WorldWideScience

Sample records for building standards scotland

  1. The Stones and the Stars Building Scotland's Newest Megalith

    CERN Document Server

    Lunan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    There are at least 48 identified prehistoric stone circles in Scotland.  In truth, very little is known about the people who erected them, and ultimately about what the stone circles were for.  Most stone circles are astronomically aligned, which has led to the modern debate over the significance of the alignments.  The megaliths certainly represented an enormous cooperative effort, would at the very least have demonstrated power and wealth, and being set away from any dwellings probably served a ceremonial, or perhaps religious, purpose. Observations at the site of the stone circles, of solar, lunar, and stellar events, have already cast light on some of the questions about the construction and use of ancient megalithic observatories. In his capacity as manager of the Glasgow Parks Department Astronomy Project, author Duncan Lunan designed and built in the late 1970s Sighthill, the first astronomically aligned stone circle in Britain in over 3,000 years.  The Stones and the Stars examines the case for as...

  2. The Past Ubiquity and Environment of the Lost Earth Buildings of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Simon J; Adderley, W Paul

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the once ubiquitous vernacular earth-built structures of Scotland and how perceptions of such buildings were shaped and developed through periods of intense cultural and environmental change. We focus upon the past exploitation of traditional resources to construct vernacular architectures and on changes in the perception of the resultant buildings. Historic earth-built structures are today deeply hidden within the landscapes of Scotland, although they were once a common feature of both urban and rural settlements. Whilst the eighteenth and nineteenth century period of Improvement - during which many of these structures were destroyed, repurposed, or left to decay - has received extensive attention by historians, there exists no previous serious study of the human and environmental dimensions. Through analysis of the material aspects of landscape resource use and analysis of the historical perceptions of such use, we emphasize the national significance of this undervalued aspect of Scotland's built and cultural heritage, increasingly at risk of being lost completely, highlighting the prior ubiquity of mudwall structures.

  3. Green Building Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  4. National Green Building Standard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Building America Program is a research and development program to improve the energy performance of new and existing homes. The ultimate goal of the Building America Program is to achieve examples of cost-effective, energy efficient solutions for all U.S. climate zones. Periodic maintenance of an ANSI standard by review of the entire document and action to revise or reaffirm it on a schedule not to exceed five years is required by ANSI. In compliance, a consensus group has once again been formed and the National Green Building Standard is currently being reviewed to comply with the periodic maintenance requirement of an ANSI standard.

  5. Audit, guidelines and standards: clinical governance for hip fracture care in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Colin T; Hutchison, James D

    To report on experience of national-level audit, guidelines and standards for hip fracture care in Scotland. Scottish Hip Fracture Audit (from 1993) documents case-mix, process and outcomes of hip fracture care in Scotland. Evidence-based national guidelines on hip fracture care are available (1997, updated 2002). Hip fracture serves as a tracer condition by the health quality assurance authority for its work on older people, which reported in 2004. Audit data are used locally to document care and support and monitor service developments. Synergy between the guidelines and the audit provides a means of improving care locally and monitoring care nationally. External review by the quality assurance body shows to what extent guideline-based standards relating to A&E care, pre-operative delay, multidisciplinary care and audit participation are met. Three national-level initiatives on hip fracture care have delivered: Reliable and large-scale comparative information on case-mix, care and outcomes; evidence-based recommendations on care; and nationally accountable standards inspected and reported by the national health quality assurance authority. These developments are linked and synergistic, and enjoy both clinical and managerial support. They provide an evolving framework for clinical governance, with casemix-adjusted outcome assessment for hip fracture care as a next step.

  6. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Graham S. [Building Science Corp., Westford, MA (United States); Klingenberg, Katrin [Building Science Corp., Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-07-29

    In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognized the value of performance-based passive building standards when it joined with Passive House Institute US (PHIUS) to promote DOE’s Challenge Home program in tandem with the PHIUS+ Certification program. Since then, the number of passive building projects that have been certified under the partnership has grown exponentially because of some synergy. Passive building represents a well-developed approach to arrive at the envelope basis for zero energy and energy-positive projects by employing performance-based criteria and maximizing cost-effective savings from conservation before implementing renewable energy technologies. The Challenge Home program evolved into the Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program in a move toward 1) attaining zero energy and 2) including active renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics (PV)—toward the zero energy goal.

  7. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Graham S. [Passive House Inst., Westford, MA (United States); Klingenberg, Katrin [Passive House Inst., Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Passive design principles (super insulation, airtight envelopes, elimination of thermal bridges, etc.) - pioneered in North America in the 70s and 80s and refined in Europe in the 90s have proven to be universally effective to significantly reduce heating and cooling loads. However, a single, rigid performance metric developed in Germany has led to limited uptake of passive building principles in many regions of the United States. It has also, in many cases, promoted some design decisions that had negative effects on economic feasibility and thermal comfort. This study's main objective is to validate (in a theoretical sense) verifiable, climate-specific passive standards and space conditioning criteria that retain ambitious, environmentally-necessary energy reduction targets and are economically feasible, such standards provide designers an ambitious but achievable performance target on the path to zero.

  8. Strategies for building reference standards for autoantibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eSheldon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Producing robust, certified, traceable reference material for autoantibody testing is a vital element in maintaining the validity of results that are generated in the daily clinical laboratory routine. This is a huge challenge because of the high number of variables involved in the detection and measurement of the autoantibodies. The production of such materials is time consuming and needs rigorous attention to detail; this is best achieved by an overarching independent body who will oversee the process in a not for profit manner.Much effort has been made to build international standards for quantitative and qualitative assays based on monoclonal antibodies, obtained from affinity purification and plasmapheresis. The big challenge is to respect individual differences in immune response to the same antigen. A promising ongoing initiative is the construction of pools with monospecific samples from different individuals.

  9. The Standard for Chartered Teacher in Scotland: A New Context for the Assessment and Professional Development of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Donald

    2006-01-01

    As part of a major review of teachers' professional conditions of service in Scotland the "Chartered Teacher Programme" has been introduced offering experienced teachers the option of a substantial salary enhancement, not by promotion to a school management role, but by staying in the classroom and engaging in a programme of professional…

  10. Non-commutative standard model: model building

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud; Presnajder, P

    2003-01-01

    A non-commutative version of the usual electro-weak theory is constructed. We discuss how to overcome the two major problems: (1) although we can have non-commutative U(n) (which we denote by U sub * (n)) gauge theory we cannot have non-commutative SU(n) and (2) the charges in non-commutative QED are quantized to just 0,+-1. We show how the latter problem with charge quantization, as well as with the gauge group, can be resolved by taking the U sub * (3) x U sub * (2) x U sub * (1) gauge group and reducing the extra U(1) factors in an appropriate way. Then we proceed with building the non-commutative version of the standard model by specifying the proper representations for the entire particle content of the theory, the gauge bosons, the fermions and Higgs. We also present the full action for the non-commutative standard model (NCSM). In addition, among several peculiar features of our model, we address the inherentCP violation and new neutrino interactions. (orig.)

  11. Building Resilience into Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. Forests in Scotland in Response to the Threat of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Cameron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that a warming climate will have an impact on the future productivity of European spruce forests. In Scotland, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. dominates the commercial forestry sector and there is growing pressure to develop alternative management strategies to limit potential economic losses through climate change. This review considers management options to increase the resilience of Sitka spruce dominated forests in Scotland. Given the considerable uncertainty over the potential long-term impacts of climate change, it is recommended that Sitka spruce should continue to be planted where it already grows well. However, new planting and restocking should be established in mixtures where silviculturally practicable, even if no-thin regimes are adopted, to spread future risks of damage. Three potentially compatible species with Sitka spruce are western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg., grand fir (Abies grandis (Lamb. Lindl. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and all form natural mixtures in its native range in North America. The predicted windier climate will require a range of management inputs, such as early cutting of extraction racks and early selective thinning, to improve stability. The potential to improve resilience to particularly abiotic damage through transforming even-aged stands into irregular structures and limiting the overall size of the growing stock is discussed.

  12. 24 CFR 203.39 - Standards for buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards for buildings. 203.39 Section 203.39 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 203.39 Standards for buildings. The buildings on the mortgaged property must conform with the...

