WorldWideScience

Sample records for building structural surfaces

  1. 30 CFR 57.4530 - Exits for surface buildings and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exits for surface buildings and structures. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4530 Exits for surface buildings and structures. Surface buildings or structures in which persons work shall have a sufficient number...

  2. Mechanism and bounding of earthquake energy input to building structure on surface ground subjected to engineering bedrock motion

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, K; Sakaguchi, K; Takewaki, I.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of earthquake energy input to building structures is clarified by considering the surface ground amplification and soil–structure interaction. The earthquake input energies to superstructures, soil–foundation systems and total swaying–rocking system are obtained by taking the corresponding appropriate free bodies into account and defining the energy transfer functions. It has been made clear that, when the ground surface motion is white, the input energy to the swaying–rocking m...

  3. Modern frame structure buildings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    В. М. Першаков; Т. О. Петрова; К. М. Лисницька

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the design, construction and implementation of reinforced concrete frame structures with span 18, 21 m for agricultural production buildings, hall-premises of public buildings...

  4. Microwave detection of surface and volume moisture in building walls and related structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, E. M.; Ricca, A. M.

    Microwave technique for non-contacting volume and surface moisture measurements in concrete and building walls is described. The reflection and attenuation coefficients of an electromagnetic wave, in the microwave spectrum region, impinging upon a humid wall are studied. Reflection and attenuation are related to the water content. The attenuation coefficient is related to the space-average humidity, while reflection measurements depend also on the humidity profile. By means of a computer simulation surface humidity and surface humidity gradient are both measured by reflectometric techniques. Combining reflection and attenuation measurements, information about the humidity profile is obtained in a non-contacting way. Experimental results on reflection and attenuation measurements are also presented.

  5. Building the Chessboard-like Supramolecular Structure on Au (111) Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dou, Ruifen; Zhang, Ping; Zhong, Dingyong; Fuchs, Harald; Wang, Yue; Chi, Lifeng

    2013-01-01

    We investigate an anthracene derivative, 3(5)-(9-anthryl) pyrazole (ANP), self-assembled on the Au (111) surface by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A chessboard-like network structure composed of ANP molecules is found, covering the whole Au (111) substrate. Our STM results and DFT calculations reveal that the formation of chessboard-like networks originates from a basic unit cell, a tetramer structure, which is formed by four ANP molecules connected through C-H-N hydrogen-bonds. The hydrogen bonds inside each tetramer and the molecular adsorption interaction are fundamentally important in providing a driving force for formation of the supramolecular networks.

  6. Two Decades of Structure Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    1997-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of the Structure Building Framework, a simple framework for describing the cognitive processes and mechanisms involved in discourse comprehension. Reviews the seminal work on which it is based (the first decade of structure-building research); and recounts the research conducted by the author to test the Structure Building…

  7. Structural rehabilitation of old buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Guedes, João; Varum, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    The present book describes the different construction systems and structural materials and solutions within the main old buildings typologies, and it analyses the particularities of each of them, including mechanical properties, structural behaviour, typical damage patterns and collapse mechanisms. Common or pioneering intervention measures to repair and/or strengthen some of these structural elements are also reviewed.

  8. Building large structures in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, T.

    1976-01-01

    The building of large structures in space would be required for the establishment of a variety of systems needed for different forms of space utilization. The problems involved in the building of such structures in space and the approaches which can be used to solve these problems are illustrated with the aid of an example involving a concept for packaging, transporting, and assembling two representative large space structures. The structure of a radio-astronomy telescope 200 m in diam was felt to be representative of the many medium-size structures of the Shuttle era. A typical very large structure is represented by the supporting structure for the transmission system of a 5000-Mw space solar power station.

  9. Disproportionate Collapse in Building Structures.

    OpenAIRE

    JANSSENS, VICTORIA MARIA; O'DWYER, DERMOT WILLIAM

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Cork, Ireland The failure of the Ronan Point apartment tower focused interest in disproportionate collapse, and prompted the ?Fifth Amendment? to the UK Building Regulations which was introduced in 1970. From this point on structures were required to exhibit a minimum level of robustness to resist progressive collapse. These rules have remained relatively unchanged for over 40 years. This paper presents a review of the concepts relating to structural collapse, and the robustne...

  10. Dust Load on Surfaces in Animal Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Strøm, J. S.; Takai, H.

    To investigate the physical process of particle deposition on and resuspension from surfaces in animal buildings, a test facility and a sampling method is established. The influences of surface orientation and air turbulence and velocity just as other parameters on the dust load on a surface...

  11. Crustal‐scale structural architecture in central Chile based on seismicity and surface geology: Implications for Andean mountain building

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farías, Marcelo; Comte, Diana; Charrier, Reynaldo; Martinod, Joseph; David, Claire; Tassara, Andrés; Tapia, Felipe; Fock, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    .... This structure plays a fundamental role in the Andean orogenesis because most of the shortening has been accommodated by structures rooted in it and allows the distribution of crustal thickening...

  12. Influence of building resolution on surface water inundation outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel; Yu, Dapeng; Pattison, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Surface water (pluvial) flooding occurs when intense precipitation events overwhelm the drainage capacity of an area and excess water is unable to infiltrate into the ground or drain via natural or artificial drainage channels. In the UK, over 3 million properties are at risk from surface water flooding alone, accounting for approximately one third of all UK flood risk. This risk is predicted to increase due to future climatic changes resulting in an increasing magnitude and frequency of intense precipitation events. Numerical modelling is a well-established method of investigating surface water flood risk, allowing the researcher to gain an understanding of the depth, extent and severity of actual or hypothetical flood scenarios. Although numerical models allow the simulation of surface water inundation in a particular region, the model parameters (e.g. roughness, hydraulic conductivity) and resolution of topographic data have been shown to exert a profound influence on the inundation outputs which often leads to an over- or under-estimation of flood depths and extent without the use of external validation data to calibrate model outputs. Although previous research has demonstrated that model outputs are highly sensitive to Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mesh resolution, with flood inundation over large and complex topographies often requiring mesh resolutions coarser than the structural features (e.g. buildings) present within the study catchment, the specific influence of building resolution on surface flowpaths and connectivity during a surface water flood event has not been investigated. In this study, a LiDAR-derived DEM and OS MasterMap buildings layer of the Loughborough University campus, UK, were rasterized into separate 1m, 5m and 10m resolution layers. These layers were combined to create a series of Digital Surface Models (DSM) with varying, mismatching building and DEM resolutions (e.g. 1m DEM resolution, 10m building resolution, etc.) to understand

  13. Impact of buildings on surface solar radiation over urban Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Gu, Yu; He, Cenlin; Lee, Wee-Liang; Chang, Xing; Li, Qinbin; Wang, Shuxiao; Tseng, Hsien-Liang R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hao, Jiming

    2016-05-01

    The rugged surface of an urban area due to varying buildings can interact with solar beams and affect both the magnitude and spatiotemporal distribution of surface solar fluxes. Here we systematically examine the impact of buildings on downward surface solar fluxes over urban Beijing by using a 3-D radiation parameterization that accounts for 3-D building structures vs. the conventional plane-parallel scheme. We find that the resulting downward surface solar flux deviations between the 3-D and the plane-parallel schemes are generally ±1-10 W m-2 at 800 m grid resolution and within ±1 W m-2 at 4 km resolution. Pairs of positive-negative flux deviations on different sides of buildings are resolved at 800 m resolution, while they offset each other at 4 km resolution. Flux deviations from the unobstructed horizontal surface at 4 km resolution are positive around noon but negative in the early morning and late afternoon. The corresponding deviations at 800 m resolution, in contrast, show diurnal variations that are strongly dependent on the location of the grids relative to the buildings. Both the magnitude and spatiotemporal variations of flux deviations are largely dominated by the direct flux. Furthermore, we find that flux deviations can potentially be an order of magnitude larger by using a finer grid resolution. Atmospheric aerosols can reduce the magnitude of downward surface solar flux deviations by 10-65 %, while the surface albedo generally has a rather moderate impact on flux deviations. The results imply that the effect of buildings on downward surface solar fluxes may not be critically significant in mesoscale atmospheric models with a grid resolution of 4 km or coarser. However, the effect can play a crucial role in meso-urban atmospheric models as well as microscale urban dispersion models with resolutions of 1 m to 1 km.

  14. Impact of buildings on surface solar radiation over urban Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Bin; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Gu, Yu; He, Cenlin; Lee, Wee-Liang; Chang, Xing; Li, Qinbin; Wang, Shuxiao; Tseng, Hsien-Liang R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hao, Jiming

    2016-05-12

    The rugged surface of an urban area due to varying buildings can interact with solar beams and affect both the magnitude and spatiotemporal distribution of surface solar fluxes. Here we systematically examine the impact of buildings on downward surface solar fluxes over urban Beijing by using a 3-D radiation parameterization that accounts for 3-D building structures vs. the conventional plane-parallel scheme. We find that the resulting downward surface solar flux deviations between the 3-D and the plane-parallel schemes are generally ±1–10 W m-2 at 800 m grid resolution and within ±1 W m-2 at 4 km resolution. Pairs of positive–negative flux deviations on different sides of buildings are resolved at 800 m resolution, while they offset each other at 4 km resolution. Flux deviations from the unobstructed horizontal surface at 4 km resolution are positive around noon but negative in the early morning and late afternoon. The corresponding deviations at 800 m resolution, in contrast, show diurnal variations that are strongly dependent on the location of the grids relative to the buildings. Both the magnitude and spatiotemporal variations of flux deviations are largely dominated by the direct flux. Furthermore, we find that flux deviations can potentially be an order of magnitude larger by using a finer grid resolution. Atmospheric aerosols can reduce the magnitude of downward surface solar flux deviations by 10–65 %, while the surface albedo generally has a rather moderate impact on flux deviations. The results imply that the effect of buildings on downward surface solar fluxes may not be critically significant in mesoscale atmospheric models with a grid resolution of 4 km or coarser. However, the effect can play a crucial role in meso-urban atmospheric models as well as microscale urban dispersion models with resolutions of 1 m to 1 km.

  15. Cooling load across glazed building surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydinli, S.; Krochmann, J. (Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Lichttechnik)

    1980-05-01

    It is only possible to build favourably with regard to costs and energy requirements, if the windows which are required for the direct visual contact between the inner and outer space are favourably selected with regard to the thermal loading of the internal space during the summer months and the heat losses during the cold season of the year. To achieve this an exact calculation of the partial cooling load is required, which is caused by the solar radiation entering into the inner space through the glazed building surfaces. Described are the items for the calculation of the magnitude of the radiation which defines this part of the cooling load on to any inclined surface and the influence of the properties of the glazing.

  16. Structural systems for highrise buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Sobek, Werner

    1985-01-01

    The report was written in the United States under the first Fazlur R. Khan Fellowship in 1984 and it was completed in Germany afterwards. "Highrise Buildings" was selected by the author as the draft-title for the activities during the fellowship. Under this theme the author studied the single aspects of highrise buildings as for example planning methods, architectural considerations, structuraI systems. This was done by working at the offices of Skidmore, Owings and Herrill in Chicago and San...

  17. Structured building model reduction toward parallel simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbs, Justin R. [Cornell University; Hencey, Brondon M. [Cornell University

    2013-08-26

    Building energy model reduction exchanges accuracy for improved simulation speed by reducing the number of dynamical equations. Parallel computing aims to improve simulation times without loss of accuracy but is poorly utilized by contemporary simulators and is inherently limited by inter-processor communication. This paper bridges these disparate techniques to implement efficient parallel building thermal simulation. We begin with a survey of three structured reduction approaches that compares their performance to a leading unstructured method. We then use structured model reduction to find thermal clusters in the building energy model and allocate processing resources. Experimental results demonstrate faster simulation and low error without any interprocessor communication.

  18. Helical surface structures

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenburg, A; Brandenburg, Axel; Blackman, Eric G.

    2002-01-01

    Over the past few years there has been growing interest in helical magnetic field structures seen at the solar surface, in coronal mass ejections, as well as in the solar wind. Although there is a great deal of randomness in the data, on average the extended structures are mostly left-handed on the northern hemisphere and right-handed on the southern. Surface field structures are also classified as dextral (= right bearing) and sinistral (= left bearing) occurring preferentially in the northern and southern hemispheres respectively. Of particular interest here is a quantitative measurement of the associated emergence rates of helical structures, which translate to magnetic helicity fluxes. In this review, we give a brief survey of what has been found so far and what is expected based on models. Particular emphasis is put on the scale dependence of the associated fields and an attempt is made to estimate the helicity flux of the mean field vs. fluctuating field.

  19. Advanced analysis for structural steel building design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wai Fah CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The 2005 AISC LRFD Specifications for Structural Steel Buildings are making it possible for designers to recognize explicitly the structural resistance provided within the elastic and inelastic ranges of beha-vior and up to the maximum load limit state. There is an increasing awareness of the need for practical second-order analysis approaches for a direct determination of overall structural system response. This paper attempts to present a simple, concise and reasonably comprehens-ive introduction to some of the theoretical and practical approaches which have been used in the traditional and modern processes of design of steel building structures.

  20. Effect of structural design on traffic-induced building vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Peter; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Persson, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Population growth and urbanization results in densified cities, where new buildings are being built closer to existing vibration sources such as road-, tram- and rail traffic. In addition, new transportation systems are constructed closer to existing buildings. Potential disturbing vibrations...... are one issue to consider in planning urban environment and densification of cities. Vibrations can be disturbing for humans but also for sensitive equipment in, for example, hospitals. In determining the risk for disturbing vibrations, the distance between the source and the receiver, the ground...... properties, and type and size of the building are governing factors. In the paper, a study is presented aiming at investigating the influence of various parameters of the building's structural design on vibration levels in the structure caused by ground surface loads, e.g. traffic. Parameters studied...

  1. Distinctive Structural and Non-Structural Building Defects and Failures in Educational Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Sin Wen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the maintenance-free building may be a theoretical possibility, all buildings are subject to the vagaries of defects, failures, deterioration and variation. The examples of these problems are fungus growth, peeling paint, termite attack, dampness, defective rainwater goods, roof defects, harmful growth, settlement, foundation failure, roof collapse and others. There are a great number of building defects and failures arose and being reported officially by mass media, especially problems with educational buildings. Theoretically, all buildings tend to deteriorate over period of time due to aging or other factors, regardless the types of buildings. There are several main factors can be taken into account such as design fault, poor maintenance, poor workmanship, building age and location of building. This paper will discuss on distinctive structural and non-structural building defects and failures than frequently happened in educational buildings. This paper is noteworthy to render varies of problems generally faced by Malaysian educational buildings to the public. As such, the awareness among them can be raised or improved. Furthermore, the public will concern, especially the government authorities should emphasize the laws and regulations to enforce the safety of construction work as well as the procedure in giving approval to the occupation of educational buildings.

  2. Building of CoFe2/CoFe2O4/MgO architectures: Structure, magnetism and surface functionalized by TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Ma, Y. Q.; Sun, X.; Geng, B. Q.; Wu, M. Z.; Zheng, G. H.; Dai, Z. X.

    2017-01-01

    Well-dispersed uniform CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were prepared and then coated by MgO through thermal decomposition of a metal-organic salt in organic solvent. Then CoFe2O4/MgO were reduced in a H2/N2 mixture gas and subsequently oxidized in an ambient atmosphere in order to build CoFe2/CoFe2O4/MgO architectures with high magnetization, good chemical stability and dispersivity, which are useful in some practical applications. MgO can be dissolved by the HCl solution. The surfaces of CoFe2O4, CoFe2/MgO, CoFe2 and CoFe2/CoFe2O4 magnetic particles were functionalized by TiO2 to prepare the magnetically separable photocatalysts. The rattle-type particles were obtained without the assistance of template and etchant. The photocatalytic activity of these photocatalysts in degradation of methylene blue and the magnetic separability were investigated: The nanosheet-shaped TiO2 and rattle-type particles exhibited good photocatalytic performance; The highest degradation efficiency reaches 93% for the CoFe2/TiO2 sample which has the highest magnetization value of 42 emu/g, beneficial for the recovery of catalyst after degradation.

  3. Building a Structural Model: Parameterization and Structurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Mouchart

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A specific concept of structural model is used as a background for discussing the structurality of its parameterization. Conditions for a structural model to be also causal are examined. Difficulties and pitfalls arising from the parameterization are analyzed. In particular, pitfalls when considering alternative parameterizations of a same model are shown to have lead to ungrounded conclusions in the literature. Discussions of observationally equivalent models related to different economic mechanisms are used to make clear the connection between an economically meaningful parameterization and an economically meaningful decomposition of a complex model. The design of economic policy is used for drawing some practical implications of the proposed analysis.

  4. Brain surface parameterization using Riemann surface structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Gu, Xianfeng; Hayashi, Kiralee M; Chan, Tony F; Thompson, Paul M; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2005-01-01

    We develop a general approach that uses holomorphic 1-forms to parameterize anatomical surfaces with complex (possibly branching) topology. Rather than evolve the surface geometry to a plane or sphere, we instead use the fact that all orientable surfaces are Riemann surfaces and admit conformal structures, which induce special curvilinear coordinate systems on the surfaces. Based on Riemann surface structure, we can then canonically partition the surface into patches. Each of these patches can be conformally mapped to a parallelogram. The resulting surface subdivision and the parameterizations of the components are intrinsic and stable. To illustrate the technique, we computed conformal structures for several types of anatomical surfaces in MRI scans of the brain, including the cortex, hippocampus, and lateral ventricles. We found that the resulting parameterizations were consistent across subjects, even for branching structures such as the ventricles, which are otherwise difficult to parameterize. Compared with other variational approaches based on surface inflation, our technique works on surfaces with arbitrary complexity while guaranteeing minimal distortion in the parameterization. It also offers a way to explicitly match landmark curves in anatomical surfaces such as the cortex, providing a surface-based framework to compare anatomy statistically and to generate grids on surfaces for PDE-based signal processing.

  5. On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

  6. Aluminium building and civil engineering structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.; Mennink, J.

    1999-01-01

    The design of aluminium structures in building and civil engineering applications is different from designing in traditional materials. This difference is based on the physical and mechanical properties of the material and the freedom of cross-sectional shape provided by the extrusion manufacturing

  7. On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

  8. Building-up novel coordination polymer with Zn(II) porphyrin dimer: Synthesis, structures, surface morphology and effect of axial ligands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sk Asif Ikbal; Sanfaori Brahma; Avinash Dhamija; Sankar Prasad Rath

    2014-09-01

    Highly flexible Zn(II)1,2-bis(meso-octaethylporphyrin)ethane (1) has been used as host in which two porphyrin rings are found to be face-to-face in non-coordinating solvents. Upon addition of one relatively smaller 4,4′-dipyridine (L1) and one extended N,N′-bispyridine-4-yl-methylene ethylenediamine (L2) guest ligands, the syn conformation of 1 is switched to the anti complexes 1·(L1)2 and 1·L2, respectively. Single crystal X-ray structures of all the complexes are reported in which a stable one-dimensional coordination polymer is produced only in 1·L2 that is, to the best of our knowledge, the first structural report of 1D-coordination polymer with porphyrin dimer. Solution structures of the complexes along with binding studies in solution between 1 and L have also been investigated. The morphology of the polymeric complex 1·L2 on silicon wafer surface was examined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in which the crystalline islands of well defined facets of size ranging from 200-550 nm perimeter and a height of 20-40 nm have been observed.

  9. Structural approach for building reconstruction from a single DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, Florent; Descombes, Xavier; Zerubia, Josiane; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach for building reconstruction from a single Digital Surface Model (DSM). It treats buildings as an assemblage of simple urban structures extracted from a library of 3D parametric blocks (like a LEGO set). First, the 2D-supports of the urban structures are extracted either interactively or automatically. Then, 3D-blocks are placed on the 2D-supports using a Gibbs model which controls both the block assemblage and the fitting to data. A Bayesian decision finds the optimal configuration of 3D-blocks using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler associated with original proposition kernels. This method has been validated on multiple data set in a wide-resolution interval such as 0.7 m satellite and 0.1 m aerial DSMs, and provides 3D representations on complex buildings and dense urban areas with various levels of detail.

  10. STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MASONRY BUILDINGS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    KORKMAZ, Kasım Armagan; CARHOGLU, Asuman Isıl

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in an active seismic zone. Mid to high rise R/C building and low rise masonry buildings are very common construction type in Turkey. In recent earthquakes, lots of existing buildings got damage including masonry buildings. Masonry building history in Turkey goes long years back. For sure, it is an important structure type for Turkey. Therefore, earthquake behavior and structural vulnerability of masonry buildings are crucial issues for Turkey as a earthquake prone country. I...

  11. 7 CFR 51.56 - Buildings and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Buildings and structures. 51.56 Section 51.56... § 51.56 Buildings and structures. The packing plant buildings shall be properly constructed and... be sufficient light consistent with the use to which the particular portion of the building is...

  12. 25 CFR 247.7 - Can I build a structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I build a structure? 247.7 Section 247.7 Indians... FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.7 Can I build a structure? (a) You may not build any structures at the sites... been constructed at the sites. (c) In addition to these structures, you may camp in tents, tepees...

  13. On directionality of phrase structure building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-02-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in The minimalist program. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in building syntactic structures. Here I suggest that by looking at the elementary restrictions that apply to Merge (i.e., selection and licensing of functional features), we could conclude that a re-orientation of the syntactic derivation (from bottom-up/right-left to top-down/left-right) is necessary to make the theory simpler, especially for long-distance (filler-gap) dependencies, and is also empirically more adequate. If the structure building operations would assemble lexical items in the order they are pronounced (Phillips in Order and structure. PhD thesis, MIT, 1996; Chesi in Phases and cartography in linguistic computation: Toward a cognitively motivated computational model of linguistic competence. PhD thesis, Università di Siena, 2004; Chesi in Competence and computation: Toward a processing friendly minimalist grammar. Unipress, Padova, 2012), on-line performance data could better fit the grammatical model, without resorting to external "performance factors." The phase-based, top-down (and, as a consequence, left-right) Minimalist Grammar here discussed goes in this direction, ultimately showing how strong Islands (Huang in Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar. PhD thesis, MIT, 1982) and intervention effects (Gordon et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 27:1411-1423, 2001, Gordon et al. in J Mem Lang 51:97-114, 2004) could be better explained in structural terms assuming this unconventional derivational direction.

  14. Study of Surface Displacements on Tunnelling under Buildings Using 3DEC Numerical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Nalini; Sastry, V. R.

    2014-01-01

    Underground structures at shallow depths are often constructed for metro lines, either in loose or dense layered soils. Tunnelling in urban areas is predominantly under surface structures and on tunnelling, innumerable changes in the form of distortion take place in strata surrounding the tunnel. Extent of displacement/damage to buildings or the tunnel-soil structure interaction depends on the type of building and nature of strata. Effect on displacements has been less studied in granular soils compared to other types of soils like clays. In this paper, parametric studies are conducted to find the displacements at surface, in granular soil conditions, due to varying building storeys and building eccentricities from the tunnel centre line. Effect of presence of geosynthetic layer under footings is further studied. Prior to the parametric studies, validity of the model used is checked with field data available for a stretch of tunnel in South India. Results of simulation studies reveal that inclusion of building reduces displacements at the surface in the dense strata. In very dense strata, the displacements increase as compared to the case without a building. As the centre of the building moves away from the tunnel centre line, settlement above the tunnel matches displacements in the case without building. Applicability of 3DEC software is checked with respect to the present study. PMID:27437472

  15. Robustness Assessment of Building Structures under Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Waggoner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, much research has focused on the behaviour of structures following the failure of a key structural component. Particular attention has been given to sudden column loss, though questions remain as to whether this event-independent scenario is relevant to actual extreme events such as explosion. Few studies have been conducted to assess the performance of floor slabs above a failed column, and the computational tools used have not been validated against experimental results. The research program presented in this paper investigates the adequacy of sudden column loss as an idealisation of local damage caused by realistic explosion events, and extends prior work by combining the development of accurate computational models with large-scale testing of a typical floor system in a prototypical steel-framed structure. The floor system consists of corrugated decking topped by a lightly reinforced concrete slab that is connected to the floor beams through shear studs. The design is consistent with typical building practices in the US. The first test has been completed, and subsequent tests are currently being planned. This paper addresses the importance of robustness design for localized damage and includes a detailed description regarding how the research program advances the current state of knowledge for assessing robustness of compositely constructed steel-framed buildings.

  16. Surface Treatment of Building Materials with Water Repellent Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Wittman, F.H.; Siemes, T.A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.G.W.

    1995-01-01

    Water repellent agents have been applied to proteet building materials and structural elements for thousands ofyears. Initially, natural products, such as oils and fats were used exclusively. More recently, synthetic organic compounds are being developed for special applications.

  17. MODERN BUILDING STRUCTURES USED FOR MILITARY PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Domnica STANCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the technical aspects of the spherical spatial structures, focusing on the tensegrity building systems used for military purpose. The spherical spatial structures have been studied and used since antiquity. Pythagoras, Plato and Euclid were conducted extensive research on the concept of such type of structures. Regular pentagon has properties related to the value of the golden section, intuitively used by great architects and engineers since ancient times. In the Middle Ages, Leonardo Da Vinci created spatial objects using proportions based on the golden number, and later R. B. Fuller made the famous geodesic domes. The structures proposed by the authors are based on concepts related to the "golden section", on studies made on the regular pentagon, on the spatial volumes able to be inscribed in spheres and on the tensegrity systems. The proposed structures present some advantages related to the ease of mounting, to the volume covered, to the resistance to the environmental factors (snow, wind, earthquake, and so on. The paper presents the conclusions of the investigations on the components of the spatial structures and on the outcomes of their use.

  18. Flat surfaces and stability structures

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We identify spaces of half-translation surfaces, equivalently complex curves with quadratic differential, with spaces of stability structures on Fukaya-type categories of punctured surfaces. This is achieved by new methods involving the complete classification of objects in these categories, which are defined in an elementary way. We also introduce a number of tools to deal with surfaces of infinite area, where structures similar to those in cluster algebra appear.

  19. Bioinspired structured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-01-24

    Nature has evolved objects with desired functionality using commonly found materials. Nature capitalizes on hierarchical structures to achieve functionality. The understanding of the functions provided by objects and processes found in nature can guide us to produce nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes with desirable functionality. Various natural objects which provide functionality of commercial interest have been characterized to understand how a natural object provides functionality. We have modeled and fabricated structures in the lab using nature's route and developed optimum structures. Once it is understood how nature does it, optimum structures have been fabricated using smart materials and fabrication techniques. This feature article provides an overview of four topics: Lotus effect, rose petal effect, gecko feet, and shark skin.

  20. Building unique surface structure on aramid fibers through a green layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to develop new high performance fibers with greatly improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifang; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Gu, Aijuan; Liang, Guozheng

    2017-07-01

    Combining green preparation and high performance is becoming the direction of sustainable development of materials. How to simultaneously overcome the two bottlenecks (poor surface activity and UV resistance) of aramid fibers (AFs) while improving thermal and mechanical properties through a green process is still an interesting issue with big challenge. Herein, new AFs (BL-AFs) were prepared by alternately self-assembling SiO2 and MgAlFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) on surfaces of AFs, successively, through a green layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique without using high temperature and organic solvent. The structures and properties of BL-AFs were systematically studied, which are controllable by adjusting the number of self-assembly cycle. The new fibers with three or more self-assembly cycles have remarkably improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance compared with AFs. Typically, with three self-assembly cycles, the initial degradation temperature and char yield of the new fiber (3BL-AF) are as high as 552.9 °C and 81.2%, about 92 °C and 25.2% higher than those of AF, respectively; after 168 h-UV irradiation, the retention of tensile performances of 3BL-AF fiber is as high as 91-95%, about 29-14% higher than that of AF, showing the best overall performances among all modified AFs prepared using a green technique reported so far. The origin behind the attractive performances of BL-AFs is revealed through correlating with structures of original and modified fibers. The excellent comprehensive properties of BL-AFs demonstrate that the green method provided in this study is facile and effective to completely solve the bottlenecks of aramid fibers, and developing higher performance organic fibers.

  1. Producing lasting amphiphobic building surfaces with self-cleaning properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facio, Dario S.; Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Mosquera, María J.

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, producing building surfaces that prevent water and oil uptake and which present self-cleaning activity is still a challenge. In this study, amphiphobic (superhydrophobic and oleophobic) building surfaces were successfully produced. A simple and low-cost process was developed, which is applicable to large-scale building surfaces, according the following procedure: (1) by spraying a SiO2 nanocomposite which produces a closely-packed nanoparticle uniform topography; (2) by functionalizing the previous coating with a fluorinated alkoxysilane, producing high hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. The formation of a Cassie-Baxter regime, in which air pockets could be trapped between the aggregates of particles, was confirmed by topographic study. The building surface demonstrated an excellent self-cleaning performance. Finally, the surface presented lasting superhydrophobicity with high stability against successive attachment/detachment force cycles. This high durability can be explained by the effective grafting of the silica nanocomposite coating skeleton with the substrate, and with the additional fluorinated coating produced by condensation reactions.

  2. 16α-Hydroxyfriedelin and 3-Oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene as Building Blocks: Crystal Structure and Hirshfeld Surfaces Decoding Intermolecular Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S. Corrêa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the importance of C–H⋯O intermolecular hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces in crystal packing stabilization of 16α-hydroxyfriedelin (1 and 3-oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene (2 is described. Compound 1 is a natural product isolated from the hexane extract of Salacia elliptica branches, whereas compound 2 is obtained from compound 1 after dehydration accompanied by methyl migration of C-17 to C-16. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments for 1 and 2 were carried out at 150 K, and the crystallographic study demonstrated that these compounds crystallize in noncentrosymmetric space groups, with 1 showing an orthorhombic P212121 space group and 2 a monoclinic P21 one. Compounds 1 and 2 are composed of five fused six-membered rings presenting a chair conformation, except for the central ring of 2, which adopts a half-chair conformation. In addition, the intra- and intermolecular parameters were studied using CCDC MOGUL analyses and Hirshfeld surfaces.

  3. Magnetic sensor for building structural vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alfonso; Morón, Carlos; Tremps, Enrique

    2014-02-05

    This paper shows a new displacement-to-frequency transducer based on the variation of a coil inductance when a magnetic core is partially or completely inserted inside. This transducer is based on a Colpitts oscillator due its low manufacturing price, behavior and immunity to noise. A tank circuit with a configuration in parallel was used because it can be employed at lower frequencies and it enables it to make a direct analysis. The sensor has a dynamic range equal to the length of the coil. The cores can exchange sensors (coils with its ferromagnetic core) using the same electronic measuring system. In this way, with only an electronic circuit, the core sensor determines the measurement range. The obtained resolution is higher than 1/100,000, and the sensor also allows the measurement and knowing in real time the effect of vibration, thermal expansion, referred overload movements, etc.., that can occur in the structural elements of a building.

  4. Magnetic Sensor for Building Structural Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso García

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a new displacement-to-frequency transducer based on the variation of a coil inductance when a magnetic core is partially or completely inserted inside. This transducer is based on a Colpitts oscillator due its low manufacturing price, behavior and immunity to noise. A tank circuit with a configuration in parallel was used because it can be employed at lower frequencies and it enables it to make a direct analysis. The sensor has a dynamic range equal to the length of the coil. The cores can exchange sensors (coils with its ferromagnetic core using the same electronic measuring system. In this way, with only an electronic circuit, the core sensor determines the measurement range. The obtained resolution is higher than 1/100,000, and the sensor also allows the measurement and knowing in real time the effect of vibration, thermal expansion, referred overload movements, etc.., that can occur in the structural elements of a building.

  5. Solar radiation calculation methodology for building exterior surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Flor, Francisco Jose Sanchez; Ortiz Cebolla, Rafael; Luis Molina Felix, Jose; Alvarez Dominguez, Servando [E S. Ingenieros. Grupo de Termotecnia, Avda. de los descubrimientos, s/n 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-11-01

    The present article shows a new methodology of calculation of the direct, diffuse and reflected incident solar radiation, in all type of surfaces, either in open urban environments or inside buildings. This methodology is applicable in problems related to solar access (space heating in buildings, shadowing of open spaces), solar gains (space cooling in buildings), and daylighting. Solar radiation is the most important contribution to the surface and volumetric energy balance during the daytime. Particularly, solar radiation is the main contributor to heat gains in buildings, especially in residential buildings, where internal gains are very low. Utilization of daylight in buildings may result in significant savings in electricity consumption for lighting while creating a higher quality indoor environment. Additional energy savings may also be realized during cooling season, when reduction of internal heat gains due to electric lighting results in a corresponding reduction of cooling energy consumption. The analysis of the existing calculation methods and proposed in the scientific bibliography for the calculation of the solar radiation in problems of solar access in winter, solar gains in summer, and daylighting, takes us to the necessity of outlining a new and complete methodology. This new methodology is applicable to all these problems with a great accuracy and calculation speed. (author)

  6. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, G.

    1999-12-16

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements.

  7. Building footprint extraction from digital surface models using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, Ksenia; Cui, Shiyong; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Two-dimensional building footprints are a basis for many applications: from cartography to three-dimensional building models generation. Although, many methodologies have been proposed for building footprint extraction, this topic remains an open research area. Neural networks are able to model the complex relationships between the multivariate input vector and the target vector. Based on these abilities we propose a methodology using neural networks and Markov Random Fields (MRF) for automatic building footprint extraction from normalized Digital Surface Model (nDSM) and satellite images within urban areas. The proposed approach has mainly two steps. In the first step, the unary terms are learned for the MRF energy function by a four-layer neural network. The neural network is learned on a large set of patches consisting of both nDSM and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Then prediction is performed to calculate the unary terms that are used in the MRF. In the second step, the energy function is minimized using a maxflow algorithm, which leads to a binary building mask. The building extraction results are compared with available ground truth. The comparison illustrates the efficiency of the proposed algorithm which can extract approximately 80% of buildings from nDSM with high accuracy.

  8. Direct Georeferencing of Uav Data Based on Simple Building Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2016-06-01

    for the LSTM application at low cost. Our results show that image orientation calculations from building structure essentially improve the accuracy of direct georeferencing procedure adjusted also by the GCPs. To gain three dimensional (3D) point clouds in local coordinate system, an extraction procedure has been performed by using Agisoft Photo Scan. Subsequently, a Digital Surface Model (DSM) generated from the acquired data is the main output for LSTM that has to be assessed using standard field and conventional mapping workflows. For an appraisal, our DSM is compared directly with a similar DSM obtained by conventional airborne data acquisition using Leica RCD-30 metric camera as well as Trimble Phase One (P65+) camera. The comparison reveals that our approach can achieve meter level accuracy both in planimetric and vertical dimensions.

  9. Building Points - MO 2012 Stoddard Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  10. Building Points - MO 2012 Dunklin Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  11. Building Points - MO 2012 Scott Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  12. Building Points - MO 2012 Pemiscot Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  13. Building Points - MO 2012 New Madrid Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  14. Building Points - MO 2012 Mississippi Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  15. IRT in the investigation of buildings and historic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdelidis, Nicolas P.; Moropoulou, Antonia

    2004-04-01

    Although, the efficiency of IRT (infrared thermography) as a NDT & E technique in the literature it is well documented, in the investigation of historic structures, where a restoration or conservation treatment can cause irreversible damage to the structure, it is considered to be of most importance. IRT is a non-destructive investigation technique that can be widely used due to the outstanding advantages that offers in a number of applications and specifically in the assessment of structural materials and techniques. In the present work, both IRT approaches, passive and active, were used, depending on the application, for the investigation of traditional-historical materials and structures. IRT was applied on restoration and traditional-historic materials and structures for the evaluation of conservation interventions (materials and techniques) concerning cleaning of architectural surfaces, restoration of masonries by repair mortars, as well as the disclosure of tesserae on plastered mosaic surfaces. For this reason, diagnostic studies on historical sites and structures took place. Wherever necessary, the emissivity values of the investigated materials were taken into account, after their determination in the laboratory on representative samples. Furthermore, in order to obtain useful information from the IRT surveys various properties (thermal, optical, physical) of the examined materials were taken into account. The outcome of this work provides strong evidence that IRT is an effective technique for the evaluation of historic buildings and sites.

  16. Utilization of structural steel in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Muiris C; Allwood, Julian M

    2014-08-01

    Over one-quarter of steel produced annually is used in the construction of buildings. Making this steel causes carbon dioxide emissions, which climate change experts recommend be reduced by half in the next 37 years. One option to achieve this is to design and build more efficiently, still delivering the same service from buildings but using less steel to do so. To estimate how much steel could be saved from this option, 23 steel-framed building designs are studied, sourced from leading UK engineering firms. The utilization of each beam is found and buildings are analysed to find patterns. The results for over 10 000 beams show that average utilization is below 50% of their capacity. The primary reason for this low value is 'rationalization'-providing extra material to reduce labour costs. By designing for minimum material rather than minimum cost, steel use in buildings could be drastically reduced, leading to an equivalent reduction in 'embodied' carbon emissions.

  17. DIRECT GEOREFERENCING OF UAV DATA BASED ON SIMPLE BUILDING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tampubolon

    2016-06-01

    effective tool for the LSTM application at low cost. Our results show that image orientation calculations from building structure essentially improve the accuracy of direct georeferencing procedure adjusted also by the GCPs. To gain three dimensional (3D point clouds in local coordinate system, an extraction procedure has been performed by using Agisoft Photo Scan. Subsequently, a Digital Surface Model (DSM generated from the acquired data is the main output for LSTM that has to be assessed using standard field and conventional mapping workflows. For an appraisal, our DSM is compared directly with a similar DSM obtained by conventional airborne data acquisition using Leica RCD-30 metric camera as well as Trimble Phase One (P65+ camera. The comparison reveals that our approach can achieve meter level accuracy both in planimetric and vertical dimensions.

  18. Structural Integrity Assessment Using Laser Measured Surface Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    structures. Figure 2. (Left) Experimental arrangement for plaster wall assessments at the U.S. Capitol Building showing the SLDV monitoring system, a... termite -like damage to the wood. Broadband SLDV scans were obtained across the available surface of the structure providing dynamic displacement...Figure 2. (Left) Experimental arrangement for plaster wall assessments at the U.S. Capitol Building showing the SLDV monitoring system, a shaker

  19. INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR ABSORPTANCE OF BUILDING EXTERNAL SURFACES FROM HEAT FLUX POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral ÖZEL

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solar absorptance of external surfaces of buildings has been numerically investigated from the heat gain and losses point of view. For this purpose, external surface solar absorptance was icreased from 0 to 1with an ratio of 0.1 and, for the summer and winter conditions, heat fluxs was calculated by considering orientations of the wall and its roof for brick and concrete structure materials. Besides, external surface absorptance was assumed as 0.2, 0.5 and 0.9, respectively. Than, heat gain and losses were calculated to insulation thickness increasing on the outdoor surface of wall. Results obtained were presented as graphics

  20. Spectral Signatures of Surface Materials in Pig Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, GuoQiang; Strøm, Jan; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    Manual cleaning of pig production buildings based on high-pressure water cleaners is unappealing to workers, because it is tedious and health threatening. To replace manual cleaning, a few cleaning robots have been commercialised. With no cleanliness sensor available, the operation of these robots...... spectral bands for each type of the materials, in which the spectral signals can be used for discrimination of dirty and clean condition of the surfaces. (c) 2006 IAgrE. All rights reserved Published by Elsevier Ltd...

  1. An Efficient Seismic Analysis Procedure for Torsionally Coupled Multistory Buildings Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELEBİ, Erkan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a simplified methodology of analysis for the seismic response of 3-dimensional irregular high-rise buildings on a rigid footing resting on the surface of a linear elastic half-space is formulated. An efficient method using modal decomposition and carried out in the frequency domain by using the fast Fourier transform to obtain the structural response of torsionally asymmetric buildings, including soil-structure interaction effects, is presented. Applying this algorithm...

  2. Numerical modelling of ground-borne noise and vibration in buildings due to surface rail traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, P.; Degrande, G.; Augusztinovicz, F.

    2007-04-01

    This paper deals with the numerical computation of the structural and acoustic response of a building to an incoming wave field generated by high-speed surface railway traffic. The source model consists of a moving vehicle on a longitudinally invariant track, coupled to a layered ground modelled with a boundary element formulation. The receiver model is based on a substructuring formulation and consists of a boundary element model of the soil and a finite element model of the structure. The acoustic response of the building's rooms is computed by means of a spectral finite element formulation. The paper investigates the structural and acoustic response of a multi-story portal frame office building up to a frequency of 150 Hz to the passage of a Thalys high-speed train at constant velocity. The isolation performance of three different vibration countermeasures: a floating-floor, a room-in-room, and base-isolation, are examined.

  3. Utilization of structural steel in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Muiris C.; Allwood, Julian M.

    2014-01-01

    Over one-quarter of steel produced annually is used in the construction of buildings. Making this steel causes carbon dioxide emissions, which climate change experts recommend be reduced by half in the next 37 years. One option to achieve this is to design and build more efficiently, still delivering the same service from buildings but using less steel to do so. To estimate how much steel could be saved from this option, 23 steel-framed building designs are studied, sourced from leading UK engineering firms. The utilization of each beam is found and buildings are analysed to find patterns. The results for over 10 000 beams show that average utilization is below 50% of their capacity. The primary reason for this low value is ‘rationalization’—providing extra material to reduce labour costs. By designing for minimum material rather than minimum cost, steel use in buildings could be drastically reduced, leading to an equivalent reduction in ‘embodied’ carbon emissions. PMID:25104911

  4. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities.

  5. Earthquake Surface Fault Rupture Interaction with Building Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Oettle, Nicolas Karl

    2013-01-01

    Recent earthquakes have provided numerous examples of the devastating effects of earthquake surface fault rupture on structures. Several major cities are built in areas containing active faults that can break the ground surface (e.g., Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Francisco, and Seattle). Along with the often spectacular observations of damage, examples of satisfactory performance of structures were also observed. These examples of satisfactory performance indicate that similar ...

  6. Spectral Signatures of Surface Materials in Pig Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, GuoQiang; Strøm, Jan; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    and after high-pressure water cleaning. The spectral signatures of the surface materials and dirt attached to the surfaces showed that it is possible to make discrimination and hence to classify areas that are visually clean. When spectral bands 450, 600, 700 and 800 nm are chosen, there are at least two...... the cleaning process and to minimise the amount of water and electricity consumed. This research is aimed at utilising a spectral imaging method for cleanliness detection. Consequently, information on the reflectance of building materials and contamination in different spectral ranges is important...... in the investigation. Reflectance data were sampled under controlled lighting conditions using a spectrometer communicating with a portable computer. The measurements were performed in a laboratory with materials used in a pig house for 4-5 weeks. The spectral data were collected for the surfaces before, during...

  7. Wind-resistant studies on tall buildings and structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces some aspects of wind-resistant studies of our research team on tall buildings and structures. Wind tunnel tests were carried out on 27 typical tall building models by using wind pressure scanning and HFFB techniques. The characteristics of wind pressures and forces acting on these buildings were analyzed. Some results have been adopted in a Shanghai code for structural design of steel tall buildings. Interference effects on wind forces and wind pressures among two and three tall buildings were experimentally investigated with about 10000 testing conditions. Regression analyses of the interference factors under different parameter conditions were made and the main regression formulas are presented. Theoretical study on equivalent static wind loads of tall buildings and structures are then introduced. Especially,a new concept of "mode coupling factor" and a modified SRSS method for wind response and equivalent static wind load of complicated tall buildings and structures with consideration of multi mode contributions and their coupling effects are presented. Finally,practical applications of wind-resistant studies on tall building and structures,taking the Guangzhou New TV Tower as an example,are presented.

  8. Structure of the moon's surface

    CERN Document Server

    Fielder, Gilbert

    1961-01-01

    Structure of the Moon's Surface aims to assemble and marshal relevant matter, and to produce a largely unprejudiced text which brings lunar studies up to date and stresses the importance of certain features of the Moon which have frequently been disregarded in the past, largely because of lack of knowledge about them. The book contains 14 chapters organized into two parts. Part I reviews and summarizes important physical problems. These include the liberations of the moon; height determinations of points of the moon's surface; the figure of the moon; and the moon's temperature and atmosphere.

  9. Relations between constructive peculiarities and structural behavior in Venice buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Doglioni, F.

    2012-01-01

    Here we are synthetically describing some constructive peculiarities of Venice civil buildings, analyzing the relation with the features of their structural decay and behavior in the long run. We suppose Venetian buildings, especially those parts which are conceived to suit the lagoon environment, to have undergone an evolution made of some adjustments, which were based on the observation of damages in previous buildings. That is we suppose ancient builders to rely on their awareness of the b...

