WorldWideScience

Sample records for building structure increase

  1. Termites utilise clay to build structural supports and so increase foraging resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, Sebastian; Lai, Joseph C S; Evans, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    Many termite species use clay to build foraging galleries and mound-nests. In some cases clay is placed within excavations of their wooden food, such as living trees or timber in buildings; however the purpose for this clay is unclear. We tested the hypotheses that termites can identify load bearing wood, and that they use clay to provide mechanical support of the load and thus allow them to eat the wood. In field and laboratory experiments, we show that the lower termite Coptotermes acinaciformis, the most basal species to build a mound-nest, can distinguish unloaded from loaded wood, and use clay differently when eating each type. The termites target unloaded wood preferentially, and use thin clay sheeting to camouflage themselves while eating the unloaded wood. The termites attack loaded wood secondarily, and build thick, load-bearing clay walls when they do. The termites add clay and build thicker walls as the load-bearing wood is consumed. The use of clay to support wood under load unlocks otherwise unavailable food resources. This behaviour may represent an evolutionary step from foraging behaviour to nest building in lower termites. PMID:26854187

  2. Termites utilise clay to build structural supports and so increase foraging resources

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Oberst; Lai, Joseph C. S.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2016-01-01

    Many termite species use clay to build foraging galleries and mound-nests. In some cases clay is placed within excavations of their wooden food, such as living trees or timber in buildings; however the purpose for this clay is unclear. We tested the hypotheses that termites can identify load bearing wood, and that they use clay to provide mechanical support of the load and thus allow them to eat the wood. In field and laboratory experiments, we show that the lower termite Coptotermes acinacif...

  3. Studying the Use of Photocatalytic Coatings to Increase Building/Structure Sustainability and Cleanliness at NASA Stennis Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    TiO2 coated surfaces demonstrated both visually through photographic representation, and quantitatively, through reflectance measurements that they improved upon the current state of cleanliness upon the surfaces that they were applied to. TiO2 has the potential to both maintain and increase building s sustainability and the overall appearance of cleanliness TiO2 coated slides degraded soot under UV light compared to soot samples on plain uncoated slides under the same conditions Degradation of soot by photocatalysis was far more apparent than degradation of soot by UV light alone This demonstration provides the foundation for a laboratory model that could be used to simulate real world applications for photocatalytic materials Additional research is required to better understand the full potential of TiO2

  4. Adaptive building skin structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of adaptive and morphing structures has gained considerable attention in the recent years in many fields of engineering. In civil engineering very few practical applications are reported to date however. Non-conventional structural concepts like deployable, inflatable and morphing structures may indeed provide innovative solutions to some of the problems that the construction industry is being called to face. To give some examples, searches for low-energy consumption or even energy-harvesting green buildings are amongst such problems. This paper first presents a review of the above problems and technologies, which shows how the solution to these problems requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving the integration of architectural and engineering disciplines. The discussion continues with the presentation of a possible application of two adaptive and dynamically morphing structures which are proposed for the realization of an acoustic envelope. The core of the two applications is the use of a novel optimization process which leads the search for optimal solutions by means of an evolutionary technique while the compatibility of the resulting configurations of the adaptive envelope is ensured by the virtual force density method

  5. Structural rehabilitation of old buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Guedes, João; Varum, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    The present book describes the different construction systems and structural materials and solutions within the main old buildings typologies, and it analyses the particularities of each of them, including mechanical properties, structural behaviour, typical damage patterns and collapse mechanisms. Common or pioneering intervention measures to repair and/or strengthen some of these structural elements are also reviewed.

  6. Structural building response review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrity of a nuclear power plant during a postulated seismic event is required to protect the public against radiation. Therefore, a detailed set of seismic analyses of various structures and equipment is performed while designing a nuclear power plant. This report describes the structural response analysis method, including the structural model, soil-structure interaction as it relates to structural models, methods for seismic structural analysis, numerical integration methods, methods for non-seismic response analysis approaches for various response combinations, structural damping values, nonlinear response, uncertainties in structural properties, and structural response analysis using random properties. The report describes the state-of-the-art in these areas for nuclear power plants. It also details the past studies made at Sargent and Lundy to evaluate different alternatives and the conclusions reached for the specific purposes that those studies were intended. These results were incorporated here because they fall into the general scope of this report. The scope of the present task does not include performing new calculations

  7. Building And Increasing The Productivity Of Human Resource Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Adel Ali Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper is Building and Increasing the productivity of Human Resource Management. It aims to determine what are the factors that may affect the efficiency of company work and its result on performance. There may be some problems that face you during the work you have to destroy it. You may be forced to face conflicts or crises. We will discuss how to build the structure of your work and how to develop the Human Resource Structure or if you have an existing one but you need to deve...

  8. Auxiliary building structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five types of auxiliary structures are described such as were used during the construction of the Dukovany nuclear power plant, namely a portable staircase tower, a stable staircase tower, mobile tower scaffolding, mobile scaffolding on a crane track and a scaffold cradle. Basic technical data for all types of scaffolding are given. (Pu)

  9. Low home ventilation rate in combination with moldy odor from the building structure increase the risk for allergic symptoms in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägerhed-Engman, L.; Sigsgaard, T.; Samuelson, I.;

    2009-01-01

    There are consistent findings on associations between asthma and allergy symptoms and residential mold and moisture. However, definitions of 'dampness' in studies are diverse because of differences in climate and building construction. Few studies have estimated mold problems inside the building ...

  10. Thermally activated building systems in context of increasing building energy efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Branislav V.; Janevski Jelena N.; Mitković Petar B.; Stojanović Milica B.; Ignjatović Marko G.

    2014-01-01

    One of the possible ways to provide heating to the building is to use thermally activated building systems. This type of heating, besides providing significant increase in building energy efficiency, allows using low-temperature heating sources. In this paper, special attention is given to opaque part of the building façade with integrated thermally activated building systems. Due to fact that this type of system strongly depends on temperature of this cons...

  11. Influence of structural design on building costs

    OpenAIRE

    Sattler Cantons, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis and design of two buildings for two different uses. The first one is intended for residential use, while the second is designed for office usage. These buildings will be located in the city of Trondheim, Norway. The main objective of this document is to determine how the different structural designs for the same building affect in the final costs of the structure, taking into account different materials. The materials considered during the design and anal...

  12. Robustness of steel and composite building structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspart, Jean-Pierre; Demonceau, Jean-François; Coméliau, Ludivine

    2011-01-01

    Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under an exceptional event. According to the Eurocodes and some different other national design codes, the structural integrity of civil engineering structures should be ensured through appropriate measures but, in most cases, no precise practical guidelines on how to achieve this goal are provided. At Liège University, the robustness of building f...

  13. Thermally activated building systems in context of increasing building energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Branislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible ways to provide heating to the building is to use thermally activated building systems. This type of heating, besides providing significant increase in building energy efficiency, allows using low-temperature heating sources. In this paper, special attention is given to opaque part of the building façade with integrated thermally activated building systems. Due to fact that this type of system strongly depends on temperature of this construction-thermal element and type and thickness of other materials of the façade, influence of these parameters on energy efficiency was analyzed in this paper. Since the simplest and most promising way of using geothermal energy is to use it directly, for our analysis this source of energy was selected. Building energy needs for heating were obtained for real residential multi-family building in Serbia by using EnergyPlus software. The building with all necessary input for simulation was modeled in Google SketchUp with aid of Open Studio Plug-in. Obtained results were compared with measured heating energy consumption. The results show that thermally activated building systems represent good way to increase building energy efficiency and that applying certain temperatures within this element, low-energy house standard can be achieved.

  14. About energy saving and increase of energy efficiency in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    L.L. Goshka

    2010-01-01

    In the article the analysis of National law №261 "Energy saving and increase of energy efficiency..." from the point of view of building systems is given. The recommendations for modernization of heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems taking into account energy efficiency requirements are given.

  15. Soil Structure Interaction between Two Adjacent Buildings under Earthquake Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Yahyai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In some cases, tall buildings are located in geotechnically unsuitable places, due to their high ratio of height to width; there is risk of uplift and other effects such as overturning and reduction structure serviceability during earthquake. This research is aimed to evaluate the effect of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI on seismic behavior of two adjacent 32 story buildings such as time period, base shear and displacements. The interaction effects are investigated for variable distance between the two buildings. Three types of soil such as soft clay, sandy gravel and compacted sandy gravel are considered for this study. The result obtained that the interaction effect increases time period of both buildings base shear and lateral displacement of the structures increases.

  16. Analysis of the structural design process of the adaptive reuse of building structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasterkamp, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the field of structural building engineering there is a market shift taking place as a result of the growing number of buildings that are listed as cultural heritage, secularization, the economic situation and the increasing office vacancy rate in Europe and the US. More and more structural engin

  17. 50 CFR 260.99 - Buildings and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buildings and structures. 260.99 Section... Contract Basis 1 § 260.99 Buildings and structures. The buildings and structures shall be properly..., ceilings, partitions, posts, doors, and other parts of all buildings and structures shall be of...

  18. On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

  19. Structural assessment of a modern heritage building

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sorace; Terenzi, G

    2013-01-01

    A structural assessment study on " Palazzo del Lavoro" in Turin, a masterpiece by Pier Luigi Nervi, was carried out within a National Research Project dedicated to the analysis of modern heritage architecture in Italy. Based on the original design documentation collected through records, a complete finite element model of the building was generated. The study included detailed models of the main structural members, represented by monumental reinforced concrete columns, a mushroom-type steel r...

  20. Building Brand Loyalty Through Increasing Brand Trust And Brand Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Choirul Afif

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Loyalty is one indicator of the success of marketing performance. Various studies have shown that brand loyalty increases the number of customers and sales. In addition brand loyalty is also lowering the cost to acquire new customers. Marketing managers need to give special attention to the issue of brand loyalty including the services of an English course.As one of the requirements to be able to compete at the global level is the mastery international language. However Indonesian English ability is lower than ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. These conditions increase the number of English Courses in Indonesia rapid grow. But some people do not get the results as expected and are still looking for other colleges that are considered to have high quality with affordable prices. English village situated in Pare Kediri. About the qualifications of teaching staff infrastructure and management colleges in big cities is better than the village colleges in the Pare Kediri. Some participants still chose KampungInggris Pare Kediri as a place to learn English. The purpose of this research is how to analyze the important aspect to build brand loyalty. The results is the key factors to build brand loyalty is brand trust and brand brand affect. Brand trust and brand affect affected brand loyalty both simultaneously and partially. Marketing managers of English Courses in Indonesia must give more attention these aspects to increase brand loyalty.

  1. Seismic safety of building structures of NPP Kozloduy III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the proposed paper is presented a general summary of the analyses carried out to evaluate the dynamic behavior and to assess the seismic safety of some safety related building structures of NPP Kozloduy. The design seismic loads for the site of Kozloduy NPP has been reevaluated and increased during and after the construction of investigated Units 5 and 6. Deterministic and probabilistic approaches are applied to assess the seismic vulnerability of the investigated structures, taking into account the newly defined seismic excitations. The presented results show sufficient seismic safety for the studied critical structures and good efficiency of the seismic upgrading. The applicability of the investigated structures at sites with some higher seismic activities is discussed. The presented study is dealing mainly with the civil structures of the Reactor building, Turbine hall, Diesel Generator Station and Water Intake Structure. (authors)

  2. STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MASONRY BUILDINGS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Korkmaz, Kasım Armagan; CARHOGLU, Asuman Isıl

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in an active seismic zone. Mid to high rise R/C building and low rise masonry buildings are very common construction type in Turkey. In recent earthquakes, lots of existing buildings got damage including masonry buildings. Masonry building history in Turkey goes long years back. For sure, it is an important structure type for Turkey. Therefore, earthquake behavior and structural vulnerability of masonry buildings are crucial issues for Turkey as a earthquake prone country. I...

  3. Models test on dynamic structure-structure interaction of nuclear power plant buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor building of an NPP (nuclear power plant) is generally constructed closely adjacent to a turbine building and other buildings such as the auxiliary building, and in increasing numbers of NPPs, multiple plants are being planned and constructed closely on a single site. In these situations, adjacent buildings are considered to influence each other through the soil during earthquakes and to exhibit dynamic behaviour different from that of separate buildings, because those buildings in NPP are generally heavy and massive. The dynamic interaction between buildings during earthquake through the soil is termed here as 'dynamic cross interaction (DCI)'. In order to comprehend DCI appropriately, forced vibration tests and earthquake observation are needed using closely constructed building models. Standing on this background, Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) had planned the project to investigate the DCI effect in 1993 after the preceding SSI (soil-structure interaction) investigation project, 'model tests on embedment effect of reactor building'. The project consists of field and laboratory tests. The field test is being carried out using three different building construction conditions, e.g. a single reactor building to be used for the comparison purposes as for a reference, two same reactor buildings used to evaluate pure DCI effects, and two different buildings, reactor and turbine building models to evaluate DCI effects under the actual plant conditions. Forced vibration tests and earthquake observations are planned in the field test. The laboratory test is planned to evaluate basic characteristics of the DCI effects using simple soil model made of silicon rubber and structure models made of aluminum. In this test, forced vibration tests and shaking table tests are planned. The project was started in April 1994 and will be completed in March 2002. This paper describes an outline and the summary of the current status of this project. (orig.)

  4. On directionality of phrase structure building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-02-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in The minimalist program. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in building syntactic structures. Here I suggest that by looking at the elementary restrictions that apply to Merge (i.e., selection and licensing of functional features), we could conclude that a re-orientation of the syntactic derivation (from bottom-up/right-left to top-down/left-right) is necessary to make the theory simpler, especially for long-distance (filler-gap) dependencies, and is also empirically more adequate. If the structure building operations would assemble lexical items in the order they are pronounced (Phillips in Order and structure. PhD thesis, MIT, 1996; Chesi in Phases and cartography in linguistic computation: Toward a cognitively motivated computational model of linguistic competence. PhD thesis, Università di Siena, 2004; Chesi in Competence and computation: Toward a processing friendly minimalist grammar. Unipress, Padova, 2012), on-line performance data could better fit the grammatical model, without resorting to external "performance factors." The phase-based, top-down (and, as a consequence, left-right) Minimalist Grammar here discussed goes in this direction, ultimately showing how strong Islands (Huang in Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar. PhD thesis, MIT, 1982) and intervention effects (Gordon et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 27:1411-1423, 2001, Gordon et al. in J Mem Lang 51:97-114, 2004) could be better explained in structural terms assuming this unconventional derivational direction. PMID:25408515

  5. Financing increasing flood risk: evidence from millions of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jongman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of disaster risk management and financing mechanisms depends on the accurate assessment of current and future hazard exposure. The increasing availability of detailed data offers policy makers and the insurance sector new opportunities to understand trends in risk, and to make informed decisions on the ways to deal with these trends. In this paper we show how comprehensive property level information can be used for the assessment of exposure to flooding on a national scale, and how this information can contribute to discussions on possible risk financing practices. The case-study used is the Netherlands, which is one of the countries most exposed to flooding globally, and which is currently undergoing a debate on strategies for the compensation of potential losses. Our results show that flood exposure has increased rapidly between 1960 and 2012, and that the growth of the building stock and its economic value in flood prone areas has been higher than in not flood prone areas. We also find that property values in flood prone areas are lower than those in not flood prone areas. We argue that the increase in the share of economic value located in potential flood prone areas can have a negative effect on the feasibility of private insurance schemes in the Netherlands. The methodologies and results presented in this study are relevant for many regions around the world where the effects of rising flood exposure create a challenge for risk financing.

  6. MODERN BUILDING STRUCTURES USED FOR MILITARY PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Domnica STANCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the technical aspects of the spherical spatial structures, focusing on the tensegrity building systems used for military purpose. The spherical spatial structures have been studied and used since antiquity. Pythagoras, Plato and Euclid were conducted extensive research on the concept of such type of structures. Regular pentagon has properties related to the value of the golden section, intuitively used by great architects and engineers since ancient times. In the Middle Ages, Leonardo Da Vinci created spatial objects using proportions based on the golden number, and later R. B. Fuller made the famous geodesic domes. The structures proposed by the authors are based on concepts related to the "golden section", on studies made on the regular pentagon, on the spatial volumes able to be inscribed in spheres and on the tensegrity systems. The proposed structures present some advantages related to the ease of mounting, to the volume covered, to the resistance to the environmental factors (snow, wind, earthquake, and so on. The paper presents the conclusions of the investigations on the components of the spatial structures and on the outcomes of their use.

  7. Building Implementation Networks: Building Multi-organizational, Multi-sector Structures for Policy Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Aaron David

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is the delineation of a new approach, or, more precisely, a new â roleâ and â methodological system,â for those persons engaged in building and managing multi-actor structures, or â networks,â for the purpose of policy implementation. As policy formulation and implementation can be viewed increasingly as taking place inter-organizationally, and consisting of individuals, special-interest groups, public organizations, private organizations, non-profits...

  8. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements

  9. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, G.

    1999-12-16

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements.

  10. Magnetic sensor for building structural vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alfonso; Morón, Carlos; Tremps, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows a new displacement-to-frequency transducer based on the variation of a coil inductance when a magnetic core is partially or completely inserted inside. This transducer is based on a Colpitts oscillator due its low manufacturing price, behavior and immunity to noise. A tank circuit with a configuration in parallel was used because it can be employed at lower frequencies and it enables it to make a direct analysis. The sensor has a dynamic range equal to the length of the coil. The cores can exchange sensors (coils with its ferromagnetic core) using the same electronic measuring system. In this way, with only an electronic circuit, the core sensor determines the measurement range. The obtained resolution is higher than 1/100,000, and the sensor also allows the measurement and knowing in real time the effect of vibration, thermal expansion, referred overload movements, etc.., that can occur in the structural elements of a building. PMID:24504104

  11. Structural design of SBWR reactor building complex using microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design concept of Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) plant is based on simplicity and passive features to enhance safety and reliability, improve performance, and increase economic viability. The SBWR utilizes passive systems such as Gravity Driven Core-Cooling System (GDCS) and Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). To suit these design features the Reactor Building (RB) complex of the SBWR is configured as an integrated structure consisting of a cylindrical Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel (RCCV) surrounded by square reinforced concrete safety envelope and outer box structures, all sharing a common reinforced concrete basemat. This paper describes the structural analysis and design aspects of the RB complex. A 3D STARDYNE finite element model has been developed for the structural analysis of the complex using a PC Compaq 486/33L microcomputer. The structural analysis is performed for service and factored load conditions for the applicable loading combinations. The dynamic responses of containment structures due to pool hydrodynamic loads have been calculated by an axisymmetric shell model using COSMOS/M program. The RCCV is designed in accordance with ASME Section 3, Division 2 Code. The rest of the RB which is classified as Seismic Category 1 structure is designed in accordance with the ACI 349 Code. This paper shows that microcomputers can be efficiently used for the analysis and design of large and complex structures such as RCCV and Reactor Building complex. The use of microcomputers can result in significant savings in the computational cost compared with that of mainframe computers

  12. Increase in fire resistance of building expansion joints via intumescent sealant composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Osipov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the possibility of increasing the fireproof efficiency of the intumescent sealant composition for the heat-insulating unit when sealing expansion joints between concrete elements. Fire protection of building structures is a part of the general system of measures to ensure fire safety and fire resistance of buildings and structures. It aims to reduce the structures’ fire hazard and provide them with the required fire resistance. The main objectives of fire protection are: fire prevention, initial flame breakdown, reduction of fire hazards and fire localization. The material we developed may be used to seal closed and drained exterior wall joints or fire control elements; connections between reinforced concrete and bricks; local sealing of various types of cavities with prescribed fire resistance and so on.

  13. How to increase fire safety in buildings: Fire safety engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van R.A.P. (Ruud)

    2011-01-01

    Fire means beside direct (financial)damage often far more indirect costs caused by interruption of operations and loss in sales, market share, property and,in the worst case people can get injured or even get killed (on average around80 persons a year). Fire in buildings is clearly a disaster and fo

  14. Building Points - MO 2012 New Madrid Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  15. Building Points - MO 2012 Dunklin Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  16. Building Points - MO 2012 Stoddard Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  17. Building Points - MO 2012 Pemiscot Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  18. Building Points - MO 2012 Mississippi Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  19. Building Points - MO 2012 Scott Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  20. About the survey of building structures with signs of biodeterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Startsev

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article different types of biological destructors and mechanism of their influence on building structures are examined. Experience in the survey of masonry, brick, metal, wooden, reinforced-concrete buildings damaged or destroyed biologically is depicted. Recommendations for microbiological survey of buildings are given.

  1. Radon entry into buildings: Effects of atmospheric pressure fluctuations and building structural factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved understanding of the factors that control radon entry into buildings is needed in order to reduce the public health risks caused by exposure to indoor radon. This dissertation examines three issues associated with radon entry into buildings: (1) the influence of a subslab gravel layer and the size of the openings between the soil and the building interior on radon entry; (2) the effect of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on radon entry; and (3) the development and validation of mathematical models which simulate radon and soil-gas entry into houses. Experiments were conducted using two experimental basements to examine the influence of a subslab gravel layer on advective radon entry driven by steady indoor-outdoor pressure differences. These basement structures are identical except that in one the floor slab lies directly on native soil whereas in the other the slab lies on a high-permeability gravel layer. The measurements indicate that a high permeability subslab gravel layer increases the advective radon entry rate into the structure by as much as a factor of 30. The magnitude of the enhancement caused by the subslab gravel layer depends on the area of the openings in the structure floor; the smaller the area of these openings the larger the enhancement in the radon entry rate caused by the subslab gravel layer. A three-dimensional, finite-difference model correctly predicts the effect of a subslab gravel layer and open area configuration on advective radon entry driven by steady indoor-outdoor pressure differences; however, the model underpredicts the absolute entry rate into each structure by a factor of 1.5

  2. Building a better mousetrap (exergame) to increase youth physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    While exergames have been demonstrated to induce moderate levels of physical activity (PA) if played as designed, there is conflicting evidence on use of exergaming leading to increased habitual PA. Exergames have increased PA in some home and school studies, but not others. Exergames have been us...

  3. Building a better mousetrap (exergame) to increase youth physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baranowski, T.; Maddison, R.; Maloney, A.; Medina, E.; Simons, M.

    2014-01-01

    Although exergames have been demonstrated to induce moderate levels of physical activity (PA) if played as designed, there is conflicting evidence on use of exergaming leading to increased habitual PA. Exergames have increased PA in some home and school studies, but not others. Exergames have been u

  4. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities.

  5. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities

  6. Increased Functionality Porous Optical Fiber Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wooddell, Michael Gary

    2007-01-01

    A novel fiber optic structure, termed stochastic ordered hole fibers, has been developed that contains an ordered array of six hollow tubes surrounding a hollow core, combined with a nanoporous glass creating a unique fully three dimensional pore/fiber configuration. The objective of this study is to increase the functionality of these stochastic ordered hole fibers, as well as porous clad fibers, by integrating electronic device components such as conductors, and semiconductor...

  7. Development of cyber-based autonomous structural integrity assessment system for building structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, M.; Fujita, K.; Li, X.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2013-04-01

    For the application of structural health monitoring (SHM) system to the post-earthquake damage screening of building structures, an immediate evaluation of the degree of damage in primary structural components is a challenging task. To increase the resolution in damage detection above a certain level to detect damage in individual components, a SHM requires the use of a dense array of sensors deployed to building structures. In order to deal with a large amount of data acquired by the sensing network and to distribute quick safety alerts on the condition of earthquake-affected buildings, a SHM system that is connected with a cyberinfrastructure specifically designed for the autonomous structural integrity assessment of buildings is developed. In the system, big data transferred from a dense sensing network is automatically stored and processed to extract damage features using a PostgresSQL relational database and embedded local damage detection algorithms. In a benchmark study, the schema of the SHM system is specifically designed to function with a built-in local damage detection algorithm that needs a comparative study of current dataset with past reference dataset. To visualize the results of the damage detection analysis, a PHP-based web-viewer is also designed for the SHM system. Finally, the performance of the developed cyber-based SHM system is evaluated through a series of the damage detection tests on a 5-story steel testbed frame that can replicate damage in beams and columns.

  8. Building a Better Mousetrap (Exergame) to Increase Youth Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Maddison, Ralph; Maloney, Ann; Medina, Ernie; Simons, Monique

    2014-04-01

    Although exergames have been demonstrated to induce moderate levels of physical activity (PA) if played as designed, there is conflicting evidence on use of exergaming leading to increased habitual PA. Exergames have increased PA in some home and school studies, but not others. Exergames have been used in community centers to good effect, but this has not generally been validated with research. PA from exergames may be enhanced by innovative use of sensors, "fun"-enhancing procedures, tailored messaging, message framing, story or narrative, goal setting, feedback, and values-based messaging. Research is needed on PA-enhancing procedures used within exergames for youth to provide a firmer foundation for the design and use of exergames in the future. PMID:26196047

  9. The model of intellectual support of decision-making in building structures condition management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velichkin V.Z.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Popular methods of decision-making in building structures condition management do not fully consider peculiarities of their up-to-date operation. These approaches do not take into account the kinds of uncertainty occurring at a building designing stage and taking place while monitoring. It leads to the decrease in building targeted application efficiency and increase of controlling organization costs. The following approach suggests the improvement in the decision-making support systems by integration of expert knowledge and experience with tool and visual building structure control results.The purpose of the paper is effective decision-making aimed at uncertainty level decrease in the process of detection of operational impacts on building structures for the required durability provision. This purpose is achieved by artificial intelligence element application (fuzzy sets in the joint analysis of retrospective, current and expert information on the building structure state. The authors suggest selecting building structure state controlling actions with the help of fuzzy conclusions obtained by the usage of designed algorithms and calculated procedures. The applicability of the given approach was proved by the calculated example. A grounded variant of decision on the building structure state intellectual control was submitted (a damaged building wall.On the basis of these results the conclusions on the application field and conditions of the designed algorithms and model were made.

  10. Building Brand Loyalty Through Increasing Brand Trust And Brand Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Choirul Afif; Dian Utami Sutiksno; Nugroho Hardiyanto; Aldina Shiratina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Loyalty is one indicator of the success of marketing performance. Various studies have shown that brand loyalty increases the number of customers and sales. In addition brand loyalty is also lowering the cost to acquire new customers. Marketing managers need to give special attention to the issue of brand loyalty including the services of an English course.As one of the requirements to be able to compete at the global level is the mastery international language. However Indonesian En...

  11. Iterative model building, structure refinement and density modification with the PHENIX AutoBuild wizard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highly automated PHENIX AutoBuild wizard is described. The procedure can be applied equally well to phases derived from isomorphous/anomalous and molecular-replacement methods. The PHENIX AutoBuild wizard is a highly automated tool for iterative model building, structure refinement and density modification using RESOLVE model building, RESOLVE statistical density modification and phenix.refine structure refinement. Recent advances in the AutoBuild wizard and phenix.refine include automated detection and application of NCS from models as they are built, extensive model-completion algorithms and automated solvent-molecule picking. Model-completion algorithms in the AutoBuild wizard include loop building, crossovers between chains in different models of a structure and side-chain optimization. The AutoBuild wizard has been applied to a set of 48 structures at resolutions ranging from 1.1 to 3.2 Å, resulting in a mean R factor of 0.24 and a mean free R factor of 0.29. The R factor of the final model is dependent on the quality of the starting electron density and is relatively independent of resolution

  12. Structural Reforms, IMF Programs and Capacity Building; An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Rabah Arezki; Marc Quintyn; Frederik G Toscani

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the role that International Monetary Fund (IMF) programs and capacity building play in fostering structural reforms. To do so, we exploit two novel datasets on IMF capacity building and structural reforms available for over one hundred IMF member countries over the period 1980 - 2010. The main results are threefold. First, there is a general association between IMF programs and structural reforms but this relationship is not very robust. Second, IMF training leads to a...

  13. Wind-resistant studies on tall buildings and structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces some aspects of wind-resistant studies of our research team on tall buildings and structures. Wind tunnel tests were carried out on 27 typical tall building models by using wind pressure scanning and HFFB techniques. The characteristics of wind pressures and forces acting on these buildings were analyzed. Some results have been adopted in a Shanghai code for structural design of steel tall buildings. Interference effects on wind forces and wind pressures among two and three tall buildings were experimentally investigated with about 10000 testing conditions. Regression analyses of the interference factors under different parameter conditions were made and the main regression formulas are presented. Theoretical study on equivalent static wind loads of tall buildings and structures are then introduced. Especially,a new concept of "mode coupling factor" and a modified SRSS method for wind response and equivalent static wind load of complicated tall buildings and structures with consideration of multi mode contributions and their coupling effects are presented. Finally,practical applications of wind-resistant studies on tall building and structures,taking the Guangzhou New TV Tower as an example,are presented.

  14. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  15. Leadership: Building a Team Using Structured Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Olivia; Jones, Irma S.

    2012-01-01

    Educators strive to anticipate reactions or outcomes of instruction so that the learning or acquiring of information by others is as pain-free as possible. Leaders also strive to build cohesiveness and trust in groups or teams of employees so that the end goal or task is produced in a timely manner. However, setting the stage or mood for teamwork…

  16. Environmental effect of structural solutions and building materials to a building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of building environmental assessment tools has become a popular research area over the past decade. However, how the service life of a building affects the results of the environmental assessment of a building has not been emphasised previously. The aim of this study is to analyse how different structural solutions and building materials affect the results of the environmental assessment of a whole building over the building's life cycle. Furthermore, how the length of the building's service life affects the results is analysed. The environmental assessments of 78 single-family houses were calculated for this study. The buildings have different wall insulations, claddings, window frames, and roof materials, and the length of the service life varies from 60 years up to 160 years. The current situation and the future of the environmental assessment of buildings are discussed. In addition, topics for further research are suggested; for example, how workmanship affects the service life and the environmental impact of a building should be studied

  17. Structural evaluation of the 2736Z Building for seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2736Z building structure is evaluated for high-hazard loads. The 2736Z building is analyzed herein for normal and seismic loads and is found to successfully meet the guidelines of UCRL-15910 along with the related codes requirements

  18. Building with electromagnetic shield structure for individual floors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to a building having a floor-by-floor electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system in which an electromagnetically shielded space is divided by individual floors and electric waves are utilized within the building on a floor-by-floor basis. (author). 8 figs

  19. Building Investigation: Material or Structural Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yusof M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Structures such as roof trusses will not suddenly collapse without ample warning such as significant deflection, tilting etc. if the designer manages to avoid the cause of structural failure at the material level and the structural level. This paper outlines some principles and procedures of PDCA circle and QC tools which can show some clues of structural problems in terms of material or structural performance

  20. Building Investigation: Material or Structural Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof M.Z.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Structures such as roof trusses will not suddenly collapse without ample warning such as significant deflection, tilting etc. if the designer manages to avoid the cause of structural failure at the material level and the structural level. This paper outlines some principles and procedures of PDCA circle and QC tools which can show some clues of structural problems in terms of material or structural performance

  1. Iterative model-building, structure refinement, and density modification with the PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, England; Terwilliger, Thomas; Terwilliger, T.C.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf Wilhelm; Afonine, P.V.; Moriarty, N.W.; Zwart, P.H.; Hung, L.-W.; Read, R.J.; Adams, P.D.

    2007-04-29

    The PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard is a highly automated tool for iterative model-building, structure refinement and density modification using RESOLVE or TEXTAL model-building, RESOLVE statistical density modification, and phenix.refine structure refinement. Recent advances in the AutoBuild Wizard and phenix.refine include automated detection and application of NCS from models as they are built, extensive model completion algorithms, and automated solvent molecule picking. Model completion algorithms in the AutoBuild Wizard include loop-building, crossovers between chains in different models of a structure, and side-chain optimization. The AutoBuild Wizard has been applied to a set of 48 structures at resolutions ranging from 1.1 {angstrom} to 3.2 {angstrom}, resulting in a mean R-factor of 0.24 and a mean free R factor of 0.29. The R-factor of the final model is dependent on the quality of the starting electron density, and relatively independent of resolution.

  2. Impact of climate change on building structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš

    Bari : EDIPUGLIA, 2010 - (Lefebre, R.; Sabbioni, C.), s. 139-153 ISBN 978-88-7228-601-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2067 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) 6th FP EC CHEF -044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : climate change impact * weathering * vulnerability of buildings Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  3. Innovated Building Material's Interactions with Structural Form in Architectural Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Mozaikci, Begüm

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Interpretation of building materials into architectural form, is gaining greater interest and attention due to the conservation of architectural heritage. This study highlight, the influences of technological developments of building materials and their interactions with structural form in architectural design projects. Architectural form and decisions can potentially effects by introduced new materials and this study focus on the interaction of new material and structural form...

  4. Soil Structure Interaction between Two Adjacent Buildings under Earthquake Load

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Yahyai; Masoud Mirtaheri; Mehrab Mahoutian; Amir S. Daryan

    2008-01-01

    In some cases, tall buildings are located in geotechnically unsuitable places, due to their high ratio of height to width; there is risk of uplift and other effects such as overturning and reduction structure serviceability during earthquake. This research is aimed to evaluate the effect of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) on seismic behavior of two adjacent 32 story buildings such as time period, base shear and displacements. The interaction effects are investigated for variable distance bet...

  5. Seismic performance of non-structural components and contents in buildings: an overview of NZ research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Rajesh P.; Pourali, Atefeh; Tasligedik, Ali Sahin; Yeow, Trevor; Baird, Andrew; MacRae, Gregory; Pampanin, Stefano; Palermo, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    This paper summarizes the research on non-structural elements and building contents being conducted at University of Canterbury in New Zealand. Since the 2010-2011 series of Canterbury earthquakes, in which damage to non-structural components and contents contributed heavily to downtime and overall financial loss, attention to seismic performance and design of non-structural components and contents in buildings has increased exponentially in NZ. This has resulted in an increased allocation of resources to research leading to development of more resilient non-structural systems in buildings that would incur substantially less damage and cause little downtime during earthquakes. In the last few years, NZ researchers have made important developments in understanding and improving the seismic performance of secondary building elements such as partitions, facades, ceilings and contents.

  6. Push-Over Analysis for Concrete Structures of Tall Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杰江; 张佩军; 吕西林; 容柏生

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, push-over analysis for tall concrete structures was made and a corresponding computer program was given.Several kinds of elements in the program were considered to meet the demand of tall buildings with complex structural type. These elements included beam-column element for beams and columns, single slice wall element and three vertical line element for walls, and tube-wall element for tubes. Computational example for verifying the models indicates that the result obtained by this method is identical with a well-known test result and the program can be used to search for the full process of structural reaction, even the softening stage of the structure. With this push-over analysis method, an actual tall building with complex structural type was analyzed, and the result has been put into practice of the structural design of the building.

  7. Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction of Instrumented Buildings and Test Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Givens, Michael James

    2013-01-01

    The effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) are investigated through careful interpretation of available data from instrumented buildings and recently performed forced vibration experiments on instrumented buildings and test structures. Conventional engineering practice typically ignores soil-structure interaction (SSI) during evaluation of the seismic demand on buildings based on the perception that consideration of SSI will reduce demands on structures and ignoring SSI effects will caus...

  8. Strengthening of building structures using carbon composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Paranicheva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the question of ensuring the reliability of various building structures both at the stage of their construction and during operation is very urgent. There are a lot of different ways and constructive methods of structures strengthening. Аt the same time, traditional ways of concrete structures strengthening with steel reinforcement are such expensive, time consuming and in some cases require to interrupt the building operation. As an alternative, it is proposed to use composite materials based on high-strength carbon fibers.The authors consider the properties, advantages, disadvantages and the methods of application of these materials. This article presents results of a technical survey carried out in a public building in 2009. In this building the CFRP was used to strengthen concrete slabs, resting on the crossbar consoles. The calculation of the strength is adduced and the section selection is made. The authors demonstrate their conclusions about the feasibility of using carbon composite materials.

  9. Structural Simulations and Conservation Analysis -Historic Building Information Model (HBIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dore

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the current findings to date of the Historic Building Information Model (HBIM of the Four Courts in Dublin are presented. The Historic Building Information Model (HBIM forms the basis for both structural and conservation analysis to measure the impact of war damage which still impacts on the building. The laser scan survey was carried out in the summer of 2014 of the internal and external structure. After registration and processing of the laser scan survey, the HBIM was created of the damaged section of the building and is presented as two separate workflows in this paper. The first is the model created from historic data, the second a procedural and segmented model developed from laser scan survey of the war damaged drum and dome. From both models structural damage and decay simulations will be developed for documentation and conservation analysis.

  10. Building damage due to structural pounding during earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołtysik, B.; Jankowski, R.

    2015-07-01

    Earthquake-induced pounding between adjacent buildings has been identified as one of the reasons for substantial damage or even total collapse of colliding structures. A major reason leading to interactions in buildings results from the differences in their dynamic parameters and also from insufficient distance between the structures. Although the research on structural pounding has been much advanced, the studies have mainly been conducted for concrete structures. The aim of this paper is to show the results of the non-linear numerical analysis focuses on damage due to pounding between two steel buildings under earthquake excitation. The numerical analysis has been performed using models of steel asymmetric structures with different number of storeys which makes them vibrate out-of-phase. Pounding between buildings has been controlled using three-dimensional gap-friction elements which become active when contact is detected. In order to identify the dynamic characteristics of analyzed structures, the modal analysis has been first conducted. Then, the detailed non-linear dynamic analysis of colliding structures has been performed. The acceleration time histories of the El Centro earthquake have been used in the numerical analysis. The results of the study clearly indicate that pounding may substantially influence the response of steel buildings intensifying their damage during earthquakes.

  11. Folded Plate Structures as Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Buelow, Peter von; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    This paper treats applications of cross-laminated timber (CLT) in structural systems for folded façade solutions. Previous work on CLT-based systems for folded roofs has shown a widening range of structural possibilities to develop timber-based shells. Geometric and material properties play...... CLT-based systems, which are studied and analysed by using a combination of digital tools for structural and environmental design and analysis. The results show gainful, rational properties of folded systems and beneficial effects from an integration of architectural and environmental performance...... criteria in the design of CLT-based façades....

  12. Seismic soil-structure interaction in buildings. II: Empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Jonathan P.; Seed, Raymond B; Fenves, Greggory L

    1999-01-01

    System identification analyses are used to evaluate soil-structure interaction effects for 77 strong motion data sets at 57 building sites that encompass a wide range of structural and geotechnical conditions. Kinematic interaction effects on the "input" motion at the bases of structures are found to be relatively modest in many cases, whereas inertial interaction effects on the structural response to these motions can be significant. To quantify inertial interaction effects, fixed- and flexi...

  13. Building nuclear structures : challenges and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability and safety are factors of prime importance in construction of civil engineering structures of nuclear facilities. There cannot be any compromise in the strength and life of the structure. This involves rigorous control of: (1) quality of materials and end products, (2) time taken for construction, (3) cost, and also continuing innovation. India has now accumulated more than three decades of experience in nuclear civil engineering and the civil engineering fraternity of India and particularly of the Department of Atomic Energy is now fully capable of designing and construction of all types of structures involved in the nuclear field. Illustrative examples are given. Dome of the CIRUS reactor was constructed in steel plates, but then there was a switch over to reinforced concrete for containment structures and subsequently to prestressed concrete. The aspects taken into consideration of the design to ensure absolute leak tightness are: (1) earthquake safeguards, (2) concrete surface protection, and (3) minimization of cracking in concrete due to pressure loading and shrinkage. Coordination charts are prepared for monitoring time required for various operations and time and motion studies are employed to cut down on construction time. Close control over the cost is kept through internal and external audit, executing the work departmentally or employing an outside agency as the occasion demands and proper selection of materials. Some of the innovations in materials use and construction techniques are mentioned. (K.M.)

  14. Electoral structure of building foundations in nuclear fuel element plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant structures of nuclear fuel elements have a substantial burden. This requires analysis of the selection of the proper foundation for building support for a variety of different soil conditions found in two locations, first at a location near the nuclear power plant in Jepara and the second location BATAN Serpong area. Expected to know the location of soil conditions, we can determined the type of foundation that will be used based on the criteria requirements of the building. (author)

  15. Structural Analysis of Buildings at Explosive Actions in SCAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Chernukha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the methods of structural analysis of buildings and structures at explosive actions. In introduction, there is a review of types of explosions and the features of their action on structures. In the theoretical part of the study the main issue was to present different methods of structural analysis of buildings at explosions. Determination of wave parameters and process of wave diffraction are presented. Impulse loading of building structures in SCAD is described. The article also shows how module «Direct integration of motion equations» in SCAD can be used for solving problems of explosion dynamics. In the empirical part of the study the main concern was to compare stress-strain condition of building structures at explosions, using different methods of structural analysis. Automatic analysis was performed in SCAD, which implements finite element method (FEM. The results of the study demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of described methods, as well as the functional abilities of SCAD, when solving the problems of explosion dynamics.

  16. Testing the technical condition of maintained building structures

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Smorchkov; S.A. Kereb; Orlov, D. A.; K.O. Baranovskiy

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of damage in structures under mechanical and environmental influences reduces their carrying capacity and changes its technical condition.A new approach to the evaluation of technical condition of building structures. Besides comparing the strength and deformation parameters it was proposed additional criteria: the probability of failure and reliability index. That allows setting the clear boundaries between categories of technical condition from the positions of structure in...

  17. Hydraulic behaviour of a representative structural volume for containment buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Jason, L; Pijaudier-Cabot, Gilles; Ghavamian, S.; Huerta, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    For particular structures like containment buildings of nuclear power plants, the study of the hydraulic behaviour is of great concern. These structures are indeed the third barrier used to protect the environment in case of accidents. The evolution of the leaking rate through the porous medium is closely related to the changes in the permeability during the ageing process of the structure. It is thus essential to know the relation between concrete degradation and the transfer property when t...

  18. Structural integrity analysis of an INPP building under external loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington D. C. using civil airplanes, the evaluation of civil airplane crashes into civil and NPP structures has become very important. The interceptions of many terrorists' communications reveal that the use of commandeered commercial aircraft is still a major part of their plans for destruction. Aircraft crash or other flying objects in the territory of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) represents a concern to the plant. Aircraft traveling at high velocity have a destructive potential. The aircraft crash may damage the roof and walls of buildings, pipelines, electric motors, cases of power supplies, power cables of electricity transmission and other elements and systems, which are important for safety. Therefore, the evaluation of the structural response to an of aircraft crash is important and was selected for analysis. The structural integrity analysis due to the effects of an aircraft crash on an NPP building structure is the subject of this paper. The finite element method was used for the structural analysis of a typical Ignalina NPP building. The structural integrity analysis was performed for a portion of the ALS using the dynamic loading of an aircraft crash impact model. The computer code NEPTUNE was used for this analysis. The local effects caused by impact of the aircraft's engine on the building wall were evaluated independently by using an empirical formula. (authors)

  19. Phonons as building blocks in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of a nuclear system in terms of eigenmodes (phonons) of subsystems is investigated in three different approaches. In the frame of nuclear field theory the three identical particle system is analysed and the elimination of spurious states due to the violation of the Pauli principle is emphasized. In terms of weak coupling, a new approach of the shell model is proposed which is shown to be rapidly convergent with the number of basis vectors. Applications of three particle systems in the lead region are made. Lastly, a microscopic multiphonon theorie of collective K=0 states in deformed nuclei based on a Tamm Dancoff phonon is developed. The role of the Pauli principle as well as comparisons with boson expansion methods are deeply analysed

  20. ICT technologies for the refurbishment of wooden structure buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Arakistain, Ivan; Abascal, Jose Miguel; Munne, Oriol

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, one would think that after years of massive concrete and steel construction in Spain, there are not many wood structure buildings left to be refurbished except for some palaces or cathedrals. However, if we go for a walk and have a look at the old part of any city, we will realize that still most of the buildings have a wood structure. In spite of the fact that the majority of urban regulations forbid their demolition, other bad practices such as casting and overloading the wood str...

  1. Non-destructive evaluation of timber structures in a historical building of Tiradentes , MG

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Barbosa de Abreu; José Tarcísio Lima; Giovanni Francisco Rabelo; Francisco Carlos Gomes; Paulo Fernando Trugilho; Felipe de Souza Eloy

    2013-01-01

    Problems related to the durability of wood are commonly found in historical buildings structures. Preservation and conservation resolutions must be adopted, in order to avoid losses and substitutions, which mischaracterize buildings. Non-destructive methods for detecting deterioration should be used in order to substantiate decisions and increase the longevity of historical heritage. This work was carried out in order to perform non-destructive essays to infer about the integrity of a beam an...

  2. The relation between ventilation rates and building structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the concept of building and structure includes so various kinds of factors, the discussion in this paper on the ventilation rates refers mainly to the 'residential buildings' of 'reinforced concrete and timber frame'. Although it was believed, since before the world war II, that the concrete structure was better in air tightness than the timber frame of which ventilation rates were estimated as more than one air change per hour or so, it is getting hard to decide which one is tighter and to estimate the amount of ventilation rate based on just only the construction style. A description was given on the methodology to estimate the ventilation rate of a house using a simple chart. Outline of the values thus obtained is presented for the ventilation rates in Japanese residential buildings. (author)

  3. Structural approach for building reconstruction from a single DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, Florent; Descombes, Xavier; Zerubia, Josiane; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach for building reconstruction from a single Digital Surface Model (DSM). It treats buildings as an assemblage of simple urban structures extracted from a library of 3D parametric blocks (like a LEGO set). First, the 2D-supports of the urban structures are extracted either interactively or automatically. Then, 3D-blocks are placed on the 2D-supports using a Gibbs model which controls both the block assemblage and the fitting to data. A Bayesian decision finds the optimal configuration of 3D-blocks using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler associated with original proposition kernels. This method has been validated on multiple data set in a wide-resolution interval such as 0.7 m satellite and 0.1 m aerial DSMs, and provides 3D representations on complex buildings and dense urban areas with various levels of detail. PMID:19926904

  4. Structural response of steel high rise buildings to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    fire is also very important. In this context, it is of interest to investigate the characteristics of the structural system that could possibly reduce local damages or mitigate the progression of failures in case of fire. In this paper, a steel high rise building is taken as case study and the response...