  13. Cooperative Efforts Raise Building Energy Codes and Appliance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandegee Group

    1999-01-15

    An overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Codes and Standards programs to establish minimum efficiency codes, standards, and guidelines for reduced energy use and lower operating costs in U.S. building components.

  14. Building Blocks to Colorado's Content Standards: Mathematics, Reading and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Young, Darcy; Amundson, Jane L.; Bowers, Lori Goodwin; Koehn, Jo; Triolo-Moloney, Sharon; Vendegna, Nan; Peterson, Sandra

    The Building Blocks to Colorado's Content Standards were developed to connect early childhood education to the K-12 content standards, to advocate for appropriate teaching strategies for preschool children, and to support awareness and understanding of early childhood foundational skills among parents and teachers. Five sets of building blocks are…

  15. Worldwide status of energy standards for buildings: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janda, K.B.; Busch, J.F.

    1993-02-01

    This informal survey was designed to gain information about the worldwide status of energy efficiency standards for buildings, particularly non-residential buildings such as offices, schools, and hotels. The project has three goals: 1. To understand and learn from the experience of countries with existing building energy standards; 2. To locate areas where these lessons might be applied and energy standards might be effectively proposed and developed; and 3. To share the information gathered with all participating countries. These appendices include the survey cover letter, the survey, and the details of selected energy standards in 35 countries, thus providing supporting material for the authors` article of the same title.

  16. Solar Passive Modification Increase Radiation Safety Standards Inside Accelerator Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, A. F.; Keshk, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation processing by accelerated electrons is considering one of the most important and useful industrial irradiation treatments. It is depending on two principle attachment elements which are architecture of irradiation building and the accelerator characteristic that was arranged inside irradiation building. Negative environmental measurements were recorded inside the main building and were exceeded the international standards (humidity, air speed, high thermal effects and ozone concentration). The study showed that it is essential to improve the natural environmental standards inside the main irradiation building in order to improve the work environment and to reduce ozone concentration from 220 ppb to international standard. The main goals and advantages were achieved by using environmental architecture (desert architecture) indoor the irradiation building. The work depends on passive solar system which is economic, same architectural elements, comfort / health, and radiation safety, and without mechanical means. The experimental work was accomplished under these modifications. The registered results of various environmental concentrations have proved their normal standards.

  17. A history of the Building Energy Standards Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankle, D.L.; Merrick, J.A.; Gilbride, T.L.

    1994-02-01

    This report describes the history of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) work in development of energy standards for commercial and residential construction in the United States. PNL`s standards development efforts are concentrated in the Building Energy Standards Program (the Program), which PNL conducts for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards. The Program has worked with DOE, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), and other building codes and standards organizations to develop, evaluate, and promulgate energy standards in all sectors of the building industry. This report describes the recent history of U.S. code development and PNL`s contributions through the 1980s and early 1990s, up to the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Impacts to standards development resulting from the passage of this act will be described in other reports.

  18. Standardization of green building technologies for environment design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benuzh Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the structure and field of standardization ISO / TC 205 “Building environment design”, provides examples of green building technologies. The main purpose of the article is to show the interaction between international ISO / TC 205 “Building environment design” and created in Russia in 2016 the Technical Committee of Standardization № 366 “Green technology of the build environment and green innovative products”. Both of these technical committees promote green building technologies for environment design, thereby deal with the negative impact on the environment and the reasons of global warming. Instead of buildings that attempt to suppress and overcome nature, why not design buildings that integrate with the environment, on every possible level? The international standardization work which ISO/TC 205 “Building environment design” performs seeks, in addition to lowering trade barriers for engineering design, to promote and facilitate the design of high performance buildings: higher performing as economic assets for their owners, higher performing as buildings that provide amenable indoor environment for their occupants, and higher performing with respect to resource utilization and environmental impact.

  19. DOE standard compliance demonstration program: An office building example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, S.A.; Keller, J.M.; Wrench, L.E.; Williams, C.J.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) issued interim new building energy standards (10 CFR 435 1989) to achieve maximum energy efficiency in the designs of new buildings. DOE then entered into a project to demonstrate and assess the impact of these standards on the design community. One area of focus was a test to see how a less conventional design-focused building would meet the standards` requirements -- DOE wanted to demonstrate that compliance with energy standards does not mean compromising the architectural intent of a building. This study, which was initiated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), illustrated the process by which compliance with the standards can be proven for a highly {open_quotes}design-oriented{close_quotes} office building. The study also assessed the impact of the whole building simulation compliance alternatives on design. This report documents the compliance requirements, gives a description of the sample building chosen for the study, provides general guidance for the compliance process, documents the method of compliance that was undertaken for the sample building, presents the results of the study, and provides a recommendation on how the compliance requirements could be improved to reflect more realistic use types.

  20. 1994 Building energy codes and standards workshops: Summary and documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    During the spring of 1994, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards, conducted five two-day Regional Building Energy Codes and Standards workshops across the United States. Workshops were held in Chicago, Philadelphia, Atlanta, Dallas, and Denver. The workshops were designed to benefit state-level officials including staff of building code commissions, energy offices, public utility commissions, and others involved with adopting/updating, implementing, and enforcing state building codes in their states. The workshops provided an opportunity for state and other officials to learn more about the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requirements for residential and commercial building energy codes, the Climate Change Action Plan, the role of the U.S. Department of Energy and the Building Energy Standards Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, the commercial and residential codes and standards, the Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS), Energy Efficient Mortgages (EEM), training issues, and other topics related to the development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement of building energy codes. In addition to receiving information on the above topics, workshop participants were also encouraged to inform DOE of their needs, particularly with regard to implementing building energy codes, enhancing current implementation efforts, and building on training efforts already in place. This paper documents the workshop findings and workshop planning and follow-up processes.

  1. ATRF Earns Three Green Globes, Exceeds NIH Building Standards | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer From project management and energy and water efficiency to emissions and the indoor environment, the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) was built with sustainability in mind, exceeding the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH’s) building standards and earning three Green Globes from the Green Building Initiative (GBI).

  2. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Information Technology Design/Build Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document contains Illinois Occupational Skill Standards for occupations in the Information Technology Design and Build Cluster (technical writer, programmer, system analyst, network architect, application product architect, network engineer, and database administrator). The skill standards define what an individual should know and the…

  3. Energy plus standard in buildings constructed by housing associations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutterecker, Werner; Blümel, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve national, European and international energy goals, energy efficiency strategies in the building sector have to be implemented. The passive house standard and low energy standards are already successfully established in single dwelling houses. These high performance standards are starting to penetrate into the sector of housing associations. A case study about an apartment building constructed by a housing association is presented here. It describes the monitoring concept and the results of the 1st year of monitoring. Depending on the definition of the zero energy building standard (extent of loads included in the balancing), the building could be classified as an energy plus building or as a building, which uses more energy, than is supplied by on-site generation. If the building's total energy use (including user specific loads) is defined as load, only 34.5% of these loads were provided by the net energy output of the PV system. If only the heating energy demand is defined as load, the PV system even yielded a surplus of 45.6% of the energy load. -- Highlights: ► Energy monitoring of an apartment building constructed by a housing association. ► Planned as a Passive House with a semi-central ventilation system with decentralized heat pump technology. ► Total end energy demand of the building was 43 kWh/(m² a). ► Total net energy generation by the PV system was 15 kWh/(m² a). ► Apartment no. 1: 52% of the energy demand were used for heating and ventilation.

  4. APPLICATION OF DOE-2 TO RESIDENTIAL BUILDING ENERGY PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokmanhekim, M.; Goldstein, D. B.; Levine, M. D.; Rosenfield, A. H.

    1980-10-01

    One important requirement emerging from national and international efforts to shift from our present energy-intensive way of life to an energy conservation mode is the development of standards for assessing and regulating energy use and performance in buildings. This paper describes a life-cycle-cost approach to Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) calculated by using DOE-2: The Energy Use Analysis of Buildings Computer Program. The procedure outlined raises important questions that must be answered before the energy budgets devised from this approach can be reliably used as a policy tool, The DOE-2 program was used to calculate the energy consumption in prototype buildings and in their modified versions in which energy conservation measures were effected. The energy use of a modified building with lowest life-cycle-cost determines the energy budget for all buildings of that type. These calculations were based on a number of assumptions that may be controversial. These assumptions regard accuracy of the model, comparison of the DOE-2 program with other programs, stability of the energy budget, and sensitivity of the results to variations in the building parameters.