  10. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  11. Radiation exchange between persons and surfaces for building energy simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorre, Mette Havgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Dreau, Jerome Le

    2015-01-01

    intersection points with the edges of the surface, making the method applicable to rooms with complex geometry. The method for calculating view factors is robust and applicable to building energy simulation tools. Calculation time can be long depending on the complexity of geometry, grid-size and the choice...... energy simulations. The method calculates view factors by numerical integration of projected area factor. Over time the projected area factor of a person has been simplified by geometrical shapes. These shapes were compared with more complex equations on precision and calculation time. The same was done...

  12. Iterative model-building, structure refinement, and density modification with the PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, England; Terwilliger, Thomas; Terwilliger, T.C.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf Wilhelm; Afonine, P.V.; Moriarty, N.W.; Zwart, P.H.; Hung, L.-W.; Read, R.J.; Adams, P.D.

    2007-04-29

    The PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard is a highly automated tool for iterative model-building, structure refinement and density modification using RESOLVE or TEXTAL model-building, RESOLVE statistical density modification, and phenix.refine structure refinement. Recent advances in the AutoBuild Wizard and phenix.refine include automated detection and application of NCS from models as they are built, extensive model completion algorithms, and automated solvent molecule picking. Model completion algorithms in the AutoBuild Wizard include loop-building, crossovers between chains in different models of a structure, and side-chain optimization. The AutoBuild Wizard has been applied to a set of 48 structures at resolutions ranging from 1.1 {angstrom} to 3.2 {angstrom}, resulting in a mean R-factor of 0.24 and a mean free R factor of 0.29. The R-factor of the final model is dependent on the quality of the starting electron density, and relatively independent of resolution.

  13. Building Investigation: Material or Structural Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof M.Z.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Structures such as roof trusses will not suddenly collapse without ample warning such as significant deflection, tilting etc. if the designer manages to avoid the cause of structural failure at the material level and the structural level. This paper outlines some principles and procedures of PDCA circle and QC tools which can show some clues of structural problems in terms of material or structural performance

  14. Building Detection Using Aerial Images and Digital Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, J.; Cui, S.; Reinartz, P.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper a method for building detection in aerial images based on variational inference of logistic regression is proposed. It consists of three steps. In order to characterize the appearances of buildings in aerial images, an effective bag-of-Words (BoW) method is applied for feature extraction in the first step. In the second step, a classifier of logistic regression is learned using these local features. The logistic regression can be trained using different methods. In this paper we adopt a fully Bayesian treatment for learning the classifier, which has a number of obvious advantages over other learning methods. Due to the presence of hyper prior in the probabilistic model of logistic regression, approximate inference methods have to be applied for prediction. In order to speed up the inference, a variational inference method based on mean field instead of stochastic approximation such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo is applied. After the prediction, a probabilistic map is obtained. In the third step, a fully connected conditional random field model is formulated and the probabilistic map is used as the data term in the model. A mean field inference is utilized in order to obtain a binary building mask. A benchmark data set consisting of aerial images and digital surfaced model (DSM) released by ISPRS for 2D semantic labeling is used for performance evaluation. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Monitoring of Building Structure by Tiltsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alojz Kopáčik

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about the dynamic monitoring of stability (tilt measurement of bearing pillar of high-rise building using the electronic measuring system. The electronic measuring system consists of Libela 2800 tilt sensor, input/output device for the AE 2DN tilt sensor, measuring amplifier and also the Spider8 analog/digital converter and the registration equipment (notebook. The basic part of uniaxial tilt sensor creates a frame, on which is among damping plates hung a pendulum (ferromagnetic kernel. The tilt value is determined on a principle of electromagnetic induction by changing the position of ferromagnetic kernel in the reel. The range of pendulum movement is ± 2,5 mm/m and the accuracy of the tilt determination is 0,001 mm/m. The monitored building represents, from the point of constructional view, a ferro-concrete rectangular sceleton, which consists of vertical bearing pillars, on which are guyed longitudinal and transverse girders. The building ground-plan is rectangular with the dimensions of 75 m (distance and 12 m (width. The building has two underground and six above the ground floors with constructional high of 3,40 m. Whole highth of the above ground part of building is 20,4 m. The pillar tilt was measured in the transverse direction of the building at the level of the second floor using the Libela 2800 electronic sensor. The sensor was situated on the metallic console (L-profile, which was assembled on a lateral side of the circuit bearing pillar at the highth of 8,3 m above the ground level. Together with the tilt monitoring, the outside air temperature in the close area of pillar was measured. The tilt measurement was carried out continuously for 168 hours with the recording frequency of 1 Hz (1 measurement/second. The file of the measured data with 603 950 records was reduced to the file with 1006 records, which corresponds to the record of the every tenth minute. The measured tilt values represent from the

  16. PS buildings : reinforced concrete structure for shielding "bridge" pillar

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1956-01-01

    The PS ring traverses the region between the experimental halls South and North (buildings Nos 150 and 151) under massive bridge-shaped concrete beams. This pillar stands at the S-W end of the structure.

  17. Microclimatic conditions at the external surface of building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kragh, M.K.

    1998-12-31

    The project is described, the motivation for the research and the microclimate is defined in relation to both building physics research and applications. Air temperatur, air humidity, solar radiation and air velocity are briefly considered, whilst driving rain and long-wave radiation are described in more detail. Convective heat transfer and surface coefficients are discussed, although they are not microclimatic factors, merely resulting from combinations of such factors. They are included as they are important in relation to transfer of heat and moisture at the surface of the building envelope. Driving rain measurement is the main area of interest, including development of measurement equipment. Long-wave irradiation is measured and compared with empirical formulae from the literature. Window convection heat transfer is another main area of interest. Nocturnal convective heat transfer from a double pane glazing is studied and measurement principles are discussed. Finally, a compilation of meteorological data for hygrothermal simulations, including estimation of driving rain, is described. System error estimation in relation to the window convection measurements, design notes on an apparatus for external convection measurement, formulae for conversion of relative humitity and dry-bulb temperature into dew point temperature. (EG) 66 refs.

  18. Submittal of SWMU Assessment Report for Building 9960 Surface Discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotson, Patrick Wells [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-purpose engineering and science laboratory owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration and managed and operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. This Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) Assessment Report (SAR) for the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM), Coyote Test Field, Building 9960 Surface Discharge, has been prepared in accordance with Section V of the Compliance Order on Consent (the Consent Order) between the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), DOE, and Sandia (NMED April 2004). The DOE and Sandia formally notified the NMED of this newly identified or suspected SWMU or Area of Concern (AOC) by letter dated December 9, 2014. This SAR is being submitted in accordance with the NMED Hazardous Waste Bureau (HWB) letter dated February 16, 2015 letter (Kieling February 2015). This SAR presents the available information for the Building 9960 Surface Discharge, including location, designation of type and function, a general description, the operational dates, waste characteristics, and a summary of existing analytical wastewater and soil data

  19. Learning surface molecular structures via machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziatdinov, Maxim; Maksov, Artem; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2017-08-01

    Recent advances in high resolution scanning transmission electron and scanning probe microscopies have allowed researchers to perform measurements of materials structural parameters and functional properties in real space with a picometre precision. In many technologically relevant atomic and/or molecular systems, however, the information of interest is distributed spatially in a non-uniform manner and may have a complex multi-dimensional nature. One of the critical issues, therefore, lies in being able to accurately identify (`read out') all the individual building blocks in different atomic/molecular architectures, as well as more complex patterns that these blocks may form, on a scale of hundreds and thousands of individual atomic/molecular units. Here we employ machine vision to read and recognize complex molecular assemblies on surfaces. Specifically, we combine Markov random field model and convolutional neural networks to classify structural and rotational states of all individual building blocks in molecular assembly on the metallic surface visualized in high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. We show how the obtained full decoding of the system allows us to directly construct a pair density function—a centerpiece in analysis of disorder-property relationship paradigm—as well as to analyze spatial correlations between multiple order parameters at the nanoscale, and elucidate reaction pathway involving molecular conformation changes. The method represents a significant shift in our way of analyzing atomic and/or molecular resolved microscopic images and can be applied to variety of other microscopic measurements of structural, electronic, and magnetic orders in different condensed matter systems.

  20. Push-Over Analysis for Concrete Structures of Tall Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杰江; 张佩军; 吕西林; 容柏生

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, push-over analysis for tall concrete structures was made and a corresponding computer program was given.Several kinds of elements in the program were considered to meet the demand of tall buildings with complex structural type. These elements included beam-column element for beams and columns, single slice wall element and three vertical line element for walls, and tube-wall element for tubes. Computational example for verifying the models indicates that the result obtained by this method is identical with a well-known test result and the program can be used to search for the full process of structural reaction, even the softening stage of the structure. With this push-over analysis method, an actual tall building with complex structural type was analyzed, and the result has been put into practice of the structural design of the building.

  1. Structural Simulations and Conservation Analysis -Historic Building Information Model (HBIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dore

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the current findings to date of the Historic Building Information Model (HBIM of the Four Courts in Dublin are presented. The Historic Building Information Model (HBIM forms the basis for both structural and conservation analysis to measure the impact of war damage which still impacts on the building. The laser scan survey was carried out in the summer of 2014 of the internal and external structure. After registration and processing of the laser scan survey, the HBIM was created of the damaged section of the building and is presented as two separate workflows in this paper. The first is the model created from historic data, the second a procedural and segmented model developed from laser scan survey of the war damaged drum and dome. From both models structural damage and decay simulations will be developed for documentation and conservation analysis.

  2. Sonic-boom-induced building structure responses including damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, B. L.; Mayes, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Concepts of sonic-boom pressure loading of building structures and the associated responses are reviewed, and results of pertinent theoretical and experimental research programs are summarized. The significance of sonic-boom load time histories, including waveshape effects, are illustrated with the aid of simple structural elements such as beams and plates. Also included are discussions of the significance of such other phenomena as three-dimensional loading effects, air cavity coupling, multimodal responses, and structural nonlinearities. Measured deflection, acceleration, and strain data from laboratory models and full-scale building tests are summarized, and these data are compared, where possible, with predicted values. Damage complaint and claim experience due both to controlled and uncontrolled supersonic flights over communities are summarized with particular reference to residential, commercial, and historic buildings. Sonic-boom-induced building responses are compared with those from other impulsive loadings due to natural and cultural events and from laboratory simulation tests.

  3. Soil Structure Interaction between Two Adjacent Buildings under Earthquake Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Yahyai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In some cases, tall buildings are located in geotechnically unsuitable places, due to their high ratio of height to width; there is risk of uplift and other effects such as overturning and reduction structure serviceability during earthquake. This research is aimed to evaluate the effect of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI on seismic behavior of two adjacent 32 story buildings such as time period, base shear and displacements. The interaction effects are investigated for variable distance between the two buildings. Three types of soil such as soft clay, sandy gravel and compacted sandy gravel are considered for this study. The result obtained that the interaction effect increases time period of both buildings base shear and lateral displacement of the structures increases.

  4. Building structure-activity insights through patent mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Meihua; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Guzman-Perez, Angel; Filipski, Kevin J

    2012-11-01

    One gap in current patent-mining practice is the lack of tools to build SAR knowledge. Here, we report a novel technique that enabled us to derive useful SAR information from the exemplified structures of a series of patents. In our approach, exemplified chemical structures were extracted from patent documents. They were grouped into structural series based on similarity and binding mode, after which the R-group table was generated. By analyzing R-group usages over time, we were able to build insights into SAR of a structural series, even though the biological activities were not available.

  5. Folded Plate Structures as Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Buelow, Peter von; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    This paper treats applications of cross-laminated timber (CLT) in structural systems for folded façade solutions. Previous work on CLT-based systems for folded roofs has shown a widening range of structural possibilities to develop timber-based shells. Geometric and material properties play, howe...

  6. Structural response of steel high rise buildings to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Due to the significant vertical elevation and complexity of the structural system, high rise buildings may suffer from the effects of fire more than other structures. For this reason, in addition to evacuation strategies and active fire protection, a careful consideration of structural response...... to fire is also very important. In this context, it is of interest to investigate the characteristics of the structural system that could possibly reduce local damages or mitigate the progression of failures in case of fire. In this paper, a steel high rise building is taken as case study and the response...... of the building is investigated up to the crisis of the structure with respect to a standard fire in a lower and in a higher storey: the comparison of the fire induced failures at the different height allows highlighting the role played in the resulting collapse mechanisms by the beam-column stiffness ratio...

  7. A Wireless Monitoring System for Cracks on the Surface of Reactor Containment Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianguo; Xu, Yaming; Zhang, Tao

    2016-06-14

    Structural health monitoring with wireless sensor networks has been increasingly popular in recent years because of the convenience. In this paper, a real-time monitoring system for cracks on the surface of reactor containment buildings is presented. Customized wireless sensor networks platforms are designed and implemented with sensors especially for crack monitoring, which include crackmeters and temperature detectors. Software protocols like route discovery, time synchronization and data transfer are developed to satisfy the requirements of the monitoring system and stay simple at the same time. Simulation tests have been made to evaluate the performance of the system before full scale deployment. The real-life deployment of the crack monitoring system is carried out on the surface of reactor containment building in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station during the in-service pressure test with 30 wireless sensor nodes.

  8. Folded Plate Structures as Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Buelow, Peter von; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    This paper treats applications of cross-laminated timber (CLT) in structural systems for folded façade solutions. Previous work on CLT-based systems for folded roofs has shown a widening range of structural possibilities to develop timber-based shells. Geometric and material properties play......, however, an important role also for the enclosure, and climate and conceptual design procedures have been utilised to include these issues in early design phases. A current architectural trend proposes increasing complexity of the façades and in this context the paper proposes the application of folded...

  9. Prediction of Noise Transmission in Lightweight Building Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens

    tool to predict the flanking transmission of air-borne and structure borne sound already at the design stage. However, lightweight building structures typically do not meet the requirements for ideal SEA subsystems and, therefore, applying the EN 12354 standard to lightweight building structures may...... papers are carried out as parametric studies in the commercial FE package ABAQUS. Finally, an experimental part, that focuses on the uncertainty and variation in wooden junctions, is included. Ten nominally identical plate/beam T-junctions are tested using experimental modal analysis, and the results...

  10. Forensic Building: Deterioration and Defect in Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic building is needed to examine the affected building structure components to assess the structural integrity. This paper highlights some of the studies involved on affected concrete structures in various building types where the non-destructive test (NDT and destructive tests. The structural integrity can be evaluated based on the extent of deterioration from the experimental results for instance the cause of the corrode reinforcements was due to inadequate concrete cover, whereas the failure of the concrete wall was due to structures’ under design which leads to the collapse of the wall. The condition of the floor slab that experience vibration was assessed from the Laser Doppler Vibrator test (LDV. Based on the test results the peak acceleration of the particular floor slab is higher.

  11. Structuring oil by protein building blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Auke

    2017-01-01

    Over the recent years, structuring of oil into ‘organogels’ or ‘oleogels’ has gained much attention amongst colloid-, material,- and food scientists. Potentially, these oleogels could be used as an alternative for saturated- and trans fats in food products. To develop oleogel

  12. Architectural Surfaces and Structures from Circular Arcs

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, the popularity of freeform shapes in contemporary architecture poses new challenges to digital design. One of them is the process of rationalization, i.e. to make freeform skins or structures affordable to manufacture, which draws the most attention from geometry researchers. In this thesis, we aim to realize this process with simple geometric primitives, circular arcs. We investigate architectural surfaces and structures consisting of circular arcs. Our focus is lying on how to employ them nicely and repetitively in architectural design, in order to decrease the cost in manufacturing. Firstly, we study Darboux cyclides, which are algebraic surfaces of order ≤ 4. We provide a computational tool to identify all families of circles on a given cyclide based on the spherical model of M ̈obius geometry. Practical ways to design cyclide patches that pass through certain inputs are presented. In particular, certain triples of circle families on Darboux cyclides may be suitably arranged as 3-webs. We provide a complete classification of all possible 3-webs of circles on Darboux cyclides. We then investigate the circular arc snakes, which are smooth sequences of circu- lar arcs. We evolve the snakes such that their curvature, as a function of arc length, remains unchanged. The evolution of snakes is utilized to approximate given surfaces by circular arcs or to generated freeform shapes, and it is realized by a 2-step pro- cess. More interestingly, certain 6-arc snake with boundary constraints can produce a smooth self motion, which can be employed to build flexible structures. Another challenging topic is approximating smooth freeform skins with simple panels. We contribute to this problem area by approximating a negatively-curved 5 surface with a smooth union of rational bilinear patches. We provide a proof for vertex consistency of hyperbolic nets using the CAGD approach of the rational B ́ezier form. Moreover, we use Darboux transformations for the

  13. Surface structure of AU3Cu(001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckstein, G.A.; Maupai, S.; Dakkouri, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The surface morphology, composition, and structure of Au3Cu(001) as determined by scanning tunneling microscopy and surface x-ray diffraction are presented. Atomic resolution STM images reveal distinctive geometric features. The analysis of the surface x-ray diffraction data provides clear evidence...... for the surface structure. [S0163-1829(99)04535-X]....

  14. Controlled evaporative cooling on a superhydrophilic surface: building a green wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Suin; Shin, Sangwoo; Meggers, Forrest; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Stone, Howard A.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a way to design of an evaporative cooling device using continuous water flow on a superhydrophilic surface. Continuous flow helps prevent contaminant fouling on the surface of the cooler, which is a major challenge for conventional evaporative (swamp) coolers. A superhydrophilic surface leads to a reduced coolant flow rate, allowing for a maximum ratio of evaporative heat transfer to coolant thermal mass. Also, a staggered structure increases the surface area of the thin film flow of water which results in higher cooling efficiency. We performed both experimental and theoretical studies on the temperature change in the thin film flow of water. By keeping the water film thickness below 100 μm, 5 K of temperature drop in the device was achieved. The cooling device can be manufactured using conventional cost-effective processes, offering practical applications in energy-efficient buildings.

  15. General problems of technical diagnosis of non-metal building structures in explotable buildings and erections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Shtengel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available For successful realization of survey it is necessary to solve varioius technical and organizational problems. Each of them influence on completeness and reliability of information and thus, objectivity of conclusions about real state of structures and building as a whole, and also forecasting of its further exploitation. In the article the classification and brief analysis of these problems is given.

  16. On real structures on rigid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikov, Vik S [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Kharlamov, V M [Institut de Recherche Matematique Avanee Universite Louis Pasteur et CNRS 7 rue Rene Descartes (France)

    2002-02-28

    We construct examples of rigid surfaces (that is, surfaces whose deformation class consists of a unique surface) with a particular behaviour with respect to real structures. In one example the surface has no real structure. In another it has a unique real structure, which is not maximal with respect to the Smith-Thom inequality. These examples give negative answers to the following problems: the existence of real surfaces in each deformation class of complex surfaces, and the existence of maximal real surfaces in every complex deformation class that contains real surfaces. Moreover, we prove that there are no real surfaces among surfaces of general type with p{sub g}=q=0 and K{sup 2}=9. These surfaces also provide new counterexamples to the 'Dif = Def' problem.

  17. FEM Updating of the Heritage Court Building Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventura, C. E.; Brincker, Rune; Dascotte, E.

    2001-01-01

    . The starting model of the structure was developed from the information provided in the design documentation of the building. Different parameters of the model were then modified using an automated procedure to improve the correlation between measured and calculated modal parameters. Careful attention......This paper describes results of a model updating study conducted on a 15-storey reinforced concrete shear core building. The output-only modal identification results obtained from ambient vibration measurements of the building were used to update a finite element model of the structure...... was placed to the selection of the parameters to be modified by the updating software in order to ensure that the necessary changes to the model were realistic and physically realisable and meaningful. The paper highlights the model updating process and provides an assessment of the usefulness of using...

  18. Analysis of the structural design process of the adaptive reuse of building structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasterkamp, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the field of structural building engineering there is a market shift taking place as a result of the growing number of buildings that are listed as cultural heritage, secularization, the economic situation and the increasing office vacancy rate in Europe and the US. More and more structural engin

  19. Localization of Pathology on Complex Architecture Building Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiropoulos, A. A.; Lakakis, K. N.; Mouza, V. K.

    2017-02-01

    The technology of 3D laser scanning is considered as one of the most common methods for heritage documentation. The point clouds that are being produced provide information of high detail, both geometric and thematic. There are various studies that examine techniques of the best exploitation of this information. In this study, an algorithm of pathology localization, such as cracks and fissures, on complex building surfaces is being tested. The algorithm makes use of the points' position in the point cloud and tries to distinguish them in two groups-patterns; pathology and non-pathology. The extraction of the geometric information that is being used for recognizing the pattern of the points is being accomplished via Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in user-specified neighborhoods in the whole point cloud. The implementation of PCA leads to the definition of the normal vector at each point of the cloud. Two tests that operate separately examine both local and global geometric criteria among the points and conclude which of them should be categorized as pathology. The proposed algorithm was tested on parts of the Gazi Evrenos Baths masonry, which are located at the city of Giannitsa at Northern Greece.

  20. Ambient Response Analysis of the Heritage Court Tower Building Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Heritage Court Building structure is presented. The work is a part of a blind test organised by Professor Carlos Ventura, University of British Columbia. The response data were analysed using two different techniques: a non-parametric based on Fre...

  1. Wind-induced sound on buildings and structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploemen, J.C.F.; Nijs, L.; Pleysier, J.A.; Schipper, H.R.

    2011-01-01

    Wind flow around buildings and structures has led to annoying noise levels at several occasions, especially in cases where tonal sound was produced. The human hearing is equipped to distinguish tonal or pulsating sound from random noise patterns, causing tonal or pulsating sound to be perceived as

  2. Structure Building Predicts Grades in College Psychology and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M.; Daniel, David B.; Jensen, Jamie L.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Marsh, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Knowing what skills underlie college success can allow students, teachers, and universities to identify and to help at-risk students. One skill that may underlie success across a variety of subject areas is structure building, the ability to create mental representations of narratives (Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990). We tested if…

  3. Structure Building Predicts Grades in College Psychology and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M.; Daniel, David B.; Jensen, Jamie L.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Marsh, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Knowing what skills underlie college success can allow students, teachers, and universities to identify and to help at-risk students. One skill that may underlie success across a variety of subject areas is structure building, the ability to create mental representations of narratives (Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990). We tested if…

  4. The Meaning of Surface Structure and Deep Structure to Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗源

    2014-01-01

    Surface structure and deep structure first come up with by Chomsky is an innovative action in linguistics. Despite the arguments involved around surface structure and deep structure, it is instructional to English-Chinese translation to some degree and its scientific connotation is meaningful to deepen language study and construct related disciplinary both in theory and practice.

  5. STRATA AND SURFACE SUBSIDENCE CONTROL IN STRIP-PARTIAL MINING UNDER BUILDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立新; 王金庄; 赵学胜; 李邦三

    1994-01-01

    This paper systematically expounds the history and present situation of the research & application of strip-partial mining at home and abroad. The prospect of using strip-partial mining mcthod to mine under buildings (structures) at the present situation of market economy is also expounded here. Strata & surface subsldcnce mechanism of strip-partiai mining, the optimization of the width of unit goal & coal pillar as weal as the calculation method of surface subsidenoc pridiction based on Holding-Plate Control Theory and Coal Pillar Long-term Stability, which are our research achivements in recent years about strata & surface subsidence control in strip-partial mining, are the main points introduced here.

  6. Analysis of the sensible heat flux from the exterior surface of buildings using time sequential thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyano, Akira; Asano, Kohichi; Kanamaru, Takehisa

    In this study, the distribution of surface temperature on the surface of two buildings having different characteristics was measured using a thermal infrared camera. Measurements were made in the summer, the period in Japan during which heat flux from buildings is of major interest, and again in the winter for comparison purposes. The heat characteristics of each building were obtained throughout the day by time-sequential thermography (TST), and the surface temperature of each physical element was classified according to temperature, shape, material and position. When the temperature of a surface could not be determined by an infrared camera mounted on the top of a building or a pole, temperature measurements were made using a hand-held IR camera. In addition, the sensible heat flux from each surface was calculated using TST and the surface area of each element as calculated from blueprints of the buildings.

  7. Locally homogeneous structures on Hopf surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    McKay, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We study holomorphic locally homogeneous geometric structures modelled on line bundles over the projective line. We classify these structures on primary Hopf surfaces. We write out the developing map and holonomy morphism of each of these structures explicitly on each primary Hopf surface.

  8. Tuning Wettability and Adhesion of Structured Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badge, Ila

    Structured surfaces with feature size ranging from a few micrometers down to nanometers are of great interest in the applications such as design of anti-wetting surfaces, tissue engineering, microfluidics, filtration, microelectronic devices, anti-reflective coatings and reversible adhesives. A specific surface property demands particular roughness geometry along with suitable surface chemistry. Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) is a technique that offers control over surface chemistry without significantly affecting the roughness and thus, provides a flexibility to alter surface chemistry selectively for a given structured surface. In this study, we have used PECVD to fine tune wetting and adhesion properties. The research presented focuses on material design aspects as well as the fundamental understanding of wetting and adhesion phenomena of structured surfaces. In order to study the effect of surface roughness and surface chemistry on the surface wettability independently, we developed a model surface by combination of colloidal lithography and PECVD. A systematically controlled hierarchical roughness using spherical colloidal particles and surface chemistry allowed for quantitative prediction of contact angles corresponding to metastable and stable wetting states. A well-defined roughness and chemical composition of the surface enabled establishing a correlation between theory predictions and experimental measurements. We developed an extremely robust superhydrophobic surface based on Carbon-Nanotubes (CNT) mats. The surface of CNTs forming a nano-porous mesh was modified using PECVD to deposit a layer of hydrophobic coating (PCNT). The PCNT surface thus formed is superhydrophobic with almost zero contact angle hysteresis. We demonstrated that the PCNT surface is not wetted under steam condensation even after prolonged exposure and also continues to retain its superhydrophobicity after multiple frosting-defrosting cycles. The anti

  9. Rheological characteristics of soft rock structural surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沅江; 吴超; 傅衣铭

    2008-01-01

    There are two mechanisms of the coarse surface asperity resistance effect and rubbing resistance effect in the course of the soft rock structural surface creep,of which the former plays a dominant role in hindering the deformation in the starting creep phase,so that the structural surface creep usually displays the strong surface roughness effect,and so does the latter when the asperities in the coarse surface were fractured by shearing.Under the low stress condition,there are only two phases of the decelerating creep and the constant creep for the soft rock structural surface,and as the stress increases and overcomes the rubbing resistance,the accelerating creep failure of the structural surface will happen suddenly.Therefore,a multiple rheological model,which combines the nonlinear NEWTON body(NN) of a certain mass and the empirical plastic body(EM) with the classical SAINT VENANT body,NEWTON body,KELVIN body and HOOKE body,could be used to comprehensively describe the creep characteristics of the soft rock structural surface.Its mechanical parameter values will vary owing to the different surface roughness of the structural surface.The parameters of GH,GK and ηL are positively linearly correlative to the surface roughness.The surface roughness and m are negative exponential function correlation.The long-term strength τS is positively correlative to the surface roughness.

  10. A habitat template approach to green building surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundholm, J. [St. Mary' s Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Biology and Environmental Studies

    2005-07-01

    The use of entire plant communities of native species is gaining interest in the green roof industry. Plant communities must be matched with environmental conditions that mimic conditions in their original habitats. Urban built environments do not differ significantly from the rocky outcrops with poor, shallow soil that many plants colonize. This paper provided details of an experiment investigating the impact of plant community structure and species diversity on living roof performance. The aim of the experiment was to determine the impact of species diversity on precipitation interception, nutrient retention, temporal biomass constancy and roof temperature constancy. The diversity treatment included separate monocultures of 8 species in the community, randomly determined mixtures of 4 species, and a mixture of all 8. Functional groups included mosses, liverworts, colonial algae and a mycorrhizal inoculum. In a second experiment, between 1 and 4 of the functional groups were added to plots containing the same mixture of vascular plants. All experimental groups were compared with control roof plots with standard gravel. Results suggested that the physical and chemical parameters of a particular habitat shape the evolution of organisms and act as a filter to screen out many potential colonizing species not suited to particular habitats. It was concluded that a quantification of the key abiotic constraints that shape organismal responses to a given environment will help to improve ecosystem functions in green buildings. 25 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Exotic geometric structures on Kodaira surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    McKay, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    On all compact complex surfaces (modulo finite unramified coverings), we classify all of the locally homogeneous geometric structures which are locally isomorphic to the exotic homogeneous surfaces of Lie.

  12. Minimization of structure-borne noise in lightweight buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Bin; Olhoff, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of minimizing the structure-borne noise induced in a room by machinery vibration. A generalized system consisting of the machine, the base plate, resilient mounts, the floor plate and the room cavity is developed for analysis and optimization. Topological design...... of the base plate is studied for optimizing machinery installation. Furthermore, periodic mounts are optimized for the noise reduction. Finally, a modular model of a lightweight building is developed for design optimization of dimensions and connections of modules in the building for decreasing machinery...

  13. In situ monitoring of internal surface temperature of the historic building envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovská, Veronika; Katunský, Dušan

    2016-06-01

    Historical building envelope is characterized by a large accumulation that impact is mainly by changing the inner surface temperature over time. The minimum value of the inner surface temperature is set Code requirements. In the case of thermal technology assessment of building envelope contemplates a steady state external temperature and internal environment, thereby neglecting the heat accumulation capacity of building envelopes. Monitoring surface temperature in real terms in situ shows the real behavior of the building envelope close to reality. The recorded data can be used to create a numerical model for the simulation.

  14. Investigation of thermal effect on exterior wall surface of building material at urban city area

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Fadhil Md Din, Hazlini Dzinun, M. Ponraj, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan, Zainura Zainun Noor, Dilshah Remaz, Kenzo Iwao

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation of heat impact on the vertical surfaces of buildings based on their thermal behavior. The study was performed based on four building materials that is commonly used in Malaysia; brick, concrete, granite and white concrete tiles. The thermal performances on the building materials were investigated using a surface temperature sensor, data logging system and infrared thermography. Results showed that the brick had the capability to absorb and store heat gre...

  15. Cooling of the Building Structure by Night-time Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai

    , architects and engineers are still hesitant to apply passive cooling techniques. The basic concept of night-time ventilation involves cooling the building structure overnight in order to provide a heat sink during the occupancy period. As this requires a sufficiently high temperature difference between...... a building energy simulation program (HELIOS), and the effect of different parameters such as building construction, heat gains, air change rates, heat transfer coefficients and climatic conditions on the number of overheating degree hours (operative room temperature >26 °C) was evaluated. Besides climatic...... air flow rates and the possibility of a cold air jet flowing along the ceiling, but the magnitude of these effects is hard to predict. Heat transfer during night-time ventilation in case of mixing and displacement ventilation has been investigated in a full scale test room. The performance of night...

  16. Performance Comparison between Structural Element of Building Systems in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Abdul Kadir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Industrialized Building System (IBS was introduced in Malaysia in 1966, but it failed to establish itself on a continuous basis though there has been a sustained large market for residential projects even since. One of the reasons behind this shortcoming is the lack of scientific data on labor productivity that could convince policy maker. Hence, the objective of this study is to develop a standardized data collection methodology for measuring and comparing the conventional building system and IBS in term of labor productivity, crew size and cycle time. Labor productivity (man hours/m2 is defined as the man hours required to complete the structural element of one unit house. A total of 499 data points were obtained from seven residential projects constructed between January 2003 and April 2004. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA indicated that the labor productivity was significantly different between four structural building systems. The mean labor productivity for the conventional building system was 4.20 man hours/m2 followed by cast in-situ table form (2.70 man hours/m2, cast in-situ half tunnel form (1.88 man hours/m2 and pre-cast concrete system (1.33 man hours/m2. Further, the analysis of crew size indicated that the mean crew size of a conventional building system of 24 workers was significantly different from the IBS of 22 workers. However, the crew size within the IBS was found to be insignificant. The cycle time measured in days per house was found to be significantly different between structural building systems with the conventional building system of 4.9 days, cast in-situ table form of 3.9 days, cast in-situ half tunnel form of 2.9 days and pre-cast concrete system for 2.3 days. The labor productivity obtained from this study could be used as a preliminary guideline for a client or consultant to identify the most appropriate building system for executing a construction project and determining the labor requirement in the construction

  17. Salt Damage and Rising Damp Treatment in Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. P. Q. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt damage can affect the service life of numerous building structures, both historical and contemporary, in a significant way. In this review, various damage mechanisms to porous building materials induced by salt action are analyzed. The importance of pretreatment investigations is discussed as well; in combination with the knowledge of salt and moisture transport mechanisms they can give useful indications regarding treatment options. The methods of salt damage treatment are assessed then, including both passive techniques based on environmental control, reduction of water transport, or conversion to less soluble salts and active procedures resulting in the removal of salts from deterioration zones. It is concluded that cellulose can still be considered as the favorite material presently used in desalination poultices but hydrophilic mineral wool can serve as its prospective alternative in future applications. Another important cause of building pathologies is the rising damp and, in this phenomenon, it is particularly severe considering the presence of salts in water. The treatment of rising damp in historic building walls is a very complex procedure and at Laboratory of Building Physics (LFC-FEUP a wall base hygroregulated ventilation system was developed and patented.

  18. Structural evaluation of existing plutonium buildings and auxiliary structures at Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Existing plutonium handling and storage buildings at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant were evaluated for their structural resistance to seismic, tornado, and extreme wind loadings and the impact of tornado-driven missiles. This report presents the summary results of the study for all the buildings included in the study and makes preliminary general recommendations for upgrading where needed. Detailed analyses and backup calculations performed for the several buildings are presented in separate reports.

  19. Multi functional roof structures of the energy efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern architectural concepts, which are based on rational energy consumption of buildings and the use of solar energy as a renewable energy source, give the new and significant role to the roofs that become multifunctional structures. Various energy efficient roof structures and elements, beside the role of protection, provide thermal and electric energy supply, natural ventilation and cooling of a building, natural lighting of the indoor space sunbeam protection, water supply for technical use, thus according to the above mentioned functions, classification and analysis of such roof structures and elements are made in this paper. The search for new architectural values and optimization in total energy balance of a building or the likewise for the urban complex, gave to roofs the role of "climatic membranes". Contemporary roof forms and materials clearly exemplify their multifunctional features. There are numerous possibilities to achieve the new and attractive roof design which broadens to the whole construction. With such inducement, this paper principally analyze the configuration characteristics of the energy efficient roof structures and elements, as well as the visual effects that may be achieved by their application.

  20. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  1. Study on characteristics of double surface VOC emissions from dry flat-plate building materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinke; ZHANG Yinping; ZHAO Rongyi

    2006-01-01

    This paper sets up an analytic model of double surface emission of volatile organic compound (VOC) from dry, flat-plate building materials. Based on it, the influence of factors including air change rate, loading factor of materials in the room, mass diffusion coefficient, partition coefficient, convective mass transfer coefficient, thickness of materials, asymmetric convective flow and initial VOC concentration distribution in the building material on emission is discussed. The conditions for simplifying double surface emission into single surface emission are also discussed. The model is helpful to assess the double surface VOC emission from flat-plate building materials used in indoor furniture and space partition.

  2. Silicon surface structure-controlled oleophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xiu, Yonghao; Hess, Dennis W; Wong, C P

    2010-06-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces display contact angles >150 degrees with liquids that have lower surface energies than does water. The design of superoleophobic surfaces requires an understanding of the effect of the geometrical shape of etched silicon surfaces on the contact angle and hysteresis observed when different liquids are brought into contact with these surfaces. This study used liquid-based metal-assisted etching and various silane treatments to create superoleophobic surfaces on a Si(111) surface. Etch conditions such as the etch time and etch solution concentration played critical roles in establishing the oleophobicity of Si(111). When compared to Young's contact angle, the apparent contact angle showed a transition from a Cassie to a Wenzel state for low-surface-energy liquids as different silane treatments were applied to the silicon surface. These results demonstrated the relationship between the re-entrant angle of etched surface structures and the contact angle transition between Cassie and Wenzel behavior on etched Si(111) surfaces.

  3. ATLAS - Civil Engineering - Surface Buildings Point 1.8

    CERN Multimedia

    Jacob-Rols, J.

    2000-01-01

    Photo1-SMA18 building January 03, 2000 Photo2-Helium tanks foundation January 11, 2000 Photo3-SHM building January 12, 2000 Photo4-SHM18 Landscaping October 04, 2000 Photo5-Landscaping October 12, 2000 Photo6-Landscaping October 25, 2000 Photo7-Landscaping November 08, 2000 Photo8-Landscaping November 08, 2000 Photo9-Landscaping November 15, 2000 Photo10-Landscaping November 22, 2000

  4. Building a dense surface map incrementally from semi-dense point cloud and RGB images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-shan LI; Rong XIONG; Shoudong HUANG; Yi-ming HUANG

    2015-01-01

    Building and using maps is a fundamental issue for bionic robots in fi eld applications. A dense surface map, which offers rich visual and geometric information, is an ideal representation of the environment for indoor/outdoor localization, navigation, and recognition tasks of these robots. Since most bionic robots can use only small light-weight laser scanners and cameras to acquire semi-dense point cloud and RGB images, we propose a method to generate a consistent and dense surface map from this kind of semi-dense point cloud and RGB images. The method contains two main steps: (1) generate a dense surface for every single scan of point cloud and its corresponding image(s) and (2) incrementally fuse the dense surface of a new scan into the whole map. In step (1) edge-aware resampling is realized by segmenting the scan of a point cloud in advance and resampling each sub-cloud separately. Noise within the scan is reduced and a dense surface is generated. In step (2) the average surface is estimated probabilistically and the non-coincidence of different scans is eliminated. Experiments demonstrate that our method works well in both indoor and outdoor semi-structured environments where there are regularly shaped ob jects.

  5. Moulding of Sub-micrometer Surface Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pranov, Henrik; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2006-01-01

    The experiments strongly suggest that the possibility to injection mould sub-micrometer surface structures in polymers mainly relates to the forces originating from the adhesive energy between polymer and shim.......The experiments strongly suggest that the possibility to injection mould sub-micrometer surface structures in polymers mainly relates to the forces originating from the adhesive energy between polymer and shim....

  6. Evidence for water structuring forces between surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, Christopher B [ORNL; Rau, Dr. Donald [National Institutes of Health

    2011-01-01

    Structured water on apposing surfaces can generate significant energies due to reorganization and displacement as the surfaces encounter each other. Force measurements on a multitude of biological structures using the osmotic stress technique have elucidated commonalities that point toward an underlying hydration force. In this review, the forces of two contrasting systems are considered in detail: highly charged DNA and nonpolar, uncharged hydroxypropyl cellulose. Conditions for both net repulsion and attraction, along with the measured exclusion of chemically different solutes from these macromolecular surfaces, are explored and demonstrate features consistent with a hydration force origin. Specifically, the observed interaction forces can be reduced to the effects of perturbing structured surface water.

  7. Modeling of laser induced periodic surface structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skolski, J.Z.P.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Mitko, V.S.; Obona, J.V.; Ocelik, V.; Hosson, J.T.M. de

    2010-01-01

    In surfaces irradiated by short laser pulses, Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) have been observed on all kind of materials for over forty years. These LIPSS, also referred to as ripples, consist of wavy surfaces with periodicity equal or smaller than the wavelength of the laser radi

  8. Seafloor geodesy: Measuring surface deformation and strain-build up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Heidrun; Lange, Dietrich; Hannemann, Katrin; Petersen, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Seafloor deformation is intrinsically related to tectonic processes, which potentially may evolve into geohazards, including earthquakes and tsunamis. The nascent scientific field of seafloor geodesy provides a way to monitor crustal deformation at high resolution comparable to the satellite-based GPS technique upon which terrestrial geodesy is largely based. The measurements extract information on stress and elastic strain stored in the oceanic crust. Horizontal seafloor displacement can be obtained by acoustic/GPS combination to provide absolute positioning or by long-term acoustic telemetry between different beacons fixed on the seafloor. The GeoSEA (Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the SEAfloor) array uses acoustic telemetry for relative positioning at mm-scale resolution. The transponders within an array intercommunicate via acoustic signals for a period of up to 3.5 years. The seafloor acoustic transponders are mounted on 4 m high tripod steel frames to ensure clear line-of-sight between the stations. The transponders also include high-precision pressure sensors to monitor vertical movements and dual-axis inclinometers in order to measure their level as well as any tilt of the seafloor. Sound velocity sensor measurements are used to correct for water sound speed variations. A further component of the network is GeoSURF, a self-steering autonomous surface vehicle (Wave Glider), which monitors system health and is able to upload the seafloor data to the sea surface and to transfer it via satellite. The GeoSEA array is capable of both continuously monitoring horizontal and vertical ground displacement rates along submarine fault zones and characterizing their behavior (locked or aseismically creeping). Seafloor transponders are currently installed along the Siliviri segment of the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul for measurements of strain build-up along the fault. The first 18 month of baseline ranging were analyzed by a joint-least square inversion

  9. Structural Analysis and Seismic Design for Cold Neutron Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sangik; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, H. R

    2007-05-15

    This report describes all the major results of the dynamic structural analysis and seismic design for the Cold Neutron Laboratory Building which is classified in seismic class II. The results are summarized of the ground response spectrum as seismic input loads, mechanical properties of subsoil, the buoyancy stability due to ground water, the maximum displacement of the main frame under the seismic load and the member design. This report will be used as a basic design report to maintenance its structural integrity in future.

  10. Numerical simulation of condensation on structured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaowu; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei

    2014-11-25

    Condensation of liquid droplets on solid surfaces happens widely in nature and industrial processes. This phase-change phenomenon has great effect on the performance of some microfluidic devices. On the basis of micro- and nanotechnology, superhydrophobic structured surfaces can be well-fabricated. In this work, the nucleating and growth of droplets on different structured surfaces are investigated numerically. The dynamic behavior of droplets during the condensation is simulated by the multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which has the ability to incorporate the microscopic interactions, including fluid-fluid interaction and fluid-surface interaction. The results by the LBM show that, besides the chemical properties of surfaces, the topography of structures on solid surfaces influences the condensation process. For superhydrophobic surfaces, the spacing and height of microridges have significant influence on the nucleation sites. This mechanism provides an effective way for prevention of wetting on surfaces in engineering applications. Moreover, it suggests a way to prevent ice formation on surfaces caused by the condensation of subcooled water. For hydrophilic surfaces, however, microstructures may be submerged by the liquid films adhering to the surfaces. In this case, microstructures will fail to control the condensation process. Our research provides an optimized way for designing surfaces for condensation in engineering systems.

  11. [Oligoglycine surface structures: molecular dynamics simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gus'kova, O A; Khalatur, P G; Khokhlov, A R; Chinarev, A A; Tsygankova, S V; Bovin, N V

    2010-01-01

    The full-atomic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of adsorption mode for diantennary oligoglycines [H-Gly4-NH(CH2)5]2 onto graphite and mica surface is described. The resulting structure of adsorption layers is analyzed. The peptide second structure motives have been studied by both STRIDE (structural identification) and DSSP (dictionary of secondary structure of proteins) methods. The obtained results confirm the possibility of polyglycine II (PGII) structure formation in diantennary oligoglycine (DAOG) monolayers deposited onto graphite surface, which was earlier estimated based on atomic-force microscopy measurements.

  12. Occupants' satisfaction toward building environmental quality: structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzzaman, Syahrul Nizam; Egbu, C O; Zawawi, Emma Marinie Ahmad; Karim, Saipol Bari Abd; Woon, Chen Jia

    2015-05-01

    It is accepted that occupants who are more satisfied with their workplace's building internal environment are more productive. The main objective of the study was to measure the occupants' level of satisfaction and the perceived importance of the design or refurbishment on office conditions. The study also attempted to determine the factors affecting the occupants' satisfaction with their building or office conditions. Post-occupancy evaluations were conducted using a structured questionnaire developed by the Built Environment Research Group at the University of Manchester, UK. Our questionnaires incorporate 22 factors relating to the internal environment and rate these in terms of "user satisfaction" and "degree of importance." The questions were modified to reflect the specific setting of the study and take into consideration the local conditions and climate in Malaysia. The overall mean satisfaction of the occupants toward their office environment was 5.35. The results were measured by a single item of overall liking of office conditions in general. Occupants were more satisfied with their state of health in the workplace, but they were extremely dissatisfied with the distance away from a window. The factor analysis divided the variables into three groups, namely intrusion, air quality, and office appearance. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to determine which factor had the most significant influence on occupants' satisfaction: appearance. The findings from the study suggest that continuous improvement in aspects of the building's appearance needs to be supported with effective and comprehensive maintenance to sustain the occupants' satisfaction.

  13. Modelling surface pressure fluctuation on medium-rise buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snæbjörnsson, J.T.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the results of two experiments into the fluctuating characteristics of windinduced pressures on buildings in a built-up environment. The experiments have been carried out independently in Iceland and The Netherlands and can be considered to represent two separate cases of buildi

  14. Structure and functions of fungal cell surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Y.

    1984-01-01

    A review with 24 references on the biochemistry, molecular structure, and function of cell surfaces of fungi, especially dermatophytes: the chemistry and structure of the cell wall, the effect of polyene antibiotics on the morphology and function of cytoplasmic membranes, and the chemical structure and function of pigments produced by various fungi are discussed.

