technique in a variety of applications. Besides model reduction, CMS offers several other crucial advantages. The present work aims to provide a review of the available literature on this important technique.

  20. Substructuring and Component Mode Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Seshu, P.

    1997-01-01

    Substructuring and component mode synthesis (CMS), is a very popular method of model reduction for large structural dynamics problems. Starting from the pioneering works on this technique in the early 1960s, many researchers have studied and used this technique in a variety of applications. Besides model reduction, CMS offers several other crucial advantages. The present work aims to provide a review of the available literature on this important technique.

  1. Two-component Dirac equation

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Da-Wei; Pyshkin, P. V.; Yu, Ting; Lin, Hai-Qing; You, J. Q.; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2016-01-01

    We provide an alternative approach to relativistic dynamics based on the Feshbach projection technique. Instead of directly studying the Dirac equation, we derive a two-component equation for the upper spinor. This approach allows one to investigate the underlying physics in a different perspective. For particles with small mass such as the neutrino, the leading order equation has a Hermitian effective Hamiltonian, implying there is no leakage between the upper and lower spinors. In the weak ...

  2. NAT: perspectives for cellular components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, J A

    1999-12-01

    The introduction of routine testing to detect viral genomes in donated blood was originally driven by requirements for plasma fractionation in relation to exclusion of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. Nevertheless, it was obvious from the outset that a dual standard for fractionated products and individual blood components would be untenable. In many countries therefore, planning for introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT) of blood incorporated progression to release of HCV RNA tested components. HCV was singled out because of its long seronegative 'window period', relatively high prevalence and incidence in blood donors, rapid burst time and high genome copy number during seroconversion. The latter properties made HCV particularly suitable for detection in pools of samples. If HCV RNA testing is required for release of labile components such as platelets, rapid provision of NAT results is vital because of short shelf life of platelets and the problems of delays when resolving the infectious unit in a reactive pool. For NAT release of labile components smaller sample pool sizes allow faster resolution of RNA positive units. Smaller pools involve high test throughput, the likely need for more testing laboratories and ensuing increased costs. Single sample testing is the ultimate extrapolation of reducing sample pool size. With reduced pool sizes or single sample testing, the option of testing for other viruses (e.g. HIV or HBV) singly or in multiplex also arises. The cost-benefit and incremental yield of such strategies in the light of 'combo' assays for HIV Ag/Ab and the recently described HCV Ag assay will require careful and objective assessment, together with re-appraisal of anti-HBc screening for detection of HBV infected donors at the "tail-end" of carriage. PMID:10686060

  3. Bounding Component Behavior via Protocols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, František; Višňovský, Stanislav; Besta, Miloslav

    Los Alamitos : IEEE Computer Society, 1999 - (Firesmith, D.; Riehle, R.; Pour, G.; Meyer, B.), s. 387-398 ISBN 0-7695-0278-4. [TOOLS /30./. Santa Barbara (US), 01.08.1999-05.08.1999] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2030902; GA ČR GA201/99/0244 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : software components * behavior protocols * software architecture Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  4. ITER plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merola, Mario, E-mail: mario.merola@iter.or [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Loesser, D. [Blanket Integrated Product Team, Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Martin, A.; Chappuis, P.; Mitteau, R.; Komarov, V.; Pitts, R.A.; Gicquel, S.; Barabash, V.; Giancarli, L.; Palmer, J.; Nakahira, M.; Loarte, A.; Campbell, D.; Eaton, R.; Kukushkin, A.; Sugihara, M.; Zhang, F.; Kim, C.S.; Raffray, R. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2010-12-15

    The ITER plasma-facing components directly face the thermonuclear plasma and include the divertor, the blanket and the test blanket modules with their corresponding frames. The divertor is located at the bottom of the plasma chamber and is aimed at exhausting the major part of the plasma thermal power (including alpha power) and at minimising the helium and impurity content in the plasma. The blanket system provides a physical boundary for the plasma transients and contributes to the thermal and nuclear shielding of the vacuum vessel and external machine components. It consists of modular shielding elements known as blanket modules which are attached to the vacuum vessel. Each blanket module consists of two major components: a plasma-facing first wall panel and a shield block. The test blanket modules are mock-ups of DEMO breeding blankets. There are three ITER equatorial ports devoted to test blanket modules, each of them providing for the allocation of two breeding modules inserted in a steel frame and in front of a shield block.

  5. ITER plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER plasma-facing components directly face the thermonuclear plasma and include the divertor, the blanket and the test blanket modules with their corresponding frames. The divertor is located at the bottom of the plasma chamber and is aimed at exhausting the major part of the plasma thermal power (including alpha power) and at minimising the helium and impurity content in the plasma. The blanket system provides a physical boundary for the plasma transients and contributes to the thermal and nuclear shielding of the vacuum vessel and external machine components. It consists of modular shielding elements known as blanket modules which are attached to the vacuum vessel. Each blanket module consists of two major components: a plasma-facing first wall panel and a shield block. The test blanket modules are mock-ups of DEMO breeding blankets. There are three ITER equatorial ports devoted to test blanket modules, each of them providing for the allocation of two breeding modules inserted in a steel frame and in front of a shield block.

  6. Aging risk of passive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an approach for determining the increasing failure probability of an aging passive component and for calculating its resulting effect on plant risk by modifying an existing commercial nuclear reactor probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). A technique was developed for introducing aging into failure probability calculations using probabilistic structural analysis (PSA) techniques. Various probabilistic structural analysis methods were reviewed, and the PRAISE computer code was selected to perform the PSA. A component was selected that could fail and have a significant effect on the risk of core damage frequency. This component is a weld in the auxiliary feedwater system (AFW) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The stress on the AFW weld, for input in PRAISE, was determined for piping design loads, plant transient loads, and a thermal cyclic load that could cause crack growth and ultimate pipe failure. One PRAISE calculation might be made with the possibility of water hammer introduced to determine the effect on core damage frequency. An existing PRA (for a NUREG 1150 plant) was modified to include the failure of the AFW weld. Because this work is not complete, only preliminary conclusions and recommendations are presented

  7. Fusion-component lifetime analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one-dimensional computer code has been developed to examine the lifetime of first-wall and impurity-control components. The code incorporates the operating and design parameters, the material characteristics, and the appropriate failure criteria for the individual components. The major emphasis of the modeling effort has been to calculate the temperature-stress-strain-radiation effects history of a component so that the synergystic effects between sputtering erosion, swelling, creep, fatigue, and crack growth can be examined. The general forms of the property equations are the same for all materials in order to provide the greatest flexibility for materials selection in the code. The individual coefficients within the equations are different for each material. The code is capable of determining the behavior of a plate, composed of either a single or dual material structure, that is either totally constrained or constrained from bending but not from expansion. The code has been utilized to analyze the first walls for FED/INTOR and DEMO and to analyze the limiter for FED/INTOR

  8. New Components for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Caramori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs are among the most promising solar energy conversion devices of new generation, since coupling ease of fabrication and low cost offer the possibility of building integration in photovoltaic windows and facades. Although in their earliest configuration these systems are close to commercialization, fundamental studies are still required for developing new molecules and materials with more desirable properties as well as improving our understanding of the fundamental processes at the basis of the functioning of photoactive heterogeneous interfaces. In this contribution, some recent advances, made in the effort of improving DSSC devices by finding alternative materials and configurations, are reviewed.

  9. Towards Dependable Emergent Ensembles of Components: The DEECo Component Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keznikl, J.; Bureš, T.; Plášil, František; Kit, M.

    Los Alamitos: IEEE CS, 2012 - (Babar, M.; Cuesta, C.; Savolainen, J.; Männistö, T.), s. 249-252 ISBN 978-0-7695-4827-2. [WICSA / ECSA 2012. Joint Working Conference on Software Architecture /10./ & European Conference on Software Architecture /6./. Helsinki (FI), 20.08.2012-24.08.2012] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) ASCENS 257414 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) GAP202/11/0312; MFF UK(CZ) SVV-2012-265312 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : component * ensemble * adaptation * dynamic architecture * implicit communication * implicit bindings Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  10. SCAM – Software Component Assessment Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Tahir; Aasia Khannum; Ruhma Tahir

    2011-01-01

    It is widely understood that component based development is different from conventional development because components offer accelerated growth. In the absence of an effective component assessment strategy the developers of a software project have no way of assessing the quality of the software component they are about to incorporate into the project. We present two laws that link software components, software projects and their quality. We further propose a simple software component assessme...

  11. Web components and the semantic web

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Maire; Pahl, Claus

    2003-01-01

    Component-based software engineering on the Web differs from traditional component and software engineering. We investigate Web component engineering activites that are crucial for the development,com position, and deployment of components on the Web. The current Web Services and Semantic Web initiatives strongly influence our work. Focussing on Web component composition we develop description and reasoning techniques that support a component developer in the composition activities,fo cussing...

  12. Fusion ceramic materials and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present-day approach for the radiation hardness assurance of components and materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER is based on extensive testing under representative conditions. Those conditions include radiation, temperature and vacuum and the possibility of in-situ monitoring of radiation-induced changes in characteristics of interest. The resistive bolometers are an example of an ITER component currently tested at SCK-CEN. Bolometers will be used for the plasma emission monitoring in high-radiation and high-temperature locations such as the divertor region. Previous tests with bolometers having gold strips on mica substrates were performed in the JMTR (Japan) and revealed problems of adhesion of the strips on the mica surface, which naturally has a very low roughness. A new type of the resistive bolometer based on platinum meander on alumina or aluminum-nitride (AlN) substrates have to be tested at a high neutron flux (0.01 dpa), high temperature (400 C) and in vacuum (10-3 mBar)- conditions appropriate for the ITER. Another illustration of on-going radiation testing for the ITER is the investigation of the Radiation-Induced Electrical Degradation (RIED). RIED is degradation of electrical insulation under the combined effect of radiation, temperature, vacuum and a strong electric field. It may be an issue to be dealt with in the design phase. Our objective is to develop instrumentation capabilities, which can provide in-situ data on the radiation hardness of materials and components intended for the use in the ITER. These capabilities will allow assessment of the performance parameters under conditions representative in terms of radiation load, temperature and vacuum, and will include on-line electric measurements

  13. Experimental qualification of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the process of showing the adequacy of the seismic design of French PWR reactor, Fermat has repeatedly used dynamic testing on actual nuclear reactor components both on site and in manufacturing shops. The objective and results of a few representative examples of this on-site experimental verification are presented in this paper: the experimental dynamic analysis of a manipulator crane; the investigation of the seismic behaviour of fuel storage racks equipped with aseismic bearing devices. Difficulties to select satisfactory testing methods are also discussed for the particular case of the electrical cabinets. (author)

  14. Anthropological Component of Descartes’ Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii M. Malivskyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to outline and comprehend the Descartes’ theory about anthropological component of ontology as the most important part of his philosophy. The accomplishment of this purpose covers the successive solution of the following tasks: 1 review of the research literature concerning the problem of human’s presence and the individual nature of truth; 2 emphasize the ambivalence of the basic intention of his legacy; 3 justify the thesis about constitutivity of human’s presence and comprehend passions as the form of disclosure of ontology’s anthropological component. Methodology. The use of the euristic potential of phenomenology, postpositivism and postmodernism makes it possible to emphasize the multiple-layer and multiple-meaning classical philosophy works, to comprehend the limitation and scarcity of the naïve-enlightening vision of human nature and to look for a new reception of European classics that provides the overcoming of established nihilism and pessimism concerning the interpretation of human nature. Scientific novelty. It is the first time that anthropological component of Descartes’ ontology became an object of particular attention. It previously lacked attention because of following main reasons: 1 traditional underestimating of the fact of Descartes’ legacy incompleteness as an unrealized anthropological project and 2 lack of proper attention to the individual nature of truth. The premise for its constructive overcoming is the attention to ambivalence of the basic intention and the significance of ethics in the philosopher’s legacy. His texts and research literature allow confirming the constitutive nature of human’s presence and passions as the key form of disclosure of the ontology anthropological component. Conclusions. The established tradition of interpretation the Descartes’ philosophizing nature as the filiation process of impersonal knowledge loses its cogency these days. The

  15. Carmen: Software Component Model Checker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plšek, A.; Adámek, Jiří

    Berlin: Springer, 2008 - (Becker, S.; Plášil, F.; Reussner, R.), s. 71-85. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 5281). ISBN 978-3-540-87878-0. [QoSA 2008. International Conference on the Quality of Software Architectures /4./. Karlsruhe (DE), 14.10.2008-17.10.2008] Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/08/0266; ANR/RNTL(FR) Flex-eWare; Belgian Science Policy(BE) Interuniversity Attraction Poles Programme Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : software components * behavior specification * model-checking Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  16. Bioactivity of Minor Milk Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh

    particular, 3-15% of very low birth weight preterm infants suffer from the most servere form of intestinal inflammation, known as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This disease is incurable with a high mortality rate of 15-30%. Mother’s breast milk consists of different bioactive constituents, and is...... infant formula. Thereafter, bioactive milk components which were preserved in gently-processed infant formula were selected for further investigation of their immunomodulatory activity in cell and preterm pig models. We hope this project will contribute to the research on the development of new...

  17. Components of solar thermal systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, J. Farinha; Carvalho, M. J.; Schossig, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The heat production sub-system is the part of the overall system which provides heat to a thermally driven air-conditioning system. With regards to the solar-driven equipment, the solar collector is the main component of the sub-system. A brief review on the present state-of-the-art with respect to performance characteristics and available certification schemes of solar collectors is given in the following chapter. Besides the solar collector field, the storage unit and the back-up heat sourc...

  18. Astrophysical components from Planck maps

    CERN Document Server

    Burigana, Carlo; Paoletti, Daniela; Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Natoli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The Planck Collaboration has recently released maps of the microwave sky in both temperature and polarization. Diffuse astrophysical components (including Galactic emissions, cosmic far infrared (IR) background, y-maps of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect) and catalogs of many thousands of Galactic and extragalactic radio and far-IR sources, and galaxy clusters detected through the SZ effect are the main astrophysical products of the mission. A concise overview of these results and of astrophysical studies based on Planck data is presented.

  19. Spectral Components of SS 433

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, D R; Riddle, R L; Wang, Z; Wiita, P J; Wingert, D W

    2002-01-01

    We present results from new optical and UV spectroscopy of the unusual binary system SS 433, and we discuss the relationship of the particular spectral components we observe to the properties of the binary. (1) The continuum spectrum which we associate with flux from the super-Eddington accretion disk and the dense part of its wind. (2) H-alpha moving components which are formed far from the binary orbital plane in the relativistic jets. (3) H-alpha and He I "stationary" emission lines which we suggest are formed in the disk wind in a volume larger than the dimensions of the binary. (4) A weak "stationary" emission feature we identify as a C II 7231,7236 blend that attains maximum radial velocity at the orbital quadrature of disk recession. (5) Absorption and emission features from outflowing clumps in the disk wind (seen most clearly in an episode of blue-shifted Na I emission). (6) We found no clear evidence of the absorption line spectrum of the optical star, although we point out the presence of He I abso...

  20. Fractionalization of graphitic reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany's research- and prototype reactors, some 590 t of graphite and carbonstone are in use, safe enclosure or due to decommissioning. Different concepts for their decommissioning are currently being discussed, all of which have to include any kind of fractionalization due to the fact that container dimensions do not refer to sizes of the above mentioned ceramic components. By means of parting techniques, activated/contaminated parts ought to be delaminated or parted in a way that a maximum ratio of container filling and the referring volume is reached. Thus, a maximum of final storage volume yield coinciding with a minimization of final disposal costs can be achieved. Fractionalization techniques will be developed or fitted with the aim of secondary waste minimization. Special focus ist put on the development of dust collection techniques in respect of emerging graphite dust out of the fractionalizating techniques. In 1995, a task group build up a concept regarding the dismantling of the Juelich AVR reactor to the green meadow [1]. One result of this study was the necessary amount containers for the final storage of all graphitic parts of the mentioned high-temperature reactor. The referred number was estimated to be 2511 MOSAIK II-type containers or 364 type VII-containers. To fill these containers, most of the graphitic components have to be parted. (orig.)

  1. Bioactive components in fish venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  2. Preventive maintenance for mechanical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear power stations as in other industrial plants, there are active and passive components whose failure is permissible only in exceptional cases both from a safety and/or economic view. Failure in this context means loss of integrity of a supporting wall, insufficient function and/or unstoppable leakage. A systematic defect must be excluded as cause of failure; the consequences of failure must be manageable. During operation, measures must be taken to maintain the required quality and detect consequences of damage mechanisms at an early stage, prior to failure. This is achieved by preventive maintenance in accordance with the latest state of knowledge. To exclude systematic errors, the quality standard of components must be re-checked every once in a while as the effects of damage mechanisms and the state of knowledge are time-dependent parameters. This requires an integrated concept, e.g. for life and ageing management, in whose context a comprehensive knowledge base is developed and regularly updated. (orig.)