  5. Enhancements to ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Prototype Building Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya; Athalye, Rahul A.; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Hart, Philip R.; Mendon, Vrushali V.

    2014-04-16

    This report focuses on enhancements to prototype building models used to determine the energy impact of various versions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. Since the last publication of the prototype building models, PNNL has made numerous enhancements to the original prototype models compliant with the 2004, 2007, and 2010 editions of Standard 90.1. Those enhancements are described here and were made for several reasons: (1) to change or improve prototype design assumptions; (2) to improve the simulation accuracy; (3) to improve the simulation infrastructure; and (4) to add additional detail to the models needed to capture certain energy impacts from Standard 90.1 improvements. These enhancements impact simulated prototype energy use, and consequently impact the savings estimated from edition to edition of Standard 90.1.

  6. Building physics from physical principles to international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Pinterić, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides thorough coverage of the most important building physics phenomena: heat transfer, moisture, sound/acoustics, and illumination. Since the book is primarily aimed at engineers, it addresses professional issues with due pragmatism, and by including many practical examples and related ISO standards. Nevertheless, in order to guarantee full comprehension, it also explains the underlying physical principles and relates them to practical aspects in a simple and clear way. This is achieved with the aid of more than 100 figures and consistent cross-referencing of formulas and ideas. In addition, interrelationships between the different building physics phenomena are elucidated in a way that will enable readers to develop performance specifications that inform the design process. The book will primarily appeal to students of civil engineering and architecture, as well as to all practitioners in these areas who wish to broaden their fundamental understanding of topics in building physics.

  7. Building objectives and incorrect use of regulatory standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sůra Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available European and other regulatory standards affect, besides everyday life, also planning, designing, and other building processes. Regulations alter, sometimes threaten, or even completely prevent, the achievement of the intended objectives of investors and other participants in building processes. Implementation of regulative standards may result in problems that cause various defects to planning-design-construction objectives. Such regulatory issues are known to have already caused ethical, social and financial burdens in other areas of human activity. In planning and construction processes, various participants may be the source of misuse problems – unintentionally or otherwise. A model of categories of problems is presented (and has been tested – of misuse problems that result from potential conflicts between (EU regulatory standards and objectives of participants in building processes. The categories have been compiled and compared also according to sources and actors of the problems. Protective strategies against incorrect application and/or misuse of regulations are in the process of formulation and verification, taking into account sources and actors in the problem categories. Finally, it helps and protects participants – especially as regards matters of technology, design phase, public attitudes, and money.

  8. Stands Scotland where it did?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newby, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    Brief acount of contemporary Scotland for the British Council magazine. Different subject and content from the similarly-titled article in the journal "Scotlands", published the same year.......Brief acount of contemporary Scotland for the British Council magazine. Different subject and content from the similarly-titled article in the journal "Scotlands", published the same year....

  9. Standards, building codes, and certification programs for solar technology applicatons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, J. D.; Odland, R.; Barker, H.

    1979-07-01

    This report is a primer on solar standards development. It explains the development of standards, building code provisions, and certification programs and their relationship to the emerging solar technologies. These areas are important in the commercialization of solar technology because they lead to the attainment of two goals: the development of an industry infrastructure and consumer confidence. Standards activities in the four phases of the commercialization process (applied research, development, introduction, and diffusion) are discussed in relation to institutional issues. Federal policies have been in operation for a number of years to accelerate the development process for solar technology. These policies are discussed in light of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular on federal interaction with the voluntary consensus system, and in light of current activities of DOE, HUD, and other interested federal agencies. The appendices cover areas of specific interest to different audiences: activities on the state and local level; and standards, building codes, and certification programs for specific technologies. In addition, a contract for the development of a model solar document let by DOE to a model consortium is excerpted in the Appendix.

  10. Performance based building design to ensure building quality: from standardization to LEAN construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Zanchetta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of architectural design is influenced by the standardization activities concerning the construction and the development of tools for the coordination in the design process such as Building Information Modeling. The two disciplines contribute reciprocally to the achievement of the overall quality of the building process. To do so, it is strategic to develop researches on the following aspects: - definition of frameworks for the connection of the building system requirements to space and technology unit that defines it; - development of an inventory of interoperable and compliant technical solutions; - implementation of the discipline of model checking for project validation; and methodologies of comparison between intervention models; - implementation of collaborative environments for verification of compatibility between programs and regulations in order to identify the optimal design solution.

  11. Recommendations for energy conservation standards for new residential buildings: Volume 1: Text of the standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of this Standard is to provide for the development of requirements for new residential buildings that promote the efficient use of energy within economic constraints and without compromising the comfort and safety of the occupants. 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  12. 75 FR 29933 - Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Price Indexes). If a new or replacement Federal building does not fit into one of these two categories... Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... construction of new Federal buildings and major renovations of Federal buildings. This NOPR specifically...

  13. Teacher Education in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    Using the notion of travelling global policy, this paper discusses the ways in which teacher education in Scotland has responded to world-wide demands on school systems. It highlights the embedded practices which have resisted an unequivocal move to a market-based approach in initial teacher education and contrasts this with approaches to…

  14. ICC 700-2012: 2012 National Green Building Standard (ICC 700)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Description of the ICC 700-2012: 2012 National Green Building Standard, a rating and certification system that aims to encourage increased environmental and health performance in residences and residential portions of buildings.

  15. Development of national standards related to the integrated safety and security of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskresenskaya, Elena; Vorona-Slivinskaya, Lubov

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the issues of developing national standards for high-rise construction. The system of standards should provide industrial, operational, economic and terrorist safety of high-rise buildings and facilities. Modern standards of high-rise construction should set the rules for designing engineering systems of high-rise buildings, which will ensure the integrated security of buildings, increase their energy efficiency and reduce the consumption of resources in construction and operation.

  16. Development of national standards related to the integrated safety and security of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskresenskaya Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of developing national standards for high-rise construction. The system of standards should provide industrial, operational, economic and terrorist safety of high-rise buildings and facilities. Modern standards of high-rise construction should set the rules for designing engineering systems of high-rise buildings, which will ensure the integrated security of buildings, increase their energy efficiency and reduce the consumption of resources in construction and operation.

  17. Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

    CERN Document Server

    British Standards Institution. London

    1998-01-01

    Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

  18. Dinosaurs in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Neil

    2007-01-01

    Dinosaurs in Scotland are not something that is generally known. Yet, there are at least three different families represented from bones and a number of different footprint types from the Middle Jurassic. Of the bones, there is a sauropod, a thyreophoran, a coelophysid and another theropod. The footprints include large carnosaur-like footprints, smaller theropod footprints, and ornithopod footprints of different types. All this put together sounds like a decent representative dinosaur fauna f...

  19. BACnet the global standard for building automation and control networks

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    BACnet is a data communication protocol for building automation and control systems, developed within ASHRAE in cooperation with ANSI, CEN, and the ISO. This new book, by the original chairman of the BACnet committee, explains how the BACnet protocol manages all basic building functions in a seamless, integrated way. The book explains how BACnet works with all major control systems-including those provided by Honeywell, Siemens, and Johnson Controls, among many others-to manage everything from heating to ventilation to lighting to fire control and alarm systems. BACnet is used today throughout the world for commercial and institutional buildings with complex mechanical and electrical systems. Contractors, architects, building systems engineers, and facilities managers must all be cognizant of BACnet and its applications. With a real "seat at the table," you'll find it easier to understand the intent and use of each of the data sharing techniques, controller requirements, and opportunities for interoperability...

  20. 75 FR 34657 - Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... Federal buildings. This notice extends the comment period to August 12, 2010. DATES: DOE will hold a.... Department of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 8E-089, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585...

  1. 7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seismic design and construction standards for new..., REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. (a) In the design and construction of...

  2. Derivation of Building Energy Use Intensity Targets for ASHRAE Standard 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, Terry R [ORNL

    2014-06-01

    The steps to develop the building energy use intensity targets for American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 100, Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings are outlined in this report. The analyses were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with the ASHRAE Standard 100 committee and Dr. Alexander Zhivov, the subcommittee chair responsible for targets development.