  15. Structural control and health monitoring of building structures with unknown ground excitations: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Xu, You-Lin; Zhan, Sheng; Huang, Qin

    2017-03-01

    When health monitoring system and vibration control system both are required for a building structure, it will be beneficial and cost-effective to integrate these two systems together for creating a smart building structure. Recently, on the basis of extended Kalman filter (EKF), a time-domain integrated approach was proposed for the identification of structural parameters of the controlled buildings with unknown ground excitations. The identified physical parameters and structural state vectors were then utilized to determine the control force for vibration suppression. In this paper, the possibility of establishing such a smart building structure with the function of simultaneous damage detection and vibration suppression was explored experimentally. A five-story shear building structure equipped with three magneto-rheological (MR) dampers was built. Four additional columns were added to the building model, and several damage scenarios were then simulated by symmetrically cutting off these columns in certain stories. Two sets of earthquakes, i.e. Kobe earthquake and Northridge earthquake, were considered as seismic input and assumed to be unknown during the tests. The structural parameters and the unknown ground excitations were identified during the tests by using the proposed identification method with the measured control forces. Based on the identified structural parameters and system states, a switching control law was employed to adjust the current applied to the MR dampers for the purpose of vibration attenuation. The experimental results show that the presented approach is capable of satisfactorily identifying structural damages and unknown excitations on one hand and significantly mitigating the structural vibration on the other hand.

  16. Coherent flow structures at earth's surface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Venditti, J.G; Best, J.L; Church, M; Hardy, R.J

    2013-01-01

    This book reviews the recent progress in the study of the turbulent flows that sculpt the Earth's surface, focusing in particular on the organized structures that have been identified in recent years...

  17. The building block approach to airborne pod structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jan D.

    2011-05-01

    The certification and testing of new airborne structures is a costly undertaking. This paper presents which measures can be taken to limit the cost and certification required in order to improve the capabilities of the current airborne as-sets, by applying a building block approach to the design and certification of airborne pod structures. A simple way of improving aircraft capabilities is by adding external pod structures, which has been performed for many applications over many years. However, this paper describes a truly modular approach, in which a typical airborne pod structure may be reconfigured to many various roles, with only limited re-certification requirements. Using existing or general aerodynamic shapes, the basic outer shape for the external store is defined, which is then combined with a modular substructure which can accommodate a large variety of electronic and/or optical sensors. This also allows the airborne pod structure to perform several intelligence collecting operations during the same sortie, thereby limiting the time spent near the danger area. The re-use of existing substructure modules reduces the cost and leadtime of the design phase allowing for a rapid entry into service. The modular design, relying on proven interface systems between the building blocks, significantly reduces risk involved in new programs. The certification process is also discussed in order to optimize the use of the pod structure modularity and certification requirements in order to simplify the certification task, by drawing similarity to existing designs. Finally the paper covers how modularity is implemented in new composite pod designs with stealth capabilities.

  18. FRF-based structural damage detection of controlled buildings with podium structures: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. L.; Huang, Q.; Zhan, S.; Su, Z. Q.; Liu, H. J.

    2014-06-01

    How to use control devices to enhance system identification and damage detection in relation to a structure that requires both vibration control and structural health monitoring is an interesting yet practical topic. In this study, the possibility of using the added stiffness provided by control devices and frequency response functions (FRFs) to detect damage in a building complex was explored experimentally. Scale models of a 12-storey main building and a 3-storey podium structure were built to represent a building complex. Given that the connection between the main building and the podium structure is most susceptible to damage, damage to the building complex was experimentally simulated by changing the connection stiffness. To simulate the added stiffness provided by a semi-active friction damper, a steel circular ring was designed and used to add the related stiffness to the building complex. By varying the connection stiffness using an eccentric wheel excitation system and by adding or not adding the circular ring, eight cases were investigated and eight sets of FRFs were measured. The experimental results were used to detect damage (changes in connection stiffness) using a recently proposed FRF-based damage detection method. The experimental results showed that the FRF-based damage detection method could satisfactorily locate and quantify damage.

  19. Evaluation of Select Surface Processing Techniques for In Situ Application During the Additive Manufacturing Build Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Todd A.; Sangid, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    Although additive manufacturing offers numerous performance advantages for different applications, it is not being used for critical applications due to uncertainties in structural integrity as a result of innate process variability and defects. To minimize uncertainty, the current approach relies on the concurrent utilization of process monitoring, post-processing, and non-destructive inspection in addition to an extensive material qualification process. This paper examines an alternative approach by evaluating the application of select surface process techniques, to include sliding severe plastic deformation (SPD) and fine particle shot peening, on direct metal laser sintering-produced AlSi10Mg materials. Each surface processing technique is compared to baseline as-built and post-processed samples as a proof of concept for surface enhancement. Initial results pairing sliding SPD with the manufacture's recommended thermal stress relief cycle demonstrated uniform recrystallization of the microstructure, resulting in a more homogeneous distribution of strain among the microstructure than as-built or post-processed conditions. This result demonstrates the potential for the in situ application of various surface processing techniques during the layerwise direct metal laser sintering build process.

  20. Ambient Response Analysis of the Heritage Court Tower Building Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Heritage Court Building structure is presented. The work is a part of a blind test organized by Professor Carlos Ventura, University of British Columbia. The response data were analyses using two different techniques: a non-parametric based...... on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and a parametric technique working on the raw data in time domain, a data driven Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) algorithm. Both techniques identified 11 modes under 10 HZ. One case of three close modes and one case of two close modes were identified. For all...

  1. Correlating simulated surface marks with near-surface tornado structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Michael I.

    Tornadoes often leave behind patterns of debris deposition, or "surface marks", which provide a direct signature of their near surface winds. The intent of this thesis is to investigate what can be learned about near-surface tornado structure and intensity through the properties of surface marks generated by simulated, debris-laden tornadoes. Earlier work showed through numerical simulations that the tornado's structure and intensity is highly sensitive to properties of the near-surface flow and can change rapidly in time for some conditions. The strongest winds often occur within tens of meters of the surface where the threat to human life and property is highest, and factors such as massive debris loadings and asymmetry of the main vortex have proven to be critical complications in some regimes. However, studying this portion of the flow in the field is problematic; while Doppler radar provides the best tornado wind field measurements, it cannot probe below about 20 m, and interpretation of Doppler data requires assumptions about tornado symmetry, steadiness in time, and correlation between scatterer and air velocities that are more uncertain near the surface. As early as 1967, Fujita proposed estimating tornado wind speeds from analysis of aerial photography and ground documentation of surface marks. A handful of studies followed but were limited by difficulties in interpreting physical origins of the marks, and little scientific attention has been paid to them since. Here, Fujita's original idea is revisited in the context of three-dimensional, large-eddy simulations of tornadoes with fully-coupled debris. In this thesis, the origins of the most prominent simulated marks are determined and compared with historical interpretations of real marks. The earlier hypothesis that cycloidal surface marks were directly correlated with the paths of individual vortices (either the main vortex or its secondary vortices, when present) is unsupported by the simulation results

  2. Long Range Surface Plasmons in Multilayer Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Delfan, Aida

    2013-01-01

    We present a new strategy, based on a Fresnel coefficient pole analysis, for designing an asymmetric multilayer structure that supports long range surface plasmons (LRSP). We find that the electric field intensity in the metal layer of a multilayer LRSP structure can be even slightly smaller than in the metal layer of the corresponding symmetric LRSP structure, minimizing absorption losses and resulting in LRSP propagation lengths up to 2mm. With a view towards biosensing applications, we also present semi-analytic expressions for a standard surface sensing parameter in arbitrary planar resonant structures, and in particular show that for an asymmetric structure consisting of a gold film deposited on a multilayer of SiO2 and TiO2 a surface sensing parameter G = 1.28(1/nm) can be achieved.

  3. Influence of the convective surface transfer coefficients on the Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) building performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    HAM conditions. The paper focuses on the influence of the interior surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients, and investigates its effect on the hygrothermal performance. The parameter study showed that the magnitude of the convective surface transfer coefficients have a relatively large......Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in buildings assume constant boundary conditions for the temperature and relative humidity of the neighbouring air and for the surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients. These assumptions may introduce errors in the predicted...... influence on the predicted hygrothermal conditions at the surface of a building component and on the heat and vapour exchange with the indoor environment....

  4. Wind flow and wind loads on the surface of a tower- shaped building: Numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Flow structure and wind pressure distribution caused by obtuse obstacles are usually the focuses in Computational Wind Engineer researches (CWE). By solving the non- hydrostatical dynamic equations, PUMA model (Peking University Model of Atmospheric Environment) was developed and applied to simulating the flow structure and wind pressure distribution around a tower-shaped building. Evaluation about the wind environment and wind loads around the building was obtained through the analysis of the numerical simulation results and wind tunnel data. Comparisons between the simulation and wind tunnel study indicate that numerical simulation results agree well in the flow field and wind pressure distribution around the tower-shaped building. On the other hand, the horizontal grid interval of 2 m and the vertical grid of 3 m were still too crude to simulate the flow structure and wind pressure distribution on the building surface more exactly in detail; and the absence of suitable pressure perturbation parameterization scheme between the solid and the adjacent space also limits the accuracy of the numerical simulation. The numerical simulation model can be used to evaluate the wind environment and wind load around high buildings.

  5. Spatial-temporal analysis of building surface temperatures in Hung Hom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ying; Shen, Yueqian

    2015-12-01

    This thesis presents a study on spatial-temporal analysis of building surface temperatures in Hung Hom. Observations were collected from Aug 2013 to Oct 2013 at a 30-min interval, using iButton sensors (N=20) covering twelve locations in Hung Hom. And thermal images were captured in PolyU from 05 Aug 2013 to 06 Aug 2013. A linear regression model of iButton and thermal records is established to calibrate temperature data. A 3D modeling system is developed based on Visual Studio 2010 development platform, using ArcEngine10.0 component, Microsoft Access 2010 database and C# programming language. The system realizes processing data, spatial analysis, compound query and 3D face temperature rendering and so on. After statistical analyses, building face azimuths are found to have a statistically significant relationship with sun azimuths at peak time. And seasonal building temperature changing also corresponds to the sun angle and sun azimuth variations. Building materials are found to have a significant effect on building surface temperatures. Buildings with lower albedo materials tend to have higher temperatures and larger thermal conductivity material have significant diurnal variations. For the geographical locations, the peripheral faces of campus have higher temperatures than the inner faces during day time and buildings located at the southeast are cooler than the western. Furthermore, human activity is found to have a strong relationship with building surface temperatures through weekday and weekend comparison.

  6. 25 CFR 171.405 - Can I build my own structure or take over responsibility of a BIA structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I build my own structure or take over responsibility of a BIA structure? 171.405 Section 171.405 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... own structure or take over responsibility of a BIA structure? You may build a structure on our...

  7. The Surface Structure of Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Michael A.

    1974-01-01

    This article attempts to show that a more rigorous approach to surface structure analysis can reveal distinctions just as subtle as those discovered through analyzing deep structures or transformations. Relative clauses are examined in relation to nominal constructions, and alternatives to restrictive and non-restrictive classifications are…

  8. Sub-µm structured lotus surfaces manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worgull, Matthias; Heckele, Mathias; Mappes, Timo

    2009-01-01

    . Unlike to stochastic methods, patterning with a LIGA-mold insert it is possible to structure surfaces very uniformly or even with controlled variations (e.g., with gradients). In this paper we present the process chain to realize polymer sub-lm structures with minimum lateral feature size of 400 nm...

  9. Sub-µ structured Lotus Surfaces Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worgull, Matthias; Heckele, Mathias; Mappes, Timo

    2008-01-01

    . Unlike to stochastic methods, patternin¬g with a LIGA-mold insert it is possible to structure surfaces very uniformly or even with controlled variations (e.g. with gradients). In this paper we present the process chain to realize polymer sub-micro structures with minimum lateral feature size of 400 nm...

  10. Pressurizable structures comprising different surface sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koussios, S.; Bergsma, O.K.; Beukers, A.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to composite pressurizable structures which are overwound with fibres or are braided. The pressurizable structures comprise axial sections which in turn comprise both concave and convex surfaces. The shape characteristics are related to geodesic as well as non-geodesic trajecto

  11. Longitudinal surface structures (flowstripes on Antarctic glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Glasser

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal surface structures (''flowstripes'' are common on many glaciers but their origin and significance are poorly understood. In this paper we present observations of the development of these longitudinal structures from four different Antarctic glacier systems (the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf area, outlet glaciers in the Ross Sea sector, ice-shelf tributary glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula, and the onset zone of a tributary to the Recovery Glacier Ice Stream in the Filchner Ice Shelf area. Mapping from optical satellite images demonstrates that longitudinal surface structures develop in two main situations: (1 as relatively wide flow stripes within glacier flow units and (2 as relatively narrow flow stripes where there is convergent flow around nunataks or at glacier confluence zones. Our observations indicate that the confluence features are narrower, sharper, and more clearly defined features. They are characterised by linear troughs or depressions on the ice surface and are much more common than the former type. Longitudinal surface structures within glacier flow units have previously been explained as the surface expression of localised bed perturbations but a universal explanation for those forming at glacier confluences is lacking. Here we propose that these features are formed at zones of ice acceleration and extensional flow at glacier confluences. We provide a schematic model for the development of longitudinal surface structures based on extensional flow that can explain their ridge and trough morphology as well as their down-ice persistence.

  12. Colloids with high-definition surface structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsien-Yeh; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Gulari, Erdogan; Lahann, Joerg

    2007-01-01

    Compared with the well equipped arsenal of surface modification methods for flat surfaces, techniques that are applicable to curved, colloidal surfaces are still in their infancy. This technological gap exists because spin-coating techniques used in traditional photolithographic processes are not applicable to the curved surfaces of spherical objects. By replacing spin-coated photoresist with a vapor-deposited, photodefinable polymer coating, we have now fabricated microstructured colloids with a wide range of surface patterns, including asymmetric and chiral surface structures, that so far were typically reserved for flat substrates. This high-throughput method can yield surface-structured colloidal particles at a rate of ≈107 to 108 particles per operator per day. Equipped with spatially defined binding pockets, microstructured colloids can engage in programmable interactions, which can lead to directed self-assembly. The ability to create a wide range of colloids with both simple and complex surface patterns may contribute to the genesis of previously unknown colloidal structures and may have important technological implications in a range of different applications, including photonic and phononic materials or chemical sensors. PMID:17592149

  13. Colloids with high-definition surface structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsien-Yeh; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Gulari, Erdogan; Lahann, Joerg

    2007-07-03

    Compared with the well equipped arsenal of surface modification methods for flat surfaces, techniques that are applicable to curved, colloidal surfaces are still in their infancy. This technological gap exists because spin-coating techniques used in traditional photolithographic processes are not applicable to the curved surfaces of spherical objects. By replacing spin-coated photoresist with a vapor-deposited, photodefinable polymer coating, we have now fabricated microstructured colloids with a wide range of surface patterns, including asymmetric and chiral surface structures, that so far were typically reserved for flat substrates. This high-throughput method can yield surface-structured colloidal particles at a rate of approximately 10(7) to 10(8) particles per operator per day. Equipped with spatially defined binding pockets, microstructured colloids can engage in programmable interactions, which can lead to directed self-assembly. The ability to create a wide range of colloids with both simple and complex surface patterns may contribute to the genesis of previously unknown colloidal structures and may have important technological implications in a range of different applications, including photonic and phononic materials or chemical sensors.

  14. Tsunami-induced force and surface pressure on multiple rectangular buildings in an unsteady free-surface channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmanpour, Alireza; Eames, Ian

    2016-11-01

    We study the flow around multiple rectangular obstacles in an unsteady free-surface channel flow using a combination of mathematical models, computations and experiments. The unsteady flow is triggered by a dam-break. The total drag force and surface pressure distribution on the obstacles are examined. The height and length of the building are fixed; the influence of initial water height and blocking ratio b / w is studied. The force scalings are confirmed from the computational analysis and found to be consistent with the experimental results. The effects of the additional buildings on the total drag force are noted and compared against the case of a single building. Increasing the number of buildings as well as the blocking ratio results in the water to inundate further onshore. The pressure distribution on the individual surfaces are analyzed and shown to vary linearly with height from the building base and dominated by the hydrostatic component. We summarize the results in terms of a new Fr - b / w regime diagram and explain how the force on buildings subject to an unsteady flow can be estimated from the upstream velocity and water height. We would like to thank HR Wallingford for their continued support in funding the project.

  15. A Hierarchical Building Segmentation in Digital Surface Models for 3D Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a hierarchical method for segmenting buildings in a digital surface model (DSM, which is used in a novel framework for 3D reconstruction, is proposed. Most 3D reconstructions of buildings are model-based. However, the limitations of these methods are overreliance on completeness of the offline-constructed models of buildings, and the completeness is not easily guaranteed since in modern cities buildings can be of a variety of types. Therefore, a model-free framework using high precision DSM and texture-images buildings was introduced. There are two key problems with this framework. The first one is how to accurately extract the buildings from the DSM. Most segmentation methods are limited by either the terrain factors or the difficult choice of parameter-settings. A level-set method are employed to roughly find the building regions in the DSM, and then a recently proposed ‘occlusions of random textures model’ are used to enhance the local segmentation of the buildings. The second problem is how to generate the facades of buildings. Synergizing with the corresponding texture-images, we propose a roof-contour guided interpolation of building facades. The 3D reconstruction results achieved by airborne-like images and satellites are compared. Experiments show that the segmentation method has good performance, and 3D reconstruction is easily performed by our framework, and better visualization results can be obtained by airborne-like images, which can be further replaced by UAV images.

  16. Nature inspired structured surfaces for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, H K; Hasan, J; Truong, V K; Crawford, R J; Ivanova, E P

    2011-01-01

    Nature has created an array of superhydrophobic surfaces that possess water-repellent, self-cleaning and anti-icing properties. These surfaces have a number of potential applications in the biomedical industry, as they have the potential to control protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Natural superhydrophobic surfaces are typically composed of materials with a low intrinsic surface free-energy (e.g the cuticular waxes of lotus leaves and insect wings) with a hierarchical structural configuration. This hierarchical surface topography acts to decrease the contact area of water droplets in contact with the surface, thereby increasing the extent of the air/water interface, resulting in water contact angles greater than 150º. In order to employ these surfaces in biotechnological applications, fabrication techniques must be developed so that these multi-scale surface roughness characteristics can be reproduced. Additionally, these fabrication techniques must also be able to be applied to the material required for the intended application. An overview of some of the superhydrophobic surfaces that exist in nature is presented, together with an explanation of the theories of their wettability. Also included is a description of some of the biomedical applications of superhydrophobic surfaces and fabrication techniques that can be used to mimic superhydrophobic surfaces found in nature.

  17. Ellipsoidal Colloids with a Controlled Surface Roughness via Bioinspired Surface Engineering: Building Blocks for Liquid Marbles and Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengjiao; Yang, Lu; Li, Qiang; Wu, Songhai; Jia, Shaoyi; Li, Zhanyong; Zhang, Zhenkun; Shi, Linqi

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the important role of the surface roughness of nano/colloidal particles and harnessing them for practical applications need novel strategies to control the particles' surface topology. Although there are many examples of spherical particles with a specific surface roughness, nonspherical ones with similar surface features are rare. The current work reports a one-step, straightforward, and bioinspired surface engineering strategy to prepare ellipsoidal particles with a controlled surface roughness. By manipulating the unique chemistry inherent to the oxidation-induced self-polymerization of dopamine into polydopamine (PDA), PDA coating of polymeric ellipsoids leads to a library of hybrid ellipsoidal particles (PS@PDA) with a surface that decorates with nanoscale PDA protrusions of various densities and sizes. Together with the advantages originated from the anisotropy of ellipsoids and rich chemistry of PDA, such a surface feature endows these particles with some unique properties. Evaporative drying of fluorinated PS@PDA particles produces a homogeneous coating with superhydrophobicity that arises from the two-scale hierarchal structure of microscale interparticle packing and nanoscale roughness of the constituent ellipsoids. Instead of water repelling that occurs for most of the lotus leaf-like superhydrophobic surfaces, such coating exhibits strong water adhesion that is observed with certain species of rose pedals. In addition, the as-prepared hybrid ellipsoids are very efficient in preparing liquid marble-isolated droplets covered with solid particles. Such liquid marbles can be placed onto many surfaces and might be useful for the controllable transport and manipulation of small volumes of liquids.

  18. Relations between constructive peculiarities and structural behavior in Venice buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doglioni, F.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we are synthetically describing some constructive peculiarities of Venice civil buildings, analyzing the relation with the features of their structural decay and behavior in the long run. We suppose Venetian buildings, especially those parts which are conceived to suit the lagoon environment, to have undergone an evolution made of some adjustments, which were based on the observation of damages in previous buildings. That is we suppose ancient builders to rely on their awareness of the behavior of structures yet to come, and to be able to forecast it in part. This process brought some building contrivances to perfection, as exclusive and enduring features of Venice, overcoming changes in style and architectural layout, till they grew into essential elements of a whole and adaptable “device”. This writing is meant for a concise interpretation of this device, which is the result of some research works carried out at Venice IUAV University.

    En este texto, se describen sintéticamente algunas peculiaridades de la edificación residencial de Venecia, analizando su relación con el abanico de problemas estructurales que caracterizan el comportamiento estructural del edificio a lo largo del tiempo. Se aventura la hipótesis que las construcciones venecianas y, en particular, algunos de sus detalles, concebidos específicamente para la laguna donde se enclava, han sido objeto de una adaptación evolutiva a través de la observación de los problemas estructurales de los edificios precedentes. Los alarifes venecianos aprendieron a tener en cuenta el comportamiento estructural posterior del edificio, que previeron en cierta medida. Este proceso ha llevado a perfeccionar algunos detalles constructivos exclusivos de Venecia que han perdurado en el tiempo, que han resistido impertérritos a mutaciones de estilo y de configuración arquitectónica, hasta constituir elementos esenciales de un aparato indivisible y adaptable cuya interpretaci

  19. ASSESSMENTOF BETA PARTICLE FLUX FROM SURFACE CONTAMINATION AS A RELATIVE INDICATOR FOR RADIONUCLIDE DISTRIBUTION ON EXTERNAL SURFACES OF A MULTI-STORY BUILDING IN PRIPYAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-11-17

    How would we recover if a Radiological Dispersion Device (e.g., dirty bomb) or Improvised Nuclear Device were to detonate in a large city? In order to assess the feasibility of remediation following such an event, several issues would have to be considered, including the levels and characteristics of the radioactive contamination, the availability of the required resources to accomplish decontamination, and the planned future use of the city's structures and buildings. Presently little is known about the distribution, redistribution, and migration of radionuclides in an urban environment. However, Pripyat, a city substantially contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, may provide some answers. The main objective of this study was to determine the radionuclide distribution on a Pripyat multi-story building, which had not been previously decontaminated and therefore could reflect the initial fallout and its further natural redistribution on external surfaces. The 7-story building selected was surveyed from the ground floor to the roof on horizontal and vertical surfaces along seven ground-to-roof transections. Some of the results from this study indicate that the upper floors of the building had higher contamination levels than the lower floors. The authors consequently recommend that existing decontamination procedures for tall structures be re-examined and modified accordingly.

  20. Taxonomy of factors which influence heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Gunawardana, Chandima; Gunawardena, Janaka; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metals build-up on urban road surfaces is a complex process and influenced by a diverse range of factors. Although numerous research studies have been conducted in the area of heavy metals build-up, limited research has been undertaken to rank these factors in terms of their influence on the build-up process. This results in limitations in the identification of the most critical factor/s for accurately estimating heavy metal loads and for designing effective stormwater treatment measures. The research study undertook an in-depth analysis of the factors which influence heavy metals build-up based on data generated from a number of different geographical locations around the world. Traffic volume was found to be the highest ranked factor in terms of influencing heavy metals build-up while land use was ranked the second. Proximity to arterial roads, antecedent dry days and road surface roughness has a relatively lower ranking. Furthermore, the study outcomes advances the conceptual understanding of heavy metals build-up based on the finding that with increasing traffic volume, total heavy metal build-up load increases while the variability decreases. The outcomes from this research study are expected to contribute to more accurate estimation of heavy metals build-up loads leading to more effective stormwater treatment design.

  1. Protection Measures for Buildings Based on Coordinating Action Theory of Ground, Foundation and Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the theory of coordinating action of building ground, foundation and structure, this paper presents a modified method for calculating additional stresses on buildings in mining areas by considering the joint effect of curvature deformation and horizontal deformation on buildings. It points out that for buildings over the coal pillar, it is advisable to soften the intermediate ground of buildings when they are affected by mining. For buildings over the goaf, it is preferable to soften the ground at both ends of buildings. In order to enhance the ability of a building to resist tensile deformation, the key measure is to reinforce the bottom foundation of the building. In addition, the concept of "angle of break of building" is proposed. It is because of this angle that the protecting coal pillar is left, which is a better solution than prevailing solutions The findings provide a more scientific basis for mining under buildings.

  2. Surface structure and electronic properties of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekhaus, W. J.; Somorjai, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    A surface potential model is developed to explain dopant effects on chemical vapor deposition. Auger analysis of the interaction between allotropic forms of carbon and silicon films has shown Si-C formation for all forms by glassy carbon. LEED intensity measurements have been used to determine the mean square displacement of surface atoms of silicon single crystals, and electron loss spectroscopy has shown the effect of structure and impurities on surface states located within the band gap. A thin film of Al has been used to enhance film crystallinity at low temperature.

  3. Structure and Interactions of Isolated Biomolecular Building Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Mattanjah

    2006-03-01

    We investigate biomolecular building blocks and their clusters with each other and with water on a single molecular level. The motivation is the need to distinguish between intrinsic molecular properties and those that result from the biological environment. This is achieved by a combination of laser desorption and jet cooling, applied to aromatic amino acids, small peptides containing those, nucleobases and nucleosides. This approach is coupled with a number of laser spectroscopic techniques, including resonant multi-photon ionization, spectral hole burning and infra-red ion-dip spectroscopy. We will discuss examples illustrating how information can be obtained on spatial structure of individual biomolecules, including peptide conformations and details of DNA base-pairing.

  4. Investigation of thermal effect on exterior wall surface of building material at urban city area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fadhil Md Din, Hazlini Dzinun, M. Ponraj, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan, Zainura Zainun Noor, Dilshah Remaz, Kenzo Iwao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the investigation of heat impact on the vertical surfaces of buildings based on their thermal behavior. The study was performed based on four building materials that is commonly used in Malaysia; brick, concrete, granite and white concrete tiles. The thermal performances on the building materials were investigated using a surface temperature sensor, data logging system and infrared thermography. Results showed that the brick had the capability to absorb and store heat greater than other materials during the investigation period. The normalized heat (total heat/solar radiation of the brick was 0.093 and produces high heat (51% compared to granite, confirming a substantial amount of heat being released into the atmosphere through radiation and convection. The most sensitive material that absorbs and stores heat was in the following order: brick > concrete > granite > white concrete tiles. It was concluded that the type of exterior wall material used in buildings had significant impact to the environment.

  5. Investigation of thermal effect on exterior wall surface of building material at urban city area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dzinun, Hazlini; Ponraj, M.; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Noor, Zainura Zainun [Institute of Environmental Water Resources and Management (IPASA), Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Remaz, Dilshah [Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Iwao, Kenzo [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the investigation of heat impact on the vertical surfaces of buildings based on their thermal behavior. The study was performed based on four building materials that is commonly used in Malaysia; brick, concrete, granite and white concrete tiles. The thermal performances on the building materials were investigated using a surface temperature sensor, data logging system and infrared thermography. Results showed that the brick had the capability to absorb and store heat greater than other materials during the investigation period. The normalized heat (total heat/solar radiation) of the brick was 0.093 and produces high heat (51% compared to granite), confirming a substantial amount of heat being released into the atmosphere through radiation and convection. The most sensitive material that absorbs and stores heat was in the following order: brick > concrete > granite > white concrete tiles. It was concluded that the type of exterior wall material used in buildings had significant impact to the environment.

  6. CFD Analysis of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient on External Surfaces of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea de Lieto Vollaro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Convective heat transfer coefficients for external building surfaces are essential in building energy simulation (BES to calculate convective heat gains and losses from building facades and roofs to the environment. These coefficients are complex functions of: building geometry, building surroundings, local air flow patterns and temperature differences. A microclimatic analysis in a typical urban configuration, has been carried out using Ansys Fluent Version 14.0, an urban street canyon, with a given H/W ratio, has been considered to simulate a three-dimensional flow field and to calculate the thermal fluid dynamics parameters that characterize the street canyon. In this paper, the convective heat transfer coefficient values on the windward external façade of the canyon and on the windward and leeward inner walls are analyzed and a comparison with values from experimental and numerical correlations is carried out.

  7. Building Integrated Ontological Knowledge Structures with Efficient Approximation Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of ontologies builds knowledge structures which brings new understanding on existing terminologies and their associations. With the steady increase in the number of ontologies, automatic integration of ontologies is preferable over manual solutions in many applications. However, available works on ontology integration are largely heuristic without guarantees on the quality of the integration results. In this work, we focus on the integration of ontologies with hierarchical structures. We identified optimal structures in this problem and proposed optimal and efficient approximation algorithms for integrating a pair of ontologies. Furthermore, we extend the basic problem to address the integration of a large number of ontologies, and correspondingly we proposed an efficient approximation algorithm for integrating multiple ontologies. The empirical study on both real ontologies and synthetic data demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed approaches. In addition, the results of integration between gene ontology and National Drug File Reference Terminology suggest that our method provides a novel way to perform association studies between biomedical terms.

  8. A Review of Current Researches on Blast Load Effects on Building Structures in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongxian; DU Hao; BAO Chunxiao

    2006-01-01

    The damages of building structures subjected to multifarious explosions cause huge losses of lives and property.It is the reason why the blast resistance and explosion protection of building structures become an important research topic in the civil engineering field all over the world.This paper provides an overview of the research work in China on blast loads effect on building structures.It includes modeling blast shock wave propagation and their effects,the dynamic responses of various building structures under blast loads and the measures to strengthen the building structures against blast loads.The paper also discusses the achievements and further work that needs be done for a better understanding of the blast loads' effects on building structures,and for deriving effective and economic techniques to design new or to strengthen existing structures.

  9. Point 5 - civil engineering : surface site, SX, pit, buildings, PX

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    > de 00 :00 à 13 :15 le 06 janvier 2000 - vues extérieures du montage du bâtiment SX, du chantier, du puit PX dont le pourtour est congelé- installation des tubes de congélation du sol- bâtiments de la Cryogénie, avec mur anti-bruit- fond des puits creusement et évacuation des déblais > de 13 :17 à 17 :38 le 10 février 2000 - avancement du montage du SX - vues générales du chantier en surface > de 13 :40 à 24 :00 le 10 février 2000 - bâtiment SX vide, fin d’installation des ponts roulants - ferraillage de la dalle d’un bâtiment

  10. Evaluation of thermal resistance of building insulations with reflective surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Št'astník, S.

    2012-09-01

    The thermal resistance of advanced insulation materials, applied namely in civil engineering, containing reflective surfaces and air gaps, cannot be evaluated correctly using the valid European standards because of presence of the dominant nonlinear radiative heat transfer and other phenomena not included in the recommended computational formulae. The proper general physical analysis refers to rather complicated problems from classical thermodynamics, whose both existence theory and numerical analysis contain open questions and cannot be done in practice when the optimization of composition of insulation layers is required. This paper, coming from original experimental results, demonstrates an alternative simplified computational approach, taking into account the most important physical processes, useful in the design of modern insulation systems.

  11. MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Randall

    2014-07-03

    The initial goal of the MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Installation Project was for the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to gain experience using the integrated higher efficiency solar photovoltaic (PV) single-ply membrane product, as it differs from the conventional, low efficiency, thin-film PV products, to determine the feasibility of success of larger deployment. As several of CCSF’s municipal rooftops are constrained with respect to weight restrictions, staff of the Energy Generation Group of the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) proposed to install a solar PV system using single-ply membrane The installation of the 100 kW (DC-STC) lightweight photo voltaic (PV) system at the MUNI Ways and Structures Center (700 Pennsylvania Ave., San Francisco) is a continuation of the commitment of the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to increase the pace of municipal solar development, and serve its municipal facilities with clean renewable energy. The fourteen (14) solar photovoltaic systems that have already been installed at CCSF municipal facilities are assisting in the reduction of fossil-fuel use, and reduction of greenhouse gases from fossil combustion. The MUNI Ways & Structures Center roof has a relatively low weight-bearing capacity (3.25 pounds per square foot) and use of traditional crystalline panels was therefore rejected. Consequently it was decided to use the best available highest efficiency Building-Integrated PV (BIPV) technology, with consideration for reliability and experience of the manufacturer which can meet the low weight-bearing capacity criteria. The original goal of the project was to provide an opportunity to monitor the results of the BIPV technology and compare these results to other City and County of San Francisco installed PV systems. The MUNI Ways and Structures Center was acquired from the Cookson Doors Company, which had run the Center for many decades. The building was

  12. Melamine structures on the Au(111) surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silly, Fabien; Shaw, Adam Q.; Castell, Martin R.; Briggs, G. A. D.; Mura, Manuela; Martsinovich, Natalia; Kantorovich, Lev

    2008-01-01

    We report on a joint experimental and theoretical study of the ordered structures of melamine molecules formed on the Au(111)-(22 x root 3) surface. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images taken under UHV conditions reveal two distinct monolayers one of which has never been reported before on gol

  13. Designing visual appearance using a structured surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Smitrup, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach for designing nanostructured surfaces with prescribed visual appearances, starting at design analysis and ending with a fabricated sample. The method is applied to a silicon wafer structured using deep ultraviolet lithography and dry etching and includes preliminary design ...

  14. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, An [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Cooperative Research and Education Centre for Environmental Technology, Kyoto University–Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Guan, Yuntao, E-mail: guanyt@tsinghua.edu.cn [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse.

  15. Pool Boiling Heat Transfer on structured Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, J.; Olbricht, M.; Müller, B.; Luke, A.

    2016-09-01

    The development in the process and energy sector shows the importance of efficient utilization of available resources to improve thermal devices. To achieve this goal, all thermal components have to be optimized continuously. Various applications of multi-phase heat and mass transfer have to be improved. Therefore, the heat transfer and the influence of surface roughness in nucleate boiling with the working fluid propane is experimentally investigated on structured mild steel tubes, because only few data are available in the literature. The mild steel tube is sandblasted to obtain different surface roughness. The measurements are carried out over wide ranges of heat flux and pressure. The experimental results are compared with correlations from literature and the effect of surface roughness on the heat transfer is discussed. It is shown that the heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing surface roughness, heat flux and reduced pressure at nucleate pool boiling.

  16. Estimating Aerodynamic Parameters of Urban-Like Surfaces with Heterogeneous Building Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward-Hopkins, J. T.; Tomlin, A. S.; Ma, L.; Ingham, D.; Pourkashanian, M.

    2011-12-01

    There are many geometrical factors than can influence the aerodynamic parameters of urban surfaces and hence the vertical wind profiles found above. The knowledge of these parameters has applications in numerous fields, such as dispersion modelling, wind loading calculations, and estimating the wind energy resource at urban locations. Using quasi-empirical modelling, we estimate the dependence of the aerodynamic roughness length and zero-plane displacement for idealized urban surfaces, on the two most significant geometrical characteristics; surface area density and building height variability. A validation of the spatially-averaged, logarithmic wind profiles predicted by the model is carried out, via comparisons with available wind-tunnel and numerical data for arrays of square based blocks of uniform and heterogeneous heights. The model predicts two important properties of the aerodynamic parameters of surfaces of heterogeneous heights that have been suggested by experiments. Firstly, the zero-plane displacement of a heterogeneous array can exceed the surface mean building height significantly. Secondly, the characteristic peak in roughness length with respect to surface area density becomes much softer for heterogeneous arrays compared to uniform arrays, since a variation in building height can prevent a skimming flow regime from occurring. Overall the simple model performs well against available experimental data and may offer more accurate estimates of surface aerodynamic parameters for complex urban surfaces compared to models that do not include height variability.

  17. Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A; Scharff, Constance

    2015-03-19

    Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as indicator of communicative success or wellformedness, and notions of grammaticality are less easily defined. This review brings together accounts of the principles of structure building in music and animal song. It relates them to corresponding models in formal language theory, the extended Chomsky hierarchy (CH), and their probabilistic counterparts. We further discuss common misunderstandings and shortcomings concerning the CH and suggest ways to move beyond. We discuss language, music and animal song in the context of their function and motivation and further integrate problems and issues that are less commonly addressed in the context of language, including continuous event spaces, features of sound and timbre, representation of temporality and interactions of multiple parallel feature streams. We discuss these aspects in the light of recent theoretical, cognitive, neuroscientific and modelling research in the domains of music, language and animal song. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermal Analysis of a Structural Solution for Sustainable, Modular and Prefabricated Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isopescu, D. N.; Maxineasa, S. G.; Neculai, O.

    2017-06-01

    In the construction field, the design principles for an efficient and operational use of buildings and a minimal impact on the environment are essential aspects of sustainable development. In this regard, several aspects must be taken into consideration, such as: durability, easy maintenance, flexibility in interior design, and reduced energy consumption. Decreasing energy consumption in buildings during the service life (heating / cooling / drinking water / electricity) can mean lower costs, but also a lower impact on the environment. The paper presents the thermal analysis for a GF+1F height structure, consisting of several identical, adjacent and / or overlapped metallic cubic modules. The spaces inside this cubes ensemble solve the functionality of a family home building. The good carrying capacity, the rapidity of execution, the superior degree of thermal insulation and the minimum losses of material in execution were the main advantages provided by this structural solution. Regarding the thermal comfort for the users of this constructive system, the thermal analysis showed that the internal temperatures are constant and uniform, without cold surfaces or temperature fluctuations. In addition, humidity is controlled and there is no risk of condensation.

  19. Structural wood products in onshore buildings at Naval Station Norfolk, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever

    2003-01-01

    As of December 31, 2000, there were 603 buildings at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Norfolk with a combined floor area of nearly 17.3 million ft2. In one-third of these buildings, structural wood products were used in one or more major structural building applications, utilizing an estimated 11.6 million board feet of lumber, 0.4 million ft2 (3/8-in. basis) of structural...

  20. Surface structure of oriented PET films

    CERN Document Server

    Kirov, K

    2001-01-01

    crystallinity and the level of molecular orientation of the polymer are highest at the film surface and gradually decrease away from it. The same trend for an increase in structural order nearer the film surface was observed in a series of PET films drawn uniaxially in laboratory conditions. The observed strong dependence of stratification in the oriented films on drawing ratio, lead to the conclusion, that the structural gradients arise as a result of viscous flow. The molecular mechanism of stratification is discussed and leads to the idea of enhanced chain mobility at the PET film surface. The idea is in line with recent studies showing a depression of the glass transition temperature of free polymer surfaces. In addition, the results on structure formation in PET films during drawing, give support to the existing view that polymer crystallisation is assisted by a spinodal-decomposition nucleation process. Polymer films are widely used as substrates in nano-composite materials and therefore have to possess...

  1. 49 CFR 1242.26 - Miscellaneous building and structures (account XX-19-28).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Miscellaneous building and structures (account XX-19-28). 1242.26 Section 1242.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.26 Miscellaneous building and structures (account...

  2. Structurally tuned iridescent surfaces inspired by nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deparis, Olivier; Rassart, Marie; Vandenbem, Cedric; Welch, Victoria; Vigneron, Jean Pol [Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, University of Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Lucas, Stephane [Laboratoire d' Analyses par Reactions Nucleaires, University of Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur (Belgium)], E-mail: olivier.deparis@fundp.ac.be

    2008-01-15

    Iridescent surfaces exhibit vivid colours which change with the angle of incidence or viewing due to optical wave interference in the multilayer structure present at the wavelength scale underneath the surface. In nature, one can find examples of iridescent Coleoptera for which the hue changes either greatly or slightly with the angle. Because these species typically make these structures from a single biological material (usually chitin) and air or water as the low refractive index component, they have evolved by adjusting the layer thicknesses in order to display quite different iridescent aspects. Taking inspiration from this proven strategy, we have designed and fabricated periodic TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer films in order to demonstrate the concept of structurally tuned iridescent surfaces. Titanium or silicon oxide layers were deposited on a glass substrate using dc reactive or RF magnetron sputtering techniques, respectively. Two structures were designed for which the period and the TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} layer thickness ratio were varied in such a way that the films displayed radically different iridescent aspects: a reddish-to-greenish changing hue and a stable bluish hue. The fabricated samples were characterized through specular reflectance/transmittance measurements. Modelling of transmittance spectra using standard multilayer film theory confirmed the high quality of the twelve-period Bragg reflectors. The chromaticity coordinates, which were calculated from measured reflectance spectra taken at different angles, were in accordance with theoretical predictions.

  3. Superhydrophobic Behavior on Nano-structured Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    Superhydrophobic behavior is observed in natural occurrences and has been thoroughly studied over the past few years. Water repellant properties on uniform arrays of vertically aligned nano-cones were investigated to determine the highest achievable contact angle (a measure of water drop repellency), which is measured from the reference plane on which the water drop sits to the tangent line of the point at which the drop makes contact with the reference plane. At low aspect ratios (height vs. width of the nano-cones), surface tension pulls the water into the nano-cone array, resulting in a wetted surface. Higher aspect ratios reverse the effect of the surface tension, resulting in a larger contact angle that causes water drops to roll off the surface. Fiber drawing, bundling, and redrawing are used to produce the structured array glass composite surface. Triple-drawn fibers are fused together, annealed, and sliced into thin wafers. The surface of the composite glass is etched to form nano-cones through a differential etching process and then coated with a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (SAM). Cone aspect ratios can be varied through changes in the chemistry and concentration of the etching acid solution. Superhydrophobic behavior occurs at contact angles >150 and it is predicted and measured that optimal behavior is achieved when the aspect ratio is 4:1, which displays contact angles >=175 .

  4. Measurement of PCB emissions from building surfaces using a novel portable emission test cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    the original source to adjacent materials, indoor air and via adsorption from the air to indoor surfaces, causing secondary contaminations. Remediation of buildings with unsatisfactory indoor air concentrations is a complex and difficult task due to the secondary contamination of building materials......Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in building materials like caulks and paints from 1930 e1970s and in some cases that caused elevated PCB concentrations in the indoor air at levels considered harmful to occupant health. PCBs are semivolatile organic compounds and capable of spreading from......, the chamber was used for determining emissions from PCB-containing building materials in the field as well as remediated walls. The measurements showed that sorption of PCBs to chamber walls was insignificant after 2-4 days of exposure to the source. Over a period of two weeks emission rates did not change...

  5. Advances on surface structural determination by LEED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Edmar A; De Carvalho, Vagner E [Departamento de Fisica, ICEX, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-090, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); De Castilho, Caio M C, E-mail: edmar@fisica.ufmg.br [Grupo de Fisica de SuperfIcies e Materiais, Instituto de Fisica and Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia em Energia e Ambiente (CIENAM)INCT-E and A, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario da Federacao, 40170-115, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2011-08-03

    In the last 40 years, low energy electron diffraction (LEED) has proved to be the most reliable quantitative technique for surface structural determination. In this review, recent developments related to the theory that gives support to LEED structural determination are discussed under a critical analysis of the main theoretical approximation-the muffin-tin calculation. The search methodologies aimed at identifying the best matches between theoretical and experimental intensity versus voltage curves are also considered, with the most recent procedures being reviewed in detail. (topical review)

  6. Advances on surface structural determination by LEED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Edmar A; de Castilho, Caio M C; de Carvalho, Vagner E

    2011-08-03

    In the last 40 years, low energy electron diffraction (LEED) has proved to be the most reliable quantitative technique for surface structural determination. In this review, recent developments related to the theory that gives support to LEED structural determination are discussed under a critical analysis of the main theoretical approximation-the muffin-tin calculation. The search methodologies aimed at identifying the best matches between theoretical and experimental intensity versus voltage curves are also considered, with the most recent procedures being reviewed in detail.

  7. Structured light for focusing surface plasmon polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z J; Tan, P S; Zhu, S W; Yuan, X-C

    2010-05-10

    We propose a structureless method for focusing surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a flat metal film under illumination of radially polarized cogwheel-like structured light beams. Without metal structures, the locally induced SPPs can further be propagated following the predefined patterns to form symmetric focal spots with dimensions beyond diffraction limit. Benefiting from the radial polarization, this method can be employed to pattern various center-symmetric evanescent distributions for generating SPPs reconfigurably. The SPPs will be propagating and focusing in radial directions.