  3. GMES Space Component: Programme overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, J.; Milagro-Perez, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have developed the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme as Europe's answer to the vital need for joined-up data about our climate, environment and security. Through a unique combination of satellite, atmospheric and Earth-based monitoring systems, the initiative will provide new insight into the state of the land, sea and air, providing policymakers, scientists, businesses and the public with accurate and timely information. GMES capabilities include monitoring and forecasting of climatic change, flood risks, soil and coastal erosion, crop and fish resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, iceberg distribution and snow cover, among others. To accomplish this, GMES has been divided into three main components: Space, In-situ and Services. The Space Component, led by ESA, comprises five types of new satellites called Sentinels that are being developed by ESA specifically to meet the needs of GMES, the first of which to be launched in 2013. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring. In addition, access to data from the so-called Contributing Missions guarantees that European space infrastructure is fully used for GMES. An integrated Ground Segment ensures access to Sentinels and Contributing Missions data. The in-situ component, under the coordination of the European Environment Agency (EEA), is composed of atmospheric and Earth based monitoring systems, and based on established networks and programmes at European and international levels. The European Commission is in charge of implementing the services component of GMES and of leading GMES overall. GMES services, fed with data from the Space and In-situ components, will provide essential information in five main domains, atmosphere, ocean and land monitoring as well as emergency response and security. Climate change has been added

  4. Aspects for Run-time Component Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truyen, Eddy; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Joosen, Wouter;

    2000-01-01

    Component framework technology has become the cornerstone of building a family of systems and applications. A component framework defines a generic architecture into which specialized components can be plugged. As such, the component framework leverages the glue that connects the different insert...... dynamically integrate into the architecture of middleware systems new services that support non-functional aspects such as security, transactions, real-time.......Component framework technology has become the cornerstone of building a family of systems and applications. A component framework defines a generic architecture into which specialized components can be plugged. As such, the component framework leverages the glue that connects the different inserted...... components together. We have examined a middle ground between aspect-oriented programming and computational reflection that improves the dynamics of this gluing process such that interaction between components can be refined at run-time. In this paper, we show how we have used this middle ground to...

  5. Structural analysis of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THe report describes the activities accomplished in the project 'Structural Analysis Project of Nuclear Power Plant Components' during the years 1974-1982 in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The objective of the project has been to develop Finnish expertise in structural mechanics related to nuclear engineering. The report describes the starting point of the research work, the organization of the project and the research activities on various subareas. Further the work done with computer codes is described and also the problems which the developed expertise has been applied to. Finally, the diploma works, publications and work reports, which are mainly in Finnish, are listed to give a view of the content of the project. (author)

  6. Parallel supercomputing with commodity components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, M.S.; Goda, M.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Becker, D.J. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    We have implemented a parallel computer architecture based entirely upon commodity personal computer components. Using 16 Intel Pentium Pro microprocessors and switched fast ethernet as a communication fabric, we have obtained sustained performance on scientific applications in excess of one Gigaflop. During one production astrophysics treecode simulation, we performed 1.2 x 10{sup 15} floating point operations (1.2 Petaflops) over a three week period, with one phase of that simulation running continuously for two weeks without interruption. We report on a variety of disk, memory and network benchmarks. We also present results from the NAS parallel benchmark suite, which indicate that this architecture is competitive with current commercial architectures. In addition, we describe some software written to support efficient message passing, as well as a Linux device driver interface to the Pentium hardware performance monitoring registers.

  7. Microelectromechanical components in electrical metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Manninen, Antti; Pesonen, Nadine; Oja, Aarne; Seppa, Heikki

    2007-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) can offer a competitive alternative for conventional technology in electrical precision measurements. This article summarises recent work in development of MEMS solutions for electrical metrology. MEMS-based voltage references, RMS-to-DC converters, high frequency power sensors, and reference oscillators are discussed. The main principle of operation of the components is the balance between electrical forces and mechanical spring forces in micromachined silicon structures. In RMS sensors and RMS-to-DC converters, the quadratic voltage dependence of the force between plates of a moving-plate capacitor is utilised, and the operation of the MEMS voltage reference is based on the pull-in phenomenon of a moving-plate capacitor. Advantages of MEMS devices compared to more conventional solutions include small size, low power consumption, low price in mass production, and stability. The drift caused by electrostatic charging effects has turned out to be a major problem. This prob...

  8. Training of component reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, C A

    1986-01-01

    Fifteen reading-disabled boys, classified according to reading subskill deficits, formed three subgroups: Oral Reading, Associative, and Sequential. On the rationale that training procedures emphasizing accuracy and speed of response to letters, syllables, and words would improve reading skills, the children were trained daily for two and one-half months. Two schedules of testing and training allowed for an untrained control group and a follow-up group. The results indicated that the computer-assisted training procedures were not only effective in improving component reading skills, but in addition there was a transfer of training to achievement measures of reading word recognition. This study lends support to the hypothesis that training according to subgroup classification, using training procedures which incorporate an application of the automaticity theory and a combination of task-analytic and process-oriented models, is an effective training approach for reading-disabled children. PMID:24243467

  9. RCM and component evaluation logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the prevention maintenance program at Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS), initially developed based on recommendations found in vendor technical manuals and accepted industry standards. The method was used until there was sufficient operating history to justify changes. The Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) project was started to provide another approach to the implementation of preventive maintenance. RCM evaluations were performed on nine systems. RCM was then suspended since it was found during implementation that additional documentation was necessary. RCM was selected as a preventive maintenance development process because it provides a documented analytical approach to establishing a preventive maintenance program. It is also being developed throughout the industry as a standard approach to preventive maintenance. PVNGS became interested in performing RCM analyses primarily to ensure that system and component reliability is maintained at the highest level possible and that hidden or rare failures are addressed by appropriate and effective maintenance. A secondary reason was to save maintenance expenditures

  10. Inelastic behavior of structural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, N.; Khozeimeh, K.; Toridis, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    A more accurate procedure was developed for the determination of the inelastic behavior of structural components. The actual stress-strain curve for the mathematical of the structure was utilized to generate the force-deformation relationships for the structural elements, rather than using simplified models such as elastic-plastic, bilinear and trilinear approximations. relationships were generated for beam elements with various types of cross sections. In the generational of these curves, stress or load reversals, kinematic hardening and hysteretic behavior were taken into account. Intersections between loading and unloading branches were determined through an iterative process. Using the inelastic properties obtained, the plastic static response of some simple structural systems composed of beam elements was computed. Results were compared with known solutions, indicating a considerable improvement over response predictions obtained by means of simplified approximations used in previous investigations.

  11. Component codification and identification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lecture covers the codification in power stations during the erection phase and commercial operation phase. A diagram gives a survey. There are three basic-codifications for application; 1) Kraftwerk-Kennzeichen-System (KKS) for marking each component in orientated systems, for marking electrical orientated positions in cubicals, switch gears etc. and for marking rooms in buildings; 2) Ordnungssystem (OS) for cost calculation and ordering; 3) Unterlagenarten-Schluessel (UAS) for letters, reports etc. and for documentation. The OS is developed on the principle of cost account number and is therefore close to the organization of each supplier and his special form of design and constrution. KKS has only to mark hardware. Therefore all German owners, consultants, authorities and suppliers develop KKS together and conform to it in DIN 407119. (ORU)

  12. Components of Attention in Synesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Nordfang, Maria; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard;

    2013-01-01

    synesthesia (Mattingley, 2009). Results from the present experiment show that synesthesia affects both speed of processing (C) and the number of objects that can be retained in visual short-term memory (K). Participants were faster at encoding characters that were colored congruently with their synesthesia......One of the most common forms of synesthesia is between colors and graphemes (Colizoli, Murre, & Rouw, 2012). Numerous studies have investigated different aspects of attention and synesthesia, e.g. effects of Stroop-like interference by colors that are incongruent with the synesthetic experience....... Here we attempt to isolate how specific components of attention are affected by grapheme-color synesthesia. Eight carefully screened healthy participants with synesthesia reported the letters in briefly presented, post-masked arrays of letters and digits. On half the trials, the letters and digits were...

  13. Components, Safety Interfaces, and Compositional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Elmqvist, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    Component-based software development has emerged as a promising approach for developing complex software systems by composing smaller independently developed components into larger component assemblies. This approach offers means to increase software reuse, achieve higher flexibility and shorter time-to-market by the use of off-the-shelf components (COTS). However, the use of COTS in safety-critical system is highly unexplored. This thesis addresses the problems appearing in component-based d...

  14. Library thermohydraulic components for training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermohydraulic components Library was modeled in MatLab/Simulink®. This library owns Pipe type components (pump, control valve and / or heaters), storage tanks (Open, Closed and Equilibrium Water Vapor-Air) and Heat Exchangers (Co-Current, Counter-Current and U-tubes). Each component can be attached to other components through the component library Header, in order to create a more complex thermal-hydraulic system which in turn can interact with other thermal-hydraulic systems. (author)

  15. Storing the Electric Energy Produced by an AC Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P. Simeao; Lima, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Pedro Simeao

    2010-01-01

    Producing energy from renewable energy sources is nowadays a priority in our society. In many cases this energy comes as electric energy, and when we think about electric energy generators, one major issue is how we can store that energy. In this paper we discuss how this can be done and give some ideas for applications that can serve as a…

  16. Analysis of wind farm energy produced in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The electricity generated by wind farms in almost every state in the United States with over 10 MW of wind turbine capacity was analyzed over a five-year period (2002 to 2006). The total amount of wind generated electricity in the United States for 2006 was estimated at 26.3 terawatt-hours which wa...

  17. Precision fiducialization of transport components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a transport line designed to test both concept and advanced technology for application to future linear colliders. It is currently under construction at SLAC in the central beam line. Most of the quadrupoles of the FFTB have ab initio alignment tolerances of less than 30 microns, if the planned for beam based alignment tuning procedure is to converge. For such placement tolerances to have any meaning requires that the coordinates of the effective centers, seen by the beam particles, be tansferred to tooling (that can be reached by mechanical or optical alignment methods) located on the outside of the components to comparable or better values. We have constructed an apparatus that simultaneously locates to micron tolerances, the effective magnetic center of fussing lenses, as well as the electrical center of beam position monitors (BPM) imbedded therein, and once located, for transferring these coordinates to specially mounted tooling frames that supported the external retroreflectors used in a laser tracker based alignment of the beam line. Details of construction as well as experimental results from the method are presented

  18. Components development in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Euratom Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) an integrated project IP-EUROTRANS (transmutation) is ongoing. One of this project’s objectives is to develop and assess structural materials and heavy liquid metal (HLM) lead–lead-bismuth technologies for transmutation systems, where the HLM is both the spallation material and the core coolant. This involves specification and fabrication of reference materials, their characterisation in HLM and in representative conditions (with and without irradiation environment) in order to provide the data base needed for design purposes (e.g. fuel cladding, in-vessel components, primary vessel, instrumentation, target container, beam window), thermalhydraulics, measurement techniques, large scale integral tests and PTA studies for the MEGAPIE spallation target of FP5. In particular the ongoing R&D for the subcritical reactors XT-ADS, cooled by LBE, and EFIT, cooled by pure lead are: – To provide necessary information for designers, as concerns both T91 and 316L steels in contact with LBE and lead. This R&D is aimed to: • Determine the creep, low cycle fatigue, relaxation (fatigue and creep) fatigue behaviour of T91 and 316L in contact with lead and LBE, both qualitatively and quantitatively; • Characterize their fracture resistance, once again both qualitatively and quantitatively; • Constitute reliable data base over a wide temperature range, attaining 550°C; • Determine the fracture mechanisms of both ferritic–martensitic and austenitic materials in contact with HLMs

  19. Correlations among alfalfa yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Olivera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this paper are the results of our study of correlations among yield components in ten alfalfa genotypes under open pollination (polycross conditions. The study was conducted between 2000 and 2002 at the Rimski Sancevi Experiment Field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Highly significant correlations were found between pod number per inflorescence and seed number per inflorescence (r= 0.645 as well as between seed number per pod and seed number per inflorescence (r= 0.685. Similarly, the correlation between inflorescence number per stem and seed yield was significant and positive (r= 0.589. Negative correlations existed between ovule number per ovary on the one hand and seed yield and inflorescence number per stem on the other (r= -0.617 and r= -0.598, respectively. The highest seed yield was achieved with the cultivar Europe (651.4 kg ha-1 and the lowest with the genotype Le-6 (426.25 kg ha-1. The difference was highly significant (CV= 14,93%.

  20. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.

  1. Nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, J.; Sengupta, S.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents the details of the nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data. Topic discussed include: connection with principal component analysis; network architecture; analysis of the standard routine (PRINC); and results.

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  3. Crosscap Numbers of Two-component Links

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Gengyu

    2006-01-01

    We define the crosscap number of a 2-component link as the minimum of the first Betti numbers of connected, non-orientable surfaces bounding the link. We discuss some properties of the crosscap numbers of 2-component links.

  4. CoC Awards by Program Component

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CoC Awards by Program Component reports provide snapshots of award data broken down by eligible program component types for the year selected. The reports, which...

  5. Improving component reuse in software development

    OpenAIRE

    Forsell, Marko

    2002-01-01

    This study concerns reuse in the software development process. The focus is in the reuse of components when creating new software. The aim is to improve current software processes to adapt them to the purposes of reuse. The specific research questions are: 1) What are the specific limitations for reuse in the current component-based software development methods? 2) How should reusable components be created and used in software development? 3) How should the components that are created be docu...

  6. Service component derivation and composition in Arctis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration based development has its main focus on service level composition. Services are considered as reusable units and modeled as collaborations among roles performed by possibly distributed components. The problem addressed in this thesis is how components can be derived from the service models and how such components can be composed together in order to make a composite component and eventually a system. The purpose is to gain benefits such as flexibility in composition, allow compo...

  7. A QOS Ontology-Based Component Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Lamia Yessad; Zizette Boufaida

    2011-01-01

    In the component-based software development, the selection step is very important. It consists of searching and selecting appropriate software components from a set of candidate components in order to satisfy the developer-specific requirements. In the selection process, both functional and non-functional requirements are generally considered. In this paper, we focus only on the QoS, a subset of non-functional characteristics, in order to determine the best components for selection. The compo...

  8. Decomposing SAT Problems into Connected Components

    OpenAIRE

    Armin Biere; Carsten Sinz

    2006-01-01

    Many SAT instances can be decomposed into connected components either initially after preprocessing or during the solution phase when new unit conflict clauses are learned. This observation allows components to be solved individually. We present a technique to handle components within a GRASP like SAT solver without requiring much change to the solver. Results obtained when applying our implementation in the SAT solver COMPSAT to a number of realistic examples show that components really do ...

  9. Knee Arthroplasty: With or Without Patellar Component?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Sólyom

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arthroplasty is used when there is irreversible damage to the articular cartilage of the knee. It involves implanting a bicompartimental (femoral and tibial components or a tricompartimental (femoral, tibial and patellar components prosthesis. It is a very invasive and costly operation, so our objective was to evaluate the necessity of the patellar component.

  10. Blind Detection of Independent Dynamic Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan; Kolenda, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    In certain applications of independent component analysis (ICA) it is of interest to test hypotheses concerning the number of components or simply to test whether a given number of components is significant relative to a "white noise" null hypothesis. We estimate probabilities of such competing h...

  11. Characterisation of superconducting components using PSPICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shevchenko, Oleg A.; Knoopers, Hennie G.; Kate, ten Herman H.J.

    1997-01-01

    A customer library of superconducting (SC) components for the PSPICE is under development in our group. The new library includes models of both low and high Tc superconductor based components. For large scale applications typical examples of simulated components are: a SC filament, composite wire an

  12. Two component theory and electron magnetic moment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.

    1998-01-01

    The two-component formulation of quantum electrodynamics is studied. The relation with the usual Dirac formulation is exhibited, and the Feynman rules for the two-component form of the theory are presented in terms of familiar objects. The transformation from the Dirac theory to the two-component th

  13. Component failure data base of TRIGA reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation provides failure data such as first criticality, component type description (reactor component, population, cumulative calendar time, cumulative operating time, demands, failure mode, failures, failure rate, failure probability) and specific information on each type of component of TRIGA Mark-II reactors in Austria, Bangladesh, Germany, Finland, Indonesia, Italy, Indonesia, Slovenia and Romania. (nevyjel)

  14. Modelization of cooling system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the site evaluation study for licensing a new nuclear power facility, the criteria involved could be grouped in health and safety, environment, socio-economics, engineering and cost-related. These encompass different aspects such as geology, seismology, cooling system requirements, weather conditions, flooding, population, and so on. The selection of the cooling system is function of different parameters as the gross electrical output, energy consumption, available area for cooling system components, environmental conditions, water consumption, and others. Moreover, in recent years, extreme environmental conditions have been experienced and stringent water availability limits have affected water use permits. Therefore, modifications or alternatives of current cooling system designs and operation are required as well as analyses of the different possibilities of cooling systems to optimize energy production taking into account water consumption among other important variables. There are two basic cooling system configurations: - Once-through or Open-cycle; - Recirculating or Closed-cycle. In a once-through cooling system (or open-cycle), water from an external water sources passes through the steam cycle condenser and is then returned to the source at a higher temperature with some level of contaminants. To minimize the thermal impact to the water source, a cooling tower may be added in a once-through system to allow air cooling of the water (with associated losses on site due to evaporation) prior to returning the water to its source. This system has a high thermal efficiency, and its operating and capital costs are very low. So, from an economical point of view, the open-cycle is preferred to closed-cycle system, especially if there are no water limitations or environmental restrictions. In a recirculating system (or closed-cycle), cooling water exits the condenser, goes through a fixed heat sink, and is then returned to the condenser. This configuration

  15. Novel Components for Neutron Counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron counters for safeguards proposes have been developed during the last thirty years at the Joint Research Centre. The paper describes some of the latest developments and implementations in modern neutron counter. The design of a neutron counter is nowadays largely done by MCNP calculations. We have studied the behaviour of some components for a specific counter with respect to optimising the performance of the counter. This includes the moderator materials, thermal neutron absorbers, and 3-He detectors. Also the electronics for neutron counter has evolved over the years. Modern neutron counters require a large number of detectors and signal amplifiers to provide optimised parameters for the data interpretation. For this purpose we have developed a new pre-amplifier/amplifier/discriminator circuit which is both compact and inexpensive. The new circuit will be used in existing and future neutron counters. Concerning the treatment of the digital signal pulse train we intend to makes use of the latest advances in computer technology. A novel electronic system has been developed with a maximum of 128 input channels, which can cope with the high count rate of more than 1 million counts per second with zero dead-time. The Multi Input-Pulse Train Analysis (MI-PTA) system can be used with standard instruments, like Shift Register Analysers. However, it has been designed to perform a variety of pulse train analysis techniques itself, or in combination with a Personal Computer to which the system is connected via a High Speed USB2.0 connection. Pulse data can exchanged between the MI-PTA and PC at the rate of 480 Mb/s, allowing real time analysis on a PC and providing the basis for a Virtual Instrument approach: by modifying the software new instruments can be configured. The system consists of a number of base units, each with 8 TTL compatible inputs. Only one unit, configured as a Master, is connected to a PC. Up-to 15 Slave units can be connected to the Master via a

  16. MICROFLUIDIC COMPONENT CAPABLE OF SELF-SEALING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A microfluidic component (100) for building a microfluidic system is provided. The microfluidic component (100) can be mounted on a microf luidic breadboard (202) in a manner that allows it to be connected to other microfluidic components (204, 206) without the requirement of additional devices....... The microfluidic component (100) comprises at least one flexible tube piece (102) for transporting a fluid. The microfluidic component (100) also comprises means for applying and maintaining pressure (104) between the flexible tube piece (102) and a tube piece (208, 210) housed in another microfluidic...