  5. Influence of dynamic soil-structure interaction on building response to ground vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2014-01-01

    Vibration from traffic and pile driving are an increasing problem in densely populated areas. To assess vibration levels in new or existing buildings near construction sites, roads or railways in the design phase, valid models for prediction of wave transmission via the ground and into a building......—this assumption makes sense. For this purpose, models with and without soil–structure interaction are compared for a variety of cases with respect to soil conditions, construction material and presence of a cellar under the building....

  6. Dynamic soil-structure interactions on embedded buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic soil-structure interaction on the horizontal seismic excitation is investigated on two typical embedded auxiliary buildings of a nuclear power plant. The structure and the soil are modelled by various analytical and numerical methods. Under the condition of the linear viscoelastic theory, i.e. soil characteristic constant in time and independent of strain, the interaction influences between a homogenous soil layer and a structure are analysied for the following parameters: 4) mathematical soil modells; 4) mathematical structure modells; 4) shear wave velocities; 3) embedment conditions; 4) earthquake time histories. (orig.)

  7. MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Randall

    2014-07-03

    The initial goal of the MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Installation Project was for the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to gain experience using the integrated higher efficiency solar photovoltaic (PV) single-ply membrane product, as it differs from the conventional, low efficiency, thin-film PV products, to determine the feasibility of success of larger deployment. As several of CCSF’s municipal rooftops are constrained with respect to weight restrictions, staff of the Energy Generation Group of the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) proposed to install a solar PV system using single-ply membrane The installation of the 100 kW (DC-STC) lightweight photo voltaic (PV) system at the MUNI Ways and Structures Center (700 Pennsylvania Ave., San Francisco) is a continuation of the commitment of the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to increase the pace of municipal solar development, and serve its municipal facilities with clean renewable energy. The fourteen (14) solar photovoltaic systems that have already been installed at CCSF municipal facilities are assisting in the reduction of fossil-fuel use, and reduction of greenhouse gases from fossil combustion. The MUNI Ways & Structures Center roof has a relatively low weight-bearing capacity (3.25 pounds per square foot) and use of traditional crystalline panels was therefore rejected. Consequently it was decided to use the best available highest efficiency Building-Integrated PV (BIPV) technology, with consideration for reliability and experience of the manufacturer which can meet the low weight-bearing capacity criteria. The original goal of the project was to provide an opportunity to monitor the results of the BIPV technology and compare these results to other City and County of San Francisco installed PV systems. The MUNI Ways and Structures Center was acquired from the Cookson Doors Company, which had run the Center for many decades. The building was

  8. Energy evaluation of urban structure and dimensioning of building site using iso-shadow method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristl, Z.; Krainer, A. [Ljubljana Univ., Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2001-07-01

    The paper presents the energy evaluation of urban structures and the dimensioning of building sites using the iso-shadow method. Iso-shadows represent the ratio of incident solar radiation on a building or land to unobstructed solar radiation received at the same location during the chosen period to time, day or year, respectively. This method enables quantitative evaluation of energy efficiency of the selected layout organisations. For the calculation of thermal flow the computer tool 'SENCE' (SHADOWS), developed at the Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering at the University of Ljubljana, was used. Various building structures were investigated. First a building with reference floor geometry (length 60 m, width 12 m, height 6 m) was simulated. The site layout consisting of four parallel reference buildings was designed, taking into account the chosen minimum duration of solar radiation during the year, calculated with the iso-shadows module of the 'SENCE' programme. Then the building width was increased to 24 m and 36 m, respectively. Also the building height was varied in three steps, 6 m, 12 m and 18 m. The results of the simulations are presented in the form of iso-shadows charts. The comparison between various building types was made, taking into account: modified orientations, monitored density of residents and changed site size due to different building types. The evaluation of the results was carried out and the advantages and disadvantages of various building types are discussed. It was found that building width and height substantially influence the required site size, site layout and resident density. (Author)

  9. Minimization of structure-borne noise in lightweight buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Bin; Olhoff, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of minimizing the structure-borne noise induced in a room by machinery vibration. A generalized system consisting of the machine, the base plate, resilient mounts, the floor plate and the room cavity is developed for analysis and optimization. Topological design of...... the base plate is studied for optimizing machinery installation. Furthermore, periodic mounts are optimized for the noise reduction. Finally, a modular model of a lightweight building is developed for design optimization of dimensions and connections of modules in the building for decreasing machinery...... vibration transmission....

  10. Verification of the local structural response of building structures in the anchorage areas of heavy components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conventional dynamic structural analyses for determining dynamic system response for various locations at which components are installed inside the structures it is common practice (in order to simplify analytical effort) to assume that the anchorage (anchor plate, anchor bolts or throughbolts, concrete and reinforcement in the area of bound) has rigid body characteristics and that the building structure itself does not display any local response of its own. The influence of the stiffness of the anchor plate as well anchor bolts and its stress level on the dynamic response is also neglected. For a large number of anchoring systems, especially for all those components and systems having only a small mass, this assumption is certainly appropriate. At some locations, particularly at points where heavy components are anchored or when loading input has been increased, this can lead to local loading of the anchor system as well as of the building structure well into the nonlinear range. Often, verification of capability to accommodate these loads is not possible without changing the wall thicknesses or increasing the percentage of reinforcement. Since the presence of linear or nonlinear effects can be expected to result in energy dissipation (increase in damping capacity and also a change in the stiffness of the coupled system) it must be assumed that the dynamic response between the theoretical coupling point A and the real connection point B of the component on the anchor plate can be considerably altered. Some changes of the dynamic response in the connection point B have to be expected generally even in cases of linear-elastic loading of the anchorage. Using typical anchoring systems as an example, the influence of consideration of nonlinear effects in the anchorage area of a typical anchor plate on the dynamic response as well as the conservatism of conventional analytical approaches are investigated

  11. Special tests of building structures of Dukovany nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two demanding safety tests for leaks are described applied to building structures of the Dukovany nuclear power plant. A hydrostatic leak test was conducted of tanks permanently or temporarily flooded, and an integral leak test was performed of the power plant sealed space. The objective was to show that the structures are leakproof in case of a hypothetical accident of the production unit. The hydrostatic leak test was performed by flooding the central part with 500 m3 of demineralized water. For the integral leak test the sealed space was pressurized with air to a value of 144 kPa. Defects inside the sealed space were continuously detected and removed. The lose of air in 24 hours was calculated. It is recommended that the experience gained should be used to work out standard requirements on leak tests of building structures of nuclear power plants. (Pu)

  12. Prediction of Noise Transmission in Lightweight Building Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens

    tool to predict the flanking transmission of air-borne and structure borne sound already at the design stage. However, lightweight building structures typically do not meet the requirements for ideal SEA subsystems and, therefore, applying the EN 12354 standard to lightweight building structures may...... paper about the modal density of ribbed plates at mid/high frequencies is presented. The modal density in such plates is not a uniform distribution, but instead it undergoes an undulating behavior with corresponding pass bands and stop bands. It is demonstrated, how the modes can be divided in two...... groups, where one group shows pass band/stop band behavior, while the other has a nearly uniform distribution of modes. The suggested approach for SEA adaptation is to consider a ribbed plate as two SEA subsystems: One that contains modes related to waves traveling in the direction orthogonal to the ribs...

  13. Testing the technical condition of maintained building structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Smorchkov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of damage in structures under mechanical and environmental influences reduces their carrying capacity and changes its technical condition.A new approach to the evaluation of technical condition of building structures. Besides comparing the strength and deformation parameters it was proposed additional criteria: the probability of failure and reliability index. That allows setting the clear boundaries between categories of technical condition from the positions of structure indestructibility.The example of using the proposed method in practice was given in the article.

  14. Direct Georeferencing of Uav Data Based on Simple Building Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) data acquisition is more flexible compared with the more complex traditional airborne data acquisition. This advantage puts UAV platforms in a position as an alternative acquisition method in many applications including Large Scale Topographical Mapping (LSTM). LSTM, i.e. larger or equal than 1:10.000 map scale, is one of a number of prominent priority tasks to be solved in an accelerated way especially in third world developing countries such as Indonesia. As one component of fundamental geospatial data sets, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable detailed spatial planning. However, the accuracy of the products derived from the UAV data are normally not sufficient for LSTM as it needs robust georeferencing, which requires additional costly efforts such as the incorporation of sophisticated GPS Inertial Navigation System (INS) or Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) on the platform and/or Ground Control Point (GCP) data on the ground. To reduce the costs and the weight on the UAV alternative solutions have to be found. This paper outlines a direct georeferencing method of UAV data by providing image orientation parameters derived from simple building structures and presents results of an investigation on the achievable results in a LSTM application. In this case, the image orientation determination has been performed through sequential images without any input from INS/IMU equipment. The simple building structures play a significant role in such a way that geometrical characteristics have been considered. Some instances are the orthogonality of the building's wall/rooftop and the local knowledge of the building orientation in the field. In addition, we want to include the Structure from Motion (SfM) approach in order to reduce the number of required GCPs especially for the absolute orientation purpose. The SfM technique applied to the UAV data and simple building structures additionally presents an effective tool

  15. Structural Analysis and Seismic Design for Cold Neutron Laboratory Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes all the major results of the dynamic structural analysis and seismic design for the Cold Neutron Laboratory Building which is classified in seismic class II. The results are summarized of the ground response spectrum as seismic input loads, mechanical properties of subsoil, the buoyancy stability due to ground water, the maximum displacement of the main frame under the seismic load and the member design. This report will be used as a basic design report to maintenance its structural integrity in future

  16. Forty years increase of the air ambient temperature in Greece: The impact on buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Forty years hourly data series from nine meteorological stations in Greece are analysed. • The air temperature increase influences the buildings’ energy demand. • A typical office building’s energy demand is examined. • The heating load is decreased by about 1 kWh/m2 per decade. • The cooling load is increased by about 5 kWh/m2 per decade. - Abstract: Air temperatures in urban areas continue to increase because of the heat island phenomenon (UHI) and the undeniable warming of the lower atmosphere during the past few decades. The observed high ambient air temperatures intensify the energy demand in cities, deteriorate urban comfort conditions, endanger the vulnerable population and amplify pollution problems especially in regions with hot climatic conditions. The present paper analyses 40 years of hourly data series from nine meteorological stations in Greece in order to understand the impact of air temperature and relative humidity trends on the energy consumption of buildings. Using a typical office building, the analysis showed that for the period in question the heating load in the Greek building sector has decreased by about 1 kWh/m2 per decade, while the cooling load increased by about 5 kWh/m2 per decade. This phenomenon has major environmental, economic and social consequences, which will be amplified in the upcoming decades in view of the expected man-made climatic changes in this geographic area

  17. DIRECT GEOREFERENCING OF UAV DATA BASED ON SIMPLE BUILDING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tampubolon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV data acquisition is more flexible compared with the more complex traditional airborne data acquisition. This advantage puts UAV platforms in a position as an alternative acquisition method in many applications including Large Scale Topographical Mapping (LSTM. LSTM, i.e. larger or equal than 1:10.000 map scale, is one of a number of prominent priority tasks to be solved in an accelerated way especially in third world developing countries such as Indonesia. As one component of fundamental geospatial data sets, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable detailed spatial planning. However, the accuracy of the products derived from the UAV data are normally not sufficient for LSTM as it needs robust georeferencing, which requires additional costly efforts such as the incorporation of sophisticated GPS Inertial Navigation System (INS or Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU on the platform and/or Ground Control Point (GCP data on the ground. To reduce the costs and the weight on the UAV alternative solutions have to be found. This paper outlines a direct georeferencing method of UAV data by providing image orientation parameters derived from simple building structures and presents results of an investigation on the achievable results in a LSTM application. In this case, the image orientation determination has been performed through sequential images without any input from INS/IMU equipment. The simple building structures play a significant role in such a way that geometrical characteristics have been considered. Some instances are the orthogonality of the building’s wall/rooftop and the local knowledge of the building orientation in the field. In addition, we want to include the Structure from Motion (SfM approach in order to reduce the number of required GCPs especially for the absolute orientation purpose. The SfM technique applied to the UAV data and simple building structures additionally presents an

  18. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete.

  19. Reforming America’s regressive asset-building subsidies would help to address increasing wealth inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    McKernan, Signe-Mary; Ratcliffe, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Wealth inequality in the United States increased over the last several decades and worsened as a result of the Great Recession, which reduced the average wealth of families by nearly 30 percent. In new research, Signe-Mary McKernan and Caroline Ratcliffe, with Gene Steuerle and Sisi Zhang, measure disparities in wealth accumulation and loss. They argue that social welfare and tax policies pay too little attention to wealth building and mobility relative to consumption and income. Reforming Am...

  20. Cooling of the Building Structure by Night-time Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai

    In modern, extensively glazed office buildings, due to high solar and internal loads and increased comfort expectations, air conditioning is increasingly applied even in moderate and cold climates, like in Central and Northern Europe. Particularly in these cases, night-time ventilation is often...... seen as a promising passive cooling concept. Many successful examples of passively cooled buildings demonstrate the possibility of providing good thermal comfort conditions without the need for energy-intensive air conditioning systems. However, due to uncertainties in the prediction of thermal comfort......-time ventilation alone might not be sufficient to guarantee thermal comfort. Possible time-dependent changes in CCP were assessed for the period 1990-2100, with particular emphasis on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) "A2" and "B2" scenarios for future emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols...

  1. Occupants' satisfaction toward building environmental quality: structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzzaman, Syahrul Nizam; Egbu, C O; Zawawi, Emma Marinie Ahmad; Karim, Saipol Bari Abd; Woon, Chen Jia

    2015-05-01

    It is accepted that occupants who are more satisfied with their workplace's building internal environment are more productive. The main objective of the study was to measure the occupants' level of satisfaction and the perceived importance of the design or refurbishment on office conditions. The study also attempted to determine the factors affecting the occupants' satisfaction with their building or office conditions. Post-occupancy evaluations were conducted using a structured questionnaire developed by the Built Environment Research Group at the University of Manchester, UK. Our questionnaires incorporate 22 factors relating to the internal environment and rate these in terms of "user satisfaction" and "degree of importance." The questions were modified to reflect the specific setting of the study and take into consideration the local conditions and climate in Malaysia. The overall mean satisfaction of the occupants toward their office environment was 5.35. The results were measured by a single item of overall liking of office conditions in general. Occupants were more satisfied with their state of health in the workplace, but they were extremely dissatisfied with the distance away from a window. The factor analysis divided the variables into three groups, namely intrusion, air quality, and office appearance. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to determine which factor had the most significant influence on occupants' satisfaction: appearance. The findings from the study suggest that continuous improvement in aspects of the building's appearance needs to be supported with effective and comprehensive maintenance to sustain the occupants' satisfaction. PMID:25864077

  2. Automatic building of a web-like structure based on thermoplastic adhesive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animals build structures to extend their control over certain aspects of the environment; e.g., orb-weaver spiders build webs to capture prey, etc. Inspired by this behaviour of animals, we attempt to develop robotics technology that allows a robot to automatically builds structures to help it accomplish certain tasks. In this paper we show automatic building of a web-like structure with a robot arm based on thermoplastic adhesive (TPA) material. The material properties of TPA, such as elasticity, adhesiveness, and low melting temperature, make it possible for a robot to form threads across an open space by an extrusion-drawing process and then combine several of these threads into a web-like structure. The problems addressed here are discovering which parameters determine the thickness of a thread and determining how web-like structures may be used for certain tasks. We first present a model for the extrusion and the drawing of TPA threads which also includes the temperature-dependent material properties. The model verification result shows that the increasing relative surface area of the TPA thread as it is drawn thinner increases the heat loss of the thread, and that by controlling how quickly the thread is drawn, a range of diameters can be achieved from 0.2–0.75 mm. We then present a method based on a generalized nonlinear finite element truss model. The model was validated and could predict the deformation of various web-like structures when payloads are added. At the end, we demonstrate automatic building of a web-like structure for payload bearing. (paper)

  3. Soil-Structure Interaction in RC Frame Buildings from Strong-Motion Recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Genes, Mehmet Cemal; DOĞANAY, Ela; BİKÇE, Murat; KAÇIN, Selçuk

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Soil-structure interaction (SSI) of Reinforced Concrete (RC) buildings which are instrumented by building monitoring systems is detected and identified. SSI can have a major influence on the seismic response of buildings constructed on soft soils. The dominant frequency recorded for a building subjected to SSI is always smaller than the dominant frequencies of the fixed-based building, and of the foundation when no building is present. The identification of SSI refers to extrac...

  4. Analysis and design of reinforced concrete load-bearing structure of a commercial building in Ljubljana

    OpenAIRE

    Semolič, Živa

    2013-01-01

    In the thesis an analysis and design of characteristic elements of the load-bearing structure for the selected multi-story building was undertaken. The building is located in Ljubljana and is a constituent of a building complex. Buildings are detached by expansion joints so one can be addressed separately. Load-bearing structure consists of monolithic reinforced concrete floor panels, reinforced concrete walls and reinforced concrete frames. The building was planned and designed according to ...

  5. FEM Updating of the Heritage Court Building Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventura, C. E.; Brincker, Rune; Dascotte, E.; Andersen, P.

    starting model of the structure was developed from the information provided in the design documentation of the building. Different parameters of the model were then modified using an automated procedure to improve the correlation between measured and calculated modal parameters. Careful attention was...... placed to the selection of the parameters to be modified by the updating software in order to ensure that the necessary changes to the model were realistic and physically realisable and meaningful. The paper highlights the model updating process and provides an assessment of the usefulness of using an...... automatic model updating procedure combined with results from an output-only modal identification....

  6. Equipment and building structures ageing management for WWER type NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the working group 'Equipment and building structures ageing management for WWER type NPPs' activities. The analysis of experience in ageing management, recommendations for regulatory guidelines on ageing management, investigation of case studies, definition suitable communication channels among regulators for ageing related data are given. Analyses of water chemistry, inspection data (safety margins criteria), plugging criteria, volume and time of ECT implementation in all WWER countries are presented. The results of Working group activity show that it is advisable to concentrate efforts on: set up the permanent communication channel among regulators, collection of regulatory criteria for WWER type NPP key components based on understanding of ageing mechanisms and data collection

  7. Fuzzy sensitivity analysis for reliability assessment of building structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Zdeněk

    2016-06-01

    The mathematical concept of fuzzy sensitivity analysis, which studies the effects of the fuzziness of input fuzzy numbers on the fuzziness of the output fuzzy number, is described in the article. The output fuzzy number is evaluated using Zadeh's general extension principle. The contribution of stochastic and fuzzy uncertainty in reliability analysis tasks of building structures is discussed. The algorithm of fuzzy sensitivity analysis is an alternative to stochastic sensitivity analysis in tasks in which input and output variables are considered as fuzzy numbers.

  8. Effective Structures of Tamped Foundations of Frame Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomey Leonid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application results of foundations in a tamped ditch in complex geotechnical conditions are strongly considered. The article informs about the experience of the effective foundation application instead of pile foundations. Also, a special attention is given to stress-strain analysis in the active zone of the soil basement of the foundation in a tamped ditch. The article exposes innovative technology of transformation the soil materials structure. Presents the results of studies of innovative soil materials state in the field of geotechnics and foundation engineering. This article seems to be interesting for those who work in the field of building construction and geotechnics.

  9. Cloud immersion building shielding factors for US residential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents validated building shielding factors designed for contemporary US housing-stock under an idealized, yet realistic, exposure scenario within a semi-infinite cloud of radioactive material. The building shielding factors are intended for use in emergency planning and level three probabilistic risk assessments for a variety of postulated radiological events in which a realistic assessment is necessary to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency response planning. Factors are calculated from detailed computational housing-units models using the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle computational code, MCNP5, and are benchmarked from a series of narrow- and broad-beam measurements analyzing the shielding effectiveness of ten common general-purpose construction materials and ten shielding models representing the primary weather barriers (walls and roofs) of likely US housing-stock. Each model was designed to scale based on common residential construction practices and include, to the extent practical, all structurally significant components important for shielding against ionizing radiation. Calculations were performed for floor-specific locations as well as for computing a weighted-average representative building shielding factor for single- and multi-story detached homes, both with and without basement, as well for single-wide manufactured housing-units. (paper)

  10. The reaction of the building structure with window unit to the explosiveimpact on the basis of dynamic equation solution

    OpenAIRE

    Doronin Fedor Leonidovich; Truchanova Lyudmila Nikolaevna; Fomina Marina Vasilyevna

    2014-01-01

    When designing residential buildings, additional measures for increasing the strength at dynamic effects indoors are not foreseen. The walls of the structure fixed in the framework are not designed for shock wave caused by explosion of utility gas. When designing a building, the task of the special dynamic load is often reduced to the calculation of the safe shock pressure, exceeding of which leads to the destruction of the structures. The wall with the window area under dynamic effects is a ...

  11. Structure Strategy Interventions: Increasing Reading Comprehension of Expository Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Bonnie J. F.; Ray, Melissa N.

    2011-01-01

    In this review of the literature we examine empirical studies designed to teach the structure strategy to increase reading comprehension of expository texts. First, we review the research that has served as a foundation for many of the studies examining the effects of text structure instruction. Text structures generally can be grouped into six…

  12. Wandering of the modal parameters in existing building: application to structural health monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Gueguen, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Ambient vibrations in building is of increasing interest for applications in mechanical engineering, civil engineering and earthquake engineering. With advances in data acquisition systems (number of measurement points, continuous recording, low-noise instrument) and advances in signal processing algorithms, further and better studies can be conducted on civil engineering structures for evaluating their modal parameters and their physical properties. This study is focused on long- and short-t...

  13. Effect of using low-polluting building materials and increasing ventilation on perceived indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Zuczek, P. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-07-01

    The potential of improving perceived air quality indoors was quantified when low-polluting materials are used and when building ventilation is increased. This was done by studying the relationships between ventilation rate and the perceived indoor air quality. A sensory panel assessed the air quality in test rooms ventilated with realistic outdoor air supply rates, where combinations of high- and low-polluting wall, floor and ceiling materials were set up. These materials were ranked as high- and low-polluting using sensory assessments of air quality in small-scale glass chambers, where they were tested individually. Substituting materials ranked as high-polluting with materials ranked as lower-polluting improved the perceived air quality in the test rooms. This improvement was greater than what was achieved by a realistic increase of the ventilation rate in the test rooms. Thus reducing pollution emitted from building materials that affects the perceived air quality has a considerable potential of limiting the energy for ventilation without compromising indoor air quality. (au)

  14. Soil-structure interaction in fuel handling building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elaidi, B.M.; Eissa, M.A. [Altran Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This paper presents an accurate three-dimensional seismic soil-structure interaction analysis for large structures. The method is applied to the fuel building in nuclear power plants. The analysis is performed numerically in the frequency domain and the responses are obtained by inverse Fourier transformation. The size of the structure matrices is reduced by transforming the equation of motion to the modal coordinate system. The soil is simulated as a layered media on top of viscoelastic half space. Soil impedance matrices are calculated from the principles of continuum mechanics and account for soil stiffness and energy dissipation. Effects of embedment on the field equations is incorporated through the scattering matrices or by simply scaling the soil impedance. Finite element methods are used to discretize the concrete foundation for the generation of the soil interaction matrices. Decoupling of the sloshing water in the spent fuel pools and the free-standing spent fuel racks is simulated. The input seismic motions are defined by three artificial time history accelerations. These input motions are generated to match the ground design basis response spectra and the target power spectral density function. The methods described in this paper can handle arbitrary foundation layouts, allows for large structural models, and accurately represents the soil impedance. Time history acceleration responses were subsequently used to generate floor response spectra at applicable damping values. (orig.) 6 refs.

  15. Soil-structure interaction in fuel handling building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an accurate three-dimensional seismic soil-structure interaction analysis for large structures. The method is applied to the fuel building in nuclear power plants. The analysis is performed numerically in the frequency domain and the responses are obtained by inverse Fourier transformation. The size of the structure matrices is reduced by transforming the equation of motion to the modal coordinate system. The soil is simulated as a layered media on top of viscoelastic half space. Soil impedance matrices are calculated from the principles of continuum mechanics and account for soil stiffness and energy dissipation. Effects of embedment on the field equations is incorporated through the scattering matrices or by simply scaling the soil impedance. Finite element methods are used to discretize the concrete foundation for the generation of the soil interaction matrices. Decoupling of the sloshing water in the spent fuel pools and the free-standing spent fuel racks is simulated. The input seismic motions are defined by three artificial time history accelerations. These input motions are generated to match the ground design basis response spectra and the target power spectral density function. The methods described in this paper can handle arbitrary foundation layouts, allows for large structural models, and accurately represents the soil impedance. Time history acceleration responses were subsequently used to generate floor response spectra at applicable damping values. (orig.)

  16. Protection Measures for Buildings Based on Coordinating Action Theory of Ground, Foundation and Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the theory of coordinating action of building ground, foundation and structure, this paper presents a modified method for calculating additional stresses on buildings in mining areas by considering the joint effect of curvature deformation and horizontal deformation on buildings. It points out that for buildings over the coal pillar, it is advisable to soften the intermediate ground of buildings when they are affected by mining. For buildings over the goaf, it is preferable to soften the ground at both ends of buildings. In order to enhance the ability of a building to resist tensile deformation, the key measure is to reinforce the bottom foundation of the building. In addition, the concept of "angle of break of building" is proposed. It is because of this angle that the protecting coal pillar is left, which is a better solution than prevailing solutions The findings provide a more scientific basis for mining under buildings.

  17. Fabrication and erection of special building structures at the Rovno NPP third unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is described how works on fabrication and erection of special building structures in the reactor section, a special building and a stand-by diesel-generator station at the Rovno Unit-3 are organized

  18. Analysis of load-bearing structure of a multi-storey office building in Idrija

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Primož

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the design and static analysis of the load-bearing construction for the selected multi-storey reinforced concrete office building. The building is located in Idrija and consists of two parts, office building and hall, which are separated with dilatation. The thesis is focused on the Office building with vertical load-bearing structure made as a frame structure, consisting of columns and beams, which are interconnect with the solid reinforced concrete slabs. Load-bearing c...

  19. INCREASING EFFICIENCY OF A CONNECTION OF UNIFIED ELEMENTS OF AN ARCH OF LIGHTWEIGHT BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrutdinov A. E.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. When designing lightweight arch buildings using the principle of an “open” standardizing, which provides the erection of load-carrying arches of any outline from a set of unified elements, the major question to be addressed is the development of an effective connection of unified elements providing their connection at arbitrary angles. Results. Numerical studies were made of a connection of thin-walled cold-bent open-section profiles on self-drilling, based on which an optimum disposition of self-drilling screws providing the greatest durability and rigidity of connection was defined. The experimental studies were made of models of connections of unified elements with a proposed disposition of self-drilling screws. Also, numerical and experimental studies of a new way of strengthening thin-walled elements connection were provided. Conclusions. The data obtained in numerical and experimental studies allow us to draw conclu-sions about perspectivity and expediency of the proposed ways of increasing efficiency of unified elements connection of a lightweight arch building.

  20. Boiler efficiency increase by building-in the additional heating surfaces (heat utilizer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rationalization of the energy consumption is of general social interest, and therefore it is necessary to undertake all measures that will increase the degree of utilization of the power plants. One way of rationalization in thermal energy production is reducing the temperature of flue gases by building-in the additional heating surfaces in boiler flue channel. The results and analyses of several years measuring of boiler parameters, with built-in heat exchanger, by system of the remote control and data acquisition are presented in this paper. The particular review is given for fuel saving and time of the investment payback. Working on this problem in cooperation with the Institute for energetic and process techniques of the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, hot water boiler of 9.3 MW power is chosen for concrete checking of the previous investigations. The feasibility of building-in additional water heater (utilizer) in flue channel of the existing hot water boiler was established in the paper. From the table and presented diagrams obtained by measuring, and on the basis of tech-economic analysis it can be concluded that there is the complete feasibility of building-in the additional heat exchanger. The building-in costs are very quickly paid back. The efficiency of water reheater in utmost extent depends on the inlet water temperature as well, and it is higher as the inlet water temperature is lower, and even the condensation of flue gases is desirable. At boilers that use natural gas as the fuel there is no danger of low temperature corrosion, as natural gas doesn't contain sulphur. The experience during the natural gas fired boiler exploitation shows that steam condensation from flue gases does not influence the heating surface corrosion in great extent, as the condensate is almost neutral. Due to the mentioned reasons it is desirable for boilers that use natural gas to have as large as possible heating surfaces, which can be obtained at the existing

  1. Structure strategy interventions: Increasing reading comprehension of expository text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. F. MEYER

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review of the literature we examine empirical studies designed to teach the structure strategy to increase reading comprehension of expository texts. First, we review the research that has served as a foundation for many of the studies examining the effects of text structure instruction. Text structures generally can be grouped into six categories: comparison, problem-and solution, causation, sequence, collection, and description. Next, we provide a historical look at research of structure strategyinterventions. Strategy interventions employ modeling, practice, and feedback to teach students how to use text structure strategically and eventually automatically. Finally, we review recent text structure interventions for elementary school students. We present similarities and differences among these studies and applications for instruction. Our review of intervention research suggests that direct instruction, modeling, scaffolding, elaborated feedback, and adaptation of instruction to student performance are keys in teaching students to strategically use knowledge about text structure.

  2. A Review of Current Researches on Blast Load Effects on Building Structures in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongxian; DU Hao; BAO Chunxiao

    2006-01-01

    The damages of building structures subjected to multifarious explosions cause huge losses of lives and property.It is the reason why the blast resistance and explosion protection of building structures become an important research topic in the civil engineering field all over the world.This paper provides an overview of the research work in China on blast loads effect on building structures.It includes modeling blast shock wave propagation and their effects,the dynamic responses of various building structures under blast loads and the measures to strengthen the building structures against blast loads.The paper also discusses the achievements and further work that needs be done for a better understanding of the blast loads' effects on building structures,and for deriving effective and economic techniques to design new or to strengthen existing structures.

  3. Building trust: Heart rate synchrony and arousal during joint action increased by public goods game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitkidis, Panagiotis; McGraw, John J; Roepstorff, Andreas; Wallot, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    The physiological processes underlying trust are subject of intense interest in the behavioral sciences. However, very little is known about how trust modulates the affective link between individuals. We show here that trust has an effect on heart rate arousal and synchrony, a result consistent with research on joint action and experimental economics. We engaged participants in a series of joint action tasks which, for one group of participants, was interleaved with a PGG, and measured their heart synchrony and arousal. We found that the introduction of the economic game shifted participants' attention to the dynamics of the interaction. This was followed by increased arousal and synchrony of heart rate profiles. Also, the degree of heart rate synchrony was predictive of participants' expectations regarding their partners in the economic game. We conclude that the above changes in physiology and behavior are shaped by the valuation of other people's social behavior, and ultimately indicate trust building process. PMID:26037635

  4. Experimental study of passive cooling of building facade using phase change materials to increase thermal comfort in buildings in hot humid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Madhumathi, B. M.C. Sundarraja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of cooler night temperatures using Phase Change Material (PCM energy storage technique, for cooling of ambient air during hot day times can be an alternate of current cooling techniques in building sector. This work presents the results of an experimental set-up to test energy saving potential of phase change materials with typical construction materials in building facade in Hot-Humid Climatic Regions in real conditions. The main objective of this research is to demonstrate experimentally that it is possible to improve the thermal comfort and reduce the energy consumption of a building without substantial increase in the weight of the construction materials with the inclusion of PCM. This research was conducted to study and evaluate the performance of the existing materials integrated with Organic PCM Polyethylene glycol (PEG E600. This research suggested that the heat gain is significantly reduced when the PCM is incorporated into the brick (conventional building material.

  5. Evaluation of Seismic Response Trends from Long-Term Monitoring of Two Instrumented RC Buildings Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheem Butt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analyses of the seismic responses of two reinforced concrete buildings monitored for a period of more than two years. One of the structures was a three-storey reinforced concrete (RC frame building with a shear core, while the other was a three-storey RC frame building without a core. Both buildings are part of the same large complex but are seismically separated from the rest of it. Statistical analysis of the relationships between maximum free field accelerations and responses at different points on the buildings was conducted and demonstrated strong correlation between those. System identification studies using recorded accelerations were undertaken and revealed that natural frequencies and damping ratios of the building structures vary during different earthquake excitations. This variation was statistically examined and relationships between identified natural frequencies and damping ratios, and the peak response acceleration at the roof level were developed. A general trend of decreasing modal frequencies and increasing damping ratios was observed with increased level of shaking and response. Moreover, the influence of soil structure interaction (SSI on the modal characteristics was evaluated. SSI effects decreased the modal frequencies and increased some of the damping ratios.

  6. Increasing Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Order to Reduce Emissions by the Year 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building technologies used today originate in former centuries and energy efficiency of buildings represents our atavistic understanding of shelters from harsh environment. Materials and technologies are available to switch from the shed with the hearth to CO2 neutral buildings, but, are we ready for it? What is needed to reach energy savings goals of the EU - further technological developments; new materials; unlimited financial resources, or something far harder to achieve - social development and deep behavioural changes of our society. Which social tools we need to leap from paleolitic sheds to sustainable building stock of our grandchildren, what scenarios can we foresee in building refurbishment? Social interest is already recognizable, and measures to straddle the barriers, knowledge to develop sustainable building refurbishment models exists - what is left to us is to decide whether it is worth the effort, or current trends meet the needs of human society.(author)

  7. Quiver: Using Control Perturbations to Increase the Observability of Sensor Data in Smart Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Jason; Balaji, Bharathan; Akhlaghi, Vahideh; Agarwal, Yuvraj; Gupta, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Modern buildings consist of hundreds of sensors and actuators for monitoring and operation of systems such as HVAC, light and security. To enable portable applications in next generation smart buildings, we need models and standardized ontologies that represent these sensors across diverse types of buildings. Recent research has shown that extracting information such as sensor type with available metadata and timeseries data analysis is difficult due to heterogeneity of systems and lack of su...

  8. Non-destructive evaluation of timber structures in a historical building of Tiradentes , MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barbosa de Abreu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to the durability of wood are commonly found in historical buildings structures. Preservation and conservation resolutions must be adopted, in order to avoid losses and substitutions, which mischaracterize buildings. Non-destructive methods for detecting deterioration should be used in order to substantiate decisions and increase the longevity of historical heritage. This work was carried out in order to perform non-destructive essays to infer about the integrity of a beam and a pillar of the original construction of the Sobrado Ramalho, a historical building of the city of Tiradentes, MG. The equipments utilized were the Stress Wave Timer and resistograph. Samples of the elements were taken for analysis of density. The results showed that, in both structures, to calculate the dynamic modulus of elasticity, there was no significant difference for the application of stress wave timer on the alignments studied. There was no significant difference between the directions of application of the resistograph on the pillar, due to its apparent entirety and regular sessions, practically square, and to not being loaded eccentrically. In the case of the beam, there was significant difference, presumably because it has cracks in its traction line. The equipments, unknown by professionals of heritage conservation allow promising methodologies for inspection of timber structures in service.

  9. Global Analysis of Tall Buildings with Tubed Mega Frame Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Svärd, Jenny; Partovi, Arezo

    2016-01-01

    Today, tall buildings are generally built with a central core that transfers the loads down to the ground. The central core takes up a large part of the floor space and there is less room for the actual purpose of the building, such as offices and apartments. The consequence of this is also less rental profit. At a certain height of the building, the central core will not alone manage to keep the building stable. Therefore it needs to be connected with outriggers to withstand the horizontal f...

  10. Protective system for civil buildings and industrial structures subjected to the seismic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghica, D.; Grigore, A.; Ionescu, C.

    2009-04-01

    Romania is a European country with significant seismicity. The most active seismic zone is represented by the Vrancea area, located within the arch of the Carpathians Mountains. Vrancea seismicity is characterized by intermediate depth earthquakes which occur in a narrow epicentral and hypocentral region. During the last 70 years, Romania experienced four strong Vrancea earthquakes: 10 November 1940 (Mw =7.7, 160 km depth), 4 March 1977 (Mw =7.5, 100 km depth), 30 August 1986 (Mw =7.2, 140 km depth), 30 May 30 1990 (Mw =6.9, 80 km depth). The 1977 event was characterized by catastrophic consequences: 1500 casualties and collapsing of 35 high-risk buildings, mostly occurring in Bucharest. The purpose of this paper is to present a protective system designed to be installed in the civil buildings and industrial structures placed in the high seismic regions, and therefore to contribute to the mitigation of the strong earthquake effects on human society. This system proposes an efficient antiseismic protection, respectively shutting down the installations and equipments mounted in the building's infrastructure, which can become extremely dangerous in case of a major earthquake by appearing the possibility of explosions, deflagration, fires, toxic and polluting fluids leakage. The damages are strongly amplified by the fact that, simultaneously, water and electric energy lines distributions are damaged too, making impossible an efficient firemen intervention, for localizing the fire sources. Moreover, the installations of the individual heating stations which operate with open flame increase the risk of explosions inside the buildings during an earthquake. The protective system consists of a seismic switch used for activating through weak-electric-currents of the building's safety systems in case of strong earthquake, especially designed for building's elevators, as well as for moving parts of installations, which require positioning in safety place areas. The originality

  11. An automatic building reconstruction method: a structural approach using high resolution satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    Lafarge, Florent; Descombes, Xavier; Zerubia, Josiane; Deseilligny, Marc-Pierrot

    2006-01-01

    We present an automatic 3D city model of dense urban areas from high resolution satellite data. The proposed method is developed using a structural approach : we construct complex buildings by merging simple parametric models with rectangular ground footprint. To do so, an automatic building extraction method based on marked point processes is used to provide rectangular building footprints. A collection of 3D parametric models is defined in order to be fixed onto these building footprints. A...

  12. Structure optimization of energy supply systems in tertiary sector buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Miguel A.; Ramos, Jose C.; Carvalho, Monica; Serra, Luis M. [Grupo GITSE - I3A, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    Trigeneration systems, also known as Combined Heat, Cooling and Power (CHCP) systems, are interesting alternatives to supply different energy services in urban districts and in large buildings, particularly in warm areas such as Mediterranean countries. These systems can provide substantial benefits from economic, energetic, and environmental viewpoints, since the cogenerated heat can be used for heating in winter as well as cooling in summer with an absorption refrigerator. This paper develops an optimization model using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) to determine the type, number and capacity of equipment in CHCP systems installed in the tertiary sector as well as to establish the optimal operation mode for the different plant components on an hour-by-hour basis throughout the year. The objective function to be minimized is the annual total cost. The optimization model considers the legal constraints imposed to feed the surplus autogenerated electricity into the grid at a regulated feed-in tariff. The optimization model is applied to design a system providing energy services for a hospital located in the city of Zaragoza (Spain). The effects of the financial market conditions and energy prices in the optimal structure of the system are analyzed. (author)

  13. Study on reactor building structure using ultrahigh strength materials, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls are the main members of a reactor building for the aseismatic design. The characteristics of nonlinear behavior have been clarified by a number of experimental studies, and the reliability of the nonlinear analysis of RC structures by FEM has been improved by the studies on the constitutive equation for concrete and the simulation analysis of test results. However, the characteristics of the RC shear walls made of ultrahigh strength materials have not been sufficiently studied. In this paper, the nonlinear analysis of the RC shear walls made of ultrahigh strength materials is discussed. Based on the results of a series of the material test and pure shear test on ultrahigh strength materials, the simulation analysis of bending shear test was performed by three-dimensional nonlinear FEM. The specimens used for the bending shear test were single story, single span model shear walls. The analytical method, the modeling of concrete and reinforcing bars, the properties of the materials used and the results of analysis on the effects of concrete strength and the quantity and grade of bars are reported. (K.I.)

  14. How to Build Your Network? A Structural Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Moskvina, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Creating new ties in a social network facilitates knowledge exchange and affects positional advantage. In this paper, we study the process, which we call network building, of establishing ties between two existing social networks in order to reach certain structural goals. We focus on the case when one of the two networks consists only of a single member and motivate this case from two perspectives. The first perspective is socialization: we ask how a newcomer can forge relationships with an existing network to place herself at the center. We prove that obtaining optimal solutions to this problem is NP-complete, and present several efficient algorithms to solve this problem and compare them with each other. The second perspective is network expansion: we investigate how a network may preserve or reduce its diameter through linking with a new node, hence ensuring small distance between its members. We give two algorithms for this problem. For both perspectives the experiment demonstrates that a small number of...

  15. Modelling reduction of the Urban Heat Island effect via increasing the reflective properties of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Konrad; Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Schwaiger, Hannes; Bird, David Neil; Gallaun, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    The increased intensity or frequency of heat waves due to a changing climate could have far reaching implications. The phenomenon of Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) observed in cities is expected to strengthen and will further contribute to heat stress, creating an increased need for energy for cooling and ventilation as well as lowering human comfort. The KELVIN project studies the effects of modifying the reflective properties of buildings and urban areas to reduce the UHI-effect. The improvement of the reflection properties of roofs and other surfaces is one possible way to increase the energy efficiency in urban areas and at the same time adapt to climate change by addressing the problem of the UHIs. Within the project, low-cost adaptation measures to reduce heat stress are investigated. These measures are constrained, in historical city centres, because the colouring of tile roofs should not be changed significantly, and the appearance should remain as unchanged as possible. The project examines the potential of a climate adaptation measure to reduce the UHI-effect through changes in properties of the urban surfaces (roof albedo, green roofs etc.) and related emission-reduction through decreased cooling demand. It uses the city of Vienna as an example. The input parameters required for climate modelling, such as surface albedo, are determined based on the satellite image time series for Vienna from 2000 to 2014. Urban climate model simulations are conducted using high-resolution topography and land use data for Vienna. Potential changes in local climate in the urban environment resulting from the changes in surface albedo are examined and the possibility of reducing the heat load on a city scale is quantified. Results of modelling the city climate serve as a basis for calculating the potential reduction in electricity demand for cooling (including CO2- equivalent savings) in metropolitan landscapes. In addition, the potential change in radiative forcing induced by

  16. Rigidly framed earth retaining structures thermal soil structure interaction of buildings supporting unbalanced lateral earth pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Aboumoussa, Walid

    2014-01-01

    Structures placed on hillsides often present a number of challenges and a limited number of economical choices for site design. An option sometimes employed is to use the building frame as a retaining element, comprising a Rigidly Framed Earth Retaining Structure (RFERS). The relationship between temperature and earth pressure acting on RFERS, is explored in this monograph through a 4.5 year monitoring program of a heavily instrumented in service structure. The data indicated that the coefficient of earth pressure behind the monitored RFERS had a strong linear correlation with temperature. The study also revealed that thermal cycles, rather than lateral earth pressure, were the cause of failure in many structural elements. The book demonstrates that depending on the relative stiffness of the retained soil mass and that of the structural frame, the developed lateral earth pressure, during thermal expansion, can reach magnitudes several times larger than those determined using classical earth pressure theories....

  17. Agent Types and Structures based on Analysis of Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    Based on an anaysis of building design an initial division of design agent into five classes: information collectors, generators, modifiers amd evaluators is presented.......Based on an anaysis of building design an initial division of design agent into five classes: information collectors, generators, modifiers amd evaluators is presented....

  18. On the effectiveness of smart technologies in the seismic protection of existing buildings Part I: Masonry structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of a study concerning innovative intervention techniques for dissipate a share of the input seismic energy compatible with the preservation of existing buildings, including historical and monumental constructions, is presented in this paper. The case of a typical scheme of a long-bay box-like masonry building fitted with a dissipative floating roof is analyzed. In the examined building a wide simulation analysis has shown the achievement of a very satisfying performance. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the system can be maximized by means of active or semi-active devices implemented in the floating roof and a significant reduction of the seismic impact on the building can be obtained compared with non-controlled or simply passively controlled structure. The results prove the remarkable increase of the energy dissipation capability of the system, as well as the reduction of structural damage, independently of any specific strengthening intervention

  19. BUILDING STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP OF TRANSNATIONAL EDUCATION USING ONLINE PROGRAM TO INCREASE ACADEMIC QUALITY OF GRADUATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardus Polla

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available International employment standard requires higher quality of graduates, which can be achieved through high-quality academic standards. As we know there are still a large number of graduates of Indonesian higher education rejected to work in global industry. Besides having low GPA, lots of graduates are considered lacking technical skills, interpersonal skills, and international experience. Indeed, the main weakness factor is the low English proficiency of graduates. We need a breakthrough that develops our academic standards of higher education to obtain international quality. Yet, there are challenges to face by the government, such as rebuilding the national system (establishing elite institutions, internationalizing higher education (globalizing the institutions or cross-border trades of education services, as well as enhancing private participation by repositioning the private sector. To overcome these challenges we need to build a strategic partnership of transnational education using online programs, which can obtain mutual benefit for the collaborating institutions. This article discusses about how to increase academic quality of graduates in Indonesia or in other Asian countries.

  20. THE TECHNIQUE OF EXPERT EVALUATION AND FORECAST OF ACTUAL RELIABILITY OF BUILDING STRUCTURES OF OPERATED BUILDINGS AND ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Shmelev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Existing approaches to assessing reliability of building structures are basedon the model which involves exponential distribution. Such a model can be applied only for thesystems with abrupt failures. However, failures in building systems are usually caused by the wear.Results. The analysis of the correctness of calculations and forecasting reliability of buildingstructures is performed using exponentiation distribution. Wrongfulness of the use of the modelsfor assessment of reliability of building structures which are currently operated and have cumulativewear is shown with examples. An approach involving the linearization method is proposed.Conclusions. The approach proposed is straightforward to use, takes into account the changes instructure carrying capacity and does not contain inaccuracies and errors peculiar to the methodsdesigned on the exponential distribution models.