  8. Bacterial cell surface structures in Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, Nataniel; Kasperkiewicz, Katarzyna; Radziejewska-Lebrecht, Joanna; Skurnik, Mikael

    2012-06-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a widespread member of the family of Enterobacteriaceae that contains both non-virulent and virulent isolates. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, especially belonging to serotypes O:3, O:5,27, O:8 and O:9 are etiologic agents of yersiniosis in animals and humans. Y. enterocolitica cell surface structures that play a significant role in virulence have been subject to many investigations. These include outer membrane (OM) glycolipids such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) and several cell surface adhesion proteins present only in virulent Y. enterocolitica, i.e., Inv, YadA and Ail. While the yadA gene is located on the Yersinia virulence plasmid the Ail, Inv, LPS and ECA are chromosomally encoded. These structures ensure the correct architecture of the OM, provide adhesive properties as well as resistance to antimicrobial peptides and to host innate immune response mechanisms.

  9. Performance of a selective-surface trombe wall in a small commercial building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Sokol, F.

    1981-03-01

    The design and construction of a 100% passive solar building utilizing a clerestory and a trombe wall are described. The use of three selectively absorptive and emissive coverings on the trombe wall outer surface are investigated. One of the coverings and its laminating adhesive are tested for degradation after a year of exposure under normal operating conditions. Ambient temperature, room air temperature, trombe wall interior and exterior surface temperatures, and solar radiation are measured.

  10. Surface dispersive energy determined with IGC-ID in anti-graffiti-coated building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona-Quiroga, Paula María; Rubio, J; Sánchez, M. J.; Martínez-Ramírez, Sagrario.; Blanco-Varela, María Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Coating building materials with anti-graffiti treatments hinders or prevents spray paint adherence by generating low energy surfaces. This paper describes the effect of coating cement paste, lime mortar, granite, limestone and brick with two anti-graffiti agents (a water-base fluoroalkylsiloxane, “Protectosil Antigraffiti®”, and a Zr ormosil) on the dispersive component of the surface energy of these five construction materials. The agents were rediluted in their respective solvents at concen...

  11. How to Build Your Network? A Structural Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Moskvina, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Creating new ties in a social network facilitates knowledge exchange and affects positional advantage. In this paper, we study the process, which we call network building, of establishing ties between two existing social networks in order to reach certain structural goals. We focus on the case when one of the two networks consists only of a single member and motivate this case from two perspectives. The first perspective is socialization: we ask how a newcomer can forge relationships with an existing network to place herself at the center. We prove that obtaining optimal solutions to this problem is NP-complete, and present several efficient algorithms to solve this problem and compare them with each other. The second perspective is network expansion: we investigate how a network may preserve or reduce its diameter through linking with a new node, hence ensuring small distance between its members. We give two algorithms for this problem. For both perspectives the experiment demonstrates that a small number of...

  12. Single crystal surface structure by bragg scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1985-01-01

    X-ray diffraction is becoming an important tool in the measurements of surface structures. Single crystalline samples are used as in Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED)-studies. The X-ray technique is somewhat more involved due to the need of bright, collimated photon sources, in general...... synchrotron X-rays, and of very accurate angular settings in the ultrahigh-vacuum environment of the sample. We present the technique and discuss examples of experimental results....

  13. Agent Types and Structures based on Analysis of Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1997-01-01

    Based on an anaysis of building design an initial division of design agent into five classes: information collectors, generators, modifiers amd evaluators is presented.......Based on an anaysis of building design an initial division of design agent into five classes: information collectors, generators, modifiers amd evaluators is presented....

  14. Chemical functionalization of surfaces for building three-dimensional engineered biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marco E.; Mansur, Alexandra A. P.; Mansur, Herman S.

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a new approach for developing biosensors based on enzymatic systems with designed three-dimensional structures. Silica glass slides were chemically functionalized at surfaces by reacting with organosilanes, 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPTES), and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), using sol-gel process at room temperature. The functionalization of the supports was characterized by contact angle measurements and FTIR spectroscopy. The first enzyme layer was covalently immobilized to the support by a bi-functional linker (glutaraldehyde). The second enzyme layer was deposited using the protein conjugation method based on the high affinity "avidin-biotin" interactions. Each enzyme was biotinylated before being added to the nanostructured system and avidin was used as the binder between consecutive enzyme layers. The biochemical response was assayed at all stages to certify that the enzymatic bioactivity was retained throughout the entire layer-by-layer (LBL) process. The model of building 3D-enzymatic systems was evaluated using the enzymatic structure with glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). It was verified that the amino-modified support presented the highest bioactivity response compared to the other chemical functionalities. Moreover, the bienzyme nanostructure demonstrated relevant biochemical activity upon injecting the glucose substrate into the system. Finally, as a proof of concept, the bienzyme systems were assayed using real samples of regular and sugar-free soft drinks where they effectively behaved as structured biosensor for glucose with the built-in 3D hybrid architecture. Based on the results, it can be foreseen the development of promising new nanomaterials for several analytical applications such as monitoring the quality of food and beverages for nutrition purposes.

  15. Rigidly framed earth retaining structures thermal soil structure interaction of buildings supporting unbalanced lateral earth pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Aboumoussa, Walid

    2014-01-01

    Structures placed on hillsides often present a number of challenges and a limited number of economical choices for site design. An option sometimes employed is to use the building frame as a retaining element, comprising a Rigidly Framed Earth Retaining Structure (RFERS). The relationship between temperature and earth pressure acting on RFERS, is explored in this monograph through a 4.5 year monitoring program of a heavily instrumented in service structure. The data indicated that the coefficient of earth pressure behind the monitored RFERS had a strong linear correlation with temperature. The study also revealed that thermal cycles, rather than lateral earth pressure, were the cause of failure in many structural elements. The book demonstrates that depending on the relative stiffness of the retained soil mass and that of the structural frame, the developed lateral earth pressure, during thermal expansion, can reach magnitudes several times larger than those determined using classical earth pressure theories....

  16. Structural and spectroscopic studies of surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Laitenberger, P

    1996-01-01

    and on a 10ML thick Ar spacer layer, a remarkable substrate dependence is revealed. A new STM-based technique for fabricating simple metal-structures with dimensions in the 10-100nm regime which are partially electrically isolated from their environment was developed in collaboration with Dr. L. A. Silva. This technique employs the STM tip as a mechanical nanofabrication tool to machine gaps into a thin metallic film deposited on an insulating substrate, which laterally confine and electrically isolate the desired metal regions. Several metal structures, such as nanoscale wires and pads, were successfully created. Finally, the conceptual basis and present stage of construction of a new surface analytical tool, the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer (SPELS), is discussed. The SPELS offers the exciting prospect of collecting structural as well as spectroscopic information with a spatial resolution of a few nanometres. Once successfully developed, it will be ideally suited for spectroscopic studies of nanos...

  17. Bacillus megaterium mediated mineralization of calcium carbonate as biogenic surface treatment of green building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Navdeep Kaur; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Mukherjee, Abhijit

    2013-12-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation is a biomineralization process that has various applications in remediation and restoration of range of building materials. In the present study, calcifying bacteria, Bacillus megaterium SS3 isolated from calcareous soil was applied as biosealant to enhance the durability of low energy, green building materials (soil-cement blocks). This bacterial isolate produced high amounts of urease, carbonic anhydrase, extra polymeric substances and biofilm. The calcium carbonate polymorphs produced by B. megaterium SS3 were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transmission infra red spectroscopy. These results suggested that calcite is the most predominant carbonate formed by this bacteria followed by vaterite. Application of B. megaterium SS3 as biogenic surface treatment led to 40 % decrease in water absorption, 31 % decrease in porosity and 18 % increase in compressive strength of low energy building materials. From the present investigation, it is clear that surface treatment of building materials by B. megaterium SS3 is very effective and eco friendly way of biodeposition of coherent carbonates that enhances the durability of building materials.

  18. Investigation to determine the vulnerability of reclaimed land to building collapse using near surface geophysical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewoyin, O. O.; Joshua, E. O.; Akinyemi, M. L.; Omeje, M.; Joel, E. S.

    2017-05-01

    Adequate knowledge of the geology and the structures of the subsurface would assist engineers in the best way to carry out constructions to avoid building collapse. In this study, near surface seismic refraction method was used to determine the geotechnical parameters of the subsurface, the results obtained were correlated with the result of borehole data drilled in the study area. The results of seismic refraction method delineated mostly two distinct layers with the first layer having the lower geotechnical parameters. It was observed that in the first layer, the Young’s modulus ranged from 0.168 to 0.458 GPa, shear modulus ranged between 0.068 and 0.185 GPa, the bulk modulus ranged between 0.106 and 0.287 GPa while the bearing capacity ranged from 0.083 to 0.139 MPa. On the other hand, in the second layer, the Young’s modulus ranged between 3.717 and 7.018 GPa, shear modulus ranged from 1.500 to 2.830 GPa while the bulk modulus ranged from 2.383 to 4.449 GPa. Significantly, the formation of the second layer appeared to be more competent than the first layer, therefore engineering construction in this geological setting is recommended to be founded on the second layer at depth ranging between 7 and 16 m.

  19. Field Measurements of PCB emissions from Building Surfaces Using a New Portable Emission Test Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Haven, Rune; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure PCB-emission rates from indoor surfaces on-site in contaminated buildings using a newly developed portable emission test cell. Emission rates were measured from six different surfaces; three untreated surfaces and three remediated surfaces in a contaminated...... Danish elementary school. The emission test cell was capable of measuring widely varying specific emission rates of PCBtotal (8-3357 ng/(m2·h)). Remediated measures were found to reduce the emission rates by more than 96% compared with similar untreated surfaces. Emission rates may be affected...... by the conditions in the test cell (such as clean air and increased air velocity) and thereby potentially be different without the test cell attached to the surface. Still the measured emission rates obtained by using the test cell are valuable for determination of mitigation strategies. Additionally the test cell...

  20. Neisserial surface lipoproteins: structure, function and biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, Yogesh; Shin, Hyejin E; Bateman, Thomas J; Moraes, Trevor F

    2017-03-01

    The surface of many Gram-negative bacteria contains lipidated protein molecules referred to as surface lipoproteins or SLPs. SLPs play critical roles in host immune evasion, nutrient acquisition and regulation of the bacterial stress response. The focus of this review is on the SLPs present in Neisseria, a genus of bacteria that colonise the mucosal surfaces of animals. Neisseria contains two pathogens of medical interest, namely Neisseria meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae. Several SLPs have been identified in Neisseria and their study has elucidated key strategies used by these pathogens to survive inside the human body. Herein, we focus on the identification, structure and function of SLPs that have been identified in Neisseria. We also survey the translocation pathways used by these SLPs to reach the cell surface. Specifically, we elaborate on the strategies used by neisserial SLPs to translocate across the outer membrane with an emphasis on Slam, a novel outer membrane protein that has been implicated in SLP biogenesis. Taken together, the study of SLPs in Neisseria illustrates the widespread roles played by this family of proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Electronic Structure and Catalysis on Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Jeff; Norskov, Jens K.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2002-10-01

    The powerful computational resources available to scientists today, together with recent improvements in electronic structure calculation algorithms, are providing important new tools for researchers in the fields of surface science and catalysis. In this review, we discuss first principles calculations that are now capable of providing qualitative and, in many cases, quantitative insights into surface chemistry. The calculations can aid in the establishment of chemisorption trends across the transition metals, in the characterization of reaction pathways on individual metals, and in the design of novel catalysts. First principles studies provide an excellent fundamental complement to experimental investigations of the above phenomena and can often allow the elucidation of important mechanistic details that would be difficult, if not impossible, to determine from experiments alone.

  2. Structure and thermodynamics of surface recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Interactions of the surface glycoprotein, gp120, with the receptors of host cells define the pathogenesis of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS. gp120 is made of several disulfide-bridged loops--the amino acid sequences of some of these loops are fairly conserved whereas the rest are variable. The third variable (V3) loop has been the target of vaccine design for quite some time since this loop is involved in various steps of viral pathogenesis. However, this loop also happens to be the most variable one. The authors have carried out structural and immunological studies to determine the sequence-structure-antigenicity correlations of the HIV-1 V3 loops. This resulted in the identification of a secondary structure at the tip of the V3 loop that remains invariant in spite of the sequence variation. The authors designed a multi-valent V3-based antigen that presents multiple copies of the same tip element several times in the same structure. During the course of this project, they realized that the protective epitopes of gp120 should be judged in the context of the native structure. Therefore, the authors developed a method to obtain a model of gp120 that is consistent with all the immunology and virology data. This model is useful in choosing or designing gp120 subdomains for vaccine development.

  3. APPLICATIONS OF SURFACE SPLINEFUNCTIONS TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS IN COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HanJinyan; YuZhiwei

    1996-01-01

    A surface spline function is used to fit a coal seam surface in structural analysis in coal geology. From the surface spline function, the first and second partial derivatives can also be derived and used to structural analysis, especially for recognition of the concealed structures. The detection of structures related to faulting is emphasized.

  4. Nanoscale surface topographies for structural colors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik

    The thesis describes and demonstrates the possibilities for utilization of structural colors in mass fabricated plastic products as replacement for or in combination with pigments and inks. The motivation is the possible advantages related to re-cycling and re-use of plastic by limiting the number...... of materials in a given plastic part. Also, the reduction of process steps and materials leads to a reduction of the fabrication costs. In the thesis only surfaces, which may be fabricated using replication based methods, such as injection molding, are considered. Nanostructures with sizes comparable......-polymer interface is suppressed. This improves the ability to see through a clear plastic in the presence of specular reflection. The tapered nanostructures are also utilized to enhance the chroma of pigmented polymers. Larger tapered structures fabricated in a similar manor are shown to work as color filters...

  5. Vibrations in a Multi-Storey Lightweight Building Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a quantification of the changes in vibration level that can be expected in a lightweight multi-storey wooden building due to reduced connection stiffness or added nonstructural mass. Firstly, the impact of changes in the floor-to-wall connections is examined. Secondly, a study...... is performed regarding variations of the vibration level due to different placements of nonstructural mass inside the building. The analyses are carried out by means of a modular three-dimensional finite-element model. Each floor and wall panel is modelled in high detail, including door and window openings...

  6. Thermoresponsive polymer induced sweating surfaces as an efficient way to passively cool buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotzetter, A.C.C.; Schumacher, C.M.; Bubenhofer, S.B.; Grass, R.N.; Gerber, L.C.; Zeltner, M.; Stark, W.J. [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-10-09

    Buildings can be effectively cooled by a bioinspired sweating-like action based on thermoresponsive hydrogels (PNIPAM), which press out their stored water when exceeding the lower critical solution temperature. The surface temperature is reduced by 15 C compared to that of a conventional hydrogel (pHEMA) and by 25 C compared to the bare ground. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Functional Perfluoroalkyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (F-POSS): Building Blocks for Low Surface Energy Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Functional Perfluoroalkyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (F...long chain fluorinated alkyl groups ranging from 6-12 carbon atoms in length. Herein, a disilanol perfluoroalkyl polyhedral oligomeric...FUNCTIONAL PERFLUOROALKYL POLYHEDRAL OLIGOMERIC SILSESQUIOXANES (F-POSS): BUILDING BLOCKS FOR LOW SURFACE ENERGY MATERIA LS Sean M Rami,.e:, Yvonne Dia

  8. ANALYSIS OF SUFFICIENCY OF THE BEARING CAPACITY OF BUILDING STRUCTURES OF OPERATING SITES OF MAIN BUILDINGS OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseeva Ekaterina Leonidovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Upon examination of eleven main buildings of power plants, analysis of defects and damages of building structures was performed. Thereafter, the damageability of principal bearing structures of main buildings of thermal plants was analyzed. It was identified that the fastest growing defects and damages were concentrated in the structures of operating sites. The research of the rate of development of the most frequent damages and defects made it possible to conclude that internal corrosion of the reinforcing steel was the most dangerous defect, as far as the reinforced concrete elements of operating sites were concerned. Methods of mathematical statistics were applied to identify the reinforcing steel development pattern inside reinforced concrete elements of floors of operating sites. It was identified that the probability of corrosion of reinforced concrete elements of operating sites was distributed in accordance with the demonstrative law. Based on these data, calculation of strength of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams was performed in terms of their regular sections, given the natural loads and the realistic condition of structures. As a result, dependence between the bearing capacity reserve ratio and the corrosion development pattern was identified for reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of operating sites. In order to analyze the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of building structures of operating sites in relation to their time in commission, equations were derived to identify the nature of dependence between the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of the operating sites and their time in commission.

  9. Metal-oxide based nanoobjects: reactivity, building blocks for polymeric structures and structural variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Achim; Roy, Soumyajit

    2002-12-01

    From the unique 'library' of molybdenum-oxide based building blocks/fragments under reducing conditions in aqueous solution a huge variety of nanoobjects, allowing specific reactions at well-defined positions, can be generated. This enables us to perform a new type of nanochemistry. Examples include the well-known molecular big-wheel of the type {Mo176} and big-ball of the type {Mo132} including their derivatives which are considered here. In addition, the by far largest structurally well-characterised cluster having 368 molybdenum atoms with the shape of a lemon is outlined and discussed. The bibliography includes 71 references.

  10. Design of a lunar surface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghi, Sohrob

    The next step for manned exploration and settlement is a return to the Moon. In such a return, the most challenging task is the construction of structures for habitation, considering the Moon's hostile environment. Therefore the question is: What is the best way to erect habitable structures on the lunar surface? Given the cost associated with bringing material to the Moon, In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is viewed by most as the basis for a successful manned exploration and settlement of the Solar system. Along these lines, we propose an advanced concept where the use of freeform fabrication technologies by autonomous mini-robots can form the basis for habitable lunar structures. Also, locally-available magnesium is proposed as the structural material. While it is one of the most pervasive metals in the regolith, magnesium has been only suggested only briefly as a viable option in the past. Therefore, a study has been conducted on magnesium and its alloys, taking into account the availability of the alloying elements on the Moon. An igloo-shaped magnesium structure, covered by sandbags of regolith shielding and supported on a sintered regolith foundation, is considered as a potential design of a lunar base, as well as the test bed for the proposed vision. Three studies are carried out: First a static analysis is conducted which proves the feasibility of the proposed material and method. Second, a thermal analysis is carried out to study the effect of the regolith shielding as well as the sensitivity of such designs to measurement uncertainties of regolith and sintered thermal properties. The lunar thermal environment is modeled for a potential site at 88º latitude in the lunar South Pole Region. Our analysis shows that the uncertainties are in an acceptable range where a three-meter thick shield is considered. Also, the required capacity of a thermal rejection system is estimated, choosing the thermal loads to be those of the Space Station modules. In the

  11. Finding the displacement of wood structure in heritage building by 3D laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Tsai, Y. L.; Wang, R. Z.; Lin, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    Heritage buildings are highly prone to long term damage from the microclimate, scourge and vandalism, which can result in damaged materials, structures, painting and cultural heritage items. This study will focus on finding the displacement of wood structural members through the use of a 3D laser scanner and the 4D concept of time. The results will compare the scans from different periods to find the difference (if any) in the structural member position. Wood structures usually consist of numerous wood members connected to form the structure. However, these members can be damaged in various ways such as physical mechanisms, chemical reactions, and biological corrosion. When damage to the wood structure occurs, the structural displacement can be affected, and if affected severely, can lead to a building collapse. Monitoring of the structural displacement is the best way to discover damage immediately and to preserve the heritage building. However, the Cultural Heritage Preservation Law in Taiwan prohibits the installation of monitoring instruments (e.g strain gauge, accelerometer) in historic structures (heritage buildings). Scanning the wood structure with 3D lasers is the most non-intrusive method and quickly achieves displacement through visualization. The displacement scan results can be compared with different periods and different members to analyze the severity of damage. Once the 3D scanner is installed, the whole building is scanned, and point clouds created to build the visual building model. The structural displacement can be checked via the building model and the differences are measured between each member to find the high risk damaged areas or members with large displacement. Early detection of structural damage is the most effective way means of preservation.

  12. Magnetization of Steel Building Materials and Structures in the Natural Geomagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Čermáková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the physical basis of the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials and shows their relationships with external geomagnetic field. It graphically processes the experimental data detected by an HMR magnetometer. Taking into account the natural geomagnetic field under the effects of steel U profiles, variations of the natural geomagnetic field in a steel structure building are indicated and the potential existence of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS in these types of buildings is pointed out. 

  13. Femtosecond laser surface structuring technique for making human enamel and dentin surfaces superwetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo, Chunlei

    2013-12-01

    It is known that good wettability of enamel and dentin surfaces is a key factor in enhancing adhesion of restorative materials in dentistry. Here, we report on a femtosecond laser surface texturing approach that makes both the enamel and dentine surfaces superwetting. In contrast to the traditional chemical etching that yields random surface structures, this new approach produces engineered surface structures. The surface structure engineered and tested here is an array of femtosecond laser-produced parallel microgrooves that generates a strong capillary force. Due to the powerful capillary action, water is rapidly sucked into this engineered surface structure and spreads even on a vertical surface.

  14. Building disc structure and galaxy properties through angular momentum: The DARK SAGE semi-analytic model

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Adam R H; Mutch, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    We present the new semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution, DARK SAGE, a heavily modified version of the publicly available SAGE code. The model is designed for detailed evolution of galactic discs. We evolve discs in a series of annuli with fixed specific angular momentum, which allows us to make predictions for the radial and angular-momentum structure of galaxies. Most physical processes, including all channels of star formation and associated feedback, are performed in these annuli. We present the surface density profiles of our model spiral galaxies, both as a function of radius and specific angular momentum, and find the discs naturally build a pseduobulge-like component. Our main results are focussed on predictions relating to the integrated mass--specific angular momentum relation of stellar discs. The model produces a distinct sequence between these properties in remarkable agreement with recent observational literature. We investigate the impact Toomre disc instabilities have on shaping this sequenc...

  15. Systemic Thinking on the Building of Enterprises' "Three Cycle" Integration Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BaoshanLi; MinghuiQian

    2004-01-01

    Taking into consideration the characteristics of nowadays society, this paper has advanced the systemic thinking on the building of Enterprises' "Three Cycle" Integration Structure. After pointing out, the principles of optimization between theoretic structure and executive structure, this paper has brought forward the Enterprises' "Three Cycle" Integration Structure and its inherent relationship among each cycle.

  16. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Lincoln Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  17. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Warren Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  18. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Montgomery Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  19. Approaches to optimum selection of space-planning and structural solutions of low-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakova, Natalya; Minaev, Nikolay; Filushina, Kristina; Gusakov, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the development of approaches to optimum selection of space-planning and structural solutions of low-rise buildings for different kinds of territories. The aim of the study is to develop a system of criteria that influence the choice of optimum space-planning and structural solutions of buildings and structures aimed at enhancement of capital investment efficiency, energy and resource efficiency and creating comfortable living conditions for people. Developed solutions can be applied during implementation of investment construction projects of low-rise housing at different kinds of territories based on the local building materials.

  20. Surface activity and radiation field measurements of the TMI-2 reactor building gross decontamination experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C V

    1983-10-01

    Surface samples were collected from concrete and metal surfaces within the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building on December 15 and 17, 1981 and again on March 25 and 26, 1982. The Reactor Building was decontaminated by hydrolasing during the period between these dates. The collected samples were analyzed for radionuclide concentration at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The sampling equipment and procedures, and the analysis methods and results are discussed. The measured mean surface concentrations of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr on the 305-ft elevation floor before decontamination were, respectively, 3.6 +- 0.9 and 0.17 +- 0.04 ..mu..Ci/cm/sup 2/. Their mean concentrations on the 347-ft elevation floor were about the same. On both elevations, walls were found to be considerably less contaminated than floors. The fractions of the core inventories of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, and /sup 129/I deposited on Reactor Building surfaces prior to decontamination were calculated using their mean concentrations on various types of surfaces. The calculated values for these three nuclides are 3.5 +- 0.4 E-4, 2.4 +- 0.8 E-5, and 5.7 +- 0.5 E-4, respectively. The decontamination operations reduced the /sup 137/Cs surface activity on the 305- and 347-ft elevations by factors of 20 and 13, respectively. The /sup 90/Sr surface activity reduction was the same for both floors, that being a factor of 30. On the whole, decontamination of vertical surfaces was not achieved. Beta and gamma exposure rates that were measured during surface sampling were examined to determine the degree to which they correlated with measured surface activities. The data were fit with power functions of the form y = ax/sup b/. As might be expected, the beta exposure rates showed the best correlation. Of the data sets fit with the power function, the set of December 1981 beta exposure exhibited the least scatter. The coefficient of determination for this set was calculated to be 0.915.

  1. Structure of the airflow above surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Marc; Veron, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    Weather, climate and upper ocean patterns are controlled by the exchanges of momentum, heat, mass, and energy across the ocean surface. These fluxes are, in turn, influenced by the small-scale physics at the wavy air-sea interface. We present laboratory measurements of the fine-scale airflow structure above waves, achieved in over 15 different wind-wave conditions, with wave ages Cp/u* ranging from 1.4 to 66.7 (where Cp is the peak phase speed of the waves, and u* the air friction velocity). The experiments were performed in the large (42-m long) wind-wave-current tank at University of Delaware's Air-Sea Interaction laboratory (USA). A combined Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Induced Fluorescence system was specifically developed for this study, and provided two-dimensional airflow velocity measurement as low as 100 um above the air-water interface. Starting at very low wind speeds (U10~2m/s), we directly observe coherent turbulent structures within the buffer and logarithmic layers of the airflow above the air-water interface, whereby low horizontal velocity air is ejected away from the surface, and higher velocity fluid is swept downward. Wave phase coherent quadrant analysis shows that such turbulent momentum flux events are wave-phase dependent. Airflow separation events are directly observed over young wind waves (Cp/u*wind waves (Cp/u*=3.7). Over slightly older wind waves (Cp/u* = 6.5), the measured wave-induced airflow perturbations are qualitatively consistent with linear critical layer theory.

  2. Eurocodes and the structural safety of existing buildings - Considering the publication of the Dutch NEN 8700

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1992 there have been a number of proposals to renew calculation methods available to assess the structural safety of existing buildings. But without operational results. Upon publication of the Eurocodes NL decided to renew and to include them in the Dutch building regulations. The question wa

  3. Eurocodes and the structural safety of existing buildings - Considering the publication of the Dutch NEN 8700

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1992 there have been a number of proposals to renew calculation methods available to assess the structural safety of existing buildings. But without operational results. Upon publication of the Eurocodes NL decided to renew and to include them in the Dutch building regulations. The question

  4. Thermal Tomography of Asteroid Surface Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the surface thermal inertia of an asteroid can provide insight into surface structure: porous material has a lower thermal inertia than rock. We develop a means to estimate thermal inertia values of asteroids and use it to show that thermal inertia appears to increase with spin period in the case of main-belt asteroids (MBAs). Similar behavior is found on the basis of thermophysical modeling for near-Earth objects (NEOs). We interpret our results in terms of rapidly increasing material density and thermal conductivity with depth, and provide evidence that thermal inertia increases by factors of 10 (MBAs) to 20 (NEOs) within a depth of just 10 cm. Our results are consistent with a very general picture of rapidly changing material properties in the topmost regolith layers of asteroids and have important implications for calculations of the Yarkovsky effect, including its perturbation of the orbits of potentially hazardous objects and those of asteroid family members after the break-up event. Eviden...

  5. Protein-mediated surface structuring in biomembranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggio B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipids and proteins of biomembranes exhibit highly dissimilar conformations, geometrical shapes, amphipathicity, and thermodynamic properties which constrain their two-dimensional molecular packing, electrostatics, and interaction preferences. This causes inevitable development of large local tensions that frequently relax into phase or compositional immiscibility along lateral and transverse planes of the membrane. On the other hand, these effects constitute the very codes that mediate molecular and structural changes determining and controlling the possibilities for enzymatic activity, apposition and recombination in biomembranes. The presence of proteins constitutes a major perturbing factor for the membrane sculpturing both in terms of its surface topography and dynamics. We will focus on some results from our group within this context and summarize some recent evidence for the active involvement of extrinsic (myelin basic protein, integral (Folch-Lees proteolipid protein and amphitropic (c-Fos and c-Jun proteins, as well as a membrane-active amphitropic phosphohydrolytic enzyme (neutral sphingomyelinase, in the process of lateral segregation and dynamics of phase domains, sculpturing of the surface topography, and the bi-directional modulation of the membrane biochemical reactivity.

  6. Thermal Tomography of Asteroid Surface Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alan W.; Drube, Line

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the surface thermal inertia of an asteroid can provide insight into its surface structure: porous material has a lower thermal inertia than rock. We develop a means to estimate thermal inertia values of asteroids and use it to show that thermal inertia appears to increase with spin period in the case of main-belt asteroids (MBAs). Similar behavior is found on the basis of thermophysical modeling for near-Earth objects (NEOs). We interpret our results in terms of rapidly increasing material density and thermal conductivity with depth, and provide evidence that thermal inertia increases by factors of 10 (MBAs) to 20 (NEOs) within a depth of just 10 cm. Our results are consistent with a very general picture of rapidly changing material properties in the topmost regolith layers of asteroids and have important implications for calculations of the Yarkovsky effect, including its perturbation of the orbits of potentially hazardous objects and those of asteroid family members after the break-up event. Evidence of a rapid increase of thermal inertia with depth is also an important result for studies of the ejecta-enhanced momentum transfer of impacting vehicles (“kinetic impactors”) in planetary defense.

  7. Build-up dynamics of heavy metals deposited on impermeable urban surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, D; Cochrane, T A; O'Sullivan, A

    2012-12-30

    A method using thin boards (3 cm thick, 0.56 m(2)) comprising different paving materials typically used in urban environments (2 asphalt types and concrete) was employed to specifically investigate air-borne deposition dynamics of TSS, zinc, copper and lead. Boards were exposed at an urban car park near vehicular traffic to determine the rate of contaminant build-up over a 13-day dry period. Concentration profiles from simulated rainfall wash-off were used to determine contaminant yields at different antecedent dry days. Maximum contaminant yields after 13 days of exposure were 2.7 kg ha(-1) for TSS, 35 g ha(-1) zinc, 2.3 g ha(-1) copper and 0.4 g ha(-1) lead. Accumulation of all contaminants increased over the first week and levelled off thereafter, supporting theoretical assumptions that contaminant accumulation on impervious surfaces asymptotically approaches a maximum. Comparison of different surface types showed approximately four times higher zinc concentrations in runoff from asphalt surfaces and two times higher TSS concentrations in runoff from concrete, which is attributed to different physical and chemical compositions of the pavement types. Contaminant build-up and wash-off behaviours were modelled using exponential and saturation functions commonly applied in the US EPA's Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) showing good correlation between measured and modelled concentrations. Maximum build-up, half-saturation time, build-up rate constants and wash-off coefficients, necessary for stormwater contaminant modelling, were determined for the four contaminants studied. These parameters are required to model contaminant concentrations in urban runoff assisting in stormwater management decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. VIBRATION OF FRAME BUILDING STRUCTURES CAUSED BY UNDERGROUND TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Аliavdin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains investigations on element vibration of a real residential 9-storeyed reinforced-concrete frame building induced by train movement in the shallow subway. A design model for a problem on propagation of bending waves within the limits of the typical fragment of a skeleton is presented in the paper. The steady state vibrations of a column and reinforced-concrete slab induced by an excited force which is equivalent to the impact of the subway trains have been investigated in the paper. The problem has been solved numerically on the basis of the ANSYS FEA program. Numerical results have been compared with an approximate analytical solution and data on full-scale experiment. A prediction technique for vibration propagation in the designed buildings is offered in the paper. 

  9. Surface protection treatments of highly porous building stones and sustainability problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calia, Angela; Lettieri, Maria Teresa; Matera, Loredana; Sileo, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The growing attention to the cultural value and the potential touristic attraction of the historic towns has led to increasing activities of rehabilitation and conservation of the historical built heritage. Chemical treatments have become a common practice for the protection of the stone building surface against the decay agents and traditional methods of protection, such as the application of sacrificial layers, have been even more neglected. The use of chemical products on large scale works on the historical built heritage draws the attention towards the sustainability of the conservation treatments, that involve peculiar features with relation to the different types of stones. Sustainability is undoubtedly in terms of human and environmental impact of the used products, so that the use of new formulations based on aqueous solvent should be preferred. Sustainability also means the equilibrium between the required performances of the treatments and the preservation of the original stone properties (colour, permeability, etc), namely harmlessness and effectiveness of the treatments. This can be a critical aspect when we deal with very porous stones, namely having porosity between 30-40%, that are widely used in many countries as traditional building materials. In most cases no information - or very general recommendations - is reported in the technical sheets of the conservation products with reference to the application to these types of stones. Relevant problems of compatibility can arise from the significant amounts absorbed by the high porous structure, as well as in terms of cost effectiveness of the treatments. In this work several calcarenites with different petro-physic characteristics and porosity between 30 and 45% are concerned for the assessment of the performance of two commercial water based products for stone protection, respectively an alcoxy-siloxane with low molecular weight and a modified organo-silane. This activity is a part of the Apulia

  10. Photoelectron spectroscopy bulk and surface electronic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Suga, Shigemasa

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is now becoming more and more required to investigate electronic structures of various solid materials in the bulk, on surfaces as well as at buried interfaces. The energy resolution was much improved in the last decade down to 1 meV in the low photon energy region. Now this technique is available from a few eV up to 10 keV by use of lasers, electron cyclotron resonance lamps in addition to synchrotron radiation and X-ray tubes. High resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) is now widely applied to band mapping of materials. It attracts a wide attention from both fundamental science and material engineering. Studies of the dynamics of excited states are feasible by time of flight spectroscopy with fully utilizing the pulse structures of synchrotron radiation as well as lasers including the free electron lasers (FEL). Spin resolved studies also made dramatic progress by using higher efficiency spin detectors and two dimensional spin detectors. Polarization depend...

  11. TMI-2 Reactor Building source term measurements: surfaces and basement water and sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C V; Keefer, D G

    1984-10-01

    Presented in this report are the results of radiochemical and elemental analyses performed on samples collected from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building from August 1979 to December 1983. The quantities of fission products and core materials that were measured on the external surfaces in the Reactor Building or in the water and sediment in its basement are summarized. Recent analysis results for access panels removed from the air cooling assembly and for liquid and particulate samples collected from the Reactor Building sump and reactor coolant drain tank are included in the report. Measurements show that 59% of the /sup 3/H, 2.7% of the /sup 90/Sr, 15% of the /sup 129/I, 20% of the /sup 131/I, and 42% of the /sup 137/Cs originally in the core at the time of the accident could be accounted for outside the core in the Reactor Building. With the exceptions of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 144/Ce, the vast majority of each radionuclide released was found dispersed in the water and sediment in the basement.

  12. Ethical Guidelines for Structural Interventions to Small-Scale Historic Stone Masonry Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; Başarır, Hacer

    2015-12-01

    Structural interventions to historic stone masonry buildings require that both structural and heritage values be considered simultaneously. The absence of one of these value systems in implementation can be regarded as an unethical professional action. The research objective of this article is to prepare a guideline for ensuring ethical structural interventions to small-scale stone historic masonry buildings in the conservation areas of Northern Cyprus. The methodology covers an analysis of internationally accepted conservation documents and national laws related to the conservation of historic buildings, an analysis of building codes, especially Turkish building codes, which have been used in Northern Cyprus, and an analysis of the structural interventions introduced to a significant historic building in a semi-intact state in the walled city of Famagusta. This guideline covers issues related to whether buildings are intact or ruined, the presence of earthquake risk, the types of structural decisions in an architectural conservation project, and the values to consider during the decision making phase.

  13. Control of City Shallow Buried Tunnel Blasting Hazard to Surface Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining with the blasting test of an under-construction tunnel, this paper optimizes the overall blasting construction scheme. The optimized blasting scheme is used in the site construction test and the peak particle vibration velocity is strictly controlled under working conditions through blasting vibration monitoring to ensure the safety of surrounding buildings and structures in the construction process. The corresponding control measures are proposed to reduce the blasting vibration which brings certain guiding significance to the following construction project.

  14. Building Extraction Based on an Optimized Stacked Sparse Autoencoder of Structure and Training Samples Using LIDAR DSM and Optical Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yiming; Tan, Zhichao; Su, Nan; Zhao, Chunhui

    2017-08-24

    In this paper, a building extraction method is proposed based on a stacked sparse autoencoder with an optimized structure and training samples. Building extraction plays an important role in urban construction and planning. However, some negative effects will reduce the accuracy of extraction, such as exceeding resolution, bad correction and terrain influence. Data collected by multiple sensors, as light detection and ranging (LIDAR), optical sensor etc., are used to improve the extraction. Using digital surface model (DSM) obtained from LIDAR data and optical images, traditional method can improve the extraction effect to a certain extent, but there are some defects in feature extraction. Since stacked sparse autoencoder (SSAE) neural network can learn the essential characteristics of the data in depth, SSAE was employed to extract buildings from the combined DSM data and optical image. A better setting strategy of SSAE network structure is given, and an idea of setting the number and proportion of training samples for better training of SSAE was presented. The optical data and DSM were combined as input of the optimized SSAE, and after training by an optimized samples, the appropriate network structure can extract buildings with great accuracy and has good robustness.

  15. Power systems and electromagnetic safety in of powerful utility buildings and structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.І. Запорожець

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  Researching of origin terms of electromagnetic contaminations from the unbalanced currents and leak currents in the industrial networks of electric supply of structures and buildings saturated energy.

  16. Formation and erosion of biogeomorphological structures: A model study on the tube-building polychaete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, B.W.; Bouma, T.J.; Rabaut, M.; Herman, P.M.J.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Borsje, B.W.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    We study how organism traits and population densities of ecosystem engineering species, in combination withenvironmental factors, affect the formation and erosion rates of biogeomorphological structures, and focus on thewidely distributed marine tube-building polychaete Lanice conchilega, which live

  17. Facile method for preparing superoleophobic surfaces with hierarchical microcubic/nanowire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Wonshik; Hwang, Woonbong

    2016-02-01

    To facilitate the fabrication of superoleophobic surfaces having hierarchical microcubic/nanowire structures (HMNS), even for low surface tension liquids including octane (surface tension = 21.1 mN m-1), and to understand the influences of surface structures on the oleophobicity, we developed a convenient method to achieve superoleophobic surfaces on aluminum substrates using chemical acid etching, anodization and fluorination treatment. The liquid repellency of the structured surface was validated through observable experimental results the contact and sliding angle measurements. The etching condition required to ensure high surface roughness was established, and an optimal anodizing condition was determined, as a critical parameter in building the superoleophobicity. The microcubic structures formed by acid etching are essential for achieving the formation of the hierarchical structure, and therefore, the nanowire structures formed by anodization lead to an enhancement of the superoleophobicity for low surface tension liquids. Under optimized morphology by microcubic/nanowire structures with fluorination treatment, the contact angle over 150° and the sliding angle less than 10° are achieved even for octane.

  18. System identification of a building alone with the effect of dynamic soil-structure interaction eliminated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Yukio [Kajima Corp., Kajima Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Yano, Tatsuo [Kajima Corp., Nuclear Power Department, Tokyo (Japan); Iguchi, Michio [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Faculty of Science and Technology, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Kitada, Yoshio [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    High-rigidity and heavy buildings such as reactor buildings usually have large soil-structure interaction effect in its dynamic response. In such cases, spectrum ratio of the top of the building to the bottom for horizontal motion gives different result from the dynamic characteristics of the building under fixed-base condition because the effect of the rocking motion of the base is not eliminated. This paper presented a new method for such problems; applied it to a ground blast vibration, microtremors and forced vibration test results; and transfer functions of the building for fixed-base condition were obtained. The proposed method can be applied when the exciter is set at the upper part of the buildings. (author)

  19. probabilistic approach to structural appraisal of a building during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    Abstract. Probabilistic assessment methods are very attractive as they allow a systematic treatment of ... predict the reliability of concrete in a structure under construction, a case study of Laboratory ... Structural quality is a function of human ...

  20. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Perry Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  1. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Bollinger Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  2. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Cape Girardeau Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  3. Building Points - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework - Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Map service for the Montana Structures MSDI Framework. The service will only display at scales of 1:100,000 or larger. Structures are grouped into general categories...

  4. Building Points - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework - Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Map service for the Montana Structures MSDI Framework. The service will only display at scales of 1:100,000 or larger. Structures are grouped into general categories...

  5. Building Footprints - MO 2012 St. Genevieve Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  6. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Bollinger Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  7. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Cape Girardeau Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  8. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Iron Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  9. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Madison Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  10. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Perry Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  11. Building Footprints - MO 2012 St. Genevieve Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  12. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Iron Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  13. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Madison Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  14. Composite structures of steel and concrete beams, slabs, columns, and frames for buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, R P

    2008-01-01

    This book sets out the basic principles of composite construction with reference to beams, slabs, columns and frames, and their applications to building structures. It deals with the problems likely to arise in the design of composite members in buildings, and relates basic theory to the design approach of Eurocodes 2, 3 and 4.The new edition is based for the first time on the finalised Eurocode for steel/concrete composite structures.

  15. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. [Function of surface membrane structures in Thiobacillus thiooxidans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, T A; Karavaĭko, G I

    1975-01-01

    The function of the surface membrane structures was studied with cytochemical techniques on ultrathin sections of Thiobacillus thiooxidans. The transport of elementary sulphur inside the cell involves the surface membrane structures, while oxidation of the sulphur to sulphuric acid takes place on the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. The surface membrane structures are supposed also to participate in the primary dissolution of elementary sulphur at the site of contact of the cells with the mineral.

  17. Surface Roughness and Morphology Customization of Additive Manufactured Open Porous Ti6Al4V Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Wevers

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM is a production method that enables the building of porous structures with a controlled geometry. However, there is a limited control over the final surface of the product. Hence, complementary surface engineering strategies are needed. In this work, design of experiments (DoE was used to customize post AM surface treatment for 3D selective laser melted Ti6Al4V open porous structures for bone tissue engineering. A two-level three-factor full factorial design was employed to assess the individual and interactive effects of the surface treatment duration and the concentration of the chemical etching solution on the final surface roughness and beam thickness of the treated porous structures. It was observed that the concentration of the surface treatment solution was the most important factor influencing roughness reduction. The designed beam thickness decreased the effectiveness of the surface treatment. In this case study, the optimized processing conditions for AM production and the post-AM surface treatment were defined based on the DoE output and were validated experimentally. This allowed the production of customized 3D porous structures with controlled surface roughness and overall morphological properties, which can assist in more controlled evaluation of the effect of surface roughness on various functional properties.

  18. Building large collections of Chinese and English medical terms from semi-structured and encyclopedia websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yining; Sun, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Jianwen; Tsujii, Junichi; Chang, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R) is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (R(S)), Object Recall (R(O)), and Surface Head recall (R(H)). We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems), 89,591 (Medications) and 25,107 (Tests) terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems), 101,025 (Medications), and 15,032 (Tests) terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.

  19. Building large collections of Chinese and English medical terms from semi-structured and encyclopedia websites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc. and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (R(S, Object Recall (R(O, and Surface Head recall (R(H. We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems, 89,591 (Medications and 25,107 (Tests terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems, 101,025 (Medications, and 15,032 (Tests terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.

  20. Mechanically robust superhydrophobicity on hierarchically structured Si surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu Yonghao; Hess, Dennis W [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0100 (United States); Liu Yan; Wong, C P, E-mail: dennis.hess@chbe.gatech.edu, E-mail: cp.wong@mse.gatech.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)

    2010-04-16

    Improvement of the robustness of superhydrophobic surfaces is critical in order to achieve commercial applications of these surfaces in such diverse areas as self-cleaning, water repellency and corrosion resistance. In this study, the mechanical robustness of superhydrophobic surfaces was evaluated on hierarchically structured silicon surfaces. The effect of two-scale hierarchical structures on robustness was investigated using an abrasion test and the results compared to those of superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated from polymeric materials and from silicon that contains only nanostructures. Unlike the polymeric and nanostructure-only surfaces, the hierarchical structures retained superhydrophobic behavior after mechanical abrasion.

  1. Influence of Local Airflow on the Pollutant Emission from Indoor Building Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2001-01-01

    This article reports the results of an investigation, based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory, carried out to obtain a general understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emissions from building materials in ventilated rooms. In addition, a generally applicable method...... for the prediction of surface emissions is proposed. The work focused on the emission of vapours and gases and no particulate emissions were considered. The methods used were numerical calculations by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and full-scale laboratory experiments. It was found that the emissions...