  17. Micromotion of cemented and uncemented femoral components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, D W; O'Connor, D O; Zalenski, E B; Jasty, M; Harris, W H

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated the initial stability of cemented and uncemented femoral components within the femoral canals of cadaver femurs during simulated single limb stance and stair climbing. Both types were very stable in simulated single limb stance (maximum micromotion of 42 microns for cemented and 30 microns for uncemented components). However, in simulated stair climbing, the cemented components were much more stable than the uncemented components (76 microns as against 280 microns). There was also greater variation in the stability of uncemented components in simulated stair climbing, with two of the seven components moving 200 microns or more. Future implant designs should aim to improve the initial stability of cementless femoral components under torsional loads; this should improve the chances of bony ingrowth. PMID:1991771

  18. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  19. The artifacts of component-based development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Component based development idea was floated in a conference name Mass Produced Software Components in 1968 (1). Since then engineering and scientific libraries are developed to reuse the previously developed functions. This concept is now widely used in SW development as component based development (CBD). Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is used to develop/ assemble software from existing components (2). Software developed using components is called component where (3). This paper presents different architectures of CBD such as Active X, common object request broker architecture (CORBA), remote method invocation (RMI) and simple object access protocol (SOAP). The overall objective of this paper is to support the practice of CBD by comparing its advantages and disadvantages. This paper also evaluates object oriented process model to adapt it for CBD. (author)

  20. Polarized CMB recovery with sparse component separation

    CERN Document Server

    Bobin, Jerome; Starck, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The polarization modes of the cosmological microwave background are an invaluable source of information for cosmology, and a unique window to probe the energy scale of inflation. Extracting such information from microwave surveys requires disentangling between foreground emissions and the cosmological signal, which boils down to solving a component separation problem. Component separation techniques have been widely studied for the recovery of CMB temperature anisotropies but quite rarely for the polarization modes. In this case, most component separation techniques make use of second-order statistics to discriminate between the various components. More recent methods, which rather emphasize on the sparsity of the components in the wavelet domain, have been shown to provide low-foreground, full-sky estimate of the CMB temperature anisotropies. Building on sparsity, the present paper introduces a new component separation technique dubbed PolGMCA (Polarized Generalized Morphological Component Analysis), which r...

  1. The artifacts of component-based development

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, M Rizwan Jameel

    2012-01-01

    Component based development idea was floated in a conference name "Mass Produced Software Components" in 1968 [1]. Since then engineering and scientific libraries are developed to reuse the previously developed functions. This concept is now widely used in SW development as component based development (CBD). Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is used to develop/ assemble software from existing components [2]. Software developed using components is called component ware [3]. This paper presents different architectures of CBD such as ActiveX, common object request broker architecture (CORBA), remote method invocation (RMI) and simple object access protocol (SOAP). The overall objective of this paper is to support the practice of CBD by comparing its advantages and disadvantages. This paper also evaluates object oriented process model to adapt it for CBD.

  2. SOFTWARE RELIABILITY MODEL FOR COMPONENT INTERACTION MODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qiang; Lu Yang; Xu Zijun; Han Jianghong

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid progress of component technology,the software development methodology of gathering a large number of components for designing complex software systems has matured.But,how to assess the application reliability accurately with the information of system architecture and the components reliabilities together has become a knotty problem.In this paper,the defects in formal description of software architecture and the limitations in existed model assumptions are both analyzed.Moreover,a new software reliability model called Component Interaction Mode (CIM) is proposed.With this model,the problem for existed component-based software reliability analysis models that cannot deal with the cases of component interaction with non-failure independent and non-random control transition is resolved.At last,the practice examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this model

  3. Synthesis from Recursive-Components Libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Lustig, Yoad; 10.4204/EPTCS.54.1

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis is the automatic construction of a system from its specification. In classical synthesis algorithms it is always assumed that the system is "constructed from scratch" rather than composed from reusable components. This, of course, rarely happens in real life. In real life, almost every non-trivial commercial software system relies heavily on using libraries of reusable components. Furthermore, other contexts, such as web-service orchestration, can be modeled as synthesis of a system from a library of components. In 2009 we introduced LTL synthesis from libraries of reusable components. Here, we extend the work and study synthesis from component libraries with "call and return"' control flow structure. Such control-flow structure is very common in software systems. We define the problem of Nested-Words Temporal Logic (NWTL) synthesis from recursive component libraries, where NWTL is a specification formalism, richer than LTL, that is suitable for "call and return" computations. We solve the problem, ...

  4. Highly polarized components of integrated pulse profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, P F

    2016-01-01

    Highly polarized components of pulse profiles are investigated by analyzing observational data and simulating the emission processes. The highly polarized components appear at the leading or trailing part of a pulse profile, which preferably have a flat spectrum and a flat polarization angle curve compared with the low polarized components. By considering the emission processes and propagation effects, we simulate the distributions of wave modes and fractional linear polarization within the entire pulsar emission beam. We show that the highly polarized components can appear at the leading, central, and/or trailing parts of pulse profiles in the models, depending on pulsar geometry. The depolarization is caused by orthogonal modes or scattering. When a sight line cuts across pulsar emission beam with a small impact angle, the detected highly polarized component will be of the O mode, and have a flat polarization angle curve and/or a flat spectrum as observed. Otherwise, the highly polarized component will be o...

  5. Programming language abstractions for extensible software components

    OpenAIRE

    Zenger, Matthias; Odersky, Martin

    2005-01-01

    With the growing demand for software systems that can cope with an increasing range of information processing tasks, the reuse of code from existing systems is essential to reduce the production costs of systems as well as the time to manufacture new software applications. For this reason, component-based software development techniques gain increasing attention in industry and research. Component technology is driven by the promise of building software by composing off-the-shelf components p...

  6. Projected principal component analysis in factor models

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Wang, Weichen

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a Projected Principal Component Analysis (Projected-PCA), which employees principal component analysis to the projected (smoothed) data matrix onto a given linear space spanned by covariates. When it applies to high-dimensional factor analysis, the projection removes noise components. We show that the unobserved latent factors can be more accurately estimated than the conventional PCA if the projection is genuine, or more precisely, when the factor loading matrices are r...

  7. Swarm Intelligence Heuristics for Component Deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Csorba, Máté J.; Poul E. Heegaard

    2010-01-01

    International audience We address the problem of efficient deployment of software services into a networked environment. Services are considered that are provided by collaborating components. The problem of obtaining efficient mappings for components to host in a network is challenged by multiple dimensions of quality of service requirements. In this paper we consider execution costs for components and communication costs for the collaborations between them. Our proposed solution to the de...

  8. Two-component abelian sandpile models

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz, F. C.; Pyatov, P.; Rittenberg, V.

    2008-01-01

    In one-component abelian sandpile models, the toppling probabilities are independent quantities. This is not the case in multi-component models. The condition of associativity of the underlying abelian algebras impose nonlinear relations among the toppling probabilities. These relations are derived for the case of two-component quadratic abelian algebras. We show that abelian sandpile models with two conservation laws have only trivial avalanches.

  9. DEECO: an ensemble-based component system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bureš, Tomáš; Gerostathopoulos, I.; Hnětynka, P.; Keznikl, Jaroslav; Kit, M.; Plášil, F.

    New York: ACM, 2013, s. 81-90. ISBN 978-1-4503-2122-8. [CBSE 2013. International ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Component-Based Software Engineering /16./. Vancouver (CA), 17.06.2013-21.06.2013] Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) GAP202/11/0312; UK(CZ) SVV-2013-267312 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : component model * emergent architecture * component ensembles * autonomic systems * development process * runtime framework Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  10. Programming language abstractions for extensible software components

    OpenAIRE

    Zenger, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    With the growing demand for software systems that can cope with an increasing range of information processing tasks, the reuse of code from existing systems is essential to reduce the production costs of systems as well as the time to manufacture new software applications. For this reason, component-based software development techniques gain increasing attention in industry and research. Component technology is driven by the promise of building software by composing off-the-shelf components p...

  11. Fourth Moments and Independent Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Miettinen, Jari; Taskinen, Sara; Nordhausen, Klaus; Oja, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    In independent component analysis it is assumed that the components of the observed random vector are linear combinations of latent independent random variables, and the aim is then to find an estimate for a transformation matrix back to these independent components. In the engineering literature, there are several traditional estimation procedures based on the use of fourth moments, such as FOBI (fourth order blind identification), JADE (joint approximate diagonalization of eigenmatrices), a...

  12. Component versioning for protocol configuration management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tian-zhou; HE Zhen-jie; HUANG Jiang-wei; DAI Hong-jun

    2005-01-01

    Classical software configuration management which deals with source code versioning becomes insufficient when most components are distributed in binary form. As an important aspect of software configuration, protocol configuration also encounters those problems. This paper focuses on solving protocol component versioning issues for protocol configuration management on embedded system, incorporating the following versioning issues: version identification, version description and protocol component archiving and retrieving based on the version library.

  13. Shaking table testing of mechanical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented is the experience of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in seismic qualification of mechanical components by shaking table testing. Technical data and characteristics for the three shaking tables available at the Institute are given. Also, for characteristic mechanical components tested at the Institute laboratories, basic data such as producer, testing investor, description of the component, testing regulation, testing equipment and final user of the results. (author)

  14. SOFA 2 Component Framework and Its Ecosystem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malohlava, M.; Hnětynka, P.; Bureš, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 295, 9 May (2013), s. 101-106. ISSN 1571-0661. [FESCA 2012. International Workshop on Formal Engineering approaches to Software Components and Architectures /9./. Tallinn, 31.03.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD201/09/H057 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) GAP202/11/0312; UK(CZ) SVV-2012-265312 Keywords : CBSE * component system * component model * component * sofa * ecosystem * development tool Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  15. Component mode synthesis of large rotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. F.; Gunter, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    A scheme is presented for calculating the vibrations of large multi-component flexible rotor systems based on the component mode synthesis method. It is shown that, by a modal expansion of the elastic interconnecting elements, the system modal equation can be conveniently constructed from the undamped eigen representations of the component subsystems. The capability of the component mode method is demonstrated in two examples: a transient simulation of a two-spool gas turbine engine equipped with a squeeze-film damper; and an unbalance response analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine oxygen turbopump in which the dynamics of the rotor and the housing are both considered.

  16. Power electronics handbook components, circuits and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    2013-01-01

    Power Electronics Handbook: Components, Circuits, and Applications is a collection of materials about power components, circuit design, and applications. Presented in a practical form, theoretical information is given as formulae. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 deals with the usual components found in power electronics such as semiconductor devices and power semiconductor control components, their electronic compatibility, and protection. Part 2 tackles parts and principles related to circuits such as switches; link frequency chargers; converters; and AC line control, and Part 3

  17. Compatibility and testing of electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, C E

    2013-01-01

    Compatibility and Testing of Electronic Components outlines the concepts of component part life according to thresholds of failure; the advantages that result from identifying such thresholds; their identification; and the various tests used in their detection. The book covers topics such as the interconnection of miniature passive components; the integrated circuit compatibility and its components; the semiconductor joining techniques; and the thin film hybrid approach in integrated circuits. Also covered are topics such as thick film resistors, conductors, and insulators; thin inlays for el

  18. Epistemic uncertainties when estimating component failure rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for specific estimation of a component failure rate, based on specific quantitative and qualitative data other than component failures, was developed and is described in the proposed paper. The basis of the method is the Bayesian updating procedure. A prior distribution is selected from a generic database, whereas likelihood is built using fuzzy logic theory. With the proposed method, the component failure rate estimation is based on a much larger quantity of information compared to the presently used classical methods. Consequently, epistemic uncertainties, which are caused by lack of knowledge about a component or phenomenon are reduced. (author)

  19. Bocca : A development environment for HPC components.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwasif, W.; Norris, B.; Allan, B.; Armstrong, R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; ORNL; SNL

    2007-01-01

    In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with component glue code to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error prone. Component-based software meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the common HPC workstation languages: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

  20. Bocca: A Development Environment for HPC Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Norris, Boyana [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Benjamin, Allan A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Armstrong, Robert C. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)

    2007-01-01

    In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with the component glue code and software build processes to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error-prone. Component-based soft ware meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software-engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the languages commonly used in scientific applications: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

  1. Digital Components in Swedish NPP Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedish nuclear power plants have over the last 20 years of operation modernised or exchanged several systems and components of the electrical power system. Within these works, new components based on digital technology have been employed in order to realize functionality that was previously achieved by using electro-mechanical or analogue technology. Components and systems such as relay protection, rectifiers, inverters, variable speed drives and diesel-generator sets are today equipped with digital components. Several of the systems and components fulfil functions with a safety-role in the NPP. Recently, however, a number of incidents have occurred which highlight deficiencies in the design or HMI of the equipment, which warrants questions whether there are generic problems with some applications of digital components that needs to be addressed. The use of digital components has presented cost effective solutions, or even the only available solution on the market enabling a modernisation. The vast majority of systems using digital components have been operating without problems and often contribute to improved safety but the challenge of non-detectable, or non-identifiable, failure modes remain. In this paper, the extent to which digital components are used in Swedish NPP power systems will be presented including a description of typical applications. Based on data from maintenance records and fault reports, as well as interviews with designers and maintenance personnel, the main areas where problems have been encountered and where possible risks have been identified will be described. The paper intends to investigate any 'tell-tales' that could give signals of unwanted behaviour. Furthermore, particular benefits experienced by using digital components will be highlighted. The paper will also discuss the safety relevance of these findings and suggest measures to improve safety in the application of digital components in power systems. (authors)

  2. Tweaking the Four-Component Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J.

    2014-01-01

    By maintaining that moral functioning depends upon four components (sensitivity, judgment, motivation, and character), the Neo-Kohlbergian account of moral functioning allows for uneven moral development within individuals. However, I argue that the four-component model does not go far enough. I offer a more accurate account of moral functioning…

  3. Polymeric components for telecom and datacom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diemeer, Mart; Dekker, Ronald; Hilderink, Lucie; Leinse, Arne; Balakrishnan, Muralidharan; Faccini, Mirko; Driessen, Alfred; Lambeck, Paul V.; Gorecki, Christophe; Pustelny, Tadeusz

    2005-01-01

    Polymeric optical waveguide components offer attractive properties for applications in optical telecom and datacom systems. These are high speed for electro-optic modulators, low power dissipation for thermo-optic (digital) switches and low-cost for all active and passive components. We report on ac

  4. Active components for integrated plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasavin, A.V.; Bolger, P.M.; Zayats, A.V.;

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides.......We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides....

  5. A Type System for Parallel Components

    OpenAIRE

    de Carvalho-Junior, Francisco Heron; Lins, Rafael Dueire

    2009-01-01

    The # component model was proposed to improve the practice of parallel programming. This paper introduces a type system for # programming systems, aiming to lift the abstraction and safety of programming for parallel computing architectures by introducing a notion of abstract component based on universal and existential bounded quantification. Issues about the implementation of such type system in HPE, a # programming system, are also discussed.

  6. Permutation Tests in Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, John T.; Perkins, Kyle; Brutten, Shelia

    Structural changes in an English as a Second Language (ESL) 30-item reading comprehension test were examined through principal components analysis on a small sample (n=31) of students. Tests were administered on three occasions during intensive ESL training. Principal components analysis of the items was performed for each test occasion.…

  7. A component Architecture for Simulator Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, N.H.L.; Gool, P.C.A. van; Jense, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Research, Development and Engineering applications require the rapid development of simulators, preferably through the reuse of simulator components In order to facilitate the reuse and exchange of simulator components, research institutes and industry in The Netherlands are collaborating in the SIM

  8. Employing Domain Knowledge for Optimizing Component Communication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kit, M.; Plášil, F.; Katěna, V.; Bureš, Tomáš; Kovac, O.

    New York : ACM, 2015, s. 59-64. ISBN 978-1-4503-3471-6. [CBSE 2015. International ACM Sigsoft symposium on Component-based software engineering /18./. Montreal (CA), 04.05.2015-07.05.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : cyber-physical systems * domain knowledge * component communication Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  9. Sandia_HighTemperatureComponentEvaluation_2015.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashion, Avery T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform independent evaluation of high temperature components to determine their suitability for use in high temperature geothermal tools. Development of high temperature components has been increasing rapidly due to demand from the high temperature oil and gas exploration and aerospace industries. Many of these new components are at the late prototype or first production stage of development and could benefit from third party evaluation of functionality and lifetime at elevated temperatures. In addition to independent testing of new components, this project recognizes that there is a paucity of commercial-off-the-shelf COTS components rated for geothermal temperatures. As such, high-temperature circuit designers often must dedicate considerable time and resources to determine if a component exists that they may be able to knead performance out of to meet their requirements. This project aids tool developers by characterization of select COTS component performances beyond published temperature specifications. The process for selecting components includes public announcements of project intent (e.g., FedBizOps), direct discussions with candidate manufacturers,and coordination with other DOE funded programs.