  1. Structural Identification And Seismic Analysis Of An Existing Masonry Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the diagnostic investigation and the seismic analysis performed on an ancient masonry building in Florence. The building has historical interest and is subjected to conservative restrictions. The investigation involves a preliminary phase concerning the research of the historic documents and a second phase of execution of in situ and laboratory tests to detect the mechanical characteristics of the masonry. This investigation was conceived in order to obtain the 'LC2 Knowledge Level' and to perform the non-linear pushover analysis according to the new Italian Standards for seismic upgrading of existing masonry buildings

  2. Increasing security of supply: the search for stable models of new nuclear build in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. This research assesses models for new nuclear build in European Union (EU) member states to find the most stable form. The countries examined in this study are the United Kingdom and Romania. The results attest that due to various historical, political, competition, and electricity market structural conditions Romania and the United Kingdom have emerged with different models for new build nuclear projects. This paper begins with an assessment of the effects on the nuclear sector from energy, environmental and competition legislation in the EU. Then the political and economic climate of the aforementioned EU member states is completed. Following this an overview of the market structure of the electricity sector in those respective countries is conducted. Then the key research on the models and the phases of new nuclear build are explored. The research concludes each model has transcended from different political and economic forces, and consequently each model has met with varied levels of success. Electricity market structures while operating to the same legal requirements, have been dissimilar in their evolution. The combination of the above factors has led to different models for new nuclear build. Upon further analysis it is concluded and demonstrated that the Romanian financing model cab stated to be more stable and provides an example for any new nuclear build aspiring nations in the EU and beyond.

  3. Incorporating three dimensional shapes of buildings and structures in tsunami inundation modeling of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    BABA, T.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneda, Y.; Inazawa, Y.; Kikkojin, M.

    2012-12-01

    The tsunami caused by the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake widely inundated destroying or passing the buildings and structures on land. Effect of buildings and structures on tsunami inundation is represented by a bottom friction in the conventional modeling solving non-linear shallow water theory in finite difference scheme, not included 3D shapes of those. But large strong buildings would be able to directly protect incoming tsunami like as seawalls, rather than bottom friction. While LiDAR measurements are recently being carried out along the Japan coast by Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, which collect reflected plus from the top of surface such as the building roof, road, bridge, and the top of trees. This is hereby called digital surface model (DSM). We extracted buildings and structures can be possible to affect tsunami inundation from DSM by comparing the Fundamental Geospatial Data which indicates locations of buildings and structures in the city. This is because we have to remove trees and river bridges in DSM where tsunami can pass through them. The 3D building data was incorporated as topography in tsunami computation of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (hereby, incorporated model) to compare the result from the conventional model. URSGA tsunami code (Jakeman et al. 2010) was used to include variable nesting system. The finest topographic grid interval was 0.22 arc-second (about 5m) along the longitude and latitude directions in coastal area. The initial sea-surface defamation was derived from the finite fault model version 1.1 provided by Tohoku University. In the incorporated model, the maximum inundation height at the front of coastal buildings and structures is higher than that in the conventional model. The inundation height is increased by 63 % (4.8 m) at the maximum. In the area back of the coastal buildings, the inundation height is inversely smaller than that in the conventional model. The tsunami inundation area becomes to be smaller in the

  4. Design of earthquake resistance enhancements of the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant building structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present time nuclear power plants of the WWER type operate for about three decades. In Czech Republic, the Dukovany NPP of the VVER-400/213 type has been put into operation in 1985. A steady high level of plant's operational availability and reliability has been proved. No actual problems with operational safety have been noticed. An effective way of managing updated safety requirements ensures a high safety level during the whole plant's design life. However, in accordance with general trends, there are increasing requirements of upgrading the plant and operating the plant in excess of its design life. The development of an effective system of management of ageing effects in structures and components is the key for maintaining the operational safety during the extended plant's operating lifetime. Moreover, due to steadily increasing additional safety requirements, the operational safety has to be enhanced. Besides many other important problems, those related to earthquake have to be considered. The earthquake resistance of building structures during the predicted residual life has to be investigated, considering both updated and newly postulated earthquake risks. The contributed paper deals with selected problems of enhancing earthquake resistance of safety related building structures of the NPP Dukovany

  5. Optimal Thermo-Structural Analysis for High Density Package Mounting on Build-up Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tohru; Hase, Tomohiro

    The importance of the high density packaging technology and mounting technology on the printed wiring build-up board has been increased for the consumer electric products. On the other hand, the chance to use the build-up boards for mounting the high density packages has been increased. However, the understanding that the reliability of the solder connection depends on the structure of the package, the motherboard, and the material properties, is not very high. In this paper, the reliability for high density packaging, mounted on the build-up board, is assessed. The compact numerical analysis model for the reliability assessment is suggested and the most reliable packaging design with optimizing each of the parameters is reported. For introduction to the reliability assessment of the FCA attachment, ceramic and silicon are compared as the inter-poser with the parameter of the solder height. The verification of the numerical analysis results using tests on the actual hardware is also shown. And the established numerical analysis model is applied to the study of influence of the copper balance between the front side and the back side copper layers.

  6. Increasing the value of the Public Building Assets: the former military sites redevelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Pollo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The sale of public real estate assets is one of the main issues in the governments agenda. The goal is to find resources and improve the management of the building stock. Such assets are different from each other and transformation involves issues of urban and regional importance. Former military sites are mainly characterized by: different types (barracks, military airports, military bases, military hospitals, firing ranges, powder magazine, ports, spread out, obsolescence and environmental liabilities. Also historical buildings are relatively few in the military building stock. It follows that these assets cannot be converted to other uses without a technological knowledge. The paper discusses the key issues in rehabilitation of the military sites with particular attention to recent international experiences. The paper then goes on to focus the role of the research institutions in the screening required of the military real estate to be divested.

  7. Increased complexity of gene structure and base composition in vertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Wu; Huizhong Yuan; Shengjun Tan; Jian-Qun Chen; Dacheng Tian; Haiwang Yang

    2011-01-01

    How the structure and base composition of genes changed with the evolution of vertebrates remains a puzzling question. Here we analyzed 895 orthologous protein-coding genes in six multicellular animals: human, chicken, zebrafish, sea squirt, fruit fly, and worm. Our analyses reveal that many gene regions, particularly intron and 3' UTR, gradually expanded throughout the evolution of vertebrates from their invertebrate ancestors, and that the number of exons per gene increased. Studies based on all protein-coding genes in each genome provide consistent results.We also find that GC-content increased in many gene regions (especially 5' UTR) in the evolution of endotherms, except in coding-exons.Analysis of individual genomes shows that 3′ UTR demonstrated stronger length and CC-content correlation with intron than 5' UTR, and gene with large intron in all six species demonstrated relatively similar GC-content. Our data indicates a great increase in complexity in vertebrate genes and we propose that the requirement for morphological and functional changes is probably the driving force behind the evolution of structure and base composition complexity in multicellular animal genes.

  8. Increasing security of supply: The search for stable models of financing for new nuclear build in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This research assesses models for financing of new nuclear build in European Union (EU) member states to find the most stable form. The countries examined in this study are France, the United Kingdom, Finland and Romania. The results attest that due to various historical, political, competition, and electricity market structural conditions Romania has emerged with the most secure and stable model for financing of new nuclear projects. This paper begins with an assessment of the effects on the nuclear sector from energy, environment and competition legislation in the EU. Then the political and economic climate of the afore mentioned EU member states is completed. Following this an overview of the market structure of the electricity sector in those respective countries is conducted. Then the key research on the models of financing of new nuclear build is explored, contrasted and analysed. The research concludes that there are four main models for financing new nuclear projects in Europe. Each model has transcended from different political and economic forces, and consequently each model has met with varied levels of success. Electricity market structures while operating to the same legal requirements, have been dissimilar in their evolution. The combination of the above factors has led to different models for financing new nuclear build. Upon further analysis it is concluded and demonstrated that the Romanian financing model is the most suitable and provides an example for any new nuclear build aspiring nations in the EU and beyond. (author)

  9. Building Classroom and Organizational Structure Around Positive Cultural Values

    CERN Document Server

    Albanna, Badr F; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R; Little, Angela; Zaniewski, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    The Compass Project is a self-formed group of graduate and undergraduate students in the physical sciences at UC Berkeley. Our goals are to improve undergraduate physics education, provide opportunities for professional development, and increase retention of students-especially those from populations typically underrepresented in the physical sciences. Compass fosters a diverse, collaborative student community by providing a wide range of services, including a summer program and fall/spring seminar courses. We describe Compass's cultural values, discuss how community members are introduced to and help shape those values, and demonstrate how a single set of values informs the structure of both our classroom and organization.We emphasize that all members of the Compass community participate in, and benefit from, our cultural values, regardless of status as student, teacher, or otherwise.

  10. Synthesis of vibration control and health monitoring of building structures under unknown excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vibration control and health monitoring of building structures have been actively investigated in recent years but often treated separately according to the primary objective pursued. In this study, a time-domain integrated vibration control and health monitoring approach is proposed based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) for identifying the physical parameters of the controlled building structures without the knowledge of the external excitation. The physical parameters and state vectors of the building structure are then estimated and used for the determination of the control force for the purpose of the vibration attenuation. The interaction between the health monitoring and vibration control is revealed and assessed. The feasibility and reliability of the proposed approach is numerically demonstrated via a five-story shear building structure equipped with magneto-rheological (MR) dampers. Two types of excitations are considered: (1) the EI-Centro ground excitation underneath of the building and (2) a swept-frequency excitation applied on the top floor of the building. Results show that the structural parameters as well as the unknown dynamic loadings could be identified accurately; and, at the same time, the structural vibration is significantly reduced in the building structure. (paper)

  11. Increasing Student Achievement and Improving Self-Esteem through a Community Building Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Concetta M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on improving students' self-esteem through community building at an elementary school in a low socioeconomic community where over 55% of the students live below the poverty line. Orefield and Yun state in their 1999 article, "Resegregation of America's schools," "school level poverty is related to many…

  12. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Montgomery Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  13. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Lincoln Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  14. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Warren Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  15. Magnetization of Steel Building Materials and Structures in the Natural Geomagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Čermáková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the physical basis of the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials and shows their relationships with external geomagnetic field. It graphically processes the experimental data detected by an HMR magnetometer. Taking into account the natural geomagnetic field under the effects of steel U profiles, variations of the natural geomagnetic field in a steel structure building are indicated and the potential existence of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS in these types of buildings is pointed out. 

  16. Economic Feasibility Analysis of the Application of Geothermal Energy Facilities to Public Building Structures

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to present an efficient plan for the application of a geothermal energy facility at the building structure planning phase. Energy consumption, energy cost and the primary energy consumption of buildings were calculated to enable a comparison of buildings prior to the application of a geothermal energy facility. The capacity for energy savings and the costs related to the installation of such a facility were estimated. To obtain more reliable criteria for economic feasibility, ...

  17. Vibrations in a Multi-Storey Lightweight Building Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a quantification of the changes in vibration level that can be expected in a lightweight multi-storey wooden building due to reduced connection stiffness or added nonstructural mass. Firstly, the impact of changes in the floor-to-wall connections is examined. Secondly, a study...

  18. A cost effective wireless structural health monitoring network for buildings in earthquake zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, programming and implementation of a cost effective wireless structural health monitoring system (wSHMs) is presented, able to monitor the seismic and/or man-made acceleration in buildings. This system actually operates as a sensor network exploiting internet connections that commonly exist, aiming to monitor the structural health of the buildings being installed. Key-feature of wSHMs is that it can be implemented in Wide Area Network mode to cover many remote structures and buildings, on metropolitan scale. Acceleration data is able to send, in real time, from dozens of buildings of a broad metropolitan area, to a central database, where they are analyzed in order to depict possible structural damages or nonlinear characteristics and alert for non-appropriateness of specific structures. (paper)

  19. Assessing Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Energy Code Compliance in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The US Department of Energy’s most recent commercial energy code compliance evaluation efforts focused on determining a percent compliance rating for states to help them meet requirements under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. That approach included a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. With its binary approach to compliance determination, the previous methodology failed to answer some important questions. In particular, how much energy cost could be saved by better compliance with the commercial energy code and what are the relative priorities of code requirements from an energy cost savings perspective? This paper explores an analytical approach and pilot study using a single building type and climate zone to answer those questions.

  20. DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS IN INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF HYBRID SOLAR ENERGY BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Amana Ayoob*, Devika Venugopal, Bismiya Sunny, Nimmy Johnny, Vikram J

    2016-01-01

    The electrical energy used for the living comfort, by the present society mainly comes from burning fossil fuels. These fuels are decreasing in a dramatic rate and it also contributes to pollution. Hybrid solar design for buildings helps to reduce the consumption of electrical energy and maximize the use of solar energy. A good thermal comfort is maintained during the whole cycle of the sun. This paper deals with maximum utilization of sun’s energy according to the various positions of ...

  1. MEMBANGUN SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP UNTUK MENINGKATKAN DAYA SAING GLOBAL (BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INCREASING GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS)

    OpenAIRE

    Nababan, Tongam Sihol

    2014-01-01

    Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index or the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) In 2013 positioned Indonesia at ranked 76 of 118 countries. Compared with the ASEAN countries, the position are still far below Singapore (13), and still below Malaysia (57), Brunei Darussalam (58), Thailand (65). This fact shows that Indonesia has not been optimal in building its entrepreneurial yet. To enhance the development of entrepreneurship, the Indonesian government has launched a...

  2. MEMBANGUN SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP UNTUK MENINGKATKAN DAYA SAING GLOBAL (BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INCREASING GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS)

    OpenAIRE

    Nababan, Tongam Sihol

    2014-01-01

    Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index or the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) In 2013 positioned Indonesia at ranked 76 of 118 countries. Compared with the ASEAN countries, the position are still far below Singapore (13), and still below Malaysia (57), Brunei Darussalam (58), Thailand (65). This fact shows that Indonesia has not been optimal in building its entrepreneurial yet. To enhance the development of entrepreneurship, the Indonesian government has launched ...

  3. VIBRATION OF FRAME BUILDING STRUCTURES CAUSED BY UNDERGROUND TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Аliavdin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains investigations on element vibration of a real residential 9-storeyed reinforced-concrete frame building induced by train movement in the shallow subway. A design model for a problem on propagation of bending waves within the limits of the typical fragment of a skeleton is presented in the paper. The steady state vibrations of a column and reinforced-concrete slab induced by an excited force which is equivalent to the impact of the subway trains have been investigated in the paper. The problem has been solved numerically on the basis of the ANSYS FEA program. Numerical results have been compared with an approximate analytical solution and data on full-scale experiment. A prediction technique for vibration propagation in the designed buildings is offered in the paper. 

  4. Ethical Guidelines for Structural Interventions to Small-Scale Historic Stone Masonry Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; Başarır, Hacer

    2015-12-01

    Structural interventions to historic stone masonry buildings require that both structural and heritage values be considered simultaneously. The absence of one of these value systems in implementation can be regarded as an unethical professional action. The research objective of this article is to prepare a guideline for ensuring ethical structural interventions to small-scale stone historic masonry buildings in the conservation areas of Northern Cyprus. The methodology covers an analysis of internationally accepted conservation documents and national laws related to the conservation of historic buildings, an analysis of building codes, especially Turkish building codes, which have been used in Northern Cyprus, and an analysis of the structural interventions introduced to a significant historic building in a semi-intact state in the walled city of Famagusta. This guideline covers issues related to whether buildings are intact or ruined, the presence of earthquake risk, the types of structural decisions in an architectural conservation project, and the values to consider during the decision making phase. PMID:25524322

  5. Evaluation of Investment in Renovation to Increase the Quality of Buildings: A Specific Discounted Cash Flow (DCF Approach of Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bonazzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to develop and apply a specific discounting cash flow (DCF approach to evaluate investment in renovation to improve building quality, thus increasing energy efficiency. In this article, we develop and apply a specific net present value (NPV and an internal rate of return (IRR approach to quantify the value created for the owners of the building by the investment in renovation via energy-saving investments that produce positive externalities. The model has an applied interest because, in recent years, a lot of investments in real estate were made by owners in order to increase the green quality of the buildings, and several funds of public aid were provided by the government to stimulate these energy-saving investments. The model proposed here is applied to a case study of a 16-apartment building located in northern Italy considers the model attempts to quantify the initial investment value, the energy savings, the tax deduction of the initial investment and the terminal value of the investment as the increase in building value. The analysis shows that the model is consistent in evaluating investments to improve building quality, and investments within the context of the specific case study considered in the research have IRRs ranging from a minimum of 4.907% to a maximum of 12.980%. It could even be useful to consider a sample of cases to verify whether our results are representative of this specific case study. The model could represent a useful tool for consumers in evaluating their own investments in building renovation, from a stand-alone perspective and even by comparing them with other types of investment. The research could be developed in the future to quantify the social welfare generated by public spending via tax deductions to reduce the costs of investment in energy savings for buildings and could even be applied to new real estate projects in comparing different construction technologies and even

  6. Power Efficiency of Systems Applied for Heating Building and Structure External Walls with Ventilated Air Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    I. F. Fialko; A. S. Statsenko

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers power-efficient systems applied for heating building and structure external walls with ventilated air spaces and prescribes directions and problems pertaining to power-efficiency improvement of such systems.

  7. Seismic soil-structure interaction in buildings. I: Analytical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Jonathan P.; Fenves, Gregory L.; Seed, Raymond B

    1999-01-01

    Recent improvements in seismological source modeling, analysis of travel path effects, and characterization of local site effects on strong shaking have led to significant advances in both code-based and more advanced procedures for evaluating seismic demand for structural design. A missing link, however, has been an improved and empirically verified treatment of soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects on both the strong motions transmitted to structures and the structural response to these ...

  8. Marketing green buildings - well structured process or forgotten minor detail? Evidence from Finland

    OpenAIRE

    H. Eerikäinen; Sarasoja, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that buildings have a significant impact on the environment and small changes in their sustainability can create major improvements to the current environmental impact of the whole society (Eichholtz et al. 2009; Junnila 2004). The technology needed to build environmentally efficient buildings and the knowledge about their benefits is available, however, the ways of marketing these benefits to the public and customers and through this increasing the amount of green...

  9. TEACHING OPTIMIZATION OF STUDENTS AT DESIGN OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES FOUNDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISURA Lid. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. According to world statistics, more than 75 % of all violations of the normal operation of buildings and structures is due to deficiencies in the design, construction and operation of bases and foundations [1]. The costs to eliminate these negative effects can be compared only with the initial cost of construction, it speaks about the relevance of teaching subjects related to the design of foundations. On the other hand increased demands on the students' knowledge, raises the amount of information that needs to absorb at constant periods of instruction, which makes the current process optimization study of these disciplines. Purpose. The aim of the article is to present the software package that allows to facilitate and accelerate the calculation and check the parameters of foundations and bases for the design of buildings and structures. The software product is designed as an educational complex, which allows the student to help with the calculations in different levels of difficulty and test his knowledge. Conclusion. The program complex, which consists of a program for dimensioning the foundations, the program for calculating the parameters of the bases, of the database. It is confirmed stable operation of the school complex (the program, measures were taken to test the program, helped to make it stable. The training complex is designed only for shallow foundations, so the work will be continued.

  10. System identification of a building alone with the effect of dynamic soil-structure interaction eliminated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Yukio [Kajima Corp., Kajima Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Yano, Tatsuo [Kajima Corp., Nuclear Power Department, Tokyo (Japan); Iguchi, Michio [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Faculty of Science and Technology, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Kitada, Yoshio [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    High-rigidity and heavy buildings such as reactor buildings usually have large soil-structure interaction effect in its dynamic response. In such cases, spectrum ratio of the top of the building to the bottom for horizontal motion gives different result from the dynamic characteristics of the building under fixed-base condition because the effect of the rocking motion of the base is not eliminated. This paper presented a new method for such problems; applied it to a ground blast vibration, microtremors and forced vibration test results; and transfer functions of the building for fixed-base condition were obtained. The proposed method can be applied when the exciter is set at the upper part of the buildings. (author)

  11. System identification of a building alone with the effect of dynamic soil-structure interaction eliminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-rigidity and heavy buildings such as reactor buildings usually have large soil-structure interaction effect in its dynamic response. In such cases, spectrum ratio of the top of the building to the bottom for horizontal motion gives different result from the dynamic characteristics of the building under fixed-base condition because the effect of the rocking motion of the base is not eliminated. This paper presented a new method for such problems; applied it to a ground blast vibration, microtremors and forced vibration test results; and transfer functions of the building for fixed-base condition were obtained. The proposed method can be applied when the exciter is set at the upper part of the buildings. (author)

  12. Life Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Different Building Structural Frame Types

    OpenAIRE

    Sangyong Kim; Joon-Ho Moon; Yoonseok Shin; Gwang-Hee Kim; Deok-Seok Seo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO2 emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (R...

  13. The dynamic responses of the soil-auxiliary buildings structure interaction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic responses of the soil-auxiliary buildings structure interaction system in the nuclear power plant are concerned. The main distinguished feature of this study is that the extreme un-symmetry of the auxiliary buildings and reactor containment are considered. A Synthetical mechanical model for study is established. Finally, the analysis of the dynamic response of the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant structure is taken as a simple example of applying this method and the numerical results are given

  14. An Efficient Seismic Analysis Procedure for Torsionally Coupled Multistory Buildings Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELEBİ, Erkan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a simplified methodology of analysis for the seismic response of 3-dimensional irregular high-rise buildings on a rigid footing resting on the surface of a linear elastic half-space is formulated. An efficient method using modal decomposition and carried out in the frequency domain by using the fast Fourier transform to obtain the structural response of torsionally asymmetric buildings, including soil-structure interaction effects, is presented. Applying this algorithm...

  15. Composite structures of steel and concrete beams, slabs, columns, and frames for buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, R P

    2008-01-01

    This book sets out the basic principles of composite construction with reference to beams, slabs, columns and frames, and their applications to building structures. It deals with the problems likely to arise in the design of composite members in buildings, and relates basic theory to the design approach of Eurocodes 2, 3 and 4.The new edition is based for the first time on the finalised Eurocode for steel/concrete composite structures.

  16. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. D Reconstruction of Buildings with Gabled and Hipped Structures Using LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, H.; Pahlavani, P.; Karimi, R.

    2014-10-01

    Buildings are the most important objects in urban areas. Thus, building detection using photogrammetry and remote sensing data as well as 3D model of buildings are very useful for many applications such as mobile navigation, tourism, and disaster management. In this paper, an approach has been proposed for detecting buildings by LiDAR data and aerial images, as well as reconstructing 3D model of buildings. In this regard, firstly, building detection carried out by utilizing a Supper Vector Machine (SVM) as a supervise method. The supervise methods need training data that could be collected from some features. Hence, LiDAR data and aerial images were utilized to produce some features. The features were selected by considering their abilities for separating buildings from other objects. The evaluation results of building detection showed high accuracy and precision of the utilized approach. The detected buildings were labeled in order to reconstruct buildings, individually. Then the planes of each building were separated and adjacent planes were recognized to reduce the calculation volume and to increase the accuracy. Subsequently, the bottom planes of each building were detected in order to compute the corners of hipped roofs using intersection of three adjacent planes. Also, the corners of gabled roofs were computed by both calculating the intersection line of the adjacent planes and finding the intersection between the planes intersection line and their detected parcel. Finally, the coordinates of some nodes in building floor were computed and 3D model reconstruction was carried out. In order to evaluate the proposed method, 3D model of some buildings with different complexity level were generated. The evaluation results showed that the proposed method has reached credible performance.

  18. 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS WITH GABLED AND HIPPED STRUCTURES USING LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Amini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the most important objects in urban areas. Thus, building detection using photogrammetry and remote sensing data as well as 3D model of buildings are very useful for many applications such as mobile navigation, tourism, and disaster management. In this paper, an approach has been proposed for detecting buildings by LiDAR data and aerial images, as well as reconstructing 3D model of buildings. In this regard, firstly, building detection carried out by utilizing a Supper Vector Machine (SVM as a supervise method. The supervise methods need training data that could be collected from some features. Hence, LiDAR data and aerial images were utilized to produce some features. The features were selected by considering their abilities for separating buildings from other objects. The evaluation results of building detection showed high accuracy and precision of the utilized approach. The detected buildings were labeled in order to reconstruct buildings, individually. Then the planes of each building were separated and adjacent planes were recognized to reduce the calculation volume and to increase the accuracy. Subsequently, the bottom planes of each building were detected in order to compute the corners of hipped roofs using intersection of three adjacent planes. Also, the corners of gabled roofs were computed by both calculating the intersection line of the adjacent planes and finding the intersection between the planes intersection line and their detected parcel. Finally, the coordinates of some nodes in building floor were computed and 3D model reconstruction was carried out. In order to evaluate the proposed method, 3D model of some buildings with different complexity level were generated. The evaluation results showed that the proposed method has reached credible performance.

  19. Design of load-bearing structure of an office building in Kranj

    OpenAIRE

    Possnig, Luka

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents static analysis of load-bearing structure of a three storey office building in Kranj according to current Eurocode standards. The load-bearing structure is made of reinforced concrete and consists of monolith roof and storey plates, brick walls, beams and columns. In the analysis of the structure all impacts, that may influence the structure in its lifecycle are considered. The analysis of the plates was performed with a commercial program SAP2000 (Computers and Structure...

  20. Improving existing "reaching law" for better discrete control of seismically-excited building structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun LI; Zichen DENG

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a novel "composite reaching law" was explained in details: 1) the equation of discrete motion for a control system; 2) the design of discrete-time variable structure control. In addition, the model of a three-storey shear-type building structure was used to verify the effectiveness of the discrete variable structure control method. The results of numerical example analysis of the model show that the control law can effectively reduce the peak value of seismic response of the building structure and the chattering effect of the control system.

  1. HYPERSTATIC STRUCTURE MAPPING MODEL BUILDING AND OPTIMIZING DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Gening; GAO Youshan; ZHANG Xueliang; YANG Ruigang

    2007-01-01

    Hyperstatic structure plane model being built by structural mechanics is studied. Space model precisely reflected in real stress of the structure is built by finite element method (FEM) analysis commerce software. Mapping model of complex structure system is set up, with convenient calculation just as in plane model and comprehensive information as in space model. Plane model and space model are calculated under the same working condition. Plane model modular construction inner force is considered as input data; Space model modular construction inner force is considered as output data. Thus specimen is built on input data and output data. Character and affiliation are extracted through training specimen, with the employment of nonlinear mapping capability of the artificial neural network. Mapping model with interpolation and extrapolation is gained, laying the foundation for optimum design. The steel structure of high-layer parking system (SSHLPS) is calculated as an instance. A three-layer back-propagation (BP) net including one hidden layer is constructed with nine input nodes and eight output nodes for a five-layer SSHLPS. The three-layer structure optimization result through the mapping model interpolation contrasts with integrity re-analysis, and seven layers structure through the mapping model extrapolation contrasts with integrity re-analysis. Any layer SSHLPS among 1~8 can be calculated with much accuracy. Amount of calculation can also be reduced if it is applied into the same topological structure, with reduced distortion and assured precision.

  2. Building Knowledge Structures in Teaching Cross-Cultural Sales Genres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunxia, Zhu

    2000-01-01

    Considers how approaching genres as knowledge structures provides a useful theoretical basis for teaching students to communicate across cultures. Presents an approach that is divided into four interrelated teaching stages: background information, communicative purposes, text structure, and the implications of genre comparisons. Finds teaching the…

  3. The role of perceived interactivity in virtual communities: building trust and increasing stickiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Meng, Yuan; Wang, Wei

    2013-03-01

    Although previous research has explored factors affecting trust building in websites, little research has been analysed from the perceived interactivity perspective in virtual communities (VCs). A research model for verifying interactivity antecedents to trust and its impact on member stickiness behaviour is presented. Two social interactivity components and two system interactivity components are, respectively, theorised as process-based antecedents and institution-based antecedents to trust in the model. Data were collected from 310 members of VCs to test the model. The results show that connectedness and reciprocity are important antecedents to trust in members, while responsiveness and active control are important antecedents to trust in systems. The results also indicate that trust has significant influence on the members' duration and retention, which are two dimensions of member stickiness measured in this research. These findings have theoretical implications for online interaction-related literature and critical business implications for practitioners of VCs.

  4. X-ray and back-wall echo ultrasonic examination of wrought iron building structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidovszky István

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The wrought iron building structures constituting part of the architectural heritage, e. g. handrails, gate hinges, columns, arch ties and wall ties represent incorporeal value, but operate as load bearing structures as well. There are few information on their mechanical properties and quality. Due to the inhomogeneity of the material of wrought iron building structures generated during the production, the known metal testing methods, as the tensile and hardness tests or metallographic examination, are not enough to survey the properties of such structures in depth. For the further and more accurate examinations, the application of X-ray and back-wall echo ultrasonic tests are essential. The goal of our paper is the presentation of the application of the examinations used extensively in the machine industry for the testing of wrought iron building structures.

  5. Effect of Soft Story on Structural Response of High Rise Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejazi, F; Jilani, S; Noorzaei, J; Chieng, C Y; Jaafar, M S; Ali, A A Abang, E-mail: jamal@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Civil, Engineering faculty, University Putra Malaysia, 43300 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Severe structural damage suffered by several modern buildings during recent earthquakes illustrates the importance of avoiding sudden changes in lateral stiffness and strength. Recent earthquakes that occurred have shown that a large number of existing reinforced concrete buildings are vulnerable to damage or even collapse during a strong earthquake. While damage and collapse due to soft story are most often observed in buildings, they can also be developed in other types of structures. The lower level containing the concrete columns behaved as a soft story in that the columns were unable to provide adequate shear resistance during the earthquake. Usually the most economical way of retrofitting such as a building is by adding proper bracing to soft stories. So, in this paper occurring of soft at the lower level of high rise buildings subjected to earthquake has been studied. Also has been tired to investigate on adding of bracing in various arrangements to structure in order to reduce soft story effect on seismic response of building. It is lead to assess the vulnerability level of existing multi-storied buildings so that they can be retrofitted to possess the minimum requirements. This will help in minimizing the impending damages and catastrophes.

  6. Effect of nonlinear soil-structure interaction on seismic response of low-rise SMRF buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychowdhury, Prishati; Singh, Poonam

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear behavior of a soil-foundation system may alter the seismic response of a structure by providing additional fl exibility to the system and dissipating hysteretic energy at the soil-foundation interface. However, the current design practice is still reluctant to consider the nonlinearity of the soil-foundation system, primarily due to lack of reliable modeling techniques. This study is motivated towards evaluating the effect of nonlinear soil-structure interaction (SSI) on the seismic responses of low-rise steel moment resisting frame (SMRF) structures. In order to achieve this, a Winklerbased approach is adopted, where the soil beneath the foundation is assumed to be a system of closely-spaced, independent, nonlinear spring elements. Static pushover analysis and nonlinear dynamic analyses are performed on a 3-story SMRF building and the performance of the structure is evaluated through a variety of force and displacement demand parameters. It is observed that incorporation of nonlinear SSI leads to an increase in story displacement demand and a significant reduction in base moment, base shear and inter-story drift demands, indicating the importance of its consideration towards achieving an economic, yet safe seismic design.

  7. Building Points - MO 2014 Crawford Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  8. Building Points - MO 2014 Clinton Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  9. Building Points - MO 2014 Atchison Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  10. Building Points - MO 2014 Carroll Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  11. Building Points - MO 2014 Buchanan Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  12. Building Points - MO 2014 Dade Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  13. Building Points - MO 2014 Camden Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  14. Building Points - MO 2014 Caldwell Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  15. Building Points - MO 2014 Cedar Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  16. Building Points - MO 2014 Clay Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  17. Building Points - MO 2014 Butler Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  18. Building Points - MO 2014 Christian Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  19. Building Points - MO 2014 Barry Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  20. Building Points - MO 2014 Chariton Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  1. Building Points - MO 2014 Dallas Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  2. Building Points - MO 2014 Daviess Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  3. Building Points - MO 2014 Audrain Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  4. Building Points - MO 2014 Adair Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  5. Building Points - MO 2014 Bates Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  6. Building Points - MO 2014 Clark Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  7. Building Points - MO 2014 Benton Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  8. Building Points - MO 2014 Cass Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  9. Building Points - MO 2014 Barton Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  10. Building Points - MO 2014 Andrew Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  11. Building Points - MO 2012 Perry Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  12. Building Points - MO 2014 Carter Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  13. Building Points - MO 2012 Bollinger Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  14. Building Points - MO 2011 Lincoln Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MSDIS staff identified and located all ?binary? structures and compiled them into a spatial database. Annual review and maintenance of the database will occur with...

  15. Building Points - MO 2012 Iron Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  16. Building Points - MO 2012 Madison Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  17. Building Points - MO 2011 Montgomery Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MSDIS staff identified and located all ?binary? structures and compiled them into a spatial database. Annual review and maintenance of the database will occur with...

  18. Building Points - MO 2011 Warren Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MSDIS staff identified and located all ?binary? structures and compiled them into a spatial database. Annual review and maintenance of the database will occur with...

  19. Building Points - MO 2012 Cape Girardeau Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  20. Building Points - MO 2012 St. Genevieve Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  1. Building Points - MO 2012 Revised Boone Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MSDIS staff provided project management and worked with the Mid-MO RPC to locate "structures" within their region. MSDIS staff identified and located all “binary”...

  2. Building Points - MO 2012 St. Francois Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  3. Review of the use of phase change materials (PCMs in buildings with reinforced concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pons, O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials are capable of storing and releasing energy in the form of heat in determined temperature ranges, so to increase a building’s thermal inertia, stabilize its indoor temperatures and reduce its energetic demand. Therefore, if we used these materials we could have more energetically efficient buildings. Nevertheless, are these materials most appropriate to be used in buildings? Could the incorporation of phase change materials in buildings with concrete structures be generalized? This article aims to carry out a review of these phase change materials from construction professionals’ points of view, study their applications for buildings with reinforced concrete structures and the key points for these applications, draw conclusions and provide recommendations useful for all professionals within the sector who are considering the application of these materials.Los materiales de cambio de fase son capaces de almacenar y liberar energía en forma de calor en un determinando rango de temperaturas, y así aumentar la inercia térmica de un edificio, estabilizar las temperaturas en el interior y reducir la demanda energética. En consecuencia, si utilizáramos estos materiales podríamos tener un parque de edificios más eficientes energéticamente. No obstante, ¿estos materiales son apropiados para usarse en edificios? ¿Se podría generalizar la incorporación de materiales de cambio de fase en edificios con estructuras de hormigón? Este artículo tiene como objetivos hacer una revisión del estado del arte de estos materiales de cambio de fase desde el punto de vista de los profesionales de la construcción, estudiar las aplicaciones en edificios con estructuras de hormigón armado y los puntos clave para estas aplicaciones, extraer conclusiones y recomendaciones útiles para los profesionales del sector que se planteen la utilización de estos materiales.

  4. A modified Kelvin impact model for pounding simulation of base-isolated building with adjacent structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Kun; Li Li; Zhu Hongping

    2009-01-01

    Base isolation can effectively reduce the seismic forces on a superstructure, particularly in low- to medium-rise buildings. However, under strong near-fault ground motions, pounding may occur at the isolation level between the base-isolated building (BIB) and its surrounding retaining walls. To effectively investigate the behavior of the BIB pounding with adjacent structures, after assessing some commonly used impact models, a modified Kelvin impact model is proposed in this paper. Relevant parameters in the modified Kelvin model are theoretically derived and numerically verified through a simple pounding case. At the same time, inelasticity of the isolated superstructure is introduced in order to accurately evaluate the potential damage to the superstructure caused by the pounding of the BIB with adjacent structures. The reliability of the modified Kelvin impact model is validated through numerical comparisons with other impact models. However, the difference between the numerical results from the various impact analytical models is not significant. Many numerical simulations of BIBs are conducted to investigate the influence of various design parameters and conditions on the peak inter-story drills and floor accelerations during pounding. It is shown that pounding can substantially increase floor accelerations, especially at the ground floor where impacts occur. Higher modes of vibration are excited during poundings, increasing the inter-story drifts instead of keeping a nearly rigid-body motion of the superstructure. Furthermore, higher ductility demands can be imposed on lower floors of the superstructure. Moreover, impact stiffness seems to play a significant role in the acceleration response at the isolation level and the inter-story drifts of lower floors of the superstructure. Finally, the numerical results show that excessive flexibility of the isolation system used to minimize the floor accelerations may cause the BIB to be more susceptible to pounding

  5. Effect of Adjacent Structures on Foundation Response of Tower Building from SSI Analysis Incorporating Wave Incoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic response at foundation of large building caused by strong ground motion has tendency to be less intense than corresponding free-field motion, especially in high frequency range. To explain this phenomenon and to apply it to practical soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis, concept of wave incoherence (or spatial variation) was introduced. The spatial variation of ground motion can be quantified by coherency function, and several coherency functions have been developed for engineering purpose. However, there is little investigation about their application to SSI analysis and design for buildings influenced by adjacent structures. This paper is focused on the seismic response of a building whose foundation lies between those of nearby structures. Specifically, a tower building consisting of steel and concrete is modeled, and the building is assumed to be located on rock media. Analyses are categorized into four cases according to the type of foundation and the existence of adjacent structures. For each case, the results from incoherent SSI analysis are compared with those from coherent analysis to investigate the effect on the seismic response of the building

  6. Increasing energy efficiency of HVAC systems of buildings using phase change material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chusak, Lee; Daiber, Jared; Agarwal, Ramesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), four different cooling systems used in contemporary office environments are modeled to compare energy consumption and thermal comfort levels. Incorporating convection and radiation technologies, full-scale models of an office room compare energy efficiency of (a) an all-air overhead system, (b) a combined all-air overhead and hydronic radiant system (chilled ceiling), (c) an all-air raised floor system (displacement ventilation), and (d) a combined displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling. The computational domain for each model consists of one temperature varying wall (simulating the temperature of the exterior wall of the building during a 24-hour period) and adiabatic conditions for the remaining walls, floor, and ceiling (simulating interior walls of the room). Two sets of computations are conducted. The first set considers a glass window and plastic shade configuration for the exterior wall. The second set of computations includes a phase change material layer between the glass window and the plastic shade. Results show substantial energy savings can be accrued using the displacement ventilation and especially the displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling over the conventional overhead mixing ventilation system. The results also show that the addition of a PCM layer to the exterior wall can significantly decrease the cooling energy requirements.

  7. Increasing energy efficiency of HVAC systems of buildings using phase change material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chusak, Jared Daiber, Ramesh Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, four different cooling systems used in contemporary office environments are modeled to compare energy consumption and thermal comfort levels. Incorporating convection and radiation technologies, full-scale models of an office room compare energy efficiency of (a an all-air overhead system, (b a combined all-air overhead and hydronic radiant system (chilled ceiling, (c an all-air raised floor system (displacement ventilation, and (d a combined displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling. The computational domain for each model consists of one temperature varying wall (simulating the temperature of the exterior wall of the building during a 24-hour period and adiabatic conditions for the remaining walls, floor, and ceiling (simulating interior walls of the room. Two sets of computations are conducted. The first set considers a glass window and plastic shade configuration for the exterior wall. The second set of computations includes a phase change material layer between the glass window and the plastic shade. Results show substantial energy savings can be accrued using the displacement ventilation and especially the displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling over the conventional overhead mixing ventilation system. The results also show that the addition of a PCM layer to the exterior wall can significantly decrease the cooling energy requirements.

  8. IMPROVEMENT THE CALCULATION OF THE STABILITY OF BUILDING LOCATED NEAR THE SLOPES FOR STRUCTURAL UNSTABLE SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Ivanova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article is devoted to research of soil in complex engineering and geological conditions, as well as ways to improve the stability of the stacked bases structurally unstable soils. The relevance of this work lies in the solution of grounds stability problem interacting with foundations established on structurally unstable soils. In accordance with the researches results compiled recommendations aimed to the improvement of the base stability folded by structurally unstable soils is supposed. Methodology. The aim of the work is to improve the reliability of the strength characteristics obtained by the method of mathematical modeling of the expected processes. The objective was the enhancements the existing testing methods and technologies in order to determine the relative value of safety factor and reliability assessment of the bearing capacity of the base folded structurally unstable soils. Findings. This system was designed to ensure the automated measurement of deformation parameters on the on-line with followed mathematical processing and presentation of data in an accessible form. Thus, the obtained results allow drawing the conclusions about the patterns of structure strain state, as well as predicting its future behavior. It all depended on well-formed mathematical algorithm, which is adjusted by tests conducted in natural conditions in selected regions of the Donbass region. Originality. One of the most effective ways to start and register a timely activation of deformation processes in plant cells from the damaging effects is the use of automated systems with high reliability which receive signals from the deformable objects. The main tool used to solve the problem, was the method of mathematical modeling in ACS reproducing receptive model processes in the soil with a program «HRUNT» and «MONOMAKH». And modeling the three-dimensional base of the building on the joint work of the soil mass and building by the finite

  9. Optimization of time-delayed feedback control of seismically excited building structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-ping LI; Wei-qiu ZHU; Zu-guang YING

    2008-01-01

    An optimization method for time-delayed feedback control of partially observable linear building structures subjected to seismic excitation is proposed. A time-delayed control problem of partially observable linear building structure under horizontal ground acceleration excitation is formulated and converted into that of completely observable linear structure by using separation principle. The time-delayed control forces are approximately expressed in terms of control forces without time delay. The control system is then governed by Ito stochastic differential equations for the conditional means of system states and then transformed into those for the conditional means of modal energies by using the stochastic averaging method for quasi-Hamiltonian systems. The control law is assumed to be modal velocity feedback control with time delay and the unknown control gains are determined by the modal performance indices. A three-storey building structure is taken as example to illustrate the proposal method and the numerical results are confirmed by using Monte Carlo simulation.

  10. Capacity building model for increased access to quality cardiac care for children in underserved regions

    OpenAIRE

    Bistra Zheleva, MBA; Andreas Tsakistos, MA; Erin Murley, BA; Emily Dale, MPH CHES

    2014-01-01

    Background: Congenital heart anomalies are the most common major birth defect in the world, affecting one in every 120 children, 90% of whom live where medical care is inadequate or unavailable. Increased access to paediatric cardiac care is a priority for most low-income and middle-income countries today. Children's HeartLink is dedicated to increasing access and improving quality at paediatric cardiac centres by use of a collaborative model that fosters sustainable clinical, organisational,...

  11. Quick assessment tool for assurance of structural safety in the building process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwel, K.C.; Jansen, S.J.T.

    2014-01-01

    From forensic investigation it is known that many structural failures can be attributed to human errors and organizational factors. To provide project leaders with information on the current state of factors in the building process influencing structural safety, we developed a quick assessment tool.

  12. Seismic testing of models and fragments of seismic isolated structures of NPS buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report states the bases of original methodology and results of model and full-scale seismic testing on 3-component seismic platforms (load-carrying capacity up to 500 t). For simulation of loads and shakes of elements of structures of seismic isolated buildings on the structure of the stands the technology of buried underground explosions was used. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Active vibration suppression through positive acceleration feedback on a building-like structure: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez-Zárate, J.; Silva-Navarro, G.; Abundis-Fong, H. F.

    2016-05-01

    This work deals with the structural and dynamic analysis of a building-like structure consisting of a three-story building with one active vibration absorber. The base of the structure is perturbed using an electromagnetic shaker, which provides forces with a wide range of excitation frequencies, including some resonance frequencies of the structure. One beam-column of the structure is coupled with a PZT stack actuator to reduce the vibrations. The overall mechanical structure is modeled using Euler-Lagrange methodology and validated using experimental modal analysis and Fine Element Method (FEM) techniques. The active control laws are synthesized to actively attenuate the vibration system response via the PZT stack actuator, caused by excitation forces acting on the base of the structure. The control scheme is obtained using Positive Acceleration Feedback (PAF) and Multiple Positive Acceleration Feedback (MPAF) to improve the closed-loop system response. Some experimental results are included to illustrate the overall system performance.

  14. Hydraulic behaviour of a representative structural volume for containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution presents a simplified hydro mechanical approach for the study of sensitive structures like containment vessels of nuclear power plants. It is based on the calculation of permeability from two independent preliminary computations (drying and mechanical effects). The resulting distribution of the transfer property is then included in a hydraulic simulation to represent the consequences of a mechanical degradation on a gas pressure gradient simulation. Contrary to fully coupled methods which require a large number of parameters and heavy computational resources, this technique is suitable for large scale structural applications. The method is applied on a FE Representative Structural Volume model of a typical 1300 MWe prestressed containment vessel (PPCV) representative of the Electricite de France French power plants. It incorporates almost all components of the real structure with concrete, vertical and horizontal reinforcement bars, transverse reinforcements and prestressed tendons in both horizontal and vertical directions. The effect of damage localization on the hydraulic regime is investigated and an indicator based on the radial flow is developed to locate the zones where the leakage rate may be critical. (authors)

  15. Expansion of core melt within the concrete foundation - effects on the reactor building structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of core melt expanding in the concrete fundament of underground-situated nuclear power plants on the structure of the reactor building have been investigated. The radial reduction of the foundation plate is not to exceed 12 m, in case limited additional internal pressure loads of more than 6 bar are to be covered. Greater reductions will endanger the stability of the building. For the assumed load cases, no penetrating cracks will occur. During the subject test, the limiting walls of the building remained leak-proof up to an internal pressure of 2.5 bar. (orig.)

  16. Initial findings: The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseille, T.J.; Johnson, B.K.; Wallin, R.P.; Chiu, S.A.; Crawley, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building System Integration Research Program. The goal of the program is to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving integrated decision-making during design and construction. Improved decision-making could significantly reduce buildings' energy use by the year 2010. The objectives of the Commercial Building System Integration Research Program are: to identify and quantify the most significant energy-related interactions among building subsystems; to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving energy related interactions in building subsystems; and to provide guidance to designers, owners, and builders for improving the integration of building subsystems for energy efficiency. The lead laboratory for this program is the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A wide variety of expertise and resources from industry, academia, other government entities, and other DOE laboratories are used in planning, reviewing and conducting research activities. Cooperative and complementary research, development, and technology transfer activities with other interested organizations are actively pursued. In this report, the interactions of a water loop heat pump system and building structural mass and their effect on whole-building energy performance is analyzed. 10 refs., 54 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Analysis, Design, and Construction of a Base-Isolated Multiple Building Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Sorace; Gloria Terenzi

    2014-01-01

    The analysis and design of a multiple residential building, seismically protected by a base isolation system incorporating double friction pendulum sliders as protective devices, are presented in the paper. The building, situated in the suburban area of Florence, is composed of four independent reinforced concrete framed structures, mutually separated by three thermal expansion joints. The plan is L-shaped, with dimensions of about 75 m in the longitudinal direction and about 30 m along the l...

