WorldWideScience

Sample records for building ventilation policy

  1. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  2. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  3. Building ventilation, state of the art, prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference is composed of 21 communications and 21 posters in the domain of building ventilation and indoor air quality; the main themes are: indoor air quality assessment and optimization; performance enhancement and optimization of ventilation systems and equipment; ventilation systems for renovated and rehabilitated buildings; French and European regulations, standardizations and certifications; experimental and numerical simulation studies concerning ventilation systems, air flow, temperature distribution, air quality, radon decontamination, thermal comfort and acoustic levels in buildings

  4. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.A. Kumar

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Handling Building (WHB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WHB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement areas ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination within the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WHB. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System is designed to perform its safety functions under accident conditions and other Design Basis Events (DBEs) (such as earthquakes, tornadoes, fires, and loss of the primary electric power). Additional system design features (such as compartmentalization with independent subsystems) limit the potential for cross-contamination within the WHB. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits. The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is

  5. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.A. Kumar

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Treatment Building (WTB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for personnel comfort and equipment operation, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WTB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement area ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination with the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WTB. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits, The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principles to maintain personnel radiation doses to all occupational workers below regulatory limits and as low as is reasonably achievable. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Waste Treatment Building System by being located in the WTB, and by maintaining specific pressure, temperature, and humidity environments within the building

  6. Building ventilation and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor contaminations and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Four indoor air contaminants - carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from gas appliances; formaldehyde from particleboard, plywood, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and gas appliances; and radon from building materials, soil, and ground water - are currently receiving considerable attention in the context of potential health risks associated with reduced infiltration and ventilation rates. The authors have measured and analyzed these air contaminants in conventional and energy efficient buildings with a view to assessing their potential health risks and various control strategies capable of lowering pollutant concentrations. Preliminary findings suggest that further intensive studies are needed in order to develop criteria for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality without compromising energy efficiency. (Auth.)

  7. Building cooling by night-time ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢军; 王曦; 甘灵丽

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays,the world is short of energy source,and larger proportion of building energy consumption is occupied by air conditioning system. It is urgent that not only importance should be attached on energy saving but also arcology energy technology based on green and sustainable thought should be advocated. Considering the ever growing energy consumption of residential buildings,intermittent ventilation is a solution to saving energy consumption and improving indoor thermal comfort. Aiming at reducing indoor air temperature by intermittent ventilation and decrease energy consumption of air conditioning system,with the help of DeST (Designer’s Simulation Toolkit) this paper analyzes the characteristics of air conditioning load and year round air conditioning time in Chongqing located in hot summer and cold winter zone,obtains the amount of energy consumption saved at different ventilation rates,and recommends suitable ventilation rate in hot summer and cold winter zone.

  8. Assessment of Pollutant Spread from a Building Basement with three Ventilation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Koffi, Juslin

    2009-01-01

    International audience Ventilation aims at providing a sufficient air renewal for ensuring a good indoor air quality (IAQ), yet building energy policies are leading to adapting various ventilation strategies minimising energy losses through air renewal. A recent IAQ evaluation campaign in French dwellings shows important pollution of living spaces by VOCs such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde or hexanal, particularly in buildings equipped with a garage. Besides, radon emission from soil is a ...

  9. A novel system solution for cooling and ventilation in office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lei, Bo; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Zhang, Chen

    technologies and renewable energy sources have risen. Based on a literature review of natural ventilation, building thermal mass activation and diffuse ceiling ventilation, this paper proposes a new system solution combining these three technologies for cooling and ventilation in office buildings. This new...... saving potential using this solution compared with other systems. Energy saving potential for cooling occurs in summer, transitional seasons and part of winter, depending on the internal heat load level. Meanwhile, due to the large cooling potential of outside air in winter, the minimum ventilation rate......As a response to new energy policies in the building sector, office buildings have become well-insulated and highly-airtight, resulting in an increasing cooling need both in summer and in winter. In order to effectively save energy, new interests in cooling concepts using passive cooling...

  10. Saving energy for ventilation by careful selection of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of the research project described in this paper was to study the potential of reducing energy used for ventilating buildings by using low-polluting building materials without compromising indoor air quality.......The main objective of the research project described in this paper was to study the potential of reducing energy used for ventilating buildings by using low-polluting building materials without compromising indoor air quality....

  11. Economic, Environmental and Health Implications of Enhanced Ventilation in Office Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Pegues, James; Satish, Usha; Santanam, Suresh; Spengler, John; Allen, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    performance of workers by 8%, equivalent to a $6500 increase in employee productivity each year. Reduced absenteeism and improved health are also seen with enhanced ventilation. Conclusions: The health benefits associated with enhanced ventilation rates far exceed the per-person energy costs relative to salary costs. Environmental impacts can be mitigated at regional, building, and individual-level scales through the transition to renewable energy sources, adoption of energy efficient systems and ventilation strategies, and promotion of other sustainable policies. PMID:26593933

  12. Economic, Environmental and Health Implications of Enhanced Ventilation in Office Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers MacNaughton

    2015-11-01

    improved the performance of workers by 8%, equivalent to a $6500 increase in employee productivity each year. Reduced absenteeism and improved health are also seen with enhanced ventilation. Conclusions: The health benefits associated with enhanced ventilation rates far exceed the per-person energy costs relative to salary costs. Environmental impacts can be mitigated at regional, building, and individual-level scales through the transition to renewable energy sources, adoption of energy efficient systems and ventilation strategies, and promotion of other sustainable policies.

  13. Ventilation in Commercial and Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    A number of areas have to be considered in connection with indoor air quality and ventilation. The selection of ventilation principle and components in the ventilation system will have influence on the indoor air quality and this subject will be discussed on the following pages. The main object o...

  14. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence in office workers with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional change in SBS symptom prevalence per unit change in ventilation rate per person. Values of ventilation rate, associated with each value of slope, were also calculated. Linear regression equations were fitted to the res...

  15. Indoor Environmental Quality in Mechanically Ventilated, Energy-Efficient Buildings vs. Conventional Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Wallner; Ute Munoz; Peter Tappler; Anna Wanka; Michael Kundi; Shelton, Janie F; Hans-Peter Hutter

    2015-01-01

    Energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, there are concerns that inadequate mechanical ventilation may lead to impaired indoor air quality. Using a semi-experimental field study, we investigated if exposure of occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) differs with regard to indoor air pollutants and climate factors. We investigated living and bedrooms in 123 buildings (62 highly energy-efficient and 61 conventional buildings) built in th...

  16. The relation between ventilation rates and building structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the concept of building and structure includes so various kinds of factors, the discussion in this paper on the ventilation rates refers mainly to the 'residential buildings' of 'reinforced concrete and timber frame'. Although it was believed, since before the world war II, that the concrete structure was better in air tightness than the timber frame of which ventilation rates were estimated as more than one air change per hour or so, it is getting hard to decide which one is tighter and to estimate the amount of ventilation rate based on just only the construction style. A description was given on the methodology to estimate the ventilation rate of a house using a simple chart. Outline of the values thus obtained is presented for the ventilation rates in Japanese residential buildings. (author)

  17. Flammable gas cloud build up in a ventilated enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation is frequently used as a means for preventing the build up of flammable or toxic gases in enclosed spaces. The effectiveness of the ventilation often has to be considered as part of a safety case or risk assessment. In this paper methods for assessing ventilation effectiveness for hazardous area classification are examined. The analysis uses data produced from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of low-pressure jet releases of flammable gas in a ventilated enclosure. The CFD model is validated against experimental measurements of gas releases in a ventilation-controlled test chamber. Good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental data. Analysis of the CFD results shows that the flammable gas cloud volume resulting from a leak is largely dependent on the mass release rate of flammable gas and the ventilation rate of the enclosure. The effectiveness of the ventilation for preventing the build up of flammable gas can therefore be assessed by considering the average gas concentration at the enclosure outlet(s). It is found that the ventilation rate of the enclosure provides a more useful measure of ventilation effectiveness than considering the enclosure air change rate.

  18. Rising damp in building walls: the wall base ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A. S.; Delgado, J. M. P. Q.; de Freitas, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    This work intends to validate a new system for treating rising damp in historic buildings walls. The results of laboratory experiments show that an efficient way of treating rising damp is by ventilating the wall base, using the HUMIVENT technique. The analytical model presented describes very well the observed features of rising damp in walls, verified by laboratory tests, who contributed for a simple sizing of the wall base ventilation system that will be implemented in historic buildings.

  19. Assessment of Pollutant Spread from a Building Basement with three Ventilation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Koffi, Juslin

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation aims at providing a sufficient air renewal for ensuring a good indoor air quality (IAQ), yet building energy policies are leading to adapting various ventilation strategies minimising energy losses through air renewal. A recent IAQ evaluation campaign in French dwellings shows important pollution of living spaces by VOCs such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde or hexanal, particularly in buildings equipped with a garage. Besides, radon emission from soil is a subject of concern in many countries. Several studies are done to understand its release mode and deal with the spread of this carcinogen gas. This paper aims to experimentally assess a contaminant spread from a house basement using mechanical exhaust and balanced ventilation systems, and natural ventilation.

  20. Ventilation and infiltration in high-rise apartment buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Feustel, H.E.; Dickerhoff, D.J.

    1996-03-01

    Air flow, air leakage measurements and numerical simulations were made on a 13-story apartment building to characterize the ventilation rates for the individual apartments. Parametric simulations were performed for specific conditions, e.g., height, orientation, outside temperature and wind speed. Our analysis of the air flow simulations suggest that the ventilation to the individual units varies considerably. With the mechanical ventilation system disabled and no wind, units at the lower level of the building have adequate ventilation only on days with high temperature differences, while units on higher floors have no ventilation at all. Units facing the windward side will be over-ventilated when the building experiences wind directions between west and north. At the same time, leeward apartments did not experience any fresh air-because, in these cases, air flows enter the apartments from the corridor and exit through the exhaust shafts and the cracks in the facade. Even with the mechanical ventilation system operating, we found wide variation in the air flows to the individual apartments. In addition to the specific case presented here, these findings have more general implications for energy retrofits and health and comfort of occupants in high-rise apartment buildings.

  1. Design of ventilation system of reactor building for CARR engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ventilation rate of the reactor building is determined by the calculation results of radiation protection, which has referred to the demands of code, the experience of German FRMII reactor designing, and the pollution level as well as the personnel residence of each room. Direct ventilation system is used in the reactor building, and each storey has a separate ventilation and air cleaning system. Airtight quick isolation valves, of which the in-out-leakage rate is 0 under the reactor building tightness test pressure (12.5kPa), are set on the air ducts which through the sealing boundary of operating hall. This measure can guarantee the radioactive matters against leaking into outside spaces through the ventilation ducts during accident conditions of the reactor. Direct-connected steel fans and integral stainless steel air cleaning equipments are chosen in the system designing. (authors)

  2. Investigation of Indoor Climate in a Naturally Ventilated Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund;

    2008-01-01

    A measuring program in a naturally ventilated office building in Copenhagen was carried out to document the indoor climate and ventilation system performance during a year. It included a questionnaire regarding the perceived indoor environmental quality and physical measurements of thermal comfort......, indoor air quality, air distribution in the building, air flow rates and infiltration. The results showed that the temperature levels in general fulfilled the requirements for thermal comfort. In some parts of the building occupants complained of high and varying temperatures and draught. This was due to...... a combination of poor control of solar shading and a very high local heat load that was above the Danish recommendations for naturally ventilated office buildings. Both measured and perceived indoor air quality in the building was in general very high. The measured air flow rates was relatively high...

  3. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Mirer, Anna G.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence in office workers with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional change in SBS symptom prevalence per unit change in ventilation rate per person. Values of ventilation rate, associated with each value of slope, were also calculated. Linear regression equations were fitted to the resulting data points, after weighting by study size. Integration of the slope-ventilation rate equations yielded curves of relative SBS symptom prevalence versus ventilation rate. Based on these analyses, as the ventilation rate drops from 10 to 5 L/s-person, relative SBS symptom prevalence increases approximately 23percent (12percent to 32percent), and as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-person, relative prevalence decreases approximately 29percent (15percent to 42percent). Variations in SBS symptom types, building features, and outdoor air quality may cause the relationship ofSBS symptom prevalence with ventilation rate in specific situations to differ from the average relationship predicted in this paper.

  4. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional and...... personal level.    (4) To establish appropriate institutional and organisational infrastructures to manage the integration of topographic mapping and cadastral information into a coherent land administration system for sustainable development. The paper aims to establish the basic understanding for dealing...

  5. Indoor Environmental Quality in Mechanically Ventilated, Energy-Efficient Buildings vs. Conventional Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wallner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, there are concerns that inadequate mechanical ventilation may lead to impaired indoor air quality. Using a semi-experimental field study, we investigated if exposure of occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation differs with regard to indoor air pollutants and climate factors. We investigated living and bedrooms in 123 buildings (62 highly energy-efficient and 61 conventional buildings built in the years 2010 to 2012 in Austria (mainly Vienna and Lower Austria. Measurements of indoor parameters (climate, chemical pollutants and biological contaminants were conducted twice. In total, more than 3000 measurements were performed. Almost all indoor air quality and room climate parameters showed significantly better results in mechanically ventilated homes compared to those relying on ventilation from open windows and/or doors. This study does not support the hypothesis that occupants in mechanically ventilated low energy houses are exposed to lower indoor air quality.

  6. Efficient ventilation in school buildings. Design guidebook; Ventilation performante dans les ecoles. Guide de conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This guidebook aims at giving practical advices for the design of ventilation systems for school buildings in order to maintain air quality levels and energy consumptions conformable with the real needs: 1 - the specific problem of schools (various types of rooms, particular indoor pollutions); 2 - main criteria to consider (air quality and hygiene, hygro-thermal comfort, ventilation efficiency, acoustic comfort, energy mastery); 3 - main existing solutions (simple-flux blow-off or blow-in mechanical ventilation systems, dual-flux systems, air conditioning systems); 4 - choice of an adapted solution (selection criteria, global solution for the school); setting-up and follow-up (rules, training, maintenance). (J.S.)

  7. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Outside Air Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    venThis Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research showing how automated night ventilation can reduce cooling energy costs up to 40% and peak demand up to 50% in California’s hot-dry central valley climates and can eliminate the need for air conditioning altogether in the coastal marine climate.

  8. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sidheswaran, Meera

    2010-01-01

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source contr...

  9. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  10. Improving Stack Effect in Hot Humid Building Interiors with Hybrid Turbine Ventilator(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifa Radia Tashkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural ventilation strategies have been applied through the ages to offer thermal comfort. At present, these techniques could be employed as one of the methods to overcome the electric consumption that comes from the burning of disproportionate fossil fuel to operate air conditioners. This air conditioning process is the main contributor of CO2 emissions. This paper focuses on the efficiency of stack ventilation which is one of the natural ventilation strategies, and at the same time attempts to overcome the problem of erratic wind flow and the low indoor/outdoor temperature difference in the hot, humid Malaysian climate. Wind flow and sufficient pressure difference are essential for stack ventilation, and as such the irregularity can be overcome with the use of the Hybrid Turbine Ventilator (HTV which extracts hot air from the interior of the building via the roof level. The extraction of hot air is constant and consistent throughout the day time as long as there is sunlight falling on the solar panel for solar electricity. The aim of this paper is to explore the different HTV strategies and find out which building dimensions is most expected to reduce maximum indoor air temperature of a given room in a real weather condition.

  11. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence in office workers with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional...

  12. Numerical simulation and exergetic analysis of building ventilation solar chimneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Exergetic analysis of a building ventilation solar chimney. • Numerical CFD model developed, validated and employed to study the flow. • Analysis of the solar chimney energy and exergy efficiencies. • Mechanical and thermal exergy distributions have been analysed. • Crucial points in the chimney identified to improve its performance. - Abstract: The solar chimneys used in buildings are passive solar devices which improve natural ventilation. A detailed exergetic analysis has been developed in this work, both for general balance and specific variables. To apply this analysis, a three-dimensional CFD model has been built and validated with bibliographic experimental data. The values of the variables have been examined both inside and at the exit of the solar chimney, resulting in a detailed description of the inner phenomena and parameters influencing the exergetic efficiency. The results of this study offer new tools: a numerical methodology and an exergetic analysis, to improve the design of building ventilation solar chimneys. It also affords a deeper understanding of the thermal and fluid-dynamic behaviour, and suggests some qualitative improvements. However, the numerical data obtained from the case studied, show that solar chimneys as natural ventilation systems offer quite a small efficiency and will remain within the sphere of architectural decisions

  13. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Berger, D.; Zuluaga, M.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the 'fresh' air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the 'normal leakage paths through the building envelope' disappear. CARB researchers have found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, and the assumption is that products will perform similarly in the field. Proper application involves matching expected performance at expected building pressures, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. This research effort, which included several weeks of building pressure monitoring, sought to provide field validation of system performance. The performance of four substantially different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments was evaluated.

  14. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Berger, D. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Zuluaga, M. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the "fresh" air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent. CARB researchers have found that most new high performance, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. In this research project, CARB evaluated the four ventilation strategies in the field to validate system performance.

  15. Cooling of the Building Structure by Night-time Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai

    In modern, extensively glazed office buildings, due to high solar and internal loads and increased comfort expectations, air conditioning is increasingly applied even in moderate and cold climates, like in Central and Northern Europe. Particularly in these cases, night-time ventilation is often...... seen as a promising passive cooling concept. Many successful examples of passively cooled buildings demonstrate the possibility of providing good thermal comfort conditions without the need for energy-intensive air conditioning systems. However, due to uncertainties in the prediction of thermal comfort......-time ventilation alone might not be sufficient to guarantee thermal comfort. Possible time-dependent changes in CCP were assessed for the period 1990-2100, with particular emphasis on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) "A2" and "B2" scenarios for future emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols...

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste treatment building ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  17. Energy Performance of a Novel System Combining Natural Ventilation with Diffuse Ceiling Inlet and Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao

    thermally activated building systems (TABS) for cooling and ventilation in future Danish office buildings. The new solution would have the special potential of using natural ventilation all year round even in the extremely cold seasons without any draught risk. The main focuses of this study are the energy....... Both steady-state and dynamic measurements are carried out in the experimental chamber to investigate the energy performance of the system and the thermal comfort in the test room. Overall, this integrated system has high energy saving potential without any compromise of thermal comfort even in extreme......As a response to new stringent energy policies in the building sector, office buildings have become well-insulated and highly-airtight, resulting in an increasing cooling need in both summer and winter. This study proposes a novel system combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and...

  18. Influence of ventilation on energy consumption and carbon emissions in high occupant density building

    OpenAIRE

    Wang J., Zhang X.

    2010-01-01

    Reasonable determination of outdoor airflow for building ventilation is very useful for indoor air quality improvement and building energy conservation. Variation characteristics of outdoor airflow requirement, building energy consumption and carbon emission for ventilation with indoor occupant density and ventilation time were analyzed for high occupant density building space, according to the indoor air pollutants mass-balance mechanism and outdoor airflow calculation principle in GB50019-2...

  19. Energy Consumption and Indoor Air Quality of Different Ventilation Possibilities in a New Apartment Building

    OpenAIRE

    Žogla, G; Blumberga, A

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on natural ventilation systems in new buildings. There is particular interest in heat energy consumption and indoor air quality with different ventilation possibilities. Indoor air quality measurements during different ventilation solutions were conducted in a new apartment building. The results of this paper show that, by applying some common ventilation solutions, the consumption of heat energy for heating the cold incoming air can reach up to 0,86 MWh/month in a 10 m2 roo...

  20. 209-E Building -- Response to ventilation failure evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides an evaluation and recommendations for radiological workplace air monitoring and response to ventilation failure for the Critical Mass Laboratory, 209-E Building. The Critical Mass Laboratory, part of the 209-E Building, was designed to provide a heavily shielded room where plutonium and uranium liquid solutions could be brought into various critical configurations under readily controlled and monitored conditions. The facility is contained within a one-story L-shaped concrete block and reinforced concrete building. One wing houses offices, a control room, shops, and a common area while the other wing includes an equipment room, the change room, work areas, and the two-story Critical Assembly Room (CAR). Three of the rooms contain radiologically contaminated equipment and materials

  1. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David; Eliseeva, Ekaterina

    2010-03-17

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors are often deployed in commercial buildings to obtain CO{sub 2} data that are used, in a process called demand-controlled ventilation, to automatically modulate rates of outdoor air ventilation. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. Demand controlled ventilation is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. Reasonably accurate CO{sub 2} measurements are needed for successful demand controlled ventilation; however, prior research has suggested substantial measurement errors. Accordingly, this study evaluated: (a) the accuracy of 208 CO{sub 2} single-location sensors located in 34 commercial buildings, (b) the accuracy of four multi-location CO{sub 2} measurement systems that utilize tubing, valves, and pumps to measure at multiple locations with single CO{sub 2} sensors, and (c) the spatial variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations within meeting rooms. The field studies of the accuracy of single-location CO{sub 2} sensors included multi-concentration calibration checks of 90 sensors in which sensor accuracy was checked at multiple CO{sub 2} concentrations using primary standard calibration gases. From these evaluations, average errors were small, -26 ppm and -9 ppm at 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively; however, the averages of the absolute values of error were 118 ppm (16%) and 138 ppm (14%), at concentrations of 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively. The calibration data are generally well fit by a straight line as indicated by high values of R{sup 2}. The Title 24 standard specifies that sensor error must be certified as no greater than 75 ppm for a period of five years after sensor installation. At 1010 ppm, 40% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 31% of sensors has errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. At 760 ppm, 47% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 37% of

  2. Annex 35:HybVent - Hybrid Ventilation in New and Retrofitted Office Buildings - State of the Art

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2000-01-01

    The scope of the annex is to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex will focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on development, implementation and demonstration of hybrid ventilation in real buildings.

  3. Solar chimney: A sustainable approach for ventilation and building space conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal, S.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The residential and commercial buildings demand increase with rapidly growing population. It leads to the vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation and day-lighting. The natural air ventilation system is not significantly works in conventional structure, so fans and air conditioners are mandatory to meet the proper ventilation and space conditioning. Globally building sector consumed largest energy and utmost consumed in heating, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be reduced by application of solar chimney and integrated approaches in buildings for heating, ventilation and space conditioning. It is a sustainable approach for these applications in buildings. The authors are reviewed the concept, various method of evaluation, modelings and performance of solar chimney variables, applications and integrated approaches.

  4. Care of the ventilator-dependent patient: public policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, M E

    1986-04-01

    Because traditional cost-based reimbursement for acute hospital care has been replaced by the DRG system and other limited-payment approaches, hospital managers are seeking more cost-effective provision of care. This has shortened patient-stay periods in hospitals and increased demand for such alternatives as nursing home and private home care for chronically ill persons, including those dependent on ventilators. At the same time that hospitals seek to discharge patients earlier, patients themselves would prefer to remain in hospitals for long-term care because adequate financial coverage is not available to most of them for alternative-site care. In this setting of conflict between the financial policies of hospitals and those of Medicare and private insurance carriers, it is important to keep quality of care, not financial considerations, as the first consideration when a facility is chosen for long-term care. But the long-term patient, including the patient requiring ventilator support, is caught in the web of competing financial incentives and the fact that there is no consensus on how such care should be organized, delivered, or paid for. The only significant source of funding for long-term nursing home care is Medicaid, which requires the patient to give up his personal assets, including his home; this makes it nearly certain that he will always remain institutionalized. Private insurance carriers have not yet come to terms with the idea that long-term ventilator care can be made less expensive at sites other than hospitals--and thus many patients have no satisfactory answer to the problem of where to receive such care or how it can be financed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10315693

  5. Developing green building policy in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Lok-yan, Esther; 馮樂恩

    2014-01-01

    Desk-top research found that the performance of green building development in Hong Kong has lagged behind other countries or cities of similar international status. The main reason for that is the lack of green building policy to coordinate the existing measures. Hence, this dissertation aims to fill the gap by finding out whether green building policy should be implemented in Hong Kong and what instruments or tools should be included in the policy if it is formulated. Further to the focu...

  6. Comparison of mixing and displacement ventilation in a low energy office building during heating season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Wu, Xiaozhou;

    2014-01-01

    ventilation compared to those for displacement ventilation. Due to the heat emission from equipments and occupants, heating system was not needed in the low energy office building in a mild winter. In such a situation, indoor thermal environment was still acceptable in terms of the general thermal comfort and...... the local thermal discomfort for a standard office worker.......The present study investigated the performance of mixing and displacement ventilation systems in a low energy office building during heating season. Measurements were performed with regard to air distribution and ventilation effectiveness. The results show that indoor air temperatures in occupied...

  7. Quantification of the association of ventilation rates with sick building syndrome symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Mirer, Anna G.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2009-06-01

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional change in SBS symptom prevalence per unit change in ventilation rate per person. Values of ventilation rate, associated with each value of slope, were also calculated. Linear regression equations were fit to the resulting data points, after weighting by study size. Integration of the slope-ventilation rate equations yielded curves of relative SBS symptom prevalence versus ventilation rate. Based on these analyses, relative SBS symptom prevalence increases approximately 23percent (12percent to 32percent) as the ventilation rate drops from 10 to 5 L/s-person and relative prevalence decreases approximately 29percent (15percent to 42percent) as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-person.

  8. Simulation of buoyancy-driven natural ventilation of buildings - Impact of computational domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Guohui [Department of the Built Environment, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Two computational domains have been used for simulation of buoyancy-driven natural ventilation in vertical cavities for different total heat fluxes and wall heat distributions. Results were compared between cavities with horizontal and vertical inlets. The predicted ventilation rate and heat transfer coefficient have been found to depend on the domain size and inlet position as well as the cavity size and heat distribution ratio. The difference in the predicted ventilation rate or heat transfer coefficient using two domains is generally larger for wider cavities with asymmetrical heating and is also larger for ventilation cavities with a horizontal inlet than those with a vertical inlet. The difference in the heat transfer coefficient is generally less than that in the ventilation rate. In addition, a ventilation cavity with symmetrical heating has a higher ventilation rate but generally lower heat transfer coefficient than does an asymmetrically heated cavity. A computational domain larger than the physical size should be used for accurate prediction of the flow rate and heat transfer in ventilation cavities or naturally ventilated buildings with large openings, particularly with multiple inlets and outlets. This is demonstrated with two examples for natural ventilation of buildings. (author)

  9. Ventilation as mitigation of PCB contaminated air in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Trap, Niels; Andersen, Helle Vibeke;

    2014-01-01

    measured in the same room at least twice and under different ventilation conditions. In general, PCB concentrations decrease with increased ventilation making the effect of ventilation to reduce human exposure feasible. In 26 case rooms, the mean reduction of the concentration was found to be 51% (median...... In the remaining four cases, the pressure difference between the room measured and the surroundings showed a tremendous effect on the concentration as opposed to the effect of ventilation. Pressure differences might affect the emission of PCB by motion of air through gaps and cracks along the PCB sealants. were...... of ventilation. Pressure differences might affect the emission of PCB by motion of air through gaps and cracks along the PCB sealants....

  10. A method for evaluating the problem complex of choosing the ventilation system for a new building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    The application of a ventilation system in a new building is a multidimensional complex problem that involves quantifiable and non-quantifiable data like energy consump¬tion, indoor environment, building integration and architectural expression. This paper presents a structured method for evaluat......’. Herein the designer may view multiple ventilation solutions and navigate between them, evaluate the differences and choose the best ventilation system scenario in terms of energy consumption, indoor environment and architectural quality.......The application of a ventilation system in a new building is a multidimensional complex problem that involves quantifiable and non-quantifiable data like energy consump¬tion, indoor environment, building integration and architectural expression. This paper presents a structured method for...

  11. Power Efficiency of Systems Applied for Heating Building and Structure External Walls with Ventilated Air Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    I. F. Fialko; A. S. Statsenko

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers power-efficient systems applied for heating building and structure external walls with ventilated air spaces and prescribes directions and problems pertaining to power-efficiency improvement of such systems.

  12. Building characterization and aerosol infiltration into a naturally ventilated three-story apartment building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodes, Charles E; Vanosdell, Douglas W; Portzer, Jeffrey W; Seagraves, Jeremy; Hahn, Intaek; Henkle, Stacy W; Wiener, Russell W

    2009-12-01

    Understanding infiltration of outdoor pollutants was an integral part of the Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study. For this reason, the structural and air exchange properties of the three-story row house in Brooklyn, NY, USA, that was used in the B-TRAPPED experiments were fully characterized. Factors investigated included representativeness of the construction and impact of building design features on the natural ventilation and infiltration of outdoor aerosol. Both blower door and perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) air exchange rate (AER) experiments showed that the ventilation rates of the building were quite typical of similar structures in the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) aerosol count ratios by particle size were comparable to a similar vintage naturally ventilated building in Boston, MA, USA. I/O ratio analyses were consistent with literature findings and showed I/O ratios ranging from 0.310 to 0.601, varying across particle sizes (from 0.3 to 5.0 [corrected] mum) and between first and second floor apartments. An effort to apply the rebound method of Thatcher et al. (Aerosol Sci. Technol., 2003, 37, 847-864) in determining aerosol infiltration rates proved unsuccessful due to unexpectedly long (>60 min) equilibration times after the filtration period. Uninsulated interior wall renovations in the study house created a cavity that resulted in a large intermediate dead volume (for infiltration) that apparently could not be accommodated by a simple infiltration model. Simple two-compartment models evidently have finite application limitations for even modestly complex settings. PMID:20024015

  13. Building America Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts, Tyler, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-08-01

    ?Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Wind Driven Natural Ventilation in a Building Scale Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; True, Jan Per Jensen; Sandberg, Mats;

    2004-01-01

    Airflow through openings in a cross ventilated building scale model was investigated in a wind tunnel and by numerical predictions. Predictions for a wind direction perpendicular to the building showed an airflow pattern consisting of streamlines entering the room, that originated from approximat......Airflow through openings in a cross ventilated building scale model was investigated in a wind tunnel and by numerical predictions. Predictions for a wind direction perpendicular to the building showed an airflow pattern consisting of streamlines entering the room, that originated from...

  15. Experimental assessment of IAQ improvement in naturally ventilated educational buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Manuel; Almeida, Ricardo; Pinho, Paulo; Lemos, Luís; Lanzinha, João

    2014-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions in classrooms, in particular temperature and indoor air quality, influence students’ health, attitude and performance. In recent years several studies regarding indoor environmental quality of classrooms were published and natural ventilation proved to have great potential, particularly in southern European climate. This research aimed to evaluate indoor environmental conditions in 8 schools and to assess their improvement potential by simple natural ventil...

  16. Parameter study on performance of building cooling by night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    Especially for commercial buildings in moderate climates, night-time ventilation seems to be a simple and energy-efficient approach to improve thermal comfort in summer. However, due to uncertainties in the prediction of thermal comfort in buildings with night-time ventilation, architects and......-time ventilation were found to have the largest effect. But thermal mass and internal heat gains also have a significant effect on cooling performance and the achievable level of thermal comfort. Using this modelling approach, significant sensitivity to heat transfer was found only for total heat transfer...... engineers are still hesitant to apply this technique. In order to reduce the uncertainties, the most important parameters affecting night ventilation performance need to be identified. A typical office room was therefore modelled using a building energy simulation programme (HELIOS), and the effect of...

  17. Policy Pathways: Energy Performance Certification of Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the most effective measures to address energy security, climate change and economic objectives. The Policy Pathways series can help countries capture this potential by assisting with the implementation of the 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations that were published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in 2008. This policy pathway on energy performance certification of buildings is the second in the series. It aims to provide a 'how-to' guide to policy makers and relevant stakeholders on the essential elements in implementing energy performance certification of buildings programmes. Energy performance certification of buildings is a way to rate the energy efficiency of individual buildings -- whether they be residential, commercial or public. It is a key policy instrument that can assist governments in reducing energy consumption in buildings. This policy pathway showcases experiences from countries around the world to show examples of good practice and delivers a pathway of ten critical steps to implement energy performance certification of buildings programmes.

  18. Viability of naturally ventilated buildings in the UK under predicted future summer climates

    OpenAIRE

    Jentsch, Mark Frederick

    2009-01-01

    According to current climate change predictions for the UK, summers are expected to become dryer and hotter in the future. This has potentially serious implications for overheating of naturally ventilated office buildings, many of which already fail to perform under current heatwave conditions. This thesis addresses the summer performance of such buildings under current and future climates by means of building performance simulation. Current industry standard weather datasets for building per...

  19. An overview of the TA-55, Building PF-4 ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the TA-55, Building PF-4 ventilation system is provided in the following sections. Included are descriptions of the zone configurations, equipment-performance criteria, ventilation support systems, and the ventilation-system evaluation criteria. Section 4.2.1.1 provides a brief discussion of the ventilation system function. Section 4.2.1.2 provides details on the overall system configuration. Details of system interfaces and support systems are provided in Section 4.2.1.3. Section 4.2.1.4 describes instrumentation and control needed to operate the ventilation system. Finally, Sections 4.2.1.5 and 4.2.1.6 describe system surveillance/maintenance and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) Limitations, respectively. Note that the numerical parameters included in this description are considered nominal; set points and other specifications actually fall within operational bands

  20. Solar ventilation: The use of solar chimneys for natural ventilation of buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macquoy, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is written for the TIDO-course AR0532 Smart & Bioclimatic Design Theory. A very old principle is the system of the solar chimney for ventilation, which in recent years has regained interests. This essay will explore the potentials of solar chimneys in a modern application.

  1. Wind-induced natural ventilation of re-entrant bays in a high-rise building

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, CKC; Lam, KM; Leung, YTA; Yang, K.; Li Danny, HW; Cheung Sherman, CP

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a systematic computational study of wind-induced natural ventilation and pollutant transport of re-entrant bays on a total of 30 generic building models of different building heights and with bays of different dimensions. Mean wind flow around each building model and wind-induced flow inside re-entrant bays are computed. To determine the ventilation efficiency of the bay, the computed flow field is used to disperse a scalar pollutant initially occupying the entire bay at a ...

  2. Climatic potential for passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    , Eastern and Northern Europe. The basic concept involves cooling the building structure overnight in order to provide a heat sink that is available during the occupancy period. In this study, the potential for passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation was evaluated by analysing climatic data...

  3. CAN SORBENT-BASED GAS PHASE AIR CLEANING FOR VOCS SUBSTITUTE FOR VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS?

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings, as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this...

  4. Energy and Cost Associated with Ventilating Office Buildings in a Tropical Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Donghyun; Schiavon, Stefano; Nazaroff, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Providing sufficient amounts of outdoor air to occupants is a critical building function for supporting occupant health, well-being and productivity. In tropical climates, high ventilation rates require substantial amounts of energy to cool and dehumidify supply air. This study evaluates the energy consumption and associated cost for thermally conditioning outdoor air provided for building ventilation in tropical climates, considering Singapore as an example locale. We investigated the influence on energy consumption and cost of the following factors: outdoor air temperature and humidity, ventilation rate (L/s per person), indoor air temperature and humidity, air conditioning system coefficient of performance (COP), and cost of electricity. Results show that dehumidification of outdoor air accounts for more than 80% of the energy needed for building ventilation in Singapore’s tropical climate. Improved system performance and/or a small increase in the indoor temperature set point would permit relatively large ventilation rates (such as 25 L/s per person) at modest or no cost increment. Overall, even in a thermally demanding tropical climate, the energy cost associated with increasing ventilation rate up to 25 L/s per person is less than 1% of the wages of an office worker in an advanced economy like Singapore’s. This result implies that the benefits of increasing outdoor air ventilation rate up to 25 L/s per person — which is suggested to provide for productivity increases, lower sick building syndrome symptom prevalence, and reduced sick leave — can be much larger than the incremental cost of ventilation. PMID:25822504

  5. The effect of using low-polluting building materials on ventilation requirements and energy use in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Frontczak, M. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of the ongoing research project described in this paper was to study the potential for reducing energy used for ventilating buildings by using low-polluting building materials, without compromising the indoor air quality. To quantify this potential, the exposure-response relationships, i.e. the relationships between ventilation rate and perceived indoor air quality, were established for rooms furnished with different categories of polluting materials and the simulations of energy used for ventilation were carried out. The exposure-response relationships were based on a summary of data reported in the literature on exposure-response relationships for materials tested in laboratory settings in small-scale glass chambers, and in full-scale in climate chambers, test rooms or normal offices. New experiments were also considered in which the effect of using low-polluting materials on perceived air quality was examined in test rooms ventilated with different outdoor air supply rates, low-polluting materials being selected in small glass chambers. The results suggest that the exposure-response relationships vary between different building materials and that the perceived air quality can be improved considerably when polluting building materials are substituted with materials that pollute less. The preliminary energy simulations indicate that selecting low-polluting materials will result in considerable energy savings as a result of reducing the ventilation rates required to achieve acceptable indoor air quality. (au)

  6. Policy Pathways: Modernising Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Buildings are the largest consumers of energy worldwide and will continue to be a source of increasing energy demand in the future. Globally, the sector’s final energy consumption doubled between 1971 and 2010 to reach 2 794 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), driven primarily by population increase and economic growth. Under current policies, the global energy demand of buildings is projected by the IEA experts to grow by an additional 838 Mtoe by 2035 compared to 2010. The challenges of the projected increase of energy consumption due to the built environment vary by country. In IEA member countries, much of the future buildings stock is already in place, and so the main challenge is to renovate existing buildings stock. In non-IEA countries, more than half of the buildings stock needed by 2050 has yet to be built. The IEA and the UNDP partnered to analyse current practices in the design and implementation of building energy codes. The aim is to consolidate existing efforts and to encourage more attention to the role of the built environment in a low-carbon and climate-resilient world. This joint IEA-UNDP Policy Pathway aims to share lessons learned between IEA member countries and non-IEA countries. The objective is to spread best practices, limit pressures on global energy supply, improve energy security, and contribute to environmental sustainability. Part of the IEA Policy Pathway series, Modernising building energy codes to secure our global energy future sets out key steps in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The Policy Pathway series aims to help policy makers implement the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations endorsed by IEA Ministers (2011).

  7. Impact of controlled ventilation systems on energy consumption in mediterranean school buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Aguera Escudero, Jessica; Domínguez Amarillo, Samuel; Campano Laborda, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Current standards for indoor air quality (IAQ) in non-residential buildings demand high air renewal rates with different filtration stages and constant flow. Currently, new school buildings must incorporate mechanical ventilation systems which modify traditional heating installations in order to comply with the requirements for indoor air quality and energy efficiency. This study analyses the technical and energy outcomes involved in a school building when changing from a traditio...

  8. A method for evaluating the problem complex of choosing the ventilation system for a new building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    The application of a ventilation system in a new building is a multidimensional complex problem that involves quantifiable and non-quantifiable data like energy consump¬tion, indoor environment, building integration and architectural expression. This paper presents a structured method for...... evaluating the performance of a ventilation system in the design proces by treating quantifiable and non-quantifiable datasets together. The method is based on general morphological analysis and applies cross-consistency assessment for reducing the problem complex, thus treating the multi-dimensionality, the...

  9. Ventilated buildings optimisation by using a coupled thermal-airflow simulation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Remmen, Arne

    , local environment, building characteristics, building systems, behaviour of occupants, heat loads. Selected deterministic input factors were varied to generate additional information applied in an optimization loop. With that, it is found that the optimal solution depends to a great deal on the......This work shows the optimization of natural ventilation within buildings at the stage of design and behaviour of the occupants. An evaluation is done by coupled multizone air modelling and thermal building simulation by using a deterministic set of input factors comprising among others climate...... possibility of combined optimization of the behaviour of occupants with a lesser extent of the design building....

  10. Appropriate Ventilation Solutions for the Iconographic Buildings from the Fifties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge; Blyt, Henrik

    In Denmark we currently have an increased focus on preserving the most valuable domestic building examples from the period 1945 - 60. New literature deals with these architectural heritage matters. The authors of this paper argue, that due to question of preservation the buildings physiology is n...

  11. Appropriate Ventilation Solutions for the Iconographic Buildings from the Fifties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge; Blyt, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark we currently have an increased focus on preserving the most valuable domestic building examples from the period 1945 - 60. New literature deals with these architectural heritage matters. The authors of this paper argue, that due to question of preservation the buildings physiology is n...

  12. Reduced energy use for ventilation of buildings through selection of low-polluting building materials and furniture. Final Report; Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger hvori der systematisk er valgt lav-forurenende materialer og inventar. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-11-15

    The main objective of the research project was to study the potential of reducing energy used for ventilating buildings by using low-polluting building materials and thereby ensuring that indoor air quality will not be compromised. To quantify this potential, the exposure-response relationships, i.e. the relationships between ventilation rate and the perceived indoor air quality (indoor air quality perceived by humans as opposed to indoor air quality evaluated by chemical measurements), were established for rooms furnished with different more or less polluting materials. Based on these results simulations of energy used for ventilation were carried out for selected building scenarios. The exposure-response relationships were established by summarizing existing data reported in the literature and by a series of new experiments. The data summarized by reviewing the literature included data for building materials and furnishing tested in a laboratory setting in small-scale ventilated glass chambers, and in full-scale in ventilated climate chambers, test rooms or normal offices. Relevant low-polluting building materials were selected based on the literature review and a series of new experiments performed in ventilated small-scale glass chambers. Then the final experiments in which the effects of using low-polluting materials on perceived air quality were carried out in ventilated small-scale glass chambers and in full-scale test rooms ventilated with different outdoor air supply rates. Simulations of energy used for ventilation were carried out using BSim software. During simulations the ventilation rate was varied to obtain different levels of air quality when low-polluting building materials had been used, and it was examined how these changes influence the energy use. The results show that the exposure-response relationships vary between different building materials and thus the ventilation requirement to achieve a certain level of perceived indoor air quality vary

  13. Impact of the atmospheric boundary layer profile on the ventilation of a cubic building with two large opposite openings

    CERN Document Server

    Bastide, Alain; Boyer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the influence of the atmospheric boundary layer profile on the distribution of velocity in a building having two large openings. The knowledge of the flow form inside a building is useful to define a thermal environment favourable with thermal comfort and good air quality. In computational fluid dynamics, several profiles of atmospheric boundary layer can be used like logarithmic profiles or power profiles. This paper shows the impact of these profiles on the indoor airflow. Non-ventilated or ventilated parts of room are found. They show respectively ineffective ventilation and effective ventilation. A qualitative and global approach allows to observe the flows in a cubic building and to show the influence of each profile according to the external ground roughness and the incidence angle of the wind. Some zones, where occupants move, are named volumes of life. Ventilation is there observed using traditional tools in order to analyze quantitatively the ventilation of these zone...