  3. Unpacking Mundane Practices: Children's Experiences of Learning Literacy at a Chinese Complementary School in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This article builds on the growing research interest in complementary schooling in England and internationally but a field of study less well trodden in Scotland. It takes a socio-cultural view of literacy learning and demonstrates how in a Chinese complementary school in central Scotland, spaces are created for children of primary-school age to…

  4. Evaluación de la demanda energética de edificios no residenciales en Escocia = Energy demand benchmarking of non-domestic buildings in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Chetboula

    2015-12-01

    Los parámetros decisivos fueron la intensidad de uso de la energía (kWh/m2 y el uso y la edad de los edificios. Esto permitió la creación de seis tipos de edificios, aunque siguiendo patrones de ocupación se dividió en cuatro categorías desde el s. XVI hasta el s. XXI. Los principales resultados revelan el predominio de un clúster de edificios educativos en términos de superficie (72%, el número de edificios (70%, las emisiones de carbono (68% de los cerca de 42.000 toneladas de CO2 y el consumo de energía (61% de la 38,4 MWh de electricidad consumida, y el 73% del 117,4 MWh de gas natural que se consume. Entre estos niveles de consumo destacan el potencial de ahorro de energía para las escuelas: 186 kWh / m2 / año en promedio, en comparación con la media europea de 100 kWh / m2 / año de energía térmica de uso final. Abstract Over the years building energy performance has become a predominant concern for owners and real estate managers. The focus is usually on residential buildings but in the last twenty years an interest in non-domestic buildings has emerged in the UK. Benchmarks can generally be found at UK scale, although often restricted to England and Wales. This paper aims to provide benchmarks for the Scottish non-domestic building stock as part of the City of Edinburgh Council estate. In this research, the selected sample includes energy data and calculated carbon emissions of 199 buildings. The deciding parameters were the energy use intensity (kWh/m2 and the use and age of buildings. The last two allowed the creation of six clusters in which to group buildings of similar occupancy patterns in four age categories from the 16th to the 21st century. The main findings reveal the predominance of an educational buildings cluster in terms of floor area (72%, number of buildings (70%, carbon emissions (68% of about 42,000 tons of CO2, and energy consumption (61% of the 38.4 MWh of electricity consumed, and 73% of the 117.4 MWh of natural gas

  5. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  6. Fort Bliss Standards for the Treatment of Historic Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    in most cases its repair should NOT be undertaken by a property owner unfamiliar with the art of plastering. Successful stucco repair requires the...and gouging, the wood features on a building are both functional and deco - rative, which may be important in defining the historic character of the...on fla , deco - articular type of metal prior to any cleaning procedure and then testing to method possible is selected or determining that

  7. Analysis of Energy Conservation Alternatives for Standard Army Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    plasterboard Square 1/2-in.-thi:k, fire-resintant 2852 feet 0.42 1,198 Total Cost ($) 3,166 128 II Building: Motor Repair Shop ECA: Insulate Roof Reduce roof...441 Fiberglass batts, 3-1/2 in. thick, P1ll 1,271 Square feet 0.32 407 Dry wall gypsum plasterboard , 1/2 in. thick, fire resistant 1,272 Square feet

  8. Passivhaus as a low-energy building standard. Contribution to a typology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dequaire, X. [Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Pboks 4, St. Olavs plass, 0130 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-08-15

    With a rising concern for climate change, energy security and the environment, passive houses are receiving increasing interest among politicians and planners, and the concept is used and expressed in several settings to describe a type of very-low-energy building. Different approaches have arisen with several attempts to provide systems of validation of low-energy buildings. One major reference is the formalization into the German Passivhaus standard by the Passivhaus Institut in Darmstadt, which is presented as a strategy for energy efficiency. This article explores several underlying key issues, and a typology for energy in buildings is proposed and then developed for passive houses and exemplified using the Passivhaus standard. The concepts of low-energy buildings as expressed in some European standards, labels or certificates are explained and a special attention is provided to the Passivhaus standard. The final analysis shows the weakness of some approaches and the pertinence of the Passivhaus standard and invites for further research.

  9. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, P. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, M. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This guidance document was prepared using the input from the meeting summarized in the draft CSI Roadmap to provide Building America research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods.

  10. Model Standards and Techniques for Control of Radon in New Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is intended to serve as a model for use to develop and adopt building codes, appendices to codes, or standards specifically applicable to unique local or regional radon control requirements.

  11. Surface Coating of Wood Building Products National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Applicability Flowchart

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a January 2005 document that has a flow chart to help you determine if this National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) rule for Surface Coating of Wood Building Products applies to your facility.

  12. Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

  13. ASEAN-USAID buildings energy conservation project. Volume 1, Energy standards: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F. [eds.][Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Deringer, J.J. [Deringer Group, Riva, MD (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Mandatory or voluntary energy-efficiency standards for new or existing buildings can play an important role in a national program aimed at promoting energy conservation. Building codes and standards can provide a degree of control over design and building practices throughout the construction process, and encourage awareness of energy-conscious design. Studies in developed countries indicate that efficiency standards can produce energy reductions on the order of 20 to 40% or more. Within ASEAN, analyses of the savings potential from the proposed standards suggest that if implemented, these standards would produce savings over current new design practice of 19% to 24%. In this volume we provide an overview of the ASEAN-USAID project aimed at promulgating standards for energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The process of developing and implementing energy-efficiency standards for buildings can be subdivided into two key components: policy development; and technical and economic analysis. Each of these involves a number of steps and processes, as outlined in Figure 1-1. This volume describes the technical and economic analyses used to develop the proposed energy efficiency standards for four countries (Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia), and to refine an energy standard existing in Singapore since 1979. Though oriented toward the ASEAN region, the analysis methods described here are applicable in a range of settings, provided appropriate modifications are made for local building construction, climatic, economic, and political conditions. Implementation issues are not specifically addressed here; rather this volume is oriented towards the analytical work needed to establish or revise an energy standard for buildings.

  14. Alcohol licensing in Scotland: a historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, James

    2012-08-01

      This paper provides a historical overview of licensing law in Scotland. It seeks to put important contemporary policy developments into their historical context and to draw attention to key themes in licensing policy debates across the United Kingdom.   Based on a survey of statutes, commissions of enquiry and consumption and retail data, this paper draws together historical evidence to present a synopsis of Scottish licensing history.   The article focuses on Scotland, but also discusses UK-wide licensing policy over a 250-year period.   Scottish licensing has diverged from licensing in England and Wales and has addressed some historical licensing weaknesses, including problems of accountability, overprovision and systemic oversight regarding off-sales. Distinctive features of current Scottish legislation include public health protection as a statutory licensing objective; local Licensing Forums and Licensing Standards Officers; a requirement for explicit policies on the 'overprovision' of licensed premises; mandatory restrictions on price promotions in the on- and off-trades; and limitations on opening hours for off-licences.   Scotland has developed alcohol policies several times addressing long-standing licensing weaknesses throughout the United Kingdom. Some Scottish alcohol policies have later become the norm in England and Wales. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Pamala C.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building America program implemented a new Codes and Standards Innovation (CSI) Team in 2013. The Team’s mission is to assist Building America (BA) research teams and partners in identifying and resolving conflicts between Building America innovations and the various codes and standards that govern the construction of residences. A CSI Roadmap was completed in September, 2013. This guidance document was prepared using the information in the CSI Roadmap to provide BA research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America (BA) innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods. For more information on the BA CSI team, please email: CSITeam@pnnl.gov

  16. Experience implementing energy standards for commercial buildings and its lessons for the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, John; Deringer, Joseph

    1998-10-01

    Energy efficiency standards for buildings have been adopted in over forty countries. This policy mechanism is pursued by governments as a means of increasing energy efficiency in the buildings sector, which typically accounts for about a third of most nations' energy consumption and half of their electricity consumption. This study reports on experience with implementation of energy standards for commercial buildings in a number of countries and U.S. states. It is conducted from the perspective of providing useful input to the Government of the Philippines' (GOP) current effort at implementing their building energy standard. While the impetus for this work is technical assistance to the Philippines, the intent is to shed light on the broader issues attending implementation of building energy standards that would be applicable there and elsewhere. The background on the GOP building energy standard is presented, followed by the objectives for the study, the approach used to collect and analyze information about other jurisdictions' implementation experience, results, and conclusions and recommendations.