  18. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF EXISTING MID-RISE REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS ACCORDING TO SPECIFICATION FOR BUILDING STRUCTURES TO BE BUILT IN DISASTER AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İNEL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, Turkey has been hit by devastating earthquakes and remarkable number of reinforced concrete buildings has been damaged in the high seismicity regions of our country. The aim of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of the mid-rise reinforced concrete buildings that are major part of building stock of our earthquake-prone country, according to recent Turkish Earthquake Code. 4- and 7-story buildings were selected to represent mid-rise building stock. After determining the structural parameters, each building was subjected to pushover analysis and the capacity curves were obtained. Earthquake performance of each building was determined in the light of their capacity curves according to the recent Turkish Earthquake Code.

  19. Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Activities of the Private Sector of the Building Community and Its Perceived Needs Relative to Increased Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Solar Energy in the Heating and Cooling of Buildings.

    This report is essentially a collection of information gathered from a broad cross-section of the building community that provides a description of the state of affairs existing mid-1974 through mid-1975 in the private sector of the building community with regard to solar heating and cooling of buildings. The report additionally contains…

  20. Approximate and detailed analyses for structures of reactor containment buildings, using three-dimensional computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional programs were developed and proved to be fast and reliable tools for the analysis in each phase of the design of nuclear reactor building structures. Short descriptions and size of models used are given for the following analyses: preliminary analysis for all structures of a BWR reactor containment building; preliminary analysis for selection of structural solution of a reactor pedestal structure; independent checking analysis for the primary containment structures of a BWR; independent checking analysis of a reactor shield structure, and test analysis with a simplified model for the seismic response analysis of a reactor drywell structure. Description of analysis and model sizes for two complex structures is also given: building structure of a breeder reactor with detailed non-linear analysis of the internal support structure for 30 million pound hypothetic accident loads. Model sizes: 1570 and 1032 nodes respectively. Drywell structure, which serves as a primary containment and also carries the weight of the upper fuel pools. Loading conditions include internal and external pressures, thermal, seismic and other loads. Model size: 1350 nodes

  1. Amino Acid Molecular Units: Building Primary and Secondary Protein Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecido R. Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to guarantee the learning quality and suitable knowledge  use  about structural biology, it is fundamental to  exist, since the beginning of  students’ formation, the possibility of clear visualization of biomolecule structures. Nevertheless, the didactic books can only bring  schematic  drawings; even more elaborated figures and graphic computation  do not permit the necessary interaction.  The representation of three-dimensional molecular structures with ludic models, built with representative units, have supplied to the students and teachers a successfully experience to  visualize such structures and correlate them to the real molecules.  The design and applicability of the representative units were discussed with researchers and teachers before mould implementation.  In this stage  it  will be presented the  developed  kit  containing the  representative  plastic parts of the main amino acids.  The kit can demonstrate the interaction among the amino acids  functional groups  (represented by colors, shapes,  sizes and  the peptidic bonds between them  facilitating the assembly and visuali zation of the primary and secondary protein structure.  The models were designed for  Ca,  amino,  carboxyl groups  and  hydrogen. The  lateral chains have  well defined models that represent their geometrical shape.  The completed kit set  will be presented in this meeting (patent requested.  In the last phase of the project will be realized  an effective evaluation  of the kit  as a facilitative didactic tool of the teaching/learning process in the Structural Molecular Biology area.

  2. Building chessboard-like supramolecular structures on Au(111) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ruifen; Yang, Yu; Zhang, Ping; Zhong, Dingyong; Fuchs, Harald; Wang, Yue; Chi, Lifeng

    2015-09-01

    We investigate an anthracene derivative, 3(5)-(9-anthryl) pyrazole (ANP), self-assembled on the Au(111) surface by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A chessboard-like network structure composed of ANP molecules is found, covering the whole Au(111) substrate. Our STM results and DFT calculations reveal that the formation of chessboard-like networks originates from a basic unit cell, a tetramer structure, which is formed by four ANP molecules connected through C-H…N hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen bonds inside each tetramer and the molecule-substrate interaction are fundamentally important in providing a driving force for formation of the supramolecular networks.

  3. Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A.; Scharff, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as in...

  4. Data Structure Estimation for RDF Oriented Repository Building

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řimnáč, Martin

    Los Alamitos : IEEE Computer Society, 2007 - (Barolli, L.; Tjoa, A.), s. 147-154 ISBN 0-7695-2823-6. [CISIS'07. International Conference on Complex, Intelligent and Software Intensive Systems /1./. Vienna (AT), 10.04.2007-13.04.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : data structure estimation * functional dependency discovery * semantic web Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  5. Application of modern control theory for building structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basharkhah, M. A.; Yao, J. T. P.

    The design of feedback compensators is considered for linear and constant-coefficient multivariable systems and an attempt is made to find a suitable gain matrix for active control of structures. The application of the pole-assignment method is discussed. It is based on the shifting of open-loop poles to the left side of the s-plane, and is applicable to mechanical and electrical systems. The second method developed in this study provides a physical understanding of the active control of civil engineering structures because it allows control of several modes of the system. The K matrix of the control law can be found so that the first few modes of the system have smaller displacements than the corresponding displacements of the original system. Therefore, more modes of higher gain can be used to substantially reduce system displacements. Because the pole-assignment method will not always significantly reduce displacements, the second method is found to be better for the control of civil engineering structures.

  6. Revised-Confirmatory Survey Report for Portions of the Auxiliary Building Structural Surfaces and Turbine Building Embedded Piping, Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Herald, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period of October 15 and 18, 2007, ORISE performed confirmatory radiological survey activities which included beta and gamma structural surface scans and beta activity direct measurements within the Auxiliary Building, beta or gamma scans within Turbine Building embedded piping, beta activity determinations within Turbine Building Drain 3-1-27, and gamma scans and the collection of a soil sample from the clay soils adjacent to the Lower Mixing Box

  7. Confirmatory Survey Report for Portions of the Auxiliary Building Structural Surfaces and Turbine Building Embedded Piping, Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Herald, CA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period of October 15 and 18, 2007, ORISE performed confirmatory radiological survey activities which included beta and gamma structural surface scans and beta activity direct measurements within the Auxiliary Building, beta or gamma scans within Turbine Building embedded piping, beta activity determinations within Turbine Building Drain 3-1-27, and gamma scans and the collection of a soil sample from the clay soils adjacent to the Lower Mixing Box

  8. Build It but Will They Teach?: Strategies for Increasing Faculty Participation & Retention in Online & Blended Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Kristen; Heaston, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The need for online and blended programs within higher education continues to grow as the student population in the United States becomes increasingly non-traditional. As administrators strategically offer and expand online and blended programs, faculty recruitment and retention will be key. This case study highlights how a public comprehensive…

  9. Calculation methods of Structure-Soil-Structure Interaction (3SI) for embedded buildings: Application to NUPEC tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at improving and validating methods coupling Finite Element (FE) and Boundary Element (BE) Methods in the context of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) and Structure-Soil-Structure Interaction (3SI) tests performed by NUPEC on mock-up structures built on an unmade ground. Several cases have been tested: single and juxtaposed buildings, shallow and embedded foundations, with various loading conditions: forced and natural seismic loadings. The numerical simulations of forced vibration tests are in good agreement with the results of the NUPEC experiments in the case of two embedded buildings either in terms of amplitude and resonance. The numerical simulation of seismic response tests by FEM and BEM allows for a proper choice of the 'reference point' where the computed and the experimental displacements coincide. A parametric analysis of Structure-Soil-Structure Interaction carried out by the FEM has allowed to determine the influence of some parameters on SSI. Most of them like the position of the building in the excavation, the direction of the load, the quality of the contact between the sidewalls of the buildings and the soil for embedded foundations, do not show to have a strong influence on the dynamic system behaviour, which is mainly governed by the stiffness of the first soil layer. As far as 3SI is concerned, this paper shows that when the cross interaction has a small effect on the building response in the case of surface foundations, it has a strong influence in the case of embedded foundations with an important decrease of the response at the top of the buildings. (authors)

  10. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a structure of ABWR-type reactor buildings, which can increase the capacity of a spent fuel storage area at a low cost and improved earthquake proofness. In the reactor building, the floor of a spent fuel pool is made flat, and a depth of the pool water satisfying requirement for shielding is ensured. In addition, a depth of pool water is also maintained for a equipment provisionally storing pool for storing spent fuels, and a capacity for a spent fuel storage area is increased by utilizing surplus space of the equipment provisionally storing pool. Since the flattened floor of the spent fuel pool is flushed with the floor of the equipment provisionally storing pool, transfer of horizontal loads applied to the building upon occurrence of earthquakes is made smooth, to improve earthquake proofness of the building. (T.M.)

  11. Building a Data Store with the Dynamic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Artamonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the analysis of approaches to data warehouse construction based on relational and NoSQL solutions and lists the limitations of the relational approach to data mining. The contradiction between data presentation in the real subject domain and the model of data presentation in the relational and NoSQL approaches is revealed. The revealed contradiction is related to the temporality of the values of individual data attributes, the variability of the composition of these attributes, and structure of connections between them. A new logical model of the data warehouse with dynamic structure is proposed. The model is based on the concept of the object as a container for properties storage. Each property of the object includes the property name and two property values without reference and with reference, that are relevant at a given time. The reference property value points to an object whose name is interpreted as the value of the property at a given time. A formal description of the model with allocation of the necessary functionality to manipulate objects and their properties (selectors, predicates, constructors is given and the necessary control structures are introduced. Substantiation of the proposed model, called an OP-model is given on the basis of compliance with the logical ER data model. It is proved that any ER data model can be implemented in the OP-model. At the same time, the advantages of the OP-model are indicated, they are associated with the possibility of changing connections between entities due to changes in the reference value at a particular time. The potential for scalability of data warehouse due to the unique identification of each object is noted. 

  12. Building the meaning of preference from logical paired structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Camilo; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Montero, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Making decisions by learning preferences requires to consider semantical aspects dealing with the meaning and use of the preference concept. Examining recent developments on bipolarity, where concepts are measured/verified regarding a pair of opposite poles, we focus on the dialectic process by...... which the meaning of concepts emerges. Our proposal is based on the neutrality in between the opposite poles, such that a basic type of structure is used to characterize in logical terms the concepts and the knowledge that they generate. In this paper we model the meaning of concepts by paired...

  13. Stellar structure and the art of building boats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celnikier, Ludwik M.

    1989-02-01

    Acton and Squire's [Solving Equations with Physical Understanding (Hilger, Bristol, 1985)] ``trial function'' method of handling boundary value problems is used to find approximate solutions to the equations of stellar structure; the calculations involved are as simple to carry out as the usual order-of-magnitude estimates, but are correct to a few tens of a percent. The method is also used to investigate why an order-of-magnitude estimate of solar luminosity can be wrong by up to three orders of magnitude, while a similar estimate of the central temperature can be closer to acceptable values.

  14. Towards composite spheres as building blocks for structured molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lloyd L; Pellicane, Giuseppe

    2016-10-19

    In order to design a flexible molecular model that mimics the chemical moieties of a polyatomic molecule, we propose the 'composite-sphere' model that can assemble the essential elements to produce the structure of the target molecule. This is likened to the polymerization process where monomers assemble to form the polymer. The assemblage is built into the pair interaction potentials which can 'react' (figuratively) with selective pieces into various bonds. In addition, we preserve the spherical symmetries of the individual pair potentials so that the isotropic Ornstein-Zernike equation (OZ) for multi-component mixtures can be used as a theoretical framework. We first test our approach on generating a dumbbell molecule. An equimolar binary mixture of hard spheres and square-well spheres are allowed to react to form a dimer. As the bond length shrinks to zero, we create a site-site model of a Janus-like molecule with a repulsive moiety and an attractive moiety. We employ the zero-separation (ZSEP) closure to solve the OZ equations. The structure and thermodynamic properties are calculated at three isotherms and at several densities and the results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The close agreement achieved demonstrates that the ZSEP closure is a reliable theory for this composite-sphere fluid model. PMID:27546819

  15. Structural integrity analysis of an Ignalina nuclear power plant building subjected to an airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent terrorist attacks using commandeered commercial airliners on civil structures have raised the issue of the ability of nuclear power plants to survive the consequences of an airliner crash. The structural integrity analysis due to the effects of an aircraft crash on an Ignalina nuclear power plant (INPP) accident localization system (ALS) building is the subject of this paper. A combination of the finite element method and empirical relationships were used for the analysis. A global structural integrity analysis was performed for a portion of the ALS building using the dynamic loading from an aircraft crash impact model. The local effects caused by impact of the aircraft's engine on the building wall were evaluated independently by using an empirical formula. The results from the crash analysis of a twin engine commercial aircraft show that the impacted reinforced concrete wall of the ALS building will not have through-the-wall concrete failure, and the reinforcement will not fail. Strain-rate effects were found to delay the onset of cracking. Therefore, the structural integrity of the impacted wall of the INPP ALS building will be maintained during the crash event studied

  16. Incorporating Soil-Structure Interaction intoSeismic Response Analyses for Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Jonathan P.; Mylonakis, George; Givens, Michael J; Crouse, CB; Hutchinson, Tara; Lizundia, Bret; Naeim, Farzad; Ostadan, Farhang; Heintz, Jon A

    2014-01-01

    Soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis evaluates the collective response anddynamic interplay of three linked systems: the structure, the foundation, and the soil underlying and surrounding the foundation. Problems associated with practical application of SSI for building structures are rooted in a poor understanding of fundamental SSI principles. Implementation in practice is hindered by a literature that is difficult to understand, and codes and standards that contain limited guidance an...

  17. Influence of precipitations, buildings and over increase of radioactive emission in the population dose calculation under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of precipitations is analyzed, as well as of buildings and emission over increase on the dosis produced on the population as a consequence of some postulated accidents in Atucha II nuclear power plant. The following conclusions were achieved: the calculations performed without considering the above mentioned effects are conservative, excluding the case in which the precipitation is very close to the emission source. In this case, the maximal difference observed was 20% for class C and 5% for class D, at 1 km from source, with a decreasing difference according to the distance. The doses calculated without building effect were approximately 25% greater than those calculated considering this effect for class E and 40% for class F, at 1 km from the source. The difference decreases with distance and increases with the stability of atmospheric conditions. This behaviour is also observed with the over increase effect. In this case, the maximal observed differences were of one order of magnitude for class E and three orders for class F, at 1 km from the source. (Author)

  18. UT system : a structural system to build taller urban timber houses with aspired spatial flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Catarina V.; Branco, Jorge M.; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2014-01-01

    In past few years, in consequence to the continuous increase of urban densities and seeking for a more sustainable profile for construction, some new proposals for tall timber city housing have emerged. The development of new wood-based materials, like cross laminated timber (CLT), has made possible to believe to build high with timber. Demonstration buildings located in different locations around the world contribute to the development of this new concept of urban housing. With the exception...

  19. Soil structure interaction analysis for a reactor building with a pile foundation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper presents the SSI analysis and Floor Response Spectra (FRS) generation for a Reactor Building (RB) with a pile foundation system. This work was done within the scope of Probabilistic Safety Analysis Level 1 - external events, (1993). The task was to produce the best estimated seismic structure response including FRS and seismic displacements, taking into account the SSI effects. The uniform hazard ground response spectra, was provided by seismological studies. The soil dynamic parameters are based on site measurements. The analysis was carried out using two parallel methods in order to calibrate the analytical models and to create cross check. The analysis flow chart is presented. In addition analyses of building - soil -building interaction and equipment - building interaction were performed to determine the best estimated relative displacements between the supports points of the main steam line. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Economic Feasibility Analysis of the Application of Geothermal Energy Facilities to Public Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present an efficient plan for the application of a geothermal energy facility at the building structure planning phase. Energy consumption, energy cost and the primary energy consumption of buildings were calculated to enable a comparison of buildings prior to the application of a geothermal energy facility. The capacity for energy savings and the costs related to the installation of such a facility were estimated. To obtain more reliable criteria for economic feasibility, the lifecycle cost (LCC analysis incorporated maintenance costs (reflecting repair and replacement cycles based on construction work specifications of a new renewable energy facility and initial construction costs (calculated based on design drawings for its practical installation. It is expected that the findings of this study will help in the selection of an economically viable geothermal energy facility at the building construction planning phase.

  1. Soil structure interaction analysis for a reactor building with a pile foundation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coman, O. [Stevenson and Associates Office in Bucharest, (Romania); Ree, H. van de [N.V. Kema, Arnhem (Netherlands). Transmission and Distribution

    1995-12-31

    The present paper presents the SSI analysis and Floor Response Spectra (FRS) generation for a Reactor Building (RB) with a pile foundation system. This work was done within the scope of Probabilistic Safety Analysis Level 1 - external events, (1993). The task was to produce the best estimated seismic structure response including FRS and seismic displacements, taking into account the SSI effects. The uniform hazard ground response spectra, was provided by seismological studies. The soil dynamic parameters are based on site measurements. The analysis was carried out using two parallel methods in order to calibrate the analytical models and to create cross check. The analysis flow chart is presented. In addition analyses of building - soil -building interaction and equipment - building interaction were performed to determine the best estimated relative displacements between the supports points of the main steam line. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Seismic response of tall building considering soil-pile-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingcai

    2002-06-01

    The seismic behavior of tall buildings can be greatly affected by non-linear soil-pile interaction during strong earthquakes. In this study a 20-storey building is examined as a typical structure supported on a pile foundation for different conditions: (1) rigid base, i.e. no deformation in the foundation: (2) linear soil-pile system; and (3) nonlinear soil-pile system. The effects of pile foundation displacements on the behavior of tall building are investigated, and compared with the behavior of buildings supported on shallow foundation. With a model of non-reflective boundary between the near field and far field, Novak’s method of soil-pile interaction is improved. The computation method for vibration of pile foundations and DYNAN computer program are introduced comprehensively. A series of dynamic experiments have been done on full-scale piles, including single pile and group, linear vibration and nonlinear vibration, to verify the validity of boundary zone model.

  3. Behaviour of AR glass fibre for building structural applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miravete, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The AR glass reinforcement fibres were designed to resist the alkalis from the concrete. This is the main reason for its utilisation as a short-fibre-reinforcement of mortar and concrete for the last decades. Originally, the AR glass fibre sizing was not compatible with synthetic resins, so that this type of reinforcement was applied exclusively to mortar and concrete matrices. Recently, due to the developments of sizing, which are compatible with synthetic resins, the AR- glass fibres may be used as reinforcement of organic matrix composite materials, broadening the range of structural applications. The mechanical properties of AR glass fibre and organic matrix composite materials will be studied in this paper. First, the behaviour of this material under stress corrosion will be analysed. Their mass loss will be compared to E, C, and boron free glass fibres. Second, an experimental study dealing with 3P test bending and short beam ofAR glass fibre/polyester will de described with the goal of obtaining their Young modulus and tensile and interlaminar shear strengths. Finally, these experimental results will be compared to E glass fibre/polyester and several conclusions about their structural applications will be drawn.

    El vidrio AR y su presentación en forma de fibras de refuerzo, fue diseñado para ser inerte a los álcalis de los cementos. Por este motivo se viene utilizando desde hace varias décadas como refuerzo de morteros y hormigones en forma de fibra corta. El ensimaje que estas fibras de vidrio de refuerzo A R presentaba en su origen no era compatible con resinas de tipo sintéticas, por lo que el refuerzo era exclusivo para cementos y hormigones fuera cual fuera la aplicación, formato o proceso productivo. Recientemente, gracias al desarrollo específico de ensimajes especiales acordes a las fibras de vidrio AR ha aparecido la misma tipología de vidrio AR como refuerzo en forma de fibra continua compatible con resinas sint

  4. Max Auwaerter Price lecture: building and probing atomic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The control of the geometric, electronic, and magnetic properties of atomic-scale nanostructures is a prerequisite for the understanding and fabrication of new materials and devices. Two routes lead towards this goal: Atomic manipulation of single atoms and molecules by scanning probe microscopy, or patterning using self-assembly. Atomic manipulation has been performed since almost 20 years, but it has been difficult to answer the simple question: how much force does it take to manipulate atoms and molecules on surfaces? To address this question, we used a combined atomic force and scanning tunneling microscope to simultaneously measure the force and the current between an adsorbate and a tip during atomic manipulation. We found that the force it takes to move an atom depends crucially on the binding between adsorbate and surface. Our results indicate that for moving metal atoms on metal surfaces, the lateral force component plays the dominant role. Measuring the forces during manipulation yielded the full potential energy landscape of the tip-sample interaction. Surprisingly, the potential energy barriers are comparable to diffusion barriers, which are obtained in the absence of a probe tip. Furthermore, we used the scanning tunneling microscope to assemble magnetic structures on a thin insulator. We found, that the spin of the atom is influenced by the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the supporting surface which lifts the spin degeneracy of the ground state and enables the identification of individual atoms. The ground state of atoms with half-integer spin remains always degenerated at zero field due to Kramers theorem. We found that if these states differ by an orbital momentum of m = ±1 the localized spin is screened by the surrounding conducting electrons of the non-magnetic host and form a many-electron spin-singlet at sufficiently low temperature. (author)

  5. Task 7a: Dynamic analysis of Paks NPP structures reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes dynamic response calculation of the NPP Paks, reactor building to the full scale blast testing. All calculations described in this report have been elaborated within the scope of IAEA co-ordinated research - Benchmark Study for for seismic analysis/testing of NPPs type WWER - Task 7a - Dynamic Analysis of PAKS NPP structures, i.e. reactor building. The input in the form of time history of velocities or accelerations on the free field caused by blast testing was only available for the participants of the task No.7a. The aim of this task is to calculate the dynamic response to the blast load in the form of floor response spectra in selected nodes of the structure without knowing the measured data. The data measured by the full scale blast test are published and the results of different calculations compared. The following structures were taken into account: turbine hall, intermediate multi-storey building, lateral multi-storey building, reactor building, ventilation center and condenser towers

  6. Combined No Dig techniques for the characterization of historical buildings' structural elements in Abruzzo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, Danilo; Santacroce, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    Non destructive investigation techniques, No Dig Techniques, have been applied in engineering field since over fifty years, and their employment innovations increase proportionally to the technological development. Actually, for existing buildings, is possible to employ several non destructive investigation techniques, according to current national and local regulations. The application of an indirect survey campaign, enable to extend the result obtained by a confined e/o local destructive investigation method to the whole studied object. It offers a more complete structure knowledge, in terms of physics, chemistry and mechanical characterization, in despite of using less invasive investigation methods. In this paper the attention is pointed on structures characterization, belonging to historic and architectonic Italian heritage, using minimal impact investigation methods. The proposed method consists of the combined employing of Georadar technique, using high frequencies antennas unit, and sonic method, setting an impulsive mass centred on low frequencies. The result of this combined method, employed in the Abruzzi Region post seismic context (6th april 2009 Earthquake), are exposed treating two case-studies of masonry pillars characterization in the "De Amicis" school courtyard (L'Aquila old town centre), and in the naves of Valvense Basilica di San Pelino (Corfinio).

  7. On silver wings: a fragile structural mechanism increases plumage conspicuousness

    OpenAIRE

    Galván, Ismael; Bortolotti, Gary R.; Negro, Juan J.; Margalida, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    We report for the first time the existence of a structural mechanism of feathers different from iridescence that makes plumage conspicuous. By using electron and light microscopy, we show that the mechanism consists of special lengthened and twisted distal barbules that are very susceptible to damage. The dorsal side of these barbules is translucent, which creates a distinctive sheen colouration to feathers that otherwise would be dark. When distal sheen barbules are broken, the black proxima...

  8. Creating science and technology superiority,increasing marine equipment manufacturing capability to build China into world No.1 shipbuilding country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The creation of science and technol-ogy superiority is the basic driving forceto push forward the development ofChina’s shipbuilding Industry by leaps andbounds,and achieve the goal of buildingChina into the world number one ship-building country. 1.The strength of science and tech-nology is the decisive factor affecting ourcompetitiveness in the world market The shipbuilding industry is a labour-intensive,capital-intensive and technology-intensive industry.However,ever since the90’s of the last century,with the wide ap-plication of new technology and new manu-facturing process,the productivity of shipconstruction has increased significantly,therole of primary production elements suchas low-priced labor has weakened dramati-cally in the market competition.With thecontinuous increase of technology inten-siveness in the shipbuilding industry,thestrength of science and technology is becoming the most important factor of mar-ket competitiveness.In the last ten years,in order to strengthen their technical sup

  9. Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadtler, Bryce F [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Ag2S lattices were used to calculate interface formation energies. The formation energies indicate the favorability for interface nucleation at different facets of the nanorod and the stability of the interfaces during growth of the secondary material (Cu2S or Ag2S) within the CdS nanocrystal. The physical properties of the CdS-Ag2S and CdS-Cu2S binary nanorods are discussed in terms of the electronic structure of their components and the heterostructure morphology.

  10. Structural response of Paks NPP WWER-440 MW main building complex to blast input motion. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Soviet standard design units WWER-440/213 type installed in Paks NPP were not originally designed for a Safe Shutdown Earthquake. At the time of selection of Paks site on the basis of historical earthquake data was supposed that the maximum earthquake is of grade V according MSK-64 scale. This seismicity level had not required any special measures to account for seismic event effects on the Main Building Complex Structure. Current site seismicity studies reveal that the seismic hazard for the site significantly exceeds the originally estimated. In addition the safety rules and seismic code requirements became more rugged. As a part of the activities to increase the seismic safety of the Paks NPP the study on dynamic behaviour of the Main Building Complex Structure has been performed with support of IAEA. The explosion full scale tests were carried out for determining the dynamic behaviour of the structure and for assessment of the Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) effects in the modelling and analysis procedures, used in the dynamic response analyses. The objective of the project was to evaluate the blast response of the WWER-440/213 Main Building Complex at Paks NPP, based on the data available for the soil properties, recorded free-field blast input motion, and structural design. The scope of EQE-Bulgaria study was to conduct a state-of-the-art SSI analysis with a multiple foundations supported model of the Main Building Complex to assess the structure blast response. The analysis was focused on a modelling technique that assess realistically the SSI effects on the dynamic response of a structure supported on multiple foundation instead of simplified, but more conservative techniques. The scope of research was covered splitting the study into the following steps: development of a twin units model for Main Building Complex structure; development of a Low Strain Soil Properties Model; development of SSI Parameters consisting of a Multiple Foundations System

  11. Influence of Steel Fibers on the Structural Performance of a Prestressed Concrete Containment Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of previous experimental investigations indicate that the use of steel fibers in conventional reinforced concrete (RC) can enhance the structural and functional performance of prestressed concrete containment buildings (PCCBs) in nuclear power plants. A prevention of through-wall cracks and an increase of the post-cracking ductility will improve the ultimate internal pressure capacity, and a high shear resistance under cyclic loadings will increase the seismic resisting capacity. In this study, the effects of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) on the ultimate pressure and seismic capacities of a PCCB are investigated. The effects of steel fibers on the ultimate pressure and shear resisting capacities of a PCCB are investigated. It is revealed that both of the ultimate pressure capacity and the shear resisting capacity of a PCCB can be greatly enhanced by introducing steel fibers in a conventional RC. Estimation results indicate that the ultimate pressure capacity and maximum lateral displacement of a PCCB can be improved by 16% and 64%, respectively, if a conventional RC contains hooked steel fibers in a volume fraction of 1.0%

  12. Influence of Structural Periodicity on Vibration Transmission in a Multi-Storey Wooden Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    Noise is a nuisance to people, and buildings should therefore be designed to prevent propagation of sound and vibration in the audible frequency range as well as the range of frequencies relevant to whole-body vibrations of humans. In heavy structures made of concrete and masonry, a source with h...

  13. 49 CFR 1242.26 - Miscellaneous building and structures (account XX-19-28).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Miscellaneous building and structures (account XX... XX-19-28). Separate common expenses as specific facts indicate or according to distribution of common expenses listed in § 1242.10, Administration-Track (account XX-19-02)....

  14. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1990-09-01

    Commercial buildings often have extensive periods where one space needs cooling and another heating. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If a building's heating and cooling system could be integrated with the building's structural mass such that the mass can be used to collect, store, and deliver energy, significant energy might be saved. Computer models were developed to simulate this interaction for an existing office building in Seattle, Washington that has a decentralized water-source heat pump system. Metered data available for the building was used to calibrate a base'' building model (i.e., nonintegrated) prior to simulation of the integrated system. In the simulated integration strategy a secondary water loop was manifolded to the main HVAC hydronic loop. tubing in this loop was embedded in the building's concrete floor slabs. Water was routed to this loop by a controller to charge or discharge thermal energy to and from the slabs. The slabs were also in thermal communication with the conditioned spaces. Parametric studies of the building model, using weather data for five other cities in addition to Seattle, predicted that energy can be saved on cooling dominated days. On hot, dry days and during the night the cooling tower can beneficially be used as a free cooling'' source for thermally charging'' the floor slabs using cooled water. Through the development of an adaptive/predictive control strategy, annual HVAC energy savings as large as 30% appear to be possible in certain climates. 8 refs., 13 figs.

  15. PCM-enhanced building components an application of phase change materials in building envelopes and internal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kosny, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Presenting an overview of the use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) within buildings, this book discusses the performance of PCM-enhanced building envelopes. It reviews the most common PCMs suitable for building applications, and discusses PCM encapsulation and packaging methods. In addition to this, it examines a range of PCM-enhanced building products in the process of development as well as examples of whole-building-scale field demonstrations. Further chapters discuss experimental and theoretical analyses (including available software) to determine dynamic thermal and energy performance ch

  16. Ultimate guide to link building how to build backlinks, authority and credibility for your website, and increase click traffic and search ranking

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The web today is comprised of trillions of links: links between websites, links within social media venues like Facebook and Twitter, and even links in email inboxes. Who links to a site and how they link to it is one of the most important factors that search engines rely on when ranking results. But how do marketers control this? Link building expert Eric Ward provides the answers.Sharing little-known techniques for link building via social media platforms, blogs, partnerships, public relations, articles, and more, Ward teaches marketers which link-building techniques will maximi

  17. Solar heating and cooling of buildings: activities of the private sector of the building community and its perceived needs relative to increased activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    A description of the state of affairs existing in the private sector of the building community between mid-1974 and mid-1975 with regard to solar heating and cooling of buildings is presentd. Also, information on the needs perceived by the private sector with regard to governmental actions (besides research) required to induce widespread application of solar energy for the heating and cooling of buildings is given. The information is based on surveys, data obtained at workshops, sales literature of manufacturers, symposia, and miscellaneous correspondence. Selected interests and projects of individuals and organizations are described. (WHK)

  18. The role of polar, lamdba (Λ)-shaped building units in noncentrosymmetric inorganic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donakowski, Martin D; Gautier, Romain; Yeon, Jeongho; Moore, Donald T; Nino, Juan C; Halasyamani, P Shiv; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2012-05-01

    A methodology for the design of polar, inorganic structures is demonstrated here with the packing of lambda (Λ)-shaped basic building units (BBUs). Noncentrosymmetric (NCS) solids with interesting physical properties can be created with BBUs that lack an inversion center and are likely to pack into a polar configuration; previous methods to construct these solids have used NCS octahedra as BBUs. Using this methodology to synthesize NCS solids, one must increase the coordination of the NCS octahedra with maintenance of the noncentrosymmetry of the bulk. The first step in this progression from an NCS octahedron to an inorganic NCS solid is the formation of a bimetallic BBU. This step is exemplified with the compound CuVOF(4)(H(2)O)(7): this compound, presented here, crystallizes in an NCS structure with ordered, isolated [Cu(H(2)O)(5)](2+) cations and [VOF(4)(H(2)O)](2-) anions into Λ-shaped, bimetallic BBUs to form CuVOF(4)(H(2)O)(6)·H(2)O, owing to the Jahn-Teller distortion of Cu(2+). Conversely, the centrosymmetric heterotypes with the same formula MVOF(4)(H(2)O)(7) (M(II) = Co, Ni, and Zn) exhibit ordered, isolated [VOF(4)(H(2)O)](2-) and [M(H(2)O)(6)](2+) ionic species in a hydrogen bond network. CuVOF(4)(H(2)O)(7) exhibits a net polar moment while the heterotypes do not; this demonstrates that Λ-shaped BBUs give a greater probability for and, in this case, lead to NCS structures. PMID:22335338

  19. On the use of tensegrity structures for kinetic solar facades of smart buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraternali, F.; De Chiara, E.; Skelton, R. E.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the use of tensegrity structures with morphing and prestress-stability capabilities for the design of active solar façades of smart buildings. Morphing tensegrity lattices are used to design shading screens composed of umbrella-shaped ‘eyes’ that are opened and closed by adjusting the elongation in a limited number of cables. Prestressable lattices are instead employed to design superstable Venetian blinds that are composed of orientable slats. Future use of tensegrity solutions for next-generation smart buildings are outlined, with the aim of designing kinetic solar façades that combine morphing abilities with prestress-stability.

  20. A novel 300 kW arc plasma inverter system based on hierarchical controlled building block structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date, the high power arc plasma technology is widely used. A next generation high power arc plasma system based on building block structure is presented. The whole arc plasma inverter system is composed of 12 paralleled units to increase the system output capability. The hierarchical control system is adopted to improve the reliability and flexibility of the high power arc plasma inverter. To ensure the reliable turn on and off of the IGBT module in each building block unit, a special pulse drive circuit is designed by using pulse transformer. The experimental result indicates that the high power arc plasma inverter system can transfer 300 kW arc plasma energy reliably with high efficiency.

  1. Construction solutions for the exterior walls in the process of increasing the width of residential buildings of brownfield construction in seismic hazardousand dry hot conditions of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main object of this study is the reconstruction, renovation and modernization of the housing built in the period 1975—1985. These buildings have low energy efficiency due to the poor thermal insulation properties of the walls. These apartments do not meet the necessary requirements for year round warmth and comfort.Reconstruction is more preferable, than new-build, because of the cost saving for the land acquisition. Reconstruction is generally 1.5 times cheaper than new-build with 25—40 % reduced cost on building materials and engineering infrastructure.Increasing the width of the apartment blocks from 12 to 15 m can save 9—10 % on the consumption of thermal energy for heating and reduce the m2 construction cost by 5.5—7.0 %. In—5-9 storey high-rise buildings the savings are 3—5 %.Therefore, the width of the apartment block should preferably be between 9—12 m but could be extended to 18 m. The depth of the apartments themselves will be 5.4 — 6.0 —7.2 or 9.0 m. During the reconstruction of 5-storey residential buildings (Building Type105 in a seismic zone, an increase in the width of the block and the lateral stiffness of the building is achieved by building a new reinforced concrete (RC frame on both sides of the building with a depth of between 2 and 6 m. This technique is especially effective in increasing the seismic resistance of the building. Self-supporting walls of cellular concrete blocks (density 600 kg/m3 and a thickness of 300 mm are constructed on the outside of the frame, taking care to avoid cold bridges.Model studies have shown that in the conditions of hot-arid climate the thickness of the air gap in a ventilated facade does not significantly change the cooling-energy consumption of the building, and heating consumption is significantly increased. The building's energy consumption is most influenced by the volume of the air in the air gap. By increasing the ventilation rate in the air gap, the energy

  2. Seismic response trends evaluation via long term monitoring and finite element model updating of an RC building including soil-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, F.; Omenzetter, P.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a study on the seismic response trends evaluation and finite element model updating of a reinforced concrete building monitored for a period of more than two years. The three storey reinforced concrete building is instrumented with five tri-axial accelerometers and a free-field tri-axial accelerometer. The time domain N4SID system identification technique was used to obtain the frequencies and damping ratios considering flexible base models taking into account the soil-structure-interaction (SSI) using 50 earthquakes. Trends of variation of seismic response were developed by correlating the peak response acceleration at the roof level with identified frequencies and damping ratios. A general trend of decreasing frequencies was observed with increased level of shaking. To simulate the behavior of the building, a three dimensional finite element model (FEM) was developed. To incorporate real in-situ conditions, soil underneath the foundation and around the building was modeled using spring elements and non-structural components (claddings and partitions) were also included. The developed FEM was then calibrated using a sensitivity based model updating technique taking into account soil flexibility and non-structural components as updating parameters. It was concluded from the investigation that knowledge of the variation of seismic response of buildings is necessary to better understand their behavior during earthquakes, and also that the participation of soil and non-structural components is significant towards the seismic response of the building and these should be considered in models to simulate the real behavior.

  3. Influence of Building Material Solution of Structures to Effectiveness of Real Estate Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorová, Viera

    2015-11-01

    Real estate development is in its essence the development process characterized by a considerable dynamics. The purpose of the development process is the creation of buildings which can be either rented by future unknown users or sold in the real estate market. A first part of the paper is dedicated to the analysis of the parameters of buildings solutions considering the future operating costs in a phase of designing. Material solution of external structures is a main factor not only in determining the future operating costs but also in achieving the subsequent economic effectiveness of the real estate development. To determine the relationship between economic efficiency criteria and determine the optimal material variant of building constructions for the specific example is the aim of the second part of paper.

  4. Seismic response of tall building considering soil-pile-structure interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The seismic behavior of tall buildings can be greatly affected by non-linear soil-pile interaction during strongearthquakes. In this study a 20-storey building is examined as a typical structure supported on a pile foundation for differentconditions: (1) rigid base, i.e. no deformation in the foundation: (2) linear soil-pile system; and (3) nonlinear soil-pile system.The effects of pile foundation displacements on the behavior of tall building are investigated, and compared with the behavior ofbuildings supported on shallow foundation. With a model of non-reflective boundary between the near field and far field,Novak's method of soil-pile interaction is improved. The computation method for vibration of pile foundations and DYNANcomputer program are introduced comprehensively. A series of dynamic experiments have been done on full-scale piles,including single pile and group, linear vibration and nonlinear vibration, to verify the validity of boundary zone model.

  5. Building disc structure and galaxy properties through angular momentum: the DARK SAGE semi-analytic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Adam R. H.; Croton, Darren J.; Mutch, Simon J.

    2016-09-01

    We present the new semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution, DARK SAGE, a heavily modified version of the publicly available SAGE code. The model is designed for detailed evolution of galactic discs. We evolve discs in a series of annuli with fixed specific angular momentum, which allows us to make predictions for the radial and angular-momentum structure of galaxies. Most physical processes, including all channels of star formation and associated feedback, are performed in these annuli. We present the surface density profiles of our model spiral galaxies, both as a function of radius and specific angular momentum, and find that the discs naturally build a pseudo-bulge-like component. Our main results are focused on predictions relating to the integrated mass-specific angular momentum relation of stellar discs. The model produces a distinct sequence between these properties in remarkable agreement with recent observational literature. We investigate the impact Toomre disc instabilities have on shaping this sequence and find they are crucial for regulating both the mass and spin of discs. Without instabilities, high-mass discs would be systematically deficient in specific angular momentum by a factor of ˜2.5, with increased scatter. Instabilities also appear to drive the direction in which the mass-spin sequence of spiral galaxy discs evolves. With them, we find galaxies of fixed mass have higher specific angular momentum at later epochs.

  6. Life Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Different Building Structural Frame Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO2 emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC or steel (S structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO2 emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO2 emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO2 emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO2 emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO2 emissions cost of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future.

  7. Life comparative analysis of energy consumption and CO₂ emissions of different building structural frame types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangyong; Moon, Joon-Ho; Shin, Yoonseok; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Seo, Deok-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO₂ emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC) or steel (S) structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO₂ emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO₂ emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO₂ emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO₂ emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO₂ emissions cost) of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future. PMID:24227998

  8. Coupling of impedance functions to nuclear reactor building for soil-structure interaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finite element model of a nuclear reactor building is coupled to complex soil impedance functions and soil-structure-interaction analysis is carried out in frequency domain. In the second type of analysis applied in this paper, soil impedance functions are used to evaluate equivalent soil springs and dashpots of soil. These are coupled to the structure model in order to carry out the time marching analysis. Three types of soil profiles are considered: hard, medium and soft. Results of two analyzes are compared on the same structural model. Equivalent soil springs and dashpots are determined using new method based on the least square approximation. (author)

  9. A study on the functional assessment of the prestressed system and main structural elements in life extended containment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, C. H.; Kim, S. W.; Choi, J. G. [DAEWOO E and C Institute of Costruction Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2001-10-15

    The design life of KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) containment buildings is extended from 40 years to 60 years. However, nuclear reactor buildings are passive structures that are impossible to be exchanged in the case of degradation by the deterioration and so on when extending the design life of structures. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the long-term safety endurance in the design and construction of KNGR. Also, ti is judged that choice of the material and various test methods should be prescribed clearly. In this study, the reduction schemes of deterioration and the safety-ensuring schemes are drawn for the expected performance to be maintained from the beginning of the service to the required period together with ensuring the safety and serviceability of KNGR which will be constructed with the design life of 60 years, taking into account the dimensions, selection of material and construction methods in the design and construction stages. Also, the validity is to be examined for the estimation method of long-term losses of stress introduced to KNGR whose design life is increased to 60 years. The durability enhancement scheme on the design and construction for the design life extension of nuclear containment buildings is to be drawn through these studies. These results are utilized as the basic data for the safety inspection and examination guides of KNGR and finally the additional investigations are proposed for the items which require long-term studies.

  10. Routing Corners of Building Structures - by the Method of Vector Addition - Measured with RTN GNSS Surveying Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżek, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The paper deals with the problem of surveying buildings in the RTN GNSS mode using modernized indirect methods of measurement. As a result of the classical realtime measurements using indirect methods (intersection of straight lines or a point on a straight line), we obtain a building structure (a building) which is largely deformed. This distortion is due to the inconsistency of the actual dimensions of the building (tie distances) relative to the obtained measurement results. In order to eliminate these discrepancies, and thus to ensure full consistency of the building geometric structure, an innovative solution was applied - the method of vector addition - to modify the linear values (tie distances) of the external face of the building walls. A separate research problem tackled in the article, although not yet fully solved, is the issue of coordinates of corners of a building obtained after the application of the method of vector addition.

  11. Design of earthquake resistance enhancements of the Dukovany nuclear power plant building structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with problems of enhancing earthquake resistance of safety related building structures of the NPP Dukovany. The plant operates for over thirty years and there is time to verify the actual state of structures. Two years ago a detailed seismic response analysis of structures considering the newly postulated earthquake loads has been performed. The computation model has been developed involving the complex of all interacting structures of the main production block with equipment. Seismic analysis has been performed using response spectrum method. The reliability assessment of structures has been carried out. Consequently feasible ways of enhancing the seismic resistance of structures have been designed. In order to verify the designs a second seismic analysis has been recently accomplished using acceleration time history method. The results of analyses are discussed in the paper. (author)

  12. Seismic safety evaluation of base-isolated building structures in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, Yoshikazu; Midorikawa, Mitsumasa [Ministry of Construction, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    Japan is characteristically subjected to seismic activity. Therefore, it is a matter of concern how building structures behave under earthquake conditions. Currently, the focus of research on seismic design methods has changed from static analysis to dynamic one. Many studies and proposals concerned with base-isolation systems have been carried out, some of which have resulted in the construction of actual structures in New Zealand, France, U.S.A., Japan, and other countries. Although the ball bearing system inherent in base-isolation systems was proposed by Dr. K. Kito in 1924, only recently have base-isolated structures been proposed and enthusiastically put into practice in Japan. As of November 1994, a total of 79 structure design plans for base-isolated structures have obtained the special permission required in Japan. This paper outlines a safety evaluation guideline for base-isolated structures in Japan.

  13. STUDYING THE DESIGN OF WIND TUNNEL FOR AERODYNAMIC AND AEROACOUSTIC TESTS OF BUILDING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Egorychev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. In order to study building aerodynamics, a scientific and industrial la-boratory was created at the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering for aerodynamic and aeroacoustic tests of building structures. The main research station in the laboratory was a wind tunnel. This paper describes a design of a wind tunnel to study the aerodynamic and acoustic ef-fects on buildings, structures and their elements.Results and conclusions. Different variants of principal schemes of wind tunnels were examined and developed. Preliminary calculating characteristics of the setup were obtained. The internation-al experienced of aero setup design was used in elaborating the structure. It was developed using numerical modelling and the method of a series of calculation of gas dynamics of an closed sub-sonic wind tunnel being designed. It was found that a modified structure with a 7-degree turn of a nozzle and operating area significantly improves gas dynamics in the operating area.

  14. Automated metric characterization of urban structure using building decomposition from very high resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, Johannes; Kemper, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Classification approaches for urban areas are mostly of qualitative and semantic nature. They produce interpreted classes similar to those from land cover and land use classifications. As a complement to those classes, quantitative measures directly derived from the image could lead to a metric characterization of the urban area. While these metrics lack of qualitative interpretation they are able to provide objective measure of the urban structures. Such quantitative measures are especially important in rapidly growing cities since, beside of the growth in area, they can provide structural information for specific areas and detect changes. Rustenburg, which serves as test area for the present study, is amongst the fastest growing cities in South Africa. It reveals a heterogeneous face of housing and building structures reflecting social and/or economic differences often linked to the spatial distribution of industrial and local mining sites. Up to date coverage with aerial photographs is provided by aerial surveys in regular intervals. Also recent satellite systems provide imagery with suitable resolution. Using such set of very high resolution images a fully automated algorithm has been developed which outputs metric classes by systematically combining important measures of building structure. The measurements are gained by decomposition of buildings directly from the imagery and by using methods from mathematical morphology. The decomposed building objects serve as basis for the computation of grid statistics. Finally a systematic combination of the single features leads to combined metrical classes. For the dominant urban structures verification results indicate an overall accuracy of at least 80% on the single feature level and 70% for the combined classes.