  10. Employing domain knowledge for optimizing component communication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kit, M.; Plášil, F.; Matěna, V.; Bureš, Tomáš; Kováč, O.

    New York: ACM, 2015, s. 59-64. ISBN 978-1-4503-3471-6. [CBSE 2015. International ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Component-Based Software Engineering /18./. Montreal (CA), 04.05.2015-05.05.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : cyber-physical systems * domain knowledge * component communication Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  11. On testing variance components in ANOVA models

    OpenAIRE

    Hartung, Joachim; Knapp, Guido

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we derive asymptotic x 2 - tests for general linear hypotheses on variance components using repeated variance components models. In two examples, the two-way nested classification model and the two-way crossed classification model with interaction, we explicitly investigate the properties of the asymptotic tests in small sample sizes.

  12. Cognitive Components of Developmental Writing Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Roberts, Kristin L.; Stafford, Allison L.; Eckert, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of studies have examined the cognitive components of basic academic skills, which has led to major changes in both teaching and early identification assessment practices. However, the majority of previous research has focused solely on reading. This study examines the cognitive components of academic writing skills across…

  13. 21 CFR 225.42 - Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Product Quality Control § 225.42 Components. (a) A... inventory control for all such drugs to aid in assuring their identity, strength, quality, and purity when... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Components. 225.42 Section 225.42 Food and...

  14. The components of microbiological risk analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano Liuzzo; Stefano Bentley; Federica Giacometti; Andrea Serraino

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the process of risk analysis in a food safety perspective. The steps of risk analysis defined as a process consisting of three interconnected components (risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication) are analysed. The different components of the risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are further described.

  15. Two-component Duality and Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Freund, Peter G. O.

    2007-01-01

    A phenomenologically successful two-component hadronic duality picture led to Veneziano's amplitude, the fundamental first step to string theory. This picture is briefly recalled and its two components are identified as the open strings (mesons and baryons) and closed strings (Pomeron).

  16. Trends in chassis and automobile electronics components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenberg, Ulrich [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The rapidly-growing importance of electronics in automobile construction is in part determined by the debate on sustainability and the clear trend towards electric power trains. Another factor, however, is the decisive impact of electronics on the further development of components, e.g. for chassis. Apart from environmental protection, key motivators for component development include comfort, safety, infotainment and driver assistance. (orig.)

  17. The algebra of two-component spinors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the algebra of two-component spinors and of four-component spinors based on abstract linear algebra is given. The role of spinors for the complex Lorentz group and for all of its real forms is worked out. (G.Q.)

  18. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  19. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  20. Giant components in directed multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi-Tafreshi, N; Dorogovtsev, S N; Mendes, J F F

    2014-11-01

    We describe the complex global structure of giant components in directed multiplex networks that generalizes the well-known bow-tie structure, generic for ordinary directed networks. By definition, a directed multiplex network contains vertices of one type and directed edges of m different types. In directed multiplex networks, we distinguish a set of different giant components based on the existence of directed paths of different types between their vertices such that for each type of edges, the paths run entirely through only edges of that type. If, in particular, m=2, we define a strongly viable component as a set of vertices in which for each type of edges each two vertices are interconnected by at least two directed paths in both directions, running through the edges of only this type. We show that in this case, a directed multiplex network contains in total nine different giant components including the strongly viable component. In general, the total number of giant components is 3^{m}. For uncorrelated directed multiplex networks, we obtain exactly the size and the emergence point of the strongly viable component and estimate the sizes of other giant components. PMID:25493836

  1. Component Separation for Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available COMPONENT SEPARATION FOR COMPLEX ABDOMINAL WALL RECONSTRUCTION ALBANY MEDICAL CENTER ALBANY, NY April 30, 2008 00:00:07 ANNOUNCER: This event is being ... the premiere webcast of a component separation for complex abdominal-wall reconstruction, performed by Dr. Jerome D. ...

  2. Emotional stability components of human performance problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over half of all significant events that occur in nuclear plants involve human performance problems. There is increasing worldwide recognition that human performance problems have a significant impact on the safety, cost, and efficiency of nuclear plant operations. Emotional stability components have an important direct and indirect impact on human performance problems. This paper examines emotional stability components that are currently incorporated into human performance evaluation systems (HPES) in nuclear plants. It describes HPES programs being developed around the world, the emotional stability components that are currently referred to in these programs, and suggestions for improving HPES programs through a greater understanding of emotion stability components. A review of emotional stability components that may hinder or promote a plant environment that encourages the voluntary reporting and correction of human error is also presented

  3. Simulink Component Recognition Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya R

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In early stages of engineering design pen-and-paper sketches are often used to quickly convey concepts and ideas. Free-form drawing is often preferable to using computer interfaces due to its ease of use fluidity and lack of constraints. The objective of this project is to create a trainable sketched Simulink component recognizer and classifying the individual Simulink components from the input block diagram. The recognized components will be placed on the new Simulink model window after which operations can be performed over them. Noise from the input image is removed by Median filter the segmentation process is done by K-means clustering algorithm and recognition of individual Simulink components from the input block diagram is done by Euclidean distance. The project aims to devise an efficient way to segment a control system block diagram into individual components for recognition.

  4. Passive components used in power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Rufer, A; Barrade, P

    2006-01-01

    In power converters, passive components play an important role, and have in general specific nature and properties. The goal of this tutorial is to give an overview, first on inductive components for power conversion, and second on dedicated power capacitors. In a third part, new components— supercapacitors—will be presented. Generally, inductors for power applications must be custom designed. In this tutorial, the most important effects encountered when realising inductive components will be presented in the first part, without entering into the detailed design of such components. For that purpose, the referenced documents that have served as a base for this tutorial must be consulted [1], [2], and mainly [3]. The second part of this tutorial (Capacitors used in power electronics) is dedicated to power capacitors. Unlike inductors, capacitors cannot be specifically designed, but must be selected from a manufacturer’s list of components. Here, the documentation corresponds to a subset of Ref. [4] that h...

  5. Systems with randomly failing repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Kiureghian, Armen; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, Junho

    2005-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in time and...... system performance measures with respect to the mean rate of failure and the mean duration of repair of each component. These expressions provide a convenient framework for identifying important components within the system and for decisionmaking aimed at upgrading the system availability or reliability...... repair durations are assumed to be exponentially distributed. The results are expressed in terms of the mean rates of failure and mean durations of repair of the individual components. These expressions also allow derivation of closedform expressions for the rates of change of the various probabilistic...

  6. Adaptation of Black-Box Software Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the software market leads to crucial problems for software companies. More competition between software companies arises and leads to the force on companies to develop ever newer software products in ever shortened time interval. Therefore the time to market for software systems is shortened and obviously the product life cycle is shortened too. Thus software companies shortened the time interval for research and development. Due to the fact of competition between software companies software products have to develop low-priced and this leads to a smaller return on investment. A big challenge for software companies is the use of an effective research and development process to have these problems under control. A way to control these problems can be the reuse of existing software components and adapt those software components to new functionality or accommodate mismatched interfaces. Complete redevelopment of software products is more expensive and time consuming than to develop software components. The approach introduced here presents novel technique together with a supportive environment that enables developers to cope with the adaptability of black-box software components. A supportive environment will be designed that checks the compatibility of black-box software components with the assistance of their specifications. Generated adapter software components can take over the part of adaptation and advance the functionality. Besides, a pool of software components can be used to compose an application to satisfy customer needs. Certainly this pool of software components consists of black-box software components and adapter software components which can be connected on demand.

  7. The Component-Based Application for GAMESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Fang

    2008-05-01

    GAMESS, a quantum chetnistry program for electronic structure calculations, has been freely shared by high-performance application scientists for over twenty years. It provides a rich set of functionalities and can be run on a variety of parallel platforms through a distributed data interface. While a chemistry computation is sophisticated and hard to develop, the resource sharing among different chemistry packages will accelerate the development of new computations and encourage the cooperation of scientists from universities and laboratories. Common Component Architecture (CCA) offers an enviromnent that allows scientific packages to dynamically interact with each other through components, which enable dynamic coupling of GAMESS with other chetnistry packages, such as MPQC and NWChem. Conceptually, a cotnputation can be constructed with "plug-and-play" components from scientific packages and require more than componentizing functions/subroutines of interest, especially for large-scale scientific packages with a long development history. In this research, we present our efforts to construct cotnponents for GAMESS that conform to the CCA specification. The goal is to enable the fine-grained interoperability between three quantum chemistry programs, GAMESS, MPQC and NWChem, via components. We focus on one of the three packages, GAMESS; delineate the structure of GAMESS computations, followed by our approaches to its component development. Then we use GAMESS as the driver to interoperate integral components from the other tw"o packages, arid show the solutions for interoperability problems along with preliminary results. To justify the versatility of the design, the Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) components have been coupled with GAMESS and its components, so that the performance of GAMESS and its components may be analyzed for a wide range of systetn parameters.

  8. Thermally activated, single component epoxy systems

    KAUST Repository

    Unruh, David A.

    2011-08-23

    A single component epoxy system in which the resin and hardener components found in many two-component epoxies are combined onto the same molecule is described. The single molecule precursor to the epoxy resin contains both multiple epoxide moieties and a diamine held latent by thermally degradable carbamate linkages. These bis-carbamate "single molecule epoxies" have an essentially infinite shelf life and access a significant range in curing temperatures related to the structure of the carbamate linkages used. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Measurements for stresses in machine components

    CERN Document Server

    Yakovlev, V F

    1964-01-01

    Measurements for Stresses in Machine Components focuses on the state of stress and strain of components and members, which determines the service life and strength of machines and structures. This book is divided into four chapters. Chapter I describes the physical basis of several methods of measuring strains, which includes strain gauges, photoelasticity, X-ray diffraction, brittle coatings, and dividing grids. The basic concepts of the electric strain gauge method for measuring stresses inside machine components are covered in Chapter II. Chapter III elaborates on the results of experim

  10. Components of the primary circuit of LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard is to be applied to components made of metallic materials, operated at design temperatures of up to 673 K (400 C). The primary circuit as the pressure containment of the reactor coolant comprises: Reactor pressure vessel (without internals), steam generator (primary loop), pressurizer, reactor coolant pump housing, interconnecting pipings between the components mentioned above and appropriate various valve and instrument casings, pipings branding from the above components and interconnecting pipings, including the appropriate instrument casings, up to and including the first isolating valve, pressure shielding of control rod drives. (orig.)

  11. Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.

  12. Spatio temporal media components for neurofeedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Birgitte Falk; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg;

    2013-01-01

    A class of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) involves interfaces for neurofeedback training, where a user can learn to self-regulate brain activity based on real-time feedback. These particular interfaces are constructed from audio-visual components and temporal settings, which appear to have a...... strong influence on the ability to control brain activity. Therefore, identifying the different interface components and exploring their individual effects might be key for constructing new interfaces that support more efficient neurofeedback training. We discuss experiments involving two different...... designs of neurofeedback interfaces and suggest further research to clarify the influence of different audiovisual components and temporal settings on neurofeedback effect....

  13. CoCoTA - Common Component Task

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mirandola, R.; Plášil, František

    Berlin : Springer, 2008 - (Rausch, A.; Reussner, R.; Mirandola, R.; Plášil, F.), s. 4-15 ISBN 978-3-540-85288-9. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 5153). [Dagstuhl Research Seminar for Component Modelling Example. Dagstuhl (DE), 01.08.2007-03.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : component based systems * formal component models * modeling and analysis * service-oriented modeling Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  14. Ionizing radiations simulation on bipolar components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents the ionizing radiation effects on bipolar components and more specially their behavior facing the total dose. The first part is devoted to the radiation environments with a special attention to the spatial environments and new emergent environments. The specificities of bipolar components are then presented and their behavior facing the interactions. The physical mechanisms bound to the dose rate are also discussed. The second part presents a physical analysis of degradations induced by the cumulated dosimetry on bipolar components and simulation with the ATLAS code. The third part exposes an electric empirical simulation induced by the cumulated dose in static conditions. (A.L.B.)

  15. NEPR Principle Component Analysis - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a representation of seafloor topography in Northeast Puerto Rico derived from a bathymetry model with a principle component analysis (PCA). The area...

  16. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component (HC) collects data from a sample of families and individuals in selected communities across the...

  17. Silicon Micromachining for Terahertz Component Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Reck, Theodore J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile; Siles, Jose V.; Lee, Choonsup; Lin, Robert; Mehdi, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Waveguide component technology at terahertz frequencies has come of age in recent years. Essential components such as ortho-mode transducers (OMT), quadrature hybrids, filters, and others for high performance system development were either impossible to build or too difficult to fabricate with traditional machining techniques. With micromachining of silicon wafers coated with sputtered gold it is now possible to fabricate and test these waveguide components. Using a highly optimized Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process, we are now able to fabricate silicon micromachined waveguide structures working beyond 1 THz. In this paper, we describe in detail our approach of design, fabrication, and measurement of silicon micromachined waveguide components and report the results of a 1 THz canonical E-plane filter.

  18. A Sustainable Spacecraft Component Database Solution Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerous spacecraft component databases have been developed to support NASA, DoD, and contractor design centers and design tools. Despite the clear utility of...

  19. On Phonemes As Cognitive Components of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    assume that features that essentially independent in a context defined ensemble can be efficiently coded using a sparse independent component representation. This means that supervised and unsupervised learning should result in similar representations. We indeed find that supervised and unsupervised...

  20. Component Separation for Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... now just showing you the abdomen of this patient, J.P. J.P. is a 47-year- ... for us down either gutter to prepare the patient, and we'll proceed with the component separation ...

  1. Materials Characterization for Space Manufactured Components Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long duration missions to the Moon and Mars will place new demands upon components and systems leading to increasingly stringent requirements for safety, quality,...

  2. Component Separation for Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop a hernia, which was repaired at the time by the surgeon who had performed the distal ... proceed with the component separation operation at this time. So if you see, we have the -- a ...

  3. Analysis of failed nuclear plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diercks, D. R.

    1993-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted analyses of failed components from nuclear power- gener-ating stations since 1974. The considerations involved in working with and analyzing radioactive compo-nents are reviewed here, and the decontamination of these components is discussed. Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in serv-ice. The failures discussed are (1) intergranular stress- corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (2) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube assemblies in the control rod drive head of a pressurized water reactor, (3) thermal fatigue of a recirculation pump shaft in a boiling water reactor, and (4) failure of pump seal wear rings by nickel leaching in a boiling water reactor.

  4. IPRDS: component histories and nuclear plant aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive assessment of nuclear power plant component operating histories, maintenance histories, and design and fabrication details is essential to understanding aging phenomena. As part of the In-Plant Reliability Data System (IPRDS), an attempt is being made to collect and analyze such information from a sampling of US nuclear power plants. Utilizing the IPRDS, one can reconstruct the failure history of the components and gain new insight into the causes and modes of failures resulting from normal or premature aging. This information assembled from the IPRDS can be combined with operating histories and postservice component inspection results for cradle-to-grave assessments of component aging under operating conditions. A comprehensive aging assessment can then be used to provide guidelines for improving the detection, monitoring, and mitigation of aging-related failures

  5. Transport, logistics and packaging of ITER components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadarache, the European site for ITER, is located at around 50km as the crow flies from the sea. The feasibility of the transport of large and heavy ITER components has thus been thoroughly studied. These studies have covered the following items: - possible itineraries between the most convenient harbour (Fos) and Cadarache; - packaging (in particular for the largest and heaviest components); - means of transport (two types of trailers allowing to avoid lifting and load transfers); - logistics (analysis of transfer kinematics, including temporary storage); - administrative procedures and planning for the road adaptation, taking benefit of the recent successful implementation in the south-west of France of an itinerary for the Airbus A380 components. These studies, performed between 2001 and 2003, led to a viable solution, with a reasonable cost, fully supported by the French authorities. The planning necessary to implement the road modifications is also fully compatible with the expected dates of ITER components delivery

  6. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  7. Remembering components of food in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav eDas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Remembering features of past feeding experience can refine foraging and food choice. Insects can learn to associate sensory cues with components of food, such as sugars, amino acids, water, salt, alcohol, toxins and pathogens. In the fruit fly Drosophila some food components activate unique subsets of dopaminergic neurons that innervate distinct functional zones on the mushroom bodies. This architecture suggests that the overall dopaminergic neuron population could provide a potential cellular substrate through which the fly might learn to value a variety of food components. In addition, such an arrangement predicts that individual component memories reside in unique locations. Dopaminergic neurons are also critical for food memory consolidation and deprivation-state dependent motivational control of the expression of food-relevant memories. Here we review our current knowledge of how nutrient-specific memories are formed, consolidated and specifically retrieved in insects, with a particular emphasis on Drosophila.

  8. Stationary turbine component with laminated skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Allister W.

    2012-08-14

    A stationary turbine engine component, such as a turbine vane, includes a internal spar and an external skin. The internal spar is made of a plurality of spar laminates, and the external skin is made of a plurality of skin laminates. The plurality of skin laminates interlockingly engage the plurality of spar laminates such that the external skin is located and held in place. This arrangement allows alternative high temperature materials to be used on turbine engine components in areas where their properties are needed without having to make the entire component out of such material. Thus, the manufacturing difficulties associated with making an entire component of such a material and the attendant high costs are avoided. The skin laminates can be made of advanced generation single crystal superalloys, intermetallics and refractory alloys.