  17. Evaluation of four building energy analysis computer programs against ASHRAE standard 140-2007

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ) standard or code of practice. Agrément requested the CSIR to evaluate a range of building energy simulation computer programs. The standard against which these computer programs were to be evaluated was developed by the American Society of Heating...

  18. 24 CFR 200.954 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standard and certification program for construction adhesives for wood... program for construction adhesives for wood floor systems. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All construction...) concerning labeling of a product, the administrator's validation mark and the manufacturer's certification of...

  19. 40 CFR 267.1101 - What design and operating standards must my containment building meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dust emissions under § 267.1102(d). (2) The unit is designed and operated in a fashion that assures... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What design and operating standards... FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Containment buildings § 267.1101 What design and operating...

  20. Building an Online Course Based on the E-Learning Standards: Guidelines, Issues, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Permanand Mohan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive set of guidelines for building an online course based on the e-learning standards. It discusses the steps that should be followed to build a digital repository that facilitates the storage, retrieval, and reuse of the learning resources that comprise an online course in a standard way. The paper also examines various shortcomings associated with adopting the e-learning standards that threaten the viability of widespread reuse of learning resources. Finally, the paper highlights research challenges that must be surmounted in order to gain the benefits of reusable digital learning resources.

  1. Economic feasibility of maximising daylighting of a standard office building with efficient electric lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontoynont, Marc; Ramananarivo, Karine; Soreze, Thierry Silvio Claude

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the cost of developing various daylighting strategies for a standard office building in relation to their ability to reduce electric lighting consumption. The reference building design for this study corresponds to a typical configuration that minimises the construction...... costs and is typical of the French market. We have compared scenarios that entail moving service spaces to the periphery, increasing ceiling height and adding light wells of various shapes. These special features increased the proportion of the indoor area with sufficient daylight by up to 40......%, with an increase of construction costs ranging between 1.3% and 15.5% of the cost of the building. The extra cost of adding light wells was estimated at an average of €344 per work place, or €34 m-2 for a standard building with a distance between facades of 18 m. This value has to be compared with typical...

  2. Comparison of Standard 90.1-2007 and the 2009 IECC with Respect to Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.

    2009-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) has been asked by some states and energy code stakeholders to address the comparability of the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code® (IECC) as applied to commercial buildings and ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 (hereinafter referred to as Standard 90.1-07). An assessment of comparability will help states respond to and implement conditions specified in the State Energy Program (SEP) Formula Grants American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Funding Opportunity, Number DE-FOA-0000052, and eliminate the need for the states individually or collectively to perform comparative studies of the 2009 IECC and Standard 90.1-07. The funding opportunity announcement contains the following conditions: (2) The State, or the applicable units of local government that have authority to adopt building codes, will implement the following: (A) A residential building energy code (or codes) that meets or exceeds the most recent International Energy Conservation Code, or achieves equivalent or greater energy savings. (B) A commercial building energy code (or codes) throughout the State that meets or exceeds the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007, or achieves equivalent or greater energy savings . (C) A plan to achieve 90 percent compliance with the above energy codes within eight years. This plan will include active training and enforcement programs and annual measurement of the rate of compliance. With respect to item (B) above, many more states, regardless of the edition date, directly adopt the IECC than Standard 90.1-07. This is predominately because the IECC is a model code and part of a coordinated set of model building codes that state and local government have historically adopted to regulate building design and construction. This report compares the 2009 IECC to Standard 90.1-07 with the intent of helping states address whether the adoption and application of the 2009 IECC for commercial

  3. Diagnostics of the illuminance levels of building of EIE complying with the Standard INTECO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubero Hernandez, Wargner

    2013-01-01

    An analysis detailed is performed in spaces comprising the Edificio de Ingenieria Electrica; the designs of lighting aforetime were made without use of standards or scientifically proven methods, could be that this building be the case. The Standard IESNA is considered both to perform the analysis, which has set the standard to perform the respective measurements of the areas indicated in the building. Also, the standard INTECO is used, this makes mention of the minimum values recommended that each space should have analyzed, and these values meet the visual needs that are necessary for visual comfort. The measurements are performed using the illuminance meter and where it was considered the proper distribution of luminaires; the simulation of the spaces without meet the minimum values established by the standard INTECO; tabulation and comparison between the values obtained; have been the three parts of the project. Not all areas could be measured. Deficiencies are found in most levels comprising the building; if there are spaces that have meet the values specified in the standard, with good maintenance of the lights and plan optimal replacement of damaged fittings, will do even more to improve lighting levels that present in the building. Technology installed at present has been not the best, from the point of view of efficiency, since a larger electric power flows without representing a better light intensity, otherwise the recommendation given to venture into the LED technology. (author) [es

  4. General layout of a 1300 MW PWR buildings: standard lay-out and influence factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Messias, M. da

    1986-01-01

    The Standardization concept of a 1300 MW Nuclear Power Plant equipped with pressurized-water reactors (PWR) will be considered with regard to the factors which have various degrees of influence on the Layout of the Site. Standardization with regard to the Layout of nuclear power plant, stands, however also for a fixed arrangement of the components in the main buildings and a fixed arrangement of the buildings in the site plan. Standardization may result in simplified and shorter licensing procedures and mean less planning effort. Concentration of systems, optimization of the electro-mechanical design, clear separation of the controlled area, need for shielding, maintenance and safety aspects are some of number of factors which have various degress of influence on the layout of the buildings. (Author) [pt

  5. Upgrading of the non-residential building stock towards nZEB standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavik, Trond; Helgesen, Paul Jacob; Rose, Jørgen

    the Net Zero Energy Building standards NZEB in a sustainable and cost efficient way; ways to identify important market and policy issues; and effective marketing strategies for such renovations. This report describes the work of Subtask B, which covers market and policy issues and marketing strategies...... aware that such savings are possible, they tend to set less ambitious targets. Buildings that are renovated to mediocre performance can be a lost opportunity for decades. The objectives of IEA SHC Task 47 are to develop a solid knowledge-base including: how to renovate non-residential buildings towards...

  6. ScotlandsPlaces XML: Bespoke XML or XML Mapping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Ashley; Gillick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate web services (in the form of parameterised URLs), specifically in the context of the ScotlandsPlaces project. This involves cross-domain querying, data retrieval and display via the development of a bespoke XML standard rather than existing XML formats and mapping between them.…

  7. A brief comparison of existing regional green building design standards in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Liu, Y.; Ren, J.; Cho, S.

    2017-03-01

    A large country with a variety of regional natural, cultural and economic conditions, China has established a number of green building design (GBD) standards both at national and regional (provincial and municipal) levels. Some researches have been conducted to review and compare such standards. The main aim was to provide valuable references for the establishment of new regionally specific GBD standards in different regions of the country. This paper introduces the preliminary results of the researches. The distribution, frameworks and content of the existing regional GBD standards are introduced and compared in relating to the regionally specific climate, resource, economic and cultural conditions. Conclusions are provided and further researches are recommended.

  8. Global standards and local knowledge building: upgrading small producers in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Aleman, Paola

    2012-07-31

    Local knowledge building is a crucial factor for upgrading small producers and improving their market competitiveness and livelihoods. The rise of global standards affecting food safety and environmental sustainability in agriculture sparks debates on the impact on smallholders in developing countries. This article presents a perspective on the links of international standards to knowledge and institution building for developing the capabilities of small producers. Interacting with global practices, indigenous private and public actors create local institutions to develop capabilities for product and process innovations that contribute to economic development and enhance food security. Local innovation depends on collective strategic efforts through increasing networks among small producers and other organizations, including firms, nongovernmental organizations, and government, that foster knowledge circulation and bring diverse resources and support to build local capabilities.

  9. AccountAbility 1000: a new social standard for building sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckett, R.; Jonker, J.