  15. Flow structures around a gable-roofed building model in tornado-like winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zifeng; Balaramudu, Vasanth; Haan, Fred; Sarkar, Partha; Hu, Hui

    2007-11-01

    Tornadoes are violently rotating columns of air which are considered as nature's most violent storms. In an average year, 800 ˜ 1000 tornados would occur in the U.S. alone, and cause about 80 deaths (on average), over 1500 injuries, and 850 million worth of property damage. By using the world-largest tornado simulator of Iowa State University, a comprehensive experimental investigation was conducted to characterize the flow structures around a low-rise, gable-roofed building model in tornado-like winds. While pressure taps and force transducers were used to map the pressure distributions around the building model and measure the aerodynamic forces acting on the building model induced by the tornado-like winds, a high-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to conduct detailed flow velocity field measurements around the gable-roofed building model. The ultimate objective of the present study is to quantify the surface winds generated by tornadoes and flow-structure interactions between tornadoes and built environments to assess wind-induced damage with the purpose of mitigating damage and improving public safety.

  16. The reaction of the building structure with window unit to the explosiveimpact on the basis of dynamic equation solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doronin Fedor Leonidovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When designing residential buildings, additional measures for increasing the strength at dynamic effects indoors are not foreseen. The walls of the structure fixed in the framework are not designed for shock wave caused by explosion of utility gas. When designing a building, the task of the special dynamic load is often reduced to the calculation of the safe shock pressure, exceeding of which leads to the destruction of the structures. The wall with the window area under dynamic effects is a blast relief panel, which reduces the excess pressure inside the room. The proposed method of calculating a design with a window unit allows determining the dynamic reaction of the wall on explosive pulse. The proposed calculation technique of the constructions at shock loads allows tracing the changes of the inertial forces and displacements at any stage of dynamic response. The reaction to dynamic loads can be also set for non-monolithic structures, consisting of different materials with different conditions of fastening. Elastoplastic reaction of a brick wall with glass units was determined using step-by-step method of linear acceleration. The calculation of stress-strain state of brick walls with window panes determined the strength properties of the structures close to the monolithic version. The proposed technique of numerical solution of dynamic equations is applied only in the analysis of elastic systems, in which the dynamic characteristics remain unchanged throughout the reaction process.

  17. Effects of Various Blowout Panel Configurations on the Structural Response of LANL Building 16-340 to Internal Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason P. Wilke

    2005-09-30

    The risk of accidental detonation is present whenever any type of high explosives processing activity is performed. These activities are typically carried out indoors to protect processing equipment from the weather and to hide possibly secret processes from view. Often, highly strengthened reinforced concrete buildings are employed to house these activities. These buildings may incorporate several design features, including the use of lightweight frangible blowout panels, to help mitigate blast effects. These panels are used to construct walls that are durable enough to withstand the weather, but are of minimal weight to provide overpressure relief by quickly moving outwards and creating a vent area during an accidental explosion. In this study the behavior of blowout panels under various blast loading conditions was examined. External loadings from explosions occurring in nearby rooms were of primary interest. Several reinforcement systems were designed to help blowout panels resist failure from external blast loads while still allowing them to function as vents when subjected to internal explosions. The reinforcements were studied using two analytical techniques, yield-line analysis and modal analysis, and the hydrocode AUTODYN. A blowout panel reinforcement design was created that could prevent panels from being blown inward by external explosions. This design was found to increase the internal loading of the building by 20%, as compared with nonreinforced panels. Nonreinforced panels were found to increase the structural loads by 80% when compared to an open wall at the panel location.

  18. Review structural analyses of Olkiluoto3 EPR plant turbine and cooling water pump buildings for serviceability limit states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the review structural analysis for the Turbine Building of Olkiluoto 3 NPP (UMA) under finished condition when building is covered with insulated cladding and inside temperatures are maintained by HVAC system. The main aim of the review structural analysis is to ensure the sufficient strength and deformation characteristics of the turbine building structures. The second part of this paper describes the verification structural analysis for the Cooling Water Pump Building of Olkiluoto 3 NPP (UQA). The current verification analysis assesses the validity of the Cooling Water Pump building design for serviceability limit states concentrating on crack width calculations. The introduction of construction time shrinkage joints in the turbine building deletes to the large extent the uneven shrinkage contraction in the concrete substructure. It also enables the uniform temperature expansion of the turbine building structures. The required rebar areas in the cooling water pump building were determined for long term serviceability limit states and for allowable crack widths of 0.13 mm as well as for short term serviceability limit states and for allowable crack widths of 0.26 mm. From the obtained results it can be concluded that more than 95% from the all shell elements in the model of the cooling water pump building fulfill crack width requirements in both long term and short term load conditions with the system reinforcement of two layers of 20 mm rebars with 100 mm pitch in both directions. (author)

  19. Utilization of the Building-Block Approach in Structural Mechanics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Marshall; Jegley, Dawn C.; McGowan, David M.; Bush, Harold G.; Waters, W. Allen

    2005-01-01

    In the last 20 years NASA has worked in collaboration with industry to develop enabling technologies needed to make aircraft safer and more affordable, extend their lifetime, improve their reliability, better understand their behavior, and reduce their weight. To support these efforts, research programs starting with ideas and culminating in full-scale structural testing were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. Each program contained development efforts that (a) started with selecting the material system and manufacturing approach; (b) moved on to experimentation and analysis of small samples to characterize the system and quantify behavior in the presence of defects like damage and imperfections; (c) progressed on to examining larger structures to examine buckling behavior, combined loadings, and built-up structures; and (d) finally moved to complicated subcomponents and full-scale components. Each step along the way was supported by detailed analysis, including tool development, to prove that the behavior of these structures was well-understood and predictable. This approach for developing technology became known as the "building-block" approach. In the Advanced Composites Technology Program and the High Speed Research Program the building-block approach was used to develop a true understanding of the response of the structures involved through experimentation and analysis. The philosophy that if the structural response couldn't be accurately predicted, it wasn't really understood, was critical to the progression of these programs. To this end, analytical techniques including closed-form and finite elements were employed and experimentation used to verify assumptions at each step along the way. This paper presents a discussion of the utilization of the building-block approach described previously in structural mechanics research and development programs at NASA Langley Research Center. Specific examples that illustrate the use of this approach are

  20. Soil-structure interaction in the Tokamak building of ITER - Influence of the seismic wave pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, F.; Combescure, D.; Vaz-Romero, A.

    2010-07-01

    With a design basis earthquake at the level of 0.315 g ZPGA, seismic action is a major concern for the design of the ITER buildings and the main mechanical components. A change in the representation of the seismic motion or in the assumptions for soil-structure interaction may have important technical and financial consequences. As it is known, the ITER building housing the fusion reactor, the Tokamak Complex, has a plan of 120 x 80 m, and it will be built with a base isolation system formed with about 500 steel reinforced neoprene pads. Such a configuration will provide a good isolation against horizontal ground movements, but not against vertical or rocking movements. Therefore, non-vertically incident waves or Rayleigh waves might have some significant contribution to the response of the structure. This contribution could be missed if the common assumption of vertically propagating waves is used in the soil structure interaction (SSI) analyses. In addition, the Tokamak complex is embedded almost 20 m in rock. Normally, the embedment of the foundation will produce some reduction in the seismic input to the building, when compared with the control point input defined at the ground surface. This effect of kinematic interaction due to the embedment of the foundation can also be significant. In this context, the work described in the present paper has been carried out to assess the differences in structural response at the Tokamak Complex that can derive from different assumptions about the seismic wave patterns. Additionally, the effect of foundation embedment on the seismic input actually seen by the building has been investigated.

  1. Aircraft-crash-protected steel reactor building roof structure for the European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper recommends the use of all steel roof structures for the reactor building of European Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plants. This change would make the advanced US BWR designs more compatible with European requirements. Replacement of the existing concrete roof slab with a sufficiently thick steel plate would eliminate the concrete spelling resulting from a postulated aircraft crash, potentially damaging the drywell head or the spent fuel pool

  2. Soil-structure interaction in the Tokamak building of ITER - Influence of the seismic wave pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a design basis earthquake at the level of 0.315 g ZPGA, seismic action is a major concern for the design of the ITER buildings and the main mechanical components. A change in the representation of the seismic motion or in the assumptions for soil-structure interaction may have important technical and financial consequences. As it is known, the ITER building housing the fusion reactor, the Tokamak Complex, has a plan of 120 x 80 m, and it will be built with a base isolation system formed with about 500 steel reinforced neoprene pads. Such a configuration will provide a good isolation against horizontal ground movements, but not against vertical or rocking movements. Therefore, non-vertically incident waves or Rayleigh waves might have some significant contribution to the response of the structure. This contribution could be missed if the common assumption of vertically propagating waves is used in the soil structure interaction (SSI) analyses. In addition, the Tokamak complex is embedded almost 20 m in rock. Normally, the embedment of the foundation will produce some reduction in the seismic input to the building, when compared with the control point input defined at the ground surface. This effect of kinematic interaction due to the embedment of the foundation can also be significant. In this context, the work described in the present paper has been carried out to assess the differences in structural response at the Tokamak Complex that can derive from different assumptions about the seismic wave patterns. Additionally, the effect of foundation embedment on the seismic input actually seen by the building has been investigated.

  3. Earthquake response analysis of embedded reactor building considering soil-structure separation and nonlinearity of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the earthquake response analysis for a rigid and massive structure as a nuclear reactor building, it is important to estimate the effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI) appropriately. In case of strong earthquakes, the nonlinearity, such as the wall-ground separation, the base mat uplift of sliding, makes the behavior of the soil-structure system complex. But, if the nuclear reactor building is embedded in a relatively soft ground with surface layer, the wall-ground separation plays the most important role in the response of soil-structure system. Because, it is expected that the base uplift and slide would be less significant due to the effect of the embedment, and the wall-ground friction is usually neglected in design. But, the nonlinearity of ground may have some effect on the wall-ground separation and the response of the structure. These problems have been studied by use of FEM. Others used joint elements between the ground and the structure which does not resist tensile force. Others studied the effect of wall-ground separation with non-tension springs. But the relationship between the ground condition and the effect of the separation has not been clarified yet. To clarify the effect the analyses by FE model and lumped mass model (sway-rocking model) are performed and compared. The key parameter is the ground profile, namely the stiffness of the side soil

  4. Comparative analysis of global stability of the typical structural systems of multi-storey steel buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilić Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents global stability comparative analysis of two distinctive structural systems for one 25 - storey high steel building. These are the system with rigid and the system with hinged joint connections between beams and columns in the steel structure. The analysis focuses on the basic structure which was designed only to carry vertical loads, and on the corresponding structure which was stabilized with vertical bracings in the façade walls. Additionally, the paper shows several intermediate steps in the designing of stabilized systems. Static and dynamic design of the relevant structural systems, as well as the control of stress, deformation and stability under the seismic forces of seismic intensity VIII, was done on a computer, on the 3D computation models using Finite Element Method.

  5. Automated Building Extraction from High-Resolution Satellite Imagery in Urban Areas Using Structural, Contextual, and Spectral Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xiaoying

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution satellite imagery provides an important new data source for building extraction. We demonstrate an integrated strategy for identifying buildings in 1-meter resolution satellite imagery of urban areas. Buildings are extracted using structural, contextual, and spectral information. First, a series of geodesic opening and closing operations are used to build a differential morphological profile (DMP that provides image structural information. Building hypotheses are generated and verified through shape analysis applied to the DMP. Second, shadows are extracted using the DMP to provide reliable contextual information to hypothesize position and size of adjacent buildings. Seed building rectangles are verified and grown on a finely segmented image. Next, bright buildings are extracted using spectral information. The extraction results from the different information sources are combined after independent extraction. Performance evaluation of the building extraction on an urban test site using IKONOS satellite imagery of the City of Columbia, Missouri, is reported. With the combination of structural, contextual, and spectral information, of the building areas are extracted with a quality percentage .

  6. Influence of soil–structure interaction on seismic collapse resistance of super-tall buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Mengke Li; Xiao Lu; Xinzheng Lu; Lieping Ye

    2014-01-01

    Numerous field tests indicate that the soil–structure interaction (SSI) has a significant impact on the dynamic characteristics of super-tall buildings, which may lead to unexpected structural seismic responses and/or failure. Taking the Shanghai Tower with a total height of 632 m as the research object, the substructure approach is used to simulate the SSI effect on the seismic responses of Shanghai Tower. The refined finite element (FE) model of the superstructure of Shanghai Tower and the ...

  7. Avogadro: Free, Open Source, Cross-Platform Computer Program for Building Molecules and Visualizing Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanwell, Marcus; Hutchison, Geoffrey

    2009-03-01

    The Avogadro project is a free, open source approach to building chemical structures. It has integrated analysis, and three-dimensional visualization capabilities. Avogadro also uses external packages to perform quantum structure calculations. The work presented here illustrates a novel approach to working with the results of quantum calculations by visualizing possible molecular orbitals and allowing the user to select orbitals of interest. The Avogadro program allows the user to prepare new jobs for various quantum codes such as GAMESS-US, Q-Chem, Gaussian and Molpro. Due to the plugin based nature of the Avogadro project many specialized options can be added, such as raytracing the electronic structure of the molecule to produce high quality output, building carbon nanotube structures, or designing solid-state structures. Avogadro is already being used by educators and researchers. Due to the free and open source nature of the project, it can be readily downloaded and used by all students in and out of the classroom. It can also be tailored to particular institutions and/or courses.

  8. Building Research Integrity and Capacity (BRIC): An Educational Initiative to Increase Research Literacy among Community Health Workers and Promotores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebeker, Camille; López-Arenas, Araceli

    2016-03-01

    While citizen science is gaining attention of late, for those of us involved in community-based public health research, community/citizen involvement in research has steadily increased over the past 50 years. Community Health Workers (CHWs), also known as Promotores de Salud in the Latino community, are critical to reaching underserved populations, where health disparities are more prevalent. CHWs/Promotores provide health education and services and may also assist with the development and implementation of community- and clinic-based research studies. Recognizing that CHWs typically have no formal academic training in research design or methods, and considering that rigor in research is critical to obtaining meaningful results, we designed instruction to fill this gap. We call this educational initiative "Building Research Integrity and Capacity" or BRIC. The BRIC training consists of eight modules that can be administered as a self-paced training or incorporated into in-person, professional development geared to a specific health intervention study. While we initially designed this culturally-grounded, applied ethics training for Latino/Hispanic community research facilitators, BRIC training modules have been adapted for and tested with non-Latino novice research facilitators. This paper describes the BRIC core content and instructional design process. PMID:27047588

  9. Building Research Integrity and Capacity (BRIC: An Educational Initiative to Increase Research Literacy among Community Health Workers and Promotores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Nebeker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available While citizen science is gaining attention of late, for those of us involved in community-based public health research, community/citizen involvement in research has steadily increased over the past 50 years. Community Health Workers (CHWs, also known as Promotores de Salud in the Latino community, are critical to reaching underserved populations, where health disparities are more prevalent. CHWs/Promotores provide health education and services and may also assist with the development and implementation of community- and clinic-based research studies. Recognizing that CHWs typically have no formal academic training in research design or methods, and considering that rigor in research is critical to obtaining meaningful results, we designed instruction to fill this gap. We call this educational initiative “Building Research Integrity and Capacity” or BRIC. The BRIC training consists of eight modules that can be administered as a self-paced training or incorporated into in-person, professional development geared to a specific health intervention study. While we initially designed this culturally-grounded, applied ethics training for Latino/Hispanic community research facilitators,  BRIC training modules have been adapted for and tested with non-Latino novice research facilitators. This paper describes the BRIC core content and instructional design process.

  10. Uncertainty analysis of practical structural health monitoring systems currently employed for tall buildings consisting of small number of sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Kenta; Mita, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Because of social background, such as repeated large earthquakes and cheating in design and construction, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are getting strong attention. The SHM systems are in a practical phase. An SHM system consisting of small number of sensors has been introduced to 6 tall buildings in Shinjuku area. Including them, there are 2 major issues in the SHM systems consisting of small number of sensors. First, optimal system number of sensors and the location are not well-defined. In the practice, system placement is determined based on rough prediction and experience. Second, there are some uncertainties in estimation results by the SHM systems. Thus, the purpose of this research is to provide useful information for increasing reliability of SHM system and to improve estimation results based on uncertainty analysis of the SHM systems. The important damage index used here is the inter-story drift angle. The uncertainty considered here are number of sensors, earthquake motion characteristics, noise in data, error between numerical model and real building, nonlinearity of parameter. Then I have analyzed influence of each factor to estimation accuracy. The analysis conducted here will help to decide sensor system design considering valance of cost and accuracy. Because of constraint on the number of sensors, estimation results by the SHM system has tendency to provide smaller values. To overcome this problem, a compensation algorithm was discussed and presented. The usefulness of this compensation method was demonstrated for 40 story S and RC building models with nonlinear response.

  11. Structural Integrity Evaluation of Cold Neutron Laboratory Building by Design Change of Guide Shielding Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sangik; Kim, Youngki; Kim, Harkrho

    2007-06-15

    This report summarizes the results of the structural integrity evaluation for the cold neutron laboratory building by design change of guide shielding room. The design of the guide shielding room was changed by making its structure members in normal concrete (2.3 g/cc) instead of heavy concrete (3.5 g/cc) because the heavy concrete could be not supplied to meet its design specification. Therefore, it was decided that the guide shielding room is made of the normal concrete. And, the shielding performance of the normal concrete was recalculated to confirm satisfying its design specification, which is of a 9000 zone according to HANARO radiation region classification. The change makes the shielding wall thicker than existing design, and then it is caused to qualify the structural integrity evaluation of the CNLB. Finally, the structural integrity of the CNLB was re-evaluated by considering the design change of the guide shielding room.

  12. Blogging the Stories of Citizen Science to Inspire Participation, Build Community, and Increase Public Understanding of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, L. S.; Cavalier, D.; Ohab, J.; Taylor, L.

    2011-12-01

    Sharing citizen science projects and the experiences that people have with science through blogs provides avenues to foster public understanding of science and showcase ways that people can get involved. Blogs, combined with other social media such as Twitter and Facebook, make science social - adding a human element to the process of scientific discovery. We have been sharing stories of citizen science through two blogs. Intended for a general public audience. The Science for Citizens blog (http://scienceforcitizens.net/blog/) was started in 2010 and links blog posts to a growing network of citizen science projects. Citizen Science Buzz (http://www.talkingscience.org/category/citizen-science-buzz/) was started in 2011 on the TalkingScience blog network, a project of the Science Friday Initiative. Both blogs aim to increase the exposure of citizen science projects, inspire people to do citizen science, and connect people with projects that interest them. The timeliness of blogs also provides a good platform for sharing information about one-time citizen science events and short-lived projects. Utilizing Facebook and Twitter increases traffic to blog posts about citizen science events in a timely manner and can help build community around events. Additionally, the timeliness of blogs provides the opportunity to connect citizen science and current events, helping to form geoscience teachable moments out of recent news. For example, highlighting citizen scientists near Birmingham, Alabama who collect weather data after the April 2011 tornado outbreak ravaged that area offers a positive note on how people are volunteering their time to help us all better understand the planet despite a catastrophic event.

  13. Neutron radiography for the characterization of porous structure in degraded building stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As it is well known, the porous structure of stones can change due to different degradation processes that modify the characteristics of freshly quarried blocks. Their knowledge is fundamental for predicting the behavior of stones and the efficacy of conservative treatments. In this context, neutron radiography is a useful tool not only to visualize the structure of porous materials, but also to evaluate the degree of degradation and surface modifications resulting from weathering processes. Furthermore, since thermal neutrons suffer a strong attenuation by hydrogen, this technique is effective in order to investigate the amount of absorbed water in building materials. In the present work, we report a neutron radiography investigation of limestones cropping out in the South-Eastern Sicily and widely used as building stones in Baroque monuments of the Noto Valley. The analyzed samples have been submitted to cyclic salt crystallization that simulate degradation processes acting in exposed stones of buildings. The obtained results demonstrate the interest of neutron radiography to better understand deterioration processes in limestones and to acquire information useful for restoration projects

  14. Development of application program and building database to increase facilities for using the radiation effect assessment computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current radiation effect assessment system is required the skillful technique about the application for various code and high level of special knowledge classified by field. Therefore, as a matter of fact, it is very difficult for the radiation users' who don't have enough special knowledge to assess or recognize the radiation effect properly. For this, we already have developed the five Computer codes(windows-based), that is the radiation effect assessment system, in radiation utilizing field including the nuclear power generation. It needs the computer program that non-specialist can use the five computer codes to have already developed with ease. So, we embodied the A.I-based specialist system that can infer the assessment system by itself, according to the characteristic of given problem. The specialist program can guide users, search data, inquire of administrator directly. Conceptually, with circumstance which user to apply the five computer code may encounter actually, we embodied to consider aspects as follows. First, the accessibility of concept and data to need must be improved. Second, the acquirement of reference theory and use of corresponding computer code must be easy. Third, Q and A function needed for solution of user's question out of consideration previously. Finally, the database must be renewed continuously. Actually, to express this necessity, we develop the client program to organize reference data, to build the access methodology(query) about organized data, to load the visible expression function of searched data. And It is embodied the instruction method(effective theory acquirement procedure and methodology) to acquire the theory referring the five computer codes. It is developed the data structure access program(DBMS) to renew continuously data with ease. For Q and A function, it is embodied the Q and A board within client program because the user of client program can search the content of question and answer. (authors)

  15. Seismic resistance design of nuclear power plant building structures in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, Takehito [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Japan is one of the countries where earthquakes occur most frequently in the world and has incurred a lot of disasters in the past. Therefore, the seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant plays a very important role in Japan. This report describes the general method of seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant giving examples of PWR and BWR type reactor buildings in Japan. Nuclear facilities are classified into three seismic classes and is designed according to the corresponding seismic class in Japan. Concerning reactor buildings, the short-term allowable stress design is applied for the S1 seismic load and it is confirmed that the structures have a safety margin against the S2 seismic load. (J.P.N.)

  16. Seismic resistance design of nuclear power plant building structures in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan is one of the countries where earthquakes occur most frequently in the world and has incurred a lot of disasters in the past. Therefore, the seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant plays a very important role in Japan. This report describes the general method of seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant giving examples of PWR and BWR type reactor buildings in Japan. Nuclear facilities are classified into three seismic classes and is designed according to the corresponding seismic class in Japan. Concerning reactor buildings, the short-term allowable stress design is applied for the S1 seismic load and it is confirmed that the structures have a safety margin against the S2 seismic load. (J.P.N.)

  17. Structural integrity evaluation of the containment building for Wolsung-1 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The criteria has been established as an alternative to the test beam procedure in order to carry out the structural integrity evaluation, using the experimental data obtained from the embedded strain for the containment building, including the gauges during the pre-operational proof pressure test for the containment building, including the theoretical analysis of variations of material properties and time-dependent phenomena of the prestressing system. In the criteria proposed, variations of measurement were estimated based on the previous reports which are only information available at present, thus leaving uncertainties in the prediction of the upper and lower bounds of the strain. Further study including the validation of variation sources and quantification will enhance the evaluation criteria with a higher confidence. (Author)

  18. Simquake 3: Seismic interactions between building structures and rock-socketed foundations: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has long been recognized that soil-structure interaction can significantly influence the earthquake response of massive structures such as nuclear power plant reactor buildings. The linear analysis methods that are widely used to model interaction phenomena can result in often unrecognized safety margins in design for earthquake excitation. Use of improved interaction models which capture nonlinear characteristics of interaction---such as energy dissipation and significant changes in stiffness---can provide realistic predictions of the earthquake loads imposed on nuclear power plant structures and equipment, supplying an improved basis for seismic design review. This report documents the results of a research effort investigating the soil-structure (or structure-media) interaction of reinforced concrete structures founded in backfilled rock sockets. The objectives of the research, which included field testing with semi-scale structural models, were: to examine the influence of the backfilled socket on structural dynamic response; and to develop an experimental data base for the benchmarking of computer simulation procedures

  19. Simplified serviceability design of jointless structures. Experimental verification and application to typical bridge and building structures

    OpenAIRE

    Groli, Giancarlo; Pérez Caldentey, Alejandro; Giraldo Soto, Alejandro; Marchetto, Francesco; Ezeberry Parrotta, Javier Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    In this article an experimental campaign aimed at validating a previously published simplified serviceability design method of the columns of long jointless structures is presented. The proposed method is also extended to include tension stiffening effects which proved to be significant in structures with small amount of reinforcement subjected to small axial loading. This extension allows significant improvement of predictions for this type of element. The campaign involved columns with diff...

  20. The estimation of enclosing structures edge zones influence on thermal performance and energy efficiency of buildings (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korniyenko S.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of priority directions in modern building is maintenance of energy efficiency of buildings and constructions. This problem can be realized by perfection of architectural, constructive and technical decisions. The particular interest is represented by an influence estimation of temperature and moisture mode of enclosing structures on a thermal performance and energy efficiency of buildings. The analysis of the data available in the literature has shown absence of effective calculation methods of temperature and moisture mode in edge zones of enclosing structures that complicates the decision of this problem.The purpose of the given work is an estimation of edge zones influence on a thermal performance and energy efficiency of buildings. The design procedure of energy parameters of a building for the heating period, realized in the computer program is developed. The given technique allows settling an invoice power inputs on heating, hot water supply, an electrical supply. Power inputs on heating include conduction heat-losses through an envelope of a building taking into account edge zones, ventilation heat-losses and leakage air (infiltration, internal household thermal emissions, heat-receipt from solar radiation. On an example it is shown that the account of edge zones raises conduction heat-losses through an envelope of a building on 37 %, the expense of thermal energy on building heating on 32 %, and the expense thermal and electric energy on 13 %. Consequently, thermal and moisture mode in edge zones of enclosing structures makes essential impact on building power consumption. Perfection of the constructive decision leads to decrease of transmission heat-losses through an envelope of a building on 29 %, the expense of thermal energy on building heating on 25 %, the expense of thermal and electric energy on 10 %. Thus, perfection of edge zones of enclosing structures has high potential of energy efficiency.

  1. Effect of modeling of super-structure on the behaviour of reactor building raft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of the reactor building raft was studied when the stiffness of the super-structural elements is included in the analysis as compared to the results of conventional analysis ignoring the stiffness of the super-structural elements. The effect of the stiffness of the super-structures on the loss of contact of the raft under seismic environment was also investigated. In order to study the effect of horizontal springs on the behaviour of the raft particularly near the stressing gallery under seismic environment, a separate study has been carried out considering a 3D model consisting of solid elements supported on both horizontal and vertical springs. The model was analysed for all the forces applied at the top of the raft and the analysis results were compared with those of shell model. The following conclusions are drawn: (i) Idealisation of the reactor building raft using shell elements is adequate for estimating the design forces/moments on the raft. The design forces/moments obtained from FE model consisting of solid elements closely matches with those obtained from FE model with shell elements. Idealisation of the RB raft using shell elements will also reduce the problem size and the related computational efforts. (ii) The stiffness of the super-structure has significant effect on the behaviour of the raft. Consideration of the stiffness of the super structure reduces the design forces/moments significantly and hence, modelling of the stiffness of the super structure is necessary for economical design. (iii) Modelling of horizontal stiffness of the raft in terms of horizontal springs at the interface of the raft and the rock does not have significant effect on the behaviour of the raft and as such, is not required to be considered in the FE model. However, it is necessary to ensure adequate factor of safety against the overall stability of the raft

  2. Japanese contributions to containment structure, assembly and maintenance and reactor building for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joint design work on Conceptual Design Activity of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) with four parties, Japan, the United States, the Soviet Union and the European Community began in April 1988 and was successfully completed in December 1990. In Japan, the home team was established in wide range of collaboration between JAERI and national institute, universities and heavy industries. The Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) Team at JAERI is assigned as a core of the Japanese home team to support the joint Team activity and mainly conducted the design and R and D in the area of containment structure, remote handling and plant system. This report mainly describes the Japanese contribution on the ITER containment structure, remote handling and reactor building design. Main areas of contributions are vacuum vessel, attaching locks, electromagnetic analysis, cryostat, port and service line layout for containment structure, in-vessel handling equipment design and analysis, blanket handling equipment design and related short term R and D for assembly and maintenance, and finally reactor building design and analysis based on the equipment and service line layout and components flow during assembly and maintenance. (author)

  3. Analysis and design of load-bearing structure of a multi-residential building in Novo mesto

    OpenAIRE

    Kocman, Luka

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the analysis and design of load-bearing elements of reinforced concrete supporting structure of the multi-residential building in the village Podbreznik in Novo mesto. The supporting structure is made of full interfloor plates, roof plate and the unconnected and connected walls with or without openings. Two dimensioned supporting elements, namely the ceiling panel in the 1st floor and the wall with openings on the circumference of building, are analyzed in detail. The ana...

  4. Impact of structural parameters on the radon exhalation of building materials: Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of mortar and sand-lime pieces with different percentages of fly ash are hardened at different relative humidities. The porosity distribution, the moisture and the radon exhalation of these samples are determined. Based on the data of the above-mentioned analyses, the thickness of the adsorbed water layer in the water-filled pores is estimated. The correlation between the structural parameters and the radon exhalation is investigated. If the radon exhalation process can be modelled, the radiation risk of applying fly ash in building materials can be controlled or reduced. The results do not yet show a clear indication. The applied methods have to be considered in more detail

  5. Seismic transmission tomography: determination of the elastic properties of building structures (some examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cardarelli

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a general review on seismic transmission tomography considering data acquisition and processing. Some questions on linear and non linear inversions are tackled, and advice given on the choice of the best damping factor. Taking into account prediction matrices we show that it is possible to point out the best distribution of sensors and shot points in terms of resolution and stability of system. Then two examples in which seismic tomography was used are described concerning the determination of elastic characteristics of building structures.

  6. Three-dimensional structures of human phospholipase A2 from pancreas and synovial fluid by model building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, I T; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Svensson, L A;

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional structures of the enzyme phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from human pancreas and from human synovial fluid were constructed by model building based on high-resolution X-ray crystallographic structures and homology considerations. The structure of the human pancreatic PLA2 was based...

  7. Structure of clusters and building blocks in amylopectin from African rice accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayin, Joseph; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Marcone, Massimo; Manful, John; Bertoft, Eric

    2016-09-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis in combination with gel-permeation and anion-exchange chromatography techniques were employed to characterise the composition of clusters and building blocks of amylopectin from two African rice (Oryza glaberrima) accessions-IRGC 103759 and TOG 12440. The samples were compared with one Asian rice (Oryza sativa) sample (cv WITA 4) and one O. sativa×O. glaberrima cross (NERICA 4). The average DP of clusters from the African rice accessions (ARAs) was marginally larger (DP=83) than in WITA 4 (DP=81). However, regarding average number of chains, clusters from the ARAs represented both the smallest and largest clusters. Overall, the result suggested that the structure of clusters in TOG 12440 was dense with short chains and high degree of branching, whereas the situation was the opposite in NERICA 4. IRGC 103759 and WITA 4 possessed clusters with intermediate characteristics. The commonest type of building blocks in all samples was group 2 (single branched dextrins) representing 40.3-49.4% of the blocks, while groups 3-6 were found in successively lower numbers. The average number of building blocks in the clusters was significantly larger in NERICA 4 (5.8) and WITA 4 (5.7) than in IRGC 103759 and TOG 12440 (5.1 and 5.3, respectively). PMID:27185123

  8. Analytical Model of Underground Train Induced Vibrations on Nearby Building Structures in Cameroon: Assessment and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezin Seba MINSILI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper was to assess and predict the effect of vibrations induced by an underground railway on nearby-existing buildings prior to the construction of projected new railway lines of the National Railway Master Plan of Cameroon and after upgrading of the railway conceded to CAMRAIL linking the two most densely populated cities of Cameroon: Douala and Yaoundé. With the source-transmitter-receiver mathematical model as the train-soil-structure interaction model, taking into account sub-model parameters such as type of the train-railway system, typical geotechnical conditions of the ground and the sensitivity of the nearby buildings, the analysis is carried out over the entire system using the dynamic finite element method in the time domain. This subdivision of the model is a powerful tool that allows to consider different alternatives of sub-models with different characteristics, and thus to determine any critical excessive vibration impact. Based on semi-empirical analytical results obtained from presented models, the present work assesses and predicts characteristics of traffic-induced vibrations as a function of time duration, intensity and vehicle speed, as well as their influence on buildings at different levels.

  9. 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS WITH GABLED AND HIPPED STRUCTURES USING LIDAR DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Amini, H; P. Pahlavani; R. Karimi

    2014-01-01

    Buildings are the most important objects in urban areas. Thus, building detection using photogrammetry and remote sensing data as well as 3D model of buildings are very useful for many applications such as mobile navigation, tourism, and disaster management. In this paper, an approach has been proposed for detecting buildings by LiDAR data and aerial images, as well as reconstructing 3D model of buildings. In this regard, firstly, building detection carried out by utilizing a Supper Vector Ma...

  10. The prediction of mining induced movements in building structures and the development of improved methods of subsidence impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur Waddington [Mine Subsidence Engineering Consultants Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    The major aims of this research project were to develop improved methods of assessing the likely damage to building structures and to more clearly define what constitutes a 'safe, serviceable and repairable' level of damage. It was anticipated that such methods would avoid the sterilisation of valuable coal resources. The research work was based upon measured impacts on building structures, which were recorded as longwalls were mined at Tahmoor Colliery and historical claims data provided by the Mine Subsidence Board for the Newcastle and Southern Coalfields. The research project involved - A state-of-the-art review; Collection of historical claims data from the records of the Mine Subsidence Board; Initial surveys of the ground above and around longwall panels; Initial surveys of building foundations above longwall panels; Pre-mining condition surveys and structural assessments of building structures; Recording of building movements and conditions during the mining period; Recording of ground movements during the mining period; Study and analysis of ground movements; Study and analysis of building movements; Review and statistical analysis of historical claims data; Correlation of building movements and levels of damage with NCB damage assessment curves; Development of improved methods for the prediction of building movements; Development of improved methods for the assessment of subsidence impacts; Study of available methods for the rectification of tilt; and Review of 'safe, serviceable and repairable' criteria. The final output from the research project is this detailed report on the findings of the research work, which includes new methods for the assessment of mining subsidence impacts on building structures.

  11. A Study of the Efficacy of Computerized Skill Building for Adolescents: Reducing Aggression and Increasing Pro-Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robin; Repa, J. Theodore

    This article describes a pilot study that evaluated the efficacy of a computer-based, behavioral skill-building program in reducing aggression and improving academic performance among middle school students. The program is Ripple Effects'"Relate for Teens," a media rich, interactive application based on combining a proprietary learning system with…

  12. Unity in the Elementary School Classroom: Building Community Through Increasing Positive Social Interactions Between and Among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt-Jaeger, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Children's sense of a community is essential in elementary schools. This helps gives students a sense of belonging and control over their environment. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of several strategies from the Toolbox Project and their effect on building community in the classroom. Collin (2003b) discusses his Toolbox…

  13. Effects of base mat flexibility and structure-soil-structure interaction on the seismic responses of a nuclear stack building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, A.F.; Malik, L.E. [Advanced Engineering Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Maryak, M.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    A nuclear exhaust stack building was analyzed considering flexibility of the base mat and through-soil coupling with a nearby massive reactor building. The analysis indicated that the base mat flexibility and the proximity of the reactor building significantly affect the seismic responses of the stack building.

  14. Effects of base mat flexibility and structure-soil-structure interaction on the seismic responses of a nuclear stack building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear exhaust stack building was analyzed considering flexibility of the base mat and through-soil coupling with a nearby massive reactor building. The analysis indicated that the base mat flexibility and the proximity of the reactor building significantly affect the seismic responses of the stack building. (author)

  15. Effects of base mat flexibility and structure-soil-structure interaction on the seismic responses of a nuclear stack building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, A.F.; Malik, L.E. (Advanced Engineering Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Maryak, M.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear exhaust stack building was analyzed considering flexibility of the base mat and through-soil coupling with a nearby massive reactor building. The analysis indicated that the base mat flexibility and the proximity of the reactor building significantly affect the seismic responses of the stack building.

  16. CarbBuilder: Software for building molecular models of complex oligo- and polysaccharide structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttel, Michelle M; Ståhle, Jonas; Widmalm, Göran

    2016-08-15

    CarbBuilder is a portable software tool for producing three-dimensional molecular models of carbohydrates from the simple text specification of a primary structure. CarbBuilder can generate a wide variety of carbohydrate structures, ranging from monosaccharides to large, branched polysaccharides. Version 2.0 of the software, described in this article, supports monosaccharides of both mammalian and bacterial origin and a range of substituents for derivatization of individual sugar residues. This improved version has a sophisticated building algorithm to explore the range of possible conformations for a specified carbohydrate molecule. Illustrative examples of models of complex polysaccharides produced by CarbBuilder demonstrate the capabilities of the software. CarbBuilder is freely available under the Artistic License 2.0 from https://people.cs.uct.ac.za/~mkuttel/Downloads.html. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27317625

  17. Application of experimental design techniques to structural simulation meta-model building using neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费庆国; 张令弥

    2004-01-01

    Neural networks are being used to construct meta-models in numerical simulation of structures. In addition to network structures and training algorithms, training samples also greatly affect the accuracy of neural network models. In this paper, some existing main sampling techniques are evaluated, including techniques based on experimental design theory,random selection, and rotating sampling. First, advantages and disadvantages of each technique are reviewed. Then, seven techniques are used to generate samples for training radial neural networks models for two benchmarks: an antenna model and an aircraft model. Results show that the uniform design, in which the number of samples and mean square error network models are considered, is the best sampling technique for neural network based meta-model building.

  18. Structural and compositional characterization of the adhesive produced by reef building oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Erik M; Taylor, Stephen D; Edwards, Stephanie L; Sherman, Debra M; Huang, Chia-Ping; Kenny, Paul; Wilker, Jonathan J

    2015-04-29

    Oysters have an impressive ability to overcome difficulties of life within the stressful intertidal zone. These shellfish produce an adhesive for attaching to each other and building protective reef communities. With their reefs often exceeding kilometers in length, oysters play a major role in balancing the health of coastal marine ecosystems. Few details are available to describe oyster adhesive composition or structure. Here several characterization methods were applied to describe the nature of this material. Microscopy studies indicated that the glue is comprised of organic fiber-like and sheet-like structures surrounded by an inorganic matrix. Phospholipids, cross-linking chemistry, and conjugated organics were found to differentiate this adhesive from the shell. Symbiosis in material synthesis could also be present, with oysters incorporating bacterial polysaccharides into their adhesive. Oyster glue shows that an organic-inorganic composite material can provide adhesion, a property especially important when constructing a marine ecosystem. PMID:25843147

  19. Expanding the structural diversity of self-assembling dendrons and supramolecular dendrimers via complex building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percec, Virgil; Won, Betty C; Peterca, Mihai; Heiney, Paul A

    2007-09-12

    The design and synthesis of the first examples of AB4 and AB5 dendritic building blocks with complex architecture are reported. Structural and retrostructural analysis of supramolecular dendrimers self-assembled from hybrid dendrons based on different combinations of AB4 and AB5 building blocks with AB2 and AB3 benzyl ether dendrons demonstrated that none of these new hybrid dendrons exhibit the previously encountered conformations of libraries of benzyl ether dendrons. These hybrid dendrons enabled the discovery of some highly unusual tapered and conical dendrons generated by the intramolecular back-folding of their repeat units and of their apex. The new back-folded tapered dendrons have double thickness and self-assemble into pine-tree-like columns exhibiting a long-range 7/2 helical order. The back-folded conical dendrons self-assemble into spherical dendrimers. Non-back-folded truncated conical dendrons were also discovered. They self-assemble into spherical dendrimers with a less densely packed center. The discovery of dendrons displaying a novel crown-like conformation is also reported. Crown-like dendrons self-assemble into long-range 5/1 helical pyramidal columns. The long-range 7/2 and 5/1 helical structures were established by applying, for the first time, the helical diffraction theory to the analysis of X-ray patterns obtained from oriented fibers of supramolecular dendrimers. PMID:17705390

  20. High performance steels for civil engineering and building structure uses; Doboku kenchiku kozoyo shinkokino kozai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, F.; Yoshizato, T.; Tanigawa, O. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the new functions of steels developed for civil engineering and building structure uses with the progress of each requirement function and the features of metallic control and introduces the features of an industrial manufacturing method and the mechanical properties. Low YR high strength steel, ultra-low yield steel, fire-resistant steel, low preheat-type HT780 steel, heavy-wall H-type TMCP steel, and tapered plates were introduced in material quality and microstructure control as a high-performance steel for civil engineering and building structure uses. The functions of steel represented by low YR characteristics are materialized by the control of yielding behavior, and high strength steel of 600 N/mm{sup 2} class has been developed by composite microstructure control. Moreover, the technology for deteriorating the weld cracking sensitivity that hinders the application of high strength steel exceeding 780 N/mm{sup 2} is obtained by using a thermo-mechanical control process (TMCP) effectively and positively. This technology satisfies the needs of its thickness and high strength as viewed in the HT780 steel for a bridge or the heavy-wall H-type steel. 11 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Cable-Stayed Cantilever Structures As An Expat Of Unique Application In The Construction Of A Building Located In Seismic Area - An Author's Project Of Multifunctional Building In Lisbon, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grębowski, K.; Werdon, M.

    2015-12-01

    The article presents numerical simulations for the modelling of seismic impact on the structure of unique cantilever cablestayed structure with the application of two methods. The Response Spectrum method, in which a spectrum of the structure's responses to an earthquake's impact is generated, and the Accelerogram method, in which we generate dynamic load in the form of a diagram of the connection between acceleration and time for the actual readings during a real earthquake. Both methods have been presented for the El Centro earthquake spectrum. This unique application of a cantilever cablestayed structure in public buildings will allow to assess the safety of this kind of load-bearing system in areas of increased risk of seismic activity. Cantilever cablestayed structures have so far never been designed or analyzed on seismically active areas. Based on numerical simulation we determined the effect of stiffness of load-bearing lines on the increase of stresses and displacements at cable stays joint with the end of the cantilever part of a building.

  2. The development of an expert system for finding fragility curves of building structural systems in the preliminary design stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is a starting point for the development of an expert system for determining seismic fragility curves of structural systems in a nuclear power plant or conventional building at the preliminary design stage. The resulting system assists an engineer with moderate engineering background and limited reliability knowledge to analyze the failure functions of building structures. It simulates the performance of an expert in identifying the potential failure modes and their variabilities for a structure of interest. On reviewing the methodology of seismic fragility evaluation for existing building structures in the nuclear power plant industry, one finds that the investigation process starts with the identification of critical components or substructures, whose failures result in the functional failure of safety related equipment or the failure of structural integrity itself, and follows with complicated numerical analyses to estimate the capacity functions associated with the limit states of these components or substructures

  3. TLCD Parametric Optimization for the Vibration Control of Building Structures Based on Linear Matrix Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Huo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive liquid dampers have been used to effectively reduce the dynamic response of civil infrastructures subjected to earthquakes or strong winds. The design of liquid dampers for structural vibration control involves the determination of the optimal parameters. This paper presents an optimal design methodology for tuned liquid column dampers (TLCDs based on the H∞ control theory. A practical structure, Dalian Xinghai Financial Business Building, is used to illustrate the feasibility of the optimal procedure. The model of structure is built by the finite element method and simplified to the lumped mass model. To facilitate the design of TLCDs, the TLCD parametric optimization problem is transferred to the feedback controller design problem. Through the bounded real lemma, an optimization problem with bilinear matrix inequality (BMI constraints is constructed to design a static output feedback H∞ controller. Iterative linear matrix inequality method is employed and it added some value range constraints to solve the BMI problem. After the TLCD parameters are optimized, the responses of displacement and acceleration in frequency domain and time domain are compared for the structure with and without TLCD. It is validated that the TLCD with the optimized parameters can make the structure satisfy the need for safety and comfort.

  4. Development and application of induced-strain actuators for building structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Koichi; Fujita, Takafumi; Ise, Shiro; Kawaguchi, Ken-ichi; Kamada, Takayoshi; Fujitani, Hideo

    2001-07-01

    Induced strain actuator (ISA) can change their own shapes according to external electric/magnetic fields, and vice versa. Recently these materials have been widely used for the small/precision. The objectives in this study are to develop smart members for building and to realize the smart, comfortable and safe structures. The research items are 1) Semi-active isolation of structures using piezoelectric actuator, 2) Using ISA as sensor materials and 3) Improvement of Acoustic Environment. Semi-active base isolation system with controllable friction damper using piezoelectric actuators is proposed. Simulation study was carried out, and by semi-active isolation, it could be realized to reduce response displacement of the structure to 50% of values of the passive isolation. ISA materials can act as sensors because they cause change of electric or magnetic fields under deformation. PVDF sensors are suitable for membrane structures. We evaluate performance of PVDF sensors for membrane structures by experiment. Polymer based ISA films or distributed ISA devices can control vibration mode of plane members. Applications to music halls or dwelling partition walls are expected. Results of experimental studies of noise control are discussed.

  5. Upgrade of Coastal Defence Structures Against Increased Loadings Caused by Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Lara, Javier L.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a design exercise of upgrading a typical rock armoured revetment by modifying the structure profile and adding structure elements. Several concepts of upgrading are examined. A sea level rise corresponding to the mean of the IPCC 2007 predictions is used together with a slight...... increase in long-term wind/wave conditions as predicted for the North Sea by the Danish Coastal Authority. Both conditions of non-acceptable and acceptable increase in structure crest level are considered. Moreover, a scenario for steepening of the foreshore due to morphological changes caused by increased...