  14. Methane emission from naturally ventilated livestock buildings can be determined from gas concentration measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Bjarne; Zhang, Guoqiang; Madsen, Jørgen; Rom, Hans Benny

    2012-01-01

    Determination of emission of contaminant gases as ammonia, methane, or laughing gas from natural ventilated livestock buildings with large opening is a challenge due to the large variations in gas concentration and air velocity in the openings. The close relation between calculated animal heat...... feasible to investigate the influence of feed composition on methane emission in a relative large number of operating cattle buildings and consequently it can support a development towards reduced greenhouse gas emission from cattle production....

  15. Low-Temperature Heating and Ventilation for Sustainability in Energy Efficient Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Hesaraki, Arefeh

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the building sector consumed approximately 39 % of the total final energy use in Sweden. Energy used for heating and hot water was responsible for approximately 60 % of the total energy consumption in the building sector. Therefore, energy-efficient and renewable-based heating and ventilation systems have high potential for energy savings. The potentials studied in this thesis include the combination of a low-temperature heat emitter (supply temperature below 45 °C) with heat pump an...

  16. Effect of using low-polluting building materials and increasing ventilation on perceived indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Zuczek, P. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-07-01

    The potential of improving perceived air quality indoors was quantified when low-polluting materials are used and when building ventilation is increased. This was done by studying the relationships between ventilation rate and the perceived indoor air quality. A sensory panel assessed the air quality in test rooms ventilated with realistic outdoor air supply rates, where combinations of high- and low-polluting wall, floor and ceiling materials were set up. These materials were ranked as high- and low-polluting using sensory assessments of air quality in small-scale glass chambers, where they were tested individually. Substituting materials ranked as high-polluting with materials ranked as lower-polluting improved the perceived air quality in the test rooms. This improvement was greater than what was achieved by a realistic increase of the ventilation rate in the test rooms. Thus reducing pollution emitted from building materials that affects the perceived air quality has a considerable potential of limiting the energy for ventilation without compromising indoor air quality. (au)

  17. Air ventilation impacts of the "wall effect" resulting from the alignment of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, S. H. L.; Fung, J. C. H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Kot, S. C.

    The objective of this study is to investigate the air ventilation impacts of the so called "wall effect" caused by the alignment of high-rise buildings in complex building clusters. The research method employs the numerical algorithm of computational fluid dynamics (CFD - FLUENT) to simulate the steady-state wind field in a typical Hong Kong urban setting and investigate pollutant dispersion inside the street canyon utilizing a pollutant transport model. The model settings of validation study were accomplished by comparing the simulation wind field around a single building block to wind tunnel data. The results revealed that our model simulation is fairly close to the wind tunnel measurements. In this paper, a typical dense building distribution in Hong Kong with 2 incident wind directions (0° and 22.5°) is studied. Two performance indicators are used to quantify the air ventilation impacts, namely the velocity ratio ( VR) and the retention time ( T r) of pollutants at the street level. The results indicated that the velocity ratio at 2 m above ground was reduced 40% and retention time of pollutants increased 80% inside the street canyon when high-rise buildings with 4 times height of the street canyon were aligned as a "wall" upstream. While this reduction of air ventilation was anticipated, the magnitude is significant and this result clearly has important implications for building and urban planning.

  18. Energy and IAQ Implications of Alternative Minimum Ventilation Rates in California Retail and School Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Spencer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    For a stand-alone retail building, a primary school, and a secondary school in each of the 16 California climate zones, the EnergyPlus building energy simulation model was used to estimate how minimum mechanical ventilation rates (VRs) affect energy use and indoor air concentrations of an indoor-generated contaminant. The modeling indicates large changes in heating energy use, but only moderate changes in total building energy use, as minimum VRs in the retail building are changed. For example, predicted state-wide heating energy consumption in the retail building decreases by more than 50% and total building energy consumption decreases by approximately 10% as the minimum VR decreases from the Title 24 requirement to no mechanical ventilation. The primary and secondary schools have notably higher internal heat gains than in the retail building models, resulting in significantly reduced demand for heating. The school heating energy use was correspondingly less sensitive to changes in the minimum VR. The modeling indicates that minimum VRs influence HVAC energy and total energy use in schools by only a few percent. For both the retail building and the school buildings, minimum VRs substantially affected the predicted annual-average indoor concentrations of an indoor generated contaminant, with larger effects in schools. The shape of the curves relating contaminant concentrations with VRs illustrate the importance of avoiding particularly low VRs.

  19. Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.

    2011-09-01

    This document is adapted from a memo and report delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in 2008. The report outlines ideas for and potential impacts of various green building policies in New Orleans in the years following Hurricane Katrina.

  20. A modelling study of segmentation of naturally ventilated tall office buildings in a hot and humid climate

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pei-Chun

    2012-01-01

    The prevailing paradigm in indoor environment control of office buildings often excludes natural ventilation, due to the fact that its dynamic nature may not be compatible with the close control of mechanical conditioning systems. The challenges will be greater in terms of the potential high magnitudes of wind and buoyancy forces at high levels of tall buildings. This research is concerned with the prospect of tall office buildings that are purely naturally ventilated. It is proposed that “se...

  1. Energy policy instruments and technical change in the residential building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The passing by the European Parliament of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) in 2003 obliges all European member states to implement energy regulations for buildings based on the concept of energy performance by the year 2009 ultimately. Given the importance of the development of innovations in energy technology, and a transition to a sustainable energy supply system, it is necessary that policy instruments for energy conservation in the building sector stimulate the development and diffusion of innovations. This thesis contributes to knowledge about the content of energy performance policy and concludes that the effect of Dutch energy performance policy in encouraging innovation is limited. Energy efficiency improvements, by energy performance policy, seem to have come from the overall optimisation of all the energy related features of residential buildings. Insulation levels improved, although not spectacular. Efficiencies of heating technology improved, although this seems partly to be a result of the ongoing development that started in the 1980s. The efficiency of fans used for ventilation improved, as did the efficiency of all sorts of auxiliary devices needed in heating technology, as well as the efficiency of heat recovery in balanced ventilation systems. Although energy performance policy seems to have contributed to the optimisation of all energy related features of residential buildings, it did not cause a breakthrough of innovative technology such as solar thermal systems or heat pumps. The study of the innovation system of the Dutch construction industry identifies how the project-based nature of the construction industry is an obstacle to 'learning-rich' collaboration between the various stakeholders. The study contributes to the discussion about the impact of government policy for energy conservation in the building sector, in the context of climate change policy.

  2. A First Approach to Natural Thermoventilation of Residential Buildings through Ventilation Chimneys Supplied by Solar Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Salata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of natural ventilation is a good solution to improve buildings from an energetic point of view and to fulfill the requirements demanded by the thermohygrometric comfort and the air quality in enclosed spaces. Some past researches demonstrated how some devices, useful to this purpose, follow the principles of solar chimneys and are able to move air masses while exploiting the Archimedes thrust. The natural ventilation must be supplied by a flow moving upward, generated by a heat source performing at temperatures slightly higher than the one present in the environment. To have a minimum energetic effect, the heat can be extracted from solar ponds; solar ponds are able to collect and store solar energy in the geographical regions characterized by sufficient values of solar radiation. Thus it is possible, in summer, to provoke a nocturnal natural ventilation useful for the air change in indoor spaces (in those climatic areas where, during the night, there is a temperature gradient.

  3. Numerical investigations of buoyancy-driven natural ventilation in a simple three-storey atrium building and thermal comfort evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerical investigations of buoyancy-driven natural ventilation and thermal comfort evaluation in a simple three-storey atrium building as a part of the passive ventilation strategy was undertaken using a validated Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model. The Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) modeling approach with the SST-k–ω turbulence model and the discrete transfer radiation model (DTRM) was used for the numerical investigations. The steady-state governing equations were solved using a commercial solver FLUENT©. Various flow situations of the buoyancy-driven natural ventilation in the building during day and night time were examined. The numerical results obtained for the airflow rates, airflow patterns and temperature distributions inside the building are presented in this paper. Using the numerical results, the well-known thermal comfort indices PMV (predicted mean vote) and PPD (predicted percentage of dissatisfied) were calculated for the evaluation of the thermal comfort conditions in the occupied regions of the building. It was noticed that thermal conditions prevailing in the occupied areas of the building as a result of using the buoyancy-driven ventilation were mostly in comfort zone. From the study of the night time ventilation, it was found that hot water (80 °C) circulation (heated by solar collectors during daytime) along the chimney walls during night time and heat sources present in the building can be useful in inducing night ventilation airflows in the building as a part of the passive ventilation strategy. -- Highlights: • A simple three-storey atrium building. • Numerical modeling of buoyancy-driven ventilation flow in the building. • Effect of solar intensity and geographical location on ventilation. • CFD predictions were used to calculate thermal comfort indices. • Evaluation of thermal comfort conditions for the occupants

  4. Building Energy-Efficiency Best Practice Policies and Policy Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Can, Stephane de la Rue de; Zheng, Nina; Williams, Christopher; Amman, Jennifer; Staniaszek, Dan

    2012-10-26

    This report addresses the single largest source of greenhouse gas emissions and the greatest opportunity to reduce these emissions. The IPCC 4th Assessment Report estimates that globally 35% to 40% of all energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions (relative to a growing baseline) result from energy use in buildings. Emissions reductions from a combination of energy efficiency and conservation (using less energy) in buildings have the potential to cut emissions as much as all other energy-using sectors combined. This is especially the case for China, India and other developing countries that are expected to account for 80% or more of growth in building energy use worldwide over the coming decades. In short, buildings constitute the largest opportunity to mitigate climate change and special attention needs to be devoted to developing countries. At the same time, the buildings sector has been particularly resistant to achieving this potential. Technology in other sectors has advanced more rapidly than in buildings. In the recent past, automobile companies have made large investments in designing, engineering, and marketing energy efficient and alternative fuel vehicles that reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, the buildings sector – dependent on millions and millions of decisions by consumers and homeowners – face a large variety of market barriers that cause very substantial underinvestment in energy efficiency. How can the trajectory of energy use in buildings be changed to reduce the associated CO{sub 2} emissions? Is it possible to greatly accelerate this change? The answer to these questions depends on policy, technology, and behavior. Can policies be crafted and implemented to drive the trajectory down? Can the use of existing energy efficiency technologies be increased greatly and new technologies developed and brought to market? And what is the role of behavior in reducing or increasing energy use in buildings? These are the three overarching issues

  5. Enhancement of Fire Safety of an Existing Green Building due to Natural Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sheng Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, natural ventilation technology is extensively used in order to improve indoor environment quality and reduce power consumption of air-conditioning systems in green buildings. However, the effect of natural ventilation on fires needs to be evaluated carefully, and how to make these energy-saving buildings safe is a topic worth studying. This study uses Fire Dynamics Simulator on some fire safety enhancement measures for an existing green building without installation of a smoke exhaust system. Since the building is located on a school campus, it does not require a smoke exhaust system according to Taiwan fire regulations. Referential results, obtained after a series of improvement strategies are tested, show that kiln natural ventilation can generate a comfortable air flow. Unfortunately, due to the stack effect, hot air and fatal smoke are blown into the evacuation route area behind the room when a fire occurs. The findings showed that there are two feasible improvement measures, “controlling the off state of each air inlet” and “setting up an exhaust port in the rear of room”, which can effectively resolve the fire safety issues; the construction of which can be undertaken at a reasonable cost.

  6. Ventilation and air conditioning facility turbine building in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the facility of the present invention, the exhaustion capacity of an exhaustion blower, an exhaustion duct or a main exhaustion stack are decreased to reduce cost for buildings and running cost. That is, the facility of the present invention has an exhaustion port at a position higher than an air supply port disposed to the outer wall of an operation floor of a turbine building. During usual operation, ventilation and air conditioning are conducted for the operation floor by natural circulating ventilation in which air is supplied from the air supply port and exhausted from the exhaustion port. Upon periodical inspection, ventilation and air conditioning are conducted for the operation floor by supplying air from the air supply port and exhausting it from the main exhaustion stack. When air is exhausted from the main exhaustion stack, a means for disposing an exhaustion system exclusively used for the operation floor having a separately disposed exhaustion blower connected to the main exhaustion stack is used or a means capable of selectively communicating the operation floor with a contamination area exhaustion system in the turbine building is used. With such a constitution, the capacity of the exhaustion system is reduced during both of the usual operation and periodical inspection. Further, upon periodical inspections, if air is exhausted from the main exhaustion stack by way of the exhaustion system exclusively used for the turbine building operation floor, the balance for the total amount of airflow is not lost. (I.S.)

  7. Augmenting natural ventilation using solar heat and free cool energy for residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Geetha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In many urban buildings ventilation is not sufficient that will increase the temperature and also create unhealthy atmosphere inside the room. In such buildings artificially induced ventilation through freely available energy promote comfort conditions by reducing the temperature by 2 to 3°C and also creating good circulation of fresh air inside the room. In the present work the concept of improving the ventilation by excess hot energy available during summer days from the solar flat plate collector and by storing cool energy available during the early morning hour in the Phase Change Material (PCM based storage system is attempted. An experimental setup is made to study the effect of improvement in natural ventilation and the results are reported. A visible reduction in temperature is observed through circulation of air from the bottom side of the room to the roof of the house using the stored hot and cool energy. A CFD analysis is also carried out using ANSYS-CFX software to simulate and evaluate the mass flow of air at the inlet and at the selected RTD location by matching the transient temperature profile of the simulated result with the experimental results at the selected RTD location.

  8. A Prospective Study of Ventilation Rates and Illness Absence in California Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseeva, Ekaterina A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Wanyu R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cohn, Sebastian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-10-07

    Background – This study investigated the associations of ventilation rates (VRs), estimated from indoor CO2 concentrations, in offices with the amount of respiratory infections, illness absences, and building-related health symptoms in occupants. Methods – Office buildings were recruited from three California climate zones. In one or more study spaces within each building, real-time logging sensors measured carbon dioxide, temperature, and relative humidity for one year. Ventilation rates were estimated using daily peak CO2 levels, and also using an alternative metric. Data on occupants and health outcomes were collected through web-based surveys every three months. Multivariate models were used to assess relationships between metrics of ventilation rate or CO2 and occupant outcomes. For all outcomes, negative associations were hypothesized with VR metrics, and positive associations with CO2 metrics. Results – Difficulty recruiting buildings and low survey response limited sample size and study power. In 16 studied spaces within 9 office buildings, VRs were uniformly high over the year, from twice to over nine times the California office VR standard (7 L/s or 15 cfm per person). VR and CO2 metrics had no statistically significant relationships with occupant outcomes, except for a small significantly positive association of the alternative VR metric with respiratory illness-related absence, contrary to hypotheses. Conclusions– The very high time-averaged VRs in the California office buildings studied presumably resulted from “economizer cycles” bringing in large volumes of outdoor air; however, in almost all buildings even the estimated minimum VRs supplied (without the economizer) substantially exceeded the minimum required VR. These high VRs may explain the absence of hypothesized relationships with occupant outcomes. Among uniformly high VRs, little variation in contaminant concentration and occupant effects would be expected. These findings may

  9. Cost benefit analysis of the night-time ventilative cooling in office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David

    2003-06-01

    The indoor temperature can be controlled with different levels of accuracy depending on the building and its HVAC system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential productivity benefits of improved temperature control, and to apply the information for a cost-benefit analyses of night-time ventilative cooling, which is a very energy efficient method of reducing indoor daytime temperatures. We analyzed the literature relating work performance with temperature, and found a general decrement in work performance when temperatures exceeded those associated with thermal neutrality. These studies included physiological modelling, performance of various tasks in laboratory experiments and measured productivity at work in real buildings. The studies indicate an average 2% decrement in work performance per degree C temperature rise, when the temperature is above 25 C. When we use this relationship to evaluate night-time ventilative cooling, the resulting benefit to cost ratio varies from 32 to 120.

  10. Comparison of CFD simulation of night purge ventilation to full-scale building measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigurupati, Asha; Gorle, Catherine; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2014-11-01

    Efforts to improve the understanding of air motion in and around buildings can lead to more efficient natural ventilation systems, thereby significantly reducing a building's heating and cooling demands. CFD simulations enable solving the details of the flow and convective heat transfer in buildings and have the potential to predict the performance of natural ventilation with a high degree of accuracy. Understanding the actual predictive capability of CFD simulations is however complicated by the complexity of the geometry and physics involved, and the uncertainty and variability in the boundary conditions. In the present study we model the night flush process in the Y2E2 building on Stanford University's campus and compare the results to measurements in the full-scale, operational building. We model half of the building, which consists of three floors with office spaces and two atriums. We solve the RANS equations using ANSYS/Fluent and k-e RNG theory turbulence closure model for the duration of one night flush and will present a comparison of the CFD results to measurements of the temperature on each floor in both atriums. Future investigations will focus on the potential of reducing the discrepancy between observed and predicted values by varying uncertain model parameters and boundary conditions.

  11. CFD and Field Testing of a Naturally Ventilated Full-scale Building

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tong

    2004-01-01

    Natural ventilation has the potential to provide good indoor air quality, thermal comfort for occupants, and can also save energy and reduce CO2 emissions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) offers detailed information about indoor flow patterns, air movement, temperature and local draught distribution in buildings, so it has unique advantages as an efficient and cost-effective tool for optimum design in a complex built environment. This thesis shows the use of CFD to simulate the coupled...

  12. The integration of engineering and architecture: A perspective on natural ventilation for the new San Francisco Federal Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the in-progress design of a new Federal Office Building for San Francisco is used to illustrate a number of issues arising in the design of large, naturally ventilated office buildings. These issues include the need for an integrated approach to design involving the architects, mechanical and structural engineers, lighting designers and specialist simulation modelers. In particular, the use of natural ventilation, and the avoidance of air-conditioning, depends on the high degree of exposed thermal mass made possible by the structural scheme and by the minimization of solar heat gains while maintaining the good daylighting that results from optimization of the facade. Another issue was the need for a radical change in interior space planning in order to enhance the natural ventilation; all the individual enclosed offices are located along the central spine of each floorplate rather than at the perimeter. The role of integration in deterring the undermining of the design through value engineering is discussed. The comfort criteria for the building were established based on the recent extension to the ASHRAE comfort standard based on the adaptive model for naturally ventilated buildings. The building energy simulation program EnergyPlus was used to compare the performance of different natural ventilation strategies. The results indicate that, in the San Francisco climate, wind-driven ventilation provides sufficient nocturnal cooling to maintain comfortable conditions and that external chimneys do not provide significant additional ventilation at times when it when it would be beneficial

  13. Dynamic simulations to develop a natural ventilation concept for an office building

    OpenAIRE

    Thewes, Andreas; Maas, Stefan; SCHOLZEN, Frank; Waldmann, Danièle; Zuerbes, Arno

    2010-01-01

    The Sustainability Group of the University of Luxembourg defined for their new buildings a maximum thermal end-energy of 14 kWh/(m3a) and an electricity consumption for HVAC and lighting below 6 kWh/(m3a). Therefore it was necessary to avoid active cooling loads and mechanical ventilation in the offices and small lecture rooms. The well insulated and air-tight façade, including special outside shading elements which were designed as a grid over the complete building envelope, was ...

  14. The effects of reduced ventilation on indoor air quality in an office building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiel, I.; Hollowell, C. D.; Miksch, R. R.; Rudy, J. V.; Young, R. A.; Coye, M. J.

    Indoor air quality was monitored at an office building in San Francisco, CA where occupants had registered eye, nose and throat irritation complaints. Portable air pollution monitoring equipment was placed on site to monitor air outdoors and at three indoor sites (a waiting room, an interview room and an office room), and data were taken under two different ventilation rates. The parameters measured were outside air flow rates, temperature, relative humidity, odor perception, microbial burden, particulate mass, formaldehyde and other organics, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Carbon dioxide concentrations increased as the ventilation rate decreased; odor perceptibility increased slightly at the lowest ventilation rate, and other pollutants generally showed very low concentrations, which increased when ventilation was reduced. In no case, however, did levels exceed current health standards for outdoor air, nor was any one contaminant found to be responsible for the medical symptoms reported by occupants. It is possible that a synergistic effect of the various contaminants and environmental conditions may account for the discomfort of occupants.

  15. Effect of natural ventilation and wind direction on the thermal performance of a building ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Aziz Ali, Ali [Banha Univ. (Egypt). Shoubra Faculty of Engineering; Nabil Milad, Guirguis; Mahmoud Aly, Hassan [Housing and Building Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    Natural ventilation is rapidly becoming a significant part in the design strategy of buildings in situations where electricity is scare or non-existent and saving energy becomes highly important. The aim of present work is to reduce the ceiling temperature by natural ventilation through different opening locations (one window in the front facade and the other window in the rear wall) with sill height ratios of 0.27, 0.36, 0.45, 0.54, and 0.63. Wind tunnel and smoke tunnel were used to investigate the effect of opening locations on the temperature and heat transfer coefficient of a ceiling of a naturally-ventilated room. Here, the ANSYS CFD software was used to determine the flow characteristics in the ventilated room with different opening locations and wind direction. Better flow pattern and heat transfer from the heated ceiling are observed when the front and rear openings are located nearest to the ceiling and center, respectively. An experimental correlation was obtained to predict the influence of sill opening height ratio of front and rear walls on the average heat transfer coefficient ratio of ceiling (h{sub av} / h{sub o}) where (h{sub o}) is the heat transfer coefficient in case of no wind. (orig.)

  16. Effects of window size and thermal mass on building comfort using an intelligent ventilation controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Roche, P. [Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela). Facultad de Arquitectura y Diseno; Milne, M. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Architecture

    2004-10-01

    A prototype microcomputer-controlled thermostat was developed that can manage airflow according to cooling the needs in a building and the resources in the environment. This intelligent control system measures both indoor and outdoor temperature and uses decision rules to control a whole-house fan, in addition to the furnace and air conditioner. No such residential thermostat is currently commercially available. This paper presents the controller strategy that optimizes cooling with outdoor air. This paper also quantifies the effects of modifying the amount of thermal mass and the window area on indoor comfort when using this controller. These test confirm that smaller windows and more mass performed better than larger windows and less mass, and that higher volumes of controlled ventilation outperformed fixed ventilation rates. (Author)

  17. Integrated Solution in an Office Room with Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and Thermally Activated Building Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew;

    2015-01-01

    An integrated system is proposed in this study to combine diffuse ceiling ventilation with a thermally activated building construction (TABS), aiming to provide cooling/ heating and ventilation to an office room all year around. The performance of the integrated system is evaluated by full......-scale experiments in a climate chamber. The experimental results indicate that diffuse ceiling can significantly improve thermal comfort in the occupied zone, by reducing draught risk and vertical temperature gradient. The linear function between pressure drop and air change rate points out that the air flow...... through diffuse ceiling is laminar. A thermal decay is found in the plenum air and the thermal performance of TABS may be influenced by water flow and air flow direction....

  18. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Allison P; Calderon, Leonardo; Xiong, Youyou; Wang, Zuocheng; Senick, Jennifer; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Plotnik, Deborah; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM) in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1) measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E) and mechanical (Building L) ventilation; (2) compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O) in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3) evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m³) than in Building L (37 µg/m³); I/O was higher in Building E (1.3-2.0) than in Building L (0.5-0.8) for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation) are important factors affecting residents' exposure to PM in residential green buildings. PMID:26805862

  19. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison P. Patton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1 measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E and mechanical (Building L ventilation; (2 compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3 evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m3 than in Building L (37 µg/m3; I/O was higher in Building E (1.3–2.0 than in Building L (0.5–0.8 for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation are important factors affecting residents’ exposure to PM in residential green buildings.

  20. Indoor air quality and occupant satisfaction in five mechanically and four naturally ventilated open-plan office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelgarrd, John; Juhl, Peter; Sæbjörnsson, Kristian;

    2005-01-01

    The indoor air quality and occupant satisfaction was studied in five mechanically ventilated and four naturally ventilated open-plan office buildings in Copenhagen, using a simplified assessment procedure. Temperature and the concentration of CO2 were monitored in 2-10 locations per office to...... evaluate the variation throughout the offices. A representative measurement point was subsequently selected and measurements of the same parameters were made during one week. All offices were monitored during the same week and occupant responses to the indoor environment were collected via the Internet on...... the same day within that week. The study indicated that occupants in naturally ventilated offices have a lower prevalence of symptoms than those in mechanically ventilated offices. Although the room air temperature varied more and the concentration of CO2 was higher in the naturally ventilated offices...

  1. The Effects of Air Permeability, Background Ventilation and Lifestyle on Energy Performance, Indoor Air Quality and Risk of Condensation in Domestic Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Arman Hashemi; Narguess Khatami

    2015-01-01

    Effective and efficient ventilation is essential when improving energy performance and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) of buildings. Reducing air permeability can considerably improve the energy performance of buildings; however, making the buildings more airtight may result in lower rates of natural ventilation which may in turn increase the risks of condensation and unacceptable IAQ. This study evaluates the effects of different air permeability rates, background ventilation and occupants’ lifes...

  2. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  3. Evaluation of buoyancy-driven ventilation in atrium buildings using computational fluid dynamics and reduced-scale air model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pei-Chun; Lin, Hsien-Te [Department of Architecture, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan City 70101 (China); Chou, Jung-Hua [Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University (China)

    2009-09-15

    This research focuses on developing a reliable methodology for predicting the performance of buoyancy-driven ventilation in atrium buildings during the design stage using both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and scale model tests. The results show several features. First, the agreement between CFD simulation and measurement results in the heated zone is better with rng k-{epsilon} and zero-equation turbulent schemes; whereas, in the atrium space, the laminar and zero-equation CFD models provide better results. Second, the external ambient temperature has a larger effect on the temperature distribution in the atrium space than the thermal load inside the building. Third, the position of the stack openings that create a direct ventilation path can improve the internal thermal environment. The size of the stack openings also affects the temperature distribution in the atrium space. Lastly, due to the small temperature difference in hot and humid climates, a buoyancy-only ventilation strategy is not very effective in such a situation. That is, when a low-rise atrium building is situated in a hot and humid environment, additional efforts such as wind-driven ventilation, wind-buoyancy ventilation or mechanically driven ventilation will be necessary to achieve the thermal comfort desired. (author)

  4. Thermal Comfort and Ventilation Criteria for low Energy Residential Buildings in Building Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Guangyu; Kurnitski, Jarek; Awbi, Hazim;

    2012-01-01

    Indoor environmental quality and energy performance of buildings are becoming more and more important in the design and construction of low energy, passive and zero energy buildings. At the same time, improved insulation and air tightness have the potential to resulting in a deterioration...

  5. Thermal comfort and ventilation criteria for low energy residential buildings in building codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Guangyu; Kurnitski, Jarek; Awbi, Hazim;

    2012-01-01

    Indoor environmental quality and energy performance of buildings are becoming more and more important in the design and construction of low energy, passive and zero energy buildings. At the same time, improved insulation and air tightness have the potential to resulting in a deterioration...

  6. Building Energy Codes: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Globally, 32% of total final energy consumption is attributed to the building sector. To reduce energy consumption, energy codes set minimum energy efficiency standards for the building sector. With effective implementation, building energy codes can support energy cost savings and complementary benefits associated with electricity reliability, air quality improvement, greenhouse gas emission reduction, increased comfort, and economic and social development. This policy brief seeks to support building code policymakers and implementers in designing effective building code programs.

  7. Fuzzy Evaluation of Thermal Comfort in Naturally Ventilated Residential Buildings in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi; NIU Tian-cai; LIU Jia-ping; XIAO Yong-qiang

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the differences between the human body thermal sensation in naturally ventilat-ed space and that in air-conditioned space,the fuzzy evaluation model was adopted in the research of thermal sensation in naturally ventilated space.Based on the questionnaires and field measurements,the membership functions were presented by the statistic of the covering frequency to the fuzzy subset.Dry-bulb temperature was taken as the only independent variable for membership functions.The maximum values of membership grades are all at 0.5 or so, which is a distinction character on thermal comfort of naturally ventihted space.By the cal-culating resultS of membership grades value to different fuzzy evaluation subsets,the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV)was obtained.Furthermore,energy coefficient(Ea) was introduced to calculate the energy consump-tion,and the prediction methods of residential building energy consumption were also discussed.Finally,the importance of evaluation model of thermal sense is shown through the energy consumption prediction in a specificresidential building.

  8. Data Policy Construction Set - Building Blocks from Childhood Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Dirk; Paul-Stueve, Thilo; Jobmann, Alexandra; Farrenkopf, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    A complete construction set of building blocks usually comes with instructions and these instruction include building stages. The products of these building stages usually build from very general parts become highly specialized building parts for very unique features of the whole construction model. This sounds very much like the construction or organization of an interdisciplinary research project, institution or association, doesn't it! The creation process of an overarching data policy for a project group or institution is exactly the combination of individual interests with the common goal of a collaborative data policy and can be compared with the building stages of a construction set of building blocks and the building instructions. Keeping this in mind we created the data policy construction set of textual building blocks. This construction set is subdivided into several building stages or parts each containing multiple building blocks as text blocks. By combining building blocks of all subdivisions it is supposed to create a cascading data policy document. Cascading from the top level as a construction set provider for all further down existing levels such as project, themes, work packages or Universities, faculties, institutes down to the working level of working groups. The working groups are picking from the remaining building blocks in the provided construction set the suitable blocks for its working procedures to create a very specific policy from the available construction set provided by the top level community. Nevertheless, if a working group realized that there are missing building blocks or worse that there are missing building parts, then they have the chance to add the missing pieces to the construction set of direct an future use. This cascading approach enables project or institution wide application of the encoded rules from the textual level on access to data storage infrastructure. This structured approach is flexible enough to allow for

  9. Developing evidence-based prescriptive ventilation rate standards for commercial buildings in California: a proposed framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Fisk, William J.

    2014-02-01

    Background - The goal of this project, with a focus on commercial buildings in California, was to develop a new framework for evidence-based minimum ventilation rate (MVR) standards that protect occupants in buildings while also considering energy use and cost. This was motivated by research findings suggesting that current prescriptive MVRs in commercial buildings do not provide occupants with fully safe and satisfactory indoor environments. Methods - The project began with a broad review in several areas ? the diverse strategies now used for standards or guidelines for MVRs or for environmental contaminant exposures, current knowledge about adverse human effects associated with VRs, and current knowledge about contaminants in commercial buildings, including their their presence, their adverse human effects, and their relationships with VRs. Based on a synthesis of the reviewed information, new principles and approaches are proposed for setting evidence-based VRs standards for commercial buildings, considering a range of human effects including health, performance, and acceptability of air. Results ? A review and evaluation is first presented of current approaches to setting prescriptive building ventilation standards and setting acceptable limits for human contaminant exposures in outdoor air and occupational settings. Recent research on approaches to setting acceptable levels of environmental exposures in evidence-based MVR standards is also described. From a synthesis and critique of these materials, a set of principles for setting MVRs is presented, along with an example approach based on these principles. The approach combines two sequential strategies. In a first step, an acceptable threshold is set for each adverse outcome that has a demonstrated relationship to VRs, as an increase from a (low) outcome level at a high reference ventilation rate (RVR, the VR needed to attain the best achievable levels of the adverse outcome); MVRs required to meet each

  10. Natural ventilation - A new method based on the Walton model applied to cross-ventilated buildings having two large external openings

    CERN Document Server

    Bastide, Alain; Boyer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide comfort in a low energy consumption building, it is preferable to use natural ventilation rather than HVAC systems. To achieve this, engineers need tools that predict the heat and mass transfers between the building's interior and exterior. This article presents a method implemented in some building software, and the results are compared to CFD. The results show that the knowledge model is not sufficiently well-described to identify all the physical phenomena and the relationships between them. A model is developed which introduces a new building-dependent coefficient allowing the use of Walton's model, as extended by Roldan to large external openings, and which better represents the turbulent phenomena near large external openings. The formulation of the mass flow rates is inversed to identify modeling problems. It appears that the discharge coefficient is not the only or best parameter to obtain an indoor static pressure compatible with CFD results, or to calculate more realistic mass fl...

  11. Barriers' and policies' analysis of China's building energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the rapid economic growth and the improvement of people's living standards, China's building energy consumption has kept rising during the past 15 years. Under the effort of the Chinese government and the society, China's building energy efficiency has made certain achievements. However, the implementation of building energy efficiency in China is still far from its potential. Based on the analysis of the existing policies implemented in China, the article concluded that the most essential and the most effective ways to promote building energy efficiency is the government's involvement as well as economic and financial incentives. In addition, the main barriers in the process of promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified in six aspects. It has been found that the legal system and administrative issues constitute major barriers, and the lack of financial incentives and the mismatching of market mechanism also hamper the promotion of building energy efficiency. Finally, in view of the existing policies and barriers analysis, three corresponding policy proposals are presented. -- Highlights: •The existing policies implemented in China from three aspects are presented and analysed. •The Government's involvement is the most essential effective way to promote building-energy efficiency. •Six aspects of barriers in promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified. •The legal system and administrative issues constitute the major barriers. •Three policy proposals to further promote building energy efficiency in China are proposed

  12. Evaluation of the indoor air quality minimum ventilation rate procedure for use in California retail buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, S M; Mendell, M J; Chan, W R; Barrios, M; Sidheswaran, M A; Sullivan, D P; Eliseeva, E A; Fisk, W J

    2015-02-01

    This research assesses benefits of adding to California Title-24 ventilation rate (VR) standards a performance-based option, similar to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers 'Indoor Air Quality Procedure' (IAQP) for retail spaces. Ventilation rates and concentrations of contaminants of concern (CoC) were measured in 13 stores. Mass balance models were used to estimate 'IAQP-based' VRs that would maintain concentrations of all CoCs below health- or odor-based reference concentration limits. An intervention study in a 'big box' store assessed how the current VR, the Title 24-prescribed VR, and the IAQP-based VR (0.24, 0.69, and 1.51 air changes per hour) influenced measured IAQ and perceived of IAQ. Neither current VRs nor Title 24-prescribed VRs would maintain all CoCs below reference limits in 12 of 13 stores. In the big box store, the IAQP-based VR kept all CoCs below limits. More than 80% of subjects reported acceptable air quality at all three VRs. In 11 of 13 buildings, saving energy through lower VRs while maintaining acceptable IAQ would require source reduction or gas-phase air cleaning for CoCs. In only one of the 13 retail stores surveyed, application of the IAQP would have allowed reduced VRs without additional contaminant-reduction strategies. PMID:24809924

  13. Occupant Time Period of Thermal Adaption to Change of Outdoor Air Temperature in Naturally Ventilated Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    liu, weiwei; Wargocki, Pawel; Xiong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The present work proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption of occupants in naturally ventilated building, based on the relationship between their neutral temperatures and running mean outdoor air temperature. Based on the data of the field investigation, the subjects’ time pe...... with the value of the subjects in this study. The comparison shows that the occupants in China had a shorter time period of thermal adaption than European occupants, which means that Chinese occupants can adapt to a new outdoor climate condition faster....... period of thermal adaption was obtained with the proposed method. The result revealed that the subjects needed to take 4.25 days to fully adapt to a step-change in outdoor air temperature. The time period of thermal adaption for the occupants in five European countries was also calculated and compared...

  14. Modeling ventilation rates in bedrooms based on building characteristics and occupant behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2011-01-01

    (lowest ACR in buildings from early 1970s), observed condensation on the bedroom window (higher ACR at less condensation), etc. The best-fitting model explained 46% of the variability in the air change rates. Variables related to occupant behavior were stronger predictors of ventilation rate (model R2 ¼ 0.30...... characteristics and occupant behavior. These were tested in several linear regression models to identify the degree of effect each selected independent variable has on the total ACR. The measured ACRs are summarized by some of the most significant variables such as room volume (higher ACR in smaller rooms......), number of people sleeping in the bedroom (higher ACR with more people), average window and door opening habits (higher ACR with more opening), sharing the bedroom with other family members (higher ACR in shared rooms), location of the measured room (higher ACR above ground floor), year of construction...

  15. Surfactant effects on air pressure transients in building drainage, waste and ventilation (DWV) systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.P. [Drainage Research Group, The School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    Building drainage, waste and ventilation (DWV) systems isolate the habitable space from the waste material with water trap seals at various points in the network. Current design guides aim to produce systems which protect these trap seals from unwanted air pressures, but are based on steady state experiments utilising cold clean water as a test media, and include a large 'safety factor' with no formal basis. However, most 'gray' and 'black' water sources are dosed with detergent, and are often warm, which significantly alters the behaviour when compared to clean water. This paper describes the current status of the investigation of parameters affected in systems operating with detergent-dosed waste water over typical temperature ranges, then uses an existing EPSRC-funded mathematical model (AIRNET) based on these findings to assess the impact of the effect of detergents on existing building codes. The results quantify the effects of detergency with temperature and indicate a general shortfall in current code-based predictions, and suggest that building codes may need revision. (author)

  16. Ventilation effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Mathisen, Hans Martin; Nielsen, Peter V; Moser, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy-to-understand descriptions of the indices used to mesure the performance of a ventilation system and which indices to use in different cases.

  17. Effect of ventilation on perceived quality of air polluted by building materials. A summary of reported data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Vondruskova, J. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-02-15

    This paper summarizes existing data on how varying ventilation rates affect the perceived quality of air polluted by building materials. This is done by reviewing literature dealing with exposure-response relationships, i.e. the log-linear relationships between the concentration of pollutants (exposure) and the perceived air quality (response). The reviewed data originate from studies with single building materials performed in small-scale ventilated chambers and from studies carried out in a full-scale setting resembling normal offices. Perceived air quality expressed in terms of acceptability as assessed by untrained panels was included. The results show that the exposure-response relationships vary for different building materials as regards the impact of changing ventilation rate on perceived air quality and the level of perceived air quality at a constant ventilation rate. This applies both for the data collected in small-scale and in full-scale experiments. The differences may be caused by the experimental conditions, psychological factors, physiological factors, and chemical/physical factors. A well controlled study taking these factors into account with several different building materials, is thus recommended to further study whether the observed results have practical significance. These experiments should be carried out under realistic fullscale conditions. (au)

  18. The conference of Russian Association of Engineers for Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, Heat Supply and Building Thermal Physics (ABOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Yakubson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available On April, 11th, in Lenexpo the XVI conference of Russian Association of Engineers for Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, Heat Supply and Building Thermal Physics (ABOK “Effective HVAC and Heat Supply Systems” took place. There were a lot of presentations of new equipment for building systems and networks. All these reports were dedicated to the ways to make buildings more comfortable for people, to increase the energy efficiency, to reduce expenses and to improve the production efficiency. But besides the specific equipment, there were some reports dedicated to more general problems in design, installation and maintenance of building systems and networks

  19. Building America Case Study: Sealed Crawl Spaces with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate, Ithaca, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    "9One method of code-compliance for crawlspaces is to seal and insulate the crawlspace, rather than venting to the outdoors. However, codes require mechanical ventilation; either via conditioned supply air from the HVAC system, or a continuous exhaust ventilation strategy. As the CARB's building partner, Ithaca Neighborhood Housing Services, intended to use the unvented crawlspace in a recent development, CARB was interested in investigating a hybrid ventilation method that includes the exhaust air from the crawlspace as a portion of an ASHRAE 62.2 compliant whole-house ventilation strategy. This hybrid ventilation method was evaluated through a series of long-term monitoring tests that observed temperature, humidity, and pressure conditions through the home and crawlspace. Additionally, CARB worked with NREL to perform multi-point tracer gas testing on six separate ventilation strategies - varying portions of 62.2 required flow supplied by the crawlspace fan and an upstairs bathroom fan. The intent of the tracer gas testing was to identify effective Reciprocal Age of Air (RAoA), which is equivalent to the air change rate in well-mixed zones, for each strategy while characterizing localized infiltration rates in several areas of the home.

  20. Ventilation Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundt, M.; Mathisen, H. M.; Moser, M.;

    Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy...

  1. The Effects of Air Permeability, Background Ventilation and Lifestyle on Energy Performance, Indoor Air Quality and Risk of Condensation in Domestic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Hashemi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective and efficient ventilation is essential when improving energy performance and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ of buildings. Reducing air permeability can considerably improve the energy performance of buildings; however, making the buildings more airtight may result in lower rates of natural ventilation which may in turn increase the risks of condensation and unacceptable IAQ. This study evaluates the effects of different air permeability rates, background ventilation and occupants’ lifestyles on the energy performance as well as the risk of condensation and CO2 concentration in domestic buildings. Dynamic computer simulations were conducted in EnergyPlus. Results indicated direct relations between the ventilation rates, energy performance and IAQ. Higher air permeability along with background ventilation resulted in considerably better IAQ while energy consumption increased by up to four times. Occupants’ lifestyles were identified as a major contributor to the risk of condensation.

  2. Potential for passive cooling of buildings by night-time ventilation in present and future climates in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, Heinrich; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    Given the general shift in recent decades towards a lower heating and higher cooling demand for buildings in many European countries, passive cooling by night-time ventilation has come to be seen as a promising option, particularly in the moderate or cold climates of Central, Eastern and Northern......-time ventilation alone might not suffice to guarantee thermal comfort. It should also be remembered that climatic cooling potential is likely to have fallen appreciably by the end of the 21st century due to climate warming....

  3. The use of fiscal instruments in sustainable building policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sunikka, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Although progressive government guidelines and knowledge about sustainable building exist, sustainability measures are not adopted in large scale. Several barriers have been identified, especially the perceived costs of implementing environmental management and the lack of market demand. The choice of fiscal instruments is an important issue in sustainable building policies. This paper presents an analysis of economic measures that are currently used to support sustainable building in the Eur...