    2002-01-01

    The pressing need to build common frameworks to redefine the performance and sustainability of organisations, has led to the development of a new standard, AccountAbility 1000 (AA1000). AA1000 is a quality framework that aims to make clear how principles of accountability and sustainability are

  10. Daylight photodynamic therapy in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordey, Helen; Valentine, Ronan; Lesar, Andrea; Moseley, Harry; Eadie, Ewan; Ibbotson, Sally

    2017-05-01

    Chronic sun-induced dysplastic skin changes (actinic keratoses) are extremely common in fair-skinned people in Scotland. These changes are a major cause of morbidity and may develop into skin cancer. Actinic keratoses are often extensive and pose a therapeutic challenge as field-directed treatment is required for chronic disease management. One such treatment approach is hospital-based photodynamic therapy, which is a well-established treatment in Scotland for actinic keratoses, using a photosensitiser pro-drug and red LED light irradiation. However, photodynamic therapy using daylight as the activating light source is increasingly and effectively used in continental Europe, but had not been explored in Scotland until we initiated this in 2013. We report our experience of daylight photodynamic therapy in 64 patient-treatment courses and demonstrate that this can be an effective, well-tolerated treatment, which is liked by patients. Our most recent data show that most patients (73%) achieved clearance or at least a good response to treatment and had high levels of satisfaction with daylight photodynamic therapy. Daylight exposure measurements indicated that treatment is feasible in Scotland between April to September. Daylight photodynamic therapy is an important advancement in treatment options for Scottish patients with extensive pre-cancerous field changes and provides opportunities for home-based treatment and increased efficiency of photodynamic therapy services.

  11. An automated tool for evaluating compliance and providing assistance with building energy standards during design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, R.W.; Brambley, M.R.; Stratton, R.C.

    1992-04-30

    In an effort to encourage the maximum cost-effective level of energy efficiency in new building design, energy-efficiency standards have become more location-specific and performance-based. As a result, standards often provide more than one path for ensuring and demonstrating that a design complies, but at the cost of increased complexity. In addition, the burden of remedying a noncompliant design rests on the designers` knowledge and experience, with only general guidance provided by the standards. As part of efforts in the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT) project, a team at DOE`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a computer program known as the Energy Standards Intelligent Design Tool (ES-IDT). The ES-IDT is one component of a prototype computer-based building design environment. It performs automatic compliance checking for parts of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 and provides designers assistance in bringing noncomplying designs into compliance. This paper describes the ES-IDT, the functions it provides, and how it is integrated into the design process via the AEDOT prototype building design environment. 9 refs.

  12. An automated tool for evaluating compliance and providing assistance with building energy standards during design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, R.W.; Brambley, M.R.; Stratton, R.C.

    1992-04-30

    In an effort to encourage the maximum cost-effective level of energy efficiency in new building design, energy-efficiency standards have become more location-specific and performance-based. As a result, standards often provide more than one path for ensuring and demonstrating that a design complies, but at the cost of increased complexity. In addition, the burden of remedying a noncompliant design rests on the designers' knowledge and experience, with only general guidance provided by the standards. As part of efforts in the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT) project, a team at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a computer program known as the Energy Standards Intelligent Design Tool (ES-IDT). The ES-IDT is one component of a prototype computer-based building design environment. It performs automatic compliance checking for parts of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 and provides designers assistance in bringing noncomplying designs into compliance. This paper describes the ES-IDT, the functions it provides, and how it is integrated into the design process via the AEDOT prototype building design environment. 9 refs.

  13. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Energy Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; de Carli, Michele

    2011-01-01

    According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting syst......–20% of the building energy demand. The additional loss depends on the type of heat emitter, type of control, pump and boiler. Keywords: Heating systems; CEN standards; Energy performance; Calculation methods......According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting...

  14. Standardization and Green Economic Change - the Case of Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Faria, Lourenco

    2015-01-01

    is that the rise of the green economy can only take place accompanied by considerable institution formation in the form of standards. In this sense, the presence of standards may be seen as an important indicator on the maturity of the greening of the economy. The paper presents early empirical work......This paper investigates the role of standardization for green economic change using energy efficiency in buildings as a case. Innovation research on standards tends to focus on the competition between competing emerging standards as well as the economic impacts of these. The idea pursued here...... and contributes as much to formulating a research agenda and provide methodological clarifications as presenting solid findings. The paper feeds more fundamentally into an evolutionary economic understanding of (green) economic change....

  15. Energy and economic evaluation of the single-family residential building energy performance standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neal, D.L.; Jones, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    The Energy Production and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1976 mandated the setting of building energy performance standards (BEPS) for all newly constructed buildings. One of the classes of buildings included in EPCA is single-family residences. These standards cover the energy used for space heating, air conditioning, and water heating. This report describes the evaluation of direct energy and economic impacts of three proposed levels of single-family BEPS: lenient, mid, and strict. The lenient level is the least stringent in requiring improvements in eneryperformance of residence while the strict is the most stringent. Each of the levels and the method of developing them are also described. The ORNL residential energy model is used to calculate energy savings and economic impacts of BEPS to the nation. The model is also used to estimate the sensitivity of the results to several exogenous variables: projected fuel prices, baseline energy codes, capital csts, short-run price elasticities, and discount rates. The Net Present Value (NPV) and cumulative energy savings from 1980 to 2020 are the two measures used to compare the standards. Both the lenient and mid level standards provide a positive economic benefit to the country of 1.24 and 2.58 billion dollars, respectively. Even though the strict standard has the largest energy savings, it has a negative economic cost of 1.5 billion dollars to the nation. The cumulative energy savings of the lenient, mid, and strict level standards are 4.2, 10.2, and 20.1 EJ, respectively.

  16. A study of standard building blocks for the design of fault-tolerant distributed computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennels, D. A.; Avizienis, A.; Ercegovac, M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that has established a standard set of four semiconductor VLSI building-block circuits. These circuits can be assembled with off-the-shelf microprocessors and semiconductor memory modules into fault-tolerant distributed computer configurations. The resulting multi-computer architecture uses self-checking computer modules backed up by a limited number of spares. A redundant bus system is employed for communication between computer modules.

  17. DBKM Issues, Approaches and Challenges for new build: Harmonization, standardization, certification, peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, A.

    2013-01-01

    Among issues when discussing DBKM: ⇒ What to preserve throughout plant lifetime? ⇒ Who manages (Design Authority)? ⇒ How best it is managed? ⇒ What are the threats of degradation? ⇒ What are the practical adverse effects on safety by inappropriate DBKM? ⇒ What about the future of licensing, harmonization, standardization, certification, peer review? … to be discussed in the context of new builds including those in new entrants

  18. Developing evidence-based prescriptive ventilation rate standards for commercial buildings in California: a proposed framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Fisk, William J.

    2014-02-01

    Background - The goal of this project, with a focus on commercial buildings in California, was to develop a new framework for evidence-based minimum ventilation rate (MVR) standards that protect occupants in buildings while also considering energy use and cost. This was motivated by research findings suggesting that current prescriptive MVRs in commercial buildings do not provide occupants with fully safe and satisfactory indoor environments. Methods - The project began with a broad review in several areas ? the diverse strategies now used for standards or guidelines for MVRs or for environmental contaminant exposures, current knowledge about adverse human effects associated with VRs, and current knowledge about contaminants in commercial buildings, including their their presence, their adverse human effects, and their relationships with VRs. Based on a synthesis of the reviewed information, new principles and approaches are proposed for setting evidence-based VRs standards for commercial buildings, considering a range of human effects including health, performance, and acceptability of air. Results ? A review and evaluation is first presented of current approaches to setting prescriptive building ventilation standards and setting acceptable limits for human contaminant exposures in outdoor air and occupational settings. Recent research on approaches to setting acceptable levels of environmental exposures in evidence-based MVR standards is also described. From a synthesis and critique of these materials, a set of principles for setting MVRs is presented, along with an example approach based on these principles. The approach combines two sequential strategies. In a first step, an acceptable threshold is set for each adverse outcome that has a demonstrated relationship to VRs, as an increase from a (low) outcome level at a high reference ventilation rate (RVR, the VR needed to attain the best achievable levels of the adverse outcome); MVRs required to meet each

  19. Local earthquake tomography of Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Richard; Baptie, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Scotland is a relatively aseismic region for the use of local earthquake tomography, but 40 yr of earthquakes recorded by a good and growing network make it possible. A careful selection is made from the earthquakes located by the British Geological Survey (BGS) over the last four decades to provide a data set maximising arrival time accuracy and ray path coverage of Scotland. A large number of 1-D velocity models with different layer geometries are considered and differentiated by employing quarry blasts as ground-truth events. Then, SIMULPS14 is used to produce a robust 3-D tomographic P-wave velocity model for Scotland. In areas of high resolution the model shows good agreement with previously published interpretations of seismic refraction and reflection experiments. However, the model shows relatively little lateral variation in seismic velocity except at shallow depths, where sedimentary basins such as the Midland Valley are apparent. At greater depths, higher velocities in the northwest parts of the model suggest that the thickness of crust increases towards the south and east. This observation is also in agreement with previous studies. Quarry blasts used as ground truth events and relocated with the preferred 3-D model are shown to be markedly more accurate than when located with the existing BGS 1-D velocity model.