  6. Creating science and technology superiority,increasing marine equipment manufacturing capability to build China into world No.1 shipbuilding country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiangmu

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's shipbuilding industry faces a historic development opportunity right at the beginning of the new century. Attaching great importance to the development of the shipbuilding industry, the Chinese government has given a series of instructions, which set up the grand goal of building China into the world number one shipbuilding country. To achieve this goal, we must solve two key problems, that is, scientific and technical innovation, and marine equipment production.

  7. Evaluation of the impact of soil-structure interaction on seismic response of reinforced concrete frame building

    OpenAIRE

    Andrejaš, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with an impact of the deformability of the soil on the seismic response of an eight storey reinforced concrete frame building during earthquake. The response of a structure with fixed base was compared to the response of a structure with consideration of soil-structure interaction. The soil-structure interaction was modelled in three different ways. In addition to the simple model with springs and dampers, which taken into account the modulus of soil reaction, the soil-struct...

  8. Analysis and design of reinforced concrete load-bearing structure of a three storey office building in Ribnica

    OpenAIRE

    Rus, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents static analysis of load-bearing structure of a three storey office building in Ribnica according to Eurocode standard. The load-bearing structure is made of reinforced concrete and consists of smooth slabs on pillars that represent ceiling and roof structure, pillars and walls with openings. In the analysis of the load-bearing structure the influence of permanent and weigh down and also the impact of wind, snow and earthquake are considered. Detailed analysis of vertical ...

  9. Building Collaborative Structures for Teachers' Autonomy and Self-Efficacy: The Mediating Role of Participative Management and Learning Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiafang; Jiang, Xinhui; Yu, Huen; Li, Dongyu

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the collaborative structure-building behavior of school principals and examined how such behavior affects teacher empowerment. More important, it tested the mediating effects of participative management and learning culture. By collecting nested data from 104 schools in Hong Kong and adopting multilevel structural equation…

  10. Cable-Stayed Cantilever Structures As An Expat Of Unique Application In The Construction Of A Building Located In Seismic Area – An Author’s Project Of Multifunctional Building In Lisbon, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grębowski K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents numerical simulations for the modelling of seismic impact on the structure of unique cantilever cablestayed structure with the application of two methods. The Response Spectrum method, in which a spectrum of the structure’s responses to an earthquake’s impact is generated, and the Accelerogram method, in which we generate dynamic load in the form of a diagram of the connection between acceleration and time for the actual readings during a real earthquake. Both methods have been presented for the El Centro earthquake spectrum. This unique application of a cantilever cablestayed structure in public buildings will allow to assess the safety of this kind of load-bearing system in areas of increased risk of seismic activity. Cantilever cablestayed structures have so far never been designed or analyzed on seismically active areas. Based on numerical simulation we determined the effect of stiffness of load-bearing lines on the increase of stresses and displacements at cable stays joint with the end of the cantilever part of a building.

  11. Characterization of changes in commercial building structure, equipment, and occupants: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, R.G.; Taylor, Z.T.; Miller, N.E.; Pratt, R.G.

    1990-12-01

    Changes in commercial building structure, equipment, and occupants result in changes in building energy use. The frequency and magnitude of those changes have substantial implications for conservation programs and resource planning. For example, changes may shorten the useful lifetime of a conservation measure as well as impact the savings from that measure. This report summarizes the frequency of changes in a commercial building sample that was end-use metered under the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP). The sample includes offices, dry good retails, groceries, restaurants, warehouses, schools, and hotels. Two years of metered data, site visit records, and audit data were examined for evidence of building changes. The observed changes were then classified into 12 categories, which included business type, equipment, remodel, vacancy, and operating schedule. The analysis characterized changes in terms of frequency of types of change; relationship to building vintage and floor area; and variation by building type. The analysis also examined the energy impacts of various changes. The analysis determined that the rate of change in commercial buildings is high--50% of the buildings experienced one type of change during the 2 years for which monitoring data were examined. Equipment changes were found to be most frequent in offices and retail stores. Larger, older office buildings tend to experience a wider variety of changes more frequently than the smaller, newer buildings. Key findings and observations are presented in Section 2. Section 3 provides the underlying motivation and objectives. In Section 4, the methodology used is documented, including the commercial building sample and the data sources used. Included are the definitions of change events and the overall approach taken. Results are analyzed in Section 5, with additional technical details in Appendixes. 2 refs., 46 figs., 22 tabs. (JF)

  12. Structure, Mechanism, and Application of Vacuum Insulation Panels in Chinese Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhai Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal insulation is one of the most used approaches to reduce energy consumption in buildings. Vacuum insulation panels (VIPs are new thermal insulation materials that have been used in the domestic and overseas market in the last 20 years. Due to the vacuum thermal insulation technology of these new materials, their thermal conductivity can be as low as 0.004 W/(m·K at the center of panels. In addition, VIPs that are composites with inorganic core and an envelope out of commonly three metallized PET layers and a PE sealing layer can provide B class fire resistance (their core materials are not flammable and are classified as A1. Compared with other conventional thermal insulation materials, the thermal insulation and fire resistance performances form the foundation of VIP’s applications in the construction industry. The structure and thermal insulation mechanism of VIP and their application potential and problems in Chinese buildings are described in detail.

  13. Evaluation of soil-structure interaction based on forced vibration tests of three reactor buildings within a site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three BWR type reactor buildings (Unit No. 1, 2, 3) have been constructed at Hamaoka site in Shizuoka prefecture, Japan, during the past fifteen years. In order to confirm and verify the seismic design procedure, forced vibration tests were performed for the completed three reactor buildings. Enough test data have been accumulated and consequently, it is now possible to consolidate these data and compare the differences of vibrational characteristics of the three reactor of soil-structure interaction effects through the simulation study of vibrational characteristics of the three reactor buildings and explores realistic vibration models

  14. Cost benefit analysis of energy renovation and structural retrofitting of Tobačna Ljubljana factory building

    OpenAIRE

    Jankovič, Gabrijela

    2015-01-01

    The thesis presents design of energy renovation and structural retrofitting of the building of Tobačna Ljubljana factory. First, we have obtained the necessary information about the current state of object. For this purpose, we have also used infrared thermography and the heat flow meter. Images and measurements, obtained by non-destructive techniques, were used as a part of input data for the analysis of building energy efficiency. In ArchiMAID program we created energy performan...

  15. Effects of reinforcement ratio and arrangement on the structural behavior of a nuclear building under aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thai, Duc-Kien; Kim, Seung-Eock, E-mail: sekim@sejong.ac.kr; Lee, Hyuk-Kee

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Numerical analysis of RC nuclear building model under aircraft impact was conducted. • The analysis result shows similar behavior as compared to the Riera function. • The effects of reinforcement ratio and arrangement were enumerated. • The appropriate number of layer of longitudinal rebar was recommended. - Abstract: This study presents the effectiveness of the rebar ratio and the arrangement of reinforced concrete (RC) structures on the structural behavior of nuclear buildings under aircraft impact using a finite element (FE) approach. A simplified model of a fictitious nuclear building using RC structures was fully modeled. The aircraft model of a Boeing 767-400 was used for impact simulation and was developed and verified with a conventional impact force–time history curve. The IRIS Punching test was used to validate the damage prediction capabilities of the RC wall under impact loading. With regard to the different rebar ratios and rebar arrangements of a nuclear RC building, the structural behavior of a building under aircraft impact was investigated. The structural behavior investigated included plastic deformation, displacement, energy dissipation, perforation/penetration depth and scabbing area. The results showed that the rebar ratio has a significant effect on withstanding aircraft impact and reducing local damage. With four layers of rebar, the RC wall absorbed and dissipated the impact energy more than once with only two layers of rebar for the same rebar ratio.

  16. Effects of reinforcement ratio and arrangement on the structural behavior of a nuclear building under aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Numerical analysis of RC nuclear building model under aircraft impact was conducted. • The analysis result shows similar behavior as compared to the Riera function. • The effects of reinforcement ratio and arrangement were enumerated. • The appropriate number of layer of longitudinal rebar was recommended. - Abstract: This study presents the effectiveness of the rebar ratio and the arrangement of reinforced concrete (RC) structures on the structural behavior of nuclear buildings under aircraft impact using a finite element (FE) approach. A simplified model of a fictitious nuclear building using RC structures was fully modeled. The aircraft model of a Boeing 767-400 was used for impact simulation and was developed and verified with a conventional impact force–time history curve. The IRIS Punching test was used to validate the damage prediction capabilities of the RC wall under impact loading. With regard to the different rebar ratios and rebar arrangements of a nuclear RC building, the structural behavior of a building under aircraft impact was investigated. The structural behavior investigated included plastic deformation, displacement, energy dissipation, perforation/penetration depth and scabbing area. The results showed that the rebar ratio has a significant effect on withstanding aircraft impact and reducing local damage. With four layers of rebar, the RC wall absorbed and dissipated the impact energy more than once with only two layers of rebar for the same rebar ratio

  17. Detrimental effect of Air pollution, Corrosion on Building Materials and Historical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Venkat Rao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The economy of any country would be drastically changed if there were no corrosion. The annual cost of corrosion world wise is over 3 % of the worlds GDP. As pet the sources available, India losses $ 45 billion every year on account of corrosion of infrastructure, Industrial machinery and other historical heritage. Keeping this critical and alarming situation in view, this paper focuses on how all these forms of corrosion affect building materials and historical structures. It also tries to bring awareness among the stakeholders of the environment and national heritage. The process of corrosion may be initiated in the form of chemical corrosion and electrochemical corrosion. The chemical may be witnessed in the form of direct oxidation, corrosion by liquid metals, fused halides and non aqueous solutions. Electrochemical corrosion may be seen in the form of immersion corrosion, underground corrosion and atmospheric corrosion.

  18. Soil structure interaction model and variability of parameters in seismic analysis of nuclear island connected building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides salient features of the Soil Structure Interaction analysis of Nuclear Island Connected Building (NICB). The dynamic analysis of NICB is performed on a full 3D model accounting for the probable variation in the stiffness of the founding medium. A range analyses was performed to establish the effect of variability of subgrade parameters on the results of seismic analyses of NICB. This paper presents details of various analyses with respect to the subgrade model, uncertainties in subgrade properties, results of seismic analyses and a study of effect of the variability of parameters on the results of these analyses. The results of this study indicate that the variability of soil parameters beyond a certain value of shear wave velocity does not influence the response and in fact the response marginally diminishes. (authors)

  19. Building disc structure and galaxy properties through angular momentum: The DARK SAGE semi-analytic model

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Adam R H; Mutch, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    We present the new semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution, DARK SAGE, a heavily modified version of the publicly available SAGE code. The model is designed for detailed evolution of galactic discs. We evolve discs in a series of annuli with fixed specific angular momentum, which allows us to make predictions for the radial and angular-momentum structure of galaxies. Most physical processes, including all channels of star formation and associated feedback, are performed in these annuli. We present the surface density profiles of our model spiral galaxies, both as a function of radius and specific angular momentum, and find the discs naturally build a pseduobulge-like component. Our main results are focussed on predictions relating to the integrated mass--specific angular momentum relation of stellar discs. The model produces a distinct sequence between these properties in remarkable agreement with recent observational literature. We investigate the impact Toomre disc instabilities have on shaping this sequenc...

  20. Floor Response Spectra of Nuclear Containment Building with Soil-Structure Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Choon Gyo; Ryu, Jeong Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presents a seismic analysis technique for a 3D soil-structure interaction(SSI) system in frequency domain, based on the finite element formulation incorporating frequency-dependent dynamic infinite elements for the far field soil region. Earthquake input motions are regarded as traveling SV-wave which is vertically incident from a far-field soil region. In which, the equivalent earthquake forces in the frequency domain are calculated using the exterior rigid boundary method and the free field response analysis. For the application, floor response spectra analyses for nuclear containment building on a soil medium is carried out, the obtained results are compared with the free field response by other solution.

  1. Determination of 137Cs contamination depth distribution in building structures using geostatistical modeling of ISOCS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of nuclear building structures usually leads to large amounts of low level radioactive waste. Using a reliable method to determine the contamination depth is indispensable prior to the start of decontamination works and also for minimizing the radioactive waste volume and the total workload. The method described in this paper is based on geostatistical modeling of in situ gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements using the multiple photo peak method. The method has been tested on the floor of the waste gas surge tank room within the BR3 (Belgian Reactor 3) decommissioning project and has delivered adequate results. - Highlights: • 137Cs depth contamination was determined using the multiple photo peak method. • Geostatistical modeling was used to determine treatment depth areas and perform risk analysis. • Results were evaluated using laser scanning and long term gamma-ray spectroscopy. • Waste volume reduction of about 1/3 compared to a more traditional approach

  2. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF BUILDING STRUCTURES WITHIN THE SCOPE OF ENERGY, ENVIRONMENT AND INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Kulhánek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to prove the feasibility of sensitivity analysis with dominant weight method for structure parts of envelope of buildings inclusive of energy; ecological and financial assessments, and determination of different designs for same structural part via multi-criteria assessment with theoretical example designs ancillary. Multi-criteria assessment (MCA of different structural designs or in other word alternatives aims to find the best available alternative. The application of sensitivity analysis technique in this paper bases on dominant weighting method. In this research, to choose the best thermal insulation design in the case of that more than one projection, simultaneously, criteria of total thickness (T; heat transfer coefficient (U through the cross section; global warming potential (GWP; acid produce (AP; primary energy content (PEI non renewable and cost per m2 (C are investigated for all designs via sensitivity analysis. Three different designs for external wall (over soil which are convenient with regard to globally suggested energy features for passive house design are investigated through the mentioned six projections. By creating a given set of scenarios; depending upon the importance of each criterion, sensitivity analysis is distributed. As conclusion, uncertainty in the output of model is attributed to different sources in the model input. In this manner, determination of the best available design is achieved. The original outlook and the outlook afterwards the sensitivity analysis are visualized, that enables easily to choose the optimum design within the scope of verified components.

  3. Characteristics of Soil Structure Interaction for Reactor Building of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Moon Joo; Jung, Rae Young; Hyun, Chang Hun; Kim, Moon Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Nam Hyoung [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    On 16 July 2007, the Nigataken-chuetsu-oki earthquake registering a moment magnitude of 6.8 occurred at a depth of about 15 km. As a result of this earthquake, noticeable shaking exceeding the design ground motion was measured at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station (KKN), the biggest nuclear power plant in the world, located at about 16 km away from the epicenter. This earthquake triggered a fire at an electrical transformer and insignificant damage on some parts of facilities. This event gave an impulse to study on the damage and safety margin of nuclear power plant due to the strong earthquake exceeding design basis. As a part of those efforts, KARISMA (KAshiwazaki-Kariwa Research Initiative for Seismic Margin Assessment) benchmark study was launched by the IAEA in terms of an international collaborative research. The main objectives of this research are to estimate the structural behavior and to evaluate the seismic margin of reactor building considering the effects of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI). This paper presents verification of structural model developed here and validation of soil foundation characteristics through soil-column analysis. It has also been demonstrated that the spring constants and damping coefficient obtained from impedance analysis represent well the soil foundation characteristics

  4. Characteristics of Soil Structure Interaction for Reactor Building of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 16 July 2007, the Nigataken-chuetsu-oki earthquake registering a moment magnitude of 6.8 occurred at a depth of about 15 km. As a result of this earthquake, noticeable shaking exceeding the design ground motion was measured at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station (KKN), the biggest nuclear power plant in the world, located at about 16 km away from the epicenter. This earthquake triggered a fire at an electrical transformer and insignificant damage on some parts of facilities. This event gave an impulse to study on the damage and safety margin of nuclear power plant due to the strong earthquake exceeding design basis. As a part of those efforts, KARISMA (KAshiwazaki-Kariwa Research Initiative for Seismic Margin Assessment) benchmark study was launched by the IAEA in terms of an international collaborative research. The main objectives of this research are to estimate the structural behavior and to evaluate the seismic margin of reactor building considering the effects of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI). This paper presents verification of structural model developed here and validation of soil foundation characteristics through soil-column analysis. It has also been demonstrated that the spring constants and damping coefficient obtained from impedance analysis represent well the soil foundation characteristics

  5. Structural reliability modes in the containment of CANDU multi unit nuclear stations - an example: Vacuum building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU plants have vacuum buildings (VB) in which the pressure is maintained close to vacuum. In case of LOCA, the released radionuclides are drawn into subatmospheric VB, doused and contained without being released to the environment. In the pre-Darlington CANDU plants, the VB were built with flat roofs. The roofs had to be connected to the perimeter walls with rubber seals to allow for the movement of the roofs relative to the perimeter walls without significantly affecting stresses in both the roofs and the perimeter walls. This was expected to be the controlling factor in VB structural reliability. An analysis showed that a new replacement silicone rubber fabric reinforced composite would provide the seal with the same reliability as traditional structural components. The new silicone rubber spare seals will be used to replace the existing VB ones, when the need arises. This study has shown that the new selection has a structural reliability equivalent to that of reinforced or prestressed concrete. The newly selected silicone rubber material is either better than or equal to the currently existing VB roof rubber seals (neoprene or EPDM), which are no longer commercially available. (orig./HP)

  6. Innovative structural CLT system in projecting and building of student houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Radovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The University campuses represent a dominant type of organization of the living activities of students. Buildings and common features, were usually built, in a classical manner. This means that majority of the student living complexes was built in the massive and skeletal structural systems of concrete and steel. This paper deals with the possibilities, advantages and examples of an innovative structural system, named CLT or XLAM system. The XLAM system was developed in Germany around 12 years ago and it has been rapidly spreading in most European countries such as Austria, Switzerland, Italy and Nordic Countries. It is a European innovative timber based material in which timber boards, made of domestic timber species are assembled in layers and glued together crosswise in order to form massive timber wall and floor panels characterized by significant mechanical properties. Such type of structural system can serve as a models for construction of residential, commercial and student facilities in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36037: Construction of Student hostels in Serbia at the beginning of 21st century

  7. THE STRUCTURE OF THE CHINESE FOOD INDUSTRIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR MODEL BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Stanmore, Roland; Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese food economy has undergone significant reforms affecting the production, consumption and trade of food over the past 15 years. This paper seeks to analyse the changes that have occurred in the structure of the Chinese food industries and to provide insights on the current market structure. The grains industry is used to demonstrate that, although free market supply and demand forces play an increasing role in the food industries, the government continues to fundamentally shape the...

  8. Uncertainty quantification in structural health monitoring: Applications on cultural heritage buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Filippo; Casarin, Filippo; Caldon, Mauro; Islami, Kleidi; Modena, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades the need for an effective seismic protection and vulnerability reduction of cultural heritage buildings and sites determined a growing interest in structural health monitoring (SHM) as a knowledge-based assessment tool to quantify and reduce uncertainties regarding their structural performance. Monitoring can be successfully implemented in some cases as an alternative to interventions or to control the medium- and long-term effectiveness of already applied strengthening solutions. The research group at the University of Padua, in collaboration with public administrations, has recently installed several SHM systems on heritage structures. The paper reports the application of monitoring strategies implemented to avoid (or at least minimize) the execution of strengthening interventions/repairs and control the response as long as a clear worsening or damaging process is detected. Two emblematic case studies are presented and discussed: the Roman Amphitheatre (Arena) of Verona and the Conegliano Cathedral. Both are excellent examples of on-going monitoring activities, performed through static and dynamic approaches in combination with automated procedures to extract meaningful structural features from collected data. In parallel to the application of innovative monitoring techniques, statistical models and data processing algorithms have been developed and applied in order to reduce uncertainties and exploit monitoring results for an effective assessment and protection of historical constructions. Processing software for SHM was implemented to perform the continuous real time treatment of static data and the identification of modal parameters based on the structural response to ambient vibrations. Statistical models were also developed to filter out the environmental effects and thermal cycles from the extracted features.

  9. Gap between technically accurate information and socially appropriate information for structural health monitoring system installed into tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the structural health monitoring system for tall buildings is now widely recognized by at least structural engineers and managers at large real estate companies to ensure the structural safety immediately after a large earthquake and appeal the quantitative safety of buildings to potential tenants. Some leading real estate companies decided to install the system into all tall buildings. Considering this tendency, a pilot project for the west area of Shinjuku Station supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency was started by the author team to explore a possibility of using the system to provide safe spaces for commuters and residents. The system was installed into six tall buildings. From our experience, it turned out that viewing only from technological aspects was not sufficient for the system to be accepted and to be really useful. Safe spaces require not only the structural safety but also the soundness of key functions of the building. We need help from social scientists, medical doctors, city planners etc. to further improve the integrity of the system.

  10. STRUCTURE AND PARTICULARITY OF MANAGEMENT OF LOGISTICS INFRASTRUCTURE ON ENTERPRISES BUILDING SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Barkhaieva

    2014-01-01

    In the current market conditions, one of the key competences for the enterprises, including and the enterprises of building sector is its competitiveness. Various factors affect on the competitiveness of enterprises, one of the constituents is the price of the product that provided building enterprises. The basic is net product cost of enterprises building sector, we are proposing to consider a logistics infrastructure of building enterprises for reducing net cost. Also propose to illuminate ...

  11. Evaluation of radionuclide penetration of structural concrete surfaces in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The March 28, 1979 loss-of-coolant accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) resulted in the exposure of ∼3000 m2 of reactor building internal concrete surfaces to both liquid-and vapor-borne contaminants. The period of contact between the major structural concrete surfaces and the aqueous solutions of mixed fission products ranged from a few days to several years. Exclusive of the reactor building basement impingement walls above a height of 1.6 m, all concrete surfaces were protected with an epoxy-based coating. This coating provides a tough, easily decontaminated surface for the concrete during normal operation and maintenance cycles. At the completion of the gross decontamination of the accessible reactor building elevations in 1982, exposure rates remained elevated above expected levels as indicated by early decontamination factors. Exposure rate measurements and small-scale scarification samples of the reactor building surfaces demonstrated that the protective coatings and concrete in the reactor building had absorbed radionuclides, thereby creating a large fixed source. In September 1983, a concrete core sampling program was conducted in the TMI-2 reactor building to assess the depth of contaminant penetration into the coatings and concrete on elevations 93m and 106 m. Sampling of the reactor building basement concrete surfaces [elevation 86 m] was deferred until 1985 and 1986 to provide lead time for remote systems development

  12. ENERGY DEMANDS OF THE EXISTING COLLECTIVE BUILDINGS WITH BEARING STRUCTURE OF LARGE PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS FROM TIMISOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pescari S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the targets of EU Directives on the energy performance of buildings is to reduce the energy consumption of the existing buildings by finding efficient solutions for thermal rehabilitation. In order to find the adequate solutions, the first step is to establish the current state of the buildings and to determine their actual energy consumption. The current paper aims to present the energy demands of the existing buildings with bearing structure of large precast concrete panels in the city of Timisoara. Timisoara is one of the most important cities in the west side of Romania, being on the third place in terms of size and economic development. The Census of Population and Housing of 2011 states that Timisoara has about 127841 private dwellings and 60 percent of them are collective buildings. Energy demand values of the existing buildings with bearing structure of large precast concrete panels in Timisoara, in their current condition, are higher than the accepted values provided in the Romanian normative, C107. The difference between these two values can reach up to 300 percent.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE DURABILITY OF THE STRUCTURAL CONCRETE OF REACTOR BUILDINGS AT SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A.; Reigel, M.

    2011-02-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) intends to close 100-150 facilities in the DOE complex using an in situ decommissioning (ISD) strategy that calls for grouting the below-grade interior volume of the structure and leaving the above-grade interior open or demolishing it and disposing of it in the slit trenches in E Area. These closures are expected to persist and remain stable for centuries, but there are neither facility-specific monitoring approaches nor studies on the rate of deterioration of the materials used in the original construction or on the ISD components added during closure (caps, sloped roofs, etc). This report will focus on the evaluation of the actual aging/degradation of the materials of construction used in the ISD structures at Savannah River Site (SRS) above grade, specifically P & R reactor buildings. Concrete blocks (six 2 to 5 ton blocks) removed from the outer wall of the P Reactor Building were turned over to SRNL as the first source for concrete cores. Larger cores were received as a result of grouting activities in P and R reactor facilities. The cores were sectioned and evaluated using microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), ion chromatography (IC) and thermal analysis. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the aggregate and cement phases present in the concrete are consistent with the mix design and no degradation mechanisms are evident at the aggregate-cement interfaces. Samples of the cores were digested and analyzed for chloride ingress as well as sulfate attack. The concentrations of chloride and sulfate ions did not exceed the limits of the mix design and there is no indication of any degradation due to these mechanisms. Thermal analysis on samples taken along the longitudinal axis of the cores show that there is a 1 inch carbonation layer (i.e., no portlandite) present in the interior wall of the reactor building and a negligible carbonation layer in the exterior wall. A mixed layer of carbonate and portlandite extends deeper into the

  14. Influence of soil–structure interaction on seismic collapse resistance of super-tall buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengke Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous field tests indicate that the soil–structure interaction (SSI has a significant impact on the dynamic characteristics of super-tall buildings, which may lead to unexpected structural seismic responses and/or failure. Taking the Shanghai Tower with a total height of 632 m as the research object, the substructure approach is used to simulate the SSI effect on the seismic responses of Shanghai Tower. The refined finite element (FE model of the superstructure of Shanghai Tower and the simplified analytical model of the foundation and adjacent soil are established. Subsequently, the collapse process of Shanghai Tower taking into account the SSI is predicted, as well as its final collapse mechanism. The influences of the SSI on the collapse resistance capacity and failure sequences are discussed. The results indicate that, when considering the SSI, the fundamental period of Shanghai Tower has been extended significantly, and the collapse margin ratio has been improved, with a corresponding decrease of the seismic demand. In addition, the SSI has some impact on the failure sequences of Shanghai Tower subjected to extreme earthquakes, but a negligible impact on the final failure modes.

  15. Design and implementation of a structural health monitoring and alerting system for hospital buildings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Kalkan, Erol; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Friberg, Paul; Leith, W. K.; Banga, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the current progress in the development of a structural health monitoring and alerting system to meet the needs of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs to monitor hospital buildings instrumented in high and very high seismic hazard regions in the U.S. The system, using the measured vibration data, is primarily designed for post-earthquake condition assessment of the buildings. It has two essential components – sensing and analysis. The sensing component includes all necessary firmware and sensors to measure the response of the building; while the analysis component consists of several data processing modules integrated into an open source software package which compresses a large amount of measured data into useful information to assess the building’s condition before and after an event. The information can be used for a rapid building safety assessment, and to support decisions for necessary repairs, replacements, and other maintenance and rehabilitation measures.

  16. Chinese wood frame buildings and the changing dimensions of their structural components in different time periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nujaba Binte Kabir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Features of the Chinese wood frame buildings are same in character from dynasty to dynasty. The study concentrates on 9 Chinese wood frame buildings from Tang to Yuan dynasty and tries to relate these buildings with the text described in a building manual book published in Song dynasty Yingzao fashi. The features of some buildings match with the text described in the book some do not. But on the other hand Liang Sicheng, scholar of Chinese architecture in his book claimed that Chinese wood frame architecture has a unique system of characteristics (Liang, 1984. The system of wood frame Chinese architecture did not change but the proportion of the features has changed in different dynasty. The aim of the paper is to compare the features of the buildings those have been studied according to Yingzao fashi with Liang's observation on the change of building style in different periods.

  17. Use of shock block transmitters in the structural rehabilitation of historical buildings in Calabria and Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Alessia; Candela, Michele; Fonti, Roberta

    2008-07-01

    Many old and historical masonry buildings, located in the Calabrian and Sicilian areas near the strait of Messina, are affected by typical pattern of cracks, which are not produced by previous earthquakes. These cracks in the masonry walls are characterized by a quasi-vertical trend with constant width. The careful examination of the crack distribution allows to clearly identify the diagnosis: the damage is caused by the sinking due to a horizontal movement of translation of the ground, which is an evident effect of creep phenomena in the soil, so-called "solifluxion". This paper, after showing this geological pathology, proposes an innovative strategy of intervention, which consists of the use of "oleo-dynamic" devices, so-called shock block transmitters, providing different degrees of restraint, according to the loading conditions. In addition, in case of earthquake, an important part of the in-put seismic energy can be dissipated. The strategy of application of this system to the building consists of the subdivision of each masonry wall in two different parts, which are physically separated by the cracks. Each wall portion must be consolidated separately and the different parts of walls behave as statically independent each other, so that they can move independently during the serviceability conditions. The connection among the walls composing the whole structural organism is given by metal tie-rods equipped with "oleo dynamic" devices, which allows, in a given range, the horizontal sliding in case of slow movement due to the phenomenon of "solifluxion". Contrary, in case of dynamic and fast movements, such as the ones produced by an earthquake, each "oleo dynamic" device provides a fully restraint effect and, as a consequence, the tie-rods behave in the classical way.

  18. Use of shock block transmitters in the structural rehabilitation of historical buildings in Calabria and Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many old and historical masonry buildings, located in the Calabrian and Sicilian areas near the strait of Messina, are affected by typical pattern of cracks, which are not produced by previous earthquakes. These cracks in the masonry walls are characterized by a quasi-vertical trend with constant width. The careful examination of the crack distribution allows to clearly identify the diagnosis: the damage is caused by the sinking due to a horizontal movement of translation of the ground, which is an evident effect of creep phenomena in the soil, so-called 'solifluxion'. This paper, after showing this geological pathology, proposes an innovative strategy of intervention, which consists of the use of 'oleo-dynamic' devices, so-called shock block transmitters, providing different degrees of restraint, according to the loading conditions. In addition, in case of earthquake, an important part of the in-put seismic energy can be dissipated. The strategy of application of this system to the building consists of the subdivision of each masonry wall in two different parts, which are physically separated by the cracks. Each wall portion must be consolidated separately and the different parts of walls behave as statically independent each other, so that they can move independently during the serviceability conditions. The connection among the walls composing the whole structural organism is given by metal tie-rods equipped with 'oleo dynamic' devices, which allows, in a given range, the horizontal sliding in case of slow movement due to the phenomenon of 'solifluxion'. Contrary, in case of dynamic and fast movements, such as the ones produced by an earthquake, each 'oleo dynamic' device provides a fully restraint effect and, as a consequence, the tie-rods behave in the classical way

  19. Experimental justification of a way to increase complex technological effectiveness of steel rod structure

    OpenAIRE

    A.N. Ulshin

    2015-01-01

    The author analyses modern technologies and equipment used for producing and installing metalwork and also some types of structures. Therefore, additional reserves of increase in technological effectiveness were due to the selection of the optimal geometrical form, improvement of separate parts of the structure, values of separate design data for certain manufacturing technology. The complex indicator of technological effectiveness should be used by organizations involved in production an...

  20. Study on structural characteristics of pillared clay modified phosphate fertilizers and its increase efficiency mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ping-xiao; LIAO Zong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Three types of new high-efficiency phosphate fertilizers were made when pillared clays at certain proportions were added into ground phosphate rock. Chemical analyses showed that their soluble phosphorus content decreased more than that of superphosphate. Pot experiment showed that, under equal weights, the new fertilizers increased their efficiency by a large margin over that of superphosphate. Researches on their structures by means of XRD, IR and EPR spectrum revealed that their crystal structures changed considerably, improving their activity and preventing the fixation of available phosphorus in the soil, and consequently, greatly improved the bioavailability and became the main cause of the increase of biomass.

  1. Study on structural characteristics of pillared clay modified phosphate fertilizers and its increase efficiency mechanism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping-xiao; Liao, Zong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Three types of new high-efficiency phosphate fertilizers were made when pillared clays at certain proportions were added into ground phosphate rock. Chemical analyses showed that their soluble phosphorus content decreased more than that of superphosphate. Pot experiment showed that, under equal weights, the new fertilizers increased their efficiency by a large margin over that of superphosphate. Researches on their structures by means of XRD, IR and EPR spectrum revealed that their crystal structures changed considerably, improving their activity and preventing the fixation of available phosphorus in the soil, and consequently, greatly improved the bioavailability and became the main cause of the increase of biomass. PMID:15682504

  2. Evaluation of seismic performance and effectiveness of multiple slim-type damper system for seismic response control of building structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David; Sung, Eun Hee; Park, Kwan-Soon; Park, Jaegyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of a multiple slim-type damper system developed for the vibration control of earthquake excited buildings. The multiple slim-type damper (MSD) that consists of several small slim-type dampers and linkage units can control damping capacity easily by changing the number of small dampers. To evaluate the performance of the MSD, dynamic loading tests are performed with three slim-type dampers manufactured at a real scale. Numerical simulations are also carried out by nonlinear time history analysis with a ten-story earthquake excited building structure. The seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of the MSD system are investigated according to the various installation configurations of the MSD system. From the results of numerical simulation and cost-effectiveness evaluation, it is shown that combinations of the MSD systems can effectively improve the seismic performance of earthquake excited building structures. PMID:25301387

  3. Market Analysis of non-structural chemical products within the Green Building trend

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Blasco, Antonia Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Green Building is a growing trend within the construction industry. HILTI AG, International Company that provides tools and consumables to the Construction Industry, and more concretely Business Unit Chemicals, noticed it from customers asking for information to get a Green Building Certification. Taking it as starting point, it has been developed the current Master Thesis with the aim to describe the Green Building Market in United States and Canada (the biggest markets) in order to know the...

  4. Chemical emissions from building structures : emission sources and their impact on indoor air

    OpenAIRE

    Glader, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Chemical compounds in indoor air can adversely affect our comfort and health. However, in most cases there is only a limited amount of information available that can be used to assess their health risk. Instead the precautionary principle is often applied, i.e. efforts are made to ensure that the concentrations of pollutants are kept at a minimum when constructing new buildings or conducting renovations by using low-emitting building materials. Today, when investigating buildings in order to ...

  5. The Growing Awareness Inventory: Building Capacity for Culturally Responsive Science and Mathematics with a Structured Observation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C.; Crippen, Kent J.

    2016-01-01

    This study represents a first iteration in the design process of the Growing Awareness Inventory (GAIn), a structured observation protocol for building the awareness of preservice teachers (PSTs) for resources in mathematics and science classrooms that can be used for culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP). The GAIn is designed to develop awareness…

  6. VERTICAL PROJECTION EFFICIENCY OF PIVOT POINTS USING ELECTRONIC TACHEOMETER DURING CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Nesterenok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that functional limitation of zenith devices and introduction of modern high-accuracy electronic tacheometers should lead to substitution of the mentioned devices for tacheometers in geodesic works concerning vertical projection of pivot points of the constructed buildings and structures. However the electronic tacheometer has not been considered in the function of a zenith device in ТКП 45-1.03-26-2006.Special experiemnts and practical works executed by UE “Geokart” has proved that in accordance with its design the electronic tacheometer equipped with a compensator for small inclinations and zenith prism attachment for ocular can be applied as a vertical projection device while setting sighting line of a telescope in a fixed vertical position. Corresponding experiments have been carried out for multi-storied building of business centre located in the M. Tank Street in Minsk in order to obtain comparative characteristics of vertical projection accuracy with the help of tacheometer TOPCON GPT 7501 and zenith device PZL-100. An initial point of the staked grid has been situated at the elevation ±0,0 м, standard graph elevation has been equal to +49,5 м (concrete slab of the 14th floor, projection height referred to the device has been equal to Н = 47,8 м. Both devices have been set on the same stand using a purpose made adaptive device in order to exclude centering errors. Deviation in position of final projection points on the standard graph which were obtained with the help of two devices has been equal to 1.2 mm, that testifies practical equal accuracy of the zenith device and tacheometer for vertical projection function.Additional advantage of the electronic tacheometer in comparison with special vertical projection devi ces lies in the fact that in the case of a certain misalignment of geodesic openings in intermediate floors ta- cheometer deviating from the vertical makes it possible to carry out initial point

  7. Transformation Education: A Vehicle for Structuring Group Care Organizations to Increase Service Quality and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Andrew L.

    2007-01-01

    Transformation Education, an organizational philosophy and operating system, is designed to increase service quality and effectiveness of group care through aligning its organizational structure with its purpose. This alignment is achieved through creating a culture designed to dispense transformation rather than treatment. The author presents how…

  8. The Alzheimer Structural Connectome: Changes in Cortical Network Topology with Increased Amyloid Plaque Burden

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, Jeffrey W.; Guidon, Arnaud; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Liu, Chunlei; Petrella, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Our cross-sectional study of baseline data from a national cohort of patients with Alzheimer disease, mild cognitive impairment, or normal cognition shows that increased cortical amyloid deposition is significantly associated with alterations in the topology of the structural connectome.

  9. Building a backlight unit with lateral gate structure based on carbon nanotube field emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the fabrication of a backlight unit for liquid crystal display based on printed carbon nanotube field emitters with lateral gate and additional mesh structures. The device architecture has been optimized through field emission characterization and supporting numerical simulation. The emission current depends strongly on the cathode-gate gap, mesh position, and mesh bias. Direct observation of luminous images on a phosphor screen reveals that the electron beams undergo a noticeable shrinkage along the lateral direction with increasing anode bias, which is in good agreement with the simulation results. We suggest and demonstrate a modified structure equipped with double emitter edges leading to ∼20% improved phosphor efficiency (34.4 lm W-1) and luminance (9600 cd m-2), compared to those from a single edge structure.

  10. Characterization of Solid Building Structures with NaI Gamma Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an in-situ gamma spectroscopy measurement setup, which utilizes a NaI detector for clearance measurements of concrete building structures. As such an apparatus can be operated at room temperature, large and costly supporting accessories are not required. This is a major improvement in comparison to existing approaches that work with semiconductor technology, e.g., high pure germanium detectors. The method under discussion allows to create versatile and handy measurement systems, which lower cost and time efforts, required for characterization measurements during the disassembly of nuclear power plants, considerably. This novel characterization method has been developed jointly by E.ON and the University Rostock to foster the dismantling activities of E.ON nuclear power plants. The regulatory acceptance for this method has been granted for the facility Nuclear Power Plant Isar (KKI) in July 2013. This paper details the method under discussion and how an acceptance has been reached, according to applicable legislation. Furthermore, a comparison with state of the art characterization methods plus experiences from the practical application of the method will be shown. (authors)

  11. The Use of Prompts, Increased Accessibility, Visibility, and Aesthetics of the Stairwell to Promote Stair Use in a University Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuw-Amerongen, M. E.; Kremers, S. P. J.; de Vries, N. K.; Kok, G.

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity in the form of consistently opting for stair use instead of elevator use can have important health benefits. The article discusses a study assessing whether increasing the attractiveness and accessibility of a stairwell had an impact on stair use among students and employees of Maastricht University, the Netherlands. The…

  12. Considering soil-structure interaction effects in the equivalent static analysis method of the Iranian of the Iranian seismic building code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, based on the equivalent static analysis method of the Iranian seismic code, an algorithm is presented to consider the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects. Modifications of free field motion and structural properties like period and damping due to soil situation are considered in the proposed algorithm. An increase for fundamental period of structure and a modification (usually increase) for it's effective damping are observed. The increase of period is due to the flexibility of the soil foundation and modification of damping is due to the dissipating energy in soil. In order to propose the relative expressions in the presented algorithm, the soil-structure analyses of 8, 10, 13 and 16 stories frames are carried out. By considering the NEHRP soil-structure interaction algorithm and findings of soil-structure interaction analyses carried out in this study, the algorithm based on the equivalent static analysis method of the Iranian seismic building code to consider the effect of soil-structure interaction

  13. Revisiting mountain-building in the Andes of Central Chile: constraints from structural geology and thermochronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesner, M.; Lacassin, R.; Simoes, M.; Armijo, R.; Carrizo, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Andes, one of the most significant reliefs on Earth, is the case example of a subduction-type mountain belt. In central Chile and western Argentina, the particular east-vergent structure of the Aconcagua fold-and-thrust belt (AFTB) is found atop a huge basement high with elevations > 4000 m, the Frontal Cordillera. Classical conceptual models consider the Andes as an east-vergent orogen, opposite to the Nazca subduction, and describe the exhumation of the Frontal Cordillera as an eastward in-sequence event that occurred late in the andean deformation (by ~10My). An alternative model recently challenged this view by proposing that the Andes have mainly a primary westward vergence. Within this scheme, the exhumation of the Frontal Cordillera would have begun earlier, by ~25My, synchronous with formation of the AFTB on the western side of the basement high. Here we test these two models by revisiting structural cross-sections of the Andes at the latitude of Santiago de Chile and of the Aconcagua (~33°S). We provide thermochronological constraints on the timing of exhumation of the Frontal Cordillera by (U-Th)/He dating on apatites retrieved from paleozoic granitoids along a 2,3km high nearly vertical section in the core of the basement high. Preliminary results suggest that the Frontal Cordillera exhumation was not a late event and likely began around 25 Ma. Therefore it appears to be synchronous with deformation within the AFTB and the westernmost fold-and-thrust belt at this latitude. We discuss these results and their implications while building a crustal-scale cross section of the range at the latitude of Santiago de Chile.

  14. Experimental justification of a way to increase complex technological effectiveness of steel rod structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Ulshin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses modern technologies and equipment used for producing and installing metalwork and also some types of structures. Therefore, additional reserves of increase in technological effectiveness were due to the selection of the optimal geometrical form, improvement of separate parts of the structure, values of separate design data for certain manufacturing technology. The complex indicator of technological effectiveness should be used by organizations involved in production and installation of metalwork for increasing complex technological effectiveness in comparison with the project variable design. Issues of the experiment were: 1 to give justification of a technique to define a complex indicator of technological effectiveness and the assumptions made when developing this technique; this can be achieved by comparison of theoretical and actual values; 2 to confirm that an improved constructive and technological solution results in the increase of the complex indicator of technological effectiveness in comparison with the design option.

  15. Composite motifs integrating multiple protein structures increase sensitivity for function prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian Y; Bryant, Drew H; Cruess, Amanda E; Bylund, Joseph H; Fofanov, Viacheslav Y; Kristensen, David M; Kimmel, Marek; Lichtarge, Olivier; Kavraki, Lydia E

    2007-01-01

    The study of disease often hinges on the biological function of proteins, but determining protein function is a difficult experimental process. To minimize duplicated effort, algorithms for function prediction seek characteristics indicative of possible protein function. One approach is to identify substructural matches of geometric and chemical similarity between motifs representing known active sites and target protein structures with unknown function. In earlier work, statistically significant matches of certain effective motifs have identified functionally related active sites. Effective motifs must be carefully designed to maintain similarity to functionally related sites (sensitivity) and avoid incidental similarities to functionally unrelated protein geometry (specificity). Existing motif design techniques use the geometry of a single protein structure. Poor selection of this structure can limit motif effectiveness if the selected functional site lacks similarity to functionally related sites. To address this problem, this paper presents composite motifs, which combine structures of functionally related active sites to potentially increase sensitivity. Our experimentation compares the effectiveness of composite motifs with simple motifs designed from single protein structures. On six distinct families of functionally related proteins, leave-one-out testing showed that composite motifs had sensitivity comparable to the most sensitive of all simple motifs and specificity comparable to the average simple motif. On our data set, we observed that composite motifs simultaneously capture variations in active site conformation, diminish the problem of selecting motif structures, and enable the fusion of protein structures from diverse data sources. PMID:17951837

  16. Building Research Integrity and Capacity (BRIC): An Educational Initiative to Increase Research Literacy among Community Health Workers and Promotores

    OpenAIRE

    Camille Nebeker; Araceli López-Arenas

    2015-01-01

    While citizen science is gaining attention of late, for those of us involved in community-based public health research, community/citizen involvement in research has steadily increased over the past 50 years. Community Health Workers (CHWs), also known as Promotores de Salud in the Latino community, are critical to reaching underserved populations, where health disparities are more prevalent. CHWs/Promotores provide health education and services and may also assist with the development and im...

  17. INVESTMENT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF ROAD-BUILD MEANS, AUTOMATIC AND INFORMATIONAL SYSTEMS TO INCREASE TRAFFIC SAFETY IN VEHICLE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirokov Lev Alekseevich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern transport system is a complex integrated object, which includes various road pavements, different technical means to provide vehicles motion, organizational systems of traffic management. In the contemporary conditions of construction industry functioning the task to create vehicle systems is of a great economic importance. Great labour and material resources are used for production of transport means for providing construction works and operation of these means. The authors consider the questions of theoretical and informational foundation development for the formation of the criteria basis of investment optimization task during construction of automatical and informational systems for increase of traffic safety in transport systems, providing zero accident rate.

  18. Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Jennifer A.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Kuris, Armand M.; Martinez, Neo D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Mouritsen, Kim N.; Poulin, Robert; Reise, Karsten; Stouffer, Daniel B.; Thieltges, David W.; Williams, Richard J.; Zander, Claus Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity), particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey). However, we clarify prior claims that parasites ‘‘dominate’’ food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites’ roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites’ feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic

  19. Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Dunne

    Full Text Available Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity, particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey. However, we clarify prior claims that parasites "dominate" food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites' roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites' feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic

  20. 5-Azacytidine and RNA secondary structure increase the retrovirus mutation rate.

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, V K; Temin, H M

    1992-01-01

    A broad spectrum of mutations occurs at a high rate during a single round of retrovirus replication (V.K. Pathak and H. M. Temin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:6019-6023, 1990). We have now determined that this high rate of spontaneous mutation can be further increased by 5-azacytidine (AZC) treatment or by regions of potential RNA secondary structure. We found a 13-fold increase in the mutation rate after AZC treatment of retrovirus-producing cells and target cells. The AZC-induced substitut...

  1. Using data to help increase STEM retention rates for at-risk students; Student expectations and skill building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D. E.; Jones, G.; Heaney, A.