  2. HYPERSTATIC STRUCTURE MAPPING MODEL BUILDING AND OPTIMIZING DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Gening; GAO Youshan; ZHANG Xueliang; YANG Ruigang

    2007-01-01

    Hyperstatic structure plane model being built by structural mechanics is studied. Space model precisely reflected in real stress of the structure is built by finite element method (FEM) analysis commerce software. Mapping model of complex structure system is set up, with convenient calculation just as in plane model and comprehensive information as in space model. Plane model and space model are calculated under the same working condition. Plane model modular construction inner force is considered as input data; Space model modular construction inner force is considered as output data. Thus specimen is built on input data and output data. Character and affiliation are extracted through training specimen, with the employment of nonlinear mapping capability of the artificial neural network. Mapping model with interpolation and extrapolation is gained, laying the foundation for optimum design. The steel structure of high-layer parking system (SSHLPS) is calculated as an instance. A three-layer back-propagation (BP) net including one hidden layer is constructed with nine input nodes and eight output nodes for a five-layer SSHLPS. The three-layer structure optimization result through the mapping model interpolation contrasts with integrity re-analysis, and seven layers structure through the mapping model extrapolation contrasts with integrity re-analysis. Any layer SSHLPS among 1~8 can be calculated with much accuracy. Amount of calculation can also be reduced if it is applied into the same topological structure, with reduced distortion and assured precision.

  3. Fuzzy logic control of the building structure with CLEMR dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Cheng; Xu, Zhao-Dong; Huang, Xing-Huai; Zhu, Jun-Tao

    2013-04-01

    The semi-active control technology has been paid more attention in the field of structural vibration control due to its high controllability, excellent control effect and low power requirement. When semi-active control device are used for vibration control, some challenges must be taken into account, such as the reliability and the control strategy of the device. This study presents a new large tonnage compound lead extrusion magnetorheological (CLEMR) damper, whose mathematical model is introduced to describe the variation of damping force with current and velocity. Then a current controller based on the fuzzy logic control strategy is designed to determine control currents of the CLEMR dampers rapidly. A ten-floor frame structure with CLEMR dampers using the fuzzy logic control strategy is built and calculated by using MATLAB. Calculation results show that CLEMR dampers can reduce the seismic responses of structures effectively. Calculation results of the fuzzy logic control strategy are compared with those of the semi-active limit Hrovat control structure, the passive-off control structure, and the uncontrolled structure. Comparison results show that the fuzzy logic control strategy can determine control currents of CLEMR dampers quickly and can reduce seismic responses of the structures more effectively than the passive-off control strategy and the uncontrolled structure.

  4. Input data for the natural fire design of building structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilt, L.; Leur, P.H.E. van de; Cajot, L.-G.; Schleich, J.-B.; Joyeux, D.; Kruppa, J.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, structural fire safety design is based on conventionally rather than on physically based thermal actions. This certainly holds for the international standards in the field, see e.g. [1]. Therefore, the release of Eurocode 1, part 2-2: "Actions on structures exposed to fire" [2], shoul

  5. On the structure of Si(100) surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Back, Seoin; Schmidt, Johan Albrecht; Ji, Hyunjun;

    2013-01-01

    We revisit a dangling theoretical question of whether the surface reconstruction of the Si(100) surface would energetically favor the symmetric or buckled dimers on the intrinsic potential energy surfaces at 0 K. This seemingly simple question is still unanswered definitively since all existing...

  6. Structural analyses of the storage container for heavy element facility, building-251

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, D S

    1999-01-01

    The Heavy Element Facility, Building 251, contains a series of underground storage vaults which are used for long term storage of nuclear materials. A storage rack with shelves is suspended from the top of each storage vault. The stainless steel containers enclosing the nuclear materials are stored on the shelves. A Hazard & Accident assessment analyzed the vulnerability of this storage system to assaults resulting from natural phenomena and accidents within the building. The assessment considered all racks and their containers to be stored underground and secured in their static, long-term configuration. Moving beyond the static, long-term hazard assessment, the structural analyses were performed to evaluate the storage container against a rare, short duration event. An accidental free drop of a container may occur in a combination of two events: a rare, short-duration earthquake concurrent with an operation of raising the storage rack to a maximum height that the crane is capable of. This hypothetical free drop may occur only to the container in the uppermost shelf of the storage rack. The analyses were the structural evaluation of the storage container to determine the material containment integrity of the storage container after the accident. The evaluation was performed simulating a free drop from the storage rack, with a maximum load in the container, striking/an unyielding surface in the worst orientation. The analyses revealed that, in the very unlikely event of a container drop, the integrity of the hermetic seal of the storage container could be compromised due to plastic deformation of the lid and mating flange. Simple engineering and administrative controls can prevent that from occurring.

  7. Developing Dynamic Digital Image Correlation Technique to Monitor Structural Damage of Old Buildings under External Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsiang Shih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of buildings to resist external excitation is an important factor to consider for the structural design of buildings. When subject to external excitation, a building may suffer a certain degree of damages, and its residual capacity to resist external excitation cannot be evaluated. In this research, dynamic digital image correlation method combined with parameter evaluation available in system identification is used to evaluate the structural capacity to resist external excitation. The results reveal possible building latent safety problems so that timely structural reinforcement or dismantling of the building can be initiated to alleviate further damages. The results of experiments using the proposed method conform to the results obtained using the conventional method, but this method is more convenient and rapid than the latter in the subsequent procedure of data processing. If only the frequency change is used, the damages suffered by the building can be detected, but the damage location is not revealed. The interstory drift mode shape (IDMS based on the characteristic of story drift has higher sensitivity than the approximate story damage index (ADSI method based on modal frequency and vibration type; however, both indices can be used to determine the degree and location of building damages.

  8. Structural system identification of buildings by a wave method based on a layered Timoshenko beam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, Mahdi; Todorovska, Maria I.

    2014-03-01

    A layered Timoshenko beam (TB) model of a high-rise building is presented and applied to system identification of a full-scale building from recorded seismic response. This model is a new development in a wave method for earthquake damage detection and structural health monitoring being developed by the authors' research group. The method is based on monitoring changes in the wave properties of the structure, such as the velocity of wave propagation vertically through the structure. This model is an improvement over the previously used layered shear beam (SB) model because it accounts for wave dispersion caused by flexural deformation present in addition to shear. It also accounts for the rotatory inertia and the variation of the building properties with height. The case study is a 54-story steel frame building located in downtown Los Angeles. Recorded accelerations during the Northridge earthquake of 1994 are used for system identification of the NS response. The model parameters are identified by matching, in the least squares sense, the model and observed impulse response functions at all levels where motion was recorded. The model is then used to compute the building vertical phase and group velocities. Impulse responses computed by deconvolution of the recorded motions with the roof response are used, which represent the building response to a virtual source at the roof. The better match of transfer-function amplitudes of the fitted TB model than of previously fitted SB model indicates that the layered TB model is a better physical model for this building.

  9. The influence of surface treatment on mass transfer between air and building material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwiatkowski, Jerzy; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2008-01-01

    The processes of mass transfer between air and building structure and in the material influence not only the conditions within the material but also inside the connected air spaces. The material which absorbs and desorbs water vapour can be used to moderate the amplitude of indoor relative humidity...... and therefore to participate in the improvement of the indoor air quality and energy saving. Many parameters influence water vapour exchange between indoor air and building material. The aim of this work is to present the change of mass transfer under different climatic and material conditions. The measurements...... for the experiments: gypsum board and calcium silicate. The wallpaper and paint were used as finishing materials. Impact of the following parameters for changes of RH was studied: coating, temperature and air movement. The measurements showed that acryl paint (diffusion open) can significantly decrease mass uptake...

  10. Building bridges between cellular and molecular structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Ardan; Brandt, Robert; Butcher, Sarah J; Collinson, Lucy; Gault, David; Grünewald, Kay; Hecksel, Corey; Huiskonen, Juha T; Iudin, Andrii; Jones, Martin L; Korir, Paul K; Koster, Abraham J; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Lawson, Catherine L; Mastronarde, David; McCormick, Matthew; Parkinson, Helen; Rosenthal, Peter B; Saalfeld, Stephan; Saibil, Helen R; Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Solanes Valero, Irene; Subramaniam, Sriram; Swedlow, Jason R; Tudose, Ilinca; Winn, Martyn; Kleywegt, Gerard J

    2017-07-06

    The integration of cellular and molecular structural data is key to understanding the function of macromolecular assemblies and complexes in their in vivo context. Here we report on the outcomes of a workshop that discussed how to integrate structural data from a range of public archives. The workshop identified two main priorities: the development of tools and file formats to support segmentation (that is, the decomposition of a three-dimensional volume into regions that can be associated with defined objects), and the development of tools to support the annotation of biological structures.

  11. Wind flow and wind loads on the surface of a tower-shaped building:Numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Flow structure and wind pressure distribution caused by obtuse obstacles are usually the focuses in Computational Wind Engineer researches (CWE). By solving the non-hydrostatical dynamic equations, PUMA model (Peking University Model of Atmospheric Environment) was developed and applied to simulating the flow structure and wind pressure distribution around a tower-shaped building. Evaluation about the wind environment and wind loads around the building was obtained through the analysis of the numerical simulation results and wind tunnel data. Comparisons between the simulation and wind tunnel study indicate that numerical simulation results agree well in the flow field and wind pressure distribution around the tower-shaped building. On the other hand, the horizontal grid interval of 2 m and the vertical grid of 3 m were still too crude to simulate the flow structure and wind pressure distribution on the building surface more exactly in detail; and the absence of suitable pressure perturbation parameterization scheme between the solid and the adjacent space also limits the accuracy of the numerical simulation. The numerical simulation model can be used to evaluate the wind environment and wind load around high buildings.

  12. Building Points - MO 2014 Barton Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  13. Building Points - MO 2014 Camden Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  14. Building Points - MO 2014 Dade Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  15. Building Points - MO 2014 Clark Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  16. Building Points - MO 2014 Audrain Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  17. Building Points - MO 2014 Bates Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  18. Building Points - MO 2014 Benton Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  19. Building Points - MO 2014 Butler Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  20. Building Points - MO 2014 Christian Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  1. Building Points - MO 2011 Lincoln Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MSDIS staff identified and located all ?binary? structures and compiled them into a spatial database. Annual review and maintenance of the database will occur with...

  2. Building Points - MO 2012 St. Francois Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  3. Building Points - MO 2012 Revised Boone Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MSDIS staff provided project management and worked with the Mid-MO RPC to locate "structures" within their region. MSDIS staff identified and located all “binary”...

  4. Building Points - MO 2012 St. Genevieve Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  5. Building Points - MO 2011 Warren Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MSDIS staff identified and located all ?binary? structures and compiled them into a spatial database. Annual review and maintenance of the database will occur with...

  6. Building Points - MO 2011 Montgomery Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MSDIS staff identified and located all ?binary? structures and compiled them into a spatial database. Annual review and maintenance of the database will occur with...

  7. Building Points - MO 2012 Perry Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  8. Building Points - MO 2012 Cape Girardeau Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  9. Building Points - MO 2012 Iron Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  10. Building Points - MO 2012 Madison Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  11. Building Points - MO 2012 Bollinger Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  12. Building Points - MO 2014 Andrew Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  13. Description and testing of three moisture sensors for measuring surface wetness on carbonate building stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, R.B.; Reddy, M.M.; Martin, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Three moisture sensors were tested as a means for determining the surface wetness on carbonate building stones exposed to conditions that produce deposition of moisture. A relative-humidity probe, a gypsum-coated circuit grid, and a limestone-block resistor were tested as sensors for determining surface wetness. Sensors were tested under laboratory conditions of constant relative humidity and temperature and also under on-site conditions of variable relative humidity and temperature for eight weeks at Newcomb, NY. Laboratory tests indicated that relative humidity alone did not cause sensors to become saturated with water. However, the rates of drying indicated by the sensors after an initial saturation were inversely related to the relative humidity. On-site testing of the relative-humidity probe and the gypsum-coated ciruit grid indicated that they respond to a diurnal wetting and drying cycle; the limestone-block resistor responded only to rainfall.

  14. Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Weidian

    2013-09-27

    This project, “Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan” was carried out in two phases: (1) the 2009 – 2012 renovation of space in the new EMU Science Complex, which included the Surface Science Laboratory (SSL), a very vigorous research lab at EMU that carries on a variety of research projects to serve the auto and other industries in Michigan; and (2) the 2013 purchase of several pieces of equipment to further enhance the research capability of the SSL. The funding granted by the DoE was proposed to “renovate the space in the Science Complex to include SSL and purchase equipment for tribological and electrochemical impedance measurements in the lab, thus SSL will serve the auto and other industries in Michigan better.” We believe we have fully accomplished the mission.

  15. Integrating geomatics and structural investigation in post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Donatella; Galeota, Dante; Gregori, Amedeo; Rosciano, Elisa; Alicandro, Maria; Elaiopoulos, Michail

    2014-06-01

    The old city center of L’Aquila is rich in historical buildings of considerable merit. On April 6th 2009 a devastating earthquake caused significant structural damages, affecting especially historical and monumental masonry buildings. The results of a study carried out on a monumental building, former headquarters of the University of L’Aquila (The Camponeschi building, XVI century) are presented in this paper. The building is situated in the heart of the old city center and was seriously damaged by the earthquake. Preliminary visual damage analysis carried out immediately after the quake, clearly evidenced the building’s complexity, raising the need for direct and indirect investigation on the structure. Several non-destructive test methods were then performed in situ to better characterize the masonry typology and the damage distribution, as well. Subsequently, a number of representative control points were identified on the building’s facades to represent, by their motion over time, the evolution of the structural displacements and deformations. In particular, a surveying network consisting of 27 different points was established. A robotic total station mounted on top of a concrete pillar was used for periodically monitoring the surveying control network. Stability of the pillar was checked through a GNSS static survey repeated before any set of measurements. The present study evidences the interesting possibilities of combining geomatics with structural investigation during post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental buildings.

  16. Assessing Expected Fractional Damage of Above-ground Buildings from Air-to-surface Weapons based on Indirect Fire Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yil Park

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For the expected fractional damage of building targets from air-to-surface weapons, the US has used the JMEM/AS method, which is based on the direct-fire concept. However, the damage redistribution assumption in the direct-fire concept could induce serious errors in damage estimation of building targets. In this paper, a method for the expected fractional damage of building targets is proposed based on the indirect-fire concept. From the proposed model, it is shown that the joint munitions effectiveness manuals/air-to-surface (JMEM/AS method is not appropriate for building targets, especially for attacks with multiple aiming points. It is recommended that the indirect-fire concept should be adopted for weaponeering even for air-to-surface weapons. fire concept could induce serious errors in damage estimation of building targets. In this paper, a method for the expected fractional damage of building targets is proposed based on the indirect-fire concept. From the proposed model, it is shown that the JMEM/AS method is not appropriate for building targets, especially for attacks with multiple aiming points. It is recommended that the indirect-fire concept should be adopted for weaponeering even for air-to-surface weapons.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(5, pp.491-496, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.571

  17. On the microscopic structure of a nominal Ag(441) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Thorsten; Fritz, Daniel Roman; Zimmerleiter, Robert; Zeppenfeld, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Regularly stepped (vicinal) surfaces provide a convenient means to control the number of defects of a surface. They can easily be prepared by a slight miscut of a low index surface. In the case of an fcc(n n 1) surface with small integer n, it is even expected that the large number of steps will dominate the surface properties. We are the first to study the Ag(441) surface with a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and high resolution electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). The surface is found to consist of different building blocks, which can be either (331) or (551) microfacets. To unravel the actual morphology, we carried out simulations of the reciprocal space maps (RSMs) in the framework of the simple kinematic approximation.

  18. Fluorophobic effect for building up the surface morphology of electrodeposited substituted conductive polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmanin, Thierry; Guittard, Frédéric

    2009-05-19

    During the past decade, several works display the electrochemical polymerization of fluorinated monomers as a highly efficient method (one-pot method, mild conditions, various morphologies) to obtain superhydrophobic or superoleophobic surfaces. Here, we point out the fluorinated tails not only are useful to increase both hydrophobicity and oleophobicity but also are involved in the formation of surface structurations: two necessary conditions for liquid dewetting. To support this assertion, a series of fluorinated pyrrole derivatives and their hydrocarbon homologues were synthesized and electrochemically deposited in the same conditions. Whereas hydrocarbon pyrroles give rise to smooth films, structured films are achieved from fluorinated pyrroles. The abundance of the surface structurations depends on the length of the fluorinated tail.

  19. Using insurance data to learn more about damages to buildings caused by surface runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, Daniel; Roethlisberger, Veronika; Prasuhn, Volker; Weingartner, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    In Switzerland, almost forty percent of total insurance loss due to natural hazards in the last two decades was caused by flooding. Those flood damages occurred not only within known inundation zones of water courses. Practitioners expect that roughly half of all flood damages lie outside of known inundation zones. In urban areas such damages may simply be caused by drainage system overload for instance. However, as several case studies show, natural and agricultural land play a major role in surface runoff formation leading to damages in rural and peri-urban areas. Although many damages are caused by surface runoff, the whole process chain including surface runoff formation, propagation through the landscape and damages to buildings is not well understood. Therefore, within the framework of a project, we focus our research on this relevant process. As such flash flood events have a very short response time and occur rather diffusely in the landscape, this process is very difficult to observe directly. Therefore indirect data sources with the potential to indicate spatial and temporal distributions of the process have to be used. For that matter, post-flood damage data may be a profitable source. Namely, insurance companies' damage claim records could provide a good picture about the spatial and temporal distributions of damages caused by surface runoff and, thus, about the process itself. In our research we analyze insurance data records of flood damage claims systematically to infer main drivers and influencing factors of surface runoff causing damages to buildings. To demonstrate the potential and drawbacks of using data from insurance companies in relation to damages caused by surface runoff, a case study is presented. A well-documented event with data from a public as well as a private insurance company is selected. The case study focuses on the differences of the datasets as well as the associated problems and advantages respectively. Furthermore, the

  20. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF EXISTING MID-RISE REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS ACCORDING TO SPECIFICATION FOR BUILDING STRUCTURES TO BE BUILT IN DISASTER AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İNEL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, Turkey has been hit by devastating earthquakes and remarkable number of reinforced concrete buildings has been damaged in the high seismicity regions of our country. The aim of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of the mid-rise reinforced concrete buildings that are major part of building stock of our earthquake-prone country, according to recent Turkish Earthquake Code. 4- and 7-story buildings were selected to represent mid-rise building stock. After determining the structural parameters, each building was subjected to pushover analysis and the capacity curves were obtained. Earthquake performance of each building was determined in the light of their capacity curves according to the recent Turkish Earthquake Code.

  1. The importance of building construction materials relative to other factors affecting structure survival during wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Brennan, Teresa J.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Structure loss to wildfire is a serious problem in wildland-urban interface areas across the world. Laboratory experiments suggest that fire-resistant building construction and design could be important for reducing structure destruction, but these need to be evaluated under real wildfire conditions, especially relative to other factors. Using empirical data from destroyed and surviving structures from large wildfires in southern California, we evaluated the relative importance of building construction and structure age compared to other local and landscape-scale variables associated with structure survival. The local-scale analysis showed that window preparation was especially important but, in general, creating defensible space adjacent to the home was as important as building construction. At the landscape scale, structure density and structure age were the two most important factors affecting structure survival, but there was a significant interaction between them. That is, young structure age was most important in higher-density areas where structure survival overall was more likely. On the other hand, newer-construction structures were less likely to survive wildfires at lower density. Here, appropriate defensible space near the structure and accessibility to major roads were important factors. In conclusion, community safety is a multivariate problem that will require a comprehensive solution involving land use planning, fire-safe construction, and property maintenance.

  2. Automatic Generation of Structural Building Descriptions from 3D Point Cloud Scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ochmann, Sebastian; Vock, Richard; Wessel, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    scans to derive high-level architectural entities like rooms and doors. Starting with a registered 3D point cloud, we probabilistically model the affiliation of each measured point to a certain room in the building. We solve the resulting clustering problem using an iterative algorithm that relies......We present a new method for automatic semantic structuring of 3D point clouds representing buildings. In contrast to existing approaches which either target the outside appearance like the facade structure or rather low-level geometric structures, we focus on the building’s interior using indoor...

  3. Optimization of time-delayed feedback control of seismically excited building structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-ping LI; Wei-qiu ZHU; Zu-guang YING

    2008-01-01

    An optimization method for time-delayed feedback control of partially observable linear building structures subjected to seismic excitation is proposed. A time-delayed control problem of partially observable linear building structure under horizontal ground acceleration excitation is formulated and converted into that of completely observable linear structure by using separation principle. The time-delayed control forces are approximately expressed in terms of control forces without time delay. The control system is then governed by Ito stochastic differential equations for the conditional means of system states and then transformed into those for the conditional means of modal energies by using the stochastic averaging method for quasi-Hamiltonian systems. The control law is assumed to be modal velocity feedback control with time delay and the unknown control gains are determined by the modal performance indices. A three-storey building structure is taken as example to illustrate the proposal method and the numerical results are confirmed by using Monte Carlo simulation.

  4. Analysis of the influence of the block in the dynamic properties of domestic buildings with masonry structure

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Vicente, Enrique; Sánchez Sánchez, José; Rodríguez León, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Congreso celebrado en la Escuela de Arquitectura de la Universidad de Sevilla desde el 24 hasta el 26 de junio de 2015. The modal analysis of a building, performed by finite element method, is usually made in a building isolated model. In the case of traditional buildings with masonry structure, this simplification can be very unrealistic, particularly in the case of buildings with shared party walls. The influence of the adjacent buildings, in the modal results of domestic masonry buildin...

  5. Cumulative and Segmented Learning: Exploring the Role of Curriculum Structures in Knowledge-Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Karl

    2009-01-01

    The present article extends Basil Bernstein's theorisation of "discourses" and "knowledge structures" to explore the potential of educational knowledge structures to enable or constrain cumulative learning, where students can transfer knowledge across contexts and build knowledge over time. It offers a means of overcoming…

  6. Quick assessment tool for assurance of structural safety in the building process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwel, K.C.; Jansen, S.J.T.

    2014-01-01

    From forensic investigation it is known that many structural failures can be attributed to human errors and organizational factors. To provide project leaders with information on the current state of factors in the building process influencing structural safety, we developed a quick assessment tool.

  7. Bilberry xyloglucan - novel building blocks containing ß-xylose within a complex structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, H.; Jong, de L.E.; Kabel, M.A.; Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Bilberries are known to have one of the most complex xyloglucan structures described in the plant kingdom until now. To characterise this structure, xyloglucans were enzymatically degraded and the oligosaccharides obtained were analysed. More than 20 different building blocks were found to make up t

  8. Minimization of structure-borne noise in lightweight buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Bin; Olhoff, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of minimizing the structure-borne noise induced in a room by machinery vibration. A generalized system consisting of the machine, the base plate, resilient mounts, the floor plate and the room cavity is developed for analysis and optimization. Topological design ...

  9. 3D engineered fiberboard : a new structural building product

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Hunt; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2002-01-01

    To help meet the need for sustainable forest management tools, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory is developing an economically viable process to produce three-dimensional structural fibreboard products that can utilize a wide range of lignocellulosic fibres contained in the forest undergrowth and in underutilized timber. This will encourage the public and private...

  10. An automated method for building a parametric model of the structure of porous mediums. Avtomatizirovannyy metod postroyeniya parametricheskoy modeli struktury poristykh sred

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostenko, I.F.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for building a parametric model based on automatic scanning of structural images. Parameters such as the porosity index, the hydraulic radius, the specific surface and the sinuosity of the pores are measured. The function of distribution of the pores by size is built.

  11. Amino Acid Molecular Units: Building Primary and Secondary Protein Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecido R. Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to guarantee the learning quality and suitable knowledge  use  about structural biology, it is fundamental to  exist, since the beginning of  students’ formation, the possibility of clear visualization of biomolecule structures. Nevertheless, the didactic books can only bring  schematic  drawings; even more elaborated figures and graphic computation  do not permit the necessary interaction.  The representation of three-dimensional molecular structures with ludic models, built with representative units, have supplied to the students and teachers a successfully experience to  visualize such structures and correlate them to the real molecules.  The design and applicability of the representative units were discussed with researchers and teachers before mould implementation.  In this stage  it  will be presented the  developed  kit  containing the  representative  plastic parts of the main amino acids.  The kit can demonstrate the interaction among the amino acids  functional groups  (represented by colors, shapes,  sizes and  the peptidic bonds between them  facilitating the assembly and visuali zation of the primary and secondary protein structure.  The models were designed for  Ca,  amino,  carboxyl groups  and  hydrogen. The  lateral chains have  well defined models that represent their geometrical shape.  The completed kit set  will be presented in this meeting (patent requested.  In the last phase of the project will be realized  an effective evaluation  of the kit  as a facilitative didactic tool of the teaching/learning process in the Structural Molecular Biology area.

  12. Surface tectonics of nanoporous networks of melamine-capped molecular building blocks formed through interface Schiff-base reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan-He; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2013-10-01

    Control over the assembly of molecules on a surface is of great importance for the fabrication of molecule-based miniature devices. Melamine (MA) and molecules with terminal MA units are promising candidates for supramolecular interfacial packing patterning, owing to their multiple hydrogen-bonding sites. Herein, we report the formation of self-assembled structures of MA-capped molecules through a simple on-surface synthetic route. MA terminal groups were successfully fabricated onto rigid molecular cores with 2-fold and 3-fold symmetry through interfacial Schiff-base reactions between MA and aldehyde groups. Sub-molecular scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging of the resultant adlayer revealed the formation of nanoporous networks. Detailed structural analysis indicated that strong hydrogen-bonding interactions between the MA groups persistently drove the formation of nanoporous networks. Herein, we demonstrate that functional groups with strong hydrogen-bond-formation ability are promising building blocks for the guided assembly of nanoporous networks and other hierarchical 2D assemblies. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Not just fractal surfaces, but surface fractal aggregates: Derivation of the expression for the structure factor and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besselink, R.; Stawski, T. M.; Van Driessche, A. E. S.; Benning, L. G.

    2016-12-01

    Densely packed surface fractal aggregates form in systems with high local volume fractions of particles with very short diffusion lengths, which effectively means that particles have little space to move. However, there are no prior mathematical models, which would describe scattering from such surface fractal aggregates and which would allow the subdivision between inter- and intraparticle interferences of such aggregates. Here, we show that by including a form factor function of the primary particles building the aggregate, a finite size of the surface fractal interfacial sub-surfaces can be derived from a structure factor term. This formalism allows us to define both a finite specific surface area for fractal aggregates and the fraction of particle interfacial sub-surfaces at the perimeter of an aggregate. The derived surface fractal model is validated by comparing it with an ab initio approach that involves the generation of a "brick-in-a-wall" von Koch type contour fractals. Moreover, we show that this approach explains observed scattering intensities from in situ experiments that followed gypsum (CaSO4 ṡ 2H2O) precipitation from highly supersaturated solutions. Our model of densely packed "brick-in-a-wall" surface fractal aggregates may well be the key precursor step in the formation of several types of mosaic- and meso-crystals.

  14. VIBRATION TESTING OF A SIXTEEN-STORIED BUILDING THAT HAS A PRECAST CONCRETE BOX STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumyantsev Anton Andreevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the problems of theoretical assessment of the seismic stability of a 16-storied building made of precast concrete box units by full-scale experimental testing through the employment of a powerful unbalance-type vibration machine. The authors provide the results of the experimental testing and scale them to assess the effects of an earthquake. The testing procedure that consists in the assessment of the seismic stability of buildings through employment of the vibration testing performed by a powerful vibration machine installed on the soil surface, have proven its high efficiency. As a result of the vibration testing, specific values of accelerations and shifts in terms of the building height and length were identified in lateral and longitudinal directions. The results of extrapolation of the seismic effect of the vibration testing onto the 9-grade seismic load scale have proven that the buildings of this type can be considered seismically stable.

  15. Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A.; Scharff, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as in...

  16. Phonons on the clean metal surfaces and in adsorption structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusina, Galina G.; Chulkov, Evgenii V.

    2013-06-01

    The state-of-the-art studies of the vibrational dynamics of clean metal surfaces and metal surface structures formed upon the sub-monolayer adsorption of the atoms of various elements are considered. A brief historical survey of the milestones of investigations of surface phonons is presented. The results of studies of the atomic structure and vibration characteristics of surfaces with low and high Miller indices and adsorption structures are analyzed. It is demonstrated that vicinal surfaces of FCC metals tend to exhibit specific vibrational modes located on the step and polarized along the step. Irrespective of the type and position of adsorption or the substrate structure, the phonon spectra of sub-monolayer adsorption structures always tend to display two modes for combined translational displacements of adatoms and for coupled vibrations of substrate atoms and adatoms polarized in the direction normal to the surface. The bibliography includes 202 references.

  17. Collapse ratios of buildings due to the 1995 Kobe earthquake and interference between S-wave and the second surface wave at basin edge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhixin; XU Jiren; Ryuji Kubota; Wakizawa Yasuhiko; Kajikawa Syozo

    2004-01-01

    The distribution characteristics of collapse ratios of buildings in Kobe city due to the 1995 M7.2 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan (Kobe) earthquake and the interferences due to SH or P-SV and the second surface waves propagating in heterogeneous medium are discussed in this paper by using numerical simulation technique of wave equation. The staggered grid real value fast Fourier transform differentiation (SGRFFTD) is used in the pseudospectral method of ground motion simulations because of its speed, high stability and accuracy. The results show that the maximum amplitude of simulated acceleration waveforms on the ground coincides well with the complicated distributions of collapse ratios of buildings. The peak collapse ratio of buildings away from the earthquake fault also coincides well with the peak ground acceleration. The spatial interference process is analyzed by using the snap shots of seismic wave propagation. The peak ground acceleration is probably caused by the interferences due to the second surface wave transmitting from the bedrock to sedimentary basin and the upward body wave. Analyses of the interference process show that seismic velocity structure and geologic structure strongly influence the distribution of the maximum amplitude of acceleration waveforms. Interferences occurring near the basin boundary are probably the cause of the peak collapse ratio of buildings away from the fault. Therefore it is necessary to analyze wave propagations and interference process using numerical simulation strategy for studies on the seismic disasters.

  18. Structural response of nuclear containment shield buildings with unanticipated construction openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Namara, Sinead Caitriona

    As Nuclear Power Plants age many require steam generator replacement. There is a nickel alloy in the steam generator tubes that is susceptible to stress cracking and although these cracks can be sealed the generator becomes uneconomical without 10%-15% of the tubes. The steam generator in a typical nuclear power plant is housed in the containment structure next to the reactor. The equipment hatch is not big enough to facilitate steam generator replacement, thus construction openings in the dome of the containment structure are required. To date the structural consequences of construction openings in the dome have not been examined. This thesis examines the effects of such openings. The prototype concrete dome is made up of a 2 ft thick dome atop 3 ft thick and 170 ft high cylindrical walls (radius 65.5 ft) with a tension ring 15 ft high and 8 ft thick in between. The dome of the building is cast in two layers; a lower 9 inch layer that serves as the formwork for an upper 15 inch layer. The weight of the dome is carried in axial compression along the hoops and meridians of the dome. The first finite element model uses shell elements and considers two limiting load cases; where the two layers act as one, and where the lower layer carries the weight of both. The openings interrupt the hoops and meridians and the weight of the dome must be redistributed around the openings. Without openings, the stresses due to dead load in the structure are very low when compared to the material strength. The impact of the openings is increased compression stresses near the opening. The maximum stresses are approximately four times larger than in the original structure. These results are confirmed by the second model which is made from layers of solid elements. This model shows a significant difference between the compression on the top surface of the dome, in the affected areas, and that on the bottom surface, leading to shear stresses. These shear stresses are largest around the

  19. Dissipative surface solitons in periodic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Vysloukh, Victor A

    2010-01-01

    We report dissipative surface solitons forming at the interface between a semi-infinite lattice and a homogeneous Kerr medium. The solitons exist due to balance between amplification in the near-surface lattice channel and two-photon absorption. The stable dissipative surface solitons exist in both focusing and defocusing media, when propagation constants of corresponding states fall into a total semi-infinite and or into one of total finite gaps of the spectrum (i.e. in a domain where propagation of linear waves is inhibited for the both media). In a general situation, the surface solitons form when amplification coefficient exceeds threshold value. When a soliton is formed in a total finite gap there exists also the upper limit for the linear gain.

  20. Coal surface structure and thermodynamics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.W.; Wernett, P.C.; Glass, A.S.; Quay, D.; Roberts, J.

    1994-05-01

    Coals surfaces were studied using static surface adsorption measurements, low angle x-ray scattering (LAXS), inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and a new {sup 13}C NMR relaxation technique. A comparison of surface areas determined by hydrocarbon gas adsorption and LAXS led to the twin conclusions that the hydrocarbons had to diffuse through the solid to reach isolated pores and that the coal pores do not form interconnected networks, but are largely isolated. This conclusion was confirmed when IGC data for small hydrocarbons showed no discontinuities in their size dependence as usually observed with porous solids. IGC is capable of providing adsorption thermodynamics of gases on coal surfaces. The interactions of non-polar molecules and coal surfaces are directly proportioned to the gas molecular polarizability. For bases, the adsorption enthalpy is equal to the polarizability interaction plus the heat of hydrogen bond formation with phenol. Amphoteric molecules have more complex interactions. Mineral matter can have highly specific effects on surface interactions, but with most of the molecules studied is not an important factor.

  1. Building a Data Store with the Dynamic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Artamonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the analysis of approaches to data warehouse construction based on relational and NoSQL solutions and lists the limitations of the relational approach to data mining. The contradiction between data presentation in the real subject domain and the model of data presentation in the relational and NoSQL approaches is revealed. The revealed contradiction is related to the temporality of the values of individual data attributes, the variability of the composition of these attributes, and structure of connections between them. A new logical model of the data warehouse with dynamic structure is proposed. The model is based on the concept of the object as a container for properties storage. Each property of the object includes the property name and two property values without reference and with reference, that are relevant at a given time. The reference property value points to an object whose name is interpreted as the value of the property at a given time. A formal description of the model with allocation of the necessary functionality to manipulate objects and their properties (selectors, predicates, constructors is given and the necessary control structures are introduced. Substantiation of the proposed model, called an OP-model is given on the basis of compliance with the logical ER data model. It is proved that any ER data model can be implemented in the OP-model. At the same time, the advantages of the OP-model are indicated, they are associated with the possibility of changing connections between entities due to changes in the reference value at a particular time. The potential for scalability of data warehouse due to the unique identification of each object is noted. 

  2. Seismic design or retrofit of buildings with metallic structural fuses by the damage-reduction spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Shuchuan; Zeng, Yan; Li, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the structural fuse has become an important issue in the field of earthquake engineering. Due to the trilinearity of the pushover curve of buildings with metallic structural fuses, the mechanism of the structural fuse is investigated through the ductility equation of a single-degree-of-freedom system, and the corresponding damage-reduction spectrum is proposed to design and retrofit buildings. Furthermore, the controlling parameters, the stiffness ratio between the main frame and structural fuse and the ductility factor of the main frame, are parametrically studied, and it is shown that the structural fuse concept can be achieved by specific combinations of the controlling parameters based on the proposed damage-reduction spectrum. Finally, a design example and a retrofit example, variations of real engineering projects after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design procedures using buckling restrained braces as the structural fuses.

  3. Uncertainties in predicting structure-borne sound power input into buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, B M

    2013-05-01

    There has been a steady development of methods of measurement and prediction of structure-borne noise in buildings, particularly over the last two decades. In proposing and evaluating these methods, a major consideration has been the likely trade-off between accuracy and simplicity. Structure-borne sound transmission is a more complicated process than airborne sound transmission, but practitioners seek methods of prediction for the former, which are as straightforward as for the latter. In this paper a description is given of a study of multi-contact sources in buildings. The study concentrates on measurement and calculation procedures for sources and calculation procedures for receiver structures, particularly lightweight building elements. Although the study is not exhaustive, the findings point to the limitations of simplified methods, specifically the uncertainties likely as a result of reducing the data sets and computational effort, and the discrepancies resulting from simplifying assumptions.

  4. Towards composite spheres as building blocks for structured molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lloyd L.; Pellicane, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    In order to design a flexible molecular model that mimics the chemical moieties of a polyatomic molecule, we propose the ‘composite-sphere’ model that can assemble the essential elements to produce the structure of the target molecule. This is likened to the polymerization process where monomers assemble to form the polymer. The assemblage is built into the pair interaction potentials which can ‘react’ (figuratively) with selective pieces into various bonds. In addition, we preserve the spherical symmetries of the individual pair potentials so that the isotropic Ornstein-Zernike equation (OZ) for multi-component mixtures can be used as a theoretical framework. We first test our approach on generating a dumbbell molecule. An equimolar binary mixture of hard spheres and square-well spheres are allowed to react to form a dimer. As the bond length shrinks to zero, we create a site-site model of a Janus-like molecule with a repulsive moiety and an attractive moiety. We employ the zero-separation (ZSEP) closure to solve the OZ equations. The structure and thermodynamic properties are calculated at three isotherms and at several densities and the results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The close agreement achieved demonstrates that the ZSEP closure is a reliable theory for this composite-sphere fluid model. Contribution to the George Stell Memorial Issue.

  5. Base Isolation for Seismic Retrofitting of a Multiple Building Structure: Design, Construction, and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Ferraioli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the seismic retrofit of a multiple building structure belonging to the Hospital Centre of Avellino (Italy. At first, the paper presents the preliminary investigations, the in situ measurements and laboratory tests, and the seismic assessment of the existing fixed-base structures. Having studied different strategies, base isolation proved to be the more appropriate, also for the possibility offered by the geometry of the building to easily create an isolation interface at the ground level. The paper presents the design project, the construction process, and the details of the isolation intervention. Some specific issues of base isolation for seismic retrofitting of multiple building structures were lightened. Finally, the seismic assessment of the base-isolated building was carried out. The seismic response was evaluated through nonlinear time-history analysis, using the well-known Bouc-Wen model as the constitutive law of the isolation bearings. For reliable dynamic analyses, a suite of natural accelerograms compatible with acceleration spectra of Italian Code was first selected and then applied along both horizontal directions. The results were finally used to address some of the critical issues of the seismic response of the base-isolated multiple building structure: accidental torsional effects and potential poundings during strong earthquakes.

  6. Atomic structure and handedness of the building block of a biological assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loquet, Antoine; Habenstein, Birgit; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2013-12-26

    Noncovalent supramolecular assemblies possess in general several unique subunit-subunit interfaces.The basic building block of such an assembly consists of several subunits and contains all unique interfaces. Atomic-resolution structures of monomeric subunits are typically accessed by crystallography or solution NMR and fitted into electron microscopy density maps. However, the structure of the intact building block in the assembled state remains unknown with this hybrid approach. Here, we present the solid-state NMR atomic structure of the building block of the type III secretion system needle. The building block structure consists of a homotetrameric subunit complex with three unique supramolecular interfaces. Side-chain positions at the interfaces were solved at atomic detail. The high-resolution structure reveals unambiguously the helical handedness of the assembly, determined to be right-handed for the type III secretion system needle.Additionally, the axial rise per subunit could be extracted from the tetramer structure and independently validated by mass-per-length measurements.

  7. Building Medium Size Telescope Structures for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, A; Oakes, L; Schlenstedt, S; Schwanke, U

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the future instrument in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. Its sensitivity will surpass that of current generation experiments by a factor $\\sim$10, facilitated by telescopes of three sizes. The performance in the core energy regime will be dominated by Medium Size Telescopes (MST) with a reflector of 12 m diameter. A full-size mechanical prototype of the telescope structure has been constructed in Berlin. The performance of the prototype is being evaluated and optimisations, among others, facilitating the assembly procedure and mass production possibilities are being implemented. We present the current status of the developments from prototyping towards pre-production telescopes, which will be deployed at the final site.

  8. Building classroom and organizational structure around positive cultural values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanna, Badr F.; Corbo, Joel C.; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.; Little, Angela; Zaniewski, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    The Compass Project is a self-formed group of graduate and undergraduate students in the physical sciences at UC Berkeley. Our goals are to improve undergraduate physics education, provide opportunities for professional development, and increase retention of students-especially those from populations typically underrepresented in the physical sciences. Compass fosters a diverse, collaborative student community by providing a wide range of services, including a summer program and fall/spring seminar courses. We describe Compass's cultural values, discuss how community members are introduced to and help shape those values, and demonstrate how a single set of values informs the structure of both our classroom and organization. We emphasize that all members of the Compass community participate in, and benefit from, our cultural values, regardless of status as student, teacher, or otherwise.

  9. Building Classroom and Organizational Structure Around Positive Cultural Values

    CERN Document Server

    Albanna, Badr F; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R; Little, Angela; Zaniewski, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    The Compass Project is a self-formed group of graduate and undergraduate students in the physical sciences at UC Berkeley. Our goals are to improve undergraduate physics education, provide opportunities for professional development, and increase retention of students-especially those from populations typically underrepresented in the physical sciences. Compass fosters a diverse, collaborative student community by providing a wide range of services, including a summer program and fall/spring seminar courses. We describe Compass's cultural values, discuss how community members are introduced to and help shape those values, and demonstrate how a single set of values informs the structure of both our classroom and organization.We emphasize that all members of the Compass community participate in, and benefit from, our cultural values, regardless of status as student, teacher, or otherwise.

  10. Structural equation modeling: building and evaluating causal models: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B.; Scheiner, Samuel M.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists frequently wish to study hypotheses about causal relationships, rather than just statistical associations. This chapter addresses the question of how scientists might approach this ambitious task. Here we describe structural equation modeling (SEM), a general modeling framework for the study of causal hypotheses. Our goals are to (a) concisely describe the methodology, (b) illustrate its utility for investigating ecological systems, and (c) provide guidance for its application. Throughout our presentation, we rely on a study of the effects of human activities on wetland ecosystems to make our description of methodology more tangible. We begin by presenting the fundamental principles of SEM, including both its distinguishing characteristics and the requirements for modeling hypotheses about causal networks. We then illustrate SEM procedures and offer guidelines for conducting SEM analyses. Our focus in this presentation is on basic modeling objectives and core techniques. Pointers to additional modeling options are also given.

  11. Prediction of Noise Transmission in Lightweight Building Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens

    groups, where one group shows pass band/stop band behavior, while the other has a nearly uniform distribution of modes. The suggested approach for SEA adaptation is to consider a ribbed plate as two SEA subsystems: One that contains modes related to waves traveling in the direction orthogonal to the ribs......, while the other subsystem contains modes related to waves traveling parallel to the rib stiffeners. The investigations utilize Monte Carlo simulations to examine the behavior of nominally identical plates. Next, two papers that utilize the Finite-Element Method, focusing on aspects of modeling ribbed...... full three-dimensional, solid continuum finite-elements. When using structural elements such as beams and shells, couplings may be modeled as either line or point coupling. However, when utilizing full three-dimensional, solid finite-elements, the scenario is not that simple. The investigations of both...

  12. Hydroxyl migration disorders the surface structure of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiajie; Wu, Hong; Zhang, Li; Ma, Xingtao; Zhang, Xingdong; Yang, Mingli

    2017-09-01

    The surface structure of nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) was investigated using a combined simulated annealing and molecular dynamics method. The stationary structures of nano-HAP with 4-7 nm in diameter and annealed under different temperatures were analyzed in terms of pair distribution function, structural factor, mean square displacement and atomic coordination number. The particles possess different structures from bulk crystal. A clear radial change in their atomic arrangements was noted. From core to surface the structures change from ordered to disordered. A three-shell model was proposed to describe the structure evolution of nano-HAP. Atoms in the core zone keep their arrangements as in crystal, while atoms in the surface shell are in short-range order and long-range disorder, adopting a typically amorphous structure. Atoms in the middle shell have small displacements and/or deflections but basically retain their original locations as in crystal. The disordered shell is about 1 nm in thickness, in agreement with experimental observations. The disordering mainly stems from hydroxyl migration during which hydroxyls move to the surface and bond with the exposed Ca ions, and their left vacancies bring about a rearrangement of nearby atoms. The disordering is to some extent different for particles unannealed under different temperatures, resulting from fewer number of migrated hydroxyls at lower temperatures. Particles with different sizes have similar surface structures, and their surface energy decreases with increasing size. Moreover, the surface energy is reduced by hydroxyl migration because the exposed Ca ions on the surface are ionically bonded with the migrated hydroxyls. Our calculations proposed a new structure model for nano-HAP, which indicates a surface structure with activities different from those without surface reorganization. This is particularly interesting because most bioactivities of biomaterials are dominated by their surface activity.

  13. Effect of nonlinearity of connecting dampers on vibration control of connected building structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi eKasagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The connection of two building structures with dampers is one of effective vibration control systems. In this vibration control system, both buildings have to possess different vibration properties in order to provide a higher vibration reduction performance. In addition to such condition of different vibration properties of both buildings, the connecting dampers also play an important role in the vibration control mechanism. In this paper, the effect of nonlinearity of connecting dampers on the vibration control of connected building structures is investigated in detail. A high-damping rubber damper and an oil damper with and without relief mechanism are treated. It is shown that, while the high-damping rubber damper is effective in a rather small deformation level, the linear oil damper is effective in a relatively large deformation level. It is further shown that, while the oil dampers reduce the response in the same phase as the case without dampers, the high-damping rubber dampers change the phase. The merit is that the high-damping rubber can reduce the damper deformation and keep the sufficient space between both buildings. This can mitigate the risk of building pounding.