  9. Analysis of failed nuclear plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted analyses of failed components from nuclear power generating stations since 1974. The considerations involved in working with and analyzing radioactive components are reviewed here, and the decontamination of these components is discussed. Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in service. The failures discussed are (a) intergranular stress corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (b) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube assemblies in the control rod drive head of a pressure water reactor, (c) thermal fatigue of a recirculation pump shaft in a boiling water reactor, and (d) failure of pump seal wear rings by nickel leaching in a boiling water reactor

  10. Control system for nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To facilitate in-service inspections, pebble-bed reactor components such as steam generators, economizers etc. have displays that are within the view of a camera installed in the penetration liner. (HP)

  11. Mobile Application Development: Component Retrieval System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed technology development concept is a software application tool developed for use on a mobile device at SSC for use in the component retrieval system...

  12. Remembering Components of Food in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gaurav; Lin, Suewei; Waddell, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Remembering features of past feeding experience can refine foraging and food choice. Insects can learn to associate sensory cues with components of food, such as sugars, amino acids, water, salt, alcohol, toxins and pathogens. In the fruit fly Drosophila some food components activate unique subsets of dopaminergic neurons (DANs) that innervate distinct functional zones on the mushroom bodies (MBs). This architecture suggests that the overall dopaminergic neuron population could provide a potential cellular substrate through which the fly might learn to value a variety of food components. In addition, such an arrangement predicts that individual component memories reside in unique locations. DANs are also critical for food memory consolidation and deprivation-state dependent motivational control of the expression of food-relevant memories. Here, we review our current knowledge of how nutrient-specific memories are formed, consolidated and specifically retrieved in insects, with a particular emphasis on Drosophila. PMID:26924969

  13. Component Separation for Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Albany, New York. In just moments, you'll learn how the component separation is reinforced using Veritas ... OR-Live makes it easy for you to learn more. Just click on the "Request Information" button ...

  14. Component Separation for Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available COMPONENT SEPARATION FOR COMPLEX ABDOMINAL WALL RECONSTRUCTION ALBANY MEDICAL CENTER ALBANY, NY April 30, 2008 00:00: ... Koumanis. The surgery comes to you from Albany Medical Center in Albany, New York. In just moments, ...

  15. Components of Inventory Change (CINCH) Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Components of Inventory Change (CINCH) report measures changes in the characteristics of the housing stock of the United States. Using data collected from the...

  16. Automatic deployment of component-based applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lascu, Tudor Alexandru; Mauro, Jacopo; Zavattaro, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    International audience In distributed systems like those based on cloud or service-oriented frameworks, applications are typically assembled by deploying and connecting a large number of heterogeneous software components, spanning from fine-grained packages to coarse-grained complex services. Automation techniques and tools have been proposed to ease the deployment process of these complex system. By relying on a formal model of components, we describe a sound and complete algorithm for co...

  17. Remembering Components of Food in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Gaurav; Lin, Suewei; Waddell, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Remembering features of past feeding experience can refine foraging and food choice. Insects can learn to associate sensory cues with components of food, such as sugars, amino acids, water, salt, alcohol, toxins and pathogens. In the fruit fly Drosophila some food components activate unique subsets of dopaminergic neurons (DANs) that innervate distinct functional zones on the mushroom bodies (MBs). This architecture suggests that the overall dopaminergic neuron population could provide a pote...

  18. Simulation of electromagnetic aggression on components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulation techniques can be used for studying the behaviour of electronic components exposed to electromagnetic aggression. This article discusses CW analysis on a CMOS-technology logic NAND gate under electromagnetic aggression of different amplitudes (2.5 V 5 V), frequencies (100 MHz and 1 GHz) and phase. Numerical simulations were conducted using three codes: Spice code was used for solving electronic circuits, and the Atlas and Dessis codes were used for examining internal component behaviour. (authors)

  19. Two-component Abelian sandpile models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, F C; Pyatov, P; Rittenberg, V

    2009-04-01

    In one-component Abelian sandpile models, the toppling probabilities are independent quantities. This is not the case in multicomponent models. The condition of associativity of the underlying Abelian algebras imposes nonlinear relations among the toppling probabilities. These relations are derived for the case of two-component quadratic Abelian algebras. We show that Abelian sandpile models with two conservation laws have only trivial avalanches. PMID:19518280

  20. EU Development of High Heat Flux Components

    OpenAIRE

    Linke, J.; Lorenzetto, P.; Majerus, P.; Merola, M.; Pitzer, D.; Rödig, M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of plasma facing components for next step fusion devices in Europe is strongly focused to ITER. Here a wide spectrum of different design options for the divertor target and the first wall have been investigated with tungsten, CFC, and beryllium armor. Electron beam simulation experiments have been used to determine the performance of high heat flux components under ITER specific thermal loads. Beside thermal fatigue loads with power density levels up to 20MWm(-2), off normal e...

  1. Improvement of Meat Taste by Dietary Components

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimura, Shinobu; Kadowaki, Motoni

    2006-01-01

    Dietary nutrients play a significant part in determining growth rate and meat yield. It is known that the compositions of protein and total amino acids of meat are invariable by feeding treatments, hence the meat taste is considered to be invariable. However, the relationship of taste components of meat with nutrients is not fully elucidated, and there have been few reports on the effect of feeding treatments on taste-active components of chicken meat. Previously, restricted feeding and dieta...

  2. Optical component modelling and circuit simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Guilloton, Laurent; Tedjini, Smail; Vuong, Tan-Phu; Lemaitre Auger, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    This communication introduces the modelling of optical and optoelectronic components and the simulation of optical circuits and links using a Computer aided design (CAD) tool. A specific library describing several optical components and devices has been established and integrated as User-Defined-Models into the simulator. Then, the simulation facilities of our tool are used to study an integrated optical circuit: an integrated interferometer sensor.

  3. A New Approach to Component Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Brinkmeyer, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Carefully tested electric/electronic components are a requirement for effective hardware-in-the-loop tests and vehicle tests in automotive industry. A new method for definition and execution of component tests is described. The most important advantage of this method is independance from the test stand. It therefore offers the oppportunity to build up knowledge over a long period of time and the ability to share this knowledge with different partners.

  4. Personalization Component for KiWi Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Durao, Frederico; Xu, Guandong; Kotowski, Jakub; Dolog, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this report we present the personalization component implemented for KiWi addressing diverse aspects such as motivation scenarios, configuration management, formal models, implementations and some real case scenarios on how personalization can be applied to support software project management. The personalization component is responsible for addressing and delivering information to individuals regarding their roles and preferences, explicitly or implicitly inferred from their activities in...

  5. SA3654 Component characterization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meir, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T), was provided with production capability assurance program (PCAP) funding to develop, characterize, and qualify purchased product components for use on the PRESS-A program. The SA3654, N-Channel, Power MOSFET was identified as a component needing such activity to support PRESS-A. This report presents the characterization activities and results for the SA3654.

  6. Accurate modeling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  7. Accurate modelling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  8. Relationships Among Components of Engagement Risk

    OpenAIRE

    EVREN DILEK SENGUR

    2012-01-01

    Accounting scandals exploded at the beginning of 2000s and the collapse of Arthur Andersen highlighted the importance of implementing engagement risk management strategies in audit firms. Engagement risk refers the overall risk associated with an audit engagement and it consists of three components: client's business risk, auditor's business risk, and audit risk. The main purpose of this study is to describe each components of engagement risk and explain relations among them. Additionally, th...

  9. A radiographic analysis of implant component misfit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sharkey, Seamus

    2011-07-01

    Radiographs are commonly used to assess the fit of implant components, but there is no clear agreement on the amount of misfit that can be detected by this method. This study investigated the effect of gap size and the relative angle at which a radiograph was taken on the detection of component misfit. Different types of implant connections (internal or external) and radiographic modalities (film or digital) were assessed.

  10. Squeezing components in linear quantum feedback networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this article is to extend linear quantum dynamical network theory to include static Bogoliubov components (such as squeezers). Within this integrated quantum network theory, we provide general methods for cascade or series connections, as well as feedback interconnections using linear fractional transformations. In addition, we define input-output maps and transfer functions for representing components and describing convergence. We also discuss the underlying group structure in this theory arising from series interconnection. Several examples illustrate the theory.

  11. Wear of highly crosslinked polyethylene acetabular components

    OpenAIRE

    Callary, Stuart A.; Solomon, Lucian B; Holubowycz, Oksana T; Campbell, David G; Munn, Zachary; Howie, Donald W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Wear rates of highly crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) acetabular components have varied considerably between different published studies. This variation is in part due to the different techniques used to measure wear and to the errors inherent in measuring the relatively low amounts of wear in XLPE bearings. We undertook a scoping review of studies that have examined the in vivo wear of XLPE acetabular components using the most sensitive method available, radiostereometr...

  12. ISI of elastomeric components in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On irradiation, polymers undergo chemical changes in their back bone/side chain. If the chemical structure is altered, the basic characteristic of parent polymer also changes, hence the property of the component also changes over the period of exposure to any type of radiation. This paper gives an idea about the main properties to be checked for assuring the quality of elastomeric components in view for radiation applications

  13. Asset ranking manager (ranking index of components)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ranking Index of Components (RIC) is an Asset Reliability Manager (ARM), which itself is a Web Enabled front end where plant database information fields from several disparate databases are combined. That information is used to create a specific weighted number (Ranking Index) relating to that components health and risk to the site. The higher the number, the higher priority that any work associated with that component receives. ARM provides site Engineering, Maintenance and Work Control personnel with a composite real time - (current condition) look at the components 'risk of not working' to the plant. Information is extracted from the existing Computerized Maintenance management System (CMMS) and specific site applications and processed nightly. ARM helps to ensure that the most important work is placed into the workweeks and the non value added work is either deferred, frequency changed or deleted. This information is on the web, updated each night, and available for all employees to use. This effort assists the work management specialist when allocating limited resources to the most important work. The use of this tool has maximized resource usage, performing the most critical work with available resources. The ARM numbers are valued inputs into work scoping for the workweek managers. System and Component Engineers are using ARM to identify the components that are at 'risk of failure' and therefore should be placed into the appropriate work week schedule

  14. Component aging evaluation with expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age degradation of components involves a complex relationship between a variety of variables. These relationships are typically modeled using probabilistic and deterministic analyses. These methods depend upon a formal understanding of the underlying degradation mechanisms and a database of experience which allows statistical analyses to extract numerical trends. At present, not all age degradation mechanisms are adequately modeled and available data for age degradation is in most cases insufficient. In addition, these methods tend to focus upon answers to isolated questions (e.g., What is the component failure rate?) rather than the more pertinent questions concerning operations and maintenance (e.g., should the component be replaced at the next outage). Fortunately, knowledge in the form of personal experience does exist which allows plant personnel to make decisions concerning operations and maintenance. This knowledge can be modeled using expert systems. This paper discusses CAGES (Component Aging Expert System). It combines expert rules (heuristics), probabilistic models, and deterministic models to make evaluations of component aging; predict the implications for component life extension, operational readiness, maintenance effectiveness, and safety, and make recommendations for maintenance and operation

  15. Resilience-based network component importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disruptive events, whether malevolent attacks, natural disasters, manmade accidents, or common failures, can have significant widespread impacts when they lead to the failure of network components and ultimately the larger network itself. An important consideration in the behavior of a network following disruptive events is its resilience, or the ability of the network to “bounce back” to a desired performance state. Building on the extensive reliability engineering literature on measuring component importance, or the extent to which individual network components contribute to network reliability, this paper provides two resilience-based component importance measures. The two measures quantify the (i) potential adverse impact on system resilience from a disruption affecting link i, and (ii) potential positive impact on system resilience when link i cannot be disrupted, respectively. The resilience-based component importance measures, and an algorithm to perform stochastic ordering of network components due to the uncertain nature of network disruptions, are illustrated with a 20 node, 30 link network example

  16. DESIGNING CODE LEVEL REUSABLE SOFTWARE COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.JALENDER

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic idea behind building Reusable software components is to design interchangeable parts fromother industries to the software field of construction. A reuse library or component reuse repositoryorganizes stores and manages reusable components. The biggest advantage of the building reusablesoftware components is that it reduces the time and energy in developing any software. Frameworksprovides a standard working system through which user ‘s main focus is on developing desired modulesinstead of developing lower level details. By using this facility the software developers can spend more timein developing the requirement of software, rather than preparing the tools of application development.Framework is set of reusable software program that forms the basis for an application. Frameworks helpthe programmers to build the application quickly .At its best code reuse is accomplished through thesharing of common classes and/or collections of functions, frameworks and procedures. This paperdescribes how to build the code level reusable components and how to design code level components.Finally providing coding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable code levelcomponents and guidelines and best practices for making configurable and easy to use.

  17. Multibody model reduction by component mode synthesis and component cost analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, J. T.; Mingori, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    The classical assumed-modes method is widely used in modeling the dynamics of flexible multibody systems. According to the method, the elastic deformation of each component in the system is expanded in a series of spatial and temporal functions known as modes and modal coordinates, respectively. This paper focuses on the selection of component modes used in the assumed-modes expansion. A two-stage component modal reduction method is proposed combining Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) with Component Cost Analysis (CCA). First, each component model is truncated such that the contribution of the high frequency subsystem to the static response is preserved. Second, a new CMS procedure is employed to assemble the system model and CCA is used to further truncate component modes in accordance with their contribution to a quadratic cost function of the system output. The proposed method is demonstrated with a simple example of a flexible two-body system.

  18. Performance Engineering Technology for Scientific Component Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D.

    2007-05-08

    Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper [24]. There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress

  19. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Steven A. [Curtiss-Wright/Scietech, Ketchum, ID (United States); Cadwallader, Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  20. Supersymmetric component actions via coset approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a method to construct the on-shell component actions for the theories with 1/2 partial breaking of global supersymmetry within the nonlinear realization (coset) approach. In contrast with the standard superfield approach in which unbroken supersymmetry plays the leading role, we have shifted the attention to the spontaneously broken supersymmetry. It turns out that in the theories in which half of supersymmetries is spontaneously broken, all physical fermions are just the fermions of the nonlinear realization. Moreover, the transformation properties of these fermions with respect to the broken supersymmetry are the same as in the famous Volkov–Akulov model. Just this fact completely fixed all possible appearances of the fermions in the component action: they can enter the action through the determinant of the vielbein (to compensate the transformation of the volume form) and the covariant derivatives, only. It is very important that in our parametrization of the coset the rest of physical components, i.e. all bosonic components, transform as “matter fields” with respect to the broken supersymmetry. Clearly, in such a situation the component action acquires the form of the Volkov–Akulov action for these “matter fields”. The complete form of the action can be further fixed by two additional requirements: (a) to reproduce the bosonic limit, which is explicitly known in many interesting cases, and (b) to have a proper linearized form, which has to be invariant with respect to the linearized unbroken supersymmetry. We supply the general consideration by a detailed example of the component action of N=1 supermembrane in D=4 constructed within our procedure. In this case we provide the exact proof of the invariance of the constructed component action with respect to both, broken and unbroken supersymmetries

  1. Continuing systems/components reliability process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The purpose of this paper is to present the newly developed PLiM Program which now is to be implemented into NPP Cernavoda in order to develop and revise the approaches required for anticipating, identifying, preventing and resolving performance problems with Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) on the basis of risk, support safe and reliable plant operation at optimum costs. Cernavoda NPP is now developing a strong program able to ensure the proper station performance during its operation life which is expected to be extended beyond its design limit. This program is developed considering INPO recommended best practices (AP-913). Requirements for inspection, maintenance, certification, testing and evaluating components and equipment are to be presented in the paper as follows: - how monitoring results are tracked and trended; - how the results will be utilized by the station System and Component Engineers to improve the availability, reliability and efficiency of components and equipment; - how monitoring results are provided to the system engineers to assist in the monitoring and assessment of system performance. Also, the paper will present the following topics: - scoping and identification of critical components including the identification of important functions of SSCs and functional failure modes and effects analysis; - continuing equipment reliability improvement; - developing Preventive Maintenance templates for SSCs; - developing program for Life Management; - major equipment Life Cycle Plan; - periodic in-service inspection for SSC programs: - pressure vessels requirements; - instrument calibration requirements; - pipe wall thinning (erosion-corrosion); - supports and snubbers; - preventive maintenance for critical SSCs; - system health and components condition monitoring; - corrective actions and performance indicators. A special emphasis will be addressed to PLiM process, how a major problem is identified and included into plant Long

  2. Adaptive independent component analysis to analyze electrocardiograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Seong-Bin; Szu, Harold H.

    2001-03-01

    In this work, we apply adaptive version independent component analysis (ADAPTIVE ICA) to the nonlinear measurement of electro-cardio-graphic (ECG) signals for potential detection of abnormal conditions in the heart. In principle, unsupervised ADAPTIVE ICA neural networks can demix the components of measured ECG signals. However, the nonlinear pre-amplification and post measurement processing make the linear ADAPTIVE ICA model no longer valid. This is possible because of a proposed adaptive rectification pre-processing is used to linearize the preamplifier of ECG, and then linear ADAPTIVE ICA is used in iterative manner until the outputs having their own stable Kurtosis. We call such a new approach adaptive ADAPTIVE ICA. Each component may correspond to individual heart function, either normal or abnormal. Adaptive ADAPTIVE ICA neural networks have the potential to make abnormal components more apparent, even when they are masked by normal components in the original measured signals. This is particularly important for diagnosis well in advance of the actual onset of heart attack, in which abnormalities in the original measured ECG signals may be difficult to detect. This is the first known work that applies Adaptive ADAPTIVE ICA to ECG signals beyond noise extraction, to the detection of abnormal heart function.