    2013-12-01

    Retention in the STEM fields is often a focus for higher education due to a shortage of trained workforce members. In particular, much effort has been spent on first year retention rates and introductory level courses under the assumption that students are more likely to drop out of STEM majors early in their higher education degree progress. While the retention rates of women, minorities, and low income students have been a priority by both the National Science Foundation and the private sector, we are interested in at-risk first year students for this study. The University of Wyoming Synergy Program's goal is to promote academic success and retention for underprepared and at-risk students by creating a series of first semester curricula as theme-based college transition skills courses that are paired with English courses. This creates a cohort group of courses for the students with increased communication between instructors at the same time allowing greater development of student social networks. In this study we are highlighting the results of the STEM students as compared with other at-risk participants in the program. The Synergy Program enrolls approximately 144 students each year with pre- and post-course surveys that directly measure which college skills students select as important as well as student expectations of the amount of time required for STEM courses. Follow-up surveys track the same queries for students who persist to their junior and senior year. In addition, instructors complete a summative survey about skills they find important to student success and individual student's challenges and successes with a variety of skills. Our results show a large gap in skills between those identified as important by students and those identified by their instructors. Expectations for the amount of time required to complete work for STEM courses and the reported time spent on course work are not constant when progressing throughout college. This analysis

  2. Mobile agent-enabled framework for structuring and building distributed systems on the internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jiannong; ZHOU Jingyang; ZHU Weiwei; LI Xuhui

    2006-01-01

    Mobile agent has shown its promise as a powerful means to complement and enhance existing technology in various application areas. In particular, existing work has demonstrated that MA can simplify the development and improve the performance of certain classes of distributed applications, especially for those running on a wide-area, heterogeneous, and dynamic networking environment like the Internet. In our previous work, we extended the application of MA to the design of distributed control functions, which require the maintenance of logical relationship among and/or coordination of processing entities in a distributed system. A novel framework is presented for structuring and building distributed systems, which use cooperating mobile agents as an aid to carry out coordination and cooperation tasks in distributed systems. The framework has been used for designing various distributed control functions such as load balancing and mutual exclusion in our previous work. In this paper, we use the framework to propose a novel approach to detecting deadlocks in distributed system by using mobile agents, which demonstrates the advantage of being adaptive and flexible of mobile agents. We first describe the MAEDD (Mobile Agent Enabled Deadlock Detection) scheme, in which mobile agents are dispatched to collect and analyze deadlock information distributed across the network sites and, based on the analysis, to detect and resolve deadlocks. Then the design of an adaptive hybrid algorithm derived from the framework is presented. The algorithm can dynamically adapt itself to the changes in system state by using different deadlock detection strategies. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated using simulations. The results show that the algorithm can outperform existing algorithms that use a fixed deadlock detection strategy.

  3. The leaning Tower of Pisa, Structure, building materials and reinforcement interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniale, F.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available An exhaustive diagnosis of "anatomy, physiology and pathology" of the masonry body of the leaning Tower of Pisa has been carried out with the aim of integrate the knowledge of the structure features, mechanical conditions and decay processes of the building materials, necessary for correctly managing the therapy, temporary and definitive interventions. The interventions already or being implemented consist of (i outer circular slightly stressed steel tendons, (ii inner stressed and/or passive strainless bars, and (iii grouting by a specially devised cement admixture. The paper will not be dealing with "materic" restoration works, and geotechnical interventions for reducing the progressive tilting and stabilizing the foundation/subsoil system of the Tower.

    Se ha realizado un exhaustivo estudio de diagnosis de la Torre inclinada de Pisa, con el fin de completar todo el conocimiento existente en torno a la estructura, condiciones mecánicas y procesos de alteración de los materiales de construcción, para proponer la terapia más correcta de intervención, ya sean éstas temporales o definitivas. Las intervenciones ya realizadas o en fase de ejecución consisten en: (i cables de acero ligeramente tensados rodeando la Torre, (ii barras interiores tensadas y/o pasivadas, y (iii relleno con una lechada de cemento con aditivo, especialmente preparado para tal fin. El presente trabajo no se centrará en las restauraciones ni en las intervenciones geotécnicas realizadas para reducir la progresiva inclinación y estabilizar el sistema de cimentación de la Torre.

  4. Has the 2008-2009 recession increased the structural share of unemployment in the euro area?

    OpenAIRE

    HAINCOURT, S.; Mogliani, M.

    2012-01-01

    The so-called Beveridge curve illustrates the relation between the unemployment rate and the job vacancy rate. Regarding the euro area, the rise in the unemployment rate and the increase in recruitment difficulties since the 2008-2009 recession indicate a risk of a higher level of structural unemployment. At the national level, this risk is primarily located in Spain, but there are also negative signals appearing in France.

  5. Structure/property relationships in HSLA steel with low carbon and manganese and increased silicon content

    OpenAIRE

    KÖthe, A.; Richter, J.; Güth, A.; MÜsgen, B.; Baumgardt, H.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of an increased Si and reduced C and Mn content on structure and mechanical properties of HSLA steel plate with low carbon equivalent is investigated. With a C content of 0.06 ... 0.08 % Mn should be ≥ 0.8 %, and Si concentrations up to 1.0 % may be used. On air cooled 30 mm plate [MATH] has been obtained.

  6. Increasing Returns to Scale, Dynamics of Industrial Structure and Size Distribution of Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Fan; Menghui Li; Zengru Di

    2004-01-01

    A model is presented of the market dynamics to emphasis the effects of increasing returns to scale, including the description of the born and death of the adaptive producers. The evolution of market structure and its behavior with the technological shocks are discussed. Its dynamics is in good agreement with some empirical stylized facts of industrial evolution. Together with the diversities of demand and adaptive growth strategies of firms, the generalized model has reproduced the power-law ...

  7. Assessment of Structural Resistance of building 4862 to Earthquake and Tornado Forces [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    METCALF, I.L.

    1999-12-06

    This report presents the results of work done for Hanford Engineering Laboratory under contract Y213-544-12662. LATA performed an assessment of building 4862 resistance to earthquake and tornado forces.

  8. Assessment of Structural Resistance of building 4862 to Earthquake and Tornado Forces [SEC 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of work done for Hanford Engineering Laboratory under contract Y213-544-12662. LATA performed an assessment of building 4862 resistance to earthquake and tornado forces

  9. Structural analysis of a vault of the administration building of the Hospital Sant Pau

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to assess the load-carrying capacity of one of the vaults located on the Administration Building of the Hospital Sant Pau, a UNESCO World Heritage site located in Barcelona, Spain. Firstly, a brief historical survey of the city and the complex is done, in order to understand the hospital complex’s own cultural, social and environmental values. Also, an introduction to timbrel construction -the constructive technique used for building all the hospita...

  10. VIBRATION TESTING OF A SIXTEEN-STORIED BUILDING THAT HAS A PRECAST CONCRETE BOX STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Rumyantsev Anton Andreevich; Sergeevtsev Evgeniy Yur'evich

    2012-01-01

    This article covers the problems of theoretical assessment of the seismic stability of a 16-storied building made of precast concrete box units by full-scale experimental testing through the employment of a powerful unbalance-type vibration machine. The authors provide the results of the experimental testing and scale them to assess the effects of an earthquake. The testing procedure that consists in the assessment of the seismic stability of buildings through employment of the vibration ...

  11. High order quaternary arrangement confers increased structural stability to Brucella Spp. lumazine synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zylberman, V.; Craig, P.O.; Klinke, S.; Cauerhff, A.; Goldbaum, F.A. [Instituto Leloir, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Braden, B.C. [Bowie State Univ., Maryland (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The penultimate step in the pathway of riboflavin biosynthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme lumazine synthase (LS). One of the most distinctive characteristics of this enzyme is the structural quaternary divergence found in different species. The protein exists as pentameric and icosahedral forms, built from practically the same structural monomeric unit. The pentameric structure is formed by five 18 kDa monomers, each extensively contacting neighboring monomers. The icosahedral structure consists of 60 LS monomers arranged as twelve pentamers giving rise to a capsid exhibiting icosahedral 532 symmetry. In all lumazine synthases studied, the topologically equivalent active sites are located at the interfaces between adjacent subunits in the pentameric modules. The Brucella spp. lumazine synthase (BLS) sequence clearly diverges from pentameric and icosahedral enzymes. This unusual divergence prompted to further investigate on its quaternary arrangement. In the present work, we demonstrate by means of solution Light Scattering and X-ray structural analyses that BLS assembles as a very stable dimer of pentamers representing a third category of quaternary assembly for lumazine synthases. We also describe by spectroscopic studies the thermodynamic stability of this oligomeric protein, and postulate a mechanism for dissociation/unfolding of this macromolecular assembly. The higher molecular order of BLS increases its stability 20 deg C compared to pentameric lumazine synthases. The decameric arrangement described in this work highlights the importance of quaternary interactions in the stabilization of proteins. (author)

  12. High order quaternary arrangement confers increased structural stability to Brucella Spp. lumazine synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penultimate step in the pathway of riboflavin biosynthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme lumazine synthase (LS). One of the most distinctive characteristics of this enzyme is the structural quaternary divergence found in different species. The protein exists as pentameric and icosahedral forms, built from practically the same structural monomeric unit. The pentameric structure is formed by five 18 kDa monomers, each extensively contacting neighboring monomers. The icosahedral structure consists of 60 LS monomers arranged as twelve pentamers giving rise to a capsid exhibiting icosahedral 532 symmetry. In all lumazine synthases studied, the topologically equivalent active sites are located at the interfaces between adjacent subunits in the pentameric modules. The Brucella spp. lumazine synthase (BLS) sequence clearly diverges from pentameric and icosahedral enzymes. This unusual divergence prompted to further investigate on its quaternary arrangement. In the present work, we demonstrate by means of solution Light Scattering and X-ray structural analyses that BLS assembles as a very stable dimer of pentamers representing a third category of quaternary assembly for lumazine synthases. We also describe by spectroscopic studies the thermodynamic stability of this oligomeric protein, and postulate a mechanism for dissociation/unfolding of this macromolecular assembly. The higher molecular order of BLS increases its stability 20 deg C compared to pentameric lumazine synthases. The decameric arrangement described in this work highlights the importance of quaternary interactions in the stabilization of proteins. (author)

  13. Effects of Various Blowout Panel Configurations on the Structural Response of Los Alamos National Laboratory Building 16-340 to Internal Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason P. Wilke

    2005-09-30

    The risk of accidental detonation is present whenever any type of high explosives processing activity is performed. These activities are typically carried out indoors to protect processing equipment from the weather and to hide possibly secret processes from view. Often, highly strengthened reinforced concrete buildings are employed to house these activities. These buildings may incorporate several design features, including the use of lightweight frangible blowout panels, to help mitigate blast effects. These panels are used to construct walls that are durable enough to withstand the weather, but are of minimal weight to provide overpressure relief by quickly moving outwards and creating a vent area during an accidental explosion. In this study the behavior of blowout panels under various blast loading conditions was examined. External loadings from explosions occurring in nearby rooms were of primary interest. Several reinforcement systems were designed to help blowout panels resist failure from external blast loads while still allowing them to function as vents when subjected to internal explosions. The reinforcements were studied using two analytical techniques, yield-line analysis and modal analysis, and the hydrocode AUTODYN. A blowout panel reinforcement design was created that could prevent panels from being blown inward by external explosions. This design was found to increase the internal loading of the building by 20%, as compared with nonreinforced panels. Nonreinforced panels were found to increase the structural loads by 80% when compared to an open wall at the panel location.

  14. Neocortical calretinin neurons in primates: increase in proportion and microcircuitry structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Džaja

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this mini review we first point at the expansion of associative cortical areas in primates as well as at the intrinsic changes in the structure of the cortical column. There is a huge increase in proportion of glutamatergic cortical projecting neurons located in the upper cortical layers (II/III. In addition, inside this group a novel class of associative neurons becomes recognized that is important for both, inter-areal and intra-areal columnar integration. By overviewing the literature data we found that there might be also a 50% increase in proportion of neocortical GABAergic neurons between primates and rodents, principally reflecting a 4 to 5 fold increase in proportion of calretinin interneurons. In primates calretinin interneurons might represent 15% of the total neuron number in the upper layers of high order associative areas. Evaluating data about functional properties of their connectivity we hypothesize that an exponential increase in proportion of calretinin interneurons might lead to supra-linear growth in memory capacity of the associative neocortical network. An open question is do we have some new calretinin interneuron subtypes which might substantially change micro-circuitry structure of the primate cerebral cortex.

  15. Neocortical calretinin neurons in primates: increase in proportion and microcircuitry structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džaja, Domagoj; Hladnik, Ana; Bičanić, Ivana; Baković, Marija; Petanjek, Zdravko

    2014-01-01

    In this article we first point at the expansion of associative cortical areas in primates, as well as at the intrinsic changes in the structure of the cortical column. There is a huge increase in proportion of glutamatergic cortical projecting neurons located in the upper cortical layers (II/III). Inside this group, a novel class of associative neurons becomes recognized for its growing necessity in both inter-areal and intra-areal columnar integration. Equally important to the changes in glutamatergic population, we found that literature data suggest a 50% increase in the proportion of neocortical GABAergic neurons between primates and rodents. This seems to be a result of increase in proportion of calretinin interneurons in layers II/III, population which in associative areas represents 15% of all neurons forming those layers. Evaluating data about functional properties of their connectivity we hypothesize that such an increase in proportion of calretinin interneurons might lead to supra-linear growth in memory capacity of the associative neocortical network. An open question is whether there are some new calretinin interneuron subtypes, which might substantially change micro-circuitry structure of the primate cerebral cortex. PMID:25309344

  16. Evolution of Protein Quaternary Structure in Response to Selective Pressure for Increased Thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Nicholas J; Liu, Jian-Wei; Mabbitt, Peter D; Correy, Galen J; Coppin, Chris W; Lethier, Mathilde; Perugini, Matthew A; Murphy, James M; Oakeshott, John G; Weik, Martin; Jackson, Colin J

    2016-06-01

    Oligomerization has been suggested to be an important mechanism for increasing or maintaining the thermostability of proteins. Although it is evident that protein-protein contacts can result in substantial stabilization in many extant proteins, evidence for evolutionary selection for oligomerization is largely indirect and little is understood of the early steps in the evolution of oligomers. A laboratory-directed evolution experiment that selected for increased thermostability in the αE7 carboxylesterase from the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, resulted in a thermostable variant, LcαE7-4a, that displayed increased levels of dimeric and tetrameric quaternary structure. A trade-off between activity and thermostability was made during the evolution of thermostability, with the higher-order oligomeric species displaying the greatest thermostability and lowest catalytic activity. Analysis of monomeric and dimeric LcαE7-4a crystal structures revealed that only one of the oligomerization-inducing mutations was located at a potential protein-protein interface. This work demonstrates that by imposing a selective pressure demanding greater thermostability, mutations can lead to increased oligomerization and stabilization, providing support for the hypothesis that oligomerization is a viable evolutionary strategy for protein stabilization. PMID:27016206

  17. Calculation of the response behaviour of a modern German BWR reactor building including fluid-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent concepts for future german PWR and BWR provide for high-layer water storage pools to ensure core cooling by gravitation (passive system) in the event of loss-of-coolant accidents with small pipes ruptures. Dynamic excitation (e.g. earthquakes) will lead to an interaction between the water in the pools and the reactor building structure. The response behaviour of the reactor building under dynamic excitation is calculated using the finite element codes ABAQUS and PERMAS including fluid-structure interaction and the influence of the subsoil conditions on the response behaviour. The use of nonlinear constitutive equations leads to cracks in the concrete in those regions of the floors where the tensile strength is exceeded. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs

  18. Calculation of the response behaviour of a modern German BWR reactor building including fluid-structure interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altes, J. [Research Center, Juelich GmbH (Germany); Kloster, R. [Essen Univ. (Germany); Wang, T. [Qinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1995-12-31

    Recent concepts for future german PWR and BWR provide for high-layer water storage pools to ensure core cooling by gravitation (passive system) in the event of loss-of-coolant accidents with small pipes ruptures. Dynamic excitation (e.g. earthquakes) will lead to an interaction between the water in the pools and the reactor building structure. The response behaviour of the reactor building under dynamic excitation is calculated using the finite element codes ABAQUS and PERMAS including fluid-structure interaction and the influence of the subsoil conditions on the response behaviour. The use of nonlinear constitutive equations leads to cracks in the concrete in those regions of the floors where the tensile strength is exceeded. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs.

  19. 5-Azacytidine and RNA secondary structure increase the retrovirus mutation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, V K; Temin, H M

    1992-01-01

    A broad spectrum of mutations occurs at a high rate during a single round of retrovirus replication (V.K. Pathak and H. M. Temin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:6019-6023, 1990). We have now determined that this high rate of spontaneous mutation can be further increased by 5-azacytidine (AZC) treatment or by regions of potential RNA secondary structure. We found a 13-fold increase in the mutation rate after AZC treatment of retrovirus-producing cells and target cells. The AZC-induced substitutions were located at the same target sites as previously identified spontaneous substitutions. The concordance of the AZC-induced and spontaneous substitutions indicates the presence of reverse transcription "pause sites," where the growing point is error prone. An analysis of nucleotides that neighbored substitutions revealed that transversions occur primarily by transient template misalignment, whereas transitions occur primarily by misincorporation. We also introduced a 34-bp potential stem-loop structure as an in-frame insertion within a lacZ alpha gene that was inserted in the long terminal repeat (LTR) U3 region and determined whether this potential secondary structure increased the rate of retrovirus mutations. We found a threefold increase in the retrovirus mutation rate. Fifty-seven of 96 mutations were deletions associated with the potential stem-loop. We also determined that these deletion mutations occurred primarily during minus-strand DNA synthesis by comparing the frequencies of mutations in recovered provirus plasmids containing both LTRs and in provirus plasmids containing only one LTR. PMID:1373201

  20. Increased power to weight ratio of piezoelectric energy harvesters through integration of cellular honeycomb structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, N.; Thompson, L. L.

    2016-04-01

    The limitations posed by batteries have compelled the need to investigate energy harvesting methods to power small electronic devices that require very low operational power. Vibration based energy harvesting methods with piezoelectric transduction in particular has been shown to possess potential towards energy harvesters replacing batteries. Current piezoelectric energy harvesters exhibit considerably lower power to weight ratio or specific power when compared to batteries the harvesters seek to replace. To attain the goal of battery-less self-sustainable device operation the power to weight ratio gap between piezoelectric energy harvesters and batteries need to be bridged. In this paper the potential of integrating lightweight honeycomb structures with existing piezoelectric device configurations (bimorph) towards achieving higher specific power is investigated. It is shown in this study that at low excitation frequency ranges, replacing the solid continuous substrate of conventional bimorph with honeycomb structures of the same material results in a significant increase in power to weight ratio of the piezoelectric harvester. At higher driving frequency ranges it is shown that unlike the traditional piezoelectric bimorph with solid continuous substrate, the honeycomb substrate bimorph can preserve optimum global design parameters through manipulation of honeycomb unit cell parameters. Increased operating lifetime and design flexibility of the honeycomb core piezoelectric bimorph is demonstrated as unit cell parameters of the honeycomb structures can be manipulated to alter mass and stiffness properties of the substrate, resulting in unit cell parameter significantly influencing power generation.

  1. Resources Alter the Structure and Increase Stochasticity in Bromeliad Microfauna Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Jana S.; Kratina, Pavel; Marino, Nicholas A. C.; MacDonald, A. Andrew M.; Srivastava, Diane S.

    2015-01-01

    Although stochastic and deterministic processes have been found to jointly shape structure of natural communities, the relative importance of both forces may vary across different environmental conditions and across levels of biological organization. We tested the effects of abiotic environmental conditions, altered trophic interactions and dispersal limitation on the structure of aquatic microfauna communities in Costa Rican tank bromeliads. Our approach combined natural gradients in environmental conditions with experimental manipulations of bottom-up interactions (resources), top-down interactions (predators) and dispersal at two spatial scales in the field. We found that resource addition strongly increased the abundance and reduced the richness of microfauna communities. Community composition shifted in a predictable way towards assemblages dominated by flagellates and ciliates but with lower abundance and richness of algae and amoebae. While all functional groups responded strongly and predictably to resource addition, similarity among communities at the species level decreased, suggesting a role of stochasticity in species-level assembly processes. Dispersal limitation did not affect the communities. Since our design excluded potential priority effects we can attribute the differences in community similarity to increased demographic stochasticity of resource-enriched communities related to erratic changes in population sizes of some species. In contrast to resources, predators and environmental conditions had negligible effects on community structure. Our results demonstrate that bromeliad microfauna communities are strongly controlled by bottom-up forces. They further suggest that the relative importance of stochasticity may change with productivity and with the organizational level at which communities are examined. PMID:25775464

  2. Predicting the Impact of Rock Blasting on Building Structures at Awunakrom in the Ahanta West District of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    K.J. Bansah; E. Assan; G. Galecki

    2014-01-01

    Blasting is an important process after drilling is completed in hard rock mining. It involves placing explosives in drill holes and detonating them to cause explosion. The energy released during this process fragments the rocks into sizes for desired end use. The detonation of these explosives may produce undesirable effects such as ground vibration which is capable of causing damage to building structures. It is therefore, necessary to conduct blast impact studies to determine potential impa...

  3. Rye kernel breakfast increases satiety in the afternoon - an effect of food structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredriksson Helena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure of whole grain cereals is maintained to varying degrees during processing and preparation of foods. Food structure can influence metabolism, including perceived hunger and satiety. A diet that enhances satiety per calorie may help to prevent excessive calorie intake. The objective of this work was to compare subjective appetite ratings after consumption of intact and milled rye kernels. Methods Two studies were performed using a randomized, cross-over design. Ratings for appetite (hunger, satiety and desire to eat were registered during an 8-h period after consumption of whole and milled rye kernels prepared as breads (study 1, n = 24 and porridges (study 2, n = 20. Sifted wheat bread was used as reference in both study parts and the products were eaten in iso-caloric portions with standardized additional breakfast foods. Breads and porridges were analyzed to determine whether structure (whole vs. milled kernels effected dietary fibre content and composition after preparation of the products. Statistical evaluation of the appetite ratings after intake of the different breakfasts was done by paired t-tests for morning and afternoon ratings separately, with subjects as random effect and type of breakfast and time points as fixed effects. Results All rye breakfasts resulted in higher satiety ratings in the morning and afternoon compared with the iso-caloric reference breakfast with sifted wheat bread. Rye bread with milled or whole kernels affected appetite equally, so no effect of structure was observed. In contrast, after consumption of the rye kernel breakfast, satiety was increased and hunger suppressed in the afternoon compared with the milled rye kernel porridge breakfast. This effect could be related to structural differences alone, because the products were equal in nutritional content including dietary fibre content and composition. Conclusions The study demonstrates that small changes in diet composition

  4. Structural health and dynamic behavior of residential buildings: field challenges in the rehab of damaged reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalhoub M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete buildings require special consideration under dynamic excitations due to their anisotropic material properties. Strain compatibility equations are used in concrete analysis and design with assumptions about the stress and strain field across member section and member length. However, these assumptions fall short of describing real life behavior when concrete elements deteriorate, age or undergo cyclic loading. This paper addresses the structural health of reinforced concrete buildings and proposes an analytical model to account for concrete damage through loss of bond. The proposed model relates steel loading that causes bond distress to design parameters such as development length and bar properties, and therefore could be complemented by field measurement. The paper proposes a diagnosis method and discusses the sustainability of the structure by assisting in a simplistic decision rule as to whether to perform minor fixes, major rehabilitation, or disposal. Emphasis is placed on the difference between reversible and irreversible effects of cyclic loading on structural behaviour, and draws a distinction between damage to the girder and damage to the column in the overall structural system. The model is compared to empirical results to address field challenges faced when the structure is subjected to severe conditions in its ambient environment, or to unusual loading. Deterioration in concrete causes alteration in its composite behavior with the reinforcing steel. This affects the fundamental period of the structure, and its response to seismic loading.

  5. Predicting the Impact of Rock Blasting on Building Structures at Awunakrom in the Ahanta West District of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Bansah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blasting is an important process after drilling is completed in hard rock mining. It involves placing explosives in drill holes and detonating them to cause explosion. The energy released during this process fragments the rocks into sizes for desired end use. The detonation of these explosives may produce undesirable effects such as ground vibration which is capable of causing damage to building structures. It is therefore, necessary to conduct blast impact studies to determine potential impact of blast induced ground vibration prior to mining and establish remediation techniques. Blast impact study was conducted at Awunakrom in the Ahanta West District of Ghana. Building structures within the study area were mapped and characterized. A blast impact prediction model was also generated. Blast induced vibrations that may propagate from the Father Brown pit of Golden Star Wassa Limited using various instantaneous charges were determined. It was found that bench blasting at the Father Brown pit has a potential of causing damage to building structures within the Awunakrom community if the maximum instantaneous charge adopted at the southernmost periphery of the pit exceeds 30 kg. It was therefore, recommended that all bench blast conducted at the southern periphery of the Father Brown pit should adopt a maximum instantaneous charge of 30 kg to avert any potential blast damage. However, variable instantaneous charges of more than 30 kg can be adopted as the blast location moves towards the northern periphery.

  6. Energy efficiency of the Rural Wall multi-layer structure in low-rise building design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Golova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study on energy efficiency of various wall design solutions and a new multi-layer wall design for low-rise construction as well as the results of television studies on multi-layer and single-layer envelopes. Indoor climate parameters for various wall design solutions are determined. The study reveals the optimal wall design solutions and specifies the theoretical assessment of their energy efficiency in compliance with Russia's national building code 23-02-2003. The paper presents calculations of building heat loss through the exterior building envelope, reduced resistance to heat transfer of walls and total heat loss of the building with the selected outer wall design during the heating season. Recommendations on the application of the new multi-layer wall design using local wall materials in the construction of energy-efficient low-rise buildings are developed. The recommendations include requirements for wall materials, thermal calculations, production guidelines, properties of layers in a multi-layer walls and physical and mechanical properties of wall layers.

  7. Dynamic Responses Analysis of a Building Structure Subjected to Ground Shock from a Tunnel Explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Li; LI Zhongxian; HAO Hong

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic responses of a multi-storey building without or with a sliding base-isolation device for ground shock induced by an in-tunnel explosion are numerically analyzed.The effect of an adjacent tunnel in between the building and the explosion tunnel,which affects ground shock propagation,is considered in the analysis.Different modeling methods,such as the eight-node equal-parametric finite element and mass-lumped system,are used to establish the coupling model consisting of the two adjacent tunnels,the surrounding soil medium with the Lysmer viscous boundary condition,and the multi-storey building with or without the sliding base-isolation device.In numerical calculations,a continuous friction model,which is different from the traditional Coulomb friction model,is adopted to improve the computational efficiency and reduce the accumulated errors.Some example analyses are subsequently performed to study the response characteristics of the building and the sliding base-isolation device to ground shock.The effect of the adjacent tunnel in between the building and the explosion tunnel on the ground shock wave propagation is also investigated.The final conclusions based on the numerical results will provide some guidance in engineering practice.

  8. Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (Unit 1 and 2). Proposed modifications to increase the seismic capability of equipment and main structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the European Community's PHARE Programme of improvement to facilities, their operating systems, equipment and buildings of the Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria, plant safety during seismic events is considered to be an issue of overriding importance, especially in view of the earthquakes the region suffered during the last decade. Westinghouse Energy Systems International (WESI) and Empresarios Agrupados (EA) have initiated an intensive programme for physical upgrading of equipment with a view to augmenting its seismic capability and, at the same time, to studying design modifications in the diesel-generator buildings, pump house and main building structures (turbines, electrical building). The implementation of these modifications requires an in situ inspection of the real conditions of the various elements, analyses, conceptual design and detail engineering, all of which has to be done in short periods of time using resources available at the plant. This activity is performed by the companies mentioned above, with the collaboration of two engineering companies, Energoproekt of Bulgaria and INITEC of Spain. This paper describes the activities developed and the treatment given to the various aspects of improvement of the seismic capability of equipment and structures. (author)

  9. Architectural structure and environmental performance of the traditional buildings in Florina, NW Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, A. [Department of Architecture, University of Patras (Greece); Bougiatioti, F. [School of Architecture, National Technical University of Athens, 25, Iasonos Street, 166-71 Vouliagmeni, Athens (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    This paper presents various aspects, which characterise the traditional architecture in the town of Florina, north-western Greece, and can be related to bioclimatic and environmental architecture. The study is based on the documentation and the analysis of the architectural and bioclimatic aspects of a sample of forty (40) remaining houses of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. The analysis of the architectural aspects concerns the building typology, the form, the materials and the construction techniques, whereas the analysis of bioclimatic aspects involves the thermal behaviour of the building shell, the thermal and the visual comfort conditions. The aim of the study is to document and assess, both qualitatively and quantitatively, all the afore-mentioned aspects in order to draw conclusions concerning the principles, which characterised this architecture and can be integrated to the refurbishment of existing buildings or the design of new ones in traditional surroundings. (author)

  10. On the local structure and the homology of CAT$(\\kappa)$ spaces and euclidean buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Linus

    2010-01-01

    We prove that every open subset of a euclidean building is a finite dimensional absolute neighborhood retract. This implies in particular that such a set has the homotopy type of a finite dimensional simplicial complex. We also include a proof for the rigidity of homeomorphisms of euclidean buildings. A key step in our approach to this result is the following: the space of directions $\\Sigma_oX$ of a CAT$(\\kappa)$ space $X$ is homotopy quivalent to a small punctured disk $B_\\eps(X,o)\\setminus...

  11. The use of thermally expandable microcapsules for increasing the toughness and heal structural adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Sato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of thermally expandable microcapsules (TEMs on mode I fracture toughness of structural adhesives were investigated. The single-edge-notch bending (SENB test was used. Firstly, a standard toughness test was performed on adhesives with microcapsules. Secondly, since TEMs start their expansion at approximately 60ºC, the next specimens were fatigue tested expecting a local heating in the notch leading to the desired expansion before being statically loaded for fracture toughness determination. Thirdly, a manual local heating at 90ºC was applied in the notch before the fracture static test. The experimental results were successfully cross-checked through a numerical analysis using the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT based on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM. The major conclusion is that fracture toughness of the modified adhesives increased as the mass fraction of the TEMs increased.

  12. Visualizing Sweetness: Increasingly Diverse Applications for Fluorescent-Tagged Glucose Bioprobes and Their Recent Structural Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren R. Williams

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Glucose homeostasis is a fundamental aspect of life and its dysregulation is associated with important diseases, such as cancer and diabetes. Traditionally, glucose radioisotopes have been used to monitor glucose utilization in biological systems. Fluorescent-tagged glucose analogues were initially developed in the 1980s, but it is only in the past decade that their use as a glucose sensor has increased significantly. These analogues were developed for monitoring glucose uptake in blood cells, but their recent applications include tracking glucose uptake by tumor cells and imaging brain cell metabolism. This review outlines the development of fluorescent-tagged glucose analogues, describes their recent structural modifications and discusses their increasingly diverse biological applications.

  13. Designing of a reinforced concrete hall for two different seismic regions in Slovenia and construction costs estimation of a building structural system

    OpenAIRE

    Podobnik, Klemen

    2006-01-01

    The standard EN 1998-1 enables designing of structures for earthquake resistance. It prescribes seismic action, type of structural analysis and conditions for designing of structural members. A reinforced concrete building can be designed for three ductility classes. In the diploma thesis basic principles for earthquake resistance design, in terms of seismic actions, analysis and design for medium ductility class (DCM), are introduced and applied to the actual frame building. The frame buildi...

  14. Strength and stability analysis of load-bearing structures of a high-rise building with account for actual positions of reinforced concrete structural members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belostotskiy Aleksandr Mikhaylovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The given paper is devoted to strength and stability analysis of load-bearing structures of a high-rise (54-storey building with allowance for actual positions of reinforced concrete structural members (columns and walls. Finite element method (FEM is used for structural analysis. The authors present formulations of problems, governing equations, information about basic three-dimensional finite element models (so-called “design” (ideal model, the first “actual” model (taking into account the deviations of positions of columns from the project and the second “actual” model (taking into account the deviations of positions of walls from the project of the coupled system “high-rise building - foundation” within ANSYS Mechanical software and their verification, numerical approach to structural analysis and corresponding solvers. Finite element models include mainly 4-node structural shell elements (suitable for analyzing foundation slabs, floor slabs and load-bearing walls and three-dimensional 2-node beam elements (suitable for analyzing beams and columns, special spring-damper elements and multipoint constraint elements. Detailed finite element mesh on the bottom foundation slab is agreed with the location of piles. The advanced model of Prof. Yu.K. Zaretsky is used for approximation of soil behavior. Construction sequence and various types of nonlinearities are taken into account. The results of modal analysis, static and dynamic analysis with various load combinations (gravity load, facade load, dead (constant loads, temporary loads, wind load, snow load, crown load etc. are considered, the results of the regulatory assessment of the strength of structures (obtained with the use of corresponding software in accordance with design codes of the Russian Federation are under consideration as well. The corresponding displacements, stresses, natural vibration frequencies can be used for research and development of the correct monitoring

  15. Habitat use for warren building by European rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) in relation to landscape structure in a sand dune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellafiore, Claudia M.; Gallego Fernández, Juan B.; Vallés, Sara Muñoz

    2008-05-01

    Several conservation efforts are being made to recover European rabbit populations ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) on the Iberian Peninsula. Some of them focus on burrow management; others involve building different types of warren. A few studies have examined site selection for warren building, and these studies have considered only warren placement within sites and not the broader area surrounding these locations. The objective of this study was to evaluate how landscape pattern determines habitat selection by rabbits for warren building at different spatial scales. Landscape, home range scale, and microhabitat were the spatial scales used in this study. Warrens were not uniformly distributed over the study area but, rather were concentrated in areas with a high abundance and cover of Retama monosperma and high vegetation cover. Rabbits preferred digging warrens in areas with low fragmentation and where patches are few, large, and contiguous. Based on our results, we suggest that a study of landscape structure should be carried out before design habitat management, recovery or translocation programs. Such studies will need to take into account the physiognomy and size, shape, and continuity of patches in fragmented landscapes. Rabbit conservation programs must address areas that provide not only the maximum potential rate of intake, but also good soil and vegetation cover conditions for warren building and suitable surrounding areas.

  16. Radiation dose contribution from coal-slag from the Ajka region used as structural building material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somali, J.; Kanyar, B.; Lendvai, Z.; Nemeth, C.; Bodnar, R. [Veszpremi Egyetem, Veszprem (Hungary). Radiokemia Tanszek

    1997-10-01

    A significant dose contribution on the population could be derived from coal slags used as material in buildings. Extremely high natural activities are measured in the coal slag from the region of Ajka, Hungary. The main conclusions based on the results of the monitoring of the gamma-dose rate and the radon concentration in the air in nearly 240 houses are as follows: (1) for individuals, such as children, spending a long time at home (19.2 h/day) the external annual dose is 1.7-4.5 mSv; (2) in the majority of houses with local slag the estimated annual average value of indoor-radon concentration was above 400 Bq/m{sup 3}, and in several cases there were buildings with values over 1200 Bq/m{sup 3}. In these cases the internal annual dose of the dwellers can be estimated between 6-20 mSv; (3) due to the elevated gamma-exposure and the radon concentration in the dwellings the total annual dose was estimated as 8-24 mSv, more than 5-10 times the world average value; and (4) some of the houses were built after the 1960s, when the use of slags from the region of Ajka as building material was already banned by the authorities. In addition to the regulations an effective radiological control should be introduced and a practice for testing the use of slag as building material.

  17. Load test of the 277W Building high bay roof deck and support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 277W Building high bay roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure, WHC-SD-GN-TP-30015, Revision 1. The 277W Building is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: roof deck -- wood decking supported by 4 x 14 timber purlins; roof membrane -- tar and gravel; roof slope -- flat (<10 deg); and roof elevation -- maximum height of about 63 ft. The 227W Building was visited in March 1994 for a visual inspection. During this inspection, cracked areas were visible in the decking, but it was not possible to determine whether these cracks extended completely through the decking, which is 2-in. thick. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof requires personnel access, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ''No Roof Access'' signs can be changed to ''Roof Access Restricted'' signs

  18. Load test of the 3701U Building roof deck and support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3701U Building roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure. The 3701U Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: Roof deck--metal decking supported by steel purlins; Roof membrane--tar and gravel; Roof slope--flat (<10 deg); and Roof elevation--height of about 12.5 ft. The 3701U Building was visited in August 1992 for a visual inspection, but because of insulation an inspection could not be performed. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof could not be inspected, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof for personnel access. The test procedure called for the use of a remotely-controlled robot. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ''No Roof Access'' signs can be changed to ''Roof Access Restricted'' signs

  19. Diagnostics of technical state of building structures using methods of fuzzy-set theory

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Sokolov

    2010-01-01

    This is a continuation of articles series about methods of technical diagnostics. On basis of diagnostic matrix from first article the technical state estimation for a beam from old city building is conducted. In this case the fuzzy-set theory is used for estimation of technical state.

  20. Extended structure design with simple molybdenum oxide building blocks and urea as a directing agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, S.J.; Roy, S.; Filinchuk, Y.; Chernyshov, D.; Petukhov, A.V.; Versluijs-Helder, M.; Broersma, A.; Soulimani, F.; Visser, T.; Kegel, W.K.

    2008-01-01

    We report here a simple one-pot directed synthesis of an oxomolybdate urea composite in which elementary molybdenum oxide building blocks are linked together with the aid of urea. This type of directed material design resulted in large rod-like crystals of an inorganic-organic hybrid extended struct

  1. The impact of sensor errors and building structures on particle filter-based inertial positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftkjær, Thomas; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2012-01-01

    Positioning systems that do not depend on in-building infrastructures are critical for enabling a range of applications within pervasive computing. Particle filter-based inertial positioning promises infrastructure-less positioning, but previous research has not provided an understanding of how t...

  2. Soil-structure interaction effects in seismic analysis of turbine generator building on rock-like foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chi Seon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Yoo, Kwang Hoon [Korea Power Engineering Company, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Soil properties supporting structure may become criteria determining methodologies for seismic response analysis of a structure. Regulatory Guide describes that a fixed-base assumption is acceptable for structures supported on rock or rock-like materials defined by a shear wave velocity of 3,500 ft/sec or greater at a shear strain of 10{sup -3} percent or smaller when considering preloaded soil conditions due to the structure. Seismic analyses for the Korean nuclear power plant (NPP) structures satisfying the above site soil condition have been completed through the fixed-base analysis. However, dynamic responses for relatively stiff structures such as NPP structures still have soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects. In other words, the fixed-base analysis does not always yield conservative results to be compared with SSI analysis. The SSI effects due to different stiff soil properties for Turbine Generator Building (TGB) structure to be constructed at Kori site of South Korea are investigated in views of floor response spectra (FRS) and member forces.

  3. Soil-structure interaction effects in seismic analysis of turbine generator building on rock-like foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil properties supporting structure may become criteria determining methodologies for seismic response analysis of a structure. Regulatory Guide describes that a fixed-base assumption is acceptable for structures supported on rock or rock-like materials defined by a shear wave velocity of 3,500 ft/sec or greater at a shear strain of 10-3 percent or smaller when considering preloaded soil conditions due to the structure. Seismic analyses for the Korean nuclear power plant (NPP) structures satisfying the above site soil condition have been completed through the fixed-base analysis. However, dynamic responses for relatively stiff structures such as NPP structures still have soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects. In other words, the fixed-base analysis does not always yield conservative results to be compared with SSI analysis. The SSI effects due to different stiff soil properties for Turbine Generator Building (TGB) structure to be constructed at Kori site of South Korea are investigated in views of floor response spectra (FRS) and member forces

  4. 建筑结构设计中剪力墙结构设计%The Shear Wall Structure Design in the Building Structure Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛

    2014-01-01

    This article through the analysis of the problems and solutions of the shear wall structure design in the building structure design improves the development quality of construc-tion industry in China and guarantee the rapid progress of Chi-nese social economy.%本文通过对建筑结构设计中剪力墙结构设计的问题和解决措施的分析,提升了我国建筑行业的发展质量,保证了我国社会经济的快速进步。

  5. Hybrid clustering based fuzzy structure for vibration control - Part 1: A novel algorithm for building neuro-fuzzy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sy Dzung; Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for building an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) from a training data set called B-ANFIS. In order to increase accuracy of the model, the following issues are executed. Firstly, a data merging rule is proposed to build and perform a data-clustering strategy. Subsequently, a combination of clustering processes in the input data space and in the joint input-output data space is presented. Crucial reason of this task is to overcome problems related to initialization and contradictory fuzzy rules, which usually happen when building ANFIS. The clustering process in the input data space is accomplished based on a proposed merging-possibilistic clustering (MPC) algorithm. The effectiveness of this process is evaluated to resume a clustering process in the joint input-output data space. The optimal parameters obtained after completion of the clustering process are used to build ANFIS. Simulations based on a numerical data, 'Daily Data of Stock A', and measured data sets of a smart damper are performed to analyze and estimate accuracy. In addition, convergence and robustness of the proposed algorithm are investigated based on both theoretical and testing approaches.

  6. CFD analysis of atmospheric dispersion in a large terrain of Kakrapar atomic power station in presence of structural buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation to investigate the dispersion of SF6 over terrain of Kakrapar nuclear power plant using the actual meteorological data. Three-dimensional, transient simulations have been carried out using CFD code PHOENICS. The CFD calculation covers a domain of 3.2 km X 3.2 km in plan and 0.5 km in height. Atmospheric dispersion in presence of the structures like Reactor Building, Natural Draft Cooling Tower and Turbine Building has been studied. The SF6 was released from the stack at a height of 100 m. SF6 released was considered for 2 hours duration at a rate of 1 gm/sec. This model was used to simulate the transport of SF6 for 6 hours. The ground level concentration of SF6 was monitored

  7. Adhesives in Building--Lamination of Structural Timber Beams, Bonding of Cementitious Materials, Bonding of Gypsum Drywall Construction. Proceedings of a Conference of the Building Research Institute, Division of Engineering and Industrial Research (Spring 1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    The role of adhesives in building design is discussed. Three major areas are as follows--(1) lamination of structural timber beams, (2) bonding of cementitious materials, and (3) bonding of gypsum drywall construction. Topical coverage includes--(1) structural lamination today, (2) adhesives in use today, (3) new adhesives needed, (4) production…

  8. Perceived time and temporal structure: Neural entrainment to isochronous stimulation increases duration estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horr, Ninja K; Wimber, Maria; Di Luca, Massimiliano

    2016-05-15

    Distortions of perceived duration can give crucial insights into the mechanisms that underlie the processing and representation of stimulus timing. One factor that affects duration estimates is the temporal structure of stimuli that fill an interval. For example, regular filling (isochronous interval) leads to an overestimation of perceived duration as compared to irregular filling (anisochronous interval). In the present article, we use electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate the neural basis of this subjective lengthening of perceived duration with isochrony. In a two-interval forced choice task, participants judged which of two intervals lasts longer - one always being isochronous, the other one anisochronous. Response proportions confirm the subjective overestimation of isochronous intervals. At the neural level, isochronous sequences are associated with enhanced pairwise phase consistency (PPC) at the stimulation frequency, reflecting the brain's entrainment to the regular stimulation. The PPC over the entrainment channels is further enhanced for isochronous intervals that are reported to be longer, and the magnitude of this PCC effect correlates with the amount of perceptual bias. Neural entrainment has been proposed as a mechanism of attentional selection, enabling increased neural responsiveness toward stimuli that arrive at an expected point in time. The present results support the proposed relationship between neural response magnitudes and temporal estimates: An increase in neural responsiveness leads to a more pronounced representation of the individual stimuli filling the interval and in turn to a subjective increase in duration. PMID:26883062

  9. Structure transformations of endocrine system organs during adaptation to increased radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermakova, O.V. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Centre, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    It is well known that during ecological monitoring of contaminated territories registration of early abnormalities in an organism is hampered by man-caused influence of habitat. Under these circumstances study of both structural and functional changes in organs and tissues of rodents inhabiting radioactive contaminated territories is of great importance. Study of structural features of endocrine glands, hormones of which trigger the process of active adaptive changes in an organism, is very important in radioecological surveys. Basing on long-term study of voles we have determined that long-term living by rodents on the territories characterized by increased natural and artificial radioactivity (radium contaminated fields in the Komi Republic and 30-km zone of Chernobyl APS) substantially influences morpho-functional state of endocrine system organs, causing quantitative and qualitative changes. It is demonstrated that population processes modify biological consequences of small doze chronic ionizing radiation in habitat. We noticed the following: high heterogeneity of histological changes of thyroid gland and adrenal gland as a response to radioactive habitat contamination; disorder of interconnection among different links of endocrine system; dependence of radiation effects on gender, age, degree and character of radiation contamination of a habitat as well as duration of radioactive influence. We have got data on morphological characteristics of thyroid gland and adrenal gland during different phases of population amount of this kind of rodents. It was discovered that effectiveness of radiation influence is not the same during different periods of population cycle. Presence of voles on the territories characterized by increased radioactivity causes chronic tension of adrenal cortex (increasing of the organ mass, enlarging of thickness of zona fasciculata and zona reticularis). Destructive-necrotic processes combine with manifestation of reparative regeneration

  10. Structure transformations of endocrine system organs during adaptation to increased radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that during ecological monitoring of contaminated territories registration of early abnormalities in an organism is hampered by man-caused influence of habitat. Under these circumstances study of both structural and functional changes in organs and tissues of rodents inhabiting radioactive contaminated territories is of great importance. Study of structural features of endocrine glands, hormones of which trigger the process of active adaptive changes in an organism, is very important in radioecological surveys. Basing on long-term study of voles we have determined that long-term living by rodents on the territories characterized by increased natural and artificial radioactivity (radium contaminated fields in the Komi Republic and 30-km zone of Chernobyl APS) substantially influences morpho-functional state of endocrine system organs, causing quantitative and qualitative changes. It is demonstrated that population processes modify biological consequences of small doze chronic ionizing radiation in habitat. We noticed the following: high heterogeneity of histological changes of thyroid gland and adrenal gland as a response to radioactive habitat contamination; disorder of interconnection among different links of endocrine system; dependence of radiation effects on gender, age, degree and character of radiation contamination of a habitat as well as duration of radioactive influence. We have got data on morphological characteristics of thyroid gland and adrenal gland during different phases of population amount of this kind of rodents. It was discovered that effectiveness of radiation influence is not the same during different periods of population cycle. Presence of voles on the territories characterized by increased radioactivity causes chronic tension of adrenal cortex (increasing of the organ mass, enlarging of thickness of zona fasciculata and zona reticularis). Destructive-necrotic processes combine with manifestation of reparative regeneration

  11. Structural Health Monitoring of Tall Buildings with Numerical Integrator and Convex-Concave Hull Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Thenozhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An important objective of health monitoring systems for tall buildings is to diagnose the state of the building and to evaluate its possible damage. In this paper, we use our prototype to evaluate our data-mining approach for the fault monitoring. The offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques are combined effectively to solve common problems in numerical integration of acceleration signals in real-time applications. The integration accuracy is improved compared with other numerical integrators. Then we introduce a novel method for support vector machine (SVM classification, called convex-concave hull. We use the Jarvis march method to decide the concave (nonconvex hull for the inseparable points. Finally the vertices of the convex-concave hull are applied for SVM training.