  14. UV spectral filtering by surface structured multilayer mirrors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Q.; Paardekooper, Daniel Mathijs; Zoethout, E.; Medvedev, V. V.; van de Kruijs, Robbert; Bosgra, Jeroen; Louis, Eric; F. Bijkerk,

    2014-01-01

    A surface structured extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirror was developed showing full band suppression of UV (lambda = 100-400 nm) and simultaneously a high reflectance of EUV light (lambda = 13.5 nm). The surface structure consists of Si pyramids, which are substantially transparent for EUV but

  15. UV spectral filtering by surface structured multilayer mirrors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Q.; Paardekooper, Daniel Mathijs; Zoethout, E.; Medvedev, V. V.; van de Kruijs, Robbert; Bosgra, Jeroen; Louis, Eric; F. Bijkerk,

    2014-01-01

    A surface structured extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirror was developed showing full band suppression of UV (lambda = 100-400 nm) and simultaneously a high reflectance of EUV light (lambda = 13.5 nm). The surface structure consists of Si pyramids, which are substantially transparent for EUV but ref

  16. Structural design of a two storey office building and production facility

    OpenAIRE

    Nučič, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    The Graduation Thesis shows the process of structural analysis and design of key elements of the steel structure. The building has a rectangular floor shape, dimensions of 12.10 m and 32.20 m. Building height is 9.50 m. Construction is a two storey facility. On the ground floor is planed production and storage unit, on the first floor there would be offices. The project is designed in accordance with the valid European standards Eurocodes and related Slovenian national annex. Design of struct...

  17. METHOD AND DEVICE FOR REMOVING AN IONIC IMPURITY FROM BUILDING STRUCTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for removing an ionic impurity from building structures comprising the steps of: forming at least one electrode unit (2, 3) by mixing a clay compound with an ion exchange component; placing at least one anode (4) and at least one cathode (5) at the same or separate......). The invention further relates to a device for removing an ionic impurity from building structures, the device including electrode units (2, 3) consisting of at least one electrode being an anode) (4) or a cathode (5) and at least one buffer component arranged in a poultice (8) including an ion exchange...

  18. Computational prediction and control of energy consumption for heating in building structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarošová, Petra; Vala, Jiří

    2017-07-01

    The significance of reasonable prediction and control of energy consumption in building structures follows from the natural requirements of the development of new materials, structures and technologies, as well as from the formal ones from European directives. This paper presents the method based on the generalized multiplicative Fourier decomposition, applied to a model of a building as certain thermal system. The design of the computational algorithm highlights the important contribution of solar radiation, as well as the design and control of the heating equipments. One illustrative numerical example shows the results of the practical implementation of this algorithm in the MATLAB environment.

  19. Structures of surface and interface of amorphous ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yu; Ikeda-Fukazawa, Tomoko

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the surface structure, we performed molecular dynamics calculations of amorphous ice. The result shows that a low density layer, which forms a few hydrogen bonds with weaker strength, exists in the surface. Furthermore, the sintering processes were simulated to investigate the structure of grain boundary formed from the adsorption of two surfaces. The result indicates that a low density region exists in a boundary between amorphous ice grains. The structures of surface and interface of amorphous ice have important implications for adsorption, diffusion, and chemical reaction in ice grains of interstellar molecular clouds.

  20. Hierarchically structured superoleophobic surfaces with ultralow contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Arun K; Li, Yongxin; Mabry, Joseph M; Tuteja, Anish

    2012-11-14

    Hierarchically structured, superoleophobic surfaces are demonstrated that display one of the lowest contact angle hysteresis values ever reported - even with extremely low-surface-tension liquids such as n-heptane. Consequently, these surfaces allow, for the first time, even ≈2 μL n-heptane droplets to bounce and roll-off at tilt angles. ≤ 2°.

  1. Metrology of sub-micron structured polymer surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Tosello, Guido; Salaga, J.

    surface replication of the tool insert component when moulding the polymer melt [1]. This aspect is particularly critical when dealing with increasingly small dimensional scales in micro- and nano-structured surfaces [2, 3].In this context, a metrological investigation of polymer replicated surfaces using...

  2. Structure dependence of Pt surface activated ammonia oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santen, R A van; Offermans, W K [Schuit Institute of Catalysis, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Ricart, J M; Novell-Leruth, G [Department of Chemical Physics and Inorganic Chemistry, University Rovira I Virgili, C/ Marcel.lI Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Perez-RamIrez, J [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ) and Catalan, Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Avinguda Paisos Catalans 16, 43007, Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: r.a.v.santen@tue.nl

    2008-06-01

    Computational advances that enable the prediction of the structures and the energies of surface reaction intermediates are providing essential information to the formulation of theories of surface chemical reactivity. In this contribution this is illustrated for the activation of ammonia by coadsorbed oxygen and hydroxyl on the Pt(111), Pt(100), and Pt(211) surfaces.

  3. Surface Nano-Structuring by Adsorption and Chemical Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ken-ichi Tanaka

    2010-01-01

    Nano-structuring of the surface caused by adsorption of molecules or atoms and by the reaction of surface atoms with adsorbed species are reviewed from a chemistry viewpoint. Self-assembly of adsorbed species is markedly influenced by weak mutual interactions and the local strain of the surface induced by the adsorption. Nano-structuring taking place on the surface is well explained by the notion of a quasi-molecule provided by the reaction of surface atoms with adsorbed species. Self-assembl...

  4. Economic Feasibility Analysis of the Application of Geothermal Energy Facilities to Public Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present an efficient plan for the application of a geothermal energy facility at the building structure planning phase. Energy consumption, energy cost and the primary energy consumption of buildings were calculated to enable a comparison of buildings prior to the application of a geothermal energy facility. The capacity for energy savings and the costs related to the installation of such a facility were estimated. To obtain more reliable criteria for economic feasibility, the lifecycle cost (LCC analysis incorporated maintenance costs (reflecting repair and replacement cycles based on construction work specifications of a new renewable energy facility and initial construction costs (calculated based on design drawings for its practical installation. It is expected that the findings of this study will help in the selection of an economically viable geothermal energy facility at the building construction planning phase.

  5. Building disc structure and galaxy properties through angular momentum: the DARK SAGE semi-analytic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Adam R. H.; Croton, Darren J.; Mutch, Simon J.

    2016-09-01

    We present the new semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution, DARK SAGE, a heavily modified version of the publicly available SAGE code. The model is designed for detailed evolution of galactic discs. We evolve discs in a series of annuli with fixed specific angular momentum, which allows us to make predictions for the radial and angular-momentum structure of galaxies. Most physical processes, including all channels of star formation and associated feedback, are performed in these annuli. We present the surface density profiles of our model spiral galaxies, both as a function of radius and specific angular momentum, and find that the discs naturally build a pseudo-bulge-like component. Our main results are focused on predictions relating to the integrated mass-specific angular momentum relation of stellar discs. The model produces a distinct sequence between these properties in remarkable agreement with recent observational literature. We investigate the impact Toomre disc instabilities have on shaping this sequence and find they are crucial for regulating both the mass and spin of discs. Without instabilities, high-mass discs would be systematically deficient in specific angular momentum by a factor of ˜2.5, with increased scatter. Instabilities also appear to drive the direction in which the mass-spin sequence of spiral galaxy discs evolves. With them, we find galaxies of fixed mass have higher specific angular momentum at later epochs.

  6. Fragmentation pathways of nanofractal structures on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Veronika V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the post-growth processes occurring in nanofractals grown on a surface. For this study we have developed a method that accounts for the internal dynamics of particles in a fractal. We demonstrate that the detachment of particles from the fractal and their diff......We present a theoretical analysis of the post-growth processes occurring in nanofractals grown on a surface. For this study we have developed a method that accounts for the internal dynamics of particles in a fractal. We demonstrate that the detachment of particles from the fractal...... and their diffusion within the fractal and over the surface determines the shape of the islands remaining on a surface after the fractal fragmentation. We consider different scenarios of fractal post-growth relaxation and analyze the time evolution of the island's morphology. The results of our calculations...... are compared with available experimental observations, and experiments in which the post-growth relaxation of deposited nanostructures can be tested are suggested....

  7. Structural optimization of super-repellent surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2013-01-01

    Micro-patterning is an effective way to achieve surfaces with extreme liquid repellency. This technique does not rely on chemical coatings and is therefore a promising concept for application in food processing and bio-compatibile coatings. This super-repellent behaviour is obtained by suspending...

  8. Fragmentation pathways of nanofractal structures on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Veronika V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the post-growth processes occurring in nanofractals grown on a surface. For this study we have developed a method that accounts for the internal dynamics of particles in a fractal. We demonstrate that the detachment of particles from the fractal and their diff...

  9. Behaviour of AR glass fibre for building structural applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miravete, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The AR glass reinforcement fibres were designed to resist the alkalis from the concrete. This is the main reason for its utilisation as a short-fibre-reinforcement of mortar and concrete for the last decades. Originally, the AR glass fibre sizing was not compatible with synthetic resins, so that this type of reinforcement was applied exclusively to mortar and concrete matrices. Recently, due to the developments of sizing, which are compatible with synthetic resins, the AR- glass fibres may be used as reinforcement of organic matrix composite materials, broadening the range of structural applications. The mechanical properties of AR glass fibre and organic matrix composite materials will be studied in this paper. First, the behaviour of this material under stress corrosion will be analysed. Their mass loss will be compared to E, C, and boron free glass fibres. Second, an experimental study dealing with 3P test bending and short beam ofAR glass fibre/polyester will de described with the goal of obtaining their Young modulus and tensile and interlaminar shear strengths. Finally, these experimental results will be compared to E glass fibre/polyester and several conclusions about their structural applications will be drawn.

    El vidrio AR y su presentación en forma de fibras de refuerzo, fue diseñado para ser inerte a los álcalis de los cementos. Por este motivo se viene utilizando desde hace varias décadas como refuerzo de morteros y hormigones en forma de fibra corta. El ensimaje que estas fibras de vidrio de refuerzo A R presentaba en su origen no era compatible con resinas de tipo sintéticas, por lo que el refuerzo era exclusivo para cementos y hormigones fuera cual fuera la aplicación, formato o proceso productivo. Recientemente, gracias al desarrollo específico de ensimajes especiales acordes a las fibras de vidrio AR ha aparecido la misma tipología de vidrio AR como refuerzo en forma de fibra continua compatible con resinas sint

  10. Laser Surface Preparation and Bonding of Aerospace Structural Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, M. A.; Wohl, C. J.; Hopkins, J. W.; Connell, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesive bonds are critical to the integrity of built-up structures. Disbonds can often be detected but the strength of adhesion between surfaces in contact is not obtainable without destructive testing. Typically the number one problem in a bonded structure is surface contamination, and by extension, surface preparation. Standard surface preparation techniques, including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply, are not ideal because of variations in their application. Etching of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) panels using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser appears to be a highly precise and promising way to both clean a composite surface prior to bonding and provide a bond-promoting patterned surface akin to peel ply without the inherent drawbacks from the same (i.e., debris and curvature). CFRP surfaces prepared using laser patterns conducive to adhesive bonding were compared to typical prebonding surface treatments through optical microscopy, contact angle goniometry, and post-bonding mechanical testing.

  11. Lateral-torsional response of base-isolated buildings with curved surface sliding system subjected to near-fault earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    The curved surface sliding (CSS) system is one of the most in-demand techniques for the seismic isolation of buildings; yet there are still important aspects of its behaviour that need further attention. The CSS system presents variation of friction coefficient, depending on the sliding velocity of the CSS bearings, while friction force and lateral stiffness during the sliding phase are proportional to the axial load. Lateral-torsional response needs to be better understood for base-isolated structures located in near-fault areas, where fling-step and forward-directivity effects can produce long-period (horizontal) velocity pulses. To analyse these aspects, a six-storey reinforced concrete (r.c.) office framed building, with an L-shaped plan and setbacks in elevation, is designed assuming three values of the radius of curvature for the CSS system. Seven in-plan distributions of dynamic-fast friction coefficient for the CSS bearings, ranging from a constant value for all isolators to a different value for each, are considered in the case of low- and medium-type friction properties. The seismic analysis of the test structures is carried out considering an elastic-linear behaviour of the superstructure, while a nonlinear force-displacement law of the CSS bearings is considered in the horizontal direction, depending on sliding velocity and axial load. Given the lack of knowledge of the horizontal direction at which near-fault ground motions occur, the maximum torsional effects and residual displacements are evaluated with reference to different incidence angles, while the orientation of the strongest observed pulses is considered to obtain average values.

  12. Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadtler, Bryce F [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Ag2S lattices were used to calculate interface formation energies. The formation energies indicate the favorability for interface nucleation at different facets of the nanorod and the stability of the interfaces during growth of the secondary material (Cu2S or Ag2S) within the CdS nanocrystal. The physical properties of the CdS-Ag2S and CdS-Cu2S binary nanorods are discussed in terms of the electronic structure of their components and the heterostructure morphology.

  13. Structural and electronic properties of hydrosilylated silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumer, A.

    2005-11-15

    The structural and electronic properties of alkyl-terminated Si surfaces prepared by thermallyinduced hydrosilylation have been studied in detail in the preceding chapters. Various surfaces have been used for the functionalization ranging from crystalline Si over amorphous hydrogenated Si to nanoscaled materials such as Si nanowires and nanoparticles. In each case, the alkyl-terminated surfaces have been compared to the native oxidized and H-terminated surfaces. (orig.)

  14. Carbon Nanomaterials: Surface Structure and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurov, Z. A.; Shabanova, T. A.; Mofa, N. N.; Glagolev, V. A.

    2014-09-01

    We propose a classification of individual nanoparticles on the basis of the form of the surface and the internal architectural packing for investigations carried out with the help of transmission electron microscopy. The investigated samples contain individual nanoparticles of seven kinds in different ratios: rounded, tubular, fibrous, fi lm, "veil," "active" particles and "particles with regular geometric contours." The classification was made on the basis of an analysis of the results of investigations of the surfaces and internal architectural packing of carbon particles obtained in different physiochemical processes (carbonization, carburizing, arc discharge, mechanochemical treatment, plasma chemistry, and in carbon-containing fl ames). For the source materials, we used waste of farming products and widely distributed mineral raw materials.

  15. Dyeing of Snow Surfaces to Observe Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    of freezeup problems important to obtain a clear visual perspective and with water. We found that both coloring agents to obtain good photographic...a dye of methanol coloring in with floodlights, whereas Figure 7b is a view of the water. Freezeup at the sprayer nozzle was one same area lighted...from behind, problem and the snow surface had a blemished appearance because of the addition of the water, which then froze. Freezeup may not be a

  16. Surface Structure Enhanced Microchannel Flow Boiling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yangying; Antao, Dion Savio; Chu, Kuang-Han; Chen, Siyu; Hendricks, Terry J.; Zhang, Tiejun; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of surface microstructures in two-phase microchannels on suppressing flow instabilities and enhancing heat transfer. We designed and fabricated microchannels with well-defined silicon micropillar arrays on the bottom heated microchannel wall to promote capillary flow for thin film evaporation while facilitating nucleation only from the sidewalls. Our experimental results show significantly reduced temperature and pressure drop fluctuation especially at high heat fluxe...

  17. Imprinted and injection-molded nano-structured optical surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by nature, nano-textured surfaces have attracted much attention as a method to realize optical surface functionality. The moth-eye antireflective structure and the structural colors of Morpho butterflies are wellknown examples used for inspiration for such biomimetic research...... of light from polymer surfaces and their implication for creating structural colors is discussed. In the case of injection-moulding compatible designs, the maximum reflection of nano-scale textured surfaces cannot exceed the Fresnel reflection of a corresponding flat polymer surface, which is approx. 4...... % for normal incidence. Diffraction gratings provide strong color reflection defined by the diffraction orders. However, the apperance varies strongly with viewing angles. Three different methods to address the strong angular-dependence of diffraction grating based structural color are discussed....

  18. Highly charged ions interacting with carbon surfaces : An influence of surface structure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenstern, R; Winters, D; Schlatholter, T; Hoekstra, R

    Auger electron spectroscopy has been used to investigate the reaction of various carbon surfaces - including fullerene covered metal surfaces - on the impact of highly charged ions. An influence of the electronic surface structure on the interaction is clearly observed. However, the goal of

  19. POLYMER AND CEMENT MORTARS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of polymer-cement mortars for their application in construction and repair of buildings and structures is presented. The main properties of known polymer-cement mortars used for this purpose are described. The advantages of application of polymer-cement mortars as repair materials are shown.

  20. Influence of Structural Periodicity on Vibration Transmission in a Multi-Storey Wooden Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    Noise is a nuisance to people, and buildings should therefore be designed to prevent propagation of sound and vibration in the audible frequency range as well as the range of frequencies relevant to whole-body vibrations of humans. In heavy structures made of concrete and masonry, a source...

  1. Optimal design of snow avalanche passive defence structure using reliability approach to quantify buildings vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, P.; Bertrand, D.; Eckert, N.; Naaim, M.

    2012-04-01

    To protect elements at risk (humans, roads, houses, etc.) against snow avalanches, civil engineering structures, such as dams or mounds, are used. The design of such defence structures is done following a deterministic approach which considers European regulation. The minimization of expected total losses is an interesting alternative that generalizes cost-benefit approach to a continuous decision variable. For this purpose, not only the hazard magnitude but also the buildings vulnerability must be evaluated carefully. The aim of this work is therefore to combine state of the art sub-models for the probabilistic description of avalanche flows and the numerical evaluation of damages to buildings. We defined the risk as the expectation of the cost consequences of avalanches activity. Disposal consequences are quantified thanks to reliability methods. In this formulation, the accuracy of both the hazard estimation and the vulnerability calculation has to be consistent according to precision and computational costs. To do so, a numerical approach has been developed to evaluate the physical vulnerability of concrete buildings submitted to avalanche loadings. The ensuing application illustrates our approach. A reinforced concrete slab is considered to model the building with a finite element method. Reliability approach enables to produce a response spectrum of the structure against avalanche impact. Finally, vulnerability curves are built. Outcomes of the risk calculation are examined to find sensitivity on the optimal design of snow defence structures.

  2. PCM-enhanced building components an application of phase change materials in building envelopes and internal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kosny, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Presenting an overview of the use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) within buildings, this book discusses the performance of PCM-enhanced building envelopes. It reviews the most common PCMs suitable for building applications, and discusses PCM encapsulation and packaging methods. In addition to this, it examines a range of PCM-enhanced building products in the process of development as well as examples of whole-building-scale field demonstrations. Further chapters discuss experimental and theoretical analyses (including available software) to determine dynamic thermal and energy performance ch

  3. The Dynamics and Structures of Adsorbed Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Ellenson, W. D.; McTague, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews neutron scattering work performed on films of simple gas atoms and molecules adsorbed primarily on graphite surfaces. Exfoliated graphite substrates such as Grafoil were first used in this kind of measurements about five years ago and new results have been reported at an increasing pace...... of molecules such as NH3 or the internal modes of adsorbed molecules such as C4H10. Neutron scattering measurements where substrates other than graphite products are used as the adsorbents will not be reviewed here. However, the power of the technique will be demonstrated in an example of H2 physisorbed...

  4. Structure and surface properties of supported oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyrer, J.; Vielhaber, B.; Zaki, M.I.; Zhuang Shuxian; Weitkamp, J.; Knoezinger, H.

    1985-09-15

    Supported molybdate catalysts have been prepared on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/,TiO/sub 2/, CeO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/ and SiO/sub 2/ by impregnation from aqueous solution. The isoelectric point (IEPS) of the support surfaces determines the primary adsorption interaction of the molybdate species with the surface at a given pH. Raman spectroscopy shows monolayer formation on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, TiO/sub 2/ and CeO/sub 2/, while high proportions of MoO/sub 3/ are detected on SiO/sub 2/ and ZrO/sub 2/. Strong support effects influence the reducibility of the supported molybdate, which decreases in the sequence Mo/TiO/sub 2/ > Mo/ > CeO/sub 2/ > Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ > Mo/ZrO/sub 2/. The dispersion of the monolayer on TiO/sub 2/, CeO/sub 2/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ seems to be fairly stable under reduction conditions, indicating strong chemical interaction with the supports.

  5. Beyond the surface atlas: A roadmap and gazetteer for surface symmetry and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Stephen J.; Pratt, Stephanie J.

    2007-10-01

    Throughout the development of single-crystal surface science, interest has predominantly focussed on the high-symmetry planes of crystalline materials, which typically present simple stable structures with small primitive unit cells. This concentration of effort has rapidly and substantially advanced our understanding of fundamental surface phenomena, and provides a sound basis for detailed study of more complex planes. The intense current interest in these is partly motivated by their regular arrays of steps, kinks or other low-coordination structural features, whose properties are little understood and may mimic specific highly-reactive sites on dispersed nanoparticles. Furthermore, the lower symmetry of these planes may give rise to other equally interesting properties such as intrinsic chirality, with exciting potential applications in enantioselective heterogeneous catalysis, biosensors and surface magnetism. To aid exploration of this new territory for surface science requires a depth of understanding that goes beyond the character of individual surfaces to encompass the global relationships between all possible surfaces of a given material, both in their structure and in their symmetry. In this report we present a rigorous conceptual framework for ideal crystalline surfaces within which the symmetry and structure of all possible surface orientations are described. We illustrate the versatility of our generally-applicable approach by comparing fcc, bcc and hcp materials. The entire scheme naturally derives from the very simple basis that the fundamental distinction between symmetry and structure is paramount. Where symmetry is concerned, our approach recognises that the surface is not a two-dimensional (2D) object but actually a truncated three-dimensional (3D) one. We therefore derive a symmetry scheme specifically formulated for surfaces and naturally encompassing their chirality where necessary. Our treatment of surface structure, on the other hand

  6. Determination of floor response spectra for the Brookhaven HFBR reactor building structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subudhi, M.; Goradia, H.

    1978-11-01

    In order to perform the dynamic analysis of various structural components of the HFBR reactor building at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) subjected to seismic disturbances, it is necessary to obtain the floor response spectra of the primary structure. The mathematical model includes the four floor levels of the internal structure, the dome, and soil spring effects. The standard time history analysis is adopted to obtain the response spectrum for each floor of the internal structure. This report summarizes the results both in tabular and graphical form for various damping values.

  7. The thermal impact of subsurface building structures on urban groundwater resources - A paradigmatic example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Jannis; Scheidler, Stefan; Affolter, Annette; Borer, Paul; Mueller, Matthias H; Egli, Lukas; García-Gil, Alejandro; Huggenberger, Peter

    2017-10-15

    Shallow subsurface thermal regimes in urban areas are increasingly impacted by anthropogenic activities, which include infrastructure development like underground traffic lines as well as industrial and residential subsurface buildings. In combination with the progressive use of shallow geothermal energy systems, this results in the so-called subsurface urban heat island effect. This article emphasizes the importance of considering the thermal impact of subsurface structures, which commonly is underestimated due to missing information and of reliable subsurface temperature data. Based on synthetic heat-transport models different settings of the urban environment were investigated, including: (1) hydraulic gradients and conductivities, which result in different groundwater flow velocities; (2) aquifer properties like groundwater thickness to aquitard and depth to water table; and (3) constructional features, such as building depths and thermal properties of building structures. Our results demonstrate that with rising groundwater flow velocities, the heat-load from building structures increase, whereas down-gradient groundwater temperatures decrease. Thermal impacts on subsurface resources therefore have to be related to the permeability of aquifers and hydraulic boundary conditions. In regard to the urban settings of Basel, Switzerland, flow velocities of around 1 md(-1) delineate a marker where either down-gradient temperature deviations or heat-loads into the subsurface are more relevant. Furthermore, no direct thermal influence on groundwater resources should be expected for aquifers with groundwater thicknesses larger 10m and when the distance of the building structure to the groundwater table is higher than around 10m. We demonstrate that measuring temperature changes down-gradient of subsurface structures is insufficient overall to assess thermal impacts, particularly in urban areas. Moreover, in areas which are densely urbanized, and where groundwater flow

  8. 3D building reconstruction from ALS data using unambiguous decomposition into elementary structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarząbek-Rychard, M.; Borkowski, A.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the paper is to develop an automated method that enables for the recognition and semantic interpretation of topological building structures. The novelty of the proposed modeling approach is an unambiguous decomposition of complex objects into predefined simple parametric structures, resulting in the reconstruction of one topological unit without independent overlapping elements. The aim of a data processing chain is to generate complete polyhedral models at LOD2 with an explicit topological structure and semantic information. The algorithms are performed on 3D point clouds acquired by airborne laser scanning. The presented methodology combines data-based information reflected in an attributed roof topology graph with common knowledge about buildings stored in a library of elementary structures. In order to achieve an appropriate balance between reconstruction precision and visualization aspects, the implemented library contains a set of structure-depended soft modeling rules instead of strictly defined geometric primitives. The proposed modeling algorithm starts with roof plane extraction performed by the segmentation of building point clouds, followed by topology identification and recognition of predefined structures. We evaluate the performance of the novel procedure by the analysis of the modeling accuracy and the degree of modeling detail. The assessment according to the validation methods standardized by the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing shows that the completeness of the algorithm is above 80%, whereas the correctness exceeds 98%.

  9. Theoretical investigation of the atomic and electronic structure of amino acids on Si(100) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xuan; Qian, Gefei; Sagui, Celeste; Roland, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    There are currently considerable efforts underway to combine silicon-based device technology with myriad of organic molecules, thereby fabricating new structures that take advantage of the tunable electronic and optical properties of organic molecules. A key aspect of this integration process is binding of the organics to the silicon surfaces. As part of this effort, we have been investigating the binding of several amino acids -- the building blocks for proteins -- on the Si (100) surface with state-of-the art density functional theory methods. Specifically, the binding between the buckled Si(100) and the NH2, CH2, COOH, C=0 and NC entities at various surface sites have been investigated. We report and discuss on the resulting structures and their electronic properties.

  10. Nematic films at chemically structured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, N. M.; Telo da Gama, M. M.; Tasinkevych, M.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate theoretically the morphology of a thin nematic film adsorbed at flat substrate patterned by stripes with alternating aligning properties, normal and tangential respectively. We construct a simple ‘exactly-solvable’ effective interfacial model where the liquid crystal distortions are accounted for via an effective interface potential. We find that chemically patterned substrates can strongly deform the nematic-air interface. The amplitude of this substrate-induced undulations increases with decreasing average film thickness and with increasing surface pattern pitch. We find a regime where the interfacial deformation may be described in terms of a material-independent universal scaling function. Surprisingly, the predictions of the effective interfacial model agree semi-quantitatively with the results of the numerical solution of a full model based on the Landau-de Gennes theory coupled to a square-gradient phase field free energy functional for a two phase system.

  11. The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System: Experiences on Building a Collaborative Modeling Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Hutton, E.; Kettner, A.; Peckham, S. D.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System - CSDMS- develops a software platform with shared and coupled modules for modeling earth surface processes as a community resource. The framework allows prediction of water, sediment and nutrient transport through the landscape and seacape. The underlying paradigm is that the Earth surface we live on is a dynamic system; topography changes with seasons, with landslides and earthquakes, with erosion and deposition. The Earth Surface changes due to storms and floods, and important boundaries, like the coast, are ever-moving features. CSDMS sets out to make better predictions of these changes. Earth surface process modeling bridges the terrestrial, coastal and marine domains and requires understanding of the system over a range of time scales, which inherently needs interdisciplinarity. Members of CSDMS (~830 in July 2012) are largely from academic institutions (˜75%), followed by federal agencies (˜17%), and oil and gas companies (˜5%). Members and governmental bodies meet once annually and rely additionally on web-based information for communication. As an organization that relies on volunteer participation, CSDMS faces challenges to scientific collaboration. Encouraging volunteerism among its members to provide and adapt metadata and model code to be sufficiently standardized for coupling is crucial to building an integrated community modeling system. We here present CSDMS strategies aimed at providing the appropriate technical tools and cyberinfrastructure to support a variety of user types, ranging from advanced to novice modelers. Application of these advances in science is key, both into the educational realm and for managers and decision-makers. We discuss some of the implemented ideas to further organizational transparency and user engagement in small-scale governance, such as advanced trackers and voting systems for model development prioritization through the CSDMS wiki. We analyzed data on community

  12. Imprinted and injection-molded nano-structured optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Alexander B.; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Clausen, Jeppe; Caringal, Gideon P.; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by nature, nano-textured surfaces have attracted much attention as a method to realize optical surface functionality. The moth-eye antireflective structure and the structural colors of Morpho butterflies are well- known examples used for inspiration for such biomimetic research. In this paper, nanostructured polymer surfaces suitable for up-scalable polymer replication methods, such as imprinting/embossing and injection-molding, are discussed. The limiting case of injection-moulding compatible designs is investigated. Anti-reflective polymer surfaces are realized by replication of Black Silicon (BSi) random nanostructure surfaces. The optical transmission at normal incidence is measured for wavelengths from 400 nm to 900 nm. For samples with optimized nanostructures, the reflectance is reduced by 50 % compared to samples with planar surfaces. The specular and diffusive reflection of light from polymer surfaces and their implication for creating structural colors is discussed. In the case of injection-moulding compatible designs, the maximum reflection of nano-scale textured surfaces cannot exceed the Fresnel reflection of a corresponding flat polymer surface, which is approx. 4 % for normal incidence. Diffraction gratings provide strong color reflection defined by the diffraction orders. However, the apperance varies strongly with viewing angles. Three different methods to address the strong angular-dependence of diffraction grating based structural color are discussed.

  13. On the use of tensegrity structures for kinetic solar facades of smart buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraternali, F.; De Chiara, E.; Skelton, R. E.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the use of tensegrity structures with morphing and prestress-stability capabilities for the design of active solar façades of smart buildings. Morphing tensegrity lattices are used to design shading screens composed of umbrella-shaped ‘eyes’ that are opened and closed by adjusting the elongation in a limited number of cables. Prestressable lattices are instead employed to design superstable Venetian blinds that are composed of orientable slats. Future use of tensegrity solutions for next-generation smart buildings are outlined, with the aim of designing kinetic solar façades that combine morphing abilities with prestress-stability.

  14. Structure sensitivity of CO dissociation on Rh surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavrikakis, Manos; Baumer, M.; Freund, H.J.;

    2002-01-01

    Using periodic self-consistent density functional calculations it is shown that the barrier for CO dissociation is similar to120 kJ/mol lower on the stepped Rh(211) surface than on the close-packed Rh(111) surface. The stepped surface binds molecular CO and the dissociation products more strongly...... than the flat surface, but the effect is considerably weaker than the effect of surface structure on the dissociation barrier. Our findings are compared with available experimental data, and the consequences for CO activation in methanation and Fischer-Tropsch reactions are discussed....

  15. Proposal of reducing permitted seismic damages on immovable cultural properties (building structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojnić Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All interventions pertaining to remediation, strengthening and reconstruction of building structures (BS in seismic areas, to which belong the immovable cultural property (ICP buildings which are ranked as building structures (ICPBS, are constructed according to the (Code no. 52/85, [10]. This code permits structural damage of buildings without collapse in the event of the strongest earthquakes. However, this condition is unacceptable for ICPBS which have a status of high and outstandingly high importance according to the Law on Cultural property (LCP no. 71/94 [13]. Because of their special value and importance for cultural heritage ICPBS should not only survive the most intensive earthquakes, but their damage should be considerably reduced in comparison with ordinary BS. Therefore the paper proposes to divide ICPBS into three categories: ICPBS outstandingly high importance listed by UNESCO 2 ICPBS of outstanding cultural importance and 3 ICPBS of high cultural importance. For all categories, the factors for determination of ICPBS value are introduced, and therefore is determined the level of permissible damage they can be exposed to and potential risk of the loss of life in ICPBS which can be a basis for a new 'Code for strengthening and remediation of ICPBS in seismic areas', or can be appended to the existing Code no 52/85, [10].

  16. Evaluation of Structural Robustness against Column Loss: Methodology and Application to RC Frame Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yihai; Main, Joseph A; Noh, Sam-Young

    2017-08-01

    A computational methodology is presented for evaluating structural robustness against column loss. The methodology is illustrated through application to reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings, using a reduced-order modeling approach for three-dimensional RC framing systems that includes the floor slabs. Comparisons with high-fidelity finite-element model results are presented to verify the approach. Pushdown analyses of prototype buildings under column loss scenarios are performed using the reduced-order modeling approach, and an energy-based procedure is employed to account for the dynamic effects associated with sudden column loss. Results obtained using the energy-based approach are found to be in good agreement with results from direct dynamic analysis of sudden column loss. A metric for structural robustness is proposed, calculated by normalizing the ultimate capacities of the structural system under sudden column loss by the applicable service-level gravity loading and by evaluating the minimum value of this normalized ultimate capacity over all column removal scenarios. The procedure is applied to two prototype 10-story RC buildings, one employing intermediate moment frames (IMFs) and the other employing special moment frames (SMFs). The SMF building, with its more stringent seismic design and detailing, is found to have greater robustness.

  17. Evaluation of Structural Robustness against Column Loss: Methodology and Application to RC Frame Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yihai; Main, Joseph A.; Noh, Sam-Young

    2017-01-01

    A computational methodology is presented for evaluating structural robustness against column loss. The methodology is illustrated through application to reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings, using a reduced-order modeling approach for three-dimensional RC framing systems that includes the floor slabs. Comparisons with high-fidelity finite-element model results are presented to verify the approach. Pushdown analyses of prototype buildings under column loss scenarios are performed using the reduced-order modeling approach, and an energy-based procedure is employed to account for the dynamic effects associated with sudden column loss. Results obtained using the energy-based approach are found to be in good agreement with results from direct dynamic analysis of sudden column loss. A metric for structural robustness is proposed, calculated by normalizing the ultimate capacities of the structural system under sudden column loss by the applicable service-level gravity loading and by evaluating the minimum value of this normalized ultimate capacity over all column removal scenarios. The procedure is applied to two prototype 10-story RC buildings, one employing intermediate moment frames (IMFs) and the other employing special moment frames (SMFs). The SMF building, with its more stringent seismic design and detailing, is found to have greater robustness. PMID:28890599

  18. Electronic structure of disordered alloys, surfaces and interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Šob, Mojmír; Weinberger, Peter

    1997-01-01

    At present, there is an increasing interest in the prediction of properties of classical and new materials such as substitutional alloys, their surfaces, and metallic or semiconductor multilayers. A detailed understanding based on a thus of the utmost importance for fu­ microscopic, parameter-free approach is ture developments in solid state physics and materials science. The interrela­ tion between electronic and structural properties at surfaces plays a key role for a microscopic understanding of phenomena as diverse as catalysis, corrosion, chemisorption and crystal growth. Remarkable progress has been made in the past 10-15 years in the understand­ ing of behavior of ideal crystals and their surfaces by relating their properties to the underlying electronic structure as determined from the first principles. Similar studies of complex systems like imperfect surfaces, interfaces, and mul­ tilayered structures seem to be accessible by now. Conventional band-structure methods, however, are of limited use ...

  19. Functional oxide structures on a surface of metals and alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The investigations of the plasma electrolytic processes in our laboratory are aimed to the development of conditions of formation of oxide layers with determined composition, structure and functional properties on the surface of valve metals (Al, Ti) and their alloys.

  20. Surface structure of polymer Gels and emerging functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kobiki, Y

    1999-01-01

    We report the surface structure of polymer gels on a submicrometer scale during the volume phase transition. Sponge-like domains with a mesoscopic scale were directly observed in water by using at atomic force microscope (AFM). The surface structure characterized by the domains is discussed in terms of the root-mean-square roughness and the auto-correlation function, which were calculated from the AFM images. In order to demonstrate the role of surface structure in determining the macroscopic properties of film-like poly (N-isopropylacrylamide: NIPA) gels. It was found that the temperature dependence, as well as the absolute values of the static contact angle, were strongly dependent on the bulk network inhomogeneities. The relation between the mesoscopic structure and the macroscopic properties is qualitatively discussed in terms of not only the changes in the chemical, but also in the physical, surface properties of the NIPA gels in response to a temperature change.

  1. Domain Structures in Nematic Liquid Crystals on a Polycarbonate Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily F. Shabanov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alignment of nematic liquid crystals on polycarbonate films obtained with the use of solvents with different solvations is studied. Domain structures occurring during the growth on the polymer surface against the background of the initial thread-like or schlieren texture are demonstrated. It is established by optical methods that the domains are stable formations visualizing the polymer surface structures. In nematic droplets, the temperature-induced transition from the domain structure with two extinction bands to the structure with four bands is observed. This transition is shown to be caused by reorientation of the nematic director in the liquid crystal volume from the planar alignment to the homeotropic state with the pronounced radial configuration of nematic molecules on the surface. The observed textures are compared with different combinations of the volume LC orientations and the radial distribution of the director field and the disclination lines at the polycarbonate surface.

  2. Seismic response of tall building considering soil-pile-structure interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The seismic behavior of tall buildings can be greatly affected by non-linear soil-pile interaction during strongearthquakes. In this study a 20-storey building is examined as a typical structure supported on a pile foundation for differentconditions: (1) rigid base, i.e. no deformation in the foundation: (2) linear soil-pile system; and (3) nonlinear soil-pile system.The effects of pile foundation displacements on the behavior of tall building are investigated, and compared with the behavior ofbuildings supported on shallow foundation. With a model of non-reflective boundary between the near field and far field,Novak's method of soil-pile interaction is improved. The computation method for vibration of pile foundations and DYNANcomputer program are introduced comprehensively. A series of dynamic experiments have been done on full-scale piles,including single pile and group, linear vibration and nonlinear vibration, to verify the validity of boundary zone model.

  3. Vibration Characteristics of a Building Structure from a Natural Frequency Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Kurita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate vibration characteristics of the building, the natural frequency of the building was estimated using microtoremor and strong motion. In case estimated using microtoremor data, the natural frequency was 2.40Hz in the minor axis of the building. However, in case estimated using strong motion data, the average of them was 2.28Hz that is lower than that of microtremor. From a time series analysis on strong motion data, the natural frequency indicates high value before the part of principal motion, it drops to a lower on the part of principal motion. And it goes back with the decreasing acceleration amplitude of motion. It means that the natural frequency of the structure depends on the peak acceleration amplitude. Therefore, it is difficult to evaluate a health index only using the change of the natural frequency estimated by strong motion data. It means that it needs to use another parameter together.

  4. Protein Adsorption to Surface Chemistry and Crystal Structure Modification of Titanium Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Jimbo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To observe the early adsorption of extracellular matrix and blood plasma proteins to magnesium-incorporated titanium oxide surfaces, which has shown superior bone response in animal models.Material and Methods: Commercially pure titanium discs were blasted with titanium dioxide (TiO2 particles (control, and for the test group, TiO2 blasted discs were further processed with a micro-arc oxidation method (test. Surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, surface topography by optic interferometry, characterization by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The adsorption of 3 different proteins (fibronectin, albumin, and collagen type I was investigated by an immunoblotting technique.Results: The test surface showed a porous structure, whereas the control surface showed a typical TiO2 blasted structure. XPS data revealed magnesium-incorporation to the anodic oxide film of the surface. There was no difference in surface roughness between the control and test surfaces. For the protein adsorption test, the amount of albumin was significantly higher on the control surface whereas the amount of fibronectin was significantly higher on the test surface. Although there was no significant difference, the test surface had a tendency to adsorb more collagen type I.Conclusions: The magnesium-incorporated anodized surface showed significantly higher fibronectin adsorption and lower albumin adsorption than the blasted surface. These results may be one of the reasons for the excellent bone response previously observed in animal studies.

  5. The effect of surfaces on the domain structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1987-12-01

    The second-order phase transition from the paramagnetic phase to the ferromagnetic phase with domain structure in a ferromagnetic film with strong uniaxial anisotropy is studied. The easy axis is perpendicular to the surface of the film. It is assumed that the short range interactions depend on the distance to the surface. The phase diagram of the film and the form of the domain structure which occurs at the phase transition temperature are obtained.

  6. Underwater 3D Surface Scanning using Structured Light

    OpenAIRE

    Törnblom, Nils

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis project, an underwater 3D scanner based on structured light has been constructed and developed. Two other scanners, based on stereoscopy and a line-swept laser, were also tested. The target application is to examine objects inside the water filled reactor vessel of nuclear power plants. Structured light systems (SLS) use a projector to illuminate the surface of the scanned object, and a camera to capture the surfaces' reflection. By projecting a series of specific line-patterns...

  7. Dimers on Surface Graphs and Spin Structures. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimasoni, David; Reshetikhin, Nicolai

    2007-01-01

    Partition functions for dimers on closed oriented surfaces are known to be alternating sums of Pfaffians of Kasteleyn matrices. In this paper, we obtain the formula for the coefficients in terms of discrete spin structures.......Partition functions for dimers on closed oriented surfaces are known to be alternating sums of Pfaffians of Kasteleyn matrices. In this paper, we obtain the formula for the coefficients in terms of discrete spin structures....

  8. Super water repellent surface 'strictly' mimicking the surface structure of lotus leaf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Tae Gon; Kim, Ho Young [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Jin Woo; Lee, Kwang Ryeol; Moon, Myoung Woon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    To achieve the hierarchy of roughness as observed in lotus leaves, most artificial water-repellent surfaces have nano-asperities on top of micropillars. However, observation of real lotus leaves through SEM reveals that nonoscale roughness covers the entire surface including the base as well as bumps. Thus we fabricate surfaces having the same hierarchical roughness structure as the lotus leaf by forming nanopillars on both micropillars and base. We compare the measures of water-repellency (static contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, and transition pressure between the Cassie and Wenzel states) of the lotus-like surface with those of surfaces having single micro- and nano- roughness. The results show that nanoscale roughness covering entire surface area leads to superior water-repellency to other surface roughness structures. We also give a theoretical consideration of this observation.

  9. Synthesis, Structure and Reactivity of Molecules Attached to Electrode Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Structure and Reactivity of Molecules Attached to Electrode Surfaces", AFOSR #81-0149 III. REPORTING PERIOD: April 15, 1981 through April 14, 1985 IV...Adsorption .... ............... 17 9. Effect of Surface Roughness on Adsorbate Orientation and Reactivity . 20 10. Ordered/ Disordered Packing in Chemisorbed... reactivity only when present in the edge-pendant orientation. Clearly, molecular orientation (i.e., mode of +. .4 o,, -12- attachment to the surface) is a

  10. Electron-Hole Counting Approach to Surface Atomic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadi, D. J.

    The observed reconstructions of III-V semiconductor surfaces are shown to be consistent with constraints imposed by a simple "electron-hole" counting rule proposed by Pashley. The rule ensures that the predicted surfaces are nonmetallic, nonpolar, and at least, metastable since the compensation of the "donor" electrons leaves no occupied states in the upper part of the band gap which can easily induce other reconstructions. Applications of the method to the problem of surface structure and passivation are examined.

  11. Effective Quantification of the Paper Surface 3D Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Fidjestøl, Svein

    2005-01-01

    This thesis covers the topic of image processing in relation to the segmentation and analysis of pores protruding the surface in the three dimensional surface structure of paper. The successful analysis of pores is related to a greater goal of relating such an analysis to the perceived quality of the surface of a paper sample. The first part of the thesis gives an introduction to the context of image processing in relation to paper research. Also, an overview of the image processing framewor...

  12. Surface structure of coherently strained ceria ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yezhou; Stone, Kevin H.; Guan, Zixuan; Monti, Matteo; Cao, Chuntian; El Gabaly, Farid; Chueh, William C.; Toney, Michael F.

    2016-11-01

    Cerium oxide, or ceria, is an important material for solid oxide fuel cells and water splitting devices. Although the ceria surface is active in catalytic and electrochemical reactions, how its catalytic properties are affected by the surface structure under operating conditions is far from understood. We investigate the structure of the coherently strained Ce O2 ultrathin films on yttria-stabilized zirconia (001) single crystals by specular synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) under oxidizing conditions as a first step to study the surface structure in situ. An excellent agreement between the experiment data and the model is achieved by using a "stacks and islands" model that has a two-component roughness. One component is due to the tiny clusters of nanometer scale in lateral dimensions on each terrace, while the other component is due to slightly different Ce O2 thickness that span over hundreds of nanometers on neighboring terraces. We attribute the nonuniform thickness to step depairing during the thin film deposition that is supported by the surface morphology results on the microscopic level. Importantly, our model also shows that the polarity of the ceria surface is removed by a half monolayer surface coverage of oxygen. The successful resolution of the ceria surface structure using in situ specular synchrotron XRD paves the way to study the structural evolution of ceria as a fuel cell electrode under catalytically relevant temperatures and gas pressures.