  4. Airborne Effluent Monitoring System Certification for New Canister Storage Building Ventilation Exhaust Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted three of the six tests needed to verify that the effluent monitoring system for the new Canister Storage Building ventilation exhaust stack meets applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the location for the air-sampling probe and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering the location for the air-sampling probe ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample-transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in this report. The tests reported here cover the contaminant tracer uniformity and particle delivery performance criteria. These criteria were successfully met. The other three tests were conducted by the start-up staff of Duke Engineering and Services Hanford Inc. (DESH) and reported elsewhere. The Canister Storage Building is located in the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The new air-exhaust system was built under the W379 Project. The air sampling system features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and a filter holder to collect the sample

  5. The use of computational method to assess the safety and quality of ventilation in industrial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial buildings, particularly those containing nuclear and process plant, often require high standards of ventilation in order to cope with unusual features of the operations or process which take place within the buildings. Four examples of recent studies carried out by the present authors are given in this paper: storage of coal in a covered stockyard, a chlor-alkali plant, a clean room, and the turbine hall of a nuclear power station. In each of these examples, quite detailed information was required about air flows, temperatures and gas concentrations, and it was decided to use the two-equation k,epsilon model of turbulence to help predict these variables. This is solved with equations for momentum and continuity by finite differences. It is concluded that complex computer programs of this kind can provide valuable assistance in support of the more traditional hand calculations using BS codes and CIBS guides. However, careful engineering judgement must be exercised in the use of the programs and in the interpretation of the results. (author)

  6. Quantifying the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zheming; Chen, Yujiao; Malkawi, Ali; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2016-01-01

    Improper natural ventilation practices may deteriorate indoor air quality when in close proximity to roadways, although the intention is often to reduce energy consumption. In this study, we employed a CFD-based air quality model to quantify the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building. Our study found that the building envelope restricts dispersion and dilution of particulate matter. The indoor concentration in the baseline condition located 10m away from the roadway is roughly 16-21% greater than that at the edge of the roadway. The indoor flow recirculation creates a well-mixed zone with little variation in fine particle concentration (i.e., 253nm). For ultrafine particles (air intakes are important to the indoor air quality of existing buildings adjacent to roadways. PMID:26829764

  7. The European Energy Policy: Building New Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origins of Europe's severe energy policy problems lie in a failed economic approach, which itself can be partly explained by political and ideological causes. This study seeks to address these political issues. Energy is not an exclusively economic issue, far from it. Since taxation and diplomacy are key aspects, energy is necessarily a political issue that policy-makers must handle. From this point of view, 2014 has to be seen as a political opportunity: it needs to be a year for re-founding a common policy fundamentally, based on two principles. First is the principle of realism, which implies re-situating energy policy in its international environment and putting the issue of costs back into the heart of political decision-making. The second principle is solidarity, in other words the clear restatement that there is a European general interest... which is not the sum of 28 national interests, but also that energy should be viewed as a system, and not as a collection of local policies and interests. Europe's common energy policy must retain its long term goal of ensuring the energy transition, but it must review the path to achieving this. This transition cannot be a technical, economic and geopolitical bet, which is presently the case. It has to be a controlled undertaking, implying governance and instruments. More generally, the transition requires a very different state of mind (Section III), compared to today's technocratic and non-cooperative approach (Section II), which has led to the prevailing state of energy chaos in Europe (Section I)

  8. Development of mechanical ventilation system with low energy consumption for renovation of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkildsen, Søren

    natural and hybrid ventilation systems is intended to reduce the energy consumption for ventilation, specifically the power consumption of fans in mechanical systems, but these alternative systems have other flaws, e.g. higher ventilation heat loss. Meanwhile, little has been done to improve the...... performance of mechanical ventilation systems. The power consumption of mechanical ventilation depends on the flow rate, fan efficiency and pressure loss in the system. This thesis examines the options and develops a concept and components for the design of low-pressure mechanical ventilation. The hypothesis......-pressure components. The goal was to develop a mechanical system with an SFP-value of 0.5 kJ/m3 and a heat recovery efficiency of 85% that can meet current indoor environment requirements without discomfort in terms of thermal, acoustic and draught issues. The concept was developed for a temperate climate, such as...

  9. Building R & d policy from strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R W

    1983-06-01

    Many proposals have been made for new initiatives in our nation's research and development system. But before rushing into untried approaches, we need to look to the foundations of the system that has worked so well for us in the past. We have a climate for venture capital that has never been better; the world's greatest research universities; an industrial base that is moving aggressively into high technology, spurred by competition; and a defense effort that can be a major asset to civiliarn R & D. We should build our future by understanding and using these existing strengths. PMID:17754533

  10. Application of natural ventilation of residential buildings in hot-humid regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻伟; 沈艳; 丁勇

    2009-01-01

    The current ventilation condition of the hot and humid regions was analyzed through on-site investigation. It is found that residents in this region expect to improve indoor thermal environment through natural ventilation as much as possible. Then,it comes to a conclusion by the field test that natural ventilation has certain practical effect on improving indoor thermal environment. CFD simulation software is employed to verify the test result. Based on PMV modified model,and according to norms,geography and climate combined with the measured and simulated results,the application of the time and effectiveness of natural ventilation in hot and humid region were analyzed,to some extent,providing a basis for reducing the air-conditioner’s runtime with natural ventilation.

  11. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  12. Indoor air quality and occupant satisfaction in five mechanically and four naturally ventilated open-plan office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelgaard, J.; Juhl, P.; Saebjornsson, K.O.;

    2007-01-01

    Occupant responses and indoor environment characteristics were recorded and compared in five mechanically and four naturally ventilated open-plan office buildings by using a simple approach that enabled us to survey many buildings simultaneously. All occupant responses were obtained during one...... afternoon. In a pre-experiment, temperature and the concentration Of CO2 were monitored in 2-10 locations/office to evaluate the variation throughout the offices. A representative measurement point was subsequently selected and measurements of the same parameters were made during one week. All offices were...

  13. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schmidt, Justin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  14. Policy and Challenges of Building Schools as Inclusive Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcic, Svjetlana; Gabel, Susan L.; Zeitlin, Virginia; Cribaro-DiFatta, Shannon; Glarner, Carmel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we address building inclusive communities by looking at school as a community, as a place where students participate in learning and also learn to participate in the life of a community and life in a broader inclusive society. At the international level, policies increasingly position education as a business organisation, with…

  15. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  16. A simplified model for estimating population-scale energy impacts of building envelope air-tightening and mechanical ventilation retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Turner, William J. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-19

    Changing the air exchange rate of a home (the sum of the infiltration and mechanical ventilation airflow rates) affects the annual thermal conditioning energy. Large-scale changes to air exchange rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the residential sector's energy consumption. However, the complexity of existing residential energy models is a barrier to the accurate quantification of the impact of policy changes on a state or national level. The Incremental Ventilation Energy (IVE) model developed in this study combines the output of simple air exchange models with a limited set of housing characteristics to estimate the associated change in energy demand of homes. The IVE model was designed specifically to enable modellers to use existing databases of housing characteristics to determine the impact of ventilation policy change on a population scale. The IVE model estimates of energy change when applied to US homes with limited parameterisation are shown to be comparable to the estimates of a well-validated, complex residential energy model.

  17. Impact of different building ventilation modes on occupant expectations of the main IEQ factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jungsoo; de Dear, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the perceived performance of specific IEQ factors and occupants’ overall satisfaction with their workspace. In particular we examine the influence of ventilation system type (i.e. Air-Conditioned AC, Mixed-Mode MM, Naturally Ventilated NV) on that relationship. Statistical analyses were conducted on the post-occupancy survey database from the University of California at Berkeley’s Center for Built Environment (CBE) to estimate the relative importan...

  18. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  19. Feedback effect of human physical and psychological adaption on time period of thermal adaption in naturally ventilated building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    liu, weiwei; Huangfu, Hao; Xiong, Jing;

    2014-01-01

    of the time period of thermal adaption were obtained on the basis of the data from a long-term field survey conducted in two typical naturally ventilated offices located in Changsha, China. The results showed that the occupants need to take 4.25 days to fully adapt to a step-change in outdoor air...... adaption indicated that the psychological adaption mode can speed up the process of thermal adaption to the variation in the outdoor climate condition. This study presented a new insight into the feedback from the thermal adaption modes to occupant thermal comfort.......This study proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption for occupants in naturally ventilated building, and analyzed the synergistic and separate feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes on the time period of thermal adaption. Using the method, the values...

  20. Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings. IEA Information Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laustsen, Jens

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse current approaches to encourage energy efficiency in building codes for new buildings. Based on this analysis the paper enumerates policy recommendations for enhancing how energy efficiency is addressed in building codes and other policies for new buildings. This paper forms part of the IEA work for the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action. These recommendations reflect the study of different policy options for increasing energy efficiency in new buildings and examination of other energy efficiency requirements in standards or building codes, such as energy efficiency requirements by major renovation or refurbishment. In many countries, energy efficiency of buildings falls under the jurisdiction of the federal states. Different standards cover different regions or climatic conditions and different types of buildings, such as residential or simple buildings, commercial buildings and more complicated high-rise buildings. There are many different building codes in the world and the intention of this paper is not to cover all codes on each level in all countries. Instead, the paper details different regions of the world and different ways of standards. In this paper we also evaluate good practices based on local traditions. This project does not seek to identify one best practice amongst the building codes and standards. Instead, different types of codes and different parts of the regulation have been illustrated together with examples on how they have been successfully addressed. To complement this discussion of efficiency standards, this study illustrates how energy efficiency can be improved through such initiatives as efficiency labelling or certification, very best practice buildings with extremely low- or no-energy consumption and other policies to raise buildings' energy efficiency beyond minimum requirements. When referring to the energy saving potentials for buildings, this study uses the analysis of recent IEA

  1. Smart Co2 Detector Prototype Development to Enhance the Effi¬ciency of Ventilation System in a Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hanif MOHD ZIN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: : This study developed a smart CO2 detector, which attach to the general ventilation system to reduce the gas level.Methods: Indoor air quality measurement was performed in five selected rooms between January 2015 to February 2015 using TSI Q-TrakTM Indoor Air Monitor 7575. The perceived indoor air quality conditions was gathered using questionnaires adopted from the Industrial Code of Practice (ICOP of Indoor Air Quality 2010 by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH. The AutoCad 2010 and Soldworks 2011 software were used to design and develop the CO2 detector.Results: The highest concentration of CO2 was determined in the occupied tutorial room (1435 ± 62.6 ppm followed by lecture hall 3 (1337.67± 14.6 ppm and lecture hall 4 (1109 ± 4.0 ppm. The highest temperature was recorded in occupied tutorial room (29 ± 0.3 ºC while the highest relative humidity was recorded in occupied lecture hall 4 (76 ± 3.1 %. All of these values exceed the ICOP standard level. Varying room temperature was the most common problem reported (n = 34, 22.7% followed by unpleasant odors (n = 22, 14.7% and drafty (n = 21, 14%. The CO2 sensor attached to the general ventilation system triggers the ventilation system to regulate the air into the building more efficiently when CO2 exceeds 800 ppm. The detector may stop the system when the pollutants level is back to normal.Conclusion: The CO2 detector system helps to regulate the air movement and reduce the CO2 level. Keywords: Carbon dioxide, General exhaust ventilation (GEV, Sick building syndrome (SBS, Indoor air quality 

  2. Building Implementation Networks: Building Multi-organizational, Multi-sector Structures for Policy Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Aaron David

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is the delineation of a new approach, or, more precisely, a new â roleâ and â methodological system,â for those persons engaged in building and managing multi-actor structures, or â networks,â for the purpose of policy implementation. As policy formulation and implementation can be viewed increasingly as taking place inter-organizationally, and consisting of individuals, special-interest groups, public organizations, private organizations, non-profits...

  3. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Tracer Gas Methodology in the Case of a Naturally Cross-Ventilated Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolopoulos, Nikos; Nikolopoulos, Aristeidis; Larsen, Tine Steen;

    2012-01-01

    this area of scientific research is provided, using the numerical predictions as a reference. It is concluded that velocity measurements in the inlet window are of high accuracy when the flow in this region has a steady character, whilst the accuracy of the tracer gas methodology depends significantly......The paper presents the investigation of a naturally cross – ventilated building using both experimental and numerical methods with the parameters being the free-stream and the incidence angle of the wind to the openings of the building. The experimental methodology calculates the air change rate......, focusing on the time dependent character of the induced flow field. The numerical results are compared with corresponding experimental data for the three aforementioned experimental methodologies in the case of a full scale building inside a wind-tunnel. The numerical investigation reveals that for large...

  4. Building-integrated renewable energy policy analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚春妮; 郝斌

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic development of renewable energy all over the world,and for purpose of adjusting energy structure,the Ministry of Construction of China plans to promote the large scale application of renewable energy in buildings. In order to ensure the validity of policy-making,this work firstly exerts a method to do cost-benefit analysis for three kinds of technologies such as building-integrated solar hot water (BISHW) system,building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) technology and ground water heat pump (GWHP). Through selecting a representative city of every climate region,the analysis comes into different results for different climate regions in China and respectively different suggestion for policy-making. On the analysis basis,the Ministry of Construction (MOC) and the Ministry of Finance of China (MOF) united to start-up Building-integrated Renewable Energy Demonstration Projects (BIREDP) in 2006. In the demonstration projects,renewable energy takes place of traditional energy to supply the domestic hot water,electricity,air-conditioning and heating. Through carrying out the demonstration projects,renewable energy related market has been expanded. More and more relative companies and local governments take the opportunity to promote the large scale application of renewable energy in buildings.

  5. Applied patent RFID systems for building reacting HEPA air ventilation system in hospital operation rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jesun; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    RFID technology, an automatic identification and data capture technology to provide identification, tracing, security and so on, was widely applied to healthcare industry in these years. Employing HEPA ventilation system in hospital is a way to ensure healthful indoor air quality to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections. However, the system consumes lots of electricity which cost a lot. This study aims to apply the RFID technology to offer a unique medical staff and patient identification, and reacting HEPA air ventilation system in order to reduce the cost, save energy and prevent the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. The system, reacting HEPA air ventilation system, contains RFID tags (for medical staffs and patients), sensor, and reacting system which receives the information regarding the number of medical staff and the status of the surgery, and controls the air volume of the HEPA air ventilation system accordingly. A pilot program was carried out in a unit of operation rooms of a medical center with 1,500 beds located in central Taiwan from Jan to Aug 2010. The results found the air ventilation system was able to function much more efficiently with less energy consumed. Furthermore, the indoor air quality could still keep qualified and hospital-acquired infection or other occupational diseases could be prevented. PMID:22081235

  6. Contribution to the study of hybrid ventilation system effectiveness in office and educational buildings; Contribution a l'etude de l'efficacite des systemes de ventilation hybride dans les batiments du secteur tertiaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cron, F.

    2004-06-15

    This study is part of the International Energy Agency Annex 35, 'Hybrid Ventilation in New and Retro-fitted Office Buildings', also called the HybVent Project. It presents the numerical analyses of a number of hybrid ventilation systems and their potential for several buildings in relation to local climate characteristics. The first part of this work reviews the state-of-the-art of existing ventilation systems and details the principles, expectations and features of hybrid ventilation systems. This first section also examines some examples of hybrid systems extracted from the collection of Annex 35 case studies. A comprehensive bibliography of numerical tools available for this type of analysis is given in the second section. The numerical models for building simulation and the object-oriented environment used to develop our simulation tool are presented in this section as well. Two single-zone studies undertaken in this project are reported in the third section. The first study concerns an experimental cell simulation. Numerical results are compared to experimental data to validate the use of the simulation tool developed. The second single-zone study predicts the potential of a specific hybrid ventilation system in a typical classroom, given climatic conditions. Finally, the last section presents a more complete study - a multi-zone study of the Tonga school, an Annex 35 case study located in Sweden. Three rooms were modelled initially to compare numerical results to experimental data and then to analyse the performance of the existing hybrid ventilation system and two other systems. This final study was completed for three European cities with very different climates. The overall analysis of the potential of the hybrid ventilation systems considered and the perspective for future work are outlined in the conclusion. (author)

  7. Experimental study of diffuse ceiling ventilation coupled with a thermally activated building construction in an office room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents and analyses the performance of an integrated system with diffuse ceiling ventilation and a thermally activated building construction. A full-scale experiment is carried out in a hot box with an office setup. The performance of the integrated system is evaluated under different...... boundary conditions, considering different weather conditions, internal heat loads, TABS activation modes and with/without diffuse ceiling. The measurement results indicate that the diffuse ceiling plays a beneficial role improving thermal comfort in the occupied zone. However, the diffuse ceiling has the...

  8. Comparison of a Constant Air Volume (CAV) and a Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) System in a Residential Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Topp, Claus

    The aim of this paper was to compare the indoor climate and the energy performance of a Constant Air Volume (CAV) system of 0.5h-1 with a Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) system controlled by occupancy and relative humidity for a studio apartment. Furthermore the impact of building materials...... hygroscopic properties on indoor climate and energy consumption was investigated for the two systems. Dynamic simulations of the studio apartment were carried out in the program WUFI+ with weather data from Copenhagen including outside temperature end relative humidity. For the non-hygroscopic case it was...

  9. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2011-10-31

    The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

  10. EC blowers for school building ventilation. Wholesome climate and high energy efficiency; EC-Ventilatoren fuer Schullueftungskonzepte. Gesundes Klima bei hoher Energieeffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salig, Andreas [ebm-papst, Mulfingen (Germany). Verkauf Inland; Grohmann, Erwin [Grohmann Lueftungstechnik GmbH, Forchtenberg (Germany); Reiff, Ellen-Christine [Redaktionsbuero Stutensee (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Government funds of several thousands of millions were provided in 2009 for the modernisation of school buildings. There are highly flexible commercial ventilation and air conditioning systems for this type of buildings which combine energy savings with optimum room air quality. EC blowers contribute to this. (orig.)

  11. Capacity building in space law and space policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhu, Ram

    2009-11-01

    A high level of expertise in space policy and law is required to initiate and keep pace with the expansion of space activities, including those undertaken by the private space industry. Space activities generally refer to those undertakings that are carried out with the use of several technologies for the exploration and utilization of outer space often for scientific, military, economic and social proposes within international and national policy and regulatory frameworks. Space policies and legal regimes determine the scope, nature, pace, possibility and development of space undertakings. Therefore, appropriate space policies and regulatory regimes, both at the international and national levels, are indispensable for the initiation, operation and enhancement of space activities. There are various regulatory models and approaches for regulating space activities, and for building capacity in space law and space policy. It is imperative to have the appropriate human resources and capabilities in the development and implementation of space policies and space legal regimes. This crucial requirement has been well recognized in the more advanced space-faring nations, but not to the same level in other space-faring or space-aspiring nations.

  12. Effects of Lateral Window Position and Wind Direction on Wind-Driven Natural Cross Ventilation of a Building: A Computational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. I. Bangalee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is saved when an effective natural ventilation system can provide comfort air to the occupants in a building by replacing a mechanical ventilation system. It also minimizes the risk of the environmental pollution and the global warming. A one story, full scale building was considered to carry out a comparative study of three different cases of wind-driven natural (WDN cross ventilation with the help of computational fluid dynamics (CFD. In each case, the location of window was changed in lateral direction to predict the probable position for optimum ventilation performance and the angle of wind was varied to check the sensitivity of the wind direction on the flow field. After validating the current methodology through two satisfactory comparisons with the experimental investigations, the governing equations subjected to the corresponding boundary conditions were solved using commercial software and then the results were analyzed. A better location for the windows in each case was proposed. The ventilation purpose was served quite well even if the wind angle was changed in a moderate range from the original design. Furthermore, the velocity components, ventilation rate, surface pressure, ventilation time, and so forth in each case were investigated and compared extensively with those in other cases.

  13. Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

  14. Impacts of dynamic interactions on the predicted thermal performance of earth–air heat exchangers for preheating, cooling and ventilation of buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Guohui

    2015-01-01

    Earth–air tunnel ventilation is an energy efficient ventilation technique that makes use of relatively stable soil temperature in shallow ground for preheating and cooling of supply air to a building. During operation, an earth–air heat exchanger interacts with the soil and atmosphere and the performance varies with the soil and atmospheric conditions. A computer program has been developed for modelling of coupled heat and moisture transfer in soil and for simulation of the dynamic thermal pe...

  15. Relationship of Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollutants in a Naturally Ventilated Historical Building Envelope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    López-Aparicio, S.; Smolík, Jiří; Mašková, Ludmila; Součková, M.; Grøntoft, T.; Ondráčková, Lucie; Stankiewicz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 7 (2011), s. 1460-1468. ISSN 0360-1323 Grant ostatní: MF NF(CZ) A/CZ0046/2/0001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : indoor/outdoor ration * natural ventilation * ammonia Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.400, year: 2011

  16. Impact of building height variation on street canyon ventilation – preliminary results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kukačka, Libor; Nosek, Štěpán; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    Guildford : University of Surrey, 2013. ISBN N. [PHYSMOD 2013. Guildford (GB), 16.09.2013-18.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1554 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : wind tunnel * atmospheric boundary layer * air pollution * scalar flux * urban-area ventilation * urban-area geometry * street canyon

  17. Building envelope design for renewal of air by natural ventilation in moderate climates. Proposition of a designing methodology; Conception des enveloppes de batiments pour le renouvellement d'air par ventilation naturelle en climats temperes. Proposition d'une methodologie de conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansouri, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The subject of this research is to produce methods and methodological tools for the architects to support the integration of natural ventilation systems in the building envelope design. Our research is situated to the interface between the architectural practice and the physical research on natural ventilation. We are interested in phenomena that can influence or force the strategy of ventilation. A morphological analysis of naturally ventilated buildings concerning the integration modes of natural ventilation systems is done permitting US to propose a typology and a topology of ventilation systems. We define criteria in relation to the thermal comfort, to the quality of air and the economy of energy to assess air renewal techniques. In complement of the sizing tool, we elaborate a methodology of conception for the integration of passives ventilation systems. Design guidelines permit US to conclude on an effective natural ventilation system which is well adapted to collective habitat. (author)

  18. Buoyancy-driven ventilation of hydrogen from buildings: Laboratory test and model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, C.D.; Gawlik, K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Hydrogen gas leaking from a hydrogen-powered vehicle in a residential garage may form a flammable mixture with air. Passive, buoyancy-driven ventilation is one approach to limiting the concentration to a safe level. We explored the relationship between leak rate, ventilation design, and hydrogen concentration through laboratory testing, an algebraic analysis, and CFD modeling. We used helium to test slow, steady, low-velocity leaks in a full-scale test room under nearly isothermal, steady conditions, and we report the results in sufficient detail that other modelers can use them. The results show the importance and variability of stratification. Our algebraic and CFD models agree very well with the experimental results. We describe our CFD approach in sufficient detail for use by others. We tested under nearly isothermal conditions, but also discuss indoor-outdoor temperature difference as an important risk factor. Information about realistic leakage scenarios is needed to apply these results as safety recommendations. (author)

  19. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes work by Building America researchers who visited 24 manufactured home factories between 1996 and 2003 to investigate moisture problems while improving energy efficiency and identified insufficient air sealing and poor HVAC installation as the biggest culprits. One manufacturer reported zero moisture-related issues in 35,000 homes built after implementing Building America recommendations.

  20. Crowdsource project on Building Indian Journals Database of Access Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Gutam, Sridhar; Gupta, C; Munigal, Achala; Adepu, Madhava Rao

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsource project on Building Indian Journals Database of  Access Policies   The aim of this project is to develop a database having all the ISSN Journals from India. The NISCAIR assigns ISSN number to all the journals in India and the list that is uploaded on their site at http://nsl.niscair.res.in/issn.jsp would be used for the database development. All the information related to the journals viz., year of start, language, place (city), publishers, print only, closed acce...

  1. Modelling the heat dynamics of building integrated and ventilated photovoltaic modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friling, N.; Jimenez, M.J.; Bloem, H.;

    2009-01-01

    heat transfer from the PV module. The experiment and data originate from a test reference module the EC-JRC Ispra. The set-up provides the opportunity of changing physical parameters, the ventilation speed and the type of air flow, and this makes it possible to determine the preferable set-up. To...... turbulent, are applied in the set-up combined with high level of air flow. The improved description by the model is mainly seen in periods with high solar radiation....

  2. Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-06-01

    This report reviews published experimental and theoretical investigations of particle deposition from turbulent flows and considers the applicability of this body of work to the specific case of particle deposition from flows in the ducts of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Particle deposition can detrimentally affect the performance of HVAC systems and it influences the exposure of building occupants to a variety of air pollutants. The first section of this report describes the types of HVAC systems under consideration and discusses the components, materials and operating parameters commonly found in these systems. The second section reviews published experimental investigations of particle deposition rates from turbulent flows and considers the ramifications of the experimental evidence with respect to HVAC ducts. The third section considers the structure of turbulent airflows in ventilation ducts with a particular emphasis on turbulence investigations that have been used as a basis for particle deposition models. The final section reviews published literature on predicting particle deposition rates from turbulent flows.

  3. Numerical study on mixed buoyancy-wind driving induced flow in a solar chimney for building ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, B.; Kaiser, A.S. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Doctor Fleming s/n, 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In a solar chimney, the buoyancy induced flow of air generates ventilation of the building where the chimney is attached. When atmospheric wind blows over the upper part of a solar chimney, a mixed buoyancy-wind driving induced flow appears, and then the thermal behaviour of the chimney changes drastically. Assuming that the chimney is devoid of any protective device at its upper part, numerical results for the pressure difference coefficients, average Nusselt number and the induced mass flow rate are obtained for values of Rayleigh number varying from 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 12} (symmetrically, isothermal heating condition) and 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 15} (symmetrically, uniform heat flux heating condition), with wind speeds from 0 to 10 m/s. A correlation for the non-dimensional mass flow rate is presented, which is valid for the complete range of relevant parameters regarded, with an average deviation about 6%. (author)

  4. Experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Diz, Ruben; Uhia, Francisco J.; Dopazo, Alberto; Ferro, Jose M. [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende No. 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    This paper deals with the experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit equipped with a sensible polymer plate heat exchanger (PHE) for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings. The PHE is arranged in parallel triangular ducts. An experimental facility was designed to reproduce the typical outdoor and exhaust air conditions with regard to temperature and humidity. The unit was tested under balanced operation conditions, as commonly used in practice. A set of tests was conducted under the reference operating conditions to evaluate the PHE performance. Afterwards, an experimental parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of changing the operating conditions on the PHE performance. Experiments were carried out varying the inlet fresh air temperature, the exhaust air relative humidity and the air flow rate. The experimental results are shown and discussed in this paper. (author)

  5. Ventilation systems with decentralized supply and exhaust and heat recovery in houses and residential buildings; Ventilatiesystemen met decentrale toe- en afvoer en warmteterugwinning in woningen en woongebouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publications offers a univocal package of design-technical quality demands for well-functioning decentralized mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery in dwellings and residential buildings. [Dutch] Deze publikatie biedt een eenduidig pakket van ontwerptechnische kwaliteitseisen voor goed functionerende decentrale, mechanische ventilatiesystemen met warmteterugwinning in woningen en woongebouwen.

  6. What does the scientific literature tell us about the ventilation-health relationship in public and residential buildings?

    OpenAIRE

    Carrer, Paolo; WARGOCKI Pawel; FANETTI Annaclara; BISCHOF Wolfgang; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Hartmann, Thomas; KEPHALOPOULOS Stylianos; PALKONEN Susanna; Seppanen, Olli

    2015-01-01

    Objective of this paper is to examine whether the available epidemiological evidence provides information on the link between outdoor air ventilation rates and health, and whether it can be used for regulatory purposes when setting ventilation requirements for non-industrial built environments. Effects on health were seen for a wide range of outdoor ventilation rates from 6-7 L/s per person, which were the lowest ventilation rates at which no effects on any health outcomes were observed i...

  7. Healthy Zero Energy Buildings (HZEB) Program - Cross-Sectional Study of Contaminant Levels, Source, Strengths, and Ventilation Rates in Retail Stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Sidheswaran, Meera; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William

    2014-02-01

    This field study measured ventilation rates and indoor air quality parameters in 21 visits to retail stores in California. The data was collected to guide the development of new, science-based commercial building ventilation rate standards that balance the dual objectives of increasing energy efficiency and maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Data collection occurred between September 2011 and March 2013. Three types of stores participated in this study: grocery stores, furniture/hardware stores, and apparel stores. Ventilation rates and indoor air contaminant concentrations were measured on a weekday, typically between 9 am and 6 pm. Ventilation rates measured using a tracer gas decay method exceeded the minimum requirement of California’s Title 24 Standard in all but one store. Even though there was adequate ventilation according to Title 24, concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein exceeded the most stringent chronic health guidelines. Other indoor air contaminants measured included carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O{sub 3}), and particulate matter (PM). Concentrations of CO{sub 2} were kept low by adequate ventilation, and were assumed low also because the sampling occurred on a weekday when retail stores were less busy. CO concentrations were also low. The indoor-outdoor ratios of O{sub 3} showed that the first-order loss rate may vary by store trade types and also by ventilation mode (mechanical versus natural). Analysis of fine and ultrafine PM measurements showed that a substantial portion of the particle mass in grocery stores with cooking-related emissions was in particles less than 0.3 μm. Stores without cooking as an indoor source had PM size distributions that were more similar indoors and outdoors. The whole-building emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM were estimated from the measured ventilation rates and indoor and outdoor contaminant concentrations. Mass balance models were

  8. Investigation of the Indoor Environment in a Passive House Apartment Building Heated by Ventilation Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysholt Hansen, MathiasYoung Bok; Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele;

    2014-01-01

    Experience has shown that appropriate design of very low energy dwellings can be a large challenge and that the final design may result in insufficient heating in winter and overheating in summer. The 126 certified Passive House apartments (Ravnsborghusene) in Køge, Denmark are a low energy...... building project finished medio 2012. The design challenge was met with a concept of air heating that is individually controlled in every room. It also applies external solar shading. This study used indoor climate measurements and dynamic simulations in one of these apartment buildings to evaluate thermal...... comfort and the performance of the air heating system and solar shading. Thermal comfort category B according to ISO 7730 was obtained in the building during field measurements, indicating that the air heating system was able to maintain comfort conditions in winter, when the outdoor temperature had been...

  9. Building ventilation: A pressure airflow model computer generation and elements of validation

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, H; Adelard, L; Mara, T A

    2012-01-01

    The calculation of airflows is of great importance for detailed building thermal simulation computer codes, these airflows most frequently constituting an important thermal coupling between the building and the outside on one hand, and the different thermal zones on the other. The driving effects of air movement, which are the wind and the thermal buoyancy, are briefly outlined and we look closely at their coupling in the case of buildings, by exploring the difficulties associated with large openings. Some numerical problems tied to the resolving of the non-linear system established are also covered. Part of a detailled simulation software (CODYRUN), the numerical implementation of this airflow model is explained, insisting on data organization and processing allowing the calculation of the airflows. Comparisons are then made between the model results and in one hand analytical expressions and in another and experimental measurements in case of a collective dwelling.

  10. Evaluation of a natural gas compressor building with switch-back air inlet entrances and ventilated by compressor package coolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Timothy G. [HFP Acoustical Consultants Inc. (United States)], email: tim.simmons@hfpacoustical.com

    2011-07-01

    The booming natural gas market in the Marcellus shale region has seen the appearance of many oil and gas processing stations, the latter generating a great deal of noise, which disturbs local residents. The oil and gas companies have therefore developed a patchwork of noise reduction techniques, from basic mufflers to engineered, sound-proof buildings. This paper focuses on a compromise: a gas compressor station, located in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, encased in a light-weight, metal building with switch-back air inlet openings for cooling and noise reduction. This case study aims to measure the noise emissions of the compressor, and possibly propose solutions for its mitigation. Since Lycoming County has a fairly stringent policy on noise disturbance, especially for low-frequency sounds, noise emission results showed that switch-back openings and the walls of the compressor building must be mitigated and that action must be taken by the gas company to meet the noise ordinance requirements.

  11. Design Principles for Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  12. Demand controlled ventilation; Behovsstyrt ventilasjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Henning Holm

    2006-07-01

    The terms CAV and VAV have been known terms for many years in the ventilation business. The terms are also included in building regulations, but the time is now right to focus on demand controlled ventilation (DCV). The new building regulations and the accompanying energy framework underline the need for a more nuanced thinking when it comes to controlling ventilation systems. Descriptions and further details of the ventilation systems are provided (ml)

  13. Supporting Building Portfolio Investment and Policy Decision Making through an Integrated Building Utility Data Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Azizan [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lasternas, Bertrand [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Alschuler, Elena [US DOE; View Inc; Loftness, Vivian [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Haopeng [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mo, Yunjeong [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Ting [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Zhang, Chenlu [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sharma, Shilpi [Carnegie Mellon; Stevens, Ivana [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-03-18

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act stimulus funding of 2009 for smart grid projects resulted in the tripling of smart meters deployment. In 2012, the Green Button initiative provided utility customers with access to their real-time1 energy usage. The availability of finely granular data provides an enormous potential for energy data analytics and energy benchmarking. The sheer volume of time-series utility data from a large number of buildings also poses challenges in data collection, quality control, and database management for rigorous and meaningful analyses. In this paper, we will describe a building portfolio-level data analytics tool for operational optimization, business investment and policy assessment using 15-minute to monthly intervals utility data. The analytics tool is developed on top of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Standard Energy Efficiency Data (SEED) platform, an open source software application that manages energy performance data of large groups of buildings. To support the significantly large volume of granular interval data, we integrated a parallel time-series database to the existing relational database. The time-series database improves on the current utility data input, focusing on real-time data collection, storage, analytics and data quality control. The fully integrated data platform supports APIs for utility apps development by third party software developers. These apps will provide actionable intelligence for building owners and facilities managers. Unlike a commercial system, this platform is an open source platform funded by the U.S. Government, accessible to the public, researchers and other developers, to support initiatives in reducing building energy consumption.

  14. Modulating ventilation - low cost VAV for office buildings. [Variable Air Volume]; Modulerende ventilation - low cost VAV til kontor-bygninger. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoej Christensen, A.; Olsen, Hans; Drivsholm, C.

    2012-02-15

    The report describes a concept for renovating older existing Constant Air Volume (CAV) ventilation systems to modulating low-cost Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems. The concept is based on the total ventilated area being divided into appropriate indoor climate zones, which can cover from one to several offices with similar climate needs. For this initial climate assessment two relatively ''simple'' tools were developed that can estimate the temperature level in one room from the ventilation airflow, heat loads, etc.: - BSimFast (24-hour mean temperature calculation according to SBI-196, 2000); - BSimLight (Temperature simulation based on Danvak Textbook of Heat and Climate Technology). The concept of 'one room' can also be extended to 'one zone' with appropriate assumptions. However, only one mean room temperature is calculated. The different climate zones were equipped with Halton HFB control unit at the air supply and exhaust side. The project the following feedback options were used: - HFB unit's damper opening degree (0 to 90 degrees); - HFB unit's current flow; - HFB unit's exhaust temperature; and feedback from: - Frequency transformer (fan speed); - The central static duct pressure at the ventilation unit. In the project a control algorithm is developed that ensures a robust control of the entire ventilation system without adverse cyclic variations, based among other things on the exhaust temperature for each climate zone, and with the requirement that at least one throttle valve is always at least 80% open. It turned out that information on the current partial air volumes was necessary in addition to the individual throttle settings. Otherwise, a cyclic variations could not be controlled..Thus, it was the exhaust temperature from individual climate zones that defined the respective volumes of air. The concept was implemented on a complete CAV system and on part of a large CAV system, respectively. (LN)

  15. What does the scientific literature tell us about the ventilation-health relationship in public and residential buildings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrer, Paolo; Wargocki, Pawel; Fanetti, Annaclara;

    2015-01-01

    Objective of this paper is to examine whether the available epidemiological evidence provides information on the link between outdoor air ventilation rates and health, and whether it can be used for regulatory purposes when setting ventilation requirements for non-industrial built environments. E...... regulative purposes, unless the required ventilation rates are related to actual exposures and are prescribed only when full advantage of other methods for controlling exposures has been taken....

  16. Field measurement of ventilation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persily, A K

    2016-02-01

    Ventilation rates have significant impacts on building energy use and indoor contaminant concentrations, making them key parameters in building performance. Ventilation rates have been measured in buildings for many decades, and there are mature measurement approaches available to researchers and others who need to know actual ventilation rates in buildings. Despite the fact that ventilation rates are critical in interpreting indoor concentration measurements, it is disconcerting how few Indoor Air Quality field studies measure ventilation rates or otherwise characterize the ventilation design of the study building(s). This paper summarizes parameters of interest in characterizing building ventilation, available methods for quantifying these parameters, and challenges in applying these methods to different types of buildings and ventilation systems. These parameters include whole-building air change rates, system outdoor air intake rates, and building infiltration rates. Tracer gas methods are reviewed as well as system airflow rate measurements using, for example, duct traverses. Several field studies of ventilation rates conducted over the past 75 years are described to highlight the approaches employed and the findings obtained. PMID:25689218

  17. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits

  18. Numerical investigations of buoyancy-driven natural ventilation in a simple atrium building and its effect on the thermal comfort conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study use of solar-assisted buoyancy-driven natural ventilation in a simple atrium building is explored numerically with particular emphasis on the thermal comfort conditions in the building. Initially various geometric configurations of the atrium space were considered in order to investigate airflows and temperature distributions in the building using a validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) modelling approach with the SST-k–ω turbulence model and the Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) was used for the investigations. The steady-state governing equations were solved using a commercial CFD solver FLUENT©. From the numerical results obtained, it was noted that an atrium space integrated with a solar chimney would be a relatively better option to be used in an atrium building. In the geometry selected, the performance of the building in response to various changes in design parameters was investigated. The produced airflows and temperature distributions were then used to evaluate indoor thermal comfort conditions in terms of the thermal comfort indices, i.e. the well-known predicted mean vote (PMV) index, its modifications especially for natural ventilation, predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD) index and Percent dissatisfied (PD) factor due to draft. It was found that the thermal conditions in the occupied areas of the building developed as a result of the use of solar-assisted buoyancy-driven ventilation for the particular values of the design parameters selected are mostly in the comfortable zone. Finally, it is demonstrated that the proposed methodology leads to reliable thermal comfort predictions, while the effect of various design variables on the performance of the building is easily recognized. - Highlights: ► Numerical investigations were carried for the use of buoyancy-driven displacement ventilation in a simple atrium building. ► Effect of various atrium configurations

  19. Fire tests to evaluate the potential fire threat and its effects on HEPA filter integrity in cell ventilation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Building 7920

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-12-01

    As a result of a DOE (Tiger Team) Technical Safety Appraisal (November 1990) of the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), ORNL Building 7920, a number of fire protection concerns were identified. The primary concern was the perceived loss of ventilation system containment due to the thermal destruction and/or breaching of the prefilters and/or high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA `s) and the resultant radioactive release to the external environment. The following report describes the results of an extensive fire test program performed by the Fire Research Discipline (FRD) of the Special Projects Division of Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) and funded by ORNL to address these concerns. Full scale mock-ups of a REDC hot cell tank pit, adjacent cubicle pit, and associated ventilation system were constructed at LLNL and 13 fire experiments were conducted to specifically answer the questions raised by the Tiger Team. Our primary test plan was to characterize the burning of a catastrophic solvent spill (kerosene) of 40 liters and its effect on the containment ventilation system prefilters and HEPA filters. In conjunction with ORNL and Lockwood Greene we developed a test matrix that assessed the fire performance of the prefilters and HEPA filters; evaluated the fire response of the fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) epoxy ventilation duct work; the response and effectiveness of the fire protection system, the effect of fire in a cubicle on the vessel off-gas (VOG) elbow, and other fire safety questions.

  20. Anaesthesia ventilators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish K Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesia ventilators are an integral part of all modern anaesthesia workstations. Automatic ventilators in the operating rooms, which were very simple with few modes of ventilation when introduced, have become very sophisticated with many advanced ventilation modes. Several systems of classification of anaesthesia ventilators exist based upon various parameters. Modern anaesthesia ventilators have either a double circuit, bellow design or a single circuit piston configuration. In the bellows ventilators, ascending bellows design is safer than descending bellows. Piston ventilators have the advantage of delivering accurate tidal volume. They work with electricity as their driving force and do not require a driving gas. To enable improved patient safety, several modifications were done in circle system with the different types of anaesthesia ventilators. Fresh gas decoupling is a modification done in piston ventilators and in descending bellows ventilator to reduce th incidence of ventilator induced volutrauma. In addition to the conventional volume control mode, modern anaesthesia ventilators also provide newer modes of ventilation such as synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure-control ventilation and pressure-support ventilation (PSV. PSV mode is particularly useful for patients maintained on spontaneous respiration with laryngeal mask airway. Along with the innumerable benefits provided by these machines, there are various inherent hazards associated with the use of the ventilators in the operating room. To use these workstations safely, it is important for every Anaesthesiologist to have a basic understanding of the mechanics of these ventilators and breathing circuits.

  1. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) application to investigate potential use of natural ventilation in new building designs in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayata, Tahir; Cam, Ertugrul; Yildiz, Osman [Kirikkale University, Faculty of Engineering, 71451, Campus, Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2007-05-15

    Natural ventilation in living and working places provides both circulation of clear air and a decrease of indoor temperature, especially during hot summer days. In addition to openings, the dimension ratio and position of buildings play a significant role to obtain a uniform indoor air velocity distribution. In this study, the potential use of natural ventilation as a passive cooling system in new building designs in Kayseri, a midsize city in Turkey, was investigated. First, indoor air velocity distributions with respect to changing wind direction and magnitude were simulated by the FLUENT package program, which employs finite element methods. Then, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) model was employed to predict indoor average and maximum air velocities using the simulated data by FLUENT. The simulation results suggest that natural ventilation can be used to provide a thermally comfortable indoor environment during the summer season in the study area. Also, the ANFIS model can be proposed for estimation of indoor air velocity values in such studies. (author)

  2. Anaesthesia ventilators

    OpenAIRE

    Rajnish K Jain; Srinivasan Swaminathan

    2013-01-01

    Anaesthesia ventilators are an integral part of all modern anaesthesia workstations. Automatic ventilators in the operating rooms, which were very simple with few modes of ventilation when introduced, have become very sophisticated with many advanced ventilation modes. Several systems of classification of anaesthesia ventilators exist based upon various parameters. Modern anaesthesia ventilators have either a double circuit, bellow design or a single circuit piston configuration. In the bello...

  3. Improving the Energy-Efficiency of Buildings: The Impact of Environmental Policy on Technological Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Noailly, Joëlle

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of alternative environmental policy instruments on technological innovations aiming to improve the energy efficiency in buildings. The empirical analysis focuses on three main types of policy instruments, namely regulatory energy standards in buildings codes, energy taxes as captured by energy prices and specific governmental energy R&D expenditures. Technological innovation is measured using patent counts for specific technologies related to energy efficien...