  20. Development of standards for chemical and biological decontamination of buildings and structures affected by terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Hay, A.W.M. [Leeds Univ., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are no suitable standards for determining levels of safety when reoccupying a building that has been recommissioned following a biological or chemical attack. For that reason, this study focused on developing clean-up standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after acts of terrorism. Several parameters must be assessed when determining the course of action to decontaminate toxic agents and to rehabilitate facilities. First, the hazardous substance must be positively identified along with the degree of contamination and information on likely receptors. Potential exposure route is also a key consideration in the risk assessment process. A key objective of the study was to develop specific guidelines for ascertaining and defining clean. In particular, standards for chemical and biological agents that pose a real or potential risk for use as agents of terrorism will be developed. The selected agents for standards development were ammonia, fentanyl, malathion, mustard gas, potassium cyanide, ricin, sarin, hepatitis A virus, and bacillus anthracis. The standards will be developed by establishing the relationship between the amount of exposure and expected health effects; assessing real and potential risks by identifying individuals at risk and consideration of all exposure routes; and, characterizing the risk to determine the potential for toxicity or infectivity. For non-carcinogens, this was done through the analysis of other known guidelines. Cancer-slope factors will be considered for carcinogens. The standards will be assessed in the laboratory using animal models. The guidelines and standards are intended for first-responders and are scheduled for development by the end of 2006. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Introducing mapping standards in the quality assessment of buildings extracted from very high resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, S.; Santos, T.; Navarro, A.; Soares, F.; Silva, J. D.; Afonso, N.; Fonseca, A.; Tenedório, J.

    2014-04-01

    Many municipal activities require updated large-scale maps that include both topographic and thematic information. For this purpose, the efficient use of very high spatial resolution (VHR) satellite imagery suggests the development of approaches that enable a timely discrimination, counting and delineation of urban elements according to legal technical specifications and quality standards. Therefore, the nature of this data source and expanding range of applications calls for objective methods and quantitative metrics to assess the quality of the extracted information which go beyond traditional thematic accuracy alone. The present work concerns the development and testing of a new approach for using technical mapping standards in the quality assessment of buildings automatically extracted from VHR satellite imagery. Feature extraction software was employed to map buildings present in a pansharpened QuickBird image of Lisbon. Quality assessment was exhaustive and involved comparisons of extracted features against a reference data set, introducing cartographic constraints from scales 1:1000, 1:5000, and 1:10,000. The spatial data quality elements subject to evaluation were: thematic (attribute) accuracy, completeness, and geometric quality assessed based on planimetric deviation from the reference map. Tests were developed and metrics analyzed considering thresholds and standards for the large mapping scales most frequently used by municipalities. Results show that values for completeness varied with mapping scales and were only slightly superior for scale 1:10,000. Concerning the geometric quality, a large percentage of extracted features met the strict topographic standards of planimetric deviation for scale 1:10,000, while no buildings were compliant with the specification for scale 1:1000.

  2. Rational designing of the internal water supply system in reconstructed residential buildings of mass standard series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of water supply system reconstruction in mass series buildings are reviewed with consideration of water- and resource saving. Principal points for location of plumbing cells in apartments, arrangement of water devices and wastewater receivers, selection of pipelines for reconstructed water line are described. Comparative analysis of design variants of inner water line before and following reconstruction are given. It was found that applying the developed system design approaches the head losses in the inner water supply line will be significantly decreased as well as the water mains length will be decreased with material and installation saving. Based on the data the conclusions on necessity to review standard arrangement solutions of water supply systems in the reconstructed buildings were made. Recommendations on water loss reduction in the system by installation of special water saving fittings on water devices and touchless faucets.

  3. Twenty Years On!: Updating the IEA BESTEST Building Thermal Fabric Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Neymark, J.

    2013-07-01

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs applies the IEA BESTEST building thermal fabric test cases and example simulation results originally published in 1995. These software accuracy test cases and their example simulation results, which comprise the first test suite adapted for the initial 2001 version of Standard 140, are approaching their 20th anniversary. In response to the evolution of the state of the art in building thermal fabric modeling since the test cases and example simulation results were developed, work is commencing to update the normative test specification and the informative example results.

  4. Incorporating Lean Construction agent into the Building Standards Act: the Spanish case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brioso Xavier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a demand for lean construction in Europe; even though lean construction is still an emerging field and there is growing interest, there are no regulations on this topic. The main objective of this research is to regulate this role when in a project and to define and develop a building agent structure, according to the Building Standards Act (LOE by its acronym in Spanish, to be able to incorporate it into the Spanish law, protecting it from civil liabilities. In Spain, there is jurisprudence in civil jurisdiction based on the LOE to acquit or convict building agents, who are defined in the courts as “constructive managers” or similar. For this reason, courts could establish in the future several liabilities for the lean construction specialist and other agents of the project, depending on their actions and based on the implementation of the lean project delivery system, the target value design and the integrated project delivery. Conversely, it is possible that the level of action of the lean construction specialist may comprise design management, construction management and contract management. Accordingly, one or more building agents should be appropriately incorporated into the LOE according to their functions and responsibilities and based on the levels of action of the lean construction specialist. The creation of the following agents is proposed: design manager, construction manager and contract manager, definitions that are developed in this study. These agents are loosely defined, because any project manager, building information modeling manager or similar may act as one or as more-than-one of them. Finally, the creation of the lean construction manager is also proposed, as the agent who takes on the role of the design manager, construction manager and contract manager, but focused on the lean production principles.

  5. Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani kumar

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses existing development scenario and issues to accommodate future development in hill towns located in Indian Himalayan region, also highlights the state of existing building regulations through an in-depth study of building regulations in major hill towns, and briefly discuses possible approaches to change existing building regulations for achieving contextually appropriate development.

  6. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD's experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD's minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency open-quote in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock

  7. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD`s experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD`s minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency{open_quote} in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock.

  8. 24 CFR 200.949 - Building product standards and certification program for exterior insulated steel door systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) ASTM F476-84—(Reapproved 1991) Standard Test Methods for Security of Swinging Door Assemblies. (2... by an approved laboratory in accordance with the applicable standard. (2) The administrator also... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Building product standards and...

  9. Green Sharing: The Proposed Criteria in Green Building Standards to Promote the Usage of Natural Handicrafts in Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasae-In Aracha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has been a great challenge to the building and construction industry for decades. There have been many initiatives and attempts to create sustainability for the industry through the concept of the Green Building certificate in order to reduce the impact to environment and society while promoting better living conditions of the people involved in the project. This paper aims to examine all three aspects of sustainability; economy, environment and society, in the building and construction industry by proposing new criteria for the green building certificate. This will create opportunities for the community based handicraft building products to be specified and purchased to be used in the modern building and construction industry and share the economic value to the community.