  12. New composite slab system for the structural rehabilitation of traditional buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Mastali, Mohammad; Valente, Isabel; Barros, Joaquim A. O.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new generation of composite sandwich panel slab is proposed as a solution for the rehabilitation of slabs in old masonry buildings. The new slab composite system is composed of four elements that include: High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) layer, GFRP ribs, foam core and GFRP skin. An innovative GFRP-HPFRC hybrid solution has been developed, with a GFRP laminate on the bottom tension skin, and an HPFRC layer on the top compression skin, preventing the occurren...

  13. Effect of increased nitrogen content on the structure and properties of tool steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cieśla

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The influence is analysed of an increased nitrogen content in the range of 0.03-0.09% on stereological features of the microstructure, the principal mechanical properties, crack resistance and fatigue strength of alloy tool steels of X155CrMoV12-1 and X40CrMoV5-1 types, and the HS 6-5-2 high-speed steel.Design/methodology/approach: The principal stereological parameters of precipitates in the microstructure of as-annealed, quenched and tempered tool steels with nitrogen have been determined. The surface fraction and the mean plane section area of carbides have been determined as well. The influence of nitrogen on abrasion resistance, crack resistance and low-cycle fatigue of a heat improved steel has been examined.Findings: It has been found that in the investigated tool and high-speed steels, a nitrogen addition enhances size-reduction and homogenization of the structure in the as-quenched and as-tempered condition. Moreover, an advantageous effect of nitrogen additions has been found on increasing the fraction and dispersion of carbides in the as-annealed condition. The tool and high-speed steels with a nitrogen addition have shown increased resistance to abrasion and brittle cracking as well as longer fatigue life at an elevated temperature.Practical implications: At the laboratory testing stage, the results of the study may constitute an assessment of the effect of nitrogen addition on usable properties of tool steels. The results should be used to develop a production technology of tool steels containing nitrogen of increased durability in operational conditions.Originality/value: The study has shown the influence of a nitrogen addition in the range of 0.03-0.09% on the modification of the microstructe of selected tool and high-speed steels, which determines the enhanced usable properties of those steels.

  14. Gamma-ray energy buildup factor calculations and shielding effects of some Jordanian building structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, J. M.; Saleh, H.

    2015-05-01

    The shielding properties of three different construction styles, and building materials, commonly used in Jordan, were evaluated using parameters such as attenuation coefficients, equivalent atomic number, penetration depth and energy buildup factor. Geometric progression (GP) method was used to calculate gamma-ray energy buildup factors of limestone, concrete, bricks, cement plaster and air for the energy range 0.05-3 MeV, and penetration depths up to 40 mfp. It has been observed that among the examined building materials, limestone offers highest value for equivalent atomic number and linear attenuation coefficient and the lowest values for penetration depth and energy buildup factor. The obtained buildup factors were used as basic data to establish the total equivalent energy buildup factors for three different multilayer construction styles using an iterative method. The three styles were then compared in terms of fractional transmission of photons at different incident photon energies. It is concluded that, in case of any nuclear accident, large multistory buildings with five layers exterior walls, style A, could effectively attenuate radiation more than small dwellings of any construction style.

  15. Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil and Building Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Charley [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kamboj, Sunita [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Cheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This handbook is an update of the 1993 version of the Data Collection Handbook and the Radionuclide Transfer Factors Report to support modeling the impact of radioactive material in soil. Many new parameters have been added to the RESRAD Family of Codes, and new measurement methodologies are available. A detailed review of available parameter databases was conducted in preparation of this new handbook. This handbook is a companion document to the user manuals when using the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It can also be used for RESRAD-BUILD code because some of the building-related parameters are included in this handbook. The RESRAD (onsite) has been developed for implementing U.S. Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), crops and livestock, human intake, source characteristic, and building characteristic parameters are used in the RESRAD (onsite) code. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code and can also model the transport of radionuclides to locations outside the footprint of the primary contamination. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, and measurement methodologies. It also provides references for sources of additional information. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD Family of Codes, the discussions and values are valid for use of other pathway analysis models and codes.

  16. Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil and Building Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook is an update of the 1993 version of the Data Collection Handbook and the Radionuclide Transfer Factors Report to support modeling the impact of radioactive material in soil. Many new parameters have been added to the RESRAD Family of Codes, and new measurement methodologies are available. A detailed review of available parameter databases was conducted in preparation of this new handbook. This handbook is a companion document to the user manuals when using the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It can also be used for RESRAD-BUILD code because some of the building-related parameters are included in this handbook. The RESRAD (onsite) has been developed for implementing U.S. Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), crops and livestock, human intake, source characteristic, and building characteristic parameters are used in the RESRAD (onsite) code. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code and can also model the transport of radionuclides to locations outside the footprint of the primary contamination. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, and measurement methodologies. It also provides references for sources of additional information. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD Family of Codes, the discussions and values are valid for use of other pathway analysis models and codes.

  17. Gamma-ray energy buildup factor calculations and shielding effects of some Jordanian building structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shielding properties of three different construction styles, and building materials, commonly used in Jordan, were evaluated using parameters such as attenuation coefficients, equivalent atomic number, penetration depth and energy buildup factor. Geometric progression (GP) method was used to calculate gamma-ray energy buildup factors of limestone, concrete, bricks, cement plaster and air for the energy range 0.05–3 MeV, and penetration depths up to 40 mfp. It has been observed that among the examined building materials, limestone offers highest value for equivalent atomic number and linear attenuation coefficient and the lowest values for penetration depth and energy buildup factor. The obtained buildup factors were used as basic data to establish the total equivalent energy buildup factors for three different multilayer construction styles using an iterative method. The three styles were then compared in terms of fractional transmission of photons at different incident photon energies. It is concluded that, in case of any nuclear accident, large multistory buildings with five layers exterior walls, style A, could effectively attenuate radiation more than small dwellings of any construction style. - Highlights: • The shielding properties of three Jordanian construction styles were evaluated. • Geometric progression (GP) method was used to calculate energy buildup factors. • The obtained data were calculated in the energy range 0.05–3 MeV, up to 40 mfp. • An iterative method was used to estimate the buildup factors for multilayer styles

  18. Sensor-based warranty system for improving seismic performance of building structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ryu; Mita, Akira

    2008-03-01

    This paper proposes a warranty system based on a seismic performance agreement, and investigates its feasibility. Specifically, we focus on making clear to building users the relationship between seismic force and seismic damage or loss, and propose a warranty agreement in which accountability of seismic loss is defined in terms of ground motion parameters obtained by a seismic sensor. This study uses the Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale (I-jma) because of its general acceptance and recognition. A portfolio of buildings in 10 suburbs of the Kanto region is chosen for seismic portfolio analysis. The following conclusions were derived: 1. For a portfolio of 10 base-isolated buildings, the builder's seismic expected loss was found to be approximately 0.01%. 2. In regards to feasibility of risk finance by seismic derivatives, this study found that it is possible to transfer most of builder's risk through a 0.01% premium rate. 3. Builder risk reduction was verified by use of a seismometer. 4. A new contract warranty agreement for seismic loss insurance for users was proposed, and it can reduce the premium to 1/15 of the current seismic insurance schemes.

  19. INCREASING RETURNS TO SCALE, DYNAMICS OF INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE AND SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF FIRMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying FAN; Menghui LI; Zengru DI

    2006-01-01

    A multi-agent model is presented to discuss the market dynamics and the size distribution of firms.The model emphasizes the effects of increasing returns to scale and gives the description of the born and death of adaptive producers. The evolution of market structure and its behavior under the technological shocks are investigated. Its dynamical results are in good agreement with some empirical "stylized facts" of industrial evolution. With the diversity of demand and adaptive growth strategies of firms, the firm size in the generalized model obeys the power-law distribution. Three factors mainly determine the competitive dynamics and the skewed size distributions of firms: 1. Self-reinforcing mechanism; 2. Adaptive firm growing strategies; 3. Demand diversity or widespread heterogeneity in the technological capabilities of firms.

  20. The impacts of increasing drought on forest dynamics, structure, and biodiversity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James S; Iverson, Louis; Woodall, Christopher W; Allen, Craig D; Bell, David M; Bragg, Don C; D'Amato, Anthony W; Davis, Frank W; Hersh, Michelle H; Ibanez, Ines; Jackson, Stephen T; Matthews, Stephen; Pederson, Neil; Peters, Matthew; Schwartz, Mark W; Waring, Kristen M; Zimmermann, Niklaus E

    2016-07-01

    We synthesize insights from current understanding of drought impacts at stand-to-biogeographic scales, including management options, and we identify challenges to be addressed with new research. Large stand-level shifts underway in western forests already are showing the importance of interactions involving drought, insects, and fire. Diebacks, changes in composition and structure, and shifting range limits are widely observed. In the eastern US, the effects of increasing drought are becoming better understood at the level of individual trees, but this knowledge cannot yet be confidently translated to predictions of changing structure and diversity of forest stands. While eastern forests have not experienced the types of changes seen in western forests in recent decades, they too are vulnerable to drought and could experience significant changes with increased severity, frequency, or duration in drought. Throughout the continental United States, the combination of projected large climate-induced shifts in suitable habitat from modeling studies and limited potential for the rapid migration of tree populations suggests that changing tree and forest biogeography could substantially lag habitat shifts already underway. Forest management practices can partially ameliorate drought impacts through reductions in stand density, selection of drought-tolerant species and genotypes, artificial regeneration, and the development of multistructured stands. However, silvicultural treatments also could exacerbate drought impacts unless implemented with careful attention to site and stand characteristics. Gaps in our understanding should motivate new research on the effects of interactions involving climate and other species at the stand scale and how interactions and multiple responses are represented in models. This assessment indicates that, without a stronger empirical basis for drought impacts at the stand scale, more complex models may provide limited guidance. PMID:26898361

  1. The phylogenetic structure of plant-pollinator networks increases with habitat size and isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, Marcelo A; Gleiser, Gabriela; Sabatino, Malena; Gilarranz, Luis J; Bascompte, Jordi; Verdú, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Similarity among species in traits related to ecological interactions is frequently associated with common ancestry. Thus, closely related species usually interact with ecologically similar partners, which can be reinforced by diverse co-evolutionary processes. The effect of habitat fragmentation on the phylogenetic signal in interspecific interactions and correspondence between plant and animal phylogenies is, however, unknown. Here, we address to what extent phylogenetic signal and co-phylogenetic congruence of plant-animal interactions depend on habitat size and isolation by analysing the phylogenetic structure of 12 pollination webs from isolated Pampean hills. Phylogenetic signal in interspecific interactions differed among webs, being stronger for flower-visiting insects than plants. Phylogenetic signal and overall co-phylogenetic congruence increased independently with hill size and isolation. We propose that habitat fragmentation would erode the phylogenetic structure of interaction webs. A decrease in phylogenetic signal and co-phylogenetic correspondence in plant-pollinator interactions could be associated with less reliable mutualism and erratic co-evolutionary change. PMID:26493295

  2. Decision-tree analysis of factors influencing rainfall-related building structure and content damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spekkers, M. H.; Kok, M.; Clemens, F. H. L. R.; ten Veldhuis, J. A. E.

    2014-09-01

    Flood-damage prediction models are essential building blocks in flood risk assessments. So far, little research has been dedicated to damage from small-scale urban floods caused by heavy rainfall, while there is a need for reliable damage models for this flood type among insurers and water authorities. The aim of this paper is to investigate a wide range of damage-influencing factors and their relationships with rainfall-related damage, using decision-tree analysis. For this, district-aggregated claim data from private property insurance companies in the Netherlands were analysed, for the period 1998-2011. The databases include claims of water-related damage (for example, damages related to rainwater intrusion through roofs and pluvial flood water entering buildings at ground floor). Response variables being modelled are average claim size and claim frequency, per district, per day. The set of predictors include rainfall-related variables derived from weather radar images, topographic variables from a digital terrain model, building-related variables and socioeconomic indicators of households. Analyses were made separately for property and content damage claim data. Results of decision-tree analysis show that claim frequency is most strongly associated with maximum hourly rainfall intensity, followed by real estate value, ground floor area, household income, season (property data only), buildings age (property data only), a fraction of homeowners (content data only), a and fraction of low-rise buildings (content data only). It was not possible to develop statistically acceptable trees for average claim size. It is recommended to investigate explanations for the failure to derive models. These require the inclusion of other explanatory factors that were not used in the present study, an investigation of the variability in average claim size at different spatial scales, and the collection of more detailed insurance data that allows one to distinguish between the

  3. INL Green Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  4. Are doctors the structural weakness in the e-health building?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, T J; Celia, C

    2013-10-01

    Progressive evaluations by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) demonstrate that health care is now or becoming unaffordable. This means nations must change the way they manage health care. The costly nature of health care in most nations, as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) seems independent of the national funding models. Increasing evidence is demonstrating that the lack of involvement by clinicians (doctors, nurses, pharmacists, ancillary care and patients) in e-health projects is a major factor for the costly failures of many of these projects. The essential change in focus required to improve healthcare delivery using e-health technologies has to be on clinical care. To achieve this change clinicians must be involved at all stages of e-health implementations. From a clinicians perspective medicine is not a business. Our business is clinical medicine and e-health must be focussed on clinical decision making. This paper views the roles of physicians in e-health structural reforms. PMID:24134174

  5. The "Living" Case: Structuring Storytelling to Increase Student Interest, Interaction, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Stanley E; Fawcett, Amydee M.

    2011-01-01

    Storytelling has always been a powerful form of teaching and continues to be a compelling way to build and communicate theory. Storytelling brings learning to life, helping students grasp the intricacies and nuances of today's challenging decision-making environment. One form of classroom storytelling involves the use of guest speakers. Carefully…

  6. Blurring the boundaries between actuator and structure: Investigating the use of stereolithography to build adaptive robots

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavi, S. H.; Hanna, S.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate whether stereolithographic models, combined with shape memory alloys, can be used to create robotic structures that act both as support structure and actuator. In order to test this, a structural topology was evolved and subsequently, through a deterministic process, optimised to withstand predetermined forces similar to those possibly encountered in a robot. The results show that by using this two stage process, structures can be designed and built that...

  7. Seismic soil-structure interaction analysis of embedded multiple buildings using the hybrid continuum impedance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) analysis has been performed for a site with deeply embedded multiple power block structures. The new method employed combines the computational advantages of the Continuum Impedance Approach together with the Substructure Deletion/Boundary Element Method to accurately predict the 3-Dimensional seismic response of structures. (author)

  8. Modeling of the structural response to fire of a high-rise steel building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco

    2011-01-01

    of investigations require the consideration of a full nonlinear response of the structure, due to material degradation under fire, possibility of buckling, large displacements and deformations suffered by elements and exploitation of plastic reserve of the structure. The assessment of structural...

  9. Brickworx builds recurrent RNA and DNA structural motifs into medium- and low-resolution electron-density maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program that builds crystal structure models of nucleic acid molecules is presented. Brickworx is a computer program that builds crystal structure models of nucleic acid molecules using recurrent motifs including double-stranded helices. In a first step, the program searches for electron-density peaks that may correspond to phosphate groups; it may also take into account phosphate-group positions provided by the user. Subsequently, comparing the three-dimensional patterns of the P atoms with a database of nucleic acid fragments, it finds the matching positions of the double-stranded helical motifs (A-RNA or B-DNA) in the unit cell. If the target structure is RNA, the helical fragments are further extended with recurrent RNA motifs from a fragment library that contains single-stranded segments. Finally, the matched motifs are merged and refined in real space to find the most likely conformations, including a fit of the sequence to the electron-density map. The Brickworx program is available for download and as a web server at http://iimcb.genesilico.pl/brickworx

  10. Brickworx builds recurrent RNA and DNA structural motifs into medium- and low-resolution electron-density maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojnowski, Grzegorz, E-mail: gchojnowski@genesilico.pl [International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Trojdena 4, 02-109 Warsaw (Poland); Waleń, Tomasz [International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Trojdena 4, 02-109 Warsaw (Poland); University of Warsaw, Banacha 2, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Piątkowski, Paweł; Potrzebowski, Wojciech [International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Trojdena 4, 02-109 Warsaw (Poland); Bujnicki, Janusz M. [International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Trojdena 4, 02-109 Warsaw (Poland); Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)

    2015-03-01

    A computer program that builds crystal structure models of nucleic acid molecules is presented. Brickworx is a computer program that builds crystal structure models of nucleic acid molecules using recurrent motifs including double-stranded helices. In a first step, the program searches for electron-density peaks that may correspond to phosphate groups; it may also take into account phosphate-group positions provided by the user. Subsequently, comparing the three-dimensional patterns of the P atoms with a database of nucleic acid fragments, it finds the matching positions of the double-stranded helical motifs (A-RNA or B-DNA) in the unit cell. If the target structure is RNA, the helical fragments are further extended with recurrent RNA motifs from a fragment library that contains single-stranded segments. Finally, the matched motifs are merged and refined in real space to find the most likely conformations, including a fit of the sequence to the electron-density map. The Brickworx program is available for download and as a web server at http://iimcb.genesilico.pl/brickworx.

  11. Survey the of building and dietary structure of local residents around Yangjiang and Hongyanhe nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To provide a guide in the course of the daily operation and accident emergency response. Methods: The survey was conducted with questionnaires among heads of households collected by stratified radom sampling. The head of a household was asked about residential type and structure, the sources of drinking water, milk, type and frequency of main vegetables. Results: Two-storied and more than two-storied houses were dominant around Yangjiang nuclear power plant, single-storey houses and tile-roofed houses were dominant around Hongyanhe nuclear power plant. The top three of wall construction materials around the two nuclear power plants were orderly brick, stone and beton. Glass window shelters were in the majority. Drinking water of residents was mainly from wells and waterworks. Milk comes from nonlocal packaged products. The top five high frequency vegetables the residents around Yangjiang nuclear power plants eat were orderly cabbage, zucchini, string beans, tong dish, cucumber, and those around Yangjiang nuclear power plant were orderly chinese cabbage, leek, celery, cabbage, spinach. Conclusion: Building and dietary structure around Yangjiang and Hongyanhe nuclear power plants are incongruence. Government can make decisions to collect foods for nuclides monitoring according to building and dietary structure baseline data, and take emergency measures to direct nuclear safety radiation protection for residents when nuclear accident takes place. (authors)

  12. The Effect of Pendolino high-speed rail on the structure of buildings located in the proximity of railway tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grębowski K.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The following research focuses on the dynamic analysis of impact of the high-speed train induced vibrations on the structures located near railway tracks. The office complex chosen as the subject of calculations is located in the northern part of Poland, in Gdańsk, in the proximity of Pendolino, the high speed train route. The high speed trains are the response for the growing needs for a more efficient railway system. However, with a higher speed of the train, the railway induced vibrations might cause more harmful resonance in the structures of the nearby buildings. The damage severity depends on many factors such as the duration of said resonance and the presence of additional loads. The studies and analyses helped to determinate the method of evaluating the impact of railway induced vibrations on any building structure. The dynamic analysis presented in the research is an example of a method which allows an effective calculation of the impact of vibrations via SOFISTIK program.

  13. The Effect of Pendolino high-speed rail on the structure of buildings located in the proximity of railway tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grębowski, K.; Ulman, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The following research focuses on the dynamic analysis of impact of the high-speed train induced vibrations on the structures located near railway tracks. The office complex chosen as the subject of calculations is located in the northern part of Poland, in Gdańsk, in the proximity of Pendolino, the high speed train route. The high speed trains are the response for the growing needs for a more efficient railway system. However, with a higher speed of the train, the railway induced vibrations might cause more harmful resonance in the structures of the nearby buildings. The damage severity depends on many factors such as the duration of said resonance and the presence of additional loads. The studies and analyses helped to determinate the method of evaluating the impact of railway induced vibrations on any building structure. The dynamic analysis presented in the research is an example of a method which allows an effective calculation of the impact of vibrations via SOFISTIK program.

  14. Simulation study on effects of signaling network structure on the developmental increase in complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keranen, Soile V.E.

    2003-04-02

    The developmental increase in structural complexity in multicellular life forms depends on local, often non-periodic differences in gene expression. These depend on a network of gene-gene interactions coded within the organismal genome. To better understand how genomic information generates complex expression patterns, I have modeled the pattern forming behavior of small artificial genomes in virtual blastoderm embryos. I varied several basic properties of these genomic signaling networks, such as the number of genes, the distributions of positive (inductive) and negative (repressive) interactions, and the strengths of gene-gene interactions, and analyzed their effects on developmental pattern formation. The results show how even simple genomes can generate complex non-periodic patterns under suitable conditions. They also show how the frequency of complex patterns depended on the numbers and relative arrangements of positive and negative interactions. For example, negative co-regulation of signaling pathway components increased the likelihood of (complex) patterns relative to differential negative regulation of the pathway components. Interestingly, neither quantitative differences either in strengths of signaling interactions nor multiple response thresholds to signal concentration (as in morphogen gradients) were essential for formation of multiple, spatially unique cell types. Thus, with combinatorial code of gene regulation and hierarchical signaling interactions, it is theoretically possible to organize metazoan embryogenesis with just a small fraction of the metazoan genome. Because even small networks can generate complex patterns when they contain a suitable set of connections, evolution of metazoan complexity may have depended more on selection for favourable configurations of signaling interactions than on the increase in numbers of regulatory genes.

  15. Evolution of CANDU vacuum building and pressure relief structures from Pickering NGS A to Darlington NGS A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vacuum building (VB) and pressure relief structures (PRS) are the unique features of multiple unit CANDU containments. In case of loss-of-coolant accident, the released radionuclides are drawn through the PRS into the subatmospheric VB, doused and contained without being released to the environment. This paper describes the differences in design, configuration and layout of the VB and PRS from Pickering NGS A to Darlington NGS A due to new developments in design concepts and to requirements which have proceeded from the experience gained in both the design and operation of the nuclear stations. (orig.)

  16. Fire protection requirements for the layout and structural components of the main buildings and installations of Soviet nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper outlines those provisions of current Soviet regulatory documentation governing the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants which concern fire resistance and non-transmission of fire in the main structures of the buildings and installations, and the premises constituting the greatest radiation and fire hazards. A description is given of the sectionalization of premises which constitute a fire hazard and the establishment of fire protection zones and sections. Also presented are the measures taken to improve the fire safety of the cable system at power plants in the USSR. (author)

  17. Adaptation to the ECTS of the subject "Construction of Non-structural Elements" for the future degree "Building Engineer"

    OpenAIRE

    Céspedes López, María Francisca; Mora García, Raúl Tomás; Jiménez Delgado, Antonio; Rodríguez Valenzuela, Leoncio

    2009-01-01

    Due to the imminent creation of the degree "Building Engineer", it has been thought appropriate to verify if the criteria set by the EHEA is being applied to the subject of "Construction of Non-structural Elements" in the third year of Technical Architecture. The main objective of the subject is to ensure that students get knowledge and that they can apply it in a technical and objective way. For this reason, a programming of tasks orientated towards the acquisition of competences has been de...

  18. Comparison Between Structural Analysis of Residential Building (Flat Scheme Subjected to Gravity With Respect to Seismic Forces (In zone II and zone III For Different Storey Heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranita R. Kayarkar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent development in methods to analyze the RC frame structure brings us to this study. This paper is approach to introduce the comparison between structural analysis of Residential building (Flat Scheme subjected to gravity with respect to seismic forces ( in zone II and zone III for different storey heights. For structural engineers, seismic load should be considered as important aspect that needs to be included in the building design. However majority of buildings constructed in India are designed for gravity loading only and poorly detailed to accommodate lateral loads. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the comparison between structural analysis of residential building subjected to gravity with respect to seismic forces in zone II and zone III for different storey heights. The analysis for residential building (G+3 is carried out by using software SAP by seismic coefficient method. Columns, beams and footing has been drawn. Microsoft office Excel 2007 programs were used for drafting , and analysis of columns, beams and footing. This analysis gives better understanding the seismic performance of buildings. The results show that the building which is designed only for gravity load is found inadequate to resist seismic load in zone II and zone III.

  19. Research of CBR, DM and smart algorithms based design methods for high-rise building structure form-selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shi-hai; LIU Shu-jun; LIU Xiao-yan; OU Jin-ping

    2006-01-01

    First, the high-rise building structure design process is divided into three relevant steps, that is,scheme generation and creation, performance evaluation, and scheme optimization. Then with the application of relational database, the case database of high-rise structures is constructed, the structure form-selection designing methods such as the smart algorithm based on CBR, DM, FINS, NN and GA is presented, and the original forms system of this method and its general structure are given. CBR and DM are used to generate scheme candidates; FINS and NN to evaluate and optimize the scheme performance; GA to create new structure forms.Finally, the application cases are presented, whose results fit in with the real project. It proves by combining and using the expert intelligence, algorithm intelligence and machine intelligence that this method makes good use of not only the engineering project knowledge and expertise but also much deeper knowledge contained in various engineering cases. In other words, it is because the form selection has a strong background support of vast real cases that its results prove more reliable and more acceptable. So the introduction of this method prorides an effective approach to improving the quality, efficiency, automatic and smart level of high-rise structures form selection design.

  20. Temperate mountain forest biodiversity under climate change: compensating negative effects by increasing structural complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Braunisch

    Full Text Available Species adapted to cold-climatic mountain environments are expected to face a high risk of range contractions, if not local extinctions under climate change. Yet, the populations of many endothermic species may not be primarily affected by physiological constraints, but indirectly by climate-induced changes of habitat characteristics. In mountain forests, where vertebrate species largely depend on vegetation composition and structure, deteriorating habitat suitability may thus be mitigated or even compensated by habitat management aiming at compositional and structural enhancement. We tested this possibility using four cold-adapted bird species with complementary habitat requirements as model organisms. Based on species data and environmental information collected in 300 1-km2 grid cells distributed across four mountain ranges in central Europe, we investigated (1 how species' occurrence is explained by climate, landscape, and vegetation, (2 to what extent climate change and climate-induced vegetation changes will affect habitat suitability, and (3 whether these changes could be compensated by adaptive habitat management. Species presence was modelled as a function of climate, landscape and vegetation variables under current climate; moreover, vegetation-climate relationships were assessed. The models were extrapolated to the climatic conditions of 2050, assuming the moderate IPCC-scenario A1B, and changes in species' occurrence probability were quantified. Finally, we assessed the maximum increase in occurrence probability that could be achieved by modifying one or multiple vegetation variables under altered climate conditions. Climate variables contributed significantly to explaining species occurrence, and expected climatic changes, as well as climate-induced vegetation trends, decreased the occurrence probability of all four species, particularly at the low-altitudinal margins of their distribution. These effects could be partly compensated

  1. Does NDVI reflect variation in the structural attributes associated with increasing shrub dominance in arctic tundra?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores relationships between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and structural characteristics associated with deciduous shrub dominance in arctic tundra. Our structural measures of shrub dominance are stature, branch abundance, aerial per cent woody stem cover (deciduous and evergreen species), and per cent deciduous shrub canopy cover. All measurements were taken across a suite of transects that together represent a gradient of deciduous shrub height. The transects include tussock tundra shrub and riparian shrub tundra communities located in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range, in northern Alaska. Plot-level NDVI measurements were made in 2010 during the snow-free period prior to deciduous shrub leaf-out (early June, NDVIpre-leaf), at the point in the growing season when canopy NDVI has reached half of its maximum growing season value (mid-June, NDVIdemi-leaf) and during the period of maximum leaf-out (late July, NDVIpeak-leaf). We found that: (1) NDVIpre-leaf is best suited to capturing variation in the per cent woody stem cover, maximum shrub height, and branch abundance, particularly between 10 and 50 cm height in the canopy; (2) NDVIpeak-leaf is best suited to capturing variation in deciduous canopy cover; and (3) NDVIdemi-leaf does not capture variability in any of our measures of shrub dominance. These findings suggest that in situ NDVI measurements made prior to deciduous canopy leaf-out could be used to identify small differences in maximum shrub height, woody stem cover, and branch abundance (particularly between 10 and 50 cm height in the canopy). Because shrubs are increasing in size and regional extent in several regions of the Arctic, investigation into spectrally based tools for monitoring these changes are worthwhile as they provide a first step towards development of remotely sensed techniques for quantifying associated changes in regional carbon cycling, albedo, radiative energy balance, and wildlife habitat.

  2. Integrated Methodologies Based on Structural Health Monitoring for the Protection of Cutural Heritage Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzoni, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades the need for an effective seismic protection and vulnerability reduction of strategic structures and particularly the architectural heritage determined a growing interest in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) as a measure of passive mitigation of earthquake effects. The object of monitoring is to identify, locate and classify type and severity of damages induced by external actions or degradation phenomena and to assess their effects on the structural performance. In this ...

  3. Soil-structure interaction analysis of HTTR building by a simplified model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the evaluation of the design seismic forces of the embedded High-Temperature-Testing-Reactor (HTTR) structure, a sway-rocking model considering the embedment of the structure is used. As for the composition of this model; the structure is modeled into beams with lumped masses, and the soil into the horizontal side springs and the horizontal and rotational bottom springs. At the same time, the input motion to the structure which has the form of multiple excitation is calculated based on one dimensional wave propagation theory. This paper presents the concept of this modelling and evaluated results. (author). 9 refs, 11 figs

  4. STUDSVIK's methods for treatment/free release of components and buildings structures from decommissioning of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will describe methods for treatment of retired, large, contaminated components from NPPs. The treatment includes transports, decontamination, segmentation, melting as well recycling of the metal in Sweden. Decontamination and free release of building strictures is also one of services which Studsvik provides for the nuclear industry. For this services different techniques are used for 'shaving' and subsequent measurements of the concrete surfaces. Since the mid of 1980-ies different procedures for decontamination and segmentation as well as pre- and post treatment have been developed and successively applied at Studsvik's melting facility in Sweden. The experience on this sector are permanent used for improvement and development of methods for treatment of both domestic and foreign large components like: heat exchangers, reactors vessel heads, turbine parts, steam generators and boilers. The high metal recycling rate is due to optimized production and results in extremely low percentage of secondary waste. The driving force is to maximize recycling rate of metal to the steel industry and to minimize the volume of the secondary waste and by that owner's costs for final storage in the national repositories. For decontamination of building structures several options are available using shaving or hammering tools to remove the contaminated concrete layers. This treatment is carried out in the closed circuit where removed dust is directly evacuated into the waste collection drums. During and after the decontamination process the treated and surrounding areas are free from dust and risk of cross contamination has been eliminated. The equipment capacity is up to 30 m2/h with simultaneous concrete removal of 3 mm at very high accuracy. It is not necessary of in-housing (tent, containment) of working area. The presentation will focus on methods, equipment used and experience in treatment of components and methods for decontamination of building structures

  5. Marine Building Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Westby, Ola

    2006-01-01

    This textbook is all about building of ships, platforms and other offshore installations. The geometry and functions of systems and structures are explained as an introduction to management and technology at shipyards and building sites. Both loadbearing structures, outfitting and installation of accommodation are included. Project management, production planning, cost calculations, building methods, discipline knowledge (welding, painting, insulation, mechanical, piping etc.), fabrication te...

  6. Development of standards for chemical and biological decontamination of buildings and structures affected by terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Hay, A.W.M. [Leeds Univ., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are no suitable standards for determining levels of safety when reoccupying a building that has been recommissioned following a biological or chemical attack. For that reason, this study focused on developing clean-up standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after acts of terrorism. Several parameters must be assessed when determining the course of action to decontaminate toxic agents and to rehabilitate facilities. First, the hazardous substance must be positively identified along with the degree of contamination and information on likely receptors. Potential exposure route is also a key consideration in the risk assessment process. A key objective of the study was to develop specific guidelines for ascertaining and defining clean. In particular, standards for chemical and biological agents that pose a real or potential risk for use as agents of terrorism will be developed. The selected agents for standards development were ammonia, fentanyl, malathion, mustard gas, potassium cyanide, ricin, sarin, hepatitis A virus, and bacillus anthracis. The standards will be developed by establishing the relationship between the amount of exposure and expected health effects; assessing real and potential risks by identifying individuals at risk and consideration of all exposure routes; and, characterizing the risk to determine the potential for toxicity or infectivity. For non-carcinogens, this was done through the analysis of other known guidelines. Cancer-slope factors will be considered for carcinogens. The standards will be assessed in the laboratory using animal models. The guidelines and standards are intended for first-responders and are scheduled for development by the end of 2006. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Construction solutions for the exterior walls in the process of increasing the width of residential buildings of brownfield construction in seismic hazardousand dry hot conditions of Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-01-01

    The main object of this study is the reconstruction, renovation and modernization of the housing built in the period 1975—1985. These buildings have low energy efficiency due to the poor thermal insulation properties of the walls. These apartments do not meet the necessary requirements for year round warmth and comfort.Reconstruction is more preferable, than new-build, because of the cost saving for the land acquisition. Reconstruction is generally 1.5 times cheaper than new-build with 25—40 ...

  8. Influence of Building Structure Modeling on the Results of Thermohydraulic Evaluation of Ignalina NPP ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of different types of Ignalina NPP structure modeling on the results of thermo-hydraulic evaluation of ALS (accident localization system) compartments is analyzed. There are five types of structure models applied for calculations. The results showed that in the case of maximum design-based accident the difference between maximum overpressure in an accident compartment did not exceed 2.7%. In the future it is intended to apply the model with equivalent reinforced (concrete) material considering the paint layer covering the metal lining of ALS structures, because this model provides the most conservative results, and consumes less computer time. (author)

  9. Structural diversity in hybrid vanadium(IV) oxyfluorides based on a common building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoudi, Farida H; Black, Cameron; Arachchige, Kasun S Athukorala; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Morris, Russell E; Lightfoot, Philip

    2014-01-14

    There are only limited reports on vanadium(iv) oxyfluorides (VOFs) with extended crystal structures. Here we expand and enrich the list of existing VOFs with a series of 14 new materials "VOF-n (n = 1-14)" prepared using ionothermal and solvothermal synthesis methods. All of these materials arise from the condensation of a dimeric structural motif. These VOFs can be classified into three groups depending on their key structural features; layer structures: VOF-1"[HN2C7H6][V2O2F5]", VOF-2"[HN2C4H4][V2O2F5]", VOF-3"[HN2C3H4][V2O2F5]" and VOF-4"V2(N2C4H4)O2F4", ladder like structures: VOF-5"[NH4(HN2C3H4)][V2O2F6]", VOF-6"[K(HN2C3H4)][V2O2F6]", VOF-7"[HNH2CH2CH3][VOF3]", VOF-8"[HN2C7H6][VOF3]", VOF-9"[H2N2C4H6][V2O2F6]", VOF-10"β-RbVOF3", VOF-11"α-KVOF3", VOF-12"β-KVOF3", VOF-13"[H2(NH2)2(CH2)2][V2O2F6]", and a chain structure: VOF-14"[H2N2C6H12][V2O2F7]". The crystal structures of VOF-n are presented, and their synthetic and structural relationships are discussed. PMID:24129339

  10. Assessment of soil-structure interaction modeling strategies for response history analysis of buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Givens, Michael J; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Haselton, Curtis B; Mazzoni, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    A complete model of a soil-foundation-structure system for use in response history analysis requires modification of input motions relative to those in the free-field to account for kinematic interaction effects, foundation springs and dashpots to represent foundation-soil impedance, and a structural model. The recently completed ATC-83 project developed consistent guidelines for evaluation of kinematic interaction effects and foundation impedance for realistic conditions. We implement those ...

  11. A Two-step Approach to Progressive Collapse Analysis of Building Structures under Blast Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun-xian; LIU Xi-la

    2009-01-01

    Structural collapse under blast loads is a very complex process. For several decades, the engineering profession has considered some approaches to analyze the essential physics of collapse phenomena. Recently, the interest in this topic has risen to an apex since the collapse of the World Trade Center towers. A two-step analysis approach to capture the characteristics of structural collapse during explosions is proposed. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the performance of the presented approach.

  12. Structural Optimization using the Principle of Virtual Work and an Analytical Study on Metal Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Barrar, Christopher Douglas

    2009-01-01

    A tool for analyzing and understanding the behavior of structural systems based on the principle of virtual work was developed by Dr. Finley Charney in the early 1990s. The program was called DISPAR, which stands for DISplacement PARticipation factors, and was written to work in accordance with SAP90 and ETABS. This program became outdated once newer versions of SAP90 and ETABS were released. Starting with version 11 of SAP2000, Computers and Structures released an Open Application Programmin...

  13. A velocity-based seismic control for base-isolated building structures

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo Montero, Francesc; Acho Zuppa, Leonardo; Rodellar Benedé, José; Rossell Garriga, Josep Maria

    2009-01-01

    Passive, active and semi-active control have been extensively considered to improve the protection of base-isolated structures against earthquakes. This paper presents a strategy to apply control forces to the base of an isolated structure to enhance the performance of purely passive devices. The main feature is the simplicity in formulation, design and implementation. It is formulated as a static nonlinear function depending only on the base velocity. This function ensures energy dissi...

  14. INCREASE IN THE ROLE OF THE FINANCIAL SYNTHESIS REPORTS FOR ACCESSION OF THE EUROPEAN STRUCTURAL FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droj Laurentiu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available European integration is supported through important financial resources in order to sustain the investment effort for aligning the business infrastructure and increase in the business competitiveness in order to fulfill the European Union standards. The financial management, a basic component of the general management, has as scope to realize complex financial analysis in order to substantiate the decisions for investments and financing which should ensure the maximization of results, ensuring also the elaboration of the project budget as an essential document in the identification of the needs for resources and for obtaining the non-reimbursable financial sources. An essential role in the investment decision making, having as support European funding, is realized by the financial-accounting reporting documents such as balance sheet, profit and loss account, table of the treasury flows, which together with a realistic established actualization rate ensures the relevance and efficiency of the financial indicators: Net present Value(NPV, Internal Rate of Return(IRR, the investment recovery period, the benefit/cost ratio. This study has as its goal to realize a critical analysis over the main simulation methods and techniques for forecasting annual return based on its growth rate, which should ensure the success of the implementation and operation of an investment realized through European structural funds respecting also the requirements for minimization of risks. In this research it is shown the importance of proper generation/modeling of the annual turnover in an investment project. Several methods were presented and case study was realized. Since the annual turnover constitutes the basis for the entire financial analysis it is very important that a realistic growth rate is used. Otherwise the provisions within the financial analysis of the investment (including CBA, the project implementation strategy and later the plan for the utilization of

  15. Increased Soil Heavy Metal Concentrations Aff ect the Structure of Soil Fungus Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidilutė Dirginčiutė-Volodkienė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of heavy metals on soil fungi populations and soil fertility incidental to it were studied under laboratory conditions. Metal-amended antroposol type soil samples were incubated for a month at 17°C under natural light regime. Copper, zinc and lead were chosen as the most common industrial pollutants. Each metal was applied either of sulfate, chloride or acetate salt (at concentration varying from 0.4 to 16.14 g kg-1 soil; control – soil without metal amendment. Fungal populations (dilution plate method were investigated and soil phytotoxicity test was performed.Elevated Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations in the soil influenced fungus community structure. Some species (Absidia glauca, Acremonium kiliense, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Alternaria alternata detected in the control soil community were eliminated, while the abundance of the other species increased. Paecillomyces genus dominated in the soil amended with either of Cu or Zn. P. farinosus, P. fumosoroseum and fungal species from the Clonostachys, Penicillium and Lecanicillium genera were Znresistant. P. lilacinus and plant pathogenic fungi, A. alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani and Phoma lingam were very abundant in soil amended with Cu salts, followed by some saprotrophic fungi such as Cunninghamella echinulata and Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis. An overall change in the plant (cress, Lepidum sativum; wheat, Ticicum aestivum; lupine, Lupinus polyphyllus, and sunflower, Heliannthus annus seed viability was observed in comparison with control. Most deleterious effects on the seed germination were observed in case of zinc, medium – in case of copper, and the least – in case of lead. Zinc salts at used concentrations were unfavorable to both fungus populations and consequently to the seed viability.

  16. Effect of build geometry on the β-grain structure and texture in additive manufacture of Ti-6Al-4V by selective electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With titanium alloys, the solidification conditions in Additive Manufacturing (AM) frequently lead to coarse columnar β-grain structures. The effect of geometry on the variability in the grain structure and texture, seen in Ti-6Al-4V alloy components produced by Selective Electron Beam Melting (SEBM), has been investigated. Reconstruction of the primary β-phase, from α-phase EBSD data, has confirmed that in bulk sections where in-fill “hatching” is employed growth selection favours columnar grains aligned with an β direction normal to the deposited powder layers; this results in a coarse β-grain structure with a strong β fibre texture (up 8 x random) that can oscillate between a near random distribution around the fibre axis and cube reinforcement with build height. It is proposed that this behaviour is related to the highly elongated melt pool and the raster directions alternating between two orthogonal directions every layer, which on average favours grains with cube alignment. In contrast, the outline, or “contour”, pass produces a distinctly different grain structure and texture resulting in a skin layer on wall surfaces, where nucleation occurs off the surrounding powder and growth follows the curved surface of the melt pool. This structure becomes increasingly important in thin sections. Local heterogeneities have also been found within different section transitions, resulting from the growth of skin grain structures into thicker sections. Texture simulations have shown that the far weaker α-texture (∼ 3 x random), seen in the final product, arises from transformation on cooling occurring with a near random distribution of α-plates across the 12 variants possible from the Burgers relationship. - Highlights: • Distinctly different skin and bulk structures are produced by the contour and hatching passes. • Bulk sections contain coarse β-grains with a fibre texture in the build direction. • This oscillates between a random distribution

  17. The Use Potential of Traditional Building Materials for the Realization of Structures by Modern Methods of Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Spišáková Marcela; Mačková Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The sustainable building has taken off in recent years with many investors looking for new and different methods of construction. The traditional building materials can be made out of natural materials, while others can help to lower energy costs of the occupant once built. Regardless of what the goal of the investor is, traditional building materials and their use is on the rise. The submitted paper provides an overview of natural building materials and possible modern building systems using...

  18. Building spatially-structured biofilms with single-cell control using laser trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodesney, Christopher; Hutchison, Jaime; Kaushik, Karishma; Le, Henry; Hurwitz, Daniel; Irie, Yasuhiko; Gordon, Vernita

    2015-03-01

    Biofilms are sessile communities of microbes adhered to each other and to an interface. Biofilm infections are notoriously difficult to eradicate, and this arises in part from phenotypic changes due to the spatial structure of the biofilm. Spatial structure controls the microenvironment and intercellular associations, which in turn controls gene expression, virulence, and antibiotic resistance. There are few tools available for elucidating the role of spatial structure in biofilms. We present a method for controlling the positions of bacteria on a surface using optical trapping without impinging cell viability. Initial positions propagate into the developing biofilm, creating spatial structure. The native growth, motility, and surface adhesion of positioned cells are preserved, as shown for model organisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. We demonstrate statistically-significant effects of spatial structure on the growth of monoculture P. aeruginosa biofilms and for co-culture biofilms of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Because the laser trap we use is very basic and the other equipment required is inexpensive and standard, we believe that our technique will be a widely-usable tool for biological and physical collaborators at many types of institutions.

  19. Evaluation of tensile properties of safety-conscious rolled steels for building structure (SN steels) at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolled steels for general structure (SS steels), which are provided in the Japanese Industrial Standard, are used for support structures in nuclear power plants. They do not have any necessary conditions as welding steels; therefore, alternative steels with good welding properties are required. Rolled steels for building structure (SN steels) are expecting to be candidate steels form their high weldability and toughness. In order to apply SN steels as structural materials, tensile properties must be consolidated, however, tensile data only at room temperature are provided in the Japanese Industrial Standard and those at high temperature are not adequately acquired so far. In this report, comprehensive tensile tests for SN steels were conducted at high temperature and the tensile properties were compiled. Three materials with different origins were prepared for four types of SN steels (SN400B, SN400C, SN490B, and SN490C) and two different plate thickness (40 mm and 100 mm), thus, 240 tensile tests were conducted under the temperature condition from RT to 400degC. The effect of temperature on the yield stress or tensile strength was approximately similar in spite of the differences in the origins, material type, or plate thickness. The effect of strain rate on the tensile properties was small, and the effect of the contents of P and S on the tensile properties was also small. (author)

  20. Application of a design-build-team approach to low cost and weight composite fuselage structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilcewicz, L. B.; Walker, T. H.; Willden, K. S.; Swanson, G. D.; Truslove, G.; Metschan, S. L.; Pfahl, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between manufacturing costs and design details must be understood to promote the application of advanced composite technologies to transport fuselage structures. A team approach, integrating the disciplines responsible for aircraft structural design and manufacturing, was developed to perform cost and weight trade studies for a twenty-foot diameter aft fuselage section. Baseline composite design and manufacturing concepts were selected for large quadrant panels in crown, side, and keel areas of the fuselage section. The associated technical issues were also identified. Detailed evaluation of crown panels indicated the potential for large weight savings and costs competitive with aluminum technology in the 1995 timeframe. Different processes and material forms were selected for the various elements that comprise the fuselage structure. Additional cost and weight savings potential was estimated for future advancements.