  4. Influence of staircase ventilation state on the airflow and heat transfer of the heated room on the middle floor of high rise building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Experiments are conducted in a scaled building model. • The flow and heat transfer in the heated room are investigated. • The staircase ventilation state influence on the heated room. • The results are useful to understand the safety and energy efficiency of building. - Abstract: Safety and energy efficiency of high rise buildings have attracted public attention in recent decades. In this paper, a set of experiments was conducted in a scaled building model with 12 floors to study the influence of the staircase ventilation state on the flow and heat transfer of the heated room on the middle floor. The airflow, room temperature and fuel burning rate were investigated. It is found that when the window above the heated room is opened, the vents state below the heated room has a significant effect on the airflow and heat transfer in the heated room. When the vents below the heated room are closed, the single-directional air flows into the heated room owing to the stronger stack effect. And the flame tilt angle is larger and the upper hot smoke temperature in the heated room is low. However, when the windows above the heated room are closed, the vents state below the heated room has little influence on the airflow and heat transfer in the heated room. And, there is two-directional air flowing through the door of the heated room The burning rate of heat source is also affected by the staircase ventilation state, and the variation trend varies with the opened window position and pool size

  5. Manchester Civil Justice Centre: Procuring and Managing an Institutional Building with a Mixed Mode Ventilation System—A Case for Post-Occupancy Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Napier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Manchester Civil Justice Centre is a striking contemporary 14 storey court building which has won awards for many different aspects of its design, construction and sustainability. From November 2002 to July 2005, the author was a key member of Denton Corker Marshall’s London project team having responsibility for key areas of design development, integration of technology and sustainable design including the East elevation’s “environmental veil”. This paper tracks the procurement of the building, describing its low energy features and their performance in practice. The paper reviews the low carbon elements of the design (daylight and natural ventilation systems in the context of similar buildings and the buildings operational performance. The building has a mixed mode ventilation system which is managed centrally; the paper describes the ongoing relationship between the Facilities Management and the building’s users and their expectations of comfort and offers an explanation as to why the building’s energy performance is not as good as predicted at design stage. A case is made that this building is a significant example of low energy design and would form a good example for a detailed Post Occupancy Evaluation. The energy performance of the building could be studied in more detail to encourage the users (judges, staff and the public to improve the building’s energy performance and to share knowledge within the construction industry. Institutional and commercial barriers to the more mainstream adoption of Post Occupancy Evaluation are discussed with respect to the Manchester Civil Justice Centre.

  6. Principles for Nearly Zero-energy Buildings. Paving the way for effective implementation of policy requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boermans, T.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S.; Groezinger, J.; Offermann, M. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany); Engelund Thomsen, K.; Rose, J.; Aggerholm, S.O. [Danish Building Research Institute SBi, Aalborg University, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    The overarching objective of this study is to contribute to a common and cross-national understanding on: an ambitious, clear definition and fast uptake of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEB) in all EU Member States; principles of sustainable, realistic nearly Zero-Energy Buildings, both new and existing; possible technical solutions and their implications for national building markets, buildings and market players. The study builds on existing concepts and building standards, analyses the main methodological challenges and their implications for the nZEB definition, and compiles a possible set of principles and assesses their impact on reference buildings. Subsequently the technological, financial and policy implications of these results are evaluated. Finally, the study concludes by providing an outlook on necessary further steps towards a successful implementation of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings.

  7. The use of fiscal instruments in sustainable building policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunikka, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Although progressive government guidelines and knowledge about sustainable building exist, sustainability measures are not adopted in large scale. Several barriers have been identified, especially the perceived costs of implementing environmental management and the lack of market demand. The choice

  8. Green buildings in Malaysia towards greener environment: challenges for policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The launch of the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) in 2009 is a manifesto of the government's seriousness in implementing 'green' initiatives for the country. Specifically for buildings, the government promotes the application of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) and the application of green building index. With the introduction of Low Carbon Cities Framework, Green Pass, Green Neighbourhood, Green Building Index by various agencies and organisations in Malaysia, it is time to look back and see how all these tools could come together. This paper attempts to identify the challenges in harmonising the green initiatives for policy makers toward greener environment for sustainability.

  9. Green buildings in Malaysia towards greener environment: challenges for policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaida, M. S.; Tan, K. L.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    The launch of the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) in 2009 is a manifesto of the government's seriousness in implementing "green" initiatives for the country. Specifically for buildings, the government promotes the application of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) and the application of green building index. With the introduction of Low Carbon Cities Framework, Green Pass, Green Neighbourhood, Green Building Index by various agencies and organisations in Malaysia, it is time to look back and see how all these tools could come together. This paper attempts to identify the challenges in harmonising the green initiatives for policy makers toward greener environment for sustainability.

  10. Influence of glazing types and ventilation principles in double skin façades on delivered heating and cooling energy during heating season in an office building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Marko G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Double skin façade represents an additional skin on the outside wall of the building with the idea of reducing building’s energy demand. The zone formed by adding a skin can be sealed or ventilated either naturally or mechanically. This paper shows the results of delivered heating and cooling energy for an office building during heating season with 3 different ventilation strategies and 90 double skin façade configurations. The results were obtained by using EnergyPlus simulation program. In all observed cases, adding double skin façade leads to a decrease in delivered heating energy by as much as 55.80%, but delivered cooling energy might increase if proper glazing type is not selected. The best results were obtained by using triple glazing as inner skin of double façade. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  11. Policy Building Blocks: Helping Policymakers Determine Policy Staging for the Development of Distributed PV Markets: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.

    2012-04-01

    There is a growing body of qualitative and a limited body of quantitative literature supporting the common assertion that policy drives development of clean energy resources. Recent work in this area indicates that the impact of policy depends on policy type, length of time in place, and economic and social contexts of implementation. This work aims to inform policymakers about the impact of different policy types and to assist in the staging of those policies to maximize individual policy effectiveness and development of the market. To do so, this paper provides a framework for policy development to support the market for distributed photovoltaic systems. Next steps include mathematical validation of the framework and development of specific policy pathways given state economic and resource contexts.

  12. Ventilated external walls, constructed based on the building physics principles developed by Karl Gertis.; Hinterlueftete Aussenwaende, konstruiert aufgrund der von Karl Gertis erarbeiteten bauphysikalischen Grundlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cziesielski, Erich [CRP Bauingenieure GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    In his postdoctoral thesis Karl Gertis described the basic principles of the function and the geometric boundary conditions for the construction of ventilated external walls. The proposed revision of DIN 18516-1:2008-09 will again based on the fundamental results of his work. Meanwhile, further work has been carried out on various aspects, including the work by Janser and Marquardt on wind load assumptions and the corrosion-inhibiting effect of ventilated external walls. Ventilated external facings can be retrofitted to damaged walls in large-panel buildings to improve thermal insulation, as a remedial measure for joint defects, and in order to improve corrosion protection. This paper discusses the physical mechanisms relating to wind load reduction and corrosion protection. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die grundlegende Arbeit ueber die Wirkungsweise und die geometrischen Randbedingungen bei der Konstruktion hinterluefteter Aussenwandkonstruktionen hat Karl Gertis mit seiner Habilitationsschrift verfasst. Auch in der geplanten Neufassung von DIN 18516-1:2008-09 wird auf die grundlegenden Ergebnisse seiner Arbeit unveraendert zugegriffen werden. Weiterfuehrende Arbeiten wurden unter anderem ueber die anzusetzenden Windlastannahmen und die korrosionshemmende Wirkung hinterluefteter Aussenwaende von Janser und Marquardt durchgefuehrt. Durch die nachtraegliche Montage von hinterluefteten Aussenwandkonstruktionen auf die geschaedigten Waende des Grosstafelbaus kann sowohl die Waermedaemmung verbessert werden als auch eine Sanierung der Fugen erfolgen; insbesondere wird aber durch das Aufbringen hinterluefteter Aussenwandkonstruktionen der Korrosionsschutz wesentlich verbessert. Im Folgenden werden die Wirkmechanismen hinsichtlich der Reduzierung der Windlast und des Korrosionsschutzes beschrieben. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. 分析实验楼变风量通风系统设计探讨%Explore about the VAV Ventilation System Designed of Analysis Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周吉日

    2015-01-01

    随着人们对舒适节能以及温湿度精密度要求的逐渐提高,VAV 变风量空调系统正被逐步推广。以某分析实验楼暖通工程为例,介绍了实验室变风量通风系统的形式,并结合本工程特点对实验室变风量通风的系统设计、气流控制和污染的防治几个方面进行了分析。%Due to high requirements about Comfortable and energy as well as precision temperature and humidity requirements, VAV system has be used now. This article describes a laboratory VAV ventilation system as a chemical analysis building for example, and combined with the engineering characteristics of the lab VAV ventilation system to describe the system design, air flow control and pollution prevention. Final acceptance of the results showed that the variable air volume ventilation system can be well positioned to meet the use requirements of the needing.

  14. Cage RACK ventilation options for laboratory animal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakutis, Richard E

    2003-09-01

    Individually ventilated cage systems have become the method of choice for housing rodents. The author describes the various options for cage ventilation, from using supply and exhaust fans to directly connecting the racks to the building ventilation system. PMID:12966448

  15. Assisted Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dries, David J

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Mechanical Ventilation may be essential in the setting of severe respiratory failure but consequences to the patient including increased use of sedation and neuromuscular blockade may contribute to delirium, atelectasis, and diaphragm dysfunction. Assisted ventilation allows spontaneous breathing activity to restore physiological displacement of the diaphragm and recruit better perfused lung regions. Pressure Support Ventilation is the most frequently used mode of assisted mechanical ventilation. However, this mode continues to provide a monotonous pattern of support for respiration which is normally a dynamic process. Noisy Pressure Support Ventilation where tidal volume is varied randomly by the ventilator may improve ventilation and perfusion matching but the degree of support is still determined by the ventilator. Two more recent modes of ventilation, Proportional Assist Ventilation and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA), allow patient determination of the pattern and depth of ventilation. Proposed advantages of Proportional Assist Ventilation and NAVA include decrease in patient ventilator asynchrony and improved adaptation of ventilator support to changing patient demand. Work of breathing can be normalized with these modes as well. To date, however, a clear pattern of clinical benefit has not been demonstrated. Existing challenges for both of the newer assist modes include monitoring patients with dynamic hyperinflation (auto-positive end expiratory pressure), obstructive lung disease, and air leaks in the ventilator system. NAVA is dependent on consistent transduction of diaphragm activity by an electrode system placed in the esophagus. Longevity of effective support with this technique is unclear. PMID:25501776

  16. Energy policy making in the EU building the agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Tosun, Jale; Schulze, Kai; Schmitt, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The book adopts an innovative analytical approach to agenda setting by not only presenting successful cases in which energy issues were addressed by means of public policy, but by also analyzing failed attempts to make issues part of the European policy agenda. Another outstanding feature of the book is its use of the latest empirical data on a broad range of energy issues. When are energy issues likely to find their way to the agenda of European policymakers? This is the key research question guiding this collection of empirical studies, which will shed light on both successful and unsucces

  17. Lifecycle Assessment of Beijing-Area Building Energy Use and Emissions: Summary Findings and Policy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-09-15

    Buildings are at the locus of three trends driving China's increased energy use and emissions: urbanization, growing personal consumption, and surging heavy industrial production. Migration to cities and urban growth create demand for new building construction. Higher levels of per-capita income and consumption drive building operational energy use with demand for higher intensity lighting, thermal comfort, and plug-load power. Demand for new buildings, infrastructure, and electricity requires heavy industrial production. In order to quantify the implications of China's ongoing urbanization, rising personal consumption, and booming heavy industrial sector, this study presents a lifecycle assessment (LCA) of the energy use and carbon emissions related to residential and commercial buildings. The purpose of the LCA model is to quantify the impact of a given building and identify policy linkages to mitigate energy demand and emissions growth related to China's new building construction. As efficiency has become a higher priority with growing energy demand, policy and academic attention to buildings has focused primarily on operational energy use. Existing studies estimate that building operational energy consumption accounts for approximately 25% of total primary energy use in China. However, buildings also require energy for mining, extracting, processing, manufacturing, and transporting materials, as well as energy for construction, maintenance, and decommissioning. Building and supporting infrastructure construction is a major driver of industry consumption--in 2008 industry accounted for 72% of total Chinese energy use. The magnitude of new building construction is large in China--in 2007, for example, total built floor area reached 58 billion square meters. During the construction boom in 2007 and 2008, more than two billion m{sup 2} of building space were added annually; China's recent construction is estimated to account for half of global

  18. Comparative Policy Study for Green Buildings in U.S. and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Nina; Romankiewicz, John; Feng, Wei; Zhou, Nan; Ye, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Prominent barriers facing the U.S. green building industry include the fact that government bodies that supervise health, fire safety, land, and other public operations are slow to revise codes to accommodate green building (regulatory barrier). In China, the lack of a green building professional accreditation process similar to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) AP process limits the green building workforce capacity development (informational barrier). The main policies highlighted in this report to tackle these barriers are 1) comprehensive codes and labeling plan (informational, institutional), 2) government-led targets and demonstrations (risk), 3) education and awareness programs (informational), 4) fiscal policy that supports green building investment (financial), and 5) integrated design promotion (institutional, financial).

  19. Policy instruments to improve energy efficiency in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Cialani, Catia; Perman, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The newly adopted energy efficiency directive (2012/27/EU) highlights the importance of energy efficiency in reaching the Union’s 2020 targets. The directive commits member states to defining national energy efficiency targets (art. 3), achieving yearly energy savings of 1.5% of the annual energy sales through the energy efficiency obligation scheme (art. 7), and providing a long-term strategy for the building sector that aims at a 3% refurbishment rate for public buildings (art. 4+5). Buildi...

  20. Panarchy, adaptive management and governance: policy options for building resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sus­tainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems are critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a c...

  1. Building Confidence in Qualitative Research: Engaging the Demands of Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Harry

    2008-01-01

    The quality of qualitative research has been subject to considerable criticism recently, partly driven by the development of an international movement for "evidence-based policy and practice." In the United States, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are posited by some as the best way of producing reliable research knowledge. Also, responses to…

  2. Conserving energy in new buildings: analysis of nonregulatory policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, R.M.; Nieves, L.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-05-01

    The costs and effectiveness of non-regulatory options relative to those of a regulatory approach are analyzed. Nonregulatory program alternatives identified are: information and education programs, tax incentives and disincentives, and mortage and finance programs. Chapter 2 briefly reviews survey data to assess present public awareness of energy issues and energy-efficient building design. Homebuyer and homebuilder surveys are reviewed and conservation motivations are discussed. Chapter 3 examines the provision of technical and economic information to various factors affecting building design decisions. This approach assumes that the economic incentives and technical means to achieve energy conservation goals already exist but that critical information is lacking. Chapter 4 examines how adjustments to the tax structure could enhance economic incentives and counter economic disincentives for energy conservation. Qualifying buildings for tax benefits would almost certainly require certification of design energy consumption. The effectiveness of tax incentives would depend in part on dissemination of public information regarding the incentives. Chapter 5 examines subsidies, such as subsidized mortgages and loan guarantees, which lower the cost of money or other costs but do not change the market structure facing the consumer. Certification that buildings qualify for such treatment would probably be required. Chapter 6 presents recommendations based on the study's findings. (MCW)

  3. Low-energy mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Wessel; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2014-01-01

    little energy consumption as 41.1 kWh/m2/year including heating and all building services with no use of renewable energy such as PVcells or solar heating. One of the key means of reaching the objectives was to implement mechanical ventilation with low pressure loss and therefore low energy consumption....... The project consists of two buildings, building one is 6 stories high, and building two is 4 stories high. The buildings have a gross area of 50,500 m2 including underground parking. The ventilation and indoor climate concept was to use mechanical ventilation together with mechanical cooling and...... an average of 1.1 kJ/m3. The yearly mean SFP based on estimated runtime is approx. 0.8 kJ/m3. The case shows the unlocked potential that lies within mechanical ventilation for nearzero energy consuming buildings....

  4. Dynamic interactions between the ground heat exchanger and environments in earth–air tunnel ventilation of buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Guohui

    2014-01-01

    Earth–air tunnel ventilation is an energy efficient method of preheating or cooling of supply air to abuilding. The purposes of this study are to investigate the performance of earth–air heat exchangersunder varying soil and atmosphere conditions and the interactions between the heat exchanger andenvironments. A computer program has been developed for simulation of the thermal performance of anearth–air heat exchanger for preheating and cooling of supply air, taking account of dynamic variati...

  5. High-Performance Buildings – Value, Messaging, Financial and Policy Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Molly

    2011-02-22

    At the request of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, an in-depth analysis of the rapidly evolving state of real estate investments, high-performance building technology, and interest in efficiency was conducted by HaydenTanner, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The analysis objectives were • to evaluate the link between high-performance buildings and their market value • to identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to appropriately value and deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings • to summarize financial mechanisms that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a literature review of relevant writings, examination of existing and emergent financial and policy mechanisms, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implications through financial modeling. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Building Technologies Program on policy and program planning for the financing of high-performance new buildings and building retrofit projects.

  6. Evaluating public policy mechanisms for climate change mitigation in Brazilian buildings sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper applies a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) and marginal abatement cost curves (MACC) to evaluate public policies mechanisms to promote the dissemination of energy efficiency (EE) and on-site renewable energy sources (RES) technologies in Brazilian buildings sector. The objective here is to bring together the advantages of both methods in order to provide more valuable insights to policy makers. The MCA results show that in the case of more integrative policies, which considers, for instance, potential of jobs creation, the mechanisms to foster distributed RES and solar water heaters are better ranked than in MACC analysis, where only cost-effectiveness of each option is evaluated. Other key finding is that: (1) there is a significant cost effective potential that could be reached through alternative mechanisms not implemented yet in the country, such as public procurement regulation and building codes and; (2) minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) could be broader in scope and more stringent and include the use of energy in standby mode and tubular fluorescent lamps. In particular, some important appliances such as large air conditioning devices should have more aggressive MEPS. - Highlights: • We apply a multi-criteria analysis to evaluate EE and RES policies mechanisms. • We apply marginal abatement cost curves to evaluate EE and RES policies mechanisms. • We provide rankings of mechanisms according to their prospective potential impacts. • There is a significant cost effective energy saving potential in Brazilian buildings. • Brazil should improve MEPS and implement other policy mechanisms

  7. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  8. Industrial ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, H. D.

    Industrial ventilation design methodology, using computers and using fluid dynamic models, is considered. It is noted that the design of a ventilation system must be incorporated into the plant design and layout at the earliest conceptual stage of the project. A checklist of activities concerning the methodology for the design of a ventilation system for a new facility is given. A flow diagram of the computer ventilation model shows a typical input, the initialization and iteration loop, and the output. The application of the fluid dynamic modeling techniques include external and internal flow fields, and individual sources of heat and contaminants. Major activities for a ventilation field test program are also addressed.

  9. Cool roofs in China: Policy review, building simulations, and proof-of-concept experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the concept of reflective roofing is not new to China, most Chinese cool roof research has taken place within the past decade. Some national and local Chinese building energy efficiency standards credit or recommend, but do not require, cool roofs or walls. EnergyPlus simulations of standard-compliant Chinese office and residential building prototypes in seven Chinese cities (Harbin, Changchun, Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Wuhan, and Guangzhou) showed that substituting an aged white roof (albedo 0.6) for an aged gray roof (albedo 0.2) yields positive annual load, energy, energy cost, CO2, NOx, and SO2 savings in all hot-summer cities (Chongqing, Shanghai, Wuhan, and Guangzhou). Measurements in an office building in Chongqing in August 2012 found that a white coating lowered roof surface temperature by about 20 °C, and reduced daily air conditioning energy use by about 9%. Measurements in a naturally ventilated factory in Guangdong Province in August 2011 showed that a white coating decreased roof surface temperature by about 17 °C, lowered room air temperature by 1–3 °C, and reduced daily roof heat flux by 66%. Simulation and experimental results suggest that cool roofs should be credited or prescribed in building energy efficiency standards for both hot summer/warm winter and hot summer/cold winter climates in China

  10. The Development and Application of Policy-Based Tools for Institutional Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupido, Anthony F.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, APPA forwarded a Web-based survey on the author's behalf to all designated representatives of APPA member institutions. The purpose of the survey was to determine if institutional policies are an important criterion for an institution's sustainable building practices and the use of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED[R]).…

  11. Using the Teaching and Guidance Policy Essentials Checklist to Build and Support Effective Early Childhood Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Sarah M.; Longstreth, Sascha L.; Salcedo-Potter, Nina S.; Staub, April

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of preschool expulsion, coupled with racial disparities in expulsion rates and the potential long term negative effects of challenging behaviors in the early years, has created an urgent need to build early childhood systems to address these issues. The teaching and guidance policy essentials checklist (TAG-PEC) has been developed…

  12. EDUsummIT: A Global Knowledge Building Community for Educational Researchers, Practitioners, and Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwok-Wing; Voogt, Joke; Knezek, Gerald; Gibson, David

    2016-01-01

    The International Summit on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education (EDUsummIT) is a global knowledge building community of researchers, educational practitioners, and policy makers aiming to create and disseminate ideas and knowledge to promote the integration of ICT in education. Four EDUsummITs have been convened in The…

  13. Designing And Testing An Air-PCM Heat Exchanger For Building Ventilation Application Coupled To Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Dechesne, Bertrand; Gendebien, Samuel; Martens, Jonathan; Lemort, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increase of energy costs, buildings energy consumption has tended to decrease in the past decades. This gives an opportunity for developing innovative renewable technologies that are more adapted to recent buildings with low energy demand. In this context, one main challenge is to manage non-simultaneous availability of heat source or sink and the energy demand of buildings. Hence, different technologies dedicated to energy storage have been developed recently; one of them is the u...

  14. Improving the energy efficiency of buildings: The impact of environmental policy on technological innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the impact of alternative environmental policy instruments on technological innovations aiming to improve energy efficiency in buildings. The empirical analysis focuses on three main types of policy instruments, namely regulatory energy standards in buildings codes, energy taxes as captured by energy prices and specific governmental energy R and D expenditures. Technological innovation is measured using patent counts for specific technologies related to energy efficiency in buildings (e.g. insulation, high-efficiency boilers, energy-saving lightings). The estimates for seven European countries over the 1989–2004 period imply that a strengthening of 10% of the minimum insulation standards for walls would increase the likelihood to file additional patents by about 3%. In contrast, energy prices have no significant effect on the likelihood to patent. Governmental energy R and D support has a small positive significant effect on patenting activities. - Highlights: ► How can environmental policy stimulate innovations for energy-efficient buildings? ► Innovations for energy-efficient buildings are measured using patent counts. ► 10% more stringent insulation standards for walls increase patenting by about 3%. ► Energy prices have no significant effect. ► Governmental energy R and D support has a small positive significant effect.

  15. Low-carbon Building Innovation Trends and Policy Pespectives in Hungary between 2020 and 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogarassy Csaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the aspects of climate policy, the building sector in Hungary is one of the best performing industries. This means that the GHGs (Greenhouse Gasses the sector emits can be decreased more effectively and at less cost than in the case of other sectors. This is no surprise in the European Union, since there is a continual demand on behalf of society to develop old and outdated buildings, thus modern technological solutions also inherently result in operating efficacy. The ‘climate policy targeted’ development of the built environment based on EU funds is thus one of the most popular developments amongst European Union Member States. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess the climate policy effects of the presently preferred strategy approach(es between 2020 and 2030.

  16. CFD and Ventilation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Y.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2011-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth of scientific literature on the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the research of ventilation and indoor air science. With a 1000–10,000 times increase in computer hardware capability in the past 20 years, CFD has become an integral part of...... scientific research and engineering development of complex air distribution and ventilation systems in buildings. This review discusses the major and specific challenges of CFD in terms of turbulence modelling, numerical approximation, and boundary conditions relevant to building ventilation. We emphasize...... the growing need for CFD verification and validation, suggest on-going needs for analytical and experimental methods to support the numerical solutions, and discuss the growing capacity of CFD in opening up new research areas. We suggest that CFD has not become a replacement for experiment and...

  17. Stimulating increased energy efficiency and better building ventilation. Leading actions coordinated by INIVE EEIG and sources of other relevant information on EU level and IEA ECBCS projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaglastra, M.; Wouters, P. (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    During the final phase of the ASIEPI project on Assessment and Improvement of the EPBD Impact, the idea of producing a book which presents the major findings from this project was launched. The book includes a presentation of the major outcomes of other projects in which INIVE EEIG and its members have acted or are acting as a coordinator or as key contributors. It was even decided to include information on relevant projects or services related to energy efficiency in buildings from the European SAVE programmes, as well as from projects managed by the International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement on Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community systems (ECBCS). The book consists of 2 parts: (1) highlights of the major outcomes of INIVE-led projects and services, i.e. the ASIEPI project, the BUILD UP portal, the Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) and the DYNASTEE-PASLINK network; and (2) a series of annexes which provide information on the European SAVE projects and projects managed by ECBCS.

  18. Apartment building built to passive-house standard with solar balanced ventilation system; Mehrfamilien-Passivhaus mit solarem Luftsystem. Lueftung/Luftheizung/WRG/Solarfassade an der Rychenbergstrasse, Winterthur - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetermann, A.

    2002-04-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with an apartment building in Winterthur, Switzerland, built to passive-house standards and equipped with a solar balanced ventilation system. The building and its convective solar facade are described, as are the fan-assisted, balanced ventilation systems used. The operation of the systems in winter, during transitional periods and in summer is discussed. Domestic hot water preparation is looked at. The energy balance of the building is examined, as is the economic viability of the energy systems. The building, its energy installations and the measurement concept used are considered in detail. Finally, the findings of the study are summarised and commented on.

  19. Modeling a Naturally Ventilated Double Skin Façade with a Building Thermal Simulation Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    The use of Double Skin Façade (DSF) has increased during the last decade. There are many reasons for this including e.g. aesthetics, sound insulation, improved indoor environment and energy savings. However, the influence on the indoor environment and energy consumption are very difficult to...... predict. This is manly due to the very transient and complex air flow in the naturally ventilated double skin façade cavity. In this paper the modelling of the DSF using a thermal simulation program, BSim, is discussed. The simulations are based on the measured weather boundary conditions, and the...... simulation results are compared to the measurement results like energy consumption for cooling, air temperature, temperature gradient and mass flow rate in the DSF cavity, etc. Details about the measurements are reported in \\Kalyanova et al. 2008\\. The thermal simulation program does not at the moment...

  20. Liquid Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfic, Qutaiba A.

    2011-01-01

    Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixt...

  1. Building a wave energy policy focusing on innovation, manufacturing and deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Irish Government has set a goal to make Ireland a world leader for research, development and deployment of ocean energy technologies. Ireland has a wave energy resource of 21 TWh and an ambition is to achieve at least 500 MW installed generating capacity from ocean energy by 2020. This paper investigates what is required to move from ambition to delivery. A successful wave energy strategy will require focused policies that will stimulate innovation to develop the technologies, manufacturing to produce the devices and deployment to build the required wave power plants. The paper draws on the successful policies in Ireland that have stimulated each of these dimensions, albeit for different sectors. From 2004 to 2008, successful policies in (ICT and biotech) innovation led to an increase in Ireland's Innovation Index score from 0.48 to 0.53. The policy focus on (food and pharmaceuticals) manufacturing in Ireland resulted in high levels of economic growth over the period 1998-2002, reaching >10% GDP growth levels per annum, and full employment. Successful wind energy policies deployment has accelerated rapidly since 2003 and reached 1.2 GW installed capacity in 2009 representing 15% of Ireland's total installed capacity. The paper draws on appropriate elements of these policies to build a successful wave energy policy for Ireland. It also draws on the successful policies adopted in Denmark for innovation, manufacturing and deployment of wind energy. The Danish wind turbine manufacturers hold a world market share of approximately 40%. The paper proposes establishing a wave energy strategy group to develop an action plan to deliver the 500 MW. It also proposes a novel extension of corporate tax specifically for wave energy companies, an initial 30% capital grant scheme for wave energy developers, a grid code for wave energy devices and fast tracking of planning decisions through an amended approach to strategic infrastructure. (author)

  2. 76 FR 65511 - Office of Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High- Performance Green Buildings; the Green... provides the schedule and agenda for the first meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting...: Ken Sandler, Designated Federal Official, Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings,...

  3. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systemsfor Occupant Symptoms in U.S. Office Buildings: the EPA BASE Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2006-10-01

    Nonspecific building-related symptoms among occupants of modern office buildings worldwide are common and may be associated with important reductions in work performance, but their etiology remains uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in office buildings that increase risk of indoor contaminants or reduce effectiveness of ventilation may cause adverse exposures and subsequent increase in these symptoms among occupants. We analyzed data collected by the U.S. EPA from a representative sample of 100 large U.S. office buildings--the Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation (BASE) study--using multivariate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations adjusted for potential personal and building confounders. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between seven building-related symptom outcomes and selected HVAC system characteristics. Among factors of HVAC design or configuration: Outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground were associated with approximately doubled odds of most symptoms assessed. Sealed (non-operable) windows were associated with increases in skin and eye symptoms (ORs= 1.9, 1.3, respectively). Outdoor air intake without an intake fan was associated with an increase in eye symptoms (OR=1.7). Local cooling coils were associated with increased headache (OR=1.5). Among factors of HVAC condition, maintenance, or operation: the presence of humidification systems in good condition was associated with an increase in headache (OR=1.4), whereas the presence of humidification systems in poor condition was associated with increases in fatigue/difficulty concentrating, as well as upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=1.8, 1.5). No regularly scheduled inspections for HVAC components was associated with increased eye symptoms, cough and upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=2.2, 1.6, 1.5). Less frequent cleaning of cooling coils or drip pans was associated

  4. Summary of human responses to ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppanen, Olli A.; Fisk, William J.

    2004-06-01

    The effects of ventilation on indoor air quality and health is a complex issue. It is known that ventilation is necessary to remove indoor generated pollutants from indoor air or dilute their concentration to acceptable levels. But, as the limit values of all pollutants are not known, the exact determination of required ventilation rates based on pollutant concentrations and associated risks is seldom possible. The selection of ventilation rates has to be based also on epidemiological research (e.g. Seppanen et al., 1999), laboratory and field experiments (e.g. CEN 1996, Wargocki et al., 2002a) and experience (e.g. ECA 2003). Ventilation may also have harmful effects on indoor air quality and climate if not properly designed, installed, maintained and operated as summarized by Seppdnen (2003). Ventilation may bring indoors harmful substances that deteriorate the indoor environment. Ventilation also affects air and moisture flow through the building envelope and may lead to moisture problems that deteriorate the structures of the building. Ventilation changes the pressure differences over the structures of building and may cause or prevent the infiltration of pollutants from structures or adjacent spaces. Ventilation is also in many cases used to control the thermal environment or humidity in buildings. Ventilation can be implemented with various methods which may also affect health (e.g. Seppdnen and Fisk, 2002, Wargocki et al., 2002a). In non residential buildings and hot climates, ventilation is often integrated with air-conditioning which makes the operation of ventilation system more complex. As ventilation is used for many purposes its health effects are also various and complex. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on positive and negative effects of ventilation on health and other human responses. The focus of the paper is on office-type working environment and residential buildings. In the industrial premises the problems of air quality are usually

  5. Ventilation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Yang

    1999-11-04

    The purpose of this analysis and model report (AMR) for the Ventilation Model is to analyze the effects of pre-closure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts and provide heat removal data to support EBS design. It will also provide input data (initial conditions, and time varying boundary conditions) for the EBS post-closure performance assessment and the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Process Model. The objective of the analysis is to develop, describe, and apply calculation methods and models that can be used to predict thermal conditions within emplacement drifts under forced ventilation during the pre-closure period. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Provide a general description of effects and heat transfer process of emplacement drift ventilation. (2) Develop a modeling approach to simulate the impacts of pre-closure ventilation on the thermal conditions in emplacement drifts. (3) Identify and document inputs to be used for modeling emplacement ventilation. (4) Perform calculations of temperatures and heat removal in the emplacement drift. (5) Address general considerations of the effect of water/moisture removal by ventilation on the repository thermal conditions. The numerical modeling in this document will be limited to heat-only modeling and calculations. Only a preliminary assessment of the heat/moisture ventilation effects and modeling method will be performed in this revision. Modeling of moisture effects on heat removal and emplacement drift temperature may be performed in the future.

  6. Liquid Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba A. Tawfic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future. Keywords: Liquid ventilation; perfluorochemicals; perfluorocarbon; respiratory distress; surfactant.

  7. Building a municipal food policy regime in Minneapolis: implications for urban climate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Jane E Shey; David Belis

    2013-01-01

    With this paper we analyze Minneapolis’s urban food policy regime and attempt to make a case for applying urban regime theory (URT) to study climate change governance at the municipal level. In 2008 Minneapolis launched Homegrown Minneapolis, a multiple stakeholder initiative bringing together local government actors, businesses, and NGOs to build a sustainable and local food system. As the link between food systems and climate change is increasingly acknowledged in the literature, the analys...

  8. Multivariate methods for indoor PM10 and PM2.5 modelling in naturally ventilated schools buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbayoumi, Maher; Ramli, Nor Azam; Md Yusof, Noor Faizah Fitri; Yahaya, Ahmad Shukri Bin; Al Madhoun, Wesam; Ul-Saufie, Ahmed Zia

    2014-09-01

    In this study the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, CO and CO2 concentrations and meteorological variables (wind speed, air temperature, and relative humidity) were employed to predict the annual and seasonal indoor concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 using multivariate statistical methods. The data have been collected in twelve naturally ventilated schools in Gaza Strip (Palestine) from October 2011 to May 2012 (academic year). The bivariate correlation analysis showed that the indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were highly positive correlated with outdoor concentration of PM10 and PM2.5. Further, Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used for modelling and R2 values for indoor PM10 were determined as 0.62 and 0.84 for PM10 and PM2.5 respectively. The Performance indicators of MLR models indicated that the prediction for PM10 and PM2.5 annual models were better than seasonal models. In order to reduce the number of input variables, principal component analysis (PCA) and principal component regression (PCR) were applied by using annual data. The predicted R2 were 0.40 and 0.73 for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. PM10 models (MLR and PCR) show the tendency to underestimate indoor PM10 concentrations as it does not take into account the occupant's activities which highly affect the indoor concentrations during the class hours.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation of the tracer gas methodology in the case of a naturally cross-ventilated building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Νikolopoulos, Nikos; Nikolopoulos, Aristeidis;

    2012-01-01

    , focusing on the time dependent character of the induced flow field. The numerical results are compared with corresponding experimental data for the three aforementioned experimental methodologies in the case of a full-scale building inside a wind tunnel. The numerical investigation reveals that for large...

  10. CLEAN-AIR heat pump. Reduced energy consumption for ventilation in buildings by integrating air cleaning and heat pump. Final Report; CLEAN-AIR heat pump - Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger ved luftrensning integreret med luft varmepumpe. Slut rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, L.; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Molinaro, G.; Simmonsen, P.; Skocajic, S. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ. Institut for Byggeri og Anlaeg, Lyngby (Denmark); Hummelshoej, R.M.; Carlassara, L. [COWI A/S, Lyngby, (Denmark); Groenbaek, H.; Hansen, Ole R. [Exhausto A/S, Langeskov (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes task 1 of the Clean Air Heat Pump project - modelling and simulation on energy savings when using the clean air heat pump for ventilation, air cleaning and energy recovery. The total energy consumption of the proposed ventilation systems using clean air heat pump technology was calculated by a theoretical model and compared with the reference ventilation systems (conventional ventilation systems). The energy compared between the two systems includes energy used for heating, cooling and fan. The simulation and energy saving calculation was made for the application of the clean air heat pump in three typical climate conditions, i.e. mild-cold, mild-hot and hot and wet climates. Real climate data recorded from three cities in 2002 was used for the calculation. The three cities were Copenhagen (Denmark), Milan (Italy) and Colombo (Sir Lanka) which represent the above three typical climate zones. For the Danish climate (the mild cold climate), the calculations show that the ventilation system using clean air heat pump technology can save up to 42% of energy cost in winter compared to the conventional ventilation system. The energy saving in summer can be as high as 66% for the ventilation system with humidity control and 9% for the ventilation system without the requirement of humidity control. Since the Danish summer climate is very mild, over 80% of the yearly energy consumption for ventilation is used during winter season. It is, therefore, estimated that more than 35% annual energy saving for ventilation is expected in Denmark using the clean air heat pump ventilation technology. For the mild hot climate, e.g. the Italian climate, the calculations show that up to 63% of the energy saving can be achieved in summer season. For the winter mode, 17% reduction of the energy cost can be expected for the domestic use. For industrial use, the energy cost of the clean air heat pump may not be favourable due to the industrial price of gas in Italy is

  11. Implementation of ventilation in existing schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Petersen, Steffen

    Present paper analyses the best-practice solutions for classrooms’ ventilation that fit the objective of quick and inexpensive implementation. The paper decomposes the relations between ventilation and building into manageable elements and analyzes them. The analyses are performed qualitatively......; they evaluate both scientific and practical implementation The analyses lead to a list of criteria associated with the implementation of ventilation in existing schools. Generic retrofitting scenarios which prioritize energy savings, indoor climate and building/facade integration are assembled and...

  12. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  13. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  14. Building a knowledge translation platform in Malawi to support evidence-informed health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Joshua; Mitambo, Collins; Matanje-Mwagomba, Beatrice; Khan, Shiraz; Kachimanga, Chiyembekezo; Wroe, Emily; Mwape, Lonia; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Chindebvu, Getrude; van Schoor, Vanessa; Puchalski Ritchie, Lisa M; Panisset, Ulysses; Kathyola, Damson

    2015-01-01

    With the support of the World Health Organization's Evidence-Informed Policy Network, knowledge translation platforms have been developed throughout Africa, the Americas, Eastern Europe, and Asia to further evidence-informed national health policy. In this commentary, we discuss the approaches, activities and early lessons learned from the development of a Knowledge Translation Platform in Malawi (KTPMalawi). Through ongoing leadership, as well as financial and administrative support, the Malawi Ministry of Health has strongly signalled its intention to utilize a knowledge translation platform methodology to support evidence-informed national health policy. A unique partnership between Dignitas International, a medical and research non-governmental organization, and the Malawi Ministry of Health, has established KTPMalawi to engage national-level policymakers, researchers and implementers in a coordinated approach to the generation and utilization of health-sector research. Utilizing a methodology developed and tested by knowledge translation platforms across Africa, a stakeholder mapping exercise and initial capacity building workshops were undertaken and a multidisciplinary Steering Committee was formed. This Steering Committee prioritized the development of two initial Communities of Practice to (1) improve data utilization in the pharmaceutical supply chain and (2) improve the screening and treatment of hypertension within HIV-infected populations. Each Community of Practice's mandate is to gather and synthesize the best available global and local evidence and produce evidence briefs for policy that have been used as the primary input into structured deliberative dialogues. While a lack of sustained initial funding slowed its early development, KTPMalawi has greatly benefited from extensive technical support and mentorship by an existing network of global knowledge translation platforms. With the continued support of the Malawi Ministry of Health and the

  15. Design of Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    The effectiveness of natural ventilation, i.e. its ability to ensure indoor air quality and passive cooling in a building, depends greatly on the design process. Mechanical ventilation systems can be designed separately from the design of the building in which they are installed. They can also be...... installed in existing buildings after a few modifications. In contrast, ventilation systems using only natural forces such as wind and thermal buoyancy need to be designed together with the building, since the building itself and its components are the elements that can reduce or increase air movement as...... envelope, as a result of wind velocity and/or stack effect....

  16. Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores and other commercial buildings in California. Issues related to the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Apte, Mike G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-10-31

    This report considers the question of whether the California Energy Commission should incorporate the ASHRAE 62.1 ventilation standard into the Title 24 ventilation rate (VR) standards, thus allowing buildings to follow the Indoor Air Quality Procedure. This, in contrast to the current prescriptive standard, allows the option of using ventilation rate as one of several strategies, which might include source reduction and air cleaning, to meet specified targets of indoor air concentrations and occupant acceptability. The research findings reviewed in this report suggest that a revised approach to a ventilation standard for commercial buildings is necessary, because the current prescriptive ASHRAE 62.1 Ventilation Rate Procedure (VRP) apparently does not provide occupants with either sufficiently acceptable or sufficiently healthprotective air quality. One possible solution would be a dramatic increase in the minimum ventilation rates (VRs) prescribed by a VRP. This solution, however, is not feasible for at least three reasons: the current need to reduce energy use rather than increase it further, the problem of polluted outdoor air in many cities, and the apparent limited ability of increasing VRs to reduce all indoor airborne contaminants of concern (per Hodgson (2003)). Any feasible solution is thus likely to include methods of pollutant reduction other than increased outdoor air ventilation; e.g., source reduction or air cleaning. The alternative 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure (IAQP) offers multiple possible benefits in this direction over the VRP, but seems too limited by insufficient specifications and inadequate available data to provide adequate protection for occupants. Ventilation system designers rarely choose to use it, finding it too arbitrary and requiring use of much non-engineering judgment and information that is not readily available. This report suggests strategies to revise the current ASHRAE IAQP to reduce its current limitations. These

  17. Community-based participatory research: a capacity-building approach for policy advocacy aimed at eliminating health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Barbara A; Coombe, Chris M; Cheezum, Rebecca R; Schulz, Amy J; McGranaghan, Robert J; Lichtenstein, Richard; Reyes, Angela G; Clement, Jaye; Burris, Akosua

    2010-11-01

    There have been increasing calls for community-academic partnerships to enhance the capacity of partners to engage in policy advocacy aimed at eliminating health disparities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a partnership approach that can facilitate capacity building and policy change through equitable engagement of diverse partners. Toward this end, the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center, a long-standing CBPR partnership, has conducted a policy training project. We describe CBPR and its relevance to health disparities; the interface between CBPR, policy advocacy, and health disparities; the rationale for capacity building to foster policy advocacy; and the process and outcomes of our policy advocacy training. We discuss lessons learned and implications for CBPR and policy advocacy to eliminate health disparities. PMID:20864728

  18. Generalized uniform formulae for atmospheric dispersion of activities released from a ventilation stack or from a leaky reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relations are given for the calculation of the atmospheric transport and dispersion of industrial gaseous wastes released from the stacks of factories, power plants and nuclear power plants. Modified formulae are derived for stack disposal from a small stack, also applicable in calculating the gaseous waste release from a leaky reactor. Uniform generalized formulae are presented serving the calculation of both high and short stack disposals as well as of reactor building leakages. (L.O.)