  3. Progress in photovoltaic system and component improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, H.P.; Kroposki, B.; McNutt, P.; Witt, C.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bower, W.; Bonn, R.; Hund, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a partnership between the US government (through the US Department of Energy [DOE]) and the PV industry. Part of its purpose is to conduct manufacturing technology research and development to address the issues and opportunities identified by industry to advance photovoltaic (PV) systems and components. The project was initiated in 1990 and has been conducted in several phases to support the evolution of PV industrial manufacturing technology. Early phases of the project stressed PV module manufacturing. Starting with Phase 4A and continuing in Phase 5A, the goals were broadened to include improvement of component efficiency, energy storage and manufacturing and system or component integration to bring together all elements for a PV product. This paper summarizes PV manufacturers` accomplishments in components, system integration, and alternative manufacturing methods. Their approaches have resulted in improved hardware and PV system performance, better system compatibility, and new system capabilities. Results include new products such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL)-listed AC PV modules, modular inverters, and advanced inverter designs that use readily available and standard components. Work planned in Phase 5A1 includes integrated residential and commercial roof-top systems, PV systems with energy storage, and 300-Wac to 4-kWac inverters.

  4. Spectral Components Analysis of Diffuse Emission Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, Dmitry; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2012-09-14

    We develop a novel method to separate the components of a diffuse emission process based on an association with the energy spectra. Most of the existing methods use some information about the spatial distribution of components, e.g., closeness to an external template, independence of components etc., in order to separate them. In this paper we propose a method where one puts conditions on the spectra only. The advantages of our method are: 1) it is internal: the maps of the components are constructed as combinations of data in different energy bins, 2) the components may be correlated among each other, 3) the method is semi-blind: in many cases, it is sufficient to assume a functional form of the spectra and determine the parameters from a maximization of a likelihood function. As an example, we derive the CMB map and the foreground maps for seven yeas of WMAP data. In an Appendix, we present a generalization of the method, where one can also add a number of external templates.

  5. Boosting Principal Component Analysis by Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Somvanshi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method of feature extraction by combining principal component analysis and genetic algorithm. Use of multiple pre-processors in combination with principal component analysis generates alternate feature spaces for data representation. The present method works out the fusion of these multiple spaces to create higher dimensionality feature vectors. The fused feature vectors are given chromosome representation by taking feature components to be genes. Then these feature vectors are allowed to undergo genetic evolution individually. For genetic algorithm, initial population is created by calculating probability distance matrix, and by applying a probability distance metric such that all the genes which lie farther than a defined threshold are tripped to zero. The genetic evolution of fused feature vector brings out most significant feature components (genes as survivours. A measure of significance is adapted on the basis of frequency of occurrence of the surviving genes in the current population. Finally, the feature vector is obtained by weighting the original feature components in proportion to their significance. The present algorithm is validated in combination with a neural network classifier based on error backpropagation algorithm, and by analysing a number of benchmark datasets available in the open sources.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(4, pp.392-398, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.495

  6. EU R and D on divertor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the last SOFT conference held in Helsinki in 2002, substantial progress has been made in the EU R and D on the divertor components. A number of activities have been completed and new ones have been launched. The present paper gives an update of the works carried out by the EU Participating Team in support of the development of the divertor, which is one of the most challenging components of the next-step ITER machine. The following topics are covered: (1) the further development and consolidation of suitable technologies for the production of high heat-flux components, which culminated with the successful manufacturing and testing of a full-scale vertical target prototype; (2) the completion of the post-irradiation testing of divertor mock-ups and samples; (3) the preparation for the hydraulic and assembly tests of a complete set of full-scale divertor components; (4) the on-going R and D on the definition of workable acceptance criteria for the procurement of ITER high heat-flux components; (5) the activities in support of the divertor design

  7. Lifetime evaluation of graphite components for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lifetime of material and/or components has been discussed individually from different concepts, and sometimes gives confusion to material researchers as well as designers. The lifetime of materials is determined based on the dimensional changes due to neutron irradiation, at which they return to their original dimensions after initially contracting. On the other hand, the lifetime of components for HTGRs is defined based on a margin of the specified minimum ultimate strengths of the graphite to the tresses induced in the components. As an example, the stresses induced in the graphite block for the HTTR were, then, compared with the limited stress value determined from the specified minimum ultimate strength, and the lifetime of the component was evaluated and compared with that defined as dimensional changes. As a result, it was found that the lifetime of components for HTGRs should be determined as the shorter one in the two lifetimes defined by the stress-strength relationship and by the dimensional changes

  8. Two-component model of solar plages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Jianping(李建平); DING; Mingde(丁明德); FANG; Cheng(方成)

    2002-01-01

    By use of the 2-m Mcmath-Pierce telescope at Kitt Peak, the high-quality spectra of a plage with moderate brightness near the center of solar disk were obtained. The data include seven spectral lines, which are Hα, Hβ, CaII H and K lines and the infrared triplet. With the consideration of fine structures of solar plages, a two-component atmospheric model is constructed by keeping the cool component to be the quiet atmosphere. Three cases of the hot component are given for different filling factors where the temperature and density distribution are adjusted in order to reproduce the seven observed spectral profiles. We also briefly discuss the influence of the column density at the base of the corona, m0, and the macro-turbulent velocity on the required filling factor and computed profiles. The two-component model is compared with precious one-component semi-empirical models. The limitation of the model is pointed out and further improvement is indicated.

  9. Learning Software Component Model for Online Tutoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Duraiswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Web services are interface elements which allow applications to render functional services to requesting clients using open standard protocols. A lecture method combines both social association and urban processing as course design and delivery is termed as Interface Learning. Many Interface learning services is presenting through online. To make an online tutoring scheme more effective, the previous study used web services and application programs like instant messaging based on environments in which students reside. But the downside is that it is difficult to maintain the service request queues online. The services and data storage processes are inefficient. Approach: To overcome all the above issues, a Learning Software Component Model (LSCM framework is formed in the present study to build a component model based on communication services available on the network. In addition to this, the proposed software component modeled with Learning Object (LO aspects integrates the related sub hierarchical components with the main component object framework. Based on LSCM, training schedules are identified efficiently. Results: The proposed LSCM framework is experimented to show the performance improvement with the previous online tutoring scheme based on web services in terms of delivery report, maintenance of tutoring sessions and reliability. Conclusion: Compared to an existing online tutoring through web services, the proposed LSCM framework performance is 75% better in providing learning services to the providers.

  10. Progress in photovoltaic system and component improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, H.P.; Kroposki, B.; McNutt, P.; Witt, C.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bower, W.; Bonn, R.; Hund, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a partnership between the US government (through the US Department of Energy [DOE]) and the PV industry. Part of its purpose is to conduct manufacturing technology research and development to address the issues and opportunities identified by industry to advance photovoltaic (PV) systems and components. The project was initiated in 1990 and has been conducted in several phases to support the evolution of PV industrial manufacturing technology. Early phases of the project stressed PV module manufacturing. Starting with Phase 4A and continuing in Phase 5A, the goals were broadened to include improvement of component efficiency, energy storage and manufacturing and system or component integration to bring together all elements for a PV product. This paper summarizes PV manufacturers` accomplishments in components, system integration, and alternative manufacturing methods. Their approaches have resulted in improved hardware and PV system performance, better system compatibility, and new system capabilities. Results include new products such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL)-listed AC PV modules, modular inverters, and advanced inverter designs that use readily available and standard components. Work planned in Phase 5A1 includes integrated residential and commercial roof-top systems, PV systems with energy storage, and 300-Wac to 4-kWac inverters.

  11. Component design bases - A template approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A well-documented nuclear plant design basis can enhance plant safety and availability. Older plants, however, often lack historical evidence of the original design intent, particularly for individual components. Most plant documentation describes the actual design (what is) rather than the bounding limits of the design. Without knowledge of these design limits, information from system descriptions and equipment specifications is often interpreted as inviolate design requirements. Such interpretations may lead to unnecessary design conservatism in plant modifications and unnecessary restrictions on plant operation. In 1986, Florida Power and Light Company's (FP and L's) Turkey Point plant embarked on one of the first design basis reconstitution programs in the United States to catalog the true design requirements. As the program developed, design basis users expressed a need for additional information at the component level. This paper outlines a structured (template) approach to develop useful component design basis information (including the WHYs behind the design)

  12. Investigation of Motorcycle Steering Torque Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossalter, V.; Lot, R.; Massaro, M.; Peretto, M.

    2011-10-01

    When driving along a circular path, the rider controls a motorcycle mainly by the steering torque. This work addresses an in-depth analysis of the steady state cornering and in particular the decomposition of the motorcycle steering torque in its main components, such as road-tyre forces, gyroscopic torques, centrifugal and gravity effects. A detailed and experimentally validated multibody model of the motorcycle is used herein to analyze the steering torque components at different speeds and lateral accelerations. First the road tests are compared with the numerical results for three different vehicles and then a numerical investigation is carried out to decompose the steering torque. Finally, the effect of longitudinal acceleration and deceleration on steering torque components is presented.

  13. Creep fatigue design of FBR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the characteristic features of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) with reference to creep fatigue, current creep fatigue design approach in compliance with RCCMR (1987) design code, material data, effects of weldments and neutron irradiation, material constitutive models employed, structural analysis and further R and D required for achieving maturity in creep fatigue design of FBR components. For the analysis reported in this paper, material constitutive models developed based on ORNIb (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and Chaboche viscoplastic theories are employed to demonstrate the potential of FBR components for higher plant temperatures and/or longer life. The results are presented for the studies carried out towards life prediction of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) components. (author). 24 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  14. Overview and status of ITER internal components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Manufacturing technologies for the ITER internal components have been developed. • The Blanket System successfully went through its Final Design Review in April 2013. • The decision to start operation with a Divertor with a full-W armour has been taken. - Abstract: The internal components of ITER are one of the most design and technically challenging components of the ITER machine, and include the Blanket System and the Divertor. The Blanket System successfully went through its Final Design Review in April 2013 and now it is entering into the procurement phase. The design and qualification of the Divertor with a full-tungsten armour was successfully completed and this enabled the decision in November 2013 to start operation with this material option. This paper summarizes the engineering design, the R and D, the technology qualification and procurement status of the Blanket System and of the Divertor of the ITER machine

  15. Overview and status of ITER internal components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merola, Mario, E-mail: mario.merola@iter.org; Escourbiac, Frederic; Raffray, René; Chappuis, Philippe; Hirai, Takeshi; Martin, Alex

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Manufacturing technologies for the ITER internal components have been developed. • The Blanket System successfully went through its Final Design Review in April 2013. • The decision to start operation with a Divertor with a full-W armour has been taken. - Abstract: The internal components of ITER are one of the most design and technically challenging components of the ITER machine, and include the Blanket System and the Divertor. The Blanket System successfully went through its Final Design Review in April 2013 and now it is entering into the procurement phase. The design and qualification of the Divertor with a full-tungsten armour was successfully completed and this enabled the decision in November 2013 to start operation with this material option. This paper summarizes the engineering design, the R and D, the technology qualification and procurement status of the Blanket System and of the Divertor of the ITER machine.

  16. A Simulation Model for Component Commonality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiao-chi; ZHANG Zi-gang

    2002-01-01

    Component commonality has been cited as a powerful approach for manufacturers to cope with increased component proliferation and to control inventory costs. To fully realize its potential benefits, one needs a clear understanding of its impacts on the system. In this paper, the feasibility of using a simulation model to provide a systematic perspective for manufacturing firms to implement a commonality strategy is demonstrated. Alternative commonality strategies including the stage of employing commonality and the allocation policies are simulated. Several interesting results on effects of commonality, allocation policies,and optimal solutions are obtained. We then summarize qualitative insights and managerial implications into the component commonality design and implementation, and inventory management in a general multi-stage assembly system.

  17. Emotional responses as independent components in EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Birgitte Falk; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2014-01-01

    Combine wireless neuroheadsets with smartphones that enable mobile brain imaging can potentially allow us to design cognitive interfaces which adapt to our affective responses. Neuroimaging experiments using electroencephalography (EEG) initially identified two components elicited by pleasant...... susceptible to noise if captured in a mobile context. Hypothesizing that retrieval of emotional responses in mobile usage scenarios could be enhanced through spatial filtering, we compare a standard EEG electrode based analysis against an approach based on independent component analysis (ICA). By clustering...... scalp maps and time series responses we identify neural signatures that are differentially modulated when passively viewing neutral, pleasant and unpleasant images. While early responses can be detected from the raw EEG signal we identify multiple early and late ICA components that are modulated...

  18. BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY COMPONENTS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giovanni Spelta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The information technology that supports the implementation of the business process management appproach is called Business Process Management System (BPMS. The main components of the BPMS solution framework are process definition repository, process instances repository, transaction manager, conectors framework, process engine and middleware. In this paper we define and characterize the role and importance of the components of BPMS's framework. The research method adopted was the case study, through the analysis of the implementation of the BPMS solution in an insurance company called Chubb do Brasil. In the case study, the process "Manage Coinsured Events"" is described and characterized, as well as the components of the BPMS solution adopted and implemented by Chubb do Brasil for managing this process.

  19. The Unknown Component Problem Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano; Brayton, Robert K; Mishchenko, Alan; Petrenko, Alexandre; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The Problem of the Unknown Component: Theory and Applications addresses the issue of designing a component that, combined with a known part of a system, conforms to an overall specification. The authors tackle this problem by solving abstract equations over a language. The most general solutions are studied when both synchronous and parallel composition operators are used. The abstract equations are specialized to languages associated with important classes of automata used for modeling systems. The book is a blend of theory and practice, which includes a description of a software package with applications to sequential synthesis of finite state machines. Specific topologies interconnecting the components, exact and heuristic techniques, and optimization scenarios are studied. Finally the scope is enlarged to domains like testing, supervisory control, game theory and synthesis for special omega languages. The authors present original results of the authors along with an overview of existing ones.

  20. Irradiation effects on plasma diagnostic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important issues to develop the diagnostics for the experimental thermonuclear reactor such as ITER is the irradiation effects on the diagnostics components. Typical neutron flux and fluence on the first wall are 1 MW/m2 and 1 MWa/m2, respectively for ITER. In such radiation condition, most of the present diagnostics could not survive so that those will be planed to be installed far from the vacuum vessel. However, some diagnostics sensors such as bolometers and magnetic probes still have to be install inside vessel. And many transmission components for lights, wave and electric signals are inevitable even inside vessel. As a part of this R and D program of the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA), we carried out the irradiation tests on the basic materials of the transmission components and in-vessel diagnostics sensors in order to identify radiation hardened materials that can be used for diagnostic systems. (J.P.N.)

  1. Tengi Interfaces for Tracing between Heterogeneous Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Rolf-Helge; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary software systems comprise many heteroge- neous artifacts; some expressed in general programming languages, some in visual and textual domain-specific languages and some in ad hoc textual formats. During construction of a system diverse artifacts are interrelated. Only few formats......, typically general programming languages, provide an interface description mechanism able to specify software com- ponent boundaries. Unfortunately, these interface mechanisms can not express relations for components containing heterogeneous artifacts. We introduce Tengi, a tool that allows for the...... definition of software components containing heterogeneous artifacts. Tengi interfaces link components containing different textual and visual software development artifacts ranging from high-level specification documents to low-level implementation documents. We formally define and implement Tengi...

  2. Component external leakage and rupture frequency estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and rupture frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and rupture frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and rupture events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results

  3. Principal component regression for crop yield estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayana, T M V

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the estimation of crop yield in Central Gujarat, especially with regard to the development of Multiple Regression Models and Principal Component Regression (PCR) models using climatological parameters as independent variables and crop yield as a dependent variable. It subsequently compares the multiple linear regression (MLR) and PCR results, and discusses the significance of PCR for crop yield estimation. In this context, the book also covers Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a statistical procedure used to reduce a number of correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components (PC). This book will be helpful to the students and researchers, starting their works on climate and agriculture, mainly focussing on estimation models. The flow of chapters takes the readers in a smooth path, in understanding climate and weather and impact of climate change, and gradually proceeds towards downscaling techniques and then finally towards development of ...

  4. Parsimony Principles for Software Components and Metalanguages

    CERN Document Server

    Veldhuizen, Todd L

    2007-01-01

    Software is a communication system. The usual topic of communication is program behavior, as encoded by programs. Domain-specific libraries are codebooks, domain-specific languages are coding schemes, and so forth. To turn metaphor into method, we adapt toolsfrom information theory--the study of efficient communication--to probe the efficiency with which languages and libraries let us communicate programs. In previous work we developed an information-theoretic analysis of software reuse in problem domains. This new paper uses information theory to analyze tradeoffs in the design of components, generators, and metalanguages. We seek answers to two questions: (1) How can we judge whether a component is over- or under-generalized? Drawing on minimum description length principles, we propose that the best component yields the most succinct representation of the use cases. (2) If we view a programming language as an assemblage of metalanguages, each providing a complementary style of abstraction, how can these met...

  5. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  6. Laser Micromachining Fabrication of THz Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    DrouetdAubigny, C.; Walker, C.; Jones, B.; Groppi, C.; Papapolymerou, J.; Tavenier, C.

    2001-01-01

    Laser micromachining techniques can be used to fabricate high-quality waveguide structures and quasi-optical components to micrometer accuracies. Successful GHz designs can be directly scaled to THz frequencies. We expect this promising technology to allow the construction of the first fully integrated THz heterodyne imaging arrays. At the University of Arizona, construction of the first laser micromachining system designed for THz waveguide components fabrication has been completed. Once tested and characterized our system will be used to construct prototype THz lx4 focal plane mixer arrays, magic tees, AR coated silicon lenses, local oscillator source phase gratings, filters and more. Our system can micro-machine structures down to a few microns accuracy and up to 6 inches across in a short time. This paper discusses the design and performance of our micromachining system, and illustrates the type, range and performance of components this exciting new technology will make accessible to the THz community.