  13. Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures induced by surface plasmons coupled via roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, E. L.; Gurevich, S. V.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the formation mechanisms of the femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are discussed. One of the most frequently used theories explains the structures by interference between the incident laser beam and surface plasmon-polariton waves. The latter is most commonly attributed to the coupling of the incident laser light to the surface roughness. We demonstrate that this excitation of surface plasmons contradicts the results of laser-ablation experiments. As an alternative approach to the excitation of LIPSS we analyse development of hydrodynamic instabilities in the melt layer.

  14. Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures induced by surface plasmons coupled via roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, E.L., E-mail: gurevich@lat.rub.de [Chair of Applied Laser Technology, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Gurevich, S.V., E-mail: gurevics@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 9, 48149 Münster (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the formation mechanisms of the femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are discussed. One of the most frequently used theories explains the structures by interference between the incident laser beam and surface plasmon-polariton waves. The latter is most commonly attributed to the coupling of the incident laser light to the surface roughness. We demonstrate that this excitation of surface plasmons contradicts the results of laser-ablation experiments. As an alternative approach to the excitation of LIPSS we analyse development of hydrodynamic instabilities in the melt layer.

  15. Condition Assessment of the Timber Structures of a Century-Old Industrial Building Using a Nondestructive Inspection Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Marko Teder; James Wacker

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an in situ inspection project conducted on heavy timber structures of a century-old industrial building at a paper manufacturing facility. A nondestructive inspection procedure was employed to evaluate the true condition of the heavy timbers that serve as the main framing structure of the building. The on-site investigation involved monitoring of the...

  16. Routing Corners of Building Structures - by the Method of Vector Addition - Measured with RTN GNSS Surveying Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżek, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The paper deals with the problem of surveying buildings in the RTN GNSS mode using modernized indirect methods of measurement. As a result of the classical realtime measurements using indirect methods (intersection of straight lines or a point on a straight line), we obtain a building structure (a building) which is largely deformed. This distortion is due to the inconsistency of the actual dimensions of the building (tie distances) relative to the obtained measurement results. In order to eliminate these discrepancies, and thus to ensure full consistency of the building geometric structure, an innovative solution was applied - the method of vector addition - to modify the linear values (tie distances) of the external face of the building walls. A separate research problem tackled in the article, although not yet fully solved, is the issue of coordinates of corners of a building obtained after the application of the method of vector addition.

  17. c(4 × 2) and related structural units on the SrTiO3(001) surface: scanning tunneling microscopy, density functional theory, and atomic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Toledo, A E; Marshall, M S J; Castell, M R; Marks, L D

    2012-06-07

    Density functional theory is used to simulate high-bias, constant-current scanning tunneling micrographs for direct comparison with experimental images. Coupled to previous spectroscopic data, these simulations are used to determine the atomic structure of Ti-rich nanostructures on strontium titanate (001) surfaces. These nanostructures have three consecutive TiO(x) surface layers and exploit the distinctive structural motif of the c(4 × 2) reconstruction as their main building block. A structural model of a characteristic triline defect is also proposed.

  18. Life comparative analysis of energy consumption and CO₂ emissions of different building structural frame types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangyong; Moon, Joon-Ho; Shin, Yoonseok; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Seo, Deok-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO₂ emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC) or steel (S) structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO₂ emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO₂ emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO₂ emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO₂ emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO₂ emissions cost) of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future.

  19. Life Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Different Building Structural Frame Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO2 emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC or steel (S structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO2 emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO2 emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO2 emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO2 emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO2 emissions cost of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future.

  20. Osteoblast Behavior on Hierarchical Micro-/Nano-Structured Titanium Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiyan Meng; Yanmin Zhou; Yanjing Zhang; Qing Cai; Liming Yang; Jinghui Zhao; Chnnyan Li

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, osteoblast behavior on a hierarchical micro-/nano-structured titanium surface was investigated. A hierarchical hybrid micro-/nano-structured titanium surface topography was produced via Electrolytic Etching (EE). MG-63 cells were cultured on disks for 2 h to 7 days. The osteoblast response to the hierarchical hybrid micro-/nano-structured titanium surface was evaluated through the osteoblast cell morphology, attachment and proliferation. For comparison, MG-63 cells were also cultured on Sandblasted and Acid-etched (SLA) as well as Machined (M) surfaces respectively. The results show significant differences in the adhesion rates and proliferation levels of MG-63 cells on EE, SLA, and M surfaces. Both adhesion rate and proliferation level on EE surface are higher than those on SLA and M surfaces. Therefore, we may expect that, comparing with SLA and M surfaces, bone growth on EE surface could be accelerated and bone formation could be promoted at an early stage, which could be applied in the clinical practices for immediate and early-stage loadings.

  1. Structures of multidomain proteins adsorbed on hydrophobic interaction chromatography surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodarek, Adrian M; Sun, Weitong; O'Connell, John P; Fernandez, Erik J

    2014-12-05

    In hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), interactions between buried hydrophobic residues and HIC surfaces can cause conformational changes that interfere with separations and cause yield losses. This paper extends our previous investigations of protein unfolding in HIC chromatography by identifying protein structures on HIC surfaces under denaturing conditions and relating them to solution behavior. The thermal unfolding of three model multidomain proteins on three HIC surfaces of differing hydrophobicities was investigated with hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HXMS). The data were analyzed to obtain unfolding rates and Gibbs free energies for unfolding of adsorbed proteins. The melting temperatures of the proteins were lowered, but by different amounts, on the different surfaces. In addition, the structures of the proteins on the chromatographic surfaces were similar to the partially unfolded structures produced in the absence of a surface by temperature as well as by chemical denaturants. Finally, it was found that patterns of residue exposure to solvent on different surfaces at different temperatures can be largely superimposed. These findings suggest that protein unfolding on various HIC surfaces might be quantitatively related to protein unfolding in solution and that details of surface unfolding behavior might be generalized.

  2. Influence of light intensity on surface free energy and dentin bond strength of core build-up resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Tsujimoto, A; Furuichi, T; Suzuki, T; Tsubota, K; Miyazaki, M; Platt, J A

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of light intensity on surface free energy characteristics and dentin bond strength of dual-cure direct core build-up resin systems. Two commercially available dual-cure direct core build-up resin systems, Clearfil DC Core Automix with Clearfil Bond SE One and UniFil Core EM with Self-Etching Bond, were studied. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in acrylic resin and the facial dentin surfaces were wet ground on 600-grit silicon carbide paper. Adhesives were applied to dentin surfaces and cured with light intensities of 0 (no irradiation), 200, 400, and 600 mW/cm(2). The surface free energy of the adhesives (five samples per group) was determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids placed on the cured adhesives. To determine the strength of the dentin bond, the core build-up resin pastes were condensed into the mold on the adhesive-treated dentin surfaces according to the methods described for the surface free energy measurement. The resin pastes were cured with the same light intensities as those used for the adhesives. Ten specimens per group were stored in water maintained at 37°C for 24 hours, after which they were shear tested at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute in a universal testing machine. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a Tukey-Kramer test were performed, with the significance level set at 0.05. The surface free energies of the adhesive-treated dentin surfaces decreased with an increase in the light intensity of the curing unit. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the type of core build-up system and the light intensity significantly influence the bond strength, although there was no significant interaction between the two factors. The highest bond strengths were achieved when the resin pastes were cured with the strongest light intensity for all the core build-up systems. When polymerized with a light intensity of 200 mW/cm(2) or less, significantly lower bond strengths were observed. CONClUSIONS: The

  3. USING OPENSTREETMAP DATA TO GENERATE BUILDING MODELS WITH THEIR INNER STRUCTURES FOR 3D MAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Web 2.0, more and more data related to indoor environments has been collected within the volunteered geographic information (VGI framework, which creates a need for construction of indoor environments from VGI. In this study, we focus on generating 3D building models from OpenStreetMap (OSM data, and provide an approach to support construction and visualization of indoor environments on 3D maps. In this paper, we present an algorithm which can extract building information from OSM data, and can construct building structures as well as inner building components (e.g., doors, rooms, and windows. A web application is built to support the processing and visualization of the building models on a 3D map. We test our approach with an indoor dataset collected from the field. The results show the feasibility of our approach and its potentials to provide support for a wide range of applications, such as indoor and outdoor navigation, urban planning, and incident management.

  4. Structural observability analysis and EKF based parameter estimation of building heating models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.W.U. Perera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research for enhanced energy-efficient buildings has been given much recognition in the recent years owing to their high energy consumptions. Increasing energy needs can be precisely controlled by practicing advanced controllers for building Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. Advanced controllers require a mathematical building heating model to operate, and these models need to be accurate and computationally efficient. One main concern associated with such models is the accurate estimation of the unknown model parameters. This paper presents the feasibility of implementing a simplified building heating model and the computation of physical parameters using an off-line approach. Structural observability analysis is conducted using graph-theoretic techniques to analyze the observability of the developed system model. Then Extended Kalman Filter (EKF algorithm is utilized for parameter estimates using the real measurements of a single-zone building. The simulation-based results confirm that even with a simple model, the EKF follows the state variables accurately. The predicted parameters vary depending on the inputs and disturbances.

  5. StructuralComponents 4: Conceptual building models with structural design justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.; Rolvink, A.; Coenders, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of computation in the building industry has led to the development of a range of tools intended for design. Although commonly used for detailed analysis (FEA) and documentation (CAD/BIM), few tools address the needs of the early design stages for flexibility and quick, insightful feedba

  6. Analysis, Design, and Construction of a Base-Isolated Multiple Building Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sorace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and design of a multiple residential building, seismically protected by a base isolation system incorporating double friction pendulum sliders as protective devices, are presented in the paper. The building, situated in the suburban area of Florence, is composed of four independent reinforced concrete framed structures, mutually separated by three thermal expansion joints. The plan is L-shaped, with dimensions of about 75 m in the longitudinal direction and about 30 m along the longest side of the transversal direction. These characteristics identify the structure as the largest example of a base-isolated “artificial ground” ever built in Italy. The base isolation solution guarantees lower costs, a much greater performance, and a finer architectural look, as compared to a conventional fixed-base antiseismic design. The characteristics of the building and the isolators, the mechanical properties and the experimental characterization campaign and preliminary sizing carried out on the latter, and the nonlinear time-history design and performance assessment analyses developed on the base isolated building are reported in this paper, along with details about the installation of the isolators and the plants and highlights of the construction works.

  7. Preliminary Dynamic Siol-Structure-Interaction Analysis for the Waste Handling Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Wagenblast

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this analysis package is to document a preliminary dynamic seismic evaluation of a simplified design concept of the Wade Handling Building (WHB). Preliminary seismic ground motions and soil data will be used. Loading criteria of the WHB System Design Description will be used. Detail design of structural members will not be performed.. The results of the analysis will be used to determine preliminary sizes of structural concrete and steel members and to determine whether the seismic response of the structure is within an acceptable level for future License Application design of safety related facilities. In order to complete this preliminary dynamic evaluation to meet the Site Recommendation (SR) schedule, the building configuration was ''frozen in time'' as the conceptual design existed in October 1999. Modular design features and dry or wet waste storage features were intentionally excluded from this preliminary dynamic seismic evaluation. The document was prepared in accordance with the Development Plan for the ''Preliminary/Dynamic Soil Structure Interaction Analysis for the Waste Handling Building'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b), which was completed, in accordance with AP-2.13Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning''.

  8. Automated metric characterization of urban structure using building decomposition from very high resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, Johannes; Kemper, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Classification approaches for urban areas are mostly of qualitative and semantic nature. They produce interpreted classes similar to those from land cover and land use classifications. As a complement to those classes, quantitative measures directly derived from the image could lead to a metric characterization of the urban area. While these metrics lack of qualitative interpretation they are able to provide objective measure of the urban structures. Such quantitative measures are especially important in rapidly growing cities since, beside of the growth in area, they can provide structural information for specific areas and detect changes. Rustenburg, which serves as test area for the present study, is amongst the fastest growing cities in South Africa. It reveals a heterogeneous face of housing and building structures reflecting social and/or economic differences often linked to the spatial distribution of industrial and local mining sites. Up to date coverage with aerial photographs is provided by aerial surveys in regular intervals. Also recent satellite systems provide imagery with suitable resolution. Using such set of very high resolution images a fully automated algorithm has been developed which outputs metric classes by systematically combining important measures of building structure. The measurements are gained by decomposition of buildings directly from the imagery and by using methods from mathematical morphology. The decomposed building objects serve as basis for the computation of grid statistics. Finally a systematic combination of the single features leads to combined metrical classes. For the dominant urban structures verification results indicate an overall accuracy of at least 80% on the single feature level and 70% for the combined classes.

  9. Color effects from scattering on random surface structures in dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jeppe; Christiansen, Alexander B; Garnæs, Jørgen;

    2012-01-01

    We show that cheap large area color filters, based on surface scattering, can be fabricated in dielectric materials by replication of random structures in silicon. The specular transmittance of three different types of structures, corresponding to three different colors, have been characterized....... The angle resolved scattering has been measured and compared to predictions based on the measured surface topography and by the use of non-paraxial scalar diffraction theory. From this it is shown that the color of the transmitted light can be predicted from the topography of the randomly textured surfaces....

  10. Bionic Duplication of Fresh Navodon septentrionalis Fish Surface Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Qu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by replicating topography of the fresh fish skin surface of Navodon septentrionalis with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS elastomer. A two-step replicating method was developed to make the surface structure of the fresh fish skin be replicated with high fidelity. After duplication, it was found that the static contact angle of the replica was as large as 173°. Theoretic analysis based on Young's and Cassie-Baxter (C-B model was performed to explain the relationship between structure and hydrophobicity.

  11. A METHOD FOR MEASURING THE SENSITIVITY OF BUILDING STRUCTURAL MEMBERS TO FIRE DECAY PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gernay

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Firefighters face a major threat when intervening in a building during a fire: the possibility of structural collapse during the cooling phase of the fire, or soon thereafter. At present, this threat is amplified by the fact that the behaviour of structures after the time of peak gas temperature is not well understood, and is not taken into account in the design. This work presents an analysis of the behaviour of different structural members under natural fires, and develops a method for characterizing their sensitivity to fire decay phases. Thermo-mechanical numerical simulations based on the non-linear finite element method are conducted using the parametric fire model of the Eurocode to represent natural fires. The results show that, for all the members (a column, a beam and materials (reinforced concrete, steel and timber that are studied here, structural failure during or after the cooling phase of a fire is a possible event. The major factors that promote delayed structural failure are thermal inertia and the constituting material of the member. A method, based on a new indicator, is proposed for quantifying the propensity to delayed failure for structural members under natural fire. This work enhances the understanding of the behaviour of structures under natural fires, and has important implications for the safety of fire brigades and of people responsible for making a building inspection after a fire.

  12. Protective system for civil buildings and industrial structures subjected to the seismic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghica, D.; Grigore, A.; Ionescu, C.

    2009-04-01

    Romania is a European country with significant seismicity. The most active seismic zone is represented by the Vrancea area, located within the arch of the Carpathians Mountains. Vrancea seismicity is characterized by intermediate depth earthquakes which occur in a narrow epicentral and hypocentral region. During the last 70 years, Romania experienced four strong Vrancea earthquakes: 10 November 1940 (Mw =7.7, 160 km depth), 4 March 1977 (Mw =7.5, 100 km depth), 30 August 1986 (Mw =7.2, 140 km depth), 30 May 30 1990 (Mw =6.9, 80 km depth). The 1977 event was characterized by catastrophic consequences: 1500 casualties and collapsing of 35 high-risk buildings, mostly occurring in Bucharest. The purpose of this paper is to present a protective system designed to be installed in the civil buildings and industrial structures placed in the high seismic regions, and therefore to contribute to the mitigation of the strong earthquake effects on human society. This system proposes an efficient antiseismic protection, respectively shutting down the installations and equipments mounted in the building's infrastructure, which can become extremely dangerous in case of a major earthquake by appearing the possibility of explosions, deflagration, fires, toxic and polluting fluids leakage. The damages are strongly amplified by the fact that, simultaneously, water and electric energy lines distributions are damaged too, making impossible an efficient firemen intervention, for localizing the fire sources. Moreover, the installations of the individual heating stations which operate with open flame increase the risk of explosions inside the buildings during an earthquake. The protective system consists of a seismic switch used for activating through weak-electric-currents of the building's safety systems in case of strong earthquake, especially designed for building's elevators, as well as for moving parts of installations, which require positioning in safety place areas. The originality

  13. Riblet Sensor -- Light Scattering on Micro Structured Surface Coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Imlau, Mirco; Voit, Kay-Michael; Tschentscher, Juliane; Dieckmann, Volker

    2016-01-01

    With the application of appropriate surface structuring on aircrafts, up to 8\\% fuel may be saved in regular air traffic. Before these techniques can be introduced into productive environments, a controlling method for the quality of surface structuring is needed to be used during fabrication and service, ensuring persistent quality of the structured coatings and a justified decision for surface renewal. In this project, these important requirements for achieving the improvements defined above are fulfilled. We have shown that fast sampling is possible using noncontacting laser probing, and we have presented a working preliminary configuration for the sensor. In the theoretical part, a model for the interaction between a probing laser beam and the surface is developed and the resulting wavefront is derived. This is done using a combination of Huygens-Fresnel diffraction theory and geometrical optics. The model is then used to counsel the design of the experimental setup, to interpret the emerging data and to ...

  14. Structure of adsorbed monolayers. The surface chemical bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.; Bent, B.E.

    1984-06-01

    This paper attempts to provide a summary of what has been learned about the structure of adsorbed monolayers and about the surface chemical bond from molecular surface science. While the surface chemical bond is less well understood than bonding of molecules in the gas phase or in the solid state, our knowledge of its properties is rapidly accumulating. The information obtained also has great impact on many surface science based technologies, including heterogeneous catalysis and electronic devices. It is hoped that much of the information obtained from studies at solid-gas interfaces can be correlated with molecular behavior at solid-liquid interfaces. 31 references, 42 figures, 1 table.

  15. A genetic algorithm approach in interface and surface structure optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part a global optimization method is developed for the interface and surface structures optimization. Two prototype systems are chosen to be studied. One is Si[001] symmetric tilted grain boundaries and the other is Ag/Au induced Si(111) surface. It is found that Genetic Algorithm is very efficient in finding lowest energy structures in both cases. Not only existing structures in the experiments can be reproduced, but also many new structures can be predicted using Genetic Algorithm. Thus it is shown that Genetic Algorithm is a extremely powerful tool for the material structures predictions. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the explanation of an experimental observation of thermal radiation from three-dimensional tungsten photonic crystal structures. The experimental results seems astounding and confusing, yet the theoretical models in the paper revealed the physics insight behind the phenomena and can well reproduced the experimental results.

  16. Monitoring the accumulated water soluble airborne compounds deposited on surfaces of showcases and walls in museums, archives and historical buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Lilian; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; Svensmark, Bo

    2017-01-01

    to implement by curators and conservators, who can the send the flush water to specialized laboratories. Brief summary: A new methodology capable of monitoring the accumulated airborne deposits on surfaces in showcases and historic buildings is presented and tested. The method is cheap and is easy to implement...... themselves. This might make the compounds seem absent from analyses of indoor air samples. Context and purpose of the study: A new method of detecting water soluble pollutants without taking samples from the interior walls or from the CH objects themselves has been developed. The method involves sampling...... the pollutants accumulated on a surface near the CH object, e.g. a nearby wall or an interior glass surface of a showcase. The samples were obtained by gently flushing the surface with deionised water to collect the ions readily removed from the surface. The method was tested on a variety of surfaces. Results...

  17. Formation of Surface Corrosion-Resistant Nanocrystalline Structures on Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykyforchyn, Hryhoriy; Kyryliv, Volodymyr; Maksymiv, Olha; Slobodyan, Zvenomyra; Tsyrulnyk, Oleksandr

    2016-12-01

    Engineering materials with nanocrystalline structure could be exploited under simultaneous action of mechanical loading and corrosion environments; therefore, their corrosion resistance is important. Surface nanocrystalline structure was generated on middle carbon steels by severe plastic deformation using the method of mechanical pulse friction treatment. This treatment additionally includes high temperature phase transformation and alloying. Using a complex of the corrosive, electrochemical and physical investigations, it was established that nanocrystalline structures can be characterized by lower or increased corrosion resistance in comparison with the reference material. It is caused by the action of two confronting factors: arising energy level and anticorrosive alloying of the surface layer.

  18. Surface Appendages of Archaea: Structure, Function, Genetics and Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Siu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisms representing diverse subgroupings of the Domain Archaea are known to possess unusual surface structures. These can include ones unique to Archaea such as cannulae and hami as well as archaella (archaeal flagella and various types of pili that superficially resemble their namesakes in Bacteria, although with significant differences. Major advances have occurred particularly in the study of archaella and pili using model organisms with recently developed advanced genetic tools. There is common use of a type IV pili-model of assembly for several archaeal surface structures including archaella, certain pili and sugar binding structures termed bindosomes. In addition, there are widespread posttranslational modifications of archaellins and pilins with N-linked glycans, with some containing novel sugars. Archaeal surface structures are involved in such diverse functions as swimming, attachment to surfaces, cell to cell contact resulting in genetic transfer, biofilm formation, and possible intercellular communication. Sometimes functions are co-dependent on other surface structures. These structures and the regulation of their assembly are important features that allow various Archaea, including thermoacidophilic, hyperthermophilic, halophilic, and anaerobic ones, to survive and thrive in the extreme environments that are commonly inhabited by members of this domain.

  19. Sliding surface searching method for slopes containing a potential weak structural surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Yao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Weak structural surface is one of the key factors controlling the stability of slopes. The stability of rock slopes is in general concerned with set of discontinuities. However, in soft rocks, failure can occur along surfaces approaching to a circular failure surface. To better understand the position of potential sliding surface, a new method called simplex-finite stochastic tracking method is proposed. This method basically divides sliding surface into two parts: one is described by smooth curve obtained by random searching, the other one is polyline formed by the weak structural surface. Single or multiple sliding surfaces can be considered, and consequently several types of combined sliding surfaces can be simulated. The paper will adopt the arc-polyline to simulate potential sliding surface and analyze the searching process of sliding surface. Accordingly, software for slope stability analysis using this method was developed and applied in real cases. The results show that, using simplex-finite stochastic tracking method, it is possible to locate the position of a potential sliding surface in the slope.

  20. Sliding surface searching method for slopes containing a potential weak structural surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aijun Yao; Zhizhou Tian; Yongjun Jin

    2014-01-01

    Weak structural surface is one of the key factors controlling the stability of slopes. The stability of rock slopes is in general concerned with set of discontinuities. However, in soft rocks, failure can occur along surfaces approaching to a circular failure surface. To better understand the position of potential sliding surface, a new method called simplex-finite stochastic tracking method is proposed. This method basically divides sliding surface into two parts: one is described by smooth curve obtained by random searching, the other one is polyline formed by the weak structural surface. Single or multiple sliding surfaces can be considered, and consequently several types of combined sliding surfaces can be simu-lated. The paper will adopt the arc-polyline to simulate potential sliding surface and analyze the searching process of sliding surface. Accordingly, software for slope stability analysis using this method was developed and applied in real cases. The results show that, using simplex-finite stochastic tracking method, it is possible to locate the position of a potential sliding surface in the slope.

  1. Utilization of the Building-Block Approach in Structural Mechanics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Marshall; Jegley, Dawn C.; McGowan, David M.; Bush, Harold G.; Waters, W. Allen

    2005-01-01

    In the last 20 years NASA has worked in collaboration with industry to develop enabling technologies needed to make aircraft safer and more affordable, extend their lifetime, improve their reliability, better understand their behavior, and reduce their weight. To support these efforts, research programs starting with ideas and culminating in full-scale structural testing were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. Each program contained development efforts that (a) started with selecting the material system and manufacturing approach; (b) moved on to experimentation and analysis of small samples to characterize the system and quantify behavior in the presence of defects like damage and imperfections; (c) progressed on to examining larger structures to examine buckling behavior, combined loadings, and built-up structures; and (d) finally moved to complicated subcomponents and full-scale components. Each step along the way was supported by detailed analysis, including tool development, to prove that the behavior of these structures was well-understood and predictable. This approach for developing technology became known as the "building-block" approach. In the Advanced Composites Technology Program and the High Speed Research Program the building-block approach was used to develop a true understanding of the response of the structures involved through experimentation and analysis. The philosophy that if the structural response couldn't be accurately predicted, it wasn't really understood, was critical to the progression of these programs. To this end, analytical techniques including closed-form and finite elements were employed and experimentation used to verify assumptions at each step along the way. This paper presents a discussion of the utilization of the building-block approach described previously in structural mechanics research and development programs at NASA Langley Research Center. Specific examples that illustrate the use of this approach are

  2. Nanoscale Structuring of Surfaces by Using Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Nicolas; Hess, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Controlled structuring of surfaces is interesting for a wide variety of areas, including microelectronic device fabrication, optical devices, bio(sensing), (electro-, photo)catalysis, batteries, solar cells, fuel cells, and sorption. A unique feature of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is the possibility to form conformal uniform coatings on arbitrarily shaped materials with controlled atomic-scale thickness. In this Minireview, we discuss the potential of ALD for the nanoscale structuring of surfaces, highlighting its versatile application to structuring both planar substrates and powder materials. Recent progress in the application of ALD to porous substrates has even made the nanoscale structuring of high-surface-area materials now feasible, thereby enabling novel applications, such as those in the fields of catalysis and alternative energy.

  3. Sorting of droplets by migration on structured surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Konrad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Controlled transport of microdroplets is a topic of interest for various applications. It is well known that liquid droplets move towards areas of minimum contact angle if placed on a flat solid surface exhibiting a gradient of contact angle. This effect can be utilised for droplet manipulation. In this contribution we describe how controlled droplet movement can be achieved by a surface pattern consisting of cones and funnels whose length scales are comparable to the droplet diameter.Results: The surface energy of a droplet attached to a cone in a symmetry-preserving way can be smaller than the surface energy of a freely floating droplet. If the value of the contact angle is fixed and lies within a certain interval, then droplets sitting initially on a cone can gain energy by moving to adjacent cones.Conclusion: Surfaces covered with cone-shaped protrusions or cavities may be devised for constructing “band-conveyors” for droplets. In our approach, it is essentially the surface structure which is varied, not the contact angle. It may be speculated that suitably patterned surfaces are also utilised in biological surfaces where a large variety of ornamentations and surface structuring are often observed.

  4. Building Large Collections of Chinese and English Medical Terms from Semi-Structured and Encyclopedia Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Xu; Yining Wang; Jian-Tao Sun; Jianwen Zhang; Junichi Tsujii; Eric Chang

    2013-01-01

    To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large...

  5. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chips, Michael J.; Carson, Walter P.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI) at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7–12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread. PMID:27703868

  6. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Elizabeth J; Chips, Michael J; Carson, Walter P; Rooney, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI) at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7-12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread.

  7. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Roberson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7–12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread.

  8. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    OpenAIRE

    Roberson, Elizabeth J.; Chips, Michael J.; Walter P. Carson; Thomas P. Rooney

    2016-01-01

    Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau re...

  9. An integrated approach to structural design of buildings using genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, M.Y.; Mathews, J.D. [Univ. of Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents an evolutionary approach to the integration of design activities, in the area of structural design of buildings, using Genetic Algorithms (GA). Integration process is viewed in two contexts: (i) Integration across the design activities within a particular discipline, and (ii) Integration across of the disciplines involved in the design. Particular advantages of the integration of design activities during the conceptual stage of the design process are highlighted.

  10. Teaching optimization of students at design of buildings and structures foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Misura, Lid. V.; MISURA Liub. V.; Poltorachenko, N. I.

    2016-01-01

    Raising of problem. According to world statistics, more than 75 % of all violations of the normal operation of buildings and structures is due to deficiencies in the design, construction and operation of bases and foundations [1]. The costs to eliminate these negative effects can be compared only with the initial cost of construction, it speaks about the relevance of teaching subjects related to the design of foundations. On the other hand increased demands on the students' knowledge, raises ...

  11. Aircraft-crash-protected steel reactor building roof structure for the European market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posta, B.A.; Kadar, I. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States); Rao, A.S. [General Electric Nuclear Engineering, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper recommends the use of all steel roof structures for the reactor building of European Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plants. This change would make the advanced US BWR designs more compatible with European requirements. Replacement of the existing concrete roof slab with a sufficiently thick steel plate would eliminate the concrete spelling resulting from a postulated aircraft crash, potentially damaging the drywell head or the spent fuel pool.

  12. Guide to quickly build high-quality three-dimensional models with a structured light range scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bao-Quan; Liang, Jin

    2016-12-20

    In literature, there are many reports about how to build high-precision, high-speed, and/or flexibly structured light range scanners. Whereas, there are few papers reported about how to implement the scanning to reach the full potential of the scanners when digitizing various objects. In this paper, some scanning strategies adopted by the structured light range scanner XJTUOM are introduced. In order to build high-quality three-dimensional (3D) models for various applications, such as 3D inspection, if necessary, the object surface is prepared in advance by an application of coating spray. Then, a precise 3D coordinate control network (CNN) is established to control the overall measurement accuracy. When the sensor is adjusted to face the object, a visual measuring volume, which can guide the scanning, is automatically aligned to the established CNN. Meanwhile, to maintain the local region scanning accuracy, simple rules are developed to check the low-quality regions in each scanning. Finally, the advantages and limitations of these scanning strategies are discussed in detail. We hope our work will be helpful in order for others to make their own scanning plans with similar optical devices at hand.

  13. Structure and reactivity of water at biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, E A

    1998-02-01

    Molecular self association in liquids is a physical process that can dominate cohesion (interfacial tension) and miscibility. In water, self association is a powerful organizational force leading to a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network (water structure). Localized perturbations in the chemical potential of water as by, for example, contact with a solid surface, induces compensating changes in water structure that can be sensed tens of nanometers from the point of origin using the surface force apparatus (SFA) and ancillary techniques. These instruments reveal attractive or repulsive forces between opposing surfaces immersed in water, over and above that anticipated by continuum theory (DLVO), that are attributed to a variable density (partial molar volume) of a more-or-less ordered water structure, depending on the water wettability (surface energy) of the water-contacting surfaces. Water structure at surfaces is thus found to be a manifestation of hydrophobicity and, while mechanistic/theoretical interpretation of experimental results remain the subject of some debate in the literature, convergence of experimental observations permit, for the first time, quantitative definition of the relative terms 'hydrophobic' and 'hydrophilic'. In particular, long-range attractive forces are detected only between surfaces exhibiting a water contact angle theta > 65 degrees (herein defined as hydrophobic surfaces with pure water adhesion tension tau O = gamma O cos theta 30 dyn/cm). These findings suggest at least two distinct kinds of water structure and reactivity: a relatively less-dense water region against hydrophobic surfaces with an open hydrogen-bonded network and a relatively more-dense water region against hydrophilic surfaces with a collapsed hydrogen-bonded network. Importantly, membrane and SFA studies reveal a discrimination between biologically-important ions that preferentially solubilizes divalent ions in more-dense water regions relative to less

  14. Automated Building Extraction from High-Resolution Satellite Imagery in Urban Areas Using Structural, Contextual, and Spectral Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt H. Davis

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution satellite imagery provides an important new data source for building extraction. We demonstrate an integrated strategy for identifying buildings in 1-meter resolution satellite imagery of urban areas. Buildings are extracted using structural, contextual, and spectral information. First, a series of geodesic opening and closing operations are used to build a differential morphological profile (DMP that provides image structural information. Building hypotheses are generated and verified through shape analysis applied to the DMP. Second, shadows are extracted using the DMP to provide reliable contextual information to hypothesize position and size of adjacent buildings. Seed building rectangles are verified and grown on a finely segmented image. Next, bright buildings are extracted using spectral information. The extraction results from the different information sources are combined after independent extraction. Performance evaluation of the building extraction on an urban test site using IKONOS satellite imagery of the City of Columbia, Missouri, is reported. With the combination of structural, contextual, and spectral information, 72.7% of the building areas are extracted with a quality percentage 58.8%.

  15. Vision-based system identification technique for building structures using a motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byung Kwan; Hwang, Jin Woo; Kim, Yousok; Cho, Tongjun; Park, Hyo Seon

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a new vision-based system identification (SI) technique for building structures by using a motion capture system (MCS). The MCS with outstanding capabilities for dynamic response measurements can provide gage-free measurements of vibrations through the convenient installation of multiple markers. In this technique, from the dynamic displacement responses measured by MCS, the dynamic characteristics (natural frequency, mode shape, and damping ratio) of building structures are extracted after the processes of converting the displacement from MCS to acceleration and conducting SI by frequency domain decomposition. A free vibration experiment on a three-story shear frame was conducted to validate the proposed technique. The SI results from the conventional accelerometer-based method were compared with those from the proposed technique and showed good agreement, which confirms the validity and applicability of the proposed vision-based SI technique for building structures. Furthermore, SI directly employing MCS measured displacements to FDD was performed and showed identical results to those of conventional SI method.

  16. Non-destructive evaluation of timber structures in a historical building of Tiradentes , MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barbosa de Abreu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to the durability of wood are commonly found in historical buildings structures. Preservation and conservation resolutions must be adopted, in order to avoid losses and substitutions, which mischaracterize buildings. Non-destructive methods for detecting deterioration should be used in order to substantiate decisions and increase the longevity of historical heritage. This work was carried out in order to perform non-destructive essays to infer about the integrity of a beam and a pillar of the original construction of the Sobrado Ramalho, a historical building of the city of Tiradentes, MG. The equipments utilized were the Stress Wave Timer and resistograph. Samples of the elements were taken for analysis of density. The results showed that, in both structures, to calculate the dynamic modulus of elasticity, there was no significant difference for the application of stress wave timer on the alignments studied. There was no significant difference between the directions of application of the resistograph on the pillar, due to its apparent entirety and regular sessions, practically square, and to not being loaded eccentrically. In the case of the beam, there was significant difference, presumably because it has cracks in its traction line. The equipments, unknown by professionals of heritage conservation allow promising methodologies for inspection of timber structures in service.

  17. Surface structure of the Ag-In-(rare earth) complex intermetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hars, S. S.; Sharma, H. R.; Smerdon, J. A.; Yadav, T. P.; Al-Mahboob, A.; Ledieu, J.; Fournée, V.; Tamura, R.; McGrath, R.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study of the surface structure of the Ag-In-RE (RE: rare-earth elements Gd, Tb, and Yb) complex intermetallics using scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. The surface of the Ag-In-Yb approximant prepared by sputter-annealing methods under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions produces a flat (100) surface with no facets. However, the Ag-In-Gd and Ag-In-Tb 1/1 approximants, which have a surface miscut of about 12∘ relative to the (100) plane, develop surface facets along various crystallographic directions. The structure of each facet can be explained as a truncation of the rhombic triacontahedral clusters, i.e., the main building blocks of these systems. Despite their differences in atomic structure, symmetry, and density, the facets show common features. The facet planes are In rich. The analysis of the nearest-neighbor atom distances suggests that In atoms form bonds with the RE atoms, which we suggest is a key factor that stabilizes even low-density facet planes.

  18. Understanding surface structure and chemistry of single crystal lanthanum aluminate

    KAUST Repository

    Pramana, Stevin S.

    2017-03-02

    The surface crystallography and chemistry of a LaAlO3 single crystal, a material mainly used as a substrate to deposit technologically important thin films (e.g. for superconducting and magnetic devices), was analysed using surface X-ray diffraction and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The surface was determined to be terminated by Al-O species, and was significantly different from the idealised bulk structure. Termination reversal was not observed at higher temperature (600 °C) and chamber pressure of 10−10 Torr, but rather an increased Al-O occupancy occurred, which was accompanied by a larger outwards relaxation of Al from the bulk positions. Changing the oxygen pressure to 10−6 Torr enriched the Al site occupancy fraction at the outermost surface from 0.245(10) to 0.325(9). In contrast the LaO, which is located at the next sub-surface atomic layer, showed no chemical enrichment and the structural relaxation was lower than for the top AlO2 layer. Knowledge of the surface structure will aid the understanding of how and which type of interface will be formed when LaAlO3 is used as a substrate as a function of temperature and pressure, and so lead to improved design of device structures.

  19. Electron backscatter diffraction characterization of laser-induced periodic surface structures on nickel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedao, Xxx; Maurice, Claire; Garrelie, Florence; Colombier, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Quey, Romain; Blanc, Gilles; Pigeon, Florent

    2014-05-01

    We report on the structural investigation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) generated in polycrystalline nickel target after multi-shot irradiation by femtosecond laser pulses. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is used to reveal lattice rotation caused by dislocation storage during LIPSS formation. Localized crystallographic damages in the LIPSS are detected from both surface and cross-sectional EBSD studies. A surface region (up to 200 nm) with 1-3° grain disorientation is observed in localized areas from the cross-section of the LIPSS. The distribution of the local disorientation is inhomogeneous across the LIPSS and the subsurface region.

  20. Crystallography and surface structure an introduction for surface scientists and nanoscientists

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    A valuable learning tool as well as a reference, this book provides students and researchers in surface science and nanoscience with the theoretical crystallographic foundations, which are necessary to understand local structure and symmetry of bulk crystals, including ideal and real single crystal surfaces. The author deals with the subject at an introductory level, providing numerous graphic examples to illustrate the mathematical formalism. The book brings together and logically connects many seemingly disparate structural issues and notations used frequently by surface scientists and nanoscientists. Numerous exercises of varying difficulty, ranging from simple questions to small research projects, are included to stimulate discussions about the different subjects.

  1. Study on steady state wind and turbulence environments. [structure of wakes near buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundidge, K. C.

    1977-01-01

    The structure of wakes and how this structure is related to the size and shape of buildings and other obstacles, and to ambient winds, was investigated. Mean values of natural atmospheric flow were obtained and used in conjunction with theoretical relationships developed by dimensional analysis to establish a model of the flow in the wake. Results indicate that conventional and V/STOL aircraft passing through the wake during takeoff and landing would experience not only a change in turbulence level, but also a change in mean wind speed of a magnitude roughly equivalent to that of the eddy components.

  2. Condensation and Wetting Dynamics on Micro/Nano-Structured Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olceroglu, Emre

    Because of their adjustable wetting characteristics, micro/nanostructured surfaces are attractive for the enhancement of phase-change heat transfer where liquid-solid-vapor interactions are important. Condensation, evaporation, and boiling processes are traditionally used in a variety of applications including water harvesting, desalination, industrial power generation, HVAC, and thermal management systems. Although they have been studied by numerous researchers, there is currently a lack of understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which structured surfaces improve heat transfer during phase-change. This PhD dissertation focuses on condensation onto engineered surfaces including fabrication aspect, the physics of phase-change, and the operational limitations of engineered surfaces. While superhydrophobic condensation has been shown to produce high heat transfer rates, several critical issues remain in the field. These include surface manufacturability, heat transfer coefficient measurement limitations at low heat fluxes, failure due to surface flooding at high supersaturations, insufficient modeling of droplet growth rates, and the inherent issues associated with maintenance of non-wetted surface structures. Each of these issues is investigated in this thesis, leading to several contributions to the field of condensation on engineered surfaces. A variety of engineered surfaces have been fabricated and characterized, including nanostructured and hierarchically-structured superhydrophobic surfaces. The Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is used here as a biological template for the fabrication of nickel nanostructures, which are subsequently functionalized to achieve superhydrophobicity. This technique is simple and sustainable, and requires no applied heat or external power, thus making it easily extendable to a variety of common heat transfer materials and complex geometries. To measure heat transfer rates during superhydrophobic condensation in the presence of non

  3. Surface and Core Electronic Structure of Oxidized Silicon Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor A. Nama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ab initio restricted Hartree-Fock method within the framework of large unit cell formalism is used to simulate silicon nanocrystals between 216 and 1000 atoms (1.6–2.65 nm in diameter that include Bravais and primitive cell multiples. The investigated properties include core and oxidized surface properties. Results revealed that electronic properties converge to some limit as the size of the nanocrystal increases. Increasing the size of the core of a nanocrystal resulted in an increase of the energy gap, valence band width, and cohesive energy. The lattice constant of the core and oxidized surface parts shows a decreasing trend as the nanocrystal increases in a size that converges to 5.28 Ǻ in a good agreement with the experiment. Surface and core convergence to the same lattice constant reflects good adherence of oxide layer at the surface. The core density of states shows highly degenerate states that split at the oxygenated (001-(1×1 surface due to symmetry breaking. The nanocrystal surface shows smaller gap and higher valence and conduction bands when compared to the core part, due to oxygen surface atoms and reduced structural symmetry. The smaller surface energy gap shows that energy gap of the nanocrystal is controlled by the surface part. Unlike the core part, the surface part shows a descending energy gap that proves its obedience to quantum confinement effects. Nanocrystal geometry proved to have some influence on all electronic properties including the energy gap.

  4. Influence of Wall Surface and Air Modelling in Finite-Element Analysis of Sound Transmission Between Rooms in Lightweight Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens

    2012-01-01

    Noise is a nuisance in the built environment, and to avoid undesirable transmission of sound and vibration within a building, its vibro-acoustic performance must be addressed in the design phase. For heavy structures, a reliable assessment of the sound pressure levels can be made by statistical...

  5. Basic reactions of osteoblasts on structured material surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B�chter A.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess how bone substitute materials determine bone formation in vivo it is useful to understand the mechanisms of the material surface/tissue interaction on a cellular level. Artificial materials are used in two applications, as biomaterials alone or as a scaffold for osteoblasts in a tissue engineering approach. Recently, many efforts have been undertaken to improve bone regeneration by the use of structured material surfaces. In vitro studies of bone cell responses to artificial materials are the basic tool to determine these interactions. Surface properties of materials surfaces as well as biophysical constraints at the biomaterial surface are of major importance since these features will direct the cell responses. Studies on osteoblastlike cell reactivity towards materials will have to focus on the different steps of protein and cell reactions towards defined surface properties. The introduction of new techniques allows nowadays the fabrication of materials with ordered surface structures. This paper gives a review of present knowledge on the various stages of osteoblast reactions on material surfaces, focused on basic cell events under in vitro conditions. Special emphasis is given to cellular reactions towards ordered nano-sized topographies.

  6. Laser Surface Preparation for Adhesive Bonding of Aerospace Structural Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, M. A.; Wohl, C. J.; Hopkins, J. W.; Connell, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesive bonds are critical to the integrity of built-up structures. Disbonds can often be detected but the strength of adhesion between surfaces in contact is not obtainable without destructive testing. Typically the number one problem in a bonded structure is surface contamination, and by extension, surface preparation. Standard surface preparation techniques, including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply, are not ideal because of variations in their application. Etching of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) panels using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser appears to be a highly precise and promising way to both clean a composite surface prior to bonding and provide a bond-promoting patterned surface akin to peel ply without the inherent drawbacks from the same (i.e., debris and curvature). CFRP surfaces prepared using laser patterns conducive to adhesive bonding were compared to typical pre-bonding surface treatments through optical microscopy, contact angle goniometry, and post-bonding mechanical testing.

  7. Wind-induced contaminant transport in near-surface soils with application to radon entry into buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, W J [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Indoor air exposures to gaseous contaminants originating in soil can cause large human health risks. To predict and control these exposures, the mechanisms that affect vapor transport in near-surface soils need to be understood. In particular, radon exposure is a concern since average indoor radon concentrations lead to much higher risks than are generally accepted for exposure to other environmental contaminants. This dissertation examines an important component of the indoor radon problem: the impacts of wind on soil-gas and radon transport and entry into buildings. The research includes experimental and modeling studies of wind`s interactions with a building`s superstructure and the resulting soil-gas and radon flows in the surrounding soil. In addition to exploring the effects of steady winds, a novel modeling technique is developed to examine the impacts of fluctuating winds on soil-gas and radon transport.