  19. Ventilation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. The purposes of Revision 01 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to initialize post

  20. Measuring the progress of capacity building in the Alberta Policy Coalition for Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Kim D; Sosa Hernandez, Cristabel; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Reed, Shandy; Montemurro, Genevieve; Lytvyak, Ellina; MacLellan-Wright, Mary-Frances

    2014-07-01

    The Alberta Policy Coalition for Cancer Prevention (APCCP) represents practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and community organizations working together to coordinate efforts and advocate for policy change to reduce chronic diseases. The aim of this research was to capture changes in the APCCP's capacity to advance its goals over the course of its operation. We adapted the Public Health Agency of Canada's validated Community Capacity-Building Tool to capture policy work. All members of the APCCP were invited to complete the tool in 2010 and 2011. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t tests. Qualitative comments were analyzed using thematic content analysis. A group process for reaching consensus provided context to the survey responses and contributed to a participatory analysis. Significant improvement was observed in eight out of nine capacity domains. Lessons learned highlight the importance of balancing volume and diversity of intersectoral representation to ensure effective participation, as well as aligning professional and economic resources. Defining involvement and roles within a coalition can be a challenging activity contingent on the interests of each sector represented. The participatory analysis enabled the group to reflect on progress made and future directions for policy advocacy. PMID:24334541

  1. The Trade-off between Solar Reflectance and Above-Sheathing Ventilation for Metal Roofs on Residential and Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Kriner, Scott [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL; Miller, William A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    An alternative to white and cool-color roofs that meets prescriptive requirements for steep-slope (residential and non-residential) and low-slope (non-residential) roofing has been documented. Roofs fitted with an inclined air space above the sheathing (herein termed above-sheathing ventilation, or ASV), performed as well as if not better than high-reflectance, high-emittance roofs fastened directly to the deck. Field measurements demonstrated the benefit of roofs designed with ASV. A computer tool was benchmarked against the field data. Testing and benchmarks were conducted at roofs inclined at 18.34 ; the roof span from soffit to ridge was 18.7 ft (5.7 m). The tool was then exercised to compute the solar reflectance needed by a roof equipped with ASV to exhibit the same annual cooling load as that for a direct-to-deck cool-color roof. A painted metal roof with an air space height of 0.75 in. (0.019 m) and spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) up the roof incline of 18.34 needed only a 0.10 solar reflectance to exhibit the same annual cooling load as a direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof (solar reflectance of 0.25). This held for all eight ASHRAE climate zones complying with ASHRAE 90.1 (2007a). A dark heat-absorbing roof fitted with 1.5 in. (0.038 m) air space spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) and inclined at 18.34 was shown to have a seasonal cooling load equivalent to that of a conventional direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof. Computations for retrofit application based on ASHRAE 90.1 (1980) showed that ASV air spaces of either 0.75 or 1.5 in. (0.019 and 0.038 m) would permit black roofs to have annual cooling loads equivalent to the direct-to-deck cool roof. Results are encouraging, and a parametric study of roof slope and ASV aspect ratio is needed for developing guidelines applicable to all steep- and low-slope roof applications.

  2. Experimental Analysis and Model Validation of an Opaque Ventilated Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, F. Peci; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Heiselberg, Per;

    2012-01-01

    Natural ventilation is a convenient way of reducing energy consumption in buildings. In this study an experimental module of an opaque ventilated façade (OVF) was built and tested for assessing its potential of supplying free ventilation and air preheating for the building. A numerical model was ...

  3. Experimental Study of Air Distribution and Ventilation Effectiveness in a Room with a Combination of Different Mechanical Ventilation and Heating/Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; Simone, Angela; Krajcik, Michal;

    2011-01-01

    Mixing and displacement ventilation are common systems in commercial buildings, while mixing ventilation is used in residential buildings. Displacement ventilation provides fresh air to the occupied zone in a more efficient way than mixing ventilation but it is important to know how well it works...

  4. Ventilation with heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences from the use of ventilation with heat recovery in several experimental single-family houses developed and built within the last four years to meet the new Danish energy requirements of 2005. Included are descriptions of the ventilation system components...... and the main functional demands as well as measurements of the thermal efficiency, electricity consumptions and building air tightness. The paper addresses the aspects of minimizing the heat loss from the duct system and the heat recovery unit (when placed in an unheated attic space) in order to obtain...... an acceptable efficiency. Furthermore, solutions to secure the air tightness of the building envelope are suggested. The paper does not address problems with condensate of water in the exchanger that may freeze in cold climate conditions. This complex of problem is dealt with in a separate paper....

  5. Building the Knowledge-Based Economy in Countries in Transition—from Concepts to Policies

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Dyker; Slavo Radosevic

    2000-01-01

    Conventional transition policies of a predominantly macroeconomic character have done a good deal to create necessary conditions for building the knowledge-based economy in the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Establishment of sufficient conditions for such an evolution will require a different approach to policy-making, which will range much more widely across the gamut of possible economic policies, but will at the same time seek to bolster state action with the acti...

  6. Indoor Air Quality: Is Increased Ventilation the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Shirley

    1989-01-01

    Explains how indoor air quality is affected by pollutants in the air and also by temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Increased ventilation alone seldom solves the "sick building syndrome." Lists ways to improve indoor air quality and optimize energy efficiency. (MLF)

  7. Energy and behavioral impacts of integrative retrofits for residential buildings: What is at stake for building energy policy reforms in northern China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon the results from extensive building monitoring and surveys on occupant’s behaviors in a representative nine-story apartment building in northern China, building energy simulations were performed to evaluate the impacts of integrative retrofits implemented. Integrative retrofits required by the newer building energy standard produced significant heating-energy savings (i.e., 53%) when compared with baseline buildings commonly built in early 1980s. Taking into account district-heating-system upgrades as part of integrative retrofit measures, a representative apartment building was 66% more efficient than the baseline building. Contrary to expectation, little behavioral change was found in response to the provisions of monetary incentive, billing-method reform, or metering of heating energy use in individual apartment units. Yet this paper identified sizable energy savings potential if occupants’ behavioral changes were to actually happen. This indicates that provisions of financial incentives or individual metering were insufficient for triggering substantial behavioral changes leading toward more energy savings in the current buildings. It is recommended that innovative energy policies, technology upgrades, and education would be needed to promote behavioral changes toward additional energy savings. Finally, measures and strategies to further enhance thermal integrity criteria (e.g., insulations of roof and balcony) are recommended in China’s future building energy policy reforms. - Highlights: ► Integrative retrofits significantly reduce residential heating energy in north China. ► Energy effects of retrofits, incentive, billing and behavioral changes were studied. ► Monetary incentive, control or metering technologies did not lead to behavior change. ► Potential energy savings due to occupants’ behavioral changes are sizable. ► Thermal integrity needs to be enhanced in future building standards and policies.

  8. Personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    microenvironment. Furthermore, HVAC systems should be designed to protect occupants from airborne transmission of infectious agents that may be present in exhaled air. Personalized ventilation is a new development in the field of HVAC and has the potential to fulfill the above requirements. This paper reviews...... existing knowledge on performance of personalized ventilation (PV) and on human response to it. The airflow interaction in the vicinity of the human body is analyzed and its impact on thermal comfort and inhaled air quality is discussed together with control strategies and the application of PV in practice...

  9. Project-Based Market Competition and Policy Implications for Sustainable Developments in Building and Construction Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building and construction sectors are significant contributors to the global economy, but their energy consumption necessitates greater commitment to sustainable developments. There is therefore a growing demand for green innovation in the form of cleaner production and policies to meet the modern requirements of sustainability. However, the nature in which public work is undertaken is in an environment of project-based market competition, whereby contractors routinely bid for contracts under specific project awarding systems, and variations are accompanied with the unique scope of individual projects before the final goods or services are delivered. A comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and contractors’ behavior in systems could help to identify the leverage points of policies. This paper proposes a system dynamics model, with quantitative analysis and simulations, to demonstrate the problems of a system with different project awarding systems and ineffective market performance. The framework of market efficiency and performance measures has been proposed to evaluate the project-based competition mechanism. Managerial policy implications for market efficiency and sustainable developments can thus be systematically discussed and compared through iterative computer simulations and scenario analysis.

  10. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  11. Towards a Very Low Energy Building Stock: Modeling the U.S. Commercial Building Sector to Support Policy and Innovation Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, Brian; Borgeson, Sam; Selkowitz, Stephen; Apte, Josh; Mathew, Paul; Haves, Philip

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the origin, structure and continuing development of a model of time varying energy consumption in the US commercial building stock. The model is based on a flexible structure that disaggregates the stock into various categories (e.g. by building type, climate, vintage and life-cycle stage) and assigns attributes to each of these (e.g. floor area and energy use intensity by fuel type and end use), based on historical data and user-defined scenarios for future projections. In addition to supporting the interactive exploration of building stock dynamics, the model has been used to study the likely outcomes of specific policy and innovation scenarios targeting very low future energy consumption in the building stock. Model use has highlighted the scale of the challenge of meeting targets stated by various government and professional bodies, and the importance of considering both new construction and existing buildings.

  12. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats;

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment in the...

  13. Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandzia, Claudia; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    In this guidebook most of the known and used in practice methods for achieving mixing air distribution are discussed. Mixing ventilation has been applied to many different spaces providing fresh air and thermal comfort to the occupants. Today, a design engineer can choose from large selection of ...

  14. Moulds in floor dust - a particular problem in mechanically ventilated rooms? A study of adolescent schoolboys under the Danish moulds in buildings program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Harald W; Suadicani, Poul; Nielsen, Peter A;

    2011-01-01

    negative effect of high levels of mould in floor dust was more pronounced in rooms with mechanical ventilation system. With a variable combining high level of moulds in floor dust with type of ventilation in the classroom, a significantly increased risk was found for all symptoms in the mechanically...... ventilated classrooms with high mould concentrations. In multiple logistic regression models, significant odds ratios (OR) ranged from 3.9 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-10.1] (nasal congestion) to 17.0 (95% CI 2.1-138) (dizziness). CONCLUSIONS: The combined effect of moulds in dust and ventilation...... form might be a result of the higher air flow keeping the dust in the breathing zone for a longer time, thereby increasing the exposure for the occupants of the classrooms. It is important in future indoor air research also to focus on the combination effects of risk factors, including the type of...

  15. Removal of Particles from the Supply Air of Ventilation Systems Avoiding the Formation of Sensory Pollution Source:Delivery of Clean Air to Building Occupants

    OpenAIRE

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Used ventilation filters can act as sources of strong sensory pollution. The pollutants emitted from loaded particle filters may include irritating products of chemical reactions occurring on the filter surfaces. Most likely oxidation reactions, especially those driven by ozone, seem to play an important role. Sensory pollutants emitted from used filters can have significant adverse impact on occupant performance. Therefore, removal of particles from the supply air of ventilation systems with...

  16. Modelling of Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    The effectiveness of natural ventilation, i.e. its ability to ensure indoor air quality and passive cooling in a building, depends greatly on the design process. Mechanical ventilation systems can be designed separately from the design of the building in which they are installed. They can also be......-energy approach. These lecture notes focus on modelling of natural and hybrid ventilation driven by thermal buoyancy, wind and/or mechanical driving forces for a single zone with one, two or several openings....... installed in existing buildings after a few modifications. In contrast, ventilation systems using only natural forces such as wind and thermal buoyancy need to be designed together with the building, since the building itself and its components are the elements that can reduce or increase air movement as...

  17. 某办公建筑空调系统新风换气机设计研究%Research on design for fresh air ventilation of air-conditioner system of some office building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景胜蓝; 王飞; 雷勇刚

    2015-01-01

    介绍了采用数码多联机空调系统的办公建筑,对新风系统采用的新风换气机进行了分析,通过研究计算结果,表明新风换气机在改善室内空气品质的同时,具有显著的节能效果和良好的经济性。%The paper introduces the digital multi-connected air-conditioner system of office buildings,analyzes the fresh air ventilation of the fresh air system,and proves by the research and calculation that the ventilation equipment can improve the indoor air quality with evident energy-saving effect and money-saving feature.

  18. Fiscal and tax policy support for energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings (EERERB) in China's northern heating region is an important component of the national energy strategy. The main content and related subject in EERERB performance is the basis of understanding and developing targeted policies. So, this paper designed the content system of EERERB. And then, provided a cost-benefit analysis on related subjects, assessed the government's function in EERERB, and come to the conclusion that the Chinese government should increase fiscal fund investment and implement more fiscal and tax incentive policies. Moreover, in view of China's current policy, which lacks long-term mechanism and flexibility, this paper proposed specific policy recommendations, including clarifying the government's corresponding responsibilities at all levels and increasing the intensity of the central government's transfer payments. It further proposed targeted financial and tax policies for supporting and encouraging heating enterprises and owners, as well as policies to cultivate energy-saving service markets and to support the ESCO.

  19. Capacity building and policy development in Belize marine protected areas, an example for Caribbean integrated coastal management

    OpenAIRE

    Crabbe, M. James C.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability science can, through capacity building, allow for integrated stakeholder management of the vital Caribbean marine ecosystems. We did a capacity building exercise in two major coral reef areas in Southern Belize. The key outcome was a six-month personal/professional action plan developed by each participant about tactics for leading, educating and supporting issues regarding sustainable development and tactics for collaboration to influence policy decisions. Our results can be a...

  20. Ventilator-driven xenon ventilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modification of a common commerical Xe-133 ventilation device is described for mechanically assisted ventilation imaging. The patient's standard ventilator serves as the power source controlling the ventilator rate and volume during the xenon study, but the gases in the two systems are not intermixed. This avoids contamination of the ventilator with radioactive xenon. Supplemental oxygen and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) are provided if needed. The system can be converted quickly for conventional studies with spontaneous respiration

  1. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete.

  2. Natural Ventilation Performance of Kedah Vernacular House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izudinshah Abd. Wahab

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As processed energy becoming more expensive, people have started to look for natural sources for option to provide their needs and comfort. Natural ventilation is one of the passive approaches that have recently become one of the important approaches in building design. However, architecturally, this approach is not considered new as a lot of previous buildings before industry era are totally depending on natural sources to ventilate their indoor spaces. Therefore this study was done to look into how these architectural details in Malay vernacular houses may affect the air movement performance around them. Two case studies of vernacular houses were chosen with design elements identified as natural ventilation attributes. Several points were identified inside and outside of the house where the wind speed of their surrounding were taken hourly in daytime for three days. The data were than compared to the building elements of the spaces. Both houses shows how building orientation and position of ventilation openings play the major role in determine the indoor air movement performance. However due to having other unintentionally openings such as gaps on roof design and gaps in flooring construction installation may also allow air flow to sip into the building despite of not having proper opening facing the cross ventilation. Besides that, by having openings at high level at the high roof may also encourage natural air flow via stack effect ventilation. Wide and full height window design may also become one of the most significant element to allow ventilation as proven in this research.

  3. Building the Cash Dividend Policy Identification Model for China’s Agricultural Listed Companies Based on 2007 to 2010 Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei

    2012-01-01

    The dual agency relation and lack of effective incentive and restraint mechanism make stock right structure of China’s listed companies special.This special stock right structure will inevitably exert direct and profound influence on formulation of cash dividend policies.Based on the 2007 to 2010 data of China’s agricultural listed companies and focusing on the stock right structure,this paper selected 6 indicators and the BP ANN to build the cash dividend policy identification model,in the hope of helping investors accurately predict influence of stock right structure on cash dividend policies,so as to reduce investment risk to some extent.

  4. Building trust and confidence in laboratory ES and H policy and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, J.

    2000-08-01

    This report describes a successful pilot event among LANL employees that can see as a model for employee involvement and community input. The conference was designed to begin building trust and confidence in Laboratory policy and practices in the area of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H). It represents a concrete step toward fostering better relationships among Lab employees and creating a new, innovative approach to communication that can also be used to build trust in the larger community. Based on the proven methods of the National Issues Forums and the Jefferson Center Citizen Jury Process, this conference enabled management to learn more about the thoughts and advice of LANL employees, During the course of the day, a random sample of Lab employees representing the LANL workforce learned about issues of health, safety and the environment, and some of the options available to increase trustworthiness in these areas. These Employee Advisors then discussed the options at some length and presented recommendations to senior Lab managers in the role of Decision Makers. At the end of the day, the participants offered their reflections and discussed what they learned during the conference, and Decision Makers responded to what they heard. The most common view expressed by the Employee Advisors was that a bottom-up approach was necessary to develop more relevant ES and H policies. They were unanimous in their desire for more employee inclusion into the decision making process. All Employee Advisors were in support of a Lab wide survey to determine employee concerns about ES and H issues. After listening to the deliberation, the Decision Makers responded with several commitments. The most significant was the pledge to meet with Employee Advisors by the end of February to discuss the status of their recommendations on ES and H policy and practices. The ensuing follow-up meeting explored employee concerns in greater depth resulting in forward-looking action steps

  5. 49 CFR 192.173 - Compressor stations: Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Ventilation. 192.173 Section 192.173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS....173 Compressor stations: Ventilation. Each compressor station building must be ventilated to...

  6. Place-making and trust-building: The influence of policy on host community responses to wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article assesses the impact of wind energy policy choices on host community responses. Two key explanations (place-making and trust-building) for host community responses are identified from the substantial social science literature investigating local community reaction to wind farms. The relationship between these two key factors and policy choices is explored through a comparative case study of five wind farms during a time of major policy change in Ontario, Canada. These five wind projects are all located within a 50 km of each other but are built under different policy regimes, with different ownership arrangements and are of different sizes. They provide a basis to assess the impact of three specific policy elements – approval authority, community benefit arrangements and spatial restrictions of turbine placement – on the place-making and trust-building potential of wind projects in the host communities. We identify a wide range of interactions and conclude that the policy choice to elevate project approval to a central authority has had the most damaging effect. -- Highlights: •Trust-based and place-based explanations for host community response to wind energy. •The influence of wind policy on these dynamics is assessed over five wind projects. •Centralized approval, community benefits, and spatial restrictions are influential

  7. 高层住宅建筑体型系数对其中庭通风的影响%Influence of High-rise Residential Building Shape Coefficient on Ventilation Characteristics of the Atrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李念平; 李靖; 何东岳; 侯素娟; 张敏慧

    2012-01-01

    采用基于三维、RNGk—s湍流模型的CFD方法,模拟了具有中庭的高层住宅建筑模型在风压和热压共同作用下的通风特性.并在低速风洞中进行了实验测量,验证了本数值模拟方法的可行性.针对4种不同体型系数下的高层住宅建筑,分析了在相同的建筑面积、外风场流速、建筑内发热量、中庭尺寸及相同的吹风角度条件下,中庭空间的自然通风特性及邻室房间的通风效果.结果表明,中庭式高层住宅建筑外体型系数越大,越有利于自然通风,为城市高层住宅建筑节能与人居环境的优化设计提供了理论依据.%Based on the three-dimensional and the RNGk-ε turbulence model, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was conducted under the combined effect of wind force and thermal buoyancy, to study the airflow characteristics and the temperature distribution of the atrium in a high-rise residential building model. Model experiment was also tested in a low-speed wind tunnel, and the data obtained from the model experiment were compared with that from CFD simulation. Finally, the airflow characteristics and the ventilation effect of the atriums that are located in the high-rise residential buildings with different shape coefficients were analyzed. Results indicate that high-rise residential building shape coefficient has significant influence on the ventilation characteristics, and the suitable shape coefficient is helpful for natural ventilation. The conclusions provide a theory foundation for how to use the ventilation of atrium better in high-rise residential building.

  8. Displacement Ventilation in Hospital Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter V.; Sandberg, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Hospital differ from conventional buildings in terms of ventilation needs. Exhaled infectious droplets or droplet nuclei of an infected patient need to be removed in general wards, waiting areas and isolation rooms to minimize transmission to health-care workers, other patients and visitors. In...

  9. Discipline Policies in Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Building an Infrastructure for Social and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstreth, Sascha; Brady, Sharon; Kay, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Preventing challenging behavior in young children is a national priority. The number of young children with behavioral problems is on the rise. Discipline policies can help early childhood programs build an infrastructure that promotes social and academic success. This study sought to document the extent to which existing early…

  10. Decolonization, Educational Language Policy and Nation Building in Plural Societies: The Development of Chinese Education in Malaysia, 1950-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Tan Yao

    2013-01-01

    The two decades from 1950 to 1970 were a crucial period of educational reorganization in Malaysia that stemmed from the decolonization after the Second World War. This educational reorganization sought to address the perennial issue of nation building via educational language policy. The development of Chinese education was under severe threat as…

  11. Functionality of Ventilated Facades: Protection of Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrichenko Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses about methods of construction of the ventilated facades. The ventilated facade is not only the element of facing, it is the supporting structure. Their main objective - creation of air ventilating space between a facade and an external wall of the building. Moving of air in this gap protects a heater from destruction, interfering with a moisture congestion. In addition, the ventilated facade protect the building from aggressive influence of external environment, have a sound and thermal insulation properties. There are several problems of systems of the ventilated facades connected with an application of a heater. For more effective using it is necessary to minimize contact of a heater with environment.

  12. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  13. Can Ventilation Control Secondhand Smoke in the Hospitality Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Repace, James MSc

    2000-01-01

    A panel of ventilation experts assembled by OSHA and ACGIH concluded that dilution ventilation, used in virtually all mechanically ventilated buildings, will not control secondhand smoke in the hospitality industry (e.g., restaurants, bars, casinos). The panelists asserted that a new and unproved technology, displacement ventilation, offered the potential for up to 90% reductions in ETS levels relative to dilution technology. However, this assertion was not substantiated by any supporting dat...

  14. Energy saving due to natural ventilation in housing blocks in Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Lezcano, RA; Hormigos-Jiménez, S.

    2016-07-01

    Getting a healthy and comfortable indoor environment in homes in southern Europe is a complicated task. In continental climates, with very cold temperatures in winter and very hot in summer, energy consumption greatly increases with air conditioning significant spending. To propose action guidelines for use of natural ventilation and to develop effective design strategies is essential. Therefore, and given a specific building type block of flats in Madrid, this article focuses on establishing what periods of the year natural ventilation is required to reduce energy consumption in air conditioning, also considering the quality of the outdoor environment and the design of the building. To develop this, a statistical study of the chosen type, that allows studying the direction and the wind speed in the area, is performed. Analysis of wind pressures in holes in the facade is performed by means of numerical simulations of fluid flow (CFD) inside to later infer in the natural ventilation rate required within policy parameters. With the data obtained, a study of energy saving is made as a function of natural ventilation rate established for the building type.

  15. Solar ventilation and tempering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámek, Karel; Pavlů, Miloš; Bandouch, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents basic information about solar panels, designed, realized and used for solar ventilation of rooms. Used method of numerical flow simulation gives good overview about warming and flowing of the air in several kinds of realized panels (window, facade, chimney). Yearlong measurements give a good base for calculations of economic return of invested capital. The operation of the system in transient period (spring, autumn) prolongs the period without classical heating of the room or building, in winter the classical heating is supported. In the summer period the system, furnished with chimney, can exhaust inner warm air together with necessary cooling of the system by gravity circulation, only. System needs not any invoiced energy source; it is supplied entirely by solar energy. Large building systems are supported by classical electric fan respectively.

  16. Ventilation-air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heretofore, in ventilation-air conditioning systems in a nuclear power plant, exhaust gases from each of the ventilation-air conditioning systems of a reactor building, a turbine building, a waste processing building are joined and they are released into atmosphere from the top of a high main exhaustion stack. In order to build such a high main exhaustion stack, a considerable construction cost is required and, in addition, there is a worry of lacking balance with surrounding scenery. Then, in the present invention, exhaust gases are heated by waste heat in a turbine during their introduction from the ventilation-air conditioning facility in the building of a power plant to the main exhaust stack. With such a constitution, since the exhaust gases are heated and their temperature is elevated, they uprise by natural convection when they are released from the top of the main exhaustion stack to the atmosphere. Accordingly, they are released to a level higher than the conventional case in view of the volume of the blower which sends the exhaust gases under pressure, to diffuse them to the atmosphere more sufficiently compared with a conventional case. Further, the height of the main exhaustion stack can be reduced, enabling to minimize the cost for moving the blower. (T.M.)

  17. Effect of Ventilation and Atmospheric Ammonia on the Health and Performance of Broiler Chickens in Summer

    OpenAIRE

    Nadir Alloui; Mohamed Nabil Allou; Omar Bennoune; Salah. Bouhentala

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out during summer season on two broiler buildings with a capacity of 10000 each one. The first building with natural ventilation while the second was recently renovated with dynamic ventilation system composed of 10 ventilators with a capacity of 5000 m 3 /hour/unit. The results of this experiment showed that ammonia concentration was higher in the building with natural ventilation during various breeding phases. The average concentration of ammonia...

  18. Optimized Design of Outlets Layout in Thermal Pressure Naturally Ventilated Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Xuemin Sui; Jianping Ma; Yanling Guan

    2013-01-01

    Using thermal pressure ventilation principles to achieve passive ventilation in buildings is an important way to promote green and low consumption building strategy. The reasonable vents layout design can fully tap the potential of thermal pressure ventilation. Aimed to civil buildings with internal heating source, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology, the effects of outlets layout on thermal natural ventilation in rooms were studied. Three types of typical air outlets distribu...

  19. Fit for purpose? Building and evaluating a fast, integrated model for exploring water policy pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, M.; Van Deursen, W.P.A.; Guillaume, J.H.A.; Kwakkel, J.H.; Van Beek, E.; Middelkoop, H.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring adaptation pathways is an emerging approach for supporting decision making under uncertain changing conditions. An adaptation pathway is a sequence of policy actions to reach specified objectives. To develop adaptation pathways, interactions between environment and policy response need to

  20. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  1. Hybrid ventilation application and energy saving design in the atrium and court side of office buildings%办公建筑中庭、边庭节能及多元通风设计的应用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏; 侯占魁

    2012-01-01

    随着办公建筑共享空间的大量采用,中庭和边庭既提供了有利于人们身心健康的环境,也会产生能耗高、热舒适性不稳定等问题.介绍了该类建筑通风空调系统的设计、热舒适性的处理以及节能措施的采用.在某工程项目中结合多元通风、热回收、置换通风等技术的具体应用进行了测试及分析,为今后进一步完善并充分发挥中庭和边庭在建筑物内的作用提供了技术参考.%With the widely use of the shared space in office buildings, the atrium and court side provide occupants with benign spaces to their body and mind when bring about a high energy consumption, instable thermal comfort and other adverse effects. Presents the air conditioning system design, thermal comfort treatment and energy saving measures application in the building. Tests and analyses in a project with the technology of hybrid ventilation, heat recovery, displacement ventilation etc., provides a certain reference on the technical side for the further improvement and bringing the atrium and court side into full play in a building.

  2. Policy Challenges in Building the Medical Home: Do We Have a Shared Blueprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Robert J.; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The notion of a patient-centered medical home features prominently in policy reform initiatives across the country, with both state and federal legislation focusing on this new model. We sought to understand the views of key stakeholders and to examine the challenging landscape facing policymakers and practitioners as they attempt to translate the medical home concept into widespread practice change. Methods We reviewed legislative documents from state legislative sessions in the year 2007 to identify pieces of legislation that included the medical home concept. Concurrently we conducted an in-depth qualitative analysis of de-identified field notes from a purposeful sample of semistructured interviews conducted with key stakeholders in Oregon after the passage of health reform legislation in 2007. Results Legislation that further defined and expounded on the medical home concept was introduced in states across the country in 2007, and some federal and state demonstration projects were already underway. However, we identified a number of barriers to widespread implementation of the medical home, most notably lack of a clear operational definition. Key stakeholders had widely disparate views about elements central to the success of medical home demonstrations, including delivery system reform, payment reform, and performance incentives for providers. Conclusions Since 2007 the concept of the medical home has gained increasing attention in health care reform debates. Our findings suggest that translating this concept into successful, widespread reform will require that policymakers build further consensus among key stakeholders and require them to address critical barriers to avoid repeating pitfalls of past reform efforts. PMID:20453185

  3. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options

  4. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-07-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

  5. Doing Well by Doing Good? Green Office Buildings. Program on Housing and Urban Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichholtz, P.; Kok, N. [Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Quigley, J.M. [Institute of Business and Economic Research IBER, Fisher Center for Real Estate and Urban Economics, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This paper provides the first credible evidence on the economic value of the certification of 'green buildings' - value derived from impersonal market transactions rather than engineering estimates. For some 10,000 subject and control buildings, we match publicly available information on the addresses of Energy Star and LEED-rated (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) office buildings to the characteristics of these buildings, their rental rates and selling prices. We find that buildings with a 'green rating' command rental rates that are roughly three percent higher per square foot than otherwise identical buildings - controlling for the quality and the specific location of office buildings. Ceteris paribus, premiums in effective rents are even higher - above six percent. Selling prices of green buildings are higher by about 16 percent. For the Energy-Star-certified buildings in this sample, we subsequently obtained detailed estimates of site and source energy usage from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Our analysis establishes that variations in the premium for green office buildings are systematically related to their energy-saving characteristics. For example, calculations show that a one dollar saving in energy costs from increased thermal efficiency yields roughly 18 dollars in the increased valuation of an Energy-Star certified building. Beyond the direct effects of energy savings, further evidence suggests that the intangible effects of the label itself also play a role in determining the value of green buildings in the marketplace.

  6. Performance potential of mechanical ventilation systems with minimized pressure loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkildsen, Søren; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    In many locations mechanical ventilation has been the most widely used principle of ventilation over the last 50 years but the conventional system design must be revised to comply with future energy requirements. This paper examines the options and describes a concept for the design of mechanical...... ventilation systems with minimal pressure loss and minimal energy use. This can provide comfort ventilation and avoid overheating through increased ventilation and night cooling. Based on this concept, a test system was designed for a fictive office building and its performance was documented using building....... This corresponds to 10-15% of the power consumption for conventional mechanical ventilation systems thus enabling the system to fulfil future energy requirements in buildings....

  7. Impact of Federal tax policy and electric utility rate schedules upon the solar building/electric utility interface. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.L.; Wirtshafter, R.M.; Abrash, M.; Anderson, B.; Sullivan, P.; Kohler, J.

    1978-10-01

    An analysis is performed to show that a utility solar-passive strategy can be used rather effectively in aiding the utility to obtain more efficient load factors and lower costs. The objectives are to determine the impact of active and passive solar energy designs for space conditioning and hot water heating for the residential sector upon the diurnal and annual load curves for several utilities, to assess the effect of present utility pricing policies, and to examine alternative pricing schemes, as well as Federal and state tax credits, as they may affect the optimal sizing and configuration of active solar and passive solar building components. The methodology, the systems model, an overall building design, building cost determination, and a description of TRNSYS are presented. The major parameters discussed that distinguish variation in the cost-effectiveness of particular building design fall into 5 categories: the weather, building configurations, building costs, utility costs and rates, and financial parameters (inclusive of tax credits for solar and energy conservation investment). Five utilities are studied: Colorado Springs Department of Public Utilities; Public Service Co. of New Mexico; New England Electric System; Pacific Gas and Electric; and Georgia Power Co.

  8. 8th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yingxin; Li, Yuguo; Vol.1 Indoor and Outdoor Environment; Vol.2 HVAC&R Component and Energy System; Vol.3 Building Simulation and Information Management

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning is based on the 8th International Symposium of the same name (ISHVAC2013), which took place in Xi’an on October 19-21, 2013. The conference series was initiated at Tsinghua University in 1991 and has since become the premier international HVAC conference initiated in China, playing a significant part in the development of HVAC and indoor environmental research and industry around the world. This international conference provided an exclusive opportunity for policy-makers, designers, researchers, engineers and managers to share their experience. Considering the recent attention on building energy consumption and indoor environments, ISHVAC2013 provided a global platform for discussing recent research on and developments in different aspects of HVAC systems and components, with a focus on building energy consumption, energy efficiency and indoor environments. These categories span a broad range of topics, and the proce...

  9. Building technical services - Compact equipment for heating, hot water preparation, ventilation and cooling - Appendix; Haustechnik - Kompaktgeraete (Heizen, Warmwasser, Lueften, Kuehlen - alles aus einem). Erkenntnisse aus der Praxis - Anhang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haessig, W.; Streit, S. [Haessig Sustech GmbH, Uster (Switzerland); Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Architektur Luzern (HSLU), Luzern (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    This comprehensive appendix to the final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on compact equipment for heating, hot water preparation, ventilation and cooling presents detailed data on energy costs of the various apartments studied, as well as graphical representations of room temperatures and comfort, domestic hot water consumption, outdoor ambient temperatures and their influence on indoor temperatures for both summer and winter periods. System efficiency calculations and the methodologies used are described. Plans of the apartments that were examined complete this appendix.

  10. Achieving Natural and Hybrid Ventilation in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liddament, Martin; Axley, James; Heiselberg, Per;

    2006-01-01

    Case studies provide essential evidence about the performance of buildings. They also illustrate the methods by which a technology can be implemented as well as highlighting problems. Various case study buildings (both new and retrofit) that incorporate mixed mode, natural ventilation and low ene...

  11. Ventilation system with spiral recuperator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamski, Mariusz [Technical University of Bialystok, Department of Heat Engineering, ul. Wiejska 45E, PL-15-351 Bialystok (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    A new kind of longitudinal flow spiral recuperator for the heat recovery in ventilation systems of buildings was studied experimentally and analytically. The aim of this work is to analyze the possibility of using air handling units with new type of spiral recuperator in order to recover heat in ventilation systems of buildings. For the reason that the air flows are parallel to the symmetry axis of the longitudinal flow spiral recuperator, in this unit pressure drops are smaller than in commonly known spiral exchangers. Because of the counter flow, a greater value of thermal effectiveness {epsilon} is reached for the same value of the number of transfer units in comparison to cross-flow recuperators. The exploitation of the new type of spiral recuperator in winter periods brings significant savings. The results obtained from computations are very encouraging for a widespread use of these devices. (author)

  12. Building Low Carbon Cities: Framework to Design and Evaluate Alternative Technologies and Policies for Land Use Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, S.; Hamano, H.; Fujita, T.; Hori, H.

    2008-12-01

    Annex I parties of the Kyoto Protocol are facing even greater pressures to fulfill their commitment for GHG reduction as they enter the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol 2008-2012. In Japanese context, one such challenge is to reduce CO2 emissions from the household and business sectors because CO2 emissions from the both sectors has increased by 12% and 20% respectively since 1990 while the industry has achieved 21% of CO2 emissions reduction. Land use planning, which, either directly or indirectly, controls appropriate uses for land within jurisdictions, might play very important roles to deal with CO2 reductions from the household and business sectors. In this research, aiming at effective reductions of air- conditioning energy consumption and resultant CO2 emissions from the household and business sectors, the framework to design and evaluate land use planning was developed. The design and evaluation processes embraced in this framework consist of GIS database, technology and policy inventory for planning, one- dimensional urban canopy model which evaluate urban climate at neighborhood level and air-conditioning load calculation procedure. The GIS database provides spatial information of target areas such as land use, building use and road networks, which, then, helps design alternative land use plans. The technology and policy inventory includes various planning options ranging from those for land over control to those for building energy control, which, combined with the GIS database, serves for planning process. The urban canopy model derives vertical profiles of local climate, such as temperature and humidity, using the information of land use, building height and so on, aided by the GIS database. Vertical profiles of the urban climate are then utilized to derive air-conditioning load and associated CO2 emissions for each building located in target areas. The framework developed was applied to the coastal district of Kawasaki, Japan, with an

  13. Quantifying the performance of natural ventilation windcatchers

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, B

    2010-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Doctor of Environmental Technology and awarded by Brunel University, 2010. The significant energy consumption of non- domestic buildings has led to renewed interest in natural ventilation strategies that utilise the action of the wind, and the buoyancy of hot air. One natural ventilation element is the Windcatcher, a roof mounted device that works by channelling air into a room under the action of wind pressure, whilst simultaneously dr...

  14. Building bonds for migration and development. Diaspora engagement policies of Ghana, India and Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Vezzoli, Simona; Lacroix, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Origin countries' governments are increasingly adopting policies to attract the resources of their migrants and their communities to stimulate development. These policies, sometimes referred to as 'diaspora engagement policies', range from securing the rights and protection of migrants while they are abroad, to strengthening the migrants' sense of national identity and their linkages to the origin country and promoting remittances, financial investments and contributions to development. This ...

  15. Methods for Scenario-building: it’s importance for policy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Moniz, António

    2005-01-01

    A scenario is a policy analysis tool that describes a possible set of future conditions. The most useful scenarios (for corporations, for policy decision makers) are those that display the conditions of important variables over time. In this approach, the quantitative underpinning enriches the narrative evolution of conditions or evolution of the variables; narratives describe the important events and developments that shape the variables. In terms of innovative methods for policy analysis, t...

  16. An Economic and Environmental Assessment Model for Selecting the Optimal Implementation Strategy of Fuel Cell Systems—A Focus on Building Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeho Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerable effort is being made to reduce the primary energy consumption in buildings. As part of this effort, fuel cell systems are attracting attention as a new/renewable energy systems for several reasons: (i distributed generation system; (ii combined heat and power system; and (iii availability of various sources of hydrogen in the future. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an economic and environmental assessment model for selecting the optimal implementation strategy of the fuel cell system, focusing on building energy policy. This study selected two types of buildings (i.e., residential buildings and non-residential buildings as the target buildings and considered two types of building energy policies (i.e., the standard of energy cost calculation and the standard of a government subsidy. This study established the optimal implementation strategy of the fuel cell system in terms of the life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 emissions. For the residential building, it is recommended that the subsidy level and the system marginal price level be increased. For the non-residential building, it is recommended that gas energy cost be decreased and the system marginal price level be increased. The developed model could be applied to any other country or any other type of building according to building energy policy.

  17. Living City: community mobilization to build active transport policies and programs in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sagaris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the usefulness of walking and cycling to promote health is increasingly recognized, the importance of civil society leadership in developing new policies and activities is often overlooked. This case study, of Living City (Ciudad Viva a community-based organization in Santiago, Chile, examines how several communities used knowledge about transport’s impact on the environment and health, gained through opposition to a major highway project, to build effective sustainable urban transport initiatives.Inspired by urban reforms in Bogot´a, Living City now focuses mainly on “active transport” (formerly nonmotorized, building the policies, attitudes and infrastructure necessary to encourage walking and cycling, and the inclusion of the differently abled. It has won two major awards for innovation and now partners with NGOs in The Netherlands and elsewhere in Chile and Latin America.Moreover, Living City now organizes cycling-inclusive training programs, design charrettes and participatory processes in cooperation with Santiago’s regional and national authorities. Its publication, La Voz de La Chimba, distributed free throughout the city by volunteers, has helped to open people’s eyes to the implications of active transport for social equality and health, and provided support to other citizens’ initiatives, struggling to get off the ground.This experience illustrates how citizens’ and community organizations acquire important knowledge and practical experience in learning by doing situations, and how they can learn to reach out to ordinary people and key policymakers, building bridges across the citizen-policy divide to produce innovative, win-win programs that simultaneously bring change at micro- and macro-levels.Bien que la nécessité de marcher et de faire du vélo pour rester en bonne santé soit de plus en plus reconnue, l’importance du rôle prépondérant de la société civile dans le développement de nouvelles

  18. Low home ventilation rate in combination with moldy odor from the building structure increase the risk for allergic symptoms in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägerhed-Engman, L.; Sigsgaard, T.; Samuelson, I.;

    2009-01-01

    There are consistent findings on associations between asthma and allergy symptoms and residential mold and moisture. However, definitions of 'dampness' in studies are diverse because of differences in climate and building construction. Few studies have estimated mold problems inside the building ...

  19. CFD model using for natural ventilation study in the local building of hot-humid climate in Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakasith Phonekeo, P. Amparo López-Jiménez, Ignacio Guillén Guillamón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Laos, the research of the relationship between local climate and the building is still less, therefore the attentiveness of passive design in building is also rare and depreciates. This study will be some basic guideline for studying about air movement that impact to the building in Laos which has the hot-humid weather all year. This study analyzes how the physical characteristics of air flow affect to the local accommodation building in Vientiane Capital of Laos by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD techniques. Furthermore, the study aims to investigate the air movement appearance inside the room influenced by the environment around building, particularly the main factors of human comfort including the air movement, the age of air, temperature and pressure.

  20. Nation-building policies in Timor-Leste: Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Mercer, Jessica; Kelman, Ilan; do Rosario, F.; de Deus de Jesus Lima, A.; A. da Silva; Beloff, A. M.; McClean, A.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have explored the relationships between nation-building, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. Focusing on small island developing states, this paper examines nation-building in Timor-Leste, a small island developing state that recently achieved independence. Nation-building in Timor-Leste is explored in the context of disaster risk reduction, which necessarily includes climate change adaptation. The study presents a synopsis of Timor-Leste's history and its natio...

  1. Strengthening Ties: The Case for Building a Social Policy Centered on Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Phillip; Mundy, Liza; Black, Rachel; Bornfreund, Laura; Byrum, Greta; Cramer, Reid; Gangadharan, Seeta Peña; Guernsey, Lisa; Lieberman, Abbie; Lynn, Barry; McCarthy, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    Most of the social and economic policies in the U.S. do not explicitly address or take into account the growing importance of families as sources of human capital and determinants of individual success. Even the small subsets of programs that we conventionally frame as part of "family policy" are often based on long-defunct assumptions…

  2. Consensus Building as a Policy Making Strategy for Water Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Innes, Judith E.; Connick, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Collaborative processes offer possible means to resolve public policy disputes that administrative, regulatory and/or judicial processes have failed to solve, thus breaking the gridlock that results when governmental agencies don’t work effectively. The use of collaborative processes and collaborative policy making have produced important results in natural resources management in California, as illustrated by three cases.