  7. Prognostics for Electronics Components of Avionics Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Bhaskar; Wysocki, Philip F.; Goebel, Kai F.

    2009-01-01

    Electronics components have and increasingly critical role in avionics systems and for the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is becoming a very important research filed as a result of the need to provide aircraft systems with system level health management. This paper reports on a prognostics application for electronics components of avionics systems, in particular, its application to the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). The remaining useful life prediction for the IGBT is based on the particle filter framework, leveraging data from an accelerated aging tests on IGBTs. The accelerated aging test provided thermal-electrical overstress by applying thermal cycling to the device. In-situ state monitoring, including measurements of the steady-state voltages and currents, electrical transients, and thermal transients are recorded and used as potential precursors of failure.

  8. Component Commonality and Its Cost Implications - Increasing the Commonality of the Right Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyly-Yrjänäinen, Jouni; Suomala, Petri; Israelsen, Poul

    Component commonality (Labro 2004, Zhou & Gruppström 2004) can be defined as the use of the same version of a component across multiple products. It is usually seen as a means to manage costs without sacrificing product variety. However, when managing costs with component commonality, the managers...... to identify those components that would most benefit from increased component commonality. The paper is based on an action research project with a company that manufactures hydraulic power units. Hydraulic power units are usually customized products and, hence, engineered to order. Customized...... hydraulic systems mean that the steel constructions of such product also need to be customized. These steel constructions are needed in the assembly first; yet, at the same time, they cannot be designed until all the components of the power unit have been defined. Thus, the mechanical engineering of these...

  9. A value-based preventive maintenance policy for multi-component system with continuously degrading components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dynamic preventive maintenance policy for system with continuously degrading components is investigated in this paper. Different from traditional cost-centric preventive maintenance policy, our maintenance strategy is formulated from the value perspective. Component value is modelled as a function of component reliability distribution. Maintenance action is triggered whenever the system reliability drops below a certain threshold. Our policy mainly consists of two steps: (i) determine which component to maintain; (ii) determine to what degree the component should be maintained. In Step 1, we introduce the yield-cost importance to select the most important component. In Step 2, the optimal maintenance level is obtained by maximizing the net value of the maintenance action. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed policy

  10. An architectural model for software component search

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Doan Han

    1995-01-01

    An important problem in software development process is to make better use of software libraries by improving the search and retrieval process, that is, by making it easier to find the few components you may want among the many you do not want. The problem with the current production approaches is that they do not consider the behavior of components as a part of the retrieval process. As the result, it is impossible to obtain high recall and precision. In contrast, research approaches using s...

  11. Choosing the components of a digital infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    DiLauro, Tim

    2004-01-01

    Choosing the components of a digital infrastructure by Tim DiLauro This paper is based on a talk of the same name given at the IMLS–sponsored Web–Wise 2004 conference.The purpose of this paper — as with the talk before it — is to highlight some issues and help inform the choices associated with developing digital environments within a single institution or among many. While the bulk of this discussion focuses on digital repositories as a key component of the digital infrastructure, persis...

  12. Personalization Component for KiWi Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Xu, Guandong; Kotowski, Jakub;

    2010-01-01

    In this report we present the personalization component implemented for KiWi addressing diverse aspects such as motivation scenarios, configuration management, formal models, implementations and some real case scenarios on how personalization can be applied to support software project management....... The personalization component is responsible for addressing and delivering information to individuals regarding their roles and preferences, explicitly or implicitly inferred from their activities in the system. Personalization is a essential for KiWi since this in a multi-user environment and...

  13. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the

  14. Biohydrogen. Chromatographic analysis is his component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of preparation of artificial biohydrogen is perfected for research of processes of its dehydration and separation into pure hydrogen and carbon dioxide in order to use hydrogen as an energy carrier. The method of chromatographic analysis of biohydrogen components is perfected. Calibration of device in the interval of concentrations 0-100 % is conducted. It is determined that active coal of SKT-2A is an optimum adsorbent for separation of gas mixture into the pure components of H2 and CO2, and neon is an optimum gas-transmitter.

  15. A Framework Studio for Component Reusability

    CERN Document Server

    Basha, N Md Jubair; 10.5121/csit.2012.2130

    2012-01-01

    The deployment of a software product requires considerable amount of time and effort. In order to increase the productivity of the software products, reusability strategies were proposed in the literature. However effective reuse is still a challenging issue. This paper presents a framework studio for effective components reusability which provides the selection of components from framework studio and generation of source code based on stakeholders needs. The framework studio is implemented using swings which are integrated onto the Net Beans IDE which help in faster generation of the source code.

  16. Electronic building component catalogue; Realisierung elektronischer Bauteilkatalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paolantonio, M. Di

    2007-01-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes an electronic building component catalogue developed to replace earlier printed documentation issued by the Swiss Association of Engineers and Architects SIA. The catalogue, which is available on the Internet, is described and discussed. The paper describes the web site and its features that can be used for the selection of building components such as, for example, double-wall masonry. Here, the thickness of the brickwork and insulation layers can dynamically be selected in order to achieve the insulation properties required. Ecological factors are also dealt with and the XML interface provided for the electronic export of data is described.

  17. USING LOGIC COMPONENTS FOR CONCEPTUAL DIE DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Logic components are used to support the conceptual design. Taking the stamping die structure as the research object,several logic components are defined for the conceptual die construction design. A new method-logic assembly modeling is presented to satisfy the characteristic of the top-down die design process. Representing shapes and spatial relations in logic can provide a natural,intuitive method of developing complete computer systems for reasoning about die construction design at the conceptual stage. This method can reflect the designer's thought clearly and provide the designer with a test bed for generating alternatives and performing reasoning work at the conceptual die design stage.

  18. Advanced NDE Technologies for Powder Metal Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P; Haskins, J; Thomas, G; Dolan, K

    2003-05-01

    Nondestructive evaluation encompasses numerous technologies that assess materials and determine important properties. This paper demonstrates the applicability of several of these technologies to the field of powder metallurgy. The usual application of nondestructive evaluation is to detect and quantify defects in fully sintered product. But probably its most appealing role is to sense problems earlier in the manufacturing process to avoid making defects at all. Also nondestructive evaluation can be incorporated into the manufacturing processes to monitor important parameters and control the processes to produce defect free product. Nondestructive evaluation can characterize powders, evaluate components in the green state, monitor the sintering process, and inspect the final component.

  19. Volatile Components from Old Plum Brandies

    OpenAIRE

    Tešević, Vele; Nikićević, Ninoslav; Jovanović, Anka; Djoković, Dejan; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Vučković, Ivan; Bonić, Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Gas chromatography and GC/MS methods were used to detect volatile components of three home-made natural old plum brandy samples and one sample of industrially-produced plum brandy. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of this extracts led to the identification of 99 components, including 46 esters, 7 hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes), 3 aldehydes, 9 alcohols, 1 lactone, 1 ketone, 8 acetals, 14 terpenes, 8 acids and 2 phenols. Ethyl esters of C8–C18 acids were...

  20. Component failures that lead to reactor scrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the operating experience scram data compiled from 35 operating US light water reactors (LWRs) to identify the principal components/systems related to reactor scrams. The data base utilized to identify the scram causes is developed from a EPRI-utility sponsored survey conducted by SAI coupled with recent data from the USNRC Gray Books. The reactor population considered in this evaluation is limited to 23 PWRs and 12 BWRs because of the limited scope of the program. The population includes all the US NSSS vendors. It is judged that this population accurately characterizes the component-related scrams in LWRs over the first 10 years of plant operation

  1. T-stresses for internally cracked components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The failure of cracked components is governed by the stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip. The singular stress contribution is characterised by the stress intensity factor K, the first regular stress term is represented by the so-called T-stress. T-stress solutions for components containing an internal crack were computed by application of the Bundary Collocation Method (BCM). The results are compiled in form of tables or approximative relations. In addition a Green's function of T-stresses is proposed for internal cracks which enables to compute T-stress terms for any given stress distribution in the uncracked body. (orig.)

  2. Cancer diagnosis by autofluorescence of blood components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masilamani, V. E-mail: masilamaniv@yahoo.com; Al-Zhrani, K.; Al-Salhi, M.; Al-Diab, A.; Al-Ageily, M

    2004-09-01

    The autofluorescence of blood components of healthy volunteers and cancer patients of different etiology were analyzed using a steady-state spectrofluorometer. A significant contrast between healthy and diseased blood could be established. Blood components of patients of gastric cancer, breast cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma showed distinct and enhanced fluorescence band (around 630 nm) due to the porphyrin fluorophore. From the ratio fluorometry, a correlation to the stages of cancer could be also brought forth. We could indicate reasonably well the features of early stages and the growth rate of a few cancers and benign tumors.

  3. Outlier Mining Based on Principal Component Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yang; Ting Yang

    2005-01-01

    Outlier mining is an important aspect in data mining and the outlier mining based on Cook distance is most commonly used. But we know that when the data have multicollinearity, the traditional Cook method is no longer effective. Considering the excellence of the principal component estimation, we use it to substitute the least squares estimation, and then give the Cook distance measurement based on principal component estimation, which can be used in outlier mining. At the same time, we have done some research on related theories and application problems.

  4. Durability of building materials and components

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, JMPQ

    2013-01-01

    Durability of Building Materials and Components provides a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to the long-term performance and durability of construction and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of durability, service life prediction methodologies, the durability approach for historical and old buildings, asset and maintenance management and on the durability of materials, systems and components. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.

  5. Applicability of high temperature characteristics to components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To the description of deformation, crack initiation and fracture behavior of metal materials under high temperatures, there are a series of characteristic values, which often need to be extrapolated in time in spite of their determination in long-term experiments. In addition, one requires special, component-level experiments in order to validate the application of these characteristic values to components. The post-computation of these experiments leads to the development of transferable deformation descriptions and to the determination of transferable limiting values for damage accumilation studies; in this way, the crack initiation can be estimated under static or dynamic stress. (orig.)

  6. Phonemes as short time cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the resulting group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. In this paper we address COCA in the context short time sound features, finding phonemes which...... are the smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language. Generalizable components were found deriving from phonemes based on homomorphic filtering features with basic time scale (20 msec). We sparsified the features based on energy as a preprocessing means to eliminate the intrinsic noise...

  7. Cognitive components of rural tourism destination images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkali, Panagiota; Koutsouris, Alex; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    This paper aims at exploring issues related to rural tourism destination image focusing on TDI cognitive components. By means of empirical research addressing tourists visiting the Lake Plastiras area, Central Greece, the cognitive components of the area's TDI were identified along with their......; (3) visitors can be classified in four clusters according the cognitive factors; (4) tourists' clusters differ in terms of age, education and income as well as number of visits and perception of the area's attractiveness. Such findings point towards the need of both a new strategy for the area...

  8. Climatic Reliability of Electronic Devices and Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    of electronic systems and the explosive increase in their usage has increased the climatic reliability issues of electronics devices and components, especially when metal/alloy parts are exposed on the PCB assembly surface or embedded within the multilayer laminate. Problems are compounded by the fact......This article provides an overview of the climatic reliability issues of electronic devices and components with a focus on the metals/alloys usage on PCB a surface together with cleanliness issues, humidity interaction on PCB a surface, and PCB a design and device design aspects. The miniaturization...

  9. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG COMPONENTS OF ENGAGEMENT RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVREN DILEK SENGUR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accounting scandals exploded at the beginning of 2000s and the collapse of Arthur Andersen highlighted the importance of implementing engagement risk management strategies in audit firms. Engagement risk refers the overall risk associated with an audit engagement and it consists of three components: client's business risk, auditor's business risk, and audit risk. The main purpose of this study is to describe each components of engagement risk and explain relations among them. Additionally, the paper points out the importance of engagement risk management throughout the audit and demonstrates engagement risk management strategies at client acceptance/ continuance, planning and completion of audit.

  10. The Component Event Data Bank: a tool for collecting and organizing information on NPPs component behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Component Event Data Bank - CEDB - is an organized collection of failure/repair events for nuclear and conventional power plant components, in which are specified the ''pedigree'', operational duties and environmental conditions of the components concerned. The main scope of the CEDB within the European Reliability Data System and its present status are presented. The development of the project from 1984 up to now is described, along with some particular achievements. (author)

  11. Explaining Psychological Capital Components through Organization’s Ethical Climate Components

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Golparvar; Afsaneh Rahmati Azarmonabadi

    2014-01-01

    Organization’s ethical climate and its components are among major factors affecting employee’s different behaviors and emotions in work environments. Accordingly, the role of organization’s ethical climate components (caring, laws, rules, services and independence) on psychological capital components (self-efficacy, hope, resiliency and life orientation) was studied in this research. For this purpose, 267 employees of railway company, Isfahan, Iran, were selected and answered organization’s e...

  12. Multi-component Dirac equation hierarchy and its multi-component integrable couplings system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Tie-cheng; You Fu-Cai

    2007-01-01

    A general scheme for generating a multi-component integrable equation hierarchy is proposed.A simple 3Mdimensional loop algebra (X) is produced.By taking advantage of X,a new isospectral problem is established and then by making use of the Tu scheme the multi-component Dirac equation hierarchy is obtained.Finally,an expanding loop algebra (F) M of the loop algebra (X) is presented.Based on the FM,the multi-component integrable coupling system of the multi-component Dirac equation hierarchy is investigated.The method in this paper can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equation hierarchies.

  13. Nonstatistical component of the multifractal spectral function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the multifractal analysis of multiplicity fluctuation in high energy collisions, the statistical contribution to the spectrum function f(α) is calculated using the multinomial distribution. The nonstatistical component can be extracted using a subtraction scheme that is consistent with multifractality. A simple cluster model is considered for illustration. 7 refs., 2 figs

  14. Chemical separation of disc components using RAVE

    CERN Document Server

    Wojno, Jennifer; Steinmetz, Matthias; McMillan, Paul J; Matijevič, Gal; Binney, James; Wyse, Rosemary F G; Boeche, Corrado; Just, Andreas; Grebel, Eva K; Siebert, Arnaud; Bienaymé, Olivier; Gibson, Brad K; Zwitter, Tomaž; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Navarro, Julio F; Parker, Quentin A; Reid, Warren; Seabroke, George; Watson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    We present evidence from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey of chemically separated, kinematically distinct disc components in the solar neighbourhood. We apply probabilistic chemical selection criteria to separate our sample into $\\alpha$-low (`thin disc') and $\\alpha$-high (`thick disc') components. Using newly derived distances, which will be utilized in the upcoming RAVE DR5, we explore the kinematic trends as a function of metallicity for each of the disc components. For our thin disc stars, we find a negative trend in the mean rotational velocity ($V_{\\mathrm{\\phi}}$) as a function of iron abundance ([Fe/H]). We measure a positive trend in $\\partial V_{\\mathrm{\\phi}}$/$\\partial$[Fe/H] for the thick disc, consistent with results from high-resolution surveys. We also find differences between the chemical thin and thick discs in all three components of velocity dispersion. We discuss the implications of an $\\alpha$-low, metal-rich population originating from the inner Galaxy, where the orbits of ...

  15. COPD phenotype description using principal components analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Kay; Smith, Jacky; Kolsum, Umme;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway inflammation in COPD can be measured using biomarkers such as induced sputum and Fe(NO). This study set out to explore the heterogeneity of COPD using biomarkers of airway and systemic inflammation and pulmonary function by principal components analysis (PCA). SUBJECTS AND METH...

  16. conformational complexity of complement component C3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The complement system is an important part of the immune system and critical for the elimination of pathogens. In mammals the complement system consists of an intricate set of about 35 soluble and cell-surface plasma proteins. Central to complement is component C3, a large protein of 1,641 residues.

  17. Measuring the Behavioral Component of Financial Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Corazzini, Luca; Costola, Michele

    We study the evolution of the behavioral component of the financial market by estimating a Bayesian mixture model in which two types of investors coexist: one rational, with standard subjective expected utility theory (SEUT) preferences, and one behavioral, endowed with an S-shaped utility function...

  18. Spectra of Velocity components over Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panofsky, H. A.; Larko, D.; Lipschut, R.; Stone, G.; Bradley, E. F.; Bowen, Anthony John; Højstrup, Jørgen

    1982-01-01

    horizontal, and decrease when the flow is uphill, for the longitudinal velocity component only. Since vertical-velocity spectra contain relatively less low wavenumber energy than horizontal-velocity spectra, energetic vertical-velocity fluctuations tend to be in equilibrium with local terrain....

  19. Volatile components from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Koulman, A; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Quax, Wim; Pras, N.

    2002-01-01

    The volatile components of fresh leaves and roots from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm., obtained through hydrodistillation, were analysed by GC and GC-MS. This was compared to dichloromethane extracts of both fresh and dried leaf and root material. The monoterpene fraction (69-70%) dominated, whil

  20. Resolved Component in Heavy Quark Photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy quarks in γ--N interactions are produced mainly by photon-gluon fusion, nevertheless a tiny contribution to the total cross section comes from processes like those appearing in heavy quarks hadroproduction through the resolved component of the photon. This work present resolved contributions to heavy meson production in terms of kinematic variables, and their dependence of the fragmentation function

  1. Methods of measuring residual stresses in components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Defining the different methods of measuring residual stresses in manufactured components. ► Comprehensive study on the hole drilling, neutron diffraction and other techniques. ► Evaluating advantage and disadvantage of each method. ► Advising the reader with the appropriate method to use. -- Abstract: Residual stresses occur in many manufactured structures and components. Large number of investigations have been carried out to study this phenomenon and its effect on the mechanical characteristics of these components. Over the years, different methods have been developed to measure residual stress for different types of components in order to obtain reliable assessment. The various specific methods have evolved over several decades and their practical applications have greatly benefited from the development of complementary technologies, notably in material cutting, full-field deformation measurement techniques, numerical methods and computing power. These complementary technologies have stimulated advances not only in measurement accuracy and reliability, but also in range of application; much greater detail in residual stresses measurement is now available. This paper aims to classify the different residual stresses measurement methods and to provide an overview of some of the recent advances in this area to help researchers on selecting their techniques among destructive, semi destructive and non-destructive techniques depends on their application and the availabilities of those techniques. For each method scope, physical limitation, advantages and disadvantages are summarized. In the end this paper indicates some promising directions for future developments.