  8. Methodology to improve process understanding of surface runoff causing damages to buildings by analyzing insurance data records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, Daniel; Prasuhn, Volker; Weingartner, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Several case studies in Switzerland highlight that many buildings which are damaged by floods are not located within the inundation zones of rivers, but outside the river network. In urban areas, such flooding can be caused by drainage system surcharge, low infiltration capacity of the urbanized landscape etc. However, in rural and peri-urban areas inundations are more likely caused by surface runoff formed on natural and arable land. Such flash floods have very short response time, occur rather diffusely and, thus, are very difficult to observe directly. In our approach, we use data records from private, but mostly from public insurance companies. The latter, present in 19 out of the total 26 Cantons of Switzerland, insure (almost) every building within the respective administrative zones and, in addition, hold a monopoly position. Damage claims, including flood damages, are usually recorded and, thus, data records from such public insurance companies are a very profitable data source to better understand surface runoff leading to damages. Although practitioners agree that this process is relevant, there seems to be a knowledge gap concerning spatial and temporal distributions as well as triggers and influencing factors of such damage events. Within the framework of a research project, we want to address this research gap and improve the understanding of the process chain from surface runoff formation up to possible damages to buildings. This poster introduces the methodology, which will be applied to a dataset including data from the majority of all 19 public insurance companies for buildings in Switzerland, counting over 50'000 damage claims, in order to better understand surface runoff. The goal is to infer spatial and temporal patterns as well as drivers and influencing factors of surface runoff possibly causing damages. In particular, the workflow of data acquisition, harmonization and treatment is outlined. Furthermore associated problems and challenges are

  9. Compact surface structures for the efficient excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Cruz, S.; Mendez, E.R. [Division de Fisica Applicada, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana No. 3918, Ensenada 22860, BC (Mexico); Macias, D.; Salas-Montiel, R.; Adam, P.M. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP-2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2012-06-15

    We present calculations of the efficiency of excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) with surface structures illuminated by focussed beams. First, it is shown that the low reflectivity observed with broad highly directional beams and periodic gratings does not necessarily imply an efficient coupling to SPPs. We then consider the coupling through surface features like steps, grooves and angled steps, and calculate efficiency maps for these structures as functions of the parameters that define them. Finally, we explore the possibilities of improving the coupling efficiency using periodic structures consisting of a small number of rectangular grooves. We find that a surface section with a length of about four wavelengths can couple as much as 45% of the incident light into a directional SPP. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Electron backscatter diffraction characterization of laser-induced periodic surface structures on nickel surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedao, Xxx, E-mail: sedao.xxx@gmail.com [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, 42000 St-Etienne (France); Maurice, Claire [Laboratoire Georges Friedel, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, 42023 St-Etienne (France); Garrelie, Florence; Colombier, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphanie [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, 42000 St-Etienne (France); Quey, Romain; Blanc, Gilles [Laboratoire Georges Friedel, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, 42023 St-Etienne (France); Pigeon, Florent [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, 42000 St-Etienne (France)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlight: •Lattice rotation and its distribution in laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and the subsurface region on a nickel substrate are revealed using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). -- Abstract: We report on the structural investigation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) generated in polycrystalline nickel target after multi-shot irradiation by femtosecond laser pulses. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is used to reveal lattice rotation caused by dislocation storage during LIPSS formation. Localized crystallographic damages in the LIPSS are detected from both surface and cross-sectional EBSD studies. A surface region (up to 200 nm) with 1–3° grain disorientation is observed in localized areas from the cross-section of the LIPSS. The distribution of the local disorientation is inhomogeneous across the LIPSS and the subsurface region.

  11. Sulfur-induced structural motifs on copper and gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walen, Holly [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of sulfur with copper and gold surfaces plays a fundamental role in important phenomena that include coarsening of surface nanostructures, and self-assembly of alkanethiols. Here, we identify and analyze unique sulfur-induced structural motifs observed on the low-index surfaces of these two metals. We seek out these structures in an effort to better understand the fundamental interactions between these metals and sulfur that lends to the stability and favorability of metal-sulfur complexes vs. chemisorbed atomic sulfur. The experimental observations presented here—made under identical conditions—together with extensive DFT analyses, allow comparisons and insights into factors that favor the existence of metal-sulfur complexes, vs. chemisorbed atomic sulfur, on metal terraces. We believe this data will be instrumental in better understanding the complex phenomena occurring between the surfaces of coinage metals and sulfur.

  12. Electric arc surfacing on low carbon steel: Structure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Yurii; Gromov, Victor; Kormyshev, Vasilii; Konovalov, Sergey; Kapralov, Evgenii; Semin, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    By the methods of modern materials science, the structure-phase state and microhardness distribution along the cross-section of single and double coatings surfaced on martensite low carbon steel by alloy powder-cored wire were studied. It was established that the increased mechanical properties of surfaced layer are determined by the sub-micro and nanodispersed martensite structure formation, containing iron borides forming the eutectic of lamellar form. The plates of Fe2B are formed mainly in the eutectic of a single-surfaced layer, while FeB is formed in a double-surfaced layer. The existence of bend extinction contours indicating the internal stress fields formation at the boundaries of Fe borides-α-Fe phases were revealed.

  13. Robust biomimetic-structural superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingjie; Huang, Tao; Lei, Jinglei; He, Jianxin; Qu, Linfeng; Huang, Peiling; Zhou, Wei; Li, Nianbing; Pan, Fusheng

    2015-01-28

    The following facile approach has been developed to prepare a biomimetic-structural superhydrophobic surface with high stabilities and strong resistances on 2024 Al alloy that are robust to harsh environments. First, a simple hydrothermal treatment in a La(NO3)3 aqueous solution was used to fabricate ginkgo-leaf like nanostructures, resulting in a superhydrophilic surface on 2024 Al. Then a low-surface-energy compound, dodecafluoroheptyl-propyl-trimethoxylsilane (Actyflon-G502), was used to modify the superhydrophilic 2024 Al, changing the surface character from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity. The water contact angle (WCA) of such a superhydrophobic surface reaches up to 160°, demonstrating excellent superhydrophobicity. Moreover, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface shows high stabilities in air-storage, chemical and thermal environments, and has strong resistances to UV irradiation, corrosion, and abrasion. The WCAs of such a surface almost remain unchanged (160°) after storage in air for 80 days, exposure in 250 °C atmosphere for 24 h, and being exposed under UV irradiation for 24 h, are more than 144° whether in acidic or alkali medium, and are more than 150° after 48 h corrosion and after abrasion under 0.98 kPa for 1000 mm length. The remarkable durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface can be attributed to its stable structure and composition, which are due to the existence of lanthanum (hydr)oxides in surface layer. The robustness of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface to harsh environments will open their much wider applications. The fabricating approach for such robust superhydrophobic surface can be easily extended to other metals and alloys.

  14. MODELING OF THE BUILDING LOCAL PROTECTION (SHELTER – IN PLACE INCLUDING SORBTION OF THE HAZARDOUS CONTAMINANT ON INDOOR SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Belyayev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Chemically hazardous objects, where toxic substances are used, manufactured and stored, and also main lines, on which the hazardous materials transportation is conducted, pose potential sources of atmosphere accidental pollution.Development of the CFD model for evaluating the efficiency of the building local protection from hazardous substantives ingress by using air curtain and sorption/desorption of hazardous substance on indoor surfaces. Methodology. To solve the problem of hydrodynamic interaction of the air curtain with wind flow and considering the building influence on this process the model of ideal fluid is used. In order to calculate the transfer process of the hazardous substance in the atmosphere an equation of convection-diffusion transport of impurities is applied. To calculate the process of indoors air pollution under leaking of foul air Karisson & Huber model is used. This model takes into account the sorption of the hazardous substance at various indoors surfaces. For the numerical integration of the model equations differential methods are used. Findings. In this paper we construct an efficient CFD model of evaluating the effectiveness of the buildings protection against ingress of hazardous substances through the use of an air curtain. On the basis of the built model a computational experiment to assess the effectiveness of this protection method under varying the location of the air curtain relative to the building was carried out. Originality. A new model was developed to compute the effectiveness of the air curtain supply to reduce the toxic chemical concentration inside the building. Practical value. The developed model can be used for design of the building local protection against ingress of hazardous substances.

  15. Surface Plasmon Coupling and Control Using Spherical Cap Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; Zhang, Xin; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2017-06-05

    Propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) launched from a protruded silver spherical cap structure are investigated using photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculations. Our combined experimental and theoretical findings reveal that PSP coupling efficiency is comparable to conventional etched-in plasmonic coupling structures. Additionally, plasmon propagation direction can be varied by a linear rotation of the driving laser polarization. A simple geometric model is proposed in which the plasmon direction selectivity is proportional to the projection of the linear laser polarization on the surface normal. An application for the spherical cap coupler as a gate device is proposed. Overall, our results indicate that protruded cap structures hold great promise as elements in emerging surface plasmon applications.

  16. Dimers on surface graphs and spin structures. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimasoni, David; Reshetikhin, Nicolai

    2009-01-01

    In a previous paper [3], we showed how certain orientations of the edges of a graph Γ embedded in a closed oriented surface Σ can be understood as discrete spin structures on Σ. We then used this correspondence to give a geometric proof of the Pfaffian formula for the partition function of the di......In a previous paper [3], we showed how certain orientations of the edges of a graph Γ embedded in a closed oriented surface Σ can be understood as discrete spin structures on Σ. We then used this correspondence to give a geometric proof of the Pfaffian formula for the partition function...... of the dimer model on Γ. In the present article, we generalize these results to the case of compact oriented surfaces with boundary. We also show how the operations of cutting and gluing act on discrete spin structures and how they change the partition function. These operations allow to reformulate the dimer...

  17. Persistent Near-Surface Flow Structures from Local Helioseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Howe, R; Baker, D; Harra, L; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L; Bogart, R S

    2015-01-01

    Near-surface flows measured by the ring-diagram technique of local helioseismology show structures that persist over multiple rotations. We examine these phenomena using data from the {\\em Global Oscillation Network Group} (GONG) and the {\\em Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager} (HMI) and show that a correlation analysis of the structures can be used to estimate the rotation rate as a function of latitude, giving a result consistent with the near-surface rate from global helioseismology and slightly slower than that obtained from a similar analysis of the surface magnetic field strength. At latitudes of 60$^{\\circ}$ and above the HMI flow data reveal a strong signature of a two-sided zonal flow structure. This signature may be related to recent reports of "giant cells" in solar convection.

  18. Surface plasmon polariton amplification in metal-semiconductor structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu; Arsenin, Aleksey V

    2011-06-20

    We propose a novel scheme of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) amplification that is based on a minority carrier injection in a Schottky diode. This scheme uses compact electrical pumping instead of bulky optical pumping. Compact size and a planar structure of the proposed amplifier allow one to utilize it in integrated plasmonic circuits and couple it easily to passive plasmonic devices. Moreover, this technique can be used to obtain surface plasmon lasing.

  19. Fractal analysis of the hierarchic structure of fossil coal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, A.D.; Vasilenko, T.A.; Kirillov, A.K. [National Academy of Sciences, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2008-05-15

    The fractal analysis is described as method of studying images of surface of fossil coal, one of the natural sorbent, with the aim of determining its structural surface heterogeneity. The deformation effect as a reduction in the dimensions of heterogeneity boundaries is considered. It is shown that the theory of nonequilibrium dynamic systems permits to assess a formation level of heterogeneities involved into a sorbent composition by means of the Hurst factor.

  20. Structure and properties of GMA surfaced armour plates

    OpenAIRE

    A. Klimpel; K. Luksa; M. Burda

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the combat vehicles many materials can be used for the armour. Application of the monolithic armour plates in light combat vehicles is limited by the high armour weigh. Introduction of the layered armour plates is a way to limit the vehicle weight. In the paper test results of graded and nanostructural GMA surfaced armour plates are presented.Design/methodology/approach: Metallographic structure, chemical composition and hardness of surfaced layers were investigated in order to ex...

  1. Positron studies of surfaces, structure and electronic properties of nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Eijt, S. W. H.; Barbiellini, B.; Houtepen, A.J.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Mijnarends, P. E.; Bansil, A.

    2007-01-01

    A brief review is given of recent positron studies of metal and semiconductor nanocrystals. The prospects offered by positron annihilation as a sensitive method to access nanocrystal (NC) properties are described and compared with other experimental methods. The tunability of the electronic structure of nanocrystals underlies their great potential for application in many areas. Owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio, the surfaces and interfaces of NCs play a crucial role in determining ...

  2. Modeling liquid crystal bilayer structures with minimal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, J D; Enlow, R L; McGrath, K M; Tate, M W

    2004-01-22

    This paper describes a new convenient and accurate method of calculating x-ray diffraction integrated intensities from detailed cubic bilayer structures. The method is employed to investigate the structure of a particular surfactant system (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide in a solution of oil and heavy water), for which single-crystal experimental data have recently been collected. The diffracted peak intensities correlate well with theoretical structures based on mathematical minimal surfaces. Optimized electron density profiles of the bilayer are presented, providing new insight into key features of the bilayer structure.

  3. Structural Integrity Evaluation of Cold Neutron Laboratory Building by Design Change of Guide Shielding Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sangik; Kim, Youngki; Kim, Harkrho

    2007-06-15

    This report summarizes the results of the structural integrity evaluation for the cold neutron laboratory building by design change of guide shielding room. The design of the guide shielding room was changed by making its structure members in normal concrete (2.3 g/cc) instead of heavy concrete (3.5 g/cc) because the heavy concrete could be not supplied to meet its design specification. Therefore, it was decided that the guide shielding room is made of the normal concrete. And, the shielding performance of the normal concrete was recalculated to confirm satisfying its design specification, which is of a 9000 zone according to HANARO radiation region classification. The change makes the shielding wall thicker than existing design, and then it is caused to qualify the structural integrity evaluation of the CNLB. Finally, the structural integrity of the CNLB was re-evaluated by considering the design change of the guide shielding room.

  4. Methods for Progressive Collapse Analysis of Building Structures Under Blast and Impact Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongxian; SHI Yanchao

    2008-01-01

    Progressive collapse of building structures under blast and impact lcads has attracted great attention all over the world.Prog ressive collapse analysis is essential for an economic and safe design of building structures against progressive collapse to blast and impact loads.Because of the catastrophic nature of progressive collapse and the potentially high cost of constructing or retrofitting buildings to resist it,is imperative that the progressive collapse analysis methods be reliable.For engineers.their methodology to carry out progressve collapse evaluation need not only be accurate and concise.but also be easily used and works fast.Thus,many researchers have been spending lots of effort in developing reliable,efficient and strajghtforward progressive collapse analysis methods recently.In the present paper,currenf progresslve collapse analysis meth ods available in the literature are reviewed.Their suitability,applicability and reliability are dis cussed.Our recent proposed new method for progressive collapse analysis of relnforced concrete frames under blast lcads is also introduced.

  5. Optimization & Design of High Rise Building with Different Structural Framing Systems Subjected To Seismic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Anant A. Kapse ,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to excessive displacements of tall buildings occasioned by lateral loads, lateral load resisting systems are usually provided to curtail the load effect. The resistance may be offered by Frame Action, Shear Walls, or combined Walls and Frames (also known as Dual System. In this study, 3D structural modelling base software STAAD-PRO was used to generate and analyze three-dimensional building models for the assessment of the relative effectiveness of the various lateral load resisting systems. Five models were used, one for moment resisting frame & 04 models each for the lateral load resisting systems. Each model consisted of G +10 storey frame structure having total height of 33.0 m. Each building sample was subjected to three-dimensional analysis for the determination of both the lateral displacements at storey top and interstorey drifts. The results of the work showed that the dual system was the most efficient lateral-load resisting system based on deflection criterion, as they yielded the least values for lateral displacements and inter-storey drifts. The moment frame was the least stiff of the resisting systems, yielding the highest values of both the lateral displacement and the inter-storey drift.

  6. D Visualization of a Timber Frame Historic Building: Partite Usage and its Impact on the Structural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, S.

    2017-08-01

    Throughout their lifetime, historic buildings might be altered for different kind of usage for different purposes. If this new function or new usage requires utilization of the building in separate units, this separation might affect the historic building's functionality and structure and as a result its overall condition. Yorguc Pasa Mansion conservation project was prepared as a part of the Middle East Technical University (METU) Master's Program in Documentation and Conservation of Historic Monuments and Sites for the historic Yorguc Pasa Mansion. The mansion is a 19th century Ottoman Period timber frame building in Amasya, a Black Sea Region city in Turkey that has traces from different civilizations such as Hittites, Greeks, Romans and Ottomans. This paper aims to discuss the affects of the partite usage on structural conditions of timber frame buildings with the case study of Amasya Yorguc Pasa Mansion through the 3D visualized structural systems.

  7. Construction technology and major building structure%建筑主体结构的施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱靖宇

    2015-01-01

    引入了建筑主体结构的概念,对建筑主体结构的施工情况进行了分析,主要从混凝土施工、钢筋施工、模板施工三个环节阐述了建筑主体结构施工的注意事项,以提高建筑的施工质量,满足用户对建筑的使用需求。%The paper introduces the concept of major building structure, analyzes construction conditions of major building structure, and mainly describe major building structure construction matters from three aspects of concrete construction, steel construction and template construction, with a view to improve the building construction quality and meet users’ utilization demands for building.

  8. Specifications and applications of the technical code for monitoring of building and bridge structures in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the exclusive compulsory technical code (GB 50982-2014 for structural health monitoring of buildings and bridges in China has been developed and implemented. This code covers the majority of the field monitoring methods and stipulates the corresponding technical parameters for monitoring of high-rise structures, large-span spatial structures, bridges and base-isolated structures. This article first presents the comprehensive review and linear comparison of existing structural health monitoring codes and standards. Subsequently, the progress of the codification of GB 50982-2014 is imparted and its main features and specifications are summarized. Finally, in accordance with GB50982-2014, several representative structural health monitoring practical applications of large-scale infrastructures in China are exemplified to illustrate how this national code can bridge the gap between theory and practical applications of structural health monitoring. This technical code is an important milestone in the application of well-established structural health monitoring techniques into the realistic and complex engineering projects. Also, it can provide abundant and authoritative information for practitioners and researchers involving the structural health monitoring techniques.

  9. Optimal Design of Surface Structure of a Magnetic Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yazhen; NIU Rongjun; HUANG Ping

    2009-01-01

    Currently, the surface structure of a magnetic head has been transferred from a positive to a negative model. In order to increase magnetic storage density and to decrease the flight height, the surface structure of a head needs to be optimized continually. In the present paper, the influence of surface structure of a negative magnetic head on its flight attitude is analyzed in brief by both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. Firstly, based on theoretical analysis, one-dimensional model of optimal design is built whose results play an important role in guiding for the two-dimensional model. Secondly, to analyze the impacts of different structures of negative pressure heads, the original head structure is divided into five zones;the impacts of different zones on both pressure distribution and load carrying capacity were detailed analyzed by numerical analysis. Thirdly, remain the leading-head structure of the negative head, and optimized tail-end structure can be gained by the regional planning strategy to control the gas film pressure distribution. With layout strategy, three kinds of structures of the head were designed. The results show that the tail-end structure impacts on the flight performances significantly and the middle boss plays a major role on positive pressure, while the bilateral bosses lying in either side play assistant regulating role. The structures of bilateral bosses have slightly impact on pressure distribution. The results also show that an optimum tail structure can meet the needs of a lower flight height and a larger magnetic storage density.

  10. Investigation of surface magnetostatic wave propagation in ferrite superconductor structure

    CERN Document Server

    Semenov, A A; Melkov, A A; Bobyl', A V; Suris, R A; Gal'perin, Y M; Iokhansen, T K

    2001-01-01

    Electrodynamic model describing dispersion properties of surface magnetostatic wave in ferrite/superconductor structure was suggested. On the basis of the model a new method of ascertaining superhigh frequency surface resistance R sub s of superconducting films in magnetic fields was developed. The calculated values agree with the results obtained by the Tauber method, making up R sub s =0.20-1.96 m Ohm. A regulated incursion of wave phase amounting to about 1.5 pi with the change in penetration depth 2.0-0.8 mu m for YBCO film was attained for YIG/YBCO structures

  11. Population genetic structure of the German cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae) in apartment buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissman, Jonathan R; Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G; Mukha, Dmitry V; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

    2010-07-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), is a major residential pest with the potential to vector various pathogens and produce and disseminate household allergens. Understanding population genetic structure and differentiation of this important pest is critical to efforts to eradicate infestations, yet little is known in this regard. Using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation within and among 18 apartments from six apartment complexes located in Raleigh, NC. No departure from panmixia was found between rooms within apartments, indicating that active dispersal resulting in gene flow may occur among rooms within apartment units. Alternatively, aggregations within apartments may exist in relative isolation under a metapopulation framework, derived from a recent, common source. Thus, in the event of population control practices leading to incomplete cockroach eradication within an apartment, recolonization of shelters and rooms is likely to occur from a genetically similar aggregation. A pattern of isolation-by-distance across the six apartment complexes indicated that dispersal was more common within complexes than among them, and F statistics suggested greater genetic similarity between apartments in a single building than between separate buildings of an apartment complex. Similarly, neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses were able to cluster only those apartments that were within a single building, indicating higher dispersal with associated gene flow within buildings than between them. The lack of any broader connectivity, as indicated by significant F(ST) and G-tests suggests that human-mediated dispersal of B. germanica between buildings of an apartment complex or between complexes occurs infrequently enough to have negligible effects on gene flow.

  12. Surface plasmon polariton amplification in semiconductor-graphene-dielectric structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadoenkova, Yuliya S. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Novgorod State University, Veliky Novgorod (Russian Federation); Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, Donetsk (Ukraine); Moiseev, Sergey G. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Abramov, Aleksei S. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Kadochkin, Aleksei S.; Zolotovskii, Igor O. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Nanotechnologies of Microelectronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 32A Leninskiy Prosp., 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fotiadi, Andrei A. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Universite de Mons (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    A mechanism of amplification of surface plasmon polaritons due to the transfer of electromagnetic energy from a drift current wave into a far-infrared surface wave propagating along a semiconductor-dielectric boundary in waveguide geometry is proposed. A necessary condition of the interaction of these waves is phase matching condition, i. e., when the phase velocity of the surface wave approaches the drift velocity of charge carriers. It is shown that in the spectral region of the surface plasmon polariton slowing-down its amplification coefficient can reach values substantially exceeding the ohmic loss coefficient of the surface wave in the structure. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Østergaard, John Erland; Leosson, Kristjan

    2001-01-01

    Using near-held optical microscopy, we investigate propagation and scattering of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP's) excited in the wavelength range of 780-820 nm at nanostructured gold-film surfaces with areas of 200-nm-wide scatterers arranged in a 400-nm-period triangular lattice containing line...... defects. We observe the SPP reflection by such an area and SPP guiding along line defects at 782 nm, as well as significant deterioration of these effects is 815 nm, thereby directly demonstrating the SPP band gap effect and showing first examples of SPP channel waveguides in surface band gap structures....

  14. Seismic resistance design of nuclear power plant building structures in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, Takehito [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Japan is one of the countries where earthquakes occur most frequently in the world and has incurred a lot of disasters in the past. Therefore, the seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant plays a very important role in Japan. This report describes the general method of seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant giving examples of PWR and BWR type reactor buildings in Japan. Nuclear facilities are classified into three seismic classes and is designed according to the corresponding seismic class in Japan. Concerning reactor buildings, the short-term allowable stress design is applied for the S1 seismic load and it is confirmed that the structures have a safety margin against the S2 seismic load. (J.P.N.)

  15. Cement stabilized red earth as building block and structural pavement layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. RAMA SUBBARAO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Red Earth is most commonly used as material in the building and road construction. Many a times, the red earth found in various quarries is found not suitable for construction. Cement of 4 and 8% of dry mass of red earth was added to improve its suitability as building block and structural pavement material. To know the influence of waste plastic fiber on cement stabilized red earth, 1% fiber was also added to the mixture. It is shown that the compressive strength of cement stabilized red earth blocks was improved with seven days of curing. The addition of cement to red earth enhanced soaked CBR value. The soaked CBR value of fiber reinforced cement stabilized red earth was about 1.3 to 1.5 times that of unreinforced cement stabilized red earth.

  16. Surface Structure and Growth Mode of Pd Deposited on Mo(110) Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehara, Y.; Kawanowa, H.; Gotoh, Y.

    The surface structure and growth mode of Pd/Mo(110) have been studied using reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The surface diagram of Pd on the Mo(110) substrate for deposition thickness versus substrate temperature was obtained. Four kinds of surface structures, namely α1, α2, β and γ, were observed. At less than 1 ML, α2 appeared in temperatures ranging from 400 to 1050°C and α1 appeared from RT to 400°C. α2 has a structure intermediate between those of Pd(111) and Mo(110), in which the dense direction of the layer is parallel to the [111]Mo orientation and their atomic row distances are coincident, resulting in formation of a long-period structure with a Mo surface, namely a coincident site lattice. The α1 structure is similar to the 1 × 1 structure. At more than 1.0 ML, β and γ structures appeared simultaneously in the temperature region from 500 to 950°C. However, at a high temperature region from 950 to 1050°C, the α2 structure was observed. β shows a one-dimensional ordered structure, in which Pd atoms line along [111]Mo. γ exhibits a 3 × 1 structure with the same atomic arrangement as the Mo(110) plane rotated at 70.5°. At greater than 2.0 ML, the Pd film grows in the Frank van der Merwe growth mode at a low temperature with accumulation of a Pd(111) layer, and in the Stranski Krastanov growth mode at a high temperature with two-dimensional growth of the γ structure followed by formation of flat crystallites.

  17. DESIGN OF ENVELOPE STRUCTURES OF BUILDINGS WITH ACCOUNT FOR AND SUBJECT TO THE CONDITIONS OF ACOUSTIC PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The totality of all environmental influences, including domestic and industrial noise, must be taken into account in the design of building structures. Building envelopes that have appropriate acoustic protection properties are to be used in the practice of the acoustic protection (soundproofing, etc.. According to the principles of structural design, design of soundproof buildings can be broken down into the two groups: design with account for the security conditions (eg., windows, doors, walls, floors, and design of noise-proof structures (eg., partitions, suspended ceilings. Multi-optional design of building structures or buildings that meet the terms of acoustic protection requires a modern approach to the process of their development. Any progress in this area is associated with computer-aided design supported by multiple analysis options. Automation allows adjustments in order to comply with the variety of the input data or objective functions to provide for optimal cycling options. In this regard, the authors describe the algorithms and principles of design of building envelopes on the condition of and subject to the acoustic protection. The proposed solution represents a software package capable of performing a multivariate analysis of options of acoustic protection at each stage of building design. Practical application of the software package used to solve practical problems in the design of building envelopes has demonstrated its higher efficiency that the one of traditional design methods.

  18. Studies on electronic structure of GaN(0001) surface

    CERN Document Server

    Xie Chang Kun; Xu Fa Qiang; Deng Rui; Liu Feng; Yibulaxin, K

    2002-01-01

    An electronic structure investigation on GaN(0001) is reported. The authors employ a full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FPLAPW) approach to calculate the partial density of state, which is in agreement with previous experimental results. The effects of the Ga3d semi-core levels on the electronic structure of GaN are discussed. The valence-electronic structure of the wurtzite GaN(0001) surface is investigated using synchrotron radiation excited angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The bulk bands dispersion along GAMMA A direction in the Brillouin zones is measured using normal-emission spectra by changing photon-energy. The band structure derived from authors' experimental data is compared well with the results of authors' FPLAPW calculation. Furthermore, off-normal emission spectra are also measured along the GAMMA K and GAMMA M directions. Two surface states are identified, and their dispersions are characterized

  19. Base Isolation for Seismic Retrofitting of a Multiple Building Structure: Evaluation of Equivalent Linearization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Ferraioli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the most commonly used isolation systems exhibit nonlinear inelastic behaviour, the equivalent linear elastic analysis is commonly used in the design and assessment of seismic-isolated structures. The paper investigates if the linear elastic model is suitable for the analysis of a seismically isolated multiple building structure. To this aim, its computed responses were compared with those calculated by nonlinear dynamic analysis. A common base isolation plane connects the isolation bearings supporting the adjacent structures. In this situation, the conventional equivalent linear elastic analysis may have some problems of accuracy because this method is calibrated on single base-isolated structures. Moreover, the torsional characteristics of the combined system are significantly different from those of separate isolated buildings. A number of numerical simulations and parametric studies under earthquake excitations were performed. The accuracy of the dynamic response obtained by the equivalent linear elastic model was calculated by the magnitude of the error with respect to the corresponding response considering the nonlinear behaviour of the isolation system. The maximum displacements at the isolation level, the maximum interstorey drifts, and the peak absolute acceleration were selected as the most important response measures. The influence of mass eccentricity, torsion, and high-modes effects was finally investigated.

  20. Potential threat of heavy metals in re-suspended dusts on building surfaces in oilfield city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shaofei; Lu, Bing; Bai, Zhipeng; Zhao, Xueyan; Chen, Li; Han, Bin; Li, Zhiyong; Ji, Yaqin; Xu, Yonghai; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Hua

    2011-08-01

    30 re-suspended dust samples were collected from building surfaces of an oilfield city, then re-suspended through PM 2.5, PM 10 and PM 100 inlets and analyzed for 10 metals including V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. Metals concentrations in different fractions and locations were studied. Metals sources were identified by cluster and primary component analysis. The potential risk to human health was assessed by human exposure model. Results showed that Zn, Mn, Pb and Cu were higher in all the three fractions. V, Cr, Mn and Co ranged close to the background values of Chinese soil indicating that they were mainly from crustal materials. Concentrations of Zn, Mn, Pb, V, Cr, Ni, Co and Cd were higher in old district than that in new district for the three fractions. The PM 2.5/PM 10, PM 10/PM 100 and PM 2.5/PM 100 ratios were higher for Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, As and Cr (all higher than 1.0), and lower for Co, Mn and V (all less than or close to 1.0) which meant that anthropologic sources associated metals were more easily accumulated in finer particles than metals from crustal materials. Spatial variations indicated that the ten metals peaked at surroundings near railway station, gas stations, industrial boilers and machine manufacturing plant implying the influence of local vehicle emission, fossil fuel combustion and industrial activities as well as crustal materials which was verified by cluster analysis and primary component analysis results. Ingestion of dust particles appeared to be the main route of exposure to re-suspended dust. Hazard Indexes of As were both highest for children and adult which could be a potential threat to human health for non-cancer effect and it also exhibited the highest values for cancer effect as 1.01E-06, 7.04E-07 and 7.21E-07 for PM 2.5, PM 10 and PM 100, respectively.

  1. Comparison of environmental impacts of building structures with in situ cast floors and with precast concrete floors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Mesa, Belinda; Pitarch, Angel; Tomas, Ana; Gallego, Teresa [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction (ESTCE), Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat s/n, Castellon 12071 (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, the environmental impacts of two types of slab systems are studied. The first type, a concrete-based one-way spanning slab, is the most common solution in residential buildings in Spain. The second type, a hollow core slab floor, is increasingly becoming more used in buildings, but is not being broadly used in residential buildings as yet. The study is undertaken through the Life Cycle Analysis methodology, applying the EPS 2000 method. The assessment shows that the environmental impact of a building structure with precast concrete floors is 12.2% lower than that with in situ cast floors for the defined functional unit. (author)

  2. Refining femtosecond laser induced periodical surface structures with liquid assist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, L.S. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Ng, E.Y.K., E-mail: mykng@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Zheng, H.Y. [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, 638075 Singapore (Singapore)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIPSS on silicon wafer was made in air and in ethanol environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethanol environment produce cleaner surface ripples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethanol environment decrease spatial wavelength of the LIPSS by 30%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More number of pulses produce smaller spatial wavelength in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Number of pulses do not influence spatial wavelength in ethanol environment. - Abstract: Laser induced periodic surface structures were generated on silicon wafer using femtosecond laser. The medium used in this study is both air and ethanol. The laser process parameters such as wavelength, number of pulse, laser fluence were kept constant for both the mediums. The focus of the study is to analyze spatial wavelength. When generating surface structures with air as a medium and same process parameter of the laser, spatial wavelength results showed a 30% increase compared to ethanol. The cleanliness of the surface generated using ethanol showed considerably less debris than in air. The results observed from the above investigation showed that the medium plays a predominant role in the generation of surface structures.

  3. Microphase separated structure and surface properties of fluorinated polyurethane resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto; Nishino, T.; Hori, Y.; Nakamae, K. [Dept. Chem. Sci. and Eng., Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, Kobe (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    The effect of fluorination on microphase separation and surface properties of segmented polyurethane (PU) resin were investigated. A series of fluorinated polyurethane resin (FPU) was synthesized by reacting a fluorinated diol with aromatic diisocyanate. The microphase separated structure of FPU was studied by thermal analysis, and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as well as wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The surface structure and properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic contact angle measurement. The incorporation of fluorine into hard segment brings the FPU to have a higher hard domain cohesion and increase the phase separation, however localization of fluorine on the surface could not be observed. On the other hands, localization of fluorine on the surface could be achieved for soft segment fluorinated PU without any significant change in microphase separated structure. The result from this study give an important basic information for designing PU coating material with a low surface energy and strong adhesion as well as for development of release film on pressure sensitive adhesive tape. (author)

  4. Fracture Resistance, Surface Defects and Structural Strength of Glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodichev, Y.M.; Veer, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper poses the theory that the fracture resistance of basic float glass is dependent on it physicochemical properties and the surface defects fonned under the float glass production, glass processing and handling at the service conditions compose the aggregate basis for structural glass

  5. Probing surface structures of Shewanella spp. by microelectrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dague, E.; Duval, J.F.L.; Jorand, R.; Thomas, F.; Gaboriaud, F.

    2006-01-01

    Long-range electrostatic forces substantially influence bacterial interactions and bacterial adhesion during the preliminary steps of biofilm formation. The strength of these forces depends strongly on the structure of the bacterium surfaces investigated. The latter may be addressed from appropriate

  6. Moduli spaces of convex projective structures on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, V. V.; Goncharov, A. B.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce explicit parametrisations of the moduli space of convex projective structures on surfaces, and show that the latter moduli space is identified with the higher Teichmüller space for defined in [V.V. Fock, A.B. Goncharov, Moduli spaces of local systems and higher Teichmüller theory, ma...

  7. Functional oxide structures on a surface of metals and alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rudnev; V.; S.; Yarovaya; T.; P.; Boguta; D.; L.; Lukiyanchuk; I.; V.; Tyrina; L.; M.; Morozova; V.; P.; Nedozorov; P.; M.; Vasilyeva; M.; S.; Kondrikov; N.; B.

    2005-01-01

    The investigations of the plasma electrolytic processes in our laboratory are aimed to the development of conditions of formation of oxide layers with determined composition, structure and functional properties on the surface of valve metals (Al, Ti) and their alloys.……

  8. Towards Friction Control using laser-induced periodic Surface Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichstädt, J.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the study of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and the description of their tribological properties in order to facilitate the knowledge for contact mechanical applications. To obtain laser parameters for LIPSS formation, we propose to execute two D

  9. Investigation of the structural form optimization methods of high-rise buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shihai; WANG Li; OU Jinping; WANG Guangyuan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the structural form optimization methods of high-rise buildings based on the expert system (ES), case-based reasoning (CBR), and knowledge discovery in database (KDD) are evaluated systematically. The charac- teristics and shortcomings of each method are pointed out. It is predicted that the incorporation of these three techniques into an intelligent form optimization method will be an important development direction in the future. Finally, the unified intelligent form selection model combined with concepts of ES, CBR, KDD and artificially intelligent beauti- fication is proposed. In consideration of the needs of human beings, machinery and computation, the model has been used for structural design combined with relevant knowledge, means, maneuver and strategy. The model plays an important role and has practical value in the process of artificially intelligent form optimization. It effectively reduces the blindness and failure of computer-aided structural design.

  10. Cellulose-builder: a toolkit for building crystalline structures of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Thiago C F; Skaf, Munir S

    2012-05-30

    Cellulose-builder is a user-friendly program that builds crystalline structures of cellulose of different sizes and geometries. The program generates Cartesian coordinates for all atoms of the specified structure in the Protein Data Bank format, suitable for using as starting configurations in molecular dynamics simulations and other calculations. Crystalline structures of cellulose polymorphs Iα, Iβ, II, and III(I) of practically any size are readily constructed which includes parallelepipeds, plant cell wall cellulose elementary fibrils of any length, and monolayers. Periodic boundary conditions along the crystallographic directions are easily imposed. The program also generates atom connectivity file in PSF format, required by well-known simulation packages such as NAMD, CHARMM, and others. Cellulose-builder is based on the Bash programming language and should run on practically any Unix-like platform, demands very modest hardware, and is freely available for download from ftp://ftp.iqm.unicamp.br/pub/cellulose-builder.

  11. Design objectives and collapse prevention for building structures in mega-earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lieping; Lu, Xinzheng; Li, Yi

    2010-06-01

    A “mega-earthquake” is one with an intensity larger than the most severe earthquake intensity category currently considered in design codes. For a “mega-earthquake,” the design objective of a given structure is to “preserve living spaces for people in the buildings.” In this paper, factors that may influence the collapse resistance of RC frames in a megaearthquake are analyzed based on seismic damage observed in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Methodologies to improve structural collapse resistance focus on three aspects: global strength margin, global redundancy and global integration of the structural system. Fundamental principles and design concepts for collapse prevention under a mega-earthquake are proposed, and issues that need further research are identified.

  12. Using Model Building in Structural Engineering to Enhance Understanding of Construction Principles and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Holmes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new model building exercise in a second year module in the Department of Civil & Structural Engineering in the Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT. The activity aimed to improve students’ understanding of structural engineering, construction principles and methods. It allowed students to practically apply lecture material and construct a scaled model giving them an opportunity to study and visualise a real structure and generate their own ideas on how it should be assembled within a constructivist active learning environment. As a result, lectures were found to be more interactive and students more engaged in the discussions and provided a pathway to bridge the gap between theory (presented in lectures and the reality of their professions, which can aid them in their graduate careers. It is hoped that this type of active learning can be used in other engineering programmes to improve student understanding and as an opportunity to better apply lecture material to the real world.

  13. Extended structure design with simple molybdenum oxide building blocks and urea as a directing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Sandra J; Roy, Soumyajit; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Petukhov, Andrei V; Versluijs-Helder, Marjan; Broersma, Alfred; Soulimani, Fouad; Visser, Tom; Kegel, Willem K

    2008-08-04

    We report here a simple one-pot directed synthesis of an oxomolybdate urea composite in which elementary molybdenum oxide building blocks are linked together with the aid of urea. This type of directed material design resulted in large rod-like crystals of an inorganic-organic hybrid extended structure of {MoO 3(NH 2-CO-NH 2)} infinity consisting of right- and left-handed helical units. In the crystal structure urea acts both as a glue that links the inorganic molybdenum units into a helix and as a supramolecular linker for the stabilization of the crystal structure as a whole. This type of molecular topology resulted in an unexpectedly high thermal stability.

  14. Protein-induced surface structuring in myelin membrane monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosetti, Carla M; Maggio, Bruno

    2007-12-15

    Monolayers prepared from myelin conserve all the compositional complexity of the natural membrane when spread at the air-water interface. They show a complex pressure-dependent surface pattern that, on compression, changes from the coexistence of two liquid phases to a viscous fractal phase embedded in a liquid phase. We dissected the role of major myelin protein components, myelin basic protein (MBP), and Folch-Lees proteolipid protein (PLP) as crucial factors determining the structural dynamics of the interface. By analyzing mixtures of a single protein with the myelin lipids we found that MBP and PLP have different surface pressure-dependent behaviors. MBP stabilizes the segregation of two liquid phases at low pressures and becomes excluded from the film under compression, remaining adjacent to the interface. PLP, on the contrary, organizes a fractal-like pattern at all surface pressures when included in a monolayer of the protein-free myelin lipids but it remains mixed in the MBP-induced liquid phase. The resultant surface topography and dynamics is regulated by combined near to equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium effects. PLP appears to act as a surface skeleton for the whole components whereas MBP couples the structuring to surface pressure-dependent extrusion and adsorption processes.

  15. Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Frank A.; Clemens Kunz; Stephan Gräf

    2016-01-01

    Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical princip...

  16. Structural and surface changes of copper modified manganese oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gac, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.gac@umcs.lublin.pl; Słowik, Grzegorz; Zawadzki, Witold

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • Formation of MnO with regular rippled-like surface patterns. • Synthesis of copper nanorods supported on MnO nanoparticles. • Hydrogen production in steam methanol reforming over supported copper nanorods. - Abstract: The structural and surface properties of manganese and copper–manganese oxides were investigated. The oxides were prepared by the redox-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy studies evidenced transformation of cryptomelane-type nanoparticles with 1-D channel structure into the large MnO crystallites with regular rippled-like surface patterns under reduction conditions. The development of Cu/CuO nanorods from strongly dispersed species was evidenced. Coper-modified manganese oxides showed good catalytic performance in methanol steam reforming reaction for hydrogen production. Low selectivity to CO was observed in the wide range of temperatures.

  17. Entry and exit facet laser damage of optical windows with random antireflective surface structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Gopal; Case, Jason R.; Potter, Matthew G.; Busse, Lynda E.; Shaw, L. Brandon; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Poutous, Menelaos K.

    2016-12-01

    Nanosecond duration, high intensity and high average power laser pulses induce damage on uncoated optics, due to localized field enhancement at the exit surface of the components. Anti-reflection (AR) coated optics, due to their (multiple) thin film boundaries, have similar field enhancement regions, which lead to laser damage on both entry and exit sides. Nano-scale structured optical interfaces with AR performance (ARSS) have been widely demonstrated, and found to have higher laser damage resistance than conventional AR coatings. Comprehensive tests of optical entry and exit structured-surface laser damage using nanosecond pulses for ARSS are not widely available. We measured the laser damage of random anti-reflective surface structures (rARSS), on planar, optical quality, fused silica substrates, using single 6-8ns duration pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. The single-sided rARSS substrates were optimized for Fresnel reflectance suppression at 1064 nm, and the measured transmittance at normal incidence was increased by 3.2%, with a possible theoretical maximum of 3.5%. The high energy laser beam was focused to increase the incident intensity, in order to probe values above and below the damage thresholds reported in the literature. The source laser Q-switch durations were used to directly control incident fluence. Multiple locations were tested for each Q-switch setting, to build a statistical relationship between the fluence and damaging events. Single-sided, AR random surface structured substrates were tested, using entry and exit side orientations, to determine any effects the random structures may have in the damage induced by the field enhancement on the exit side. We found that the AR randomly structured surfaces have a higher resistance, to the onset of laser damage, when they are located at the entry (structured) side of the substrates. In comparison, when the same AR random structures are in the beam exit side of the substrates, the onset of laser damage

  18. Osteogenic activity of titanium surfaces with nanonetwork structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Helin Xing,1,2 Satoshi Komasa,3 Yoichiro Taguchi,4 Tohru Sekino,5 Joji Okazaki3 1Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 2Graduate School of Dentistry (Removable Prosthodontics and Occlusion, 3Department of Removable Prosthodontics and Occlusion, 4Department of Periodontology, Osaka Dental University, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan; 5Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan Background: Titanium surfaces play an important role in affecting osseointegration of dental implants. Previous studies have shown that the titania nanotube promotes osseointegration by enhancing osteogenic differentiation. Only relatively recently have the effects of titanium surfaces with other nanostructures on osteogenic differentiation been investigated. Methods: In this study, we used NaOH solutions with concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, and 12.5 M to develop a simple and useful titanium surface modification that introduces the nanonetwork structures with titania nanosheet (TNS nanofeatures to the surface of titanium disks. The effects of such a modified nanonetwork structure, with different alkaline concentrations on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs, were evaluated. Results: The nanonetwork structures with TNS nanofeatures induced by alkali etching markedly enhanced BMMSC functions of cell adhesion and osteogenesis-related gene expression, and other cell behaviors such as proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, extracellular matrix deposition, and mineralization were also significantly increased. These effects were most pronounced when the concentration of NaOH was 10.0 M. Conclusion: The results suggest that nanonetwork structures with TNS nanofeatures improved BMMSC proliferation and induced BMMSC osteogenic differentiation. In addition, the surfaces formed

  19. Life-Cycle Assessment of Seismic Retrofit Strategies Applied to Existing Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Vitiello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, the renovation and refurbishment of existing buildings have become the main activities of the construction industry. In particular, many studies have recently focused on the mechanical and energy performances of existing retrofitted/refurbished facilities, while some research has addressed the environmental effects of such operations. The present study aims to assess the environmental impact of some retrofit interventions on an existing reinforced concrete (RC building. Once the structural requirements have been satisfied and the environmental effects of these retrofit solutions defined, the final purpose of this study is to identify the most environmentally sustainable retrofit strategy. The environmental impact of the structural retrofit options is assessed using a life-cycle assessment (LCA. This paper sets out a systematic approach that can be adopted when choosing the best structural retrofit option in terms of sustainability performance. The final aim of the study is to also provide a tool for researchers and practitioners that reflects a deep understanding of the sustainability aspects of retrofit operations and can be used for future researches or practical activities.

  20. Surface structure and relaxation during the oxidation of carbon monoxide on Pt Pd bimetallic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C. A.; Markovic, N. M.; Ball, M.; Stamenkovic, V.; Climent, V.; Ross, P. N.

    2001-05-01

    The atomic structure and surface relaxation of Pd monolayer on Pt(1 1 1) has been studied by surface X-ray scattering, in an aqueous environment under electrostatic potential control, during the adsorption and oxidation of carbon monoxide. The results show that the Pd-Pt layer spacing contracts at the onset of CO oxidation before the Pd adlayer forms an oxide structure that is incommensurate with the Pt lattice. Both the oxide formation and the lattice contraction are fully reversible over many cycles of the applied electrode potential.