  3. Higher Education Policy and Legitimacy Building: The Making of a New Academic Credential in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Peter; Sa, Creso M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada's province of Ontario introduced a new policy in 2000 allowing community colleges to offer a new type of undergraduate degree. This decision was a significant policy change for the government considering the nature of Ontario's binary system, where a rigid separation has historically prevailed between the university and college sectors.…

  4. Ventilation effectiveness : health benefits of heat recovery ventilators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-08-15

    Studies have shown that the installation of a heat recovery ventilator (HRV) in homes in northern Canada could improve indoor air quality and the respiratory health of inhabitants. Low ventilation rates are common in many homes in the North because the climate is severe, homes are smaller and lack basements, and occupancies are higher, leading to unhealthy indoor air quality. Northern communities also have a high rate of respiratory infections. HRVs recover much of the energy used to ventilate, which is desirable in cold regions with high heating costs. For the study, the test sample was divided into two types of houses, notably houses with active HRVs and those with control HRVs that were installed and operated but that did not function. The study results showed that HRVs provided increased ventilation. Complaints by residents about HRV noise, discomfort, or low humidity were common but equally spread between those with active and placebo HRVs. The study showed that the system design needs to be improved to better suit the needs of Inuit families. The nature of northern housing presents installation and maintenance challenges. It is hard to retrofit HRV ducting inside small, existing houses, and building supplies arrive infrequently, so detailed planning and careful take-offs of all supplies and materials must be done well in advance of construction. In addition, contractors are hard to locate and have variable expertise, and there is little technical follow-up. Robust technical support by local contractors and housing authorities is therefore important. 2 refs.

  5. Ground tube ventilation test in Nijeveen, Netherlands. Optimal heat and cold supply for new buildings; Grondbuisventilatie als proef in Nijeveen. Optimale warmte- en koudevoorziening voor nieuwbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slot, B. [Cauberg-Huygen Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    The Danninge Erve Zuid Plan in Nijeveen, the Netherlands, has added a unique cooling element to the ventilation system of nine detached houses: a so-called ground tube or ground collector. The intention is to offer cooling in the summer and an optimal heat recovery system in the winter. A number of systems have been constructed, put in operation, monitored and assessed. [Dutch] In het plan Danninge Erve Zuid te Nijeveen is voor negen vrijstaande woningen een vrij uniek koelelement aan het ventilatiesysteem toegevoegd: een zogeheten grondbuis of grondcollector. De toevoeging is bedoeld om de woning in de zomer enige koeling te geven en in de winter van een optimale warmteterugwinning te voorzien. Een aantal systemen is aangelegd, in gebruik genomen, gemonitord en beoordeeld.

  6. Energy policy instruments and technical change in the residential building sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerepoot, W.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The passing by the European Parliament of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) in 2003 obliges all European member states to implement energy regulations for buildings based on the concept of energy performance by the year 2009 ultimately. Given the importance of the development of i

  7. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on

  8. Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Almeida, A.T. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dep. Eng. Electrotecnica; Fisk, W.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

  9. Low resource ventilation unit; Ressourcebesparende ventilationsenhed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drivsholm, C.

    2012-03-15

    In the project a resource-saving ventilation device was developed which is based on the use of a regenerator and a reversible air flow. The regenerator is placed in the building envelope, and the concept works in the way that the heat in the air during ventilation is stored in the regenerator and brought back into the building by a reversible air change. The heated air is blown from inside the building out through the regenerator. In this way the regenerator accumulates the heat in the air. Over a period of 30-120 seconds, the regenerator capacity is utilized. When the regenerator cannot be further heated, the air flow is reversed and there is now blown cold air through the regenerator. Thereby the heat from the regenerator is released to the cold fresh air. Thus, the fresh air brings heat back into the building, whereby the air is replaced with a limited heat loss. Ventilation with a regenerator is described as micro-ventilation. The developed micro-ventilation unit was tested by the Danish Technological Institute. The test results shows that the unit performs according to expectations: 1) The heat recovery is 85%; 2) The flow through the unit is 80m3 per hour in a 5 section unit; 3) The noise level is 30 db(A) in a representative room; 4) The energy consumption is <300 J/m3. The unit is introduced into the market, and the first plants have been sold. (LN)

  10. Analysis of energy-saving potential in residential buildings in Xiamen City and its policy implications for southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei

    The buildings sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in the world. Residential buildings consume about three-quarters of the final energy in the buildings sector. Promoting residential energy savings is in consequence critical for addressing many energy-use-related environmental challenges, such as climate change and air pollution. Given China's robust economic growth and fast urbanization, it is now a critical time to develop policy interventions on residential energy use in the nation. With this as a background, this dissertation explores effective policy intervention opportunities in southern China through analyzing the residential energy-saving potential, using the city of Xiamen as a case study. Four types of residential energy-saving potential are analyzed: technical potential, economic potential, maximum achievable potential (MAP), and possible achievable potential (PAP). Of these, the first two types are characterized as static theoretical evaluation, while the last two represent dynamic evaluation within a certain time horizon. The achievable potential analyses are rarely seen in existing literature. The analytical results reveal that there exists a significant technical potential for residential energy savings of about 20.9-24.9% in the city of Xiamen. Of the technical potential, about two-thirds to four-fifths are cost-effective from the government or society perspective. The cost-effectiveness is evaluated by comparing the "Levelized Cost of Conserved Energy (LCOCE)" of available advanced technical measures with the "Actual Cost" of conserved energy. The "Actual Cost" of energy is defined by adding the environmental externalities costs and hidden government subsidies over the retail prices of energy. The achievable potential analyses are particularly based on two key realistic factors: 1) the gradual ramping-up adoption process of advanced technical measures; and 2) individuals' adoption-decision making on them. For implementing the achievable

  11. Bridging East and West : The Establishment of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in the United States Foreign Policy of Bridge Building, 1964-1972.

    OpenAIRE

    Riska-Campbell, Leena

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation examines the foreign policies of the United States through the prism of science and technology. In the focal point of scrutiny is the policy establishing the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and the development of the multilateral part of bridge building in American foreign policy during the 1960s and early 1970s. After a long and arduous negotiation process, the institute was finally established by twelve national member organizations from the fol...

  12. Public Administration, Law and Development in Brazil: Building Legally Sustainable Public Policies for an Inclusionary State

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães Guilherme C.

    2014-01-01

    Taking into consideration the Law and Development approach and some useful theoretical insights provided by systems theory, this article aims at analyzing the role of law in general, and state lawyering in particular, in the design and implementation of development policies that promote social inclusion, with special regard to the Brazilian context. Firstly, this role is described as the provision of “legal sustainability” to government decisions and public policies in general. Then, the lega...

  13. MAIN CAUSES OF DESTRUCTION OF THE «SIAL KM» VENTILATED FACADES STRUCTURES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THEIR ELIMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Molotkov G. S.; Podtjolkov V. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the analysis of the main causes of destruction of the «SIAL KM» ventilated facade structures, widely used in building facing, through the example of a public building facade system. There are marked features of application of ventilated facade system, shown the constructive solutions of «SIAL KM» facade system, determined the actual condition of ventilated facade system of this building and given recommendations to strengthen the structures of ventilated facade, designed...

  14. Development of energy-efficient comfortable ventilation systems with air quality guided volume flow control and continuous monitoring of the window opening status. Part 1. Use of the LuQaS triple sensor for air quality guided volume flow control of mechanical ventilation systems in domestic buildings. Research project; Entwicklung energieeffizienter Komfortlueftungsanlagen mit luftqualitaetsgefuehrter Volumenstromregelung und kontinuierlicher Erfassung des Fensteroeffnungszustandes. Teilbericht 1. Einsatz des LuQaS-Triple-Sensors zur luftqualitaetsgefuehrten Volumenstromregelung von mechanischen Lueftungsanlagen in Wohngebaeuden. Forschungsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossklos, Marc; Ebel, Witta; Knissel, Jens

    2011-05-15

    The report presents the preparatory work on the research project of the above title. The first chapter presents a status report on air quality monitoring inside rooms and evaluates the projects so far in which the LuQaS air quality sensor was used. The second chapter is a documentation of preliminary measurements using the LuQaS sensor in two passive residential buildings and several individual measurements for sensor calibration. It was found that in apartments with mechanical ventilation, the sensor reflects the user activities; further, the measured values indicate signal changes also in the off-air of the building, so that control via central sensors in the ventilation and off-air systems appears feasible. The third chapter discusses control strategies for air quality control. Apart from a discussion of control unit types, operating regimes, methods to determine rated values, and additional control functions, the effects of threshold value control with different threshold limit values and volume flow changes on the air quality of a model building was simulated. The results prove the expectation that the air quality inside a building will be influenced positively by air quality control. Theoretical investigations of the DrD method will be presented in another part-report of the project.

  15. Improving comfort and health with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality in buildings affects occupants¿ health, comfort and performance. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform room environment. However, large individual differences exist between occupants in regard...... existing knowledge on performance of personalized ventilation (PV) and on human response to it. The airflow interaction in the vicinity of the human body is analysed and its impact on thermal comfort and inhaled air quality is discussed together with control strategies and the application of PV in practice...

  16. Airborne fungi in non-problem buildings in a southern-hemisphere mediterranean climate: preliminary study of natural and mechanical ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, P.C.; Murry, F. [School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Murdoch (Australia); Neumeister-Kemp, H.G. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Lysek, G. [Fachbereich Botanik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    There is a growing body of evidence on fungal contamination in moisture-damaged and complaint buildings worldwide, but little is known about the occurrence and distribution of fungi in healthy non-complaint buildings in a southern-hemisphere climate. The study tested the hypothesis that fungi in healthy buildings are low in numbers and very similar to the numbers and mixtures of species in both the outdoor air and the outdoor air in other parts of the world. Fungi were collected using a 6-stage Andersen sampler, and various indoor air quality (IAQ) indicators and a sick-building syndrome (SBS) questionnaire were used in parallel. The results showed that all IAQ parameters were within USA and Canadian guidelines in all the buildings. There was also a low incidence of SBS complaints and symptoms. The total colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were also low, and the range of fungal species was low compared to buildings in other parts of the world. However, the mixture of fungal genera in the indoor air was different from the outdoor air. There were also substantial differences between indoor locations. At some locations fungi including 'Aspergillus niger', 'Penicillium' spp. and 'Alternaria alternata' were much higher indoors than outdoors or, as the pathogen 'Paecilomyces lilacinus', were absent in the outdoor air indicating indoor sources. Differentiation of fungal species was required to identify indoor fungal sources as the outdoor air was not the major source of indoor fungi. The study also demonstrated that evaluating the potential exposure to airborne fungi in indoor air requires differentiation to the species level as simple CFU counts could not differentiate between benign and potentially harmful fungi. (author)

  17. Why we ventilate our houses - An historical look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matson, Nance E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2004-05-14

    The knowledge of how to ventilate buildings, and how much ventilation is necessary for human health and comfort, has evolved over centuries of trial and error. Humans and animals have developed successful solutions to the problems of regulating temperature and removing air pollutants through the use of ventilation. These solutions include ingenious construction methods, such as engineered passive ventilation (termite mounds and passive stacks), mechanical means (wing-powered, fans), and an evolving effort to identify problems and develop solutions. Ventilation can do more than help prevent building occupants from getting sick; it can provide an improved indoor environment. Codes and standards provide minimum legal requirements for ventilation, but the need for ventilation goes beyond code minima. In this paper we will look at indoor air pollutant sources over time, the evolution of ventilation strategies, current residential ventilation codes and standards (e.g., recently approved ASHRAE Standard 62.2), and briefly discuss ways in which we can go beyond the standards to optimize residential ventilation, reduce indoor air quality problems, and provide corresponding social and economic benefit.

  18. Effect of Natural Ventilation on Thermal Environment in the Open Space of Enclosed Buildings%自然通风对庭院建筑开敞空间热环境影响的实测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁波; 亢燕铭; 钟珂

    2012-01-01

    The thermal environment in the open space of an enclosed building is monitored in winter and summer, respectively. Considering the influences of solar radiation and meteorological condition, air temperature distribution in the courtyard with natural ventilation is analyzed and discussed. The results show that natural ventilation has significant effects on thermal environment in the open space, and it varies with the changes of solar radiation and season. Whether the windows opened or not, solar radiation has an obvious impact on thermal pressure in the courtyard, the higher air-tightness and more solar radiation, the higher the excess air temperature of the courtyard in winter. However, there are no such features in summer.%对典型庭院建筑开敞空间冬、夏季热环境分别进行了连续实测,分析了不同自然通风条件下,太阳辐射和气象条件对庭院内温度分布规律的影响.结果表明,自然通风对庭院热环境有重要影响,且该影响在不同太阳辐射和季节条件下效果不同.无论开窗或关窗,太阳辐射对庭院热压分布都有显著影响,庭院密闭性越好、太阳辐射越强,庭院内冬季空气过余温度就越高,但夏季无此特征.

  19. Solar chimney for the natural ventilation of buildings: simulation and mediation; Chimenea solar para la ventilacion natural de edificios: simulacion y mediacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanceta, D.; Llorente, J.

    2008-07-01

    In this article, the first part of a research project about the modelling of a solar chimney is presented. In this first part, the average ventilation flows measured in an experimental installation have been compared to the results obtained by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations. In order to do so, a solar chimney with a cross-section of 0.78 m x 0.156 m, height 3,6 m, has been constructed. The chimney consists of a glass surface oriented towards the south. The internal (absorber) surface is made of a copper plate, which has been painted black in order to increase the solar absorption. The chimney is connected to a room measuring 5 m x 2.5 m x 2.5 m, from where it extracts air. The comparison of the results obtained by measurements with those obtained by CFD simulations show that computational tools are accurate enough to predict the behaviour of natural buoyancy in this kind of installations. (Author)

  20. Ventilation and ventilation/perfusion ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis is based on five different papers. The labelling of specific tracer compounds with positron emitting radionuclides enables a range of structural, physiological and biochemical parameters in the lung to be measured non-invasively, using positron emission tomography. This concept affords a unique opportunity for in vivo studies of different expressions of pulmonary pathophysiology at the regional level. The present thesis describes the application of positron emission tomography to the measurements of ventilation and ventilation/perfusion ratios using inert gas tracers, neon-19 and nitrogen-13 respectively. The validity of the methods applied was investigated with respect to the transport of inert gas tracers in the human lung. Both ventilation and the ventilation/perfusion ratio may be obtained with errors less than 10 % in the normal lung. In disease, however, errors may increase in those instances where the regional ventilation is very low or the intra-regional gas flow distribution is markedly nonuniform. A 2-3 fold increase in ventilation was demonstrated in normal nonsmoking subjects going from ventral to dorsal regions in the supine posture. These large regional differences could be well explained by the intrinsic elastic properties of lung tissue, considering the gravitational gradient in transpulmonary pressure. In asymptomatic smokers substantial regional ventilatroy abnormalities were found whilst the regional gas volume was similar in smokers and nonsmokers. The uncoupling between ventilation and gas volume probably reflects inflammatory changes in the airways. The regional differences in dV/dt/dQ/dt were relatively small and blood flow was largely matched to ventilation in the supine posture. However, small regions of lung with very low ventilation, unmatched by blood flow commonly exists in the most dependent parts of the lung in both smokers and nonsmokers. (29 illustrations, 7 tables, 113 references)

  1. Ruling on energy and ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burberry, Peter

    1994-08-18

    Since the first United Kingdom thermal requirements in Building Regulations in 1965, regulations to reduce condensation and improve the thermal comfort of buildings have become increasingly stringent. The newest regulations, due to come into force in July 1995, have finally included energy conservation and environmental protection measures and are seen as a major move forwards in government policy. For new buildings air infiltration, space - and water-heating appliances and installations, solar gain, are all controlled. For larger buildings, the energy efficiency of lighting systems is covered. The regulations also cover changes of use or materials in existing buildings. (UK)

  2. Saving energy for ventilation using decentralised duct fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Afshari, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    pressure drops which in turn will increase energy use. This paper presents a novel procedure for balancing CAV-systems using decentralised duct fans instead of flat plate dampers. The procedure will result in lower pressure drops and consequently in a reduction of energy use for ventilation when compared...... mechanical ventilation systems with low energy use for new and renovation of buildings....

  3. Numerical and experimental analysis of the energy saving and potential of ventilation of opaque ventilates facades

    OpenAIRE

    Peci López, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays the efficient use of energy is a crucial necessity. Buildings are among the greater energy consumers in a country and the ventilation and HVAC systems account for a high percentage of this consumption. A way of reducing the energy consumption of these systems is taking advantage of the renewable energies available. In this document an opaque ventilated façade (OVF) was studied. An OVF takes advantage of the wind force and solar radiation to provide the indoor space wit...

  4. Education Community Dialogue towards Building a Policy Agenda for Adult Education: Reflections Drawn from Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tatiana Lotierzo; Giannecchini, Laura; Magalhaes, Giovanna Mode; Munhoz, Fabiola; Croso, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we share the experience of the "Amplifying Voices" initiative. Held by the Latin American Campaign for the Right to Education (CLADE) within the scope of public policy advocacy, "Amplifying Voices" applies the principles of consultation and dialogue in youth and adult education communities, aiming at a stronger…

  5. Seizing the Opportunity: Building PK3 Systems in New Jersey's School Districts. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This policy brief discusses how the implementation of high quality preschool required by the expansion initiative can set the stage for a more expansive view of the first stage of children's education: the development of a preschool-through third-grade (PK3) system. By adopting a broader view of early childhood education as a period extending from…

  6. Multi-Level Steering and Institution Building: The European Union's Approach to Research Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Adopting the conception of the university as a primary driver of innovation and economic growth has brought increased pressure for the European Union (EU) to actively steer university-based research policy, despite its being outside of the EU's direct jurisdiction. While the open method of coordination (OMC) was developed for such situations, the…

  7. Building Capacity for Tracking Human Capital Development and Its Mobility across State Lines. Policy Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    This issue of "Policy Insights" provides a review of the past five years of the cost and value of higher education, which have gained increased policymaker, consumer, and media attention. The Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) has worked with four of its member states (Hawai'i, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington) to…

  8. Meeting in the MIDDLE:BUILDING off Regional Policies to Promote Climate Education Partnerships on and off Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, M.; Stylinski, C.; Shea, N.; Veron, D. E.; Merrill, J.

    2013-12-01

    Both the impacts of climate change and the choices available to adapt and mitigate climate change largely function at the regional scale. Understanding and addressing climate change will require a concerted campaign involving a diverse array of educations from small to large organizations. By focusing on a specific region's climate impacts, adaptation and mitigation options, and existing policies, climate education networks will likely have a higher likelihood of sustainability. Building on this concept, we have developed a climate education partnership, Maryland Delaware Climate Change Education, Assessment and Research (MADE CLEAR), to better understand effective ways to support formal-, informal- and higher-education practitioners in climate change education in this Mid-Atlantic region. We do so largely through face-to-face and web based professional development for each education practitioner group to improve their capacity to incorporate rigorous regionally-based climate science and solutions into their education strategies. We are promoting communities-of-practice within and across these groups as they share their successes and challenges and consider common messages and approaches. Our training and resources focus on impacts and solutions most relevant to our region including sea level rise, extreme events, and urban heat impacts. Our professional development approach aligns directly with existing education and natural resource, including the region's environmental literacy initiatives, the Next Generation Science Standards, and state climate adaptation and mitigation plans. We anticipate that by building off of existing policy, we will build the success of the network into the future. Our project includes design-based research of all three education groups, and thus we will identify effective climate change education strategies, in and out of schools, that are applicable in other regions.

  9. Manchester Civil Justice Centre: Procuring and Managing an Institutional Building with a Mixed Mode Ventilation System—A Case for Post-Occupancy Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    John Napier

    2013-01-01

    Manchester Civil Justice Centre is a striking contemporary 14 storey court building which has won awards for many different aspects of its design, construction and sustainability. From November 2002 to July 2005, the author was a key member of Denton Corker Marshall’s London project team having responsibility for key areas of design development, integration of technology and sustainable design including the East elevation’s “environmental veil”. This paper tracks the procurement of the buildi...

  10. THE USE OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MULTI-ROOM MODELING APPROACH-APPLICATION TO BUILDING POLLUTION TRANSPORT AND EFFICIENCY OF OFF-HOUR VENTILATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Cherif Megri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several building simulation programs have been developed for design, analysis and prediction of the distribution of temperature, airflow and heat transfer between inside and outside of a building and/or between different zones of the same building. These programs are categorized as mono-zone models, multi-room models, zonal models, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD models and multi-zone models. The number of computer programs continues to increase, each reflecting different objectives and concerns. Some of these computer programs are dedicated to research and others to design and auditing. However, none of the existing computer programs is able to translate automatically various steps of the design process as actually performed by design Architectural Engineering firms. This study addresses different levels of multi-room simulation programs developed through the last four decades. Two case studies using multi-room programs have been exposed to illustrate the appropriate use of various levels of this approach for design and analysis.

  11. In ventilated environment building outside the window wall of fire trace numerical simulation research%通风环境中建筑物外窗壁面火灾痕迹的数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵颖明

    2014-01-01

    火灾现场的承受客体受到火场作用后,外观及内部结构发生变化,形成一些特殊痕迹,表现为颜色和烧损破坏程度的区别。这些特殊变化痕迹与火灾温度、燃烧持续时间、起火部位存在着对应变化的规律和联系。数值模拟与实验相比具有成本低、可行性高、灵活性高等特点,同时能够比较方便的确定不同燃料、释热率、通风条件、火灾位置等因素对火灾进程的影响。运用数值模拟技术,确定影响建筑物壁面痕迹形成的热物性参数,通过模拟通风条件下建筑火灾外窗建筑物壁面痕迹形态,测算痕迹形成条件和规律,为火灾事故调查提供定量判据。%The fire scene by scene bearing object function , appearance and internal structure changes , the formation of some special marks , performance for color and burning damage degree difference. These changes with traces of fire temperature, combustion duration , fire rules and contact position exists corresponding changes . Numerical simulation has the advantages of low cost, high feasibility, high flexibility compared with the experiment, and can conveniently determine the different fuel, heat release rate, ventilation, fire location and other factors on the process of fire for effect. In this paper, using numerical simulation technique, determine the thermal parameters affect the building wall traces, by building fire simulated conditions of ventilation window wall traces morphology, formation conditions and rules which provide a quantitative criterion for traces, fire accident investigation.

  12. Complications of mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drašković Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation of the lungs, as an important therapeutic measure, cannot be avoided in critically ill patients. However, when machines take over some of vital functions there is always a risk of complications and accidents. Complications associated with mechanical ventilation can be divided into: 1 airway-associated complications; 2 complications in the response of patients to mechanical ventilation; and 3 complications related to the patient’s response to the device for mechanical ventilation. Complications of artificial airway may be related to intubation and extubation or the endotracheal tube. Complications of mechanical ventilation, which arise because of the patient’s response to mechanical ventilation, may primarily cause significant side effects to the lungs. During the last two decades it was concluded that mechanical ventilation can worsen or cause acute lung injury. Mechanical ventilation may increase the alveolar/capillary permeability by overdistension of the lungs (volutrauma, it can exacerbate lung damage due to the recruitment/derecruitment of collapsed alveoli (atelectrauma and may cause subtle damages due to the activation of inflammatory processes (biotrauma. Complications caused by mechanical ventilation, beside those involving the lungs, can also have significant effects on other organs and organic systems, and can be a significant factor contributing to the increase of morbidity and mortality in critically ill of mechanically ventilated patients. Complications are fortunately rare and do not occur in every patient, but due to their seriousness and severity they require extensive knowledge, experience and responsibility by health-care workers.

  13. Ventilação natural como estratégia para o conforto térmico em edificações Natural ventilation as a strategy for thermal comfort in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henor Artur de Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma circulação natural de ar adequada dentro de um ambiente construído, além de auxiliar na diminuição do gradiente térmico, contribui para a renovação do ar interno. Este, dependendo do perfil de ocupação do ambiente, pode ser prejudicial à saúde. Uma circulação natural pode se constituir em uma alternativa eficiente na redução do consumo de energia no condicionamento de edificações. Nesse trabalho, estuda-se a ventilação natural, dirigida pela ação combinada das forças do vento e térmicas num ambiente. Avalia-se a eficiência da ventilação unilateral e cruzada, utilizando-se o método numérico de elementos finitos, por meio do software ANSYS. O modelo numérico é utilizado na determinação dos efeitos das forças do vento e das forças térmicas combinadas, obtendo-se o fluxo de ar e a distribuição de temperatura dentro do ambiente. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com resultados de modelos empíricos, observando-se que a eficiência da ventilação cruzada fica em torno de 3,5 vezes maior do que a ventilação unilateral, aumentando os vórtices no fluxo de ar no interior do ambiente.Appropriate natural air circulation within a structure reduces the thermal gradient, and contributes towards internal air renewal. This latter is important because, depending on the profile of occupation of the environment, the lack of this process can be harmful to the health. This type of circulation is an efficient alternative for the reduction of the consumption of energy in the conditioning of buildings. In this research, we studied natural ventilation, driven by the combined action of the forces of wind and thermals. The efficiency of the single sided and cross natural ventilation is evaluated, using the numerical method of the finite elements with the software ANSYS. The numeric model is used to determine the effects of the force of the winds and the combined thermal forces, resulting in the airflow and the temperature

  14. Modeling and Control of Livestock Ventilation Systems and Indoor Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang; Heiselberg, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    The hybrid ventilation systems have been widely used for livestock barns to provide optimum indoor climate by controlling the ventilation rate and air flow distribution within the ventilated building structure. The purpose of this paper is to develop models for livestock ventilation systems and...... indoor environments with a major emphasis on the prediction of indoor horizontal variation of temperature and concentration adapted to the design of appropriate controlling strategy and control systems. The Linear Quadratic (LQ) optimal control method taking into account of the effect of necessary...

  15. Energy and IAQ Implications of Residential Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the energy, humidity and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of residential ventilation cooling in all U.S. IECC climate zones. A computer modeling approach was adopted, using an advanced residential building simulation tool with airflow, energy and humidity models. An economizer (large supply fan) was simulated to provide ventilation cooling while outdoor air temperatures were lower than indoor air temperatures (typically at night). The simulations were performed for a full year using one-minute time steps to allow for scheduling of ventilation systems and to account for interactions between ventilation and heating/cooling systems.

  16. Living in Singapore: Housing Policies between Nation Building Processes, Social Control and the Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bocquet, Denis

    2015-01-01

    International audience Housing policies have been at the very core of the national ideology of Singapore since the time of independence in 1965. The task of providing a flat to citizens and permanent residents thanks to the efforts of a public institution has not only been one of pragmatic realism, or an aspect of the application of economic theories pertaining to the sphere of developmentalism, it also constituted a central feature in the collective project of a City-State in which social...

  17. BUILDING A STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP WITH KAZAKHSTAN(A BLUEPRINT FOR INDIA'S CENTRAL ASIA POLICY)

    OpenAIRE

    Stobdan, Phunchok

    2006-01-01

    India has not been able to make significant inroads into Central Asia, a region of vital strategic importance. Central Asia had a considerable impact on the polity and economy all through Indian history. Trade routes linking ancient Uttara-Paath to the Silk Road also carried Indian religion, philosophy and science beyond to Inner and Eastern Asia. The British India's security and frontier trade policy with East Turkistan and Afghanistan is well known. People of Central Asian republics always ...

  18. Ventilation Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. Revision 01 ICN 01 included the results of the unqualified software code MULTIFLUX to assess the influence of moisture on the ventilation efficiency. The purposes of Revision 02 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of

  19. Building on research evidence to change health literacy policy and practice in England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowlands, Gillian; Berry, Jonathan; Protheroe, Joanne;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health literacy is important because of the high proportion of the population with skills below those needed to become and stay healthy, and the resultant negative impact on people’s lives. A recent study in England has shown that, as is true in other industrialized nations......, a significant proportion of people (43–61%) have literacy and numeracy skills below those needed to fully understand and use health materials. This paper describes a project designed to build on these findings with key stakeholders to develop an action plan to address a mismatch between population skills...... service, and industry perspectives. Suggested topics for action fell into four areas; improving health services, building health literacy skills in the population and workforce, recognizing the importance of public information developed outside the health arena, and funding for health literacy research...

  20. VRML Programs for Room Ventilation Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker

    Cheap 3D models for visualization of room ventilation applications are now available. VRML (Virtu~l Reality Modelling Language) is found to be a good format to describe buildings, rooms and furniture. A 3D model in VRML can be placed on a World Wide Web (www) page and others can see the model in ...

  1. Synthesis Report on User Acceptability of Ventilation Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Heiselberg, Per

    This report is prepared to summarise user satisfaction surveys available for 18 buildings in Building AdVent project. The results of user satisfaction survey are assembled in Building AdVent project D7 report for the Work Package 3. These serve a background for further discussions of acceptability...... of ventilation technologies by users....

  2. Life cycle cost assessment of natural ventilation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vik, Tor Arvid

    2003-01-01

    The background for this work is an uncertainty related to whether the use of natural ventilation concepts can compete with conventional mechanical concepts, and under which conditions it is recommended, with respect to life cycle cost (LCC). There is also a tendency to focus on the initial costs, neglecting the costs and benefits during use of the building. In addition, some methodical difficulties rise when comparing a building integrated natural ventilation system with a mechanical ventilat...

  3. Hybrid Ventilation with Innovative Heat Recovery—A System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Hellström

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors when low energy houses are built is to have good heat recovery on the ventilation system. However, standard ventilation units use a considerable amount of electricity. This article discusses the consequences on a system level of using hybrid ventilation with heat recovery. The simulation program TRNSYS was used in order to investigate a ventilation system with heat recovery. The system also includes a ground source storage and waste water heat recovery system. The result of the analysis shows that the annual energy gain from ground source storage is limited. However, this is partly a consequence of the fact that the well functioning hybrid ventilation system leaves little room for improvements. The analysis shows that the hybrid ventilation system has potential to be an attractive solution for low energy buildings with a very low need for electrical energy.

  4. Advanced simulations of energy demand and indoor climate of passive ventilation systems with heat recovery and night cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    In building design the requirements for energy consumption for ventilation, heating and cooling and the requirements for increasingly better indoor climate are two opposing factors. This paper presents the schematic layout and simulation results of an innovative multifunctional ventilation concep...

  5. Noninvasive ventilation in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcz, Marcin K; Papadakos, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Trauma patients are a diverse population with heterogeneous needs for ventilatory support. This requirement depends mainly on the severity of their ventilatory dysfunction, degree of deterioration in gaseous exchange, any associated injuries, and the individual feasibility of potentially using a noninvasive ventilation approach. Noninvasive ventilation may reduce the need to intubate patients with trauma-related hypoxemia. It is well-known that these patients are at increased risk to develop hypoxemic respiratory failure which may or may not be associated with hypercapnia. Hypoxemia in these patients is due to ventilation perfusion mismatching and right to left shunt because of lung contusion, atelectasis, an inability to clear secretions as well as pneumothorax and/or hemothorax, all of which are common in trauma patients. Noninvasive ventilation has been tried in these patients in order to avoid the complications related to endotracheal intubation, mainly ventilator-associated pneumonia. The potential usefulness of noninvasive ventilation in the ventilatory management of trauma patients, though reported in various studies, has not been sufficiently investigated on a large scale. According to the British Thoracic Society guidelines, the indications and efficacy of noninvasive ventilation treatment in respiratory distress induced by trauma have thus far been inconsistent and merely received a low grade recommendation. In this review paper, we analyse and compare the results of various studies in which noninvasive ventilation was applied and discuss the role and efficacy of this ventilator modality in trauma. PMID:25685722

  6. Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A historical review of different investigation methods measuring lung function (perfusion and gas exchange) is given. The principles and handling of some ventilation methods using radioxenon, radiokrypton or radiolabelled aerosols, and the injection method of xenon are explained. The clinical applicability of these studies is evaluated considering ventilation and perfusion lung defects and congestive heart failure. The combination of the three principal techniques (perfusion scintigraphy using MAA, ventilation scintigraphy using radioxenon or radiokrypton, perfusion and ventilation scientigraphy after injection of radioxenon) lead to typical patterns of differential diagnosis of perfusion defects. (TRV)

  7. Natural Ventilation in Atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per; Hendriksen, Ole Juhl

    This case study comprises a monitoring programme as well as a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of a natural ventilated atrium. The purpose has been to analyse the performance of a typical natural ventilation system in Denmark under both summer and winter conditions.......This case study comprises a monitoring programme as well as a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of a natural ventilated atrium. The purpose has been to analyse the performance of a typical natural ventilation system in Denmark under both summer and winter conditions....

  8. RedVent. Turned off ventilation at night in schools - risks and opportunities; RedVent. Avstaengd ventilation paa natten i skolor - risker och moejligheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegerhed Engman, Linda; Fyhr, Kristina; Langer, Sarka; Ruud, Svein; Ylmen, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Reduced ventilation rates or shutdown ventilation during nights is often being used in school buildings in order to save energy and can decrease the energy cost for heating and ventilation with at least 30 %. Swedish Building Regulations (BBR) allows reduced ventilation flow in non-residential buildings when no one is using the building but it must not give rise to adverse health effects or damage the building or its installations. Potential risks are mould- and moisture damages and indoor air quality problems. Another question is whether the shut down itself might lead to indoor air quality problems due to chemical reactions between outdoor air and indoor emissions built-up during the night. The study was divided into three steps; an interview with property managers and care-taker, calculations of energy saving potentials and a field study. Measurements were per-formed in one classroom for two weeks in April 2010. Different set-ups for ventilation flow during night time and air tightness of the building envelope were studied; ventilation shut down, intermittent ventilation (15 min every second hour) and continuous full speed ventilation during night. In the studied classroom, shutdown ventilation during nights did not significantly affect the indoor air quality in the classroom during the school day even though there were effects seen during the night. We found a somewhat higher moisture accumulation those nights when the ventilation was shut down and some fractions of particles during intermittent ventilation compared to continues full ventilation during night time. This specific school and classroom were well ventilated and there was no moisture supply from new building material or other types of moisture producing activities. Schools with lower day-time ventilation rates, moisture in building construction, IAQ- or dampness problems as well as buildings close to heavy traffic should analyse the conditions for the specific building before reducing ventilation to

  9. Theoretical and Practical Premises in Building Up the Health Public Policies in the Field of Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina GAVRILUŢĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing data at European level situate Romania on the last places regarding the rate of organ donation. This fact is also an indicator of the effect of the health policies in Romania in the field of transplant. The research carried out (the study on the population’s attitudes towards the organ donation, the study on the theme of organ transplantation as presented in the Romanian media, and the study on the opinions of the ER doctors, neurologists and neurosurgeons regarding the organ donation and transplantation show different models of approaching the issue of transplant in the European area. The investigations carried out among doctors identify a series of issues which relate, on the one hand, to the cultural component, and, on the other hand, to the structure and functioning of the Romanian health system. The survey carried out in Iași in 2012 shows favorable attitudes towards organ donations in the conditions of a lack of information and of a less effective policy regarding organ donation.

  10. Performance of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling in an office room: inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    In a simulated two persons’ office room inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution provided with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling, mixing ventilation only, chilled ceiling with mixing ventilation and chilled ceiling with mixing and personalized ventilation was studied...... people (exhaled air, bioeffluents) and building materials (wall painting). Personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling ensured highest air quality at the workstation under all conditions. Pollutant concentration in the occupied zone away from the workstations did not differ substantially...... between the tested systems. Chilled ceiling combined with personalized ventilation working as the only air supplying system may be optimal solution in many buildings....

  11. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, Daniel [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  12. Investigation of the ventilation performance of an integrated day lighting natural ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural ventilation and daylighting are two passive strategies that can improve the indoor performance as well as reduce energy consumption in buildings. Both strategies when used appropriately, increase indoor quality and comport. In terms of energy costs, daylighting can significantly reduce artificial lighting as well as heat dissipated from the resulting fixtures while natural ventilation can minimize the need for air-conditioning. A study is currently being conducted to develop a system that integrates these two passive strategies, to be used specifically for buildings in Malaysia. The initial proposed integrated models are based on similar studies already conducted but with appropriate modifications for tropical climates. This paper will present some results of the ventilation performance of the proposed integrated system model, particularly the airflow distribution patterns and air speed, inside a naturally ventilated room. A CFD simulation software was used to investigate the optimum size of the integrated model with regards to interior ventilation performance. The simulations also included single sided and cross ventilated openings

  13. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    V/Q scan; Ventilation/perfusion scan; Lung ventilation/perfusion scan ... A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan is actually two tests. They may be done separately or together. During the perfusion scan, a health ...

  14. Short Term Airing by Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Perino, M.

    2010-01-01

    principles is necessary. The present study analyses and presents the results of an experimental evaluation of airing performance in terms of ventilation characteristics, IAQ and thermal comfort. It includes investigations of the consequences of opening time, opening frequency, opening area and expected...... airflow rate, ventilation efficiency, thermal comfort and dynamic temperature conditions. A suitable laboratory test rig was developed to perform extensive experimental analyses of the phenomenon under controlled and repeatable conditions. The results showed that short-term window airing is very effective...... and can provide both acceptable IAQ and thermal comfort conditions in buildings....

  15. Preoperational test report, recirculation ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102 and supports the ability to exhaust air from each tank. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a fan, condenser, and moisture separator; equipment is located inside each respective tank farm in its own hardened building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  16. Pulmonary perfusion ''without ventilation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 88-yr-old man, with prior left upper lobectomy and phrenic nerve injury, had a ventilation/perfusion lung image. Both wash-in and equilibrium ventilation images showed no radioactive gas in the left lung. Nevertheless, the left lung was perfused. A similar result was obtained on a repeat study 8 days later. Delayed images, during washout, showed some radioactive gas in the left lung. Nearly absent ventilation (but continued perfusion) of that lung might have been related to altered gas dynamics brought about by the prior lobectomy, a submucosal bronchial lesion, phrenic nerve damage, and limited motion of the left part of the diaphragm. This case raises the issue of the degree of ventilation (and the phase relationship between the lungs) required for the entry of radioactive gas into a diseased lung, and the production of a ''reversed ventilation/perfusion mismatch.''

  17. Ventilation rates and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Jan; Levin, H; Nazaroff, W W;

    2011-01-01

    that inflammation, respiratory infections, asthma symptoms and short-term sick leave increase with lower ventilation rates. Home ventilation rates above 0.5 air changes per hour (h(-1)) have been associated with a reduced risk of allergic manifestations among children in a Nordic climate. The need remains for more......The scientific literature through 2005 on the effects of ventilation rates on health in indoor environments has been reviewed by a multidisciplinary group. The group judged 27 papers published in peer-reviewed scientific journals as providing sufficient information on both ventilation rates...... and health effects to inform the relationship. Consistency was found across multiple investigations and different epidemiologic designs for different populations. Multiple health endpoints show similar relationships with ventilation rate. There is biological plausibility for an association of health outcomes...

  18. Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Eric [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the Building Ameerica program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this report is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.

  19. Effect of ventilation type on radon concentration at places of work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations were measured at 76 child care facilities and 36 schools in southern Finland. The buildings had three different types of ventilation systems: mechanical air supply and exhaust, mechanical exhaust, and natural ventilation, the first being most common. The effect of the ventilation type on the long-term radon concentration was studied in child care facilities. The radon concentrations were highest in the naturally ventilated buildings. The mechanical air supply and exhaust system maintained the lowest values in cold wintertime. In school buildings both the long-term radon concentration and short-term radon and daughter concentrations were measured. The correlation of the ventilation type and the radon concentration was not obvious in this group of measurements, but the radon concentrations and the equilibrium factors were highest in buildings with natural ventilation. Radon concentrations were generally lower during the working hours than during the one-month period, as expected. (author)

  20. Performances of DAHT connected to building airthightness and indoor hygrothermal climate

    OpenAIRE

    Masy, Gabrielle; Lebrun, Jean; Gendebien, Samuel; Hansen, Nicolas; Lengele, Marc; Prieels, Luc

    2011-01-01

    As building insulation level increases, the coupling of ventilation systems with building enveloppe airtightness becomes an important issue in order to improve buildings energy performances. A building ventilation model can be built on a set of resistances and generators in order to handle infiltration, natural ventilation as well as fan driven air flows. The model is able to assess the indoor air humidity level and the building energy balance. Double flow ventilation can be ha...

  1. Building a maintenance policy through a multi-criterion decision-making model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihinia, Elahe; Mollaverdi, Naser

    2012-08-01

    A major competitive advantage of production and service systems is establishing a proper maintenance policy. Therefore, maintenance managers should make maintenance decisions that best fit their systems. Multi-criterion decision-making methods can take into account a number of aspects associated with the competitiveness factors of a system. This paper presents a multi-criterion decision-aided maintenance model with three criteria that have more influence on decision making: reliability, maintenance cost, and maintenance downtime. The Bayesian approach has been applied to confront maintenance failure data shortage. Therefore, the model seeks to make the best compromise between these three criteria and establish replacement intervals using Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE II), integrating the Bayesian approach with regard to the preference of the decision maker to the problem. Finally, using a numerical application, the model has been illustrated, and for a visual realization and an illustrative sensitivity analysis, PROMETHEE GAIA (the visual interactive module) has been used. Use of PROMETHEE II and PROMETHEE GAIA has been made with Decision Lab software. A sensitivity analysis has been made to verify the robustness of certain parameters of the model.

  2. Consensus Building Through Systems Thinking: the case of policy and planning in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz E. Maani

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a methodology and a case study using qualitative system dynamics to create consensus, team learning and shared vision in a public organisation. The case involves determining planning priorities for a Division of the Ministry of Health in New Zealand, leading to the creation of a business plan. The methodology involves Systems Thinking using Group Model Building (GMB - A three-step process starting with structured brainstorming using the partial KJ (Jiro Kawakita technique to identify priority areas and then clustering them into 'affinity' groups. Next, the priority clusters are used by the participants to construct causal loop diagrams representing 'systems of priorities'(in contrast with list of priorities. Finally, through a group process, leverage points or key priorities are identified as the basis for a business plan. While the above process was well agreed upon by the participants at the outset, strong group resistance was encountered when managers attempted to reduce the number of priority areas. Systems thinking approach was used to create consensus and the commitment to the outcome. The GMB approach offers significant promise in using qualitative system dynamics with non-systems experts. The methodology can be applied to change management initiative and complex decisions such as restructuring, reengineering, and supply chain design. The expected outcomes are greater commitment and shared vision.

  3. Gender mainstreaming european transport research and policies. Building the knowledge base and mapping good practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer Christensen, H.; Poulsen, H.; Hjorth Oldrup, H.; Malthesen, T.; Hvidt Breengaard, M.; Holmen, M.