  2. Components of a Mod 3 Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronnell, Bruce

    On overview of the Model 3 Communication Skills lexicon, consisting of three lists of words, developed by the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) for use in communication skills instruction in K-6 is presented in this document. Three components (described in three other documents) of the Model 3 communication skills lexicon are defined. The entry…

  3. Independent Component Analysis in Multimedia Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Modeling of multimedia and multimodal data becomes increasingly important with the digitalization of the world. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of independent component analysis and blind sources separation methods for modeling and understanding of multimedia data, which...

  4. Multi component equations of state for electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yi; Thomsen, Kaj; de Hemptinne, Jean-Charles

    2007-01-01

    Four equations of state have been implemented and evaluated for multi component electrolyte solutions at 298.15K and 1 bar. The equations contain terms accounting for short-range and long-range interactions in electrolyte solutions. Short range interactions are described by one of the three equat...

  5. Independent Component Analysis in Multimedia Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kolenda, Thomas;

    2003-01-01

    Modeling of multimedia and multimodal data becomes increasingly important with the digitalization of the world. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of independent component analysis and blind sources separation methods for modeling and understanding of multimedia data, which...

  6. Radiation-resistant beamline components at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of highly radiation-resistant beamline components have been successfully developed at LAMPF primarily for use in the target cells and beam stop area of the intense proton beamline. Design features and operating experience are reviewed for magnets, instrumentation, targets, vacuum seals, vacuum windows, collimators, and beam stops

  7. IPRDS - Component histories and nuclear plant aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive assessment of nuclear power plant component operating histories, maintenance histories, and design and fabrication details is essential to understanding aging phenomena. As part of the In-Plant Reliability Data System (IPRDS), an attempt is being made to collect and analyze such information from a sampling of U.S. nuclear power plants. Utilizing the IPRDS, one can reconstruct the failure history of the components and gain new insight into the causes and modes of failures resulting from normal or premature aging. This information assembled from the IPRDS can be combined with operating histories and postservice component inspection results for ''cradle-to-grave'' assessments of component aging under operating conditions. A comprehensive aging assessment can then be used to provide guidelines for improving the detection, monitoring, and mitigation of aging-related failures. The examples chosen for this paper illustrate two aging-related areas: the effects of an improved preventive maintenance policy in mitigating aging of a feedwater pump and the identification of reoccuring failures in parts of diesel generators

  8. Oxygen Compatibility Assessment of Components and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel; Sparks, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Fire hazards are inherent in oxygen systems and a storied history of fires in rocket engine propulsion components exists. To detect and mitigate these fire hazards requires careful, detailed, and thorough analyses applied during the design process. The oxygen compatibility assessment (OCA) process designed by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) can be used to determine the presence of fire hazards in oxygen systems and the likelihood of a fire. This process may be used as both a design guide and during the approval process to ensure proper design features and material selection. The procedure for performing an OCA is a structured step-by-step process to determine the most severe operating conditions; assess the flammability of the system materials at the use conditions; evaluate the presence and efficacy of ignition mechanisms; assess the potential for a fire to breach the system; and determine the reaction effect (the potential loss of life, mission, and system functionality as the result of a fire). This process should be performed for each component in a system. The results of each component assessment, and the overall system assessment, should be recorded in a report that can be used in the short term to communicate hazards and their mitigation and to aid in system/component development and, in the long term, to solve anomalies that occur during engine testing and operation.

  9. Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

  10. Aging effects in PWR power plants components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Diogo da S.; Guimaraes, Antonio C.F.; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes, E-mail: diogosb@outlook.com, E-mail: tony@ien.gov.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a contribution to the study of aging process of components in commercial plants of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The analysis is made through application of the Fault Trees Method, Monte Carlo Method and Fussell-Vesely Importance Measure. The approach of the study of aging in nuclear power plants, besides giving attention to the economic factors involved directly with the extent of their operational life, also provide significant data on security issues. The latest case involving process of life extension of a PWR could be seen in Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant through investing of $27 million for the installation of a new reactor lid. The corrective action has generated an estimated operating life extension of Angra I in twenty years, offering great economy compared with building cost of a new plant and anterior decommissioning, if it had reached the time operating limit of forty years. The Extension of the operating life of a nuclear power plant must be accompanied by a special attention to the components of the systems and their aging process. After the application of the methodology (aging analysis of the injection system of the containment spray) proposed in this work, it can be seen that 'the increase in the rate of component failure, due the aging process, generates the increase in the general unavailability of the system that containing these basic components'. The final results obtained were as expected and may contribute to the maintenance policy, preventing premature aging process in Nuclear Plant Systems. (author)

  11. Low-Temperature Electronic Components Being Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammond, Ahmad

    1999-01-01

    In many future NASA missions, such as deep space planetary exploration and the Next Generation Space Telescope, electrical components and systems must operate reliably and efficiently in extremely low temperature environments. Most modern electronic components cannot operate below moderately low operating temperatures (-40 to -55 C). The low-temperature electronics program at the NASA Lewis Research Center is focusing on the development and characterization of low-temperature components and the integration of the developed devices into demonstrable very low-temperature (-200 C) power systems such as dc-dc converters. Such low-temperature electronics will not only tolerate hostile environments but also will reduce system size and weight by eliminating radioisotope heating units, thereby reducing launch cost, improving reliability and lifetime, and increasing energy densities. Low-temperature electronic components will also have a great influence on terrestrial applications such as medical instrumentation, magnetic levitation transportation systems, and arctic and antarctic exploration. Lewis researchers are now performing extensive evaluations of commercially available as well as custom-made devices. These include various types of energy storage and signal capacitors, power switching devices, magnetic and superconducting materials, and primary lithium batteries, to name a few.

  12. Combining two major ATLAS inner detector components

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The semiconductor tracker is inserted into the transition radiation tracker for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. These make up two of the three major components of the inner detector. They will work together to measure the trajectories produced in the proton-proton collisions at the centre of the detector when the LHC is switched on in 2008.

  13. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  14. A principal components model of soundscape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Östen; Nilsson, Mats E; Berglund, Birgitta

    2010-11-01

    There is a need for a model that identifies underlying dimensions of soundscape perception, and which may guide measurement and improvement of soundscape quality. With the purpose to develop such a model, a listening experiment was conducted. One hundred listeners measured 50 excerpts of binaural recordings of urban outdoor soundscapes on 116 attribute scales. The average attribute scale values were subjected to principal components analysis, resulting in three components: Pleasantness, eventfulness, and familiarity, explaining 50, 18 and 6% of the total variance, respectively. The principal-component scores were correlated with physical soundscape properties, including categories of dominant sounds and acoustic variables. Soundscape excerpts dominated by technological sounds were found to be unpleasant, whereas soundscape excerpts dominated by natural sounds were pleasant, and soundscape excerpts dominated by human sounds were eventful. These relationships remained after controlling for the overall soundscape loudness (Zwicker's N(10)), which shows that 'informational' properties are substantial contributors to the perception of soundscape. The proposed principal components model provides a framework for future soundscape research and practice. In particular, it suggests which basic dimensions are necessary to measure, how to measure them by a defined set of attribute scales, and how to promote high-quality soundscapes. PMID:21110579

  15. 21 CFR 226.42 - Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Components. 226.42 Section 226.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Product Quality Control §...

  16. Microwave heat treating of manufactured components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2007-01-09

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  17. Runtime Support for Advanced Component Concepts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bureš, Tomáš; Hnětynka, P.; Plášil, František; Klesnil, J.; Kmoch, O.; Kohan, T.; Kotrč, P.

    Los Alamitos : IEEE Computer Society, 2007, s. 337-345. ISBN 0-7695-2867-8. [SERA 2007. Busan (US), 20.08.2007-22.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : software components Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  18. Statistical lifetime management for energy network components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilities are faced with aged infrastructures with an upcoming unavoidable replacement wave to maintain a high reliability. In this thesis a methodology is presented for the application of statistical lifetime management for network component populations in energy networks. The methodology describes

  19. Spatio temporal media components for neurofeedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Birgitte Falk; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Stahlhut, Carsten; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Andersen, Tobias; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2013-01-01

    A class of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) involves interfaces for neurofeedback training, where a user can learn to self-regulate brain activity based on real-time feedback. These particular interfaces are constructed from audio-visual components and temporal settings, which appear to have a...

  20. Pump Component Model in SPACE Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report describes the pump component model in SPACE code. A literature survey was made on pump models in existing system codes. The models embedded in SPACE code were examined to check the confliction with intellectual proprietary rights. Design specifications, computer coding implementation, and test results are included in this report

  1. ROBUST ESTIMATION OF VARIANCE COMPONENTS MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Classical least squares estimation consists of minimizing the sum of the squared residuals of observation. Many authors have produced more robust versions of this estimation by replacing the square by something else, such as the absolute value. These approaches have been generalized, and their robust estimations and influence functions of variance components have been presented. The results may have wide practical and theoretical value.

  2. Monitoring distributed object and component communication

    OpenAIRE

    Diakov, Nikolay Kirilov

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents our work in the area of monitoring distributed software applications (DSAs). We produce three main results: (1) a design approach for building monitoring systems, (2) a design of a system for MOnitoring Distributed Object and Component Communication (MODOCC) behavior in middleware-based applications, and (3) a proof-of-concept implementation of this system.

  3. Robust Correlated and Individual Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagakis, Yannis; Nicolaou, Mihalis A; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2016-08-01

    Recovering correlated and individual components of two, possibly temporally misaligned, sets of data is a fundamental task in disciplines such as image, vision, and behavior computing, with application to problems such as multi-modal fusion (via correlated components), predictive analysis, and clustering (via the individual ones). Here, we study the extraction of correlated and individual components under real-world conditions, namely i) the presence of gross non-Gaussian noise and ii) temporally misaligned data. In this light, we propose a method for the Robust Correlated and Individual Component Analysis (RCICA) of two sets of data in the presence of gross, sparse errors. We furthermore extend RCICA in order to handle temporal incongruities arising in the data. To this end, two suitable optimization problems are solved. The generality of the proposed methods is demonstrated by applying them onto 4 applications, namely i) heterogeneous face recognition, ii) multi-modal feature fusion for human behavior analysis (i.e., audio-visual prediction of interest and conflict), iii) face clustering, and iv) thetemporal alignment of facial expressions. Experimental results on 2 synthetic and 7 real world datasets indicate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed methodson these application domains, outperforming other state-of-the-art methods in the field. PMID:26552077

  4. Independent component analysis for understanding multimedia content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolenda, Thomas; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan;

    2002-01-01

    Independent component analysis of combined text and image data from Web pages has potential for search and retrieval applications by providing more meaningful and context dependent content. It is demonstrated that ICA of combined text and image features has a synergistic effect, i.e., the retrieval...

  5. Formal Description of Components in Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Iliev, Asen Petkov

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary development of hardware components is a prerequisite for increasing the concentration of computing power. System software is developing at a much slower pace. To use available resources efficiently modeling is required. Formalization of elements, present in the material, provides the basis for modeling. Examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the concept.

  6. Admissible Unbiased Quantizations: Distributions with Linear Components

    OpenAIRE

    Pötzelberger, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    We show that results on the characterization of admissible quantizations, which have been derived in Potzelberger [3], have to be modified in case the probability distribution has linear components. Furthermore, we provide an example, where the limit of optimal quantizations is not admissible. (author's abstract)

  7. Components of Visual Literacy: Teaching Logos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, Paul A.; Fredrick, Laura; Hughes, Melissa; McIntosh, Laura; Cihak, David

    2007-01-01

    Definitions of literacy that focus solely on reading words provide too narrow a framework for many students with severe disabilities. Obtaining information from the environment may be accomplished in a variety of modes, such as visual literacy, which is the ability to discern meaning conveyed through images. A component of visual literacy is…

  8. Reduced Component Count RGB LED Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pedro, I.; Ackermann, B.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this master thesis is to develop new drive and contrololutions, for creating white light from mixing the light of different-color LEDs, aiming at a reduced component count resulting in less space required by the electronics and lower cost. It evaluates the LED driver concept proposed in

  9. Development of methods for manufacturing ceramic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the know-how of the production of graphite spherical fuel elements, the semihydrostatic pressing is considered as a most promising method for getting ceramic components with good reproducibility of high level material properties. The project was devided in 3 sections: laboratory processing, pilot processing and fabrication of best components. The materials SiC and ZrO2 were investigated. In the first section the composition and the processing steps were optimized by manufacturing small, die-pressed shapes (diameter of the pressed shapes ≤ 33 mm). The production of large shapes (balls, zylindrical shapes diameter of the pressed shapes 50-85 mm) under optimized processing conditions led to the 2nd section. The densities after sintering of SiC and ZrO2 were higher than 98% of theoretic density. To proof, that the use of the semihydrostatic pressing technique enables the production of components with narrow tolerances without machining after sintering, a small number of test components was fabricated. It was shown that the manufacturing of ZrO2 valve guides are realistic, although the tolerance of the inner-diameter is very narrow (diameter = 9 mm, tolerance range = 15 μm). (orig.) With 6 refs., 3 tabs., 45 figs

  10. Circuit bridging of components by smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoke can adversely affect digital electronics; in the short term, it can lead to circuit bridging and in the long term to corrosion of metal parts. This report is a summary of the work to date and component-level tests by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control equipment. The component tests focused on short-term effects such as circuit bridging in typical components and the factors that can influence how much the smoke will affect them. These factors include the component technology and packaging, physical board protection, and environmental conditions such as the amount of smoke, temperature of burn, and humidity level. The likelihood of circuit bridging was tested by measuring leakage currents and converting those currents to resistance in ohms. Hermetically sealed ceramic packages were more resistant to smoke than plastic packages. Coating the boards with an acrylic spray provided some protection against circuit bridging. The smoke generation factors that affect the resistance the most are humidity, fuel level, and burn temperature. The use of CO2 as a fire suppressant, the presence of galvanic metal, and the presence of PVC did not significantly affect the outcome of these results

  11. Compatibility Between Electric Components in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Holbøll, Joachim; Arana Aristi, Iván

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a method for investigation of the compatibility between electric components in wind farms by identifying critical resonances at different points of an offshore wind farm (OWF), based on systematic variation of critical parameters. In this way, the design of future OWF can be...

  12. Software Component Technologies and Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batory, Don

    1995-01-01

    In the near future, software systems will be more reconfigurable than hardware. This will be possible through the advent of software component technologies which have been prototyped in universities and research labs. In this paper, we outline the foundations for those technologies and suggest how they might impact software for space applications.

  13. Principal component analysis implementation in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Sebastian; Belka, Radosław; Sławiński, Tomasz; Parian, Mahnaz

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we show how PCA (Principal Component Analysis) method can be implemented using Java programming language. We consider using PCA algorithm especially in analysed data obtained from Raman spectroscopy measurements, but other applications of developed software should also be possible. Our goal is to create a general purpose PCA application, ready to run on every platform which is supported by Java.

  14. Principal component analysis within nuclear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Sayed, A

    2015-01-01

    The principal component analysis (PCA) of different parameters affecting collectivity of nuclei predicted to be candidate of the interacting boson model dynamical symmetries are performed. The results show that, the use of PCA within nuclear structure can give us a simple way to identify collectivity together with the parameters simultaneously affecting it.

  15. Verification of Software Components: Addressing Unbounded Paralelism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2007), s. 300-309. ISSN 1525-9293 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : software components * formal verification * unbounded parallelism Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  16. Compositional properties of crypto-based components

    OpenAIRE

    Spichkova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an Isabelle/HOL+Isar set of theories which allows to specify crypto-based components and to verify their composition properties wrt. cryptographic aspects. We introduce a formalisation of the security property of data secrecy, the corresponding definitions and proofs.

  17. New propulsion components for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Improved component technology is described. This includes electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configurations, an unconventional brush commutated motor, ac induction motors, various controllers, transmissions and complete systems. One or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors. Previously announced in STAR as N83-25982

  18. Component Separation for Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do now... We probably do a component every week at this institution, and so it's been very important for us to have an implant, so to speak, that does the work that we needed it to do. So now ...

  19. Circuit bridging of components by smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.J.; Nowlen, S.P.; Anderson, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Smoke can adversely affect digital electronics; in the short term, it can lead to circuit bridging and in the long term to corrosion of metal parts. This report is a summary of the work to date and component-level tests by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control equipment. The component tests focused on short-term effects such as circuit bridging in typical components and the factors that can influence how much the smoke will affect them. These factors include the component technology and packaging, physical board protection, and environmental conditions such as the amount of smoke, temperature of burn, and humidity level. The likelihood of circuit bridging was tested by measuring leakage currents and converting those currents to resistance in ohms. Hermetically sealed ceramic packages were more resistant to smoke than plastic packages. Coating the boards with an acrylic spray provided some protection against circuit bridging. The smoke generation factors that affect the resistance the most are humidity, fuel level, and burn temperature. The use of CO{sub 2} as a fire suppressant, the presence of galvanic metal, and the presence of PVC did not significantly affect the outcome of these results.

  20. Higher-Order Components for Grid Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Dünnweber, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Higher-Order Components were developed within the CoreGRID European Network of Excellence and have become an optional extension of the popular Globus middleware. This book provides the reader with hands-on experience, describing a collection of example applications from various fields of science and engineering, including biology and physics.