    2007-07-01

    This report documents that there are clear and persistent gender differences in travel patterns. Men consistently travel further than women, men are more likely to travel by car and women by public transport, and women's trips tend to be more local. Explanations to these differences are linked to unequal gendered relations in the household and labour market and urban structures as well as gender socialisation. This means that men and women make different uses of a shared system of transport. Transport is an overwhelmingly male-dominated sector. At the EU level, political committees in the transport sector as well as transport research and advisory boards have a marked gender imbalance with less than 15% female membership in most boards and none with equal representation. This also goes for transport-related committees at national levels. Yet with one notable exception: Sweden has a 50-50 balance in the National Transport Committee. Current gender mainstreaming initiatives in the transport sector relate to a wide range of issues: They relate to planning and policy, safety issues, gendering of technology as well as employment. The report substantiates that the implementation of equality programmes, and not their formulation makes up the biggest challenge. One programme does not solve all problems, but opens up new avenues for initiatives and intervention. Gender is a central stratifying factor in transport use at all levels. In order to provide a more complete picture of gender differences, and in order to qualify EU goals of combating multi-level inequalities, there is a need to link gender with the broader axes of inequalities, namely ethnicity, sexuality, age and handicap in future studies of transport and mobility. (au)

  4. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.; Langkilde, Gunnar;

    2002-01-01

    the major local discomfort in the rooms with displacement ventilation. Twenty-three percent of the occupants were daily bothered by draught. In some buildings the maintenance personnel tried to improve occupants´ thermal comfort by raising the supply air temperature or office workers themselves......This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught as...... blocked the diffusers by rearranging the furniture. Half of the surveyed occupants were not satisfied with the indoor air quality. The main conclusion is that displacement ventilation needs careful design and room furnishing in order to ensure a comfortable environment. Occupants must understand the...

  5. Experimental Investigation of Convective Heat Transfer during Night Cooling with Different Ventilation Systems and Surface Emissivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    Night-time ventilation is a promising approach to reduce the energy needed for cooling buildings without reducing thermal comfort. Nevertheless actual building simulation tools have showed their limits in predicting accurately the efficiency of night-time ventilation, mainly due to inappropriate...

  6. High-frequency ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M R

    1986-08-01

    Over the last six years high-frequency ventilation has been extensively evaluated both in the clinical and laboratory settings. It is now no longer the great mystery it once was, and it is now no longer believed (as many had hoped), that it will solve all the problems associated with mechanical pulmonary ventilation. Although the technique is safe and appears to cause no harm even in the long term, it has not yet been shown to offer any major advantages over conventional mechanical ventilation. PMID:3530042

  7. Relevant indoor ventilation by windows and apertures in tropical climate: a review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aflaki Ardalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature and humidity oblige occupants to use mechanical ventilation to regulate indoor temperature in tropical climate. Therefore, energy consumption becomes a challenge facing the designers in primary steps of design. Natural ventilation known as a passive design strategy in buildings is one of the innovative techniques in modern building to reduce operation costs and energy consumption. Although the advantages of natural ventilation are proved by previous studies, few studies have been done on application of openings and apertures designs to maximize indoor air velocity inside the buildings. This study reviews different ventilation methods and techniques which have been applied through openings to identify the most effective architectural elements for adequate ventilation inside the buildings. Comparison of study results shows that building orientation accompanying with apertures size are effective design strategies and techniques to increase indoor air ratio. Finally, the study recommends various form of openings and different form of louvered windows as research gaps for further study.

  8. Isotope ventilation diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear ventilation examinations inform the physician about the regional lung function in cases of localized or generalized lung diseases, thus supplementing the accurate global findings of ventilation physiology. In practice, ventilation examinations are always combined with perfusion examinations as this combination of methods has a higher specificity for certain lung diseases. Indications for nuclear lung examinations are an early detection of lung obstructions, course control, and the judgement of the therapeutic success. To the surge on, combined ventilation-perfusion scintiscanning is a help in deciding about the operability of lung diseases with regard to the residual function after surgery; to the clinician, it is an ideal - non-invasive and non-exerting routine method for the diagnosis of embolisms with a specificity that is similar to that of pulmonary angiography. This facilities a quick therapy and reduces the risk of unnecessary therapeutical interventions. (orig.)

  9. Why We Ventilate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Sherman, Max H.; Price, Phil N.; Singer, Brett C.

    2011-09-01

    It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of"good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

  10. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    and numerical studies on diffuse ceiling ventilation. Performance in terms of thermal comfort, air quality, pressure drop as well as radiant cooling potential are examined. Finally, a discussion on the proper design of the suspended ceiling and plenum to achieve a uniform air distribution and surface......As a novel air distribution system, diffuse ceiling ventilation combines the suspended acoustic ceiling with ventilation supply. Due to the low-impulse supply from the large ceiling area, the system does not generate draught when supplying cold air. However, heat sources play an important role on...... thermal comfort in the occupant zone. Another characteristic of this system is its lower pressure drop compared with conventional ventilation systems, which reduces the noise problem and, at the same time, the energy consumption of the fan can be reduced. This review is based on a number of experimental...

  11. BUILDING CROSS-BORDER COMMUNITIES THROUGH COOPERATION: EU REGIONAL POLICY AND CROSS-BORDER REGIONS AS SPACES OF GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko BANJAC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s cross-border cooperation initiatives are perceived as an important tool for harnessing the process of European integration, which includes the ideas of fostering economic competitiveness and reducing regional discrepancies. The paper aims to analyse the role and function of notions of cooperation and cross-border communities used and advanced within the EU regional policy and, more specifically, within the European Territorial Cooperation objective. We argue that cooperation is a specific governmental technology which works through the promises of incorporation and inclusion of different stakeholders, binding them into more or less durable and institutionalised cross-border communities. Through cooperation, members of the community can be mobilised in novel programmes which encourage and harness political practices of self-responsibility and self-management. As such, cooperation is promoted as a necessary feature for building, cultivating and fostering cross-border communities in which self-disciplined citizens and other stakeholders are governed such that they are deemed responsible agents in their own development.

  12. Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery in cold climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    Building ventilation is necessary to achieve a healthy and comfortable indoor environment, but as energy prices continue to rise it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption. Using mechanical ventilation with heat recovery reduces the ventilation heat loss significantly, but in cold climates...... like the Northern Europe or in arctic climate like in Greenland or Alaska these ventilation systems will typically face problems with ice formation in the heat exchanger. When the warm humid room air comes in contact with the cold surfaces inside the exchanger (cooled by the outside air), the moisture...... freezes to ice. The analysis of measurements from existing ventilation systems with heat recovery used in single-family houses in Denmark and a test of a standard heat recovery unit in the laboratory have clearly shown that this problem occurs when the outdoor temperature gets below approximately –5º...

  13. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.

    2014-02-01

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  14. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    As a novel air distribution system, diffuse ceiling ventilation combines the suspended acoustic ceiling with ventilation supply. Due to the low-impulse supply from the large ceiling area, the system does not generate draught when supplying cold air. However, heat sources play an important role on...... temperature as well as optimizing the radiant cooling potential by combining with thermal mass is conducted and gives a direction for further investigation....

  15. Noninvasive ventilation in trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Karcz, Marcin K; Peter J. Papadakos

    2015-01-01

    Trauma patients are a diverse population with heterogeneous needs for ventilatory support. This requirement depends mainly on the severity of their ventilatory dysfunction, degree of deterioration in gaseous exchange, any associated injuries, and the individual feasibility of potentially using a noninvasive ventilation approach. Noninvasive ventilation may reduce the need to intubate patients with trauma-related hypoxemia. It is well-known that these patients are at increased risk to develop ...

  16. Conventional mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU. Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas.

  17. Investigation of Ventilation Strategies for the Day-Care Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Afshari, Alireza; Heiselberg, Per

    simulation tool BSim. Each building is modelled separately and each of these models is “calibrated” using the detailed experimental data. Calibrated models are then used to evaluate different ventilation strategies for these particular buildings. This paper is aimed to illustrate the differences in...

  18. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  19. Demand controlled ventilation for multi-family dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig

    can be reduced compared to a system with constant air flow. A literature study on indoor pollutants in homes, their sources and their impact on humans formed the basis for the demand specification. Emission of pollutants in residential buildings roughly fall into constantly emitted background sources...... ventilation in residential buildings that depend on occupancy, pollutant emission, etc., and results in periods with poor air quality and/or unnecessary energy consumption. If the ventilation rate is varied according to the demand, the indoor climate can be improved and the energy consumption for ventilation...... and step-wise constantly emitted sources related to occupancy and activities. Theoretical analyses of these two sources showed the air quality implications associated with the time-varying air flow rates in an occupancy based demand controlled ventilation (DCV) system in comparison to the required...

  20. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report, developed by Building America research team CARB, addresses adding or improving mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The goal of this report is to assist decision makers and contractors in making informed decisions when selecting ventilation systems for homes. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including examination of relevant codes and standards. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors.

  1. Passive ventilation systems with heat recovery and night cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    University of Denmark. Through building integration in high performance offices the system is optimized to incorporate multiple functions like heating, cooling and ventilation, thus saving the expenses of separate cooling and heating systems. The simulation results are derived using the state......In building design the requirements for energy consumption for ventilation, heating and cooling and the requirements for increasingly better indoor climate are two opposing factors. This paper presents the schematic layout and simulation results of an innovative multifunc-tional ventilation concept...... with little energy consumption and with satisfying indoor climate. The concept is based on using passive measures like stack and wind driven ventilation, effective night cooling and low pressure loss heat recovery using two fluid coupled water-to-air heat exchangers developed at the Technical...

  2. Evaluation Tool of Climate Potential for Ventilative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belleri, Annamaria; Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2015-01-01

    . Within IEA Annex 62 project, national experts are working on the development of a climate evaluation tool, which aims at assessing the potential of ventilative cooling by taking into account also building envelope thermal properties, internal gains and ventilation needs. The analysis is based on a single......-zone thermal model applied to user-input climatic data on hourly basis. The tool identifies the percentage of hours when natural ventilation can be exploited to assure minimum air change rates required by state of the art research, standards and regulations and the percentage of hours when direct ventilative...... cooling is useful to reduce overheating risk and improve thermal comfort. The tool also assesses the night cooling potential and highlights other useful climate performance indicators such as the day-night temperature swing. Furthermore, the analysis method has also been devised to provide building...

  3. Extremal calculation problems of free convective movements in ventilated facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Nemova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems of ventilated facades recently gain the increasing popularity. First of all it is explained by multifunctionality of these systems. Ventilated facades not only give the buildings expressive architectural shape, but also provide protection of the building against external influences and effectively cope with thermal protection. The main existing techniques for calculation of these critical structures are based on normative requirements. The hydraulic method of calculation of ventilated façade systems with the help of extremal problems is presented. Extreme conditions divide the actual and virtual movements of viscous air in vertical ventilation gaps. Their application leads to the weak formulations of limit problems convenient for an assessment of hydraulic elements of motion. The method was based on an extremal problem of Cross, the decision was provided by means of Krokko's equations.

  4. Performance potential of mechanical ventilation systems with minimized pressure loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkildsen, Søren; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    simulations that quantify fan power consumption, heating demand and indoor environmental conditions. The system was designed with minimal pressure loss in the duct system and heat exchanger. Also, it uses state-of-the-art components such as electrostatic precipitators, diffuse ceiling inlets and demand......-control ventilation with static pressure set-point reset. All the equipment has been designed to minimize pressure losses and thereby the fan power needed to operate the system. The total pressure loss is 30-75 Pa depending on the operating conditions. The annual average specific fan power is 330 J/m3 of airflow rate...... ventilation systems with minimal pressure loss and minimal energy use. This can provide comfort ventilation and avoid overheating through increased ventilation and night cooling. Based on this concept, a test system was designed for a fictive office building and its performance was documented using building...

  5. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2011-05-01

    Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as 'dose') as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant generation. The pollutant generation had two components: a background rate associated with the building materials and furnishings and a second component related to occupants. The demand controlled ventilation system operated at a low airflow rate when the residence was unoccupied and at a high airflow rate when occupied. We used analytical solutions to the continuity equation to determine the ventilation effectiveness and the long-term chronic dose and peak acute exposure for a representative range of occupancy periods, pollutant generation rates and airflow rates. The results of the study showed that we can optimize the demand controlled airflow rates to reduce the quantity of air used for ventilation without introducing problematic acute conditions.

  6. Longitudinal Ventilation of Broiler House - Simulation of Variants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíček, Milan; Kic, P.

    Jelgava: Latvia University of Agriculture, 2013, s. 198-202. ISSN 1691-5976. [Engineering for Rural Development . Jelgava (LV), 23.05.2013-24.05.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : tunnel ventilation * computational fluid dynamics * broiler house Subject RIV: GB - Machines ; Buildings for Agriculture http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/VS/zajicek-longitudinal ventilation of broiler house-simulation of variants.pdf

  7. Transient buoyancy-driven ventilation: Part 2. Modelling heat transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Steven D. Sandbach and Gregory F. Lane-Serff

    2011-01-01

    A new mathematical model for buoyancy-driven ventilation [Sandbach SD, Lane-Serif GF. Transient buoyancy-driven ventilation: Part 1. Modelling advection. Building and Environment, 2011] is modified to include heat transfer at the boundaries. Heat transfers at the ceiling and floor are included, using Newton's law of cooling to model convective heat transfer between the air and the solid boundaries, Fourier's law to model conductive heat transfer through the floor and ceiling, and a linear ver...

  8. Energy efficient demand controlled ventilation in single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Drivsholm, Christian

    2010-01-01

    the Danish building regulations and the low flow rate is based on minimum requirements in indoor air quality standards. Measurements were performed on an existing single family house where the controls were installed on the existing mechanical ventilation system. The results showed that the...... ventilation can be reduced to the low rate 37% of the time without significant changes in the CO2-concentration and moisture level in the house. In theory this gives a 35% saving on electric energy for fans....

  9. Ammonia emissions in tunnel-ventilated broiler houses

    OpenAIRE

    KAO Lima; DJ de Moura; TMR Carvalho; LGF Bueno; RA Vercellino

    2011-01-01

    Gas production in broiler houses and their emissions are closely related to the microclimate established inside the house according to air temperature, humidity, and velocity. Therefore, the internal house environment is influenced by building typology and ventilation system. The objective of the present study was to evaluate ammonia emission rates in broiler houses equipped with different ventilation systems (negative or positive pressure) and litter conditions (new or built-up). The environ...

  10. Monitoring and Simulation of Mechanically Ventilated Underground Car Parks

    OpenAIRE

    Eshack, Adil; D.G., Leo Samuel; S.M., Shiva Nagendra; Maiya, M. Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Rapid motorization in developed and developing countries demands more parking spaces in urban areas. Underground car parking space in multi story buildings offers viable solution. However, lack of natural ventilation accumulates the harmful emissions from cars, operating in underground car parks. Exposure to these hazardous pollutants causes health risk to the users. Therefore, proper mechanical ventilation system should be adopted for the removal of harmful pollutants. This paper discusses t...

  11. Modeling energy efficiency of bioclimatic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzikopoulos, A.F.; Karatza, M.C.; Paravantis, J.A. [Piraeus Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Technology Education and Digital Systems

    2005-05-01

    The application of bioclimatic principles is a critical factor in reducing energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions of the building sector. This paper develops a regression model of energy efficiency as a function of environmental conditions, building characteristics and passive solar technologies. A sample of 77 bioclimatic buildings (including 45 houses) was collected, covering Greece, other Mediterranean areas and the rest of Europe. Average energy efficiency varied from 19.6 to 100% with an average of about 68%. Environmental conditions included latitude, altitude, ambient temperature, degree days and sun hours; building characteristics consisted in building area and volume. Passive solar technologies included (among others) solar water heaters, shading, natural ventilation, greenhouses and thermal storage walls. Degree days and a dummy variable indicating location in the Mediterranean area were the strongest predictors of energy efficiency while taller and leaner buildings tended to be more energy efficient. Surprisingly, many passive technologies did not appear to make a difference on energy efficiency while thermal storage walls in fact seemed to decrease energy efficiency. The model developed may be of use to architects, engineers and policy makers. Suggestions for further research include obtaining more building information, investigating the effect of passive solar technologies and gathering information on the usage of building. (Author)

  12. Pay Policy Reform : Building a Foundation for Public Sector Performance Through Improved Public Sector Pay Policy by Using a "Single Pay Spine"

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate public sector remuneration policies are key for performance. They can motivate staff to a limited extent by rewarding performance but more generally by eliminating inequities and avoiding frequent and sudden changes in pay. They can also assist in retaining competent staff one of the most critical drivers of public sector performance. Developing pay policy in the public sector is ...

  13. Clinical challenges in mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goligher, Ewan C; Ferguson, Niall D; Brochard, Laurent J

    2016-04-30

    Mechanical ventilation supports gas exchange and alleviates the work of breathing when the respiratory muscles are overwhelmed by an acute pulmonary or systemic insult. Although mechanical ventilation is not generally considered a treatment for acute respiratory failure per se, ventilator management warrants close attention because inappropriate ventilation can result in injury to the lungs or respiratory muscles and worsen morbidity and mortality. Key clinical challenges include averting intubation in patients with respiratory failure with non-invasive techniques for respiratory support; delivering lung-protective ventilation to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury; maintaining adequate gas exchange in severely hypoxaemic patients; avoiding the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction; and diagnosing and treating the many pathophysiological mechanisms that impair liberation from mechanical ventilation. Personalisation of mechanical ventilation based on individual physiological characteristics and responses to therapy can further improve outcomes. PMID:27203509

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Heat Transfer in a Room using Night-Time Coling by Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Nørgaard, Jesper; Daniels, Ole; Justesen, Rasmus Onsild; Madsen, Morten Sandholm; Mikkelsen, Kenneth B.; Topp, Claus

    For many years focus has been on reducing the energy need for heating in buildings. This has lead to buildings with low energy demands for heating but often at the expense of the need for cooling of the building. In order to design buildings with low or zero energy need energy efficient strategies...... for cooling buildings are required. One such strategy is the combination of thermal mass and night-time ventilation where the excess energy during daytime is store in the building construction and removed by night-time ventilation. This paper addresses the efficiency of night-time ventilation by the...... use of full-scale measurements. The efficiency of night-time ventilation depends on the outdoor temperature and the heat transfer between the room air and the building constructions. In a full-scale test room the heat transfer was investigated during 12 hour of discharging by night-time ventilation...

  15. Experimental Investigation of Ventilation Efficiency in a Dentistry Surgical Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladokun Majeed Olaide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a response to the need to provide an acceptable thermal comfort and air quality in indoor environments, various ventilation performance indicators were developed over the years. These metrics are mainly geared towards air distribution, heat and pollutant removals. Evidence exists of influencing factors on these indicators as centered on ventilation design and operations. Unlike other indoor environments, health care environment requires better performance of ventilation system to prevent an incidence of nosocomial and other hospital acquired illnesses. This study investigates, using in-situ experiments, the ventilation efficiency in a dentistry surgical room. Thermal and hygric parameters were monitored on the air terminal devices and occupied zone over a period of one week covering both occupied and unoccupied hours. The resulting time-series parameters were used to evaluate the room’s ventilation effectiveness. Also, the obtained parameters were benchmarked against ASHRAE 170 (2013 and MS1525 (2014 requirements for ventilation in health care environment and building energy efficiency respectively. The results show that the mean daily operative conditions failed to satisfy the provisions of both standards. Regarding effectiveness, the findings reveal that the surgical room ventilation is ineffective with ventilation efficiency values ranging between 0 and 0.5 indicating air distribution short-circuiting. These results suggest further investigations, through numerical simulation, on the effect of this short-circuiting on thermal comfort, infection risk assessments and possible design improvements, an endeavour that forms our next line of research inquiries.

  16. Association of ventilation system type with SBS symptoms in office workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.

    2001-02-07

    This paper provides a review and synthesis of current knowledge about the associations of ventilation system types in office buildings with sick building syndrome symptoms and discusses potential explanations for the associations. Relative to natural ventilation, air conditioning, with or without humidification, was consistently associated with a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of one or more SBS symptoms. Prevalences were typically higher by approximately 30% to 200% in the air conditioned buildings. In two of three assessments from a single study, symptom prevalences were also significantly higher in air conditioned buildings than in buildings with simple mechanical ventilation and no humidification. In approximately half of assessments, SBS symptom prevalences were significantly higher in buildings with simple mechanical ventilation than in buildings with natural ventilation. Insufficient information was available for conclusions about the potential increased risk of SBS symptoms with humidification. The statistically significant associations of mechanical ventilation and air conditioning with SBS symptoms are much more frequent than expected from chance and also not likely to be a consequence of confounding by several potential personal, job, or building related confounders. The reasons for the increases in symptom prevalences with mechanical ventilation and particularly with air conditioning remain unclear. Multiple deficiencies in HVAC system design, construction, operation, or maintenance, including some which cause pollutant emissions from HVAC systems, may contribute to the increases in symptom prevalences.

  17. Energy - efficient buildings in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is one of the countries with the highest energy consumption for domestic use. Annual energy consumption by the domestic sector is 45.9 % of the total, while the industrial sector, consumes about 27.5%. About half of the total energy consumed is used in buildings and/or heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting appliances. The energy consumed for the same purposes in China and UK is 25 to 30 % and 40 %, respectively, even in extreme weather conditions. Energy deficiency in Pakistan is approximately 5,000 MWe, which results in worst load-shedding in summers and, lately, even in winters. Building new energy sources like dams, coal power plants and renewable energy power projects are some possible solutions, but these are time taking and need at least 2 to 6 years to complete, depending upon the nature of the project. Fast development of energy-efficient buildings is, therefore, necessary to deal with exacerbating energy-crisis and related environmental impact in Pakistan. Innovations in the prevailing building-design will help the country in reducing the energy burden. These innovations may include improved architectural designs, energy-efficient building materials, electrical appliances and implementation of building energy-efficiency codes. In 1987, the National Energy Conservation Centre (ENERCON), was established under Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, with the aim to build awareness among the masses for energy conservation, and to make policies regarding energy-conservation structures in the country. But no policy regarding building energy codes has been introduced by ENERCON till now. In collaboration with Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC), ENERCON has recently finalized the Building Energy Code of Pakistan Energy Provisions 2011 for which statutory notification is under process for necessary amendment in the building by-laws. The implementation of this Energy Code will result in 25 to 30 % of energy savings in the

  18. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico. PMID:27128933

  19. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barraza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  20. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico. PMID:27128933

  1. Ventilation of radioactive enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical, physical and chemical manipulations on radioactive products must be carried out in properly ventilated enclosed places. The air extracted can only be discharged into the atmosphere after a correct filtration. The power of the ventilation systems is a function of the dimensions and purpose of the enclosure? The choice of types of filter is determined by the physical state and chemical nature of the radioactive materials to be manipulated. This study deals with the individual equipment of small installations: glove boxes, manipulation boxes with outside control and, if necessary, production chambers (maximum useful volume: 5 m3). The performances of three types of 'ventilators', and the modifications provided by the addition of filters, are measured and compared. (author)

  2. Evaluating the need for economic support policies in promoting greenhouse gas emission reduction measures in the building sector: The case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade the CO2 emissions from the residential and tertiary sectors have been rising continuously. This is cause for concern but also an area to be targeted for emission reduction measures in national action plans. This paper proposes a methodological framework, using the Greek building sector (characterized by an aging building stock constructed mostly in the period before 1980) as a case study for the examination of the economic attractiveness of possible measures, which incorporates crucial parameters such as local climate, use of buildings, age of building stock, etc. that affect the energy conservation potential and consequently the economic performance of available measures. Utilizing this framework, the approach is able to classify measures into three categories, namely 'win-win' cases (i.e. where the implementation of emission reduction measures presents a net economic benefit for end-users), measures that require the implementation of appropriate economic support policies in order to make them economically attractive for end-users, and measures that have excessive cost. The results indicate that the emissions reduction potential of 'win-win' cases is significant. They also demonstrate how individual measures can provide significant reductions if carefully targeted economic support policies are applied. Finally, sensitivity analyses performed with respect to the discount rate applied indicate that it has a substantial impact on the economic performance of some measures and consequently on the magnitude of the 'win-win' potential associated to emissions reduction

  3. Fire and ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to restrict the consequences of the spread of a fire on adjacent premises and on the environment, the fire must not damage the ventilation system. This is why every endeavour must be made to confine the fire from the intake to the outlet of this system. The study of the confinement measures will cover in succession each component part of the system, namely: air intake, blower filter, premises, ducting and extraction filters. The spread of the fire and the effects on ventilation are then examined

  4. Energy Saving Potential by Utilizing Natural Ventilation under Warm Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    –airflow simulations of 27 common cases of dwellings (considered as one thermal zone) based on the combination of specific features of the building design, occupancy and climate conditions. The energy saving potential is assessed then by the use of a new assessment method suitable for large-scale scenarios using the...... actual number of air-conditioned dwellings distributed among the 27 cases. Thereby, the energy saving is presented as the difference in the cooling demand of the dwelling during one year without and with natural ventilation, respectively. Results indicate that for hot-dry conditions, buildings with high...... heat capacity combined with natural ventilation achieve the lowest indoor temperature, whereas under hot-humid conditions, night ventilation combined with low heat capacity buildings present the best results. Thereafter, an average aggregated saving potential of 4.2 TW h for 2008 is estimated...

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Rudd and D. Bergey

    2015-08-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs.

  6. Air distribution and ventilation effectiveness in an occupied room heated by warm air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    environment. Contaminant removal effectiveness and air change efficiency were used to evaluate ventilation effectiveness. No significant risk of thermal discomfort due to vertical air temperature differences or draught was found. When the room was heated by warm air, buoyancy forces were important for......Air distribution, ventilation effectiveness and thermal environment were experimentally studied in a simulated room in a low-energy building heated and ventilated by warm air supplied by a mixing ventilation system. Measurements were performed for various positions of the air terminal devices and...... ventilation effectiveness at low air change rates. The effect of increasing air change on the ventilation effectiveness depended on the position of air terminal devices. Depending on the position of air terminal devices, the ventilation effectiveness varied between 0.4 and 1.2, where 1 is complete mixing...

  7. Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)

  8. MAIN CAUSES OF DESTRUCTION OF THE «SIAL KM» VENTILATED FACADES STRUCTURES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THEIR ELIMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molotkov G. S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the analysis of the main causes of destruction of the «SIAL KM» ventilated facade structures, widely used in building facing, through the example of a public building facade system. There are marked features of application of ventilated facade system, shown the constructive solutions of «SIAL KM» facade system, determined the actual condition of ventilated facade system of this building and given recommendations to strengthen the structures of ventilated facade, designed for facade systems, having described in the article defects and damage

  9. Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... two types of scans: ventilation and perfusion. The ventilation scan shows where air flows in your lungs. The perfusion scan shows where blood flows in your lungs. Both scans use radioisotopes (a low-risk radioactive substance). For the ventilation scan, you ...

  10. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  11. Naturlig/hybrid ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    Med de klimaforhold, der hersker i Danmark, vil naturlig ventilation i mange bygninger kunne anvendes en meget stor del af året og suppleret med mekanisk hjælp vil et sådant hybridt ventilationssystem kunne være et yderst effektivt ventilationssystem under forudsætning af, at det kan styres optim...

  12. Experimental Study of Wind-Opposed Buoyancy-Driven Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A.; Bjerre, M.; Chen, Z. D.;

    Natural ventilation driven by natural forces, i.e. wind and thermal buoyancy, is an environmentally friendly system for buildings and has been increasingly used around the world in recent years to mitigate the impact on the global environment due to the significant energy consumption by heating......, ventilation and air-conditioning (HV AC). There is a need for the understanding and development of theories and tools related to the design, operation and control of natural ventilation systems....

  13. Technology Solutions Case Study: Sealed Crawl Space with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Zoeller, J. Williamson, and S. Puttagunta

    2015-09-01

    The Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated a hybrid ventilation method that included the exhaust air from the crawl space as part of an ASHRAE 62.2-compliant whole-house ventilation strategy. The CARB team evaluated this hybrid ventilation method through long-term field monitoring of temperature, humidity, and pressure conditions within the crawl spaces of two homes (one occupied and one unoccupied) in New York state.

  14. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as "dose") as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quali...... can optimize the demand controlled airflow rates to reduce the quantity of air used for ventilation without introducing problematic acute conditions.......Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as "dose") as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality...... implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant...

  15. Natural ventilation: it's as easy as opening the windows, or is it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebein, G.W.

    1984-10-01

    The research consisted of an evaluation of the existing technologies available for passive cooling with an emphasis on strategies related to the use of natural ventilation. A preliminary data base for the study was established by three major efforts: 1. An extensive literature search of the architectural press was undertaken to ascertain the degree to which passive cooling strategies in general and natural ventilation in particular are designed into buildings at the present time. 2. An investigation of existing building stock profiles was undertaken to identify the existing and potential obstacles or advantages to the implementation of natural ventilation as a passive cooling strategy. The EIA Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey and two previous PNL studies were reviewed. 3. Components 1 and 2 were followed up with telephone interviews and site visits with the architects, building owners and operators of selected buildings from 1 and 2 above to gain more specific insights into the problems and pleasures typically associated with natural ventilation.

  16. Formaldehyde as a basis for residential ventilation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, M.H.; Hodgson, A.T.

    2002-04-28

    Traditionally, houses in the U.S. have been ventilated by passive infiltration in combination with active window opening. However in recent years, the construction quality of residential building envelopes has been improved to reduce infiltration, and the use of windows for ventilation also may have decreased due to a number of factors. Thus, there has been increased interest in engineered ventilation systems for residences. The amount of ventilation provided by an engineered system should be set to protect occupants from unhealthy or objectionable exposures to indoor pollutants, while minimizing energy costs for conditioning incoming air. Determining the correct ventilation rate is a complex task, as there are numerous pollutants of potential concern, each having poorly characterized emission rates, and poorly defined acceptable levels of exposure. One ubiquitous pollutant in residences is formaldehyde. The sources of formaldehyde in new houses are reasonably understood, and there is a large body of literature on human health effects. This report examines the use of formaldehyde as a means of determining ventilation rates and uses existing data on emission rates of formaldehyde in new houses to derive recommended levels. Based on current, widely accepted concentration guidelines for formaldehyde, the minimum and guideline ventilation rates for most new houses are 0.28 and 0.5 air changes per hour, respectively.

  17. Business approach to mine air quality and ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A business approach to air quality and ventilation in mines was discussed in this presentation. Issues that were addressed included leadership approaches in bridging the gap between the visible culture of policies and procedures with invisible cultures such as norms, assumptions and beliefs. An overview of occupational safety was also presented in terms of measuring diesel particulate matter (DPM) and key DPM activities such as ventilation modeling; remote control of ventilation circuits; real-time diagnostics of engine performance through electronic control modules; personnel and equipment tracking systems; remote carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide monitoring; and semi-quantitative real-time DPM monitoring. Resources such as ventilation engineers and other professionals also contribute to key DPM activities as do experience and good practice sharing between sites. The purpose of the presentation was to determine if 160 μg/m3 is an achievable number for exposure to DPM and the standard by which mines should operate globally. figs.

  18. Modeling the acoustical and airflow performance of natural ventilation inlet and outlet units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, David J.; Kang, Jian; Brocklesby, Martin

    2005-04-01

    One aspect of the trend towards designing green buildings has been the increasing use of natural ventilation for buildings which otherwise might have required mechanical ventilation or even full air conditioning. However, the pressure differentials available to drive the natural ventilation process are small and hence relatively large inlets and outlets with low resistance to flow are required. These apertures constitute significant acoustic weak points on building facades and hence need to be treated to reduce noise ingress. Although there are a number of natural ventilation units available they have frequently been designed from the application of simple principles without any attempt to optimise both their airflow and acoustical performance. In this paper the results of a series of computer modeling exercises are described using acoustic FEM and BEM plus Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) which seeks to establish recommendations for the optimum design of natural ventilation inlet and outlet devices for both acoustical and airflow performance.

  19. Ventilation-perfusion emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ventilation-perfusion research with SPECT is discussed. With SPECT three dimensional activity distribution can be made. Perfusion scintigraphy can be done with 99m-Tc labeled particles, ventilation scintigraphy can only be done with 81m-Kr or labeled aerosols. A disadvantage in using 99m-Tc is interference with labeled perfusion tracers. For a reliable quantification the ventilation and perfusion pictures should be registered at the same time, the energies of both tracers must lay far apart and in quantification of regional ventilation from 81m-Kr activity distribution correction must be made for differences in regional specific ventilation. 4 refs.; 3 figs

  20. Economic potential of energy-efficient retrofitting in the Swiss residential building sector: The effects of policy instruments and energy price expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the profitability of energy-efficient retrofit investments in the Swiss residential building sector from the house owner's perspective. Different energy price expectations, policy instruments such as subsidies, income tax deduction and a carbon tax, as well as potential future cost degression of energy efficiency measures were taken into account. The discounted cash flow method was used for the investment analysis of different retrofit packages applied to a model building scheduled for renovation, i.e. a single-family house constructed between 1948 and 1975. The results show that present Swiss policy instruments push investments for energy-efficient retrofitting to profitability. Cost degression has a minor significance for investment profitability. However, the most relevant factor for the investment analysis is the expected energy price. Expecting a future fuel oil price at the level of 2005, efficiency investments are close to profitability even without policy support. If higher energy prices were expected, energy-efficient retrofitting would be an attractive investment opportunity

  1. Estimation of NH3 emissions from a naturally ventilated livestock farm using local-scale atmospheric dispersion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensen, A.; Loubet, B.; Mosquera, J.; van den Bulk, W. C. M.; Erisman, J. W.; Dämmgen, U.; Milford, C.; Löpmeier, F. J.; Cellier, P.; Mikuška, P.; Sutton, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Agricultural livestock represents the main source of ammonia (NH3) in Europe. In recent years, reduction policies have been applied to reduce NH3 emissions. In order to estimate the impacts of these policies, robust estimates of the emissions from the main sources, i.e. livestock farms are needed. In this paper, the NH3 emissions were estimated from a naturally ventilated livestock farm in Braunschweig, Germany during a joint field experiment of the GRAMINAE European project. An inference method was used with a Gaussian-3D plume model and with the Huang 3-D model. NH3 concentrations downwind of the source were used together with micrometeorological data to estimate the source strength over time. Mobile NH3 concentration measurements provided information on the spatial distribution of source strength. The estimated emission strength ranged between 6.4±0.18 kg NH3 d-1 (Huang 3-D model) and 9.2±0.7 kg NH3 d-1 (Gaussian-3D model). These estimates were 94% and 63% of what was obtained using emission factors from the German national inventory (9.6 kg d-1 NH3). The effect of deposition was evaluated with the FIDES-2D model. This increased the emission estimate to 11.7 kg NH3 d-1, showing that deposition can explain the observed difference. The daily pattern of the source was correlated with net radiation and with the temperature inside the animal houses. The daily pattern resulted from a combination of a temperature effect on the source concentration together with an effect of variations in free and forced convection of the building ventilation rate. Further development of the plume technique is especially relevant for naturally ventilated farms, since the variable ventilation rate makes other emission measurements difficult.

  2. Estimation of NH3 emissions from a naturally ventilated livestock farm using local-scale atmospheric dispersion modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cellier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural livestock represents the main source of ammonia (NH3 in Europe. In recent years, reduction policies have been applied to reduce NH3 emissions. In order to estimate the impacts of these policies, robust estimates of the emissions from the main sources, i.e. livestock farms are needed. In this paper, the NH3 emissions were estimated from a naturally ventilated livestock farm in Braunschweig, Germany during a joint field experiment of the GRAMINAE European project. An inference method was used with a Gaussian-3D plume model and with the Huang 3-D model. NH3 concentrations downwind of the source were used together with micrometeorological data to estimate the source strength over time. Mobile NH3 concentration measurements provided information on the spatial distribution of source strength. The estimated emission strength ranged between 6.4±0.18 kg NH3 d−1 (Huang 3-D model and 9.2±0.7 kg NH3 d−1 (Gaussian-3D model. These estimates were 94% and 63% of what was obtained using emission factors from the German national inventory (9.6 kg d−1 NH3. The effect of deposition was evaluated with the FIDES-2D model. This increased the emission estimate to 11.7 kg NH3 d−1, showing that deposition can explain the observed difference. The daily pattern of the source was correlated with net radiation and with the temperature inside the animal houses. The daily pattern resulted from a combination of a temperature effect on the source concentration together with an effect of variations in free and forced convection of the building ventilation rate. Further development of the plume technique is especially relevant for naturally ventilated farms, since the variable ventilation rate makes other emission measurements difficult.

  3. The Effects of Ventilation in Homes on Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that people in the developed world spend more than 85-90% of their time indoors. Of this, most is spent in homes. To minimize health risks from pollutants occurring in homes, exposures should be controlled. The most effective way to achieve this is to control sources of pollutants...... this issue and many of them suffer from deficient experimental design, as well as a lack of proper characterization of actual exposures occurring indoors. Based on the available data, in the reviewed studies, it seems likely that health risks may occur when ventilation rates are below 0.4 air changes...... per hour in existing homes. No data were found indicating that buildings having dedicated natural ventilation systems perform less well than the dwellings in which mechanical ventilation systems are installed. Newly installed mechanical ventilation systems were observed to improve health conditions...

  4. Optimizing patient-ventilator synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, S K

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation assumes the work of breathing, improves gas exchange, and unloads the respiratory muscles, all of which require good synchronization between the patient and the ventilator. Causes for patient-ventilator dyssynchrony include both patient factors (abnormalities of respiratory drive and abnormal respiratory mechanics) and ventilator factors (triggering, flow delivery, breath termination criteria, the level and mode of ventilator support, and imposed work of breathing). Although patient-ventilator dyssynchrony can often be detected on physical exam, careful analysis of ventilator waveforms (pressure-time, flow-time) allows for more precise definition of the underlying cause. Patient-ventilator interaction can be improved by reversing patient factors that alter respiratory drive or elevate patient ventilatory requirements and by correcting factors that contribute to dynamic hyperinflation. Proper setting of the ventilator using sensitive triggering mechanisms, satisfactory flow rates, adequate delivered minute ventilation, matching machine T(I) to neural T(I), and applying modes that overcome the imposed work of breathing, further optimize patient-ventilator synchrony. PMID:16088669

  5. Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing mass masonry building (a former convent). The original ventilation design for the project was provided by a local engineer and consisted of a single large heat recovery ventilator (HRV) located in a mechanical room in the basement with a centralized duct system providing supply air to the main living space and exhausting stale air from the single bathroom in each apartment. This design was deemed to be far too costly to install and operate for several reasons: the large central HRV was oversized and the specified flows to each apartment were much higher than the ASHRAE 62.2 rate; an extensive system of ductwork, smoke and fire dampers, and duct chases were specified; ductwork required a significant area of dropped ceilings; and the system lacked individual ventilation control in the apartments

  6. Technology Solutions Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the "fresh" air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the normal leakage paths through the building envelope disappear. Researchers from the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. In this project, the CARB team evaluated the four different strategies for providing make-up air to multifamily residential buildings and developed guidelines to help contractors and building owners choose the best ventilation systems.

  7. Subjective evaluation of different ventilation concepts combined with radiant heating and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen subjects evaluated the indoor environment in four experiments with different combinations of ventilation and radiant heating/cooling systems. Two test setups simulated a room in a low energy building with a single occupant during winter. The room was equipped either by a ventilation system...

  8. Use of perforated acoustic panels as supply air diffusers in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Kazemi, Seyed Hossein; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi;

    Ventilation is needed for diluting and removing the contaminants, odour and excess heat from the building interior. It is important that the inhabitants perceive the ventilated spaces as comfortable. Therefore, the supply air should reach all parts of the occupied zones. Troldtekt has been manufa...

  9. Optimized Design of Outlets Layout in Thermal Pressure Naturally Ventilated Rooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemin Sui

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Using thermal pressure ventilation principles to achieve passive ventilation in buildings is an important way to promote green and low consumption building strategy. The reasonable vents layout design can fully tap the potential of thermal pressure ventilation. Aimed to civil buildings with internal heating source, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD technology, the effects of outlets layout on thermal natural ventilation in rooms were studied. Three types of typical air outlets distribution patterns were considered and the airflow distribution of thermal natural ventilation in rooms was simulated. The ventilation rates and the average workspace temperatures of different simulated conditions were given. The velocity and temperature fields of different simulated conditions were analyzed and the indoor thermal stratification characteristics were discussed. In addition, the effective heat coefficients of different simulated conditions were analyzed and compared. The results show that the strategy of dispersed outlets on ceiling can achieve the optimal natural ventilation effect. The results can provide theoretical references for the design of natural ventilation system in civil buildings.

  10. Sealed Crawl Spaces with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, William [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Williamson, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Puttafunta, Srikanth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-30

    One method of code-compliance for crawlspaces is to seal and insulate the crawlspace, rather than venting to the outdoors. However, codes require mechanical ventilation; either via conditioned supply air from the HVAC system, or a continuous exhaust ventilation strategy. As the CARB's building partner, Ithaca Neighborhood Housing Services, intended to use the unvented crawlspace in a recent

  11. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a) Adequate... holding of a drug product. (c) Air filtration systems, including prefilters and particulate matter...

  12. Radon mitigation in schools utilising heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a continuing radon in schools technology development effort, EPA's School Evaluation Team has performed radon mitigation in schools by the method of ventilation/pressurisation control technology. Ventilation rates were increased, at a minimum, to meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (ASHRAE 62-1989). This paper presents the results and the preliminary evaluations which led to the team's decision to implement this technology. Factors considered include energy penalties, comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ), building shell tightness, and equipment costs. Cost benefit of heat recovery ventilation was also considered. Earlier results of the SEP team's efforts have indicated a severe ventilation problem within the schools of the United States. Two case studies are presented where HVAC technology was implemented for controlling radon concentrations. One involved the installation of a heat recovery ventilator to depressurise a crawl space and provide ventilation to the classrooms which previously had no mechanical ventilation. The other involved the restoration of a variable air volume system in a two-storey building. The HVAC system's controls were restored and modified to provide a constant building pressure differential to control the entry of radon. Pre-mitigation and post-mitigation indoor air pollutant measurements were taken, including radon, carbon dioxide (CO2), particulates, and bio-aerosols. Long-term monitoring of radon, CO2, building pressure differentials, and indoor/outdoor temperature and relative humidity is presented. (author)

  13. Ventilator-associated lung injury during assisted mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddy, Felipe; Sutherasan, Yuda; Rocco, Patricia R M; Pelosi, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    Assisted mechanical ventilation (MV) may be a favorable alternative to controlled MV at the early phase of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), since it requires less sedation, no paralysis and is associated with less hemodynamic deterioration, better distal organ perfusion, and lung protection, thus reducing the risk of ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI). In the present review, we discuss VALI in relation to assisted MV strategies, such as volume assist-control ventilation, pressure assist-control ventilation, pressure support ventilation (PSV), airway pressure release ventilation (APRV), APRV with PSV, proportional assist ventilation (PAV), noisy ventilation, and neurally adjusted ventilatory assistance (NAVA). In summary, we suggest that assisted MV can be used in ARDS patients in the following situations: (1) Pao(2)/Fio(2) >150 mm Hg and positive end-expiratory pressure ≥ 5 cm H(2)O and (2) with modalities of pressure-targeted and time-cycled breaths including more or less spontaneous or supported breaths (A-PCV [assisted pressure-controlled ventilation] or APRV). Furthermore, during assisted MV, the following parameters should be monitored: inspiratory drive, transpulmonary pressure, and tidal volume (6 mL/kg). Further studies are required to determine the impact of novel modalities of assisted ventilation such as PAV, noisy pressure support, and NAVA on VALI. PMID:25105820

  14. Dependence of radon level on ventilation systems in residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of indoor radon and radon entry from soil into a house are expected to increase with increasing radon concentration in soil pores, and indoor radon concentration is expected to decrease with increasing ventilation rate. Depressurization, which can be caused by the stack effect, by wind and by unbalanced ventilation, creates different pressure conditions in a house and in the soil beneath it. To reveal the possible differences in radon removal and entry resulting from different ventilation systems, radon concentrations were determined in three similar slab-on-grade buildings provided with mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation, mechanical exhaust or natural ventilation. To limitate the effect of differences in soil parameters, the houses were constructed on the same gravel esker in Kuopio. Thus, the variation in radon entry as a result of different depressurisation of the houses (caused by unbalanced mechanical ventilation systems) could also be observed. In addition, the effect of pressurisation on living rooms could be determined in five slab-on-grade houses constructed on the same esker in Hollola. Mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation system controlled by measured indoor-outdoor pressure difference, was installed in the six houses. The seasonal variation with and without controlled pressure conditions were followed in a slab-on-grade house constructed on a gravel esker in Rekola. Long-term radon concentrations were observed to correlate negatively with air exchange rates. However, the removal effect of ventilation was found to be disturbed by negative pressure due to the stack effect and/or to unbalanced mechanical ventilation. (91 refs., 17 figs., 10 tabs.)

  15. Insufficient ventilation in school buildings and nurseries. Bad for health, new assessment by the Public Health Authorities (GGD) in the Netherlands; Gebrekkige ventilatie in scholenen kindercentra. Slecht voor gezondheid, nieuwe beoordeling door GGD's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, F. [Kenniscentrum Milieu en Gezondheid, GGD Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    Classrooms are often stuffy because the windows are kept closed to prevent draughts. This is unpleasant and tiring for the pupils, and it increases the risk of illness for both them and the teaching staff. A declining scope of regulations is resulting in insufficient protection for pupils and staff. Public Health Authorities in the Netherlands have agreed upon criterion values for evaluating ventilation on the basis of recent scientific publications. According to the new norm, the standard of ventilation in schools is unacceptable. Better ventilation facilities are necessary in many cases. [Dutch] Het is vaak bedompt in klaslokalen omdat de ramen dicht zitten om tocht te vermijden. Dit is onaangenaam en vermoeiend. Bovendien vergroot het de kans op ziekte van leerlingen en leerkrachten. Er zijn steeds minder voorschriften waardoor er onvoldoende bescherming ontstaat voor de leerlingen en de leerkrachten. Om de luchtverversing te beoordelen, hebben de GGD's toetswaarden afgesproken op basis van recente wetenschappelijke publicaties. Volgens die nieuwe norm is de gebrekkige ventilatie in veel scholen onacceptabel. In veel gevallen zijn betere voorzieningen voor ventilatie nodig.

  16. Modelling and simulation of a ventilated double window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double windows are a currently adopted construction system in Portuguese residential buildings to prevent air leakage and thermal discomfort. We have changed this construction system so that it could be able to pre-heat the ventilation air between the windows. Simple changes consist in introducing vents at the base of the outer window to allow a supply of fresh air. Heat that escapes from inside through the inner window and solar radiation heat up the air between the two windows. Due to wind pressure and stack effect, the air rises and enters the room through a vent at the inside top of the system warmer than the outdoor air. A simulation program was built and validated with the use of test facilities, where different configurations of the system were tested. This paper presents the mathematical model and some results of a simulation work based on it. Parametrical studies were carried out by varying the airflow rate, the outdoor air temperature and the solar irradiance to predict the temperature rise and the useful energy of the delivered air. Results indicate an encouraging thermal performance of the ventilated double window offering itself as an alternative to cold natural ventilation. - Research highlights: → The temperatures and airflows are the result of many simultaneous thermal and flow processes, influenced by the climactic conditions, the geometric and physical properties of the various components of the ventilated double window. → A mathematical model to predict the thermal performance of a ventilated double window is suitable to building designers. → A ventilated double window is capable of reducing the heating load of the building due to pre heating the ventilation air.

  17. Conventional mechanical ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the ...

  18. Purge ventilation operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A determination of minimum requirements for purge exhaust ventilation system operability has been performed. HLWE and HLW Regulatory Program personnel have evaluated the various scenarios of equipment conditions and HLWE has developed the requirements for purge exhaust systems. This report is provided to document operability requirements to assist Tank Farm personnel to determine whether a system is operable/inoperable and to define required compensatory actions

  19. The effect of ventilation on the indoor air concentration of PCB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    The impact of increased ventilation on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) air concentration by installation of mechanical balanced ventilation units was studied. The intervention was carried out in three PCB-contaminated rooms; one classroom in an elementary school and two small bedrooms in an...... apartment in a residential building. In the classroom, the air exchange rate (ACH) was raised from 0.2 (without mechanical ventilation) to 5.5 /h during the intervention. In the two bedrooms, the highest ACH was 6.6 /h and 0.5 /h without mechanical ventilation. The corresponding concentration decrease...

  20. BSim models for 2 case-studies of naturally and mechanically ventilated daycare institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyanova, O.; Heiselberg, P.

    2009-06-15

    The report intends to provide complete information necessary for evaluation of assumptions made in the models and conclusions derived from the results of simulation of two different institutions in various operational modes. Thermal models are prepared for two day-care buildings, one which is mechanically ventilated and one which is naturally ventilated. All simulations were preformed in BSim, and all the models are simulated in the current version og BSim which is version 6,8,9,8. The results of the simulations showed that it is possible to reduce energy use for ventilation, both in mechanically and naturally ventilated child care center without compromising indoor air quality. (ln)

  1. Human response to ductless personalized ventilation coupled with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Veselý, Michal; Melikov, Arsen K.

    A human subject experiment was carried out to investigate the extent to which ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation can improve perceived air quality (PAQ) and thermal comfort at elevated room air temperature in comparison with displacement ventilation......). During one hour exposure participants answered questionnaires regarding PAQ and thermal comfort. PAQ was significantly better with DPV than without DPV at the same background conditions. Thermal comfort improved when DPV was used. Combining DPV with displacement ventilation showed the potential for...... improving PAQ and thermal comfort when room air temperature is above the comfortable temperature range....

  2. Model-based setting of inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate in pressure-controlled ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical ventilation carries the risk of ventilator-induced-lung-injury (VILI). To minimize the risk of VILI, ventilator settings should be adapted to the individual patient properties. Mathematical models of respiratory mechanics are able to capture the individual physiological condition and can be used to derive personalized ventilator settings. This paper presents model-based calculations of inspiration pressure (pI), inspiration and expiration time (tI, tE) in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and a retrospective evaluation of its results in a group of mechanically ventilated patients. Incorporating the identified first order model of respiratory mechanics in the basic equation of alveolar ventilation yielded a nonlinear relation between ventilation parameters during PCV. Given this patient-specific relation, optimized settings in terms of minimal pI and adequate tE can be obtained. We then retrospectively analyzed data from 16 ICU patients with mixed pathologies, whose ventilation had been previously optimized by ICU physicians with the goal of minimization of inspiration pressure, and compared the algorithm's ‘optimized’ settings to the settings that had been chosen by the physicians. The presented algorithm visualizes the patient-specific relations between inspiration pressure and inspiration time. The algorithm's calculated results highly correlate to the physician's ventilation settings with r = 0.975 for the inspiration pressure, and r = 0.902 for the inspiration time. The nonlinear patient-specific relations of ventilation parameters become transparent and support the determination of individualized ventilator settings according to therapeutic goals. Thus, the algorithm is feasible for a variety of ventilated ICU patients and has the potential of improving lung-protective ventilation by minimizing inspiratory pressures and by helping to avoid the build-up of clinically significant intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure

  3. Pretest Predictions for Ventilation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this calculation is to predict the temperatures of the ventilating air, waste package surface, concrete pipe walls, and insulation that will be developed during the ventilation tests involving various test conditions. The results will be used as input to the following three areas: (1) Decisions regarding testing set-up and performance. (2) Assessing how best to scale the test phenomena measured. (3) Validating numerical approach for modeling continuous ventilation. The scope of the calculation is to identify the physical mechanisms and parameters related to thermal response in the ventilation tests, and develop and describe numerical methods that can be used to calculate the effects of continuous ventilation. Sensitivity studies to assess the impact of variation of linear power densities (linear heat loads) and ventilation air flow rates are included. The calculation is limited to thermal effect only

  4. Teaching Ventilation/Perfusion Relationships in the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenny, Robb W.

    2008-01-01

    This brief review is meant to serve as a refresher for faculty teaching respiratory physiology to medical students. The concepts of ventilation and perfusion matching are some of the most challenging ideas to learn and teach. Some strategies to consider in teaching these concepts are, first, to build from simple to more complex by starting with a…

  5. Design of energy efficient ventilation and air-conditioning systems

    CERN Document Server

    Seppänen, Olli; Bertilsson, Thore; Maripuu, Mari-Liis; Lamy, Hervé; Vanden Borre, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This guidebook covers numerous system components of ventilation and air-conditioning systems and shows how they can be improved by applying the latest technology products. Special attention is paid to details, which are often overlooked in the daily design practice, resulting in poor performance of high quality products once they are installed in the building system.

  6. Mechanical ventilation in neurosurgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav Goyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation significantly affects cerebral oxygenation and cerebral blood flow through changes in arterial carbon dioxide levels. Neurosurgical patients might require mechanical ventilation for correction and maintenance of changes in the pulmonary system that occur either due to neurosurgical pathology or following surgery during the acute phase. This review discusses the basics of mechanical ventilation relevant to the neurosurgeon in the day-to-day management of neurosurgical patient requiring artificial support of the respiration.

  7. Mechanical ventilation in neurosurgical patients

    OpenAIRE

    Keshav Goyal; Ranadhir Mitra; Shweta Kedia

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation significantly affects cerebral oxygenation and cerebral blood flow through changes in arterial carbon dioxide levels. Neurosurgical patients might require mechanical ventilation for correction and maintenance of changes in the pulmonary system that occur either due to neurosurgical pathology or following surgery during the acute phase. This review discusses the basics of mechanical ventilation relevant to the neurosurgeon in the day-to-day management of neurosurgical pa...

  8. CFD Simulation and Optimisation of a Low Energy Ventilation and Cooling System

    OpenAIRE

    John Kaiser Calautit; Dominic O'Connor; Polytimi Sofotasiou; Ben Richard Hughes

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems account for 60% of the total energy consumption of buildings. As a sector, buildings contributes about 40% of the total global energy demand. By using passive technology coupled with natural ventilation from wind towers, significant amounts of energy can be saved, reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. In this study, the development of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis in aiding the development of wind towers wa...

  9. Indoor Chemistry: Materials, Ventilation Systems, and Occupant Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.C.; Corsi, R.L.; Destaillats, H.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Wells, J.R.

    2006-05-01

    Chemical processes taking place in indoor environments can significantly alter the nature and concentrations of pollutants. Exposure to secondary contaminants generated in these reactions needs to be evaluated in association with many aspects of buildings to minimize their impact on occupant health and well-being. Focusing on indoor ozone chemistry, we describe alternatives for improving indoor air quality by controlling chemical changes related to building materials, ventilation systems, and occupant activities.

  10. Effects of ventilation behaviour on indoor heat load based on test reference years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfelder, Madeleine; Koppe, Christina; Pfafferott, Jens; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Since 2003, most European countries established heat health warning systems to alert the population to heat load. Heat health warning systems are based on predicted meteorological conditions outdoors. But the majority of the European population spends a substantial amount of time indoors, and indoor thermal conditions can differ substantially from outdoor conditions. The German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) extended the existing heat health warning system (HHWS) with a thermal building simulation model to consider heat load indoors. In this study, the thermal building simulation model is used to simulate a standardized building representing a modern nursing home, because elderly and sick people are most sensitive to heat stress. Different types of natural ventilation were simulated. Based on current and future test reference years, changes in the future heat load indoors were analyzed. Results show differences between the various ventilation options and the possibility to minimize the thermal heat stress during summer by using an appropriate ventilation method. Nighttime ventilation for indoor thermal comfort is most important. A fully opened window at nighttime and the 2-h ventilation in the morning and evening are more sufficient to avoid heat stress than a tilted window at nighttime and the 1-h ventilation in the morning and the evening. Especially the ventilation in the morning seems to be effective to keep the heat load indoors low. Comparing the results for the current and the future test reference years, an increase of heat stress on all ventilation types can be recognized.

  11. Guide to Closing and Conditioning Ventilated Crawlspaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, B.

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide explains the issues and concerns with conventional ventilated crawlspaces and provides prescriptive measures for improvements that will create healthier and more durable spaces. The methods described in this guide are not the only acceptable ways to treat a crawlspace but represent a proven strategy that works in many areas of the United States. The designs discussed in this guide may or may not meet the local building codes and as such will need to be researched before beginning the project.

  12. Electricity dependency and CO2 emissions from heating in the Swedish building sector-Current trends in conflict with governmental policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal-condensing power is marginal production in the deregulated Nordic power market and an increase in electricity consumption will therefore result in increased CO2 emissions. One goal of the Swedish energy policy is to reduce the amount of electricity used for heating in the building sector. This paper investigates the potential for reduction in electricity dependency and CO2 emissions from heating, taking the energy infrastructure into account, here defined as the capital stock of the buildings and heating systems together with geographical variations in heat intensity. In order to include the energy infrastructure in the analysis the study is made on a regional level (Southern Sweden) applying a comprehensive database describing the energy infrastructure of the region. The paper compares two scenarios for converting the heating systems of the region: one employing energy savings and with the aim to phase out the oil and most of the electricity used for heating purposes and a second which illustrates the effect if the current trend in the heating market continues. Both scenarios apply commercially available technologies only. From the second scenario it is seen that the current trend-contrary to the aim of the Swedish Governmental policy-shows an increase in electricity dependency for heating, mainly due to a large diffusion of heat pumps, but also due to installations of electrical floor heating and electricity heating systems installed in newly constructed one- and two-dwelling buildings. However, the options proposed in first scenario show that it is possible to reach significant reductions in the electricity dependency due to heating and in corresponding CO2 emissions. An analysis of the age structure of the heating systems shows that the transformation of the heating system is not completed until the year 2025, if new investments for replacement of heating systems are made only provided they have reached their economical life time, and only applying heating

  13. Modeling ventilation and radon in new dutch dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon concentrations were estimated for various ventilation conditions, the differences being mainly related to the airtightness of the dwelling and the ventilation behavior of its occupants. The estimations were aimed at describing the variation in air change rates and radon concentrations to be expected in the representative newly built Dutch dwellings and identifying the most important parameters determining air change rate and indoor radon concentration. The model estimations were compared with measurements. Most of the air was predicted to enter the model dwelling through leaks in the building shell, independent of the ventilation conditions of the dwelling. Opening the air inlets was shown to be an efficient way to increase infiltration and thus to decrease radon concentration. The effect of increasing the mechanical ventilation rate was considerably less than opening the air inlets. The mechanical ventilation sets the lower limit to the air change rate of the dwelling, and is effective in reducing the radon concentration when natural infiltration is low. Opening inside doors proved to be effective in preventing peak concentrations in poorly ventilated rooms. As the airtightness of newly built dwellings is still being improved, higher radon concentrations are to be expected in the near future and the effect of occupant behavior on indoor radon concentrations is likely to increase. According to the model estimations soil-borne radon played a moderate role, which is in line with measurements. (au)

  14. Ventilation criteria for IDMS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Facility Evaluation Board (FEB) reviews of the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) have identified the inconsistency of the current IDMS Process Hazards Review (PHR) versus actual IDMS practice as regards the criteria to contain air borne pollutants that may be present in the Process Room (e.g. benzene and mercury). The PHR states that a 1.0 in. wc pressure differential be maintained between the IDMS Process Room and Building 672-T. In addition, the PHR further specifies that the linear velocity through openings into the Process Room (e.g. open doors) be equal to or greater than 150 fpm. Finally, the PHR recommended that mercury vapor and benzene monitors be installed in the Process Room ventilation exhaust to alert personnel to the presence of vapors of benzene and/or mercury before entering the Process Room. This report summarizes the results of reassessment of these criteria and the specific recommendation for permanent installation of mercury and benzene vapor monitors in the vapor exhaust of the Process Room

  15. Main physical environmental variables driving occupant behaviour with regard to natural ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo; Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by building properties, building controls and the way that these are used by the occupants of the building. This paper focuses on natural ventilation concerning the occupants’ habits of opening/closing the windows in residential buildings. Preeminent ...... measurements. The ultimate goal is to provide more accurate information about driving forces related to the window opening and closing behaviour....

  16. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. In this project, Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing mass masonry building (a former convent).

  17. Basement depressurization using dwelling mechanical exhaust ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical ventilation exhaust system is commonly used in France to generate air renewal into building and especially into dwelling. It consists of a permanent mechanical air extraction from technical rooms (kitchen, bathrooms and toilets) using a unique fan connected to exhaust ducts. Natural air inlets in living room and bed rooms ensure an air flow from living spaces towards technical rooms. To fight against radon into building, the most recognised efficient technique is the Soil Depressurization System (S.D.S.) consisting in depressurizing the house basement. The aim of this study is to test the ability of the dwelling mechanical ventilation system to depressurize the basement in conjunction with air renewal of a house. For that purpose, a S.D.S. has been installed in an experimental house at CSTB during its construction. At first, tests undertaken with a variable velocity fan connected to the S.D.S. have characterised the permeability of the basement. It is shown that basement can be depressurized adequately with a relatively low air flow rate. At a second stage, S.D.S. has been connected to the exhaust ventilation fan used for the mechanical ventilation of the house. Results obtained show the ability of such ventilation system to generate sufficient depressurization in the basement and to ensure simultaneously adequate air change rate in the dwelling. (author)

  18. Monitoring during Mechnical Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Hess

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring is a continuous, or nearly continuous, evaluation of the physiological function of a patient in real time to guide management decisions, including when to make therapeutic interventions and assessment of those interventions. Pulse oximeters pass two wavelengths of light through a pulsating vascular bed and determine oxygen saturation. The accuracy of pulse oximetry is about ±4%. Capnography measures carbon dioxide at the airway and displays a waveform called the capnogram. End-tidal PCO2 represents alveolar PCO2 and is determined by the ventilation-perfusion quotient. Use of end-tidal PCO2 as an indication of arterial PCO2 is often deceiving and incorrect in critically ill patients. Because there is normally very little carbon dioxide in the stomach, a useful application of capnography is the detection of esophageal intubation. Intra-arterial blood gas systems are available, but the clinical impact and cost effectiveness of these is unclear. Mixed venous oxygenation (PvO2 or SvO2 is a global indicator of tissue oxygenation and is affected by arterial oxygen content, oxygen consumption and cardiac output. Indirect calorimetry is the calculation of energy expenditure and respiratory quotient by the measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. A variety of mechanics can be determined in mechanically ventilated patients including resistance, compliance, auto-peak end-expiratory pressure (PEEP and work of breathing. The static pressure-volume curve can be used to identify lower and upper infection points, which can be used to determine the appropriate PEEP setting and to avoid alveolar overdistension. Although some forms of monitoring have become a standard of care during mechanical ventilation (eg, pulse oximetry, there is little evidence that use of any monitor affects patient outcome.

  19. Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…

  20. Plane Stratified Flow in a Room Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Nickel, J.; Baron, D. J. G.

    2004-01-01

    The air movement in the occupied zone of a room ventilated by displacement ventilation exists as a stratified flow along the floor. This flow can be radial or plane according to the number of wall-mounted diffusers and the room geometry. The paper addresses the situations where plane flow is obta...... flow. The thickness and the velocity are functions of the Archimedes number....

  1. The influence of ventilation on moisture conditions in facades with wooden cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2009-01-01

    might add moisture to the construction. Full-size wall elements with wooden cladding placed in a test building were exposed to natural climate on the outside and to a humid indoor climate on the inside. Temperature and moisture conditions inside the wall elements and climate parameters were monitored......A ventilated cavity behind the cladding of timber frame walls is often considered good building practice that facilitates the removal of moisture from the construction. However, moisture will only be removed from the construction by ventilating it with dry air, whereas ventilating with humid air...

  2. Building a Strong Contingent of Secondary English-as-a-Foreign-Language Teachers in China: Problems and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangwei

    2005-01-01

    In the last quarter century, China has come a long way toward building a strong contingent of secondary teachers, including English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers. Over the years, impressive progress has been made in strengthening teacher education and raising the educational levels of the teaching force, with the result being a…

  3. Disaster risk management and fiscal policy : narratives, tools, and evidence associated with assessing fiscal risk and building resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Mechler, Reinhard; Mochizuki, Junko; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the question whether and how co-benefits, through disaster resilience building, can be further promoted. Co-benefits are defined as positive externalities that arise deliberately as a result of a joint strategy that pursues several objectives synergistically at the same time, such as disaster risk management and development goals, or disaster risk management and clima...

  4. Building Local Leadership for Change: A National Scan of Parent Leadership Training Programs. Education Policy for Action Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Anne T.

    2010-01-01

    The New York State Senate has given New York City an unprecedented opportunity--to create a Parent Training Center that will build cadres of parent leaders across all five boroughs. The legislation, which places the responsibility for the Center at the City University of New York (CUNY), mandates that the program train and support parents to…

  5. Building Local Leadership for Change: A National Scan of Parent Leadership Training Programs. Program Profiles. Education Policy for Action Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Anne T.

    2010-01-01

    The program profiles presented in this paper provide background for the research report "Building Local Leadership for Change: A National Scan of Parent Leadership Training Programs." The full report describes four types of parent leadership training programs identified in the scan and gives examples of each. These four types are: (1) Parent…

  6. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences on the...... one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking...

  7. Estimation of Airflow in livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    The well-being of the animals (e.g. pigs) in livestock buildings is contingent on adequate ventilation. Depending on the construction of the ventilation system draught may be introduced into the buildings. Obviously this is an unwanted effect, that might lead to decreasing growth of and increasing...... sickness among the livestock. Therefore it is of interest to estimate flow vector fields corresponding to the airflow introduced by a given ventilation system. By introducing particles (e.g. smoke or soapbubles) into the air-inlets of a model of a livestock building, the airflow in an laser...

  8. Emplacement Ventilation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify conceptual design options for the emplacement ventilation system, specifically within the emplacement drifts. The designs are based on the Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II concept developed during the license application design selection exercise as described in the ''License Application Design Selection Report'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a) and in the emplacement drift ''Ventilation Model'' (CRWMS M and O 2000c). The scope of this analysis, as outlined in the development plan (CRWMS M and O 2000a), includes the following tasks: (1) Description of the air flow path in the emplacement drifts. (2) Examination of the exhaust options for air exiting the emplacement drifts. (3) Examination of the air control options in the emplacement drifts. (4) Discussion of following system components and structures: emplacement isolation doors, portable shadow shield and exhaust main partition. The objective of this analysis is to support site recommendation through input to the system description documents. Off-normal conditions are not discussed in this analysis

  9. Strengthening institutional and capacity building in the area of Competition and Consumer Policy for Bolivia and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Evenett, Simon J.

    2004-01-01

    With the move towards democracy and measures to liberalise domestic sectors and foreign trade, policymakers in Central America and elsewhere have taken a greater interest in the linkages between consumer protection policies and economic and sustainable development. This has manifested itself in a greater commitment to implementing and enforcing national consumer protection statutes and to adhering more closely to the UN Guidelines For Consumer Protection (United Nations 1999).

  10. Recent updates in mechanical ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Bergamaschi, Valentina; Paolo, Navalesi

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several studies have been performed to better outline the pathophysiology of acute respiratory failure and evaluate the therapeutic profile of different modes of ventilation and ventilator settings. Here we briefly report those we consider most relevant for daily intensive care unit clinical practice.

  11. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients

  12. Transtracheal ventilation in oral surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, R M

    1983-01-01

    The use of transtracheal ventilation as a routine method of ventilation during anaesthesia for 60 patients with gross pathology requiring oral surgery is reported. Theoretical hazards of the technique and protection of the airway are discussed. There were no serious complications in this series. The technique is recommended as a simple and safe alternative to blind nasal intubation.

  13. Integrated Bulding Heating, Cooling and Ventilation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bing

    Current research studies show that building heating, cooling and ventilation energy consumption account for nearly 40% of the total building energy use in the U.S. The potential for saving energy through building control systems varies from 5% to 20% based on recent market surveys. In addition, building control affects environmental performances such as thermal, visual, air quality, etc., and occupancy such as working productivity and comfort. Building control has been proven to be important both in design and operation stages. Building control design and operation need consistent and reliable static and dynamic information from multiple resources. Static information includes building geometry, construction and HVAC equipment. Dynamic information includes zone environmental performance, occupancy and outside weather information during operation. At the same time, model-based predicted control can help to optimize energy use while maintaining indoor set-point temperature when occupied. Unfortunately, several issues in the current approach of building control design and operation impede achieving this goal. These issues include: a) dynamic information data such as real-time on-site weather (e.g., temperature, wind speed and solar radiation) and occupancy (number of occupants and occupancy duration in the space) are not readily available; b) a comprehensive building energy model is not fully integrated into advanced control for accuracy and robustness; c) real-time implementation of indoor air temperature control are rare. This dissertation aims to investigate and solve these issues based on an integrated building control approach. This dissertation introduces and illustrates a method for integrated building heating, cooling and ventilation control to reduce energy consumption and maintain indoor temperature set-point, based on the prediction of occupant behavior patterns and weather conditions. Advanced machine learning methods including Adaptive Gaussian Process

  14. Disaster risk management and fiscal policy : narratives, tools, and evidence associated with assessing fiscal risk and building resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Mechler, R.; Mochizuki, J.; Hochrainer-Stigler, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the question whether and how co-benefits, through disaster resilience building, can be further promoted. Co-benefits are defined as positive externalities that arise deliberately as a result of a joint strategy that pursues several objectives synergistically at the same time, such as disaster risk management and development goals, or disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. Of particular interest is the question of how the economic and broader benefits of d...

  15. Building Services Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinzi, Michele; Romeo, Carlo; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund;

    2015-01-01

    This guideline on Building Services Systems is one of four guidelines produced by the School of the Future project. The other three guidelines cover: Building Construction Elements, Improved Indoor Environmental Quality and Concepts for Zero Emission Schools. This guideline consists of the...... description of 5 main technologies: condensing boilers, heat pumps, ventilation systems, lighting and photovoltaic systems. For each technology chapter there is the same content list: an introduction, a brief technology description, some advantages and disadvantages, market penetration and utilisation, energy...

  16. Spent nuclear fuel storage building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outer earthquake proof walls of a building are formed in the running direction of a bridge travelling type crane. Inner earthquake proof walls are disposed in the direction perpendicular to the running direction of the crane. An area for constructing an air ventilation tower is formed in the running direction of the crane at the central portion of the building. The area surrounded by the area for constructing air ventilation tower and the earthquake proof inner walls is defined as a cask storage area. Such cask storage areas are disposed symmetrically on both sides of the air ventilation tower. The crane is disposed on the roof of the building, stands on rails which are laid on the outer walls of the building and runs over the air ventilation tower. Since the crane is disposed on the roof of the building, the inner earthquake proof walls of the building can be constructed in the inside of the building, and a high earthquake proofness can be provided to the building itself. (I.N.)

  17. Capacity of Building Energy Efficiency in Liepaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilita Ābele

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ventilation with recuperation is a means of reducing heat consumption per square meter below 50 (kWh/m2 in Latvia through proper project design and trained personnel. The aim of this research is to show necessity for a ventilation system with recuperation. This research would further permit preparing recommendations for responsible decision-makers. There are no regulatory enactments that would provide ventilations indispensability during the renovation process in Latvia. The recommendation for ventilation with recuperation should be incorporated during the renovation as a mandatory requirement in Latvia. Renovated buildings with European co-financing in Liepaja city have been used as a research basis. Different renovated building groups are compared: those without ventilation, with ventilation, ventilation with recuperation. Each one of these building groups will have more than one object. The obtained data will be heat consumption per square meter (kWh/m2. It is not possible to achieve good results with badly designed projects as well as with non-trained personnel, therefore this system is quite often either not used or ignored. Ventilation with recuperation is to be a mandatory requirement in renovated buildings. During the research it has been realized that the available information is not sufficient to compare renovation processes in other countries of comparable climatic conditions. It would be preferable to meet researchers working on similar themes to be able to share mutual experience and to promote co-operation in this field.

  18. Feasibility of utilising solar-induced ventilation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of applying solar-induced ventilation in a typical Malaysian house measuring 3 m high x wide x 5 m deep was considered based on experimental results obtained from a laboratory-scale model. A wall-type solar chimney was considered. The design of the solar chimney incorporated providing a glass panel alongside a vertical wall of a building. Openings at the top and bottom of the wall allowed fresh air to be introduced into the building. Simulations obtained from a simple theoretical model showed that the solar chimney was able to induce air flow rates of between 640 to 1040 m3 h-1 with a 0.3 m air gap. These ventilation rates are found to be in compliance with codes specified by ASHRAE and the Uniform Building By-laws. Full scale studies would need to be conducted in order to evaluate its effectiveness especially the flow pattern in the room

  19. Estimating wind frequency limits for natural ventilation at remote sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed wind data are collected at a limited number of sites, usually at airports. When a building is sited remote from the nearest wind data collection site, estimating wind frequency is more complex. The techniques involved come from the discipline of wind engineering. Where there is a relatively flat terrain between the wind data-recording site and the building site, simple computations can be made to account for the wind velocities over intervening terrain roughness. Where significant topographic features such as hills or mountains are present between the wind data-recording site and the building site, then boundary layer wind tunnel studies will be necessary to determine the influence of such features on wind speed and direction. Rough estimates can be calculated using factors used in some wind loading codes. When buildings are to be designed to take advantage of the energy efficiency offered by natural ventilation, it is important to estimate the actual potential for such ventilation. The natural ventilation potential can be estimated in terms of the percentage of time when wind exceeds some minimum value. For buildings near airports this is a relatively simple procedure. Such estimates are important as they also indicate the likely percentage of time when fans or other energy consuming devices will be needed to maintain indoor thermal comfort. This paper identifies the wind engineering techniques that can be used for such estimates and gives examples of such calculations

  20. Building technical services - Compact equipment for heating, hot water preparation, ventilation and cooling - Final report; Haustechnik - Kompaktgeraete (Heizen, Warmwasser, Lueften, Kuehlen - alles aus einem). Erkenntnisse aus der Praxis - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haessig, W.; Streit, S. [Haessig Sustech GmbH, Uster (Switzerland); Helfenfinger, D.; Keller, P. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Architektur Luzern (HSLU), Luzern (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the knowledge gained in practice concerning compact equipment that can be used for heating, hot water preparation, ventilation and cooling. Such units combine heat-pumps and the further equipment necessary. Data on various factors were collected over a period of one year in three apartment blocks that meet Swiss Minergie-P very low energy consumption standards. Apart from the above mentioned factors, the study also considered humidity and carbon dioxide levels in the apartments and inhabitant behaviour. The authors note that the energy consumption of several apartments fell below the Minergie-P limiting, annual value of 30 kWh/m2. An increase in electricity consumption dependent on room temperatures is noted and commented on. The economic feasibility of Minergie-P and so-called passive housing is commented on.

  1. Switching slips. Building blocks for a robust environmental policy for the 21st century; Wissels omzetten. Bouwstenen voor een robuust milieubeleid voor de 21e eeuw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogervorst, N.; Hajer, M.; Dietz, F.; Timmerhuis, J.; Kruitwagen, S.

    2013-06-15

    With this 'signal report', PBL (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency) offers building blocks for a robust environmental policy for the twentyfirst century, such as changes in consumer behavior, new coalitions of interests and stakeholders, and the establishment of an investment fund for eco-innovation. Which track does the Netherlands want to follow? With this essay, PBL is calling for a broad public debate on this issue [Dutch] In dit signalenrapport reikt het PBL (Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving) bouwstenen aan voor een robuust milieubeleid voor de eenentwintigste eeuw, zoals gedragsverandering van consumenten, nieuwe coalities van belangen en betrokkenen, en de oprichting van een investeringsfonds voor eco-innovatie. Welk spoor wil Nederland bewandelen? Met dit essay roept het PBL op tot een breed maatschappelijk debat over deze vraag.

  2. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  3. Construction progress of the cooling & ventilation in the LHC project

    CERN Document Server

    Body, Y; Josa, F; Monsted, A; Pirollet, B; CERN. Geneva. ST Division

    2002-01-01

    After the LEP dismantling Phase the Cooling and Ventilation Group has started the LHC construction work. Year 2001 through to 2004 will certainly be the most important period of activity for the CV group in the erection phase The author will report on the current works that are in progress on the different LHC Points distinguishing between the Ventilation and the Water Cooling installations. The Ventilation work completed in the new surface buildings in Points 1, 4,5,6 and 8. The work for the Cooling plants comprehend to the pumping stations, the cooling towers and the chilled water production stations in Points 1 and 5, For all of these activities, an updated report of the progress the work, the planning and of the expenses are given. Finally, a brief overview of the future activities is presented.

  4. Natural Ventilation Driven by Wind and Temperature Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen

    definition of the discharge coefficient that describes the characteristics of the opening, since it seems to fluctuate depending on the incidence angle of the wind. In single-sided ventilation where openings only exist in one side of the building, the flow through the opening is harder to predict. The main...... driving forces are still wind pressure and temperature differences as with cross-ventilation, but here the turbulence in the wind and the pulsating flow near the opening also affect the flow through the opening. From earlier work, some design expressions already exist, but none of these include the...... incidence angle of the wind, which is an important parameter in this type of ventilation. Several wind tunnel experiments are made and from the results of these, a new design expression is made which includes the wind pressure, temperature difference, incidence angle of the wind and the fluctuations in...

  5. Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-25

    The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

  6. Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-12

    The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

  7. Lecture Notes on Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The main task of the ventilation system or the air-conditioning system is to supply· and remove air and airborne materials and to supply or remove heat from a room. The necessary level of fresh air will be supplied to· a room by a ventilation system, and heat from equipment or solar radiation can...... be removed by an air-conditioning system. An industrial ventilation system may both take care of the occupants' comfort and the industrial processes in the area....

  8. Lecture Notes on Mixing Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1995-01-01

    The main task of the ventilation system or the air-conditioning system is to supply· and remove air and airborne materials and to supply or remove heat from a room. The necessary level of fresh air will be supplied to· a room by a ventilation system, and heat from equipment or solar radiation can be removed by an air-conditioning system. An industrial ventilation system may both take care of the occupants' comfort and the industrial processes in the area.

  9. Thermal Plumes in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, P.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The main objective of ventilation is to provide good air quality for the occupants. For this purpose the necessary ventilating air change rate must be determined. Within displacement ventilation the estimation is closely related to the air flow rate in the thermal plumes when an air quality based...... design method is used. The vertical volume flux in a plume is influenced by many factors. Placement of the flow in relation to surrounding walls is one of them. This reduces the entrainment and is the subject of this article....

  10. Mitigation of indoor radon using balanced mechanical ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research has shown that, for a given source strength, the concentration of Rn222 in the home is inversely proportional to the ventilation rate. Further reductions in the concentration of the decay products of radon can be achieved due to the decrease in residence time of the parent gas as well as increased plate-out of the progeny. Natural and mechanical ventilation can affect the distribution of pressure across the building envelope potentially increasing the flow of radon bearing soil gas into the home gas into the home and/or promoting mixing of areas of higher and lower concentration. Balanced heat recovery ventilation systems were installed in ten homes in the Boyertown, Pennsylvania area. Ventilation was restricted initially to the basement area. Five installations were later modified to introduce supply air to upstairs living spaces while continuing to exhaust from the basement. An independent contractor measured Rn222 concentrations and decay product activity in the basement and first floor living area before and after installation or modification of the heat recovery ventilation system. Additional experiments to evaluate the effect of house tightening techniques and positive pressurization of the basement were conducted. With balanced ventilation of the basement only, the mean reduction in Working Level was 92.8% with a high of 98% and a low of 76%. Mean reduction of radon gas concentration was 79.1%. When modified to supply air upstairs, mean reduction in Working Level in the living area was 90%. House tightening measures to reduce stack effect were observed to reduce radon concentration. Results indicate that balanced ventilation is an effective strategy for radon mitigation and can be expected to achieve recommended levels in a majority of homes. 9 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  11. Building a Policy-Oriented Research Partnership for Knowledge Mobilization and Knowledge Transfer: The Case of the Canadian Metropolis Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Evans

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine government–university–community partnerships for knowledge mobilization (KM and knowledge transfer (KT in the area of immigration and settlement research using the illustrative case of the Canadian Metropolis Project. The Metropolis Project in Canada began in 1995 with the goal of enhancing policy-oriented research capacity for immigration and settlement and developing ways to better use this research in government decision-making. Core funding for this partnership was provided jointly by Citizenship Immigration Canada (CIC, a department of the Government of Canada and the primary social science granting agency, the Social Science and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC. As of 2012, and subsequent to three successful funding phases, the decision was made to end government and SSHRC core funding for this initiative, however, other non-governmental funding avenues are being explored. The longevity of this partnership and the conclusion of this specific initiative present an opportunity to reflect critically on the nature of such partnerships. This paper is an attempt to identify some of the key themes, issues and challenges related to research partnerships, KM and KT. Also, with the aid of an illustrative case, it aims to specify some of the possibilities and limitations of this kind of policy relevant knowledge mobilization. Special consideration will be placed on the context in which the demand for knowledge mobilization and knowledge transfer has emerged. This examination has considerable international relevance as the Canadian Metropolis Project offers the leading example of a research partnership in the field of immigration and settlement.

  12. 46 CFR 168.15-50 - Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Accommodations § 168.15-50 Ventilation. (a) All quarters must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space and route of the vessel. (b) When mechanical ventilation is provided for... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation. 168.15-50 Section 168.15-50 Shipping...

  13. Short-term airing by natural ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perino, Marco; Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    traditional mechanical ventilation components with natural ventilation devices, such as motorized windows and louvers. Among the various ventilation strategies that are currently available, buoyancy driven single-sided natural ventilation has proved to be very effective and can provide high air change rates...

  14. Acceptance of low-flow mechanical ventilation in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings of a survey carried out on the acceptance of 'low-flow mechanical ventilation' (a fan-assisted balanced ventilation with heat recovery) for houses and apartments in Switzerland. The results were obtained on the one hand by reviewing and analysing articles appearing on the subject in the professional and daily press and by telephone interviews with 100 randomly chosen architects and 100 investors in the German and French-speaking parts of Switzerland on the other. These survey participants were asked to express their views on low-flow mechanical ventilation and experience already gained in this area. Further Interviews with tenants, 150 of whom lived in buildings fitted with low-flow mechanical ventilation and 300 in dwellings without this form of ventilation, provided information on the attitude of those directly affected, their satisfaction with the systems or their wishes. The report analyses the results of the surveys and proposes a plan of action to improve information and training for architects, owners and tenants

  15. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system...

  16. Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, E.

    2014-01-01

    The DOE Building America program has been conducting research leading to cost effective high performance homes since the early 1990's. Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this white paper is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.

  17. Newer nonconventional modes of mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preet Mohinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional modes of ventilation suffer many limitations. Although they are popularly used and are well-understood, often they fail to match the patient-based requirements. Over the years, many small modifications in ventilators have been incorporated to improve patient outcome. The ventilators of newer generation respond to patient′s demands by additional feedback systems. In this review, we discuss the popular newer modes of ventilation that have been accepted in to clinical practice. Various intensive care units over the world have found these modes to improve patient ventilator synchrony, decrease ventilator days and improve patient safety. The various modes discusses in this review are: Dual control modes (volume assured pressure support, volume support, Adaptive support ventilation, proportional assist ventilation, mandatory minute ventilation, Bi-level airway pressure release ventilation, (BiPAP, neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and NeoGanesh. Their working principles with their advantages and clinical limitations are discussed in brief.

  18. Newer nonconventional modes of mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Mohinder; Borle, Anuradha; Trikha, Anjan

    2014-07-01

    The conventional modes of ventilation suffer many limitations. Although they are popularly used and are well-understood, often they fail to match the patient-based requirements. Over the years, many small modifications in ventilators have been incorporated to improve patient outcome. The ventilators of newer generation respond to patient's demands by additional feedback systems. In this review, we discuss the popular newer modes of ventilation that have been accepted in to clinical practice. Various intensive care units over the world have found these modes to improve patient ventilator synchrony, decrease ventilator days and improve patient safety. The various modes discusses in this review are: Dual control modes (volume assured pressure support, volume support), Adaptive support ventilation, proportional assist ventilation, mandatory minute ventilation, Bi-level airway pressure release ventilation, (BiPAP), neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and NeoGanesh. Their working principles with their advantages and clinical limitations are discussed in brief. PMID:25114434

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of...

  20. Sealed Crawl Spaces with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, William [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, James [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-07-01

    One method of code-compliance for crawlspaces is to seal and insulate the crawlspace, rather than venting to the outdoors. However, codes require mechanical ventilation; either via conditioned supply air from the HVAC system, or a continuous exhaust ventilation strategy. As the CARB's building partner, Ithaca Neighborhood Housing Services, intended to use the unvented crawlspace in a recent development, CARB was interested in investigating a hybrid ventilation method that includes the exhaust air from the crawlspace as a portion of an ASHRAE 62.2 compliant whole-house ventilation strategy. This hybrid ventilation method was evaluated through a series of long-term monitoring tests that observed temperature, humidity, and pressure conditions through the home and crawlspace.