  10. Windfarms and telecommunications towers (Scotland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Hector; Kellett-Bowman, Elaine; Harris, David

    1996-01-01

    A debate in the United Kingdom House of Commons on the environmental impact of windfarms and telecommunications towers in Scotland is reported. Concern was expressed over the adverse visual impact of such structures in rural areas which are often of considerable natural beauty. Counter arguments were based on the positive effects of new technology. The need to reconcile environmental protection with technological innovation was expressed. A Government spokesman described the comprehensive planning policy framework which has been put in place to secure sound planning decisions on renewable energy developments and the conditions on amenity protection in the regulations governing the erection of telecommunications towers. (UK)

  11. Windfarms and telecommunications towers (Scotland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, Hector; Kellett-Bowman, Elaine; Harris, David [and others

    1996-10-30

    A debate in the United Kingdom House of Commons on the environmental impact of windfarms and telecommunications towers in Scotland is reported. Concern was expressed over the adverse visual impact of such structures in rural areas which are often of considerable natural beauty. Counter arguments were based on the positive effects of new technology. The need to reconcile environmental protection with technological innovation was expressed. A Government spokesman described the comprehensive planning policy framework which has been put in place to secure sound planning decisions on renewable energy developments and the conditions on amenity protection in the regulations governing the erection of telecommunications towers. (UK)

  12. MUSQA: a CS method to build a multi-standard quality management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, Elizabeth; Sneed, Isabelle

    2002-07-01

    CS Communication & Systèmes, through its long quality management experience, has been able to build and evolve its Quality Management System according to clients requirements, norms, standards and models (ISO, DO178, ECSS, CMM, ...), evolving norms (transition from ISO 9001:1994 to ISO 9001:2000) and the TQM approach, being currently deployed. The aim of this paper is to show how, from this enriching and instructive experience, CS has defined and formalised its method: MuSQA (Multi-Standard Quality Approach). This method allows to built a new Quality Management System or simplify and unify an existing one. MuSQA objective is to provide any organisation with an open Quality Management System, which is able to evolve easily and turns to be a useful instrument for everyone, operational as well as non-operational staff.

  13. 76 FR 1192 - Standard on Powered Platforms for Building Maintenance; Extension of the Office of Management and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ...OSHA solicits public comments concerning its proposal to extend OMB approval of the information collection requirements specified in its Standard on Powered Platforms for Building Maintenance (29 CFR 1910.66).

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF THE DOE INTERIM ENERGY CONSERVATION STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. D.; Baechler, H. C.; Di Massa, F. V.; Lucas, R. G.; Shankle, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with federal legislation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a study to demonstrate use of its Interim Energy Conservation Standards for New Federal Residential Buildings. The demonstration study was conducted by DOE and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The demonstration is the second step in a three-step process: I) development of interim standards, 2) demonstration of the interim standards, and 3) development of final standards. The standards are mandatory for federal agency housing procurements. Nevertheless, PNL found at the start of the demonstration that agency use of the interim standards had been minimal. The purpose of the standards is to improve the energy efficiency of federal housing and increase the use of nondepletable energy sources. In accordance with the legislation, the standards were to be performance-based rather than prescribing specific energy conservation measures. To fulfill this aspect of the legislation, the standards use a computer software program called COSTSAFR which generates a point system that individualizes the standards to specific projects based on climate, housing type, and fuel costs. The standards generate minimum energy-efficiency requirements by applying the life-cycle cost methodology developed for federal projects. For the demonstration, PNL and DOE chose five federal agency housing projects which had been built in diverse geographic and climate regions. Participating agencies were the Air Force, the Army (which provided two case studies), the Navy, and the Department of Health and Human Services. PNL worked with agency housing procurement officials and designers/architects to hypothetically apply the interim standards to the procurement and design of each housing project. The demonstration started at the point in the project where agencies would establish their energyefficiency requirements for the project and followed the procurement process through the designers' use of the point

  15. Building up the standard gauge model of high energy physics. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekaran, G.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter carefully builds up, step by step, the standard gauge model of particle physics based on the group SU(3) c x SU(2) x U(1). Spontaneous symmetry breaking via the Nambu-Goldstone mode, and then via the Higgs mode for gauge theories, are presented via examples, first for the Abelian U(1) and then for the non-Abelian SU(2) case. The physically interesting SU(2) x U(1) model is then taken up. The emergence of massive vector bosons is demonstrated. After this preparation, the 'standard model' of the late 60's prior to the gauge theory revolution, based on the V-A current-current weak interactions, minimal electromagnetism, and an unspecified strong interaction, all in quark-lepton language, is set up. It is then compared to the standard gauge model of SU(3) c x SU(2) x U(1). The compelling reasons for QCD as the gauge theory of strong interactions are spelt out. An introduction to renormalization group methods as the main calculational tool for QCD, asymptotic freedom, infrared problems, and physically motivated reasons for going beyond the standard model are presented. (author). 6 refs.; 19 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Digitalization as Driver for Standardized Specification and Design of Buildings: In Search of an Efficient Building Design Management Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treldal, Niels

    The architectural, engineering and construction industry is suffering from low productivity and the integration of project information, design solutions, design processes and project organization is believed to be a solution to produce high performing buildings more efficiently. Utilization....... Digitalization is a driver in such a framework to support an efficient way of working, but multiple barriers exist for its expansion. This thesis focuses on solutions to improve digitalization and integration in the building design process. The often unique, fragmented and interdependent nature of building...... of interest for further research and development. Based on the findings, operational principles of how building design can be produced efficiently are described with specific considerations to information flow and value generation. The operational principles are, furthermore, combined with socio...

  17. Three-dimensional analysis of AP600 standard plant shield building roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greimann, L.; Fanous, F.; Safar, S.; Khalil, A.; Bluhm, D.

    1999-06-01

    The AP600 passive containment vessel is surrounded by a concrete cylindrical shell covered with a truncated conical roof. This roof supports the passive containment cooling system (PCS) annular tank, shield plate and other nonstructural attachments. When the shield building is subjected to different loading combinations as defined in the Standard Review Plan (SRP), some of the sections in the shield building could experience forces in excess of their design values. This report summarized the three-dimensional finite element analysis that was conducted to review the adequacy of the proposed Westinghouse shield building design. The ANSYS finite element software was utilized to analyze the Shield Building Roof (SBR) under dead, snow, wind, thermal and seismic loadings. A three-dimensional model that included a portion of the shield building cylindrical shell, the conical roof and its attachments, the eccentricities at the cone-cylinder connection and at the compression ring and the PCS tank was developed. Mesh sensitivity studies were conducted to select appropriate element size in the cylinder, cone, near air intakes and in the vicinity of the eccentricities. Also, a study was carried out to correctly idealize the water-structure interaction in the PCS tank. Response spectrum analysis was used to calculate the internal forces at different sections in the SBR under Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). Forty-nine structural modes and twenty sloshing modes were used. Two horizontal components of the SSE together with a vertical component were used. Modal stress resultants were combined taking into account the effects of closely spaced modes. The three earthquake directions were combined by the Square Root of the Sum Squares method. Two load combinations were studied. The load combination that included dead, snow, fluid, thermal and seismic loads was selected to be the most critical. Interaction diagrams for critical sections were developed and used to check the design

  18. Three-dimensional analysis of AP600 standard plant shield building roof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greimann, L.; Fanous, F.; Safar, S.; Khalil, A.; Bluhm, D.

    1999-01-01

    The AP600 passive containment vessel is surrounded by a concrete cylindrical shell covered with a truncated conical roof. This roof supports the passive containment cooling system (PCS) annular tank, shield plate and other nonstructural attachments. When the shield building is subjected to different loading combinations as defined in the Standard Review Plan (SRP), some of the sections in the shield building could experience forces in excess of their design values. This report summarized the three-dimensional finite element analysis that was conducted to review the adequacy of the proposed Westinghouse shield building design. The ANSYS finite element software was utilized to analyze the Shield Building Roof (SBR) under dead, snow, wind, thermal and seismic loadings. A three-dimensional model that included a portion of the shield building cylindrical shell, the conical roof and its attachments, the eccentricities at the cone-cylinder connection and at the compression ring and the PCS tank was developed. Mesh sensitivity studies were conducted to select appropriate element size in the cylinder, cone, near air intakes and in the vicinity of the eccentricities. Also, a study was carried out to correctly idealize the water-structure interaction in the PCS tank. Response spectrum analysis was used to calculate the internal forces at different sections in the SBR under Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). Forty-nine structural modes and twenty sloshing modes were used. Two horizontal components of the SSE together with a vertical component were used. Modal stress resultants were combined taking into account the effects of closely spaced modes. The three earthquake directions were combined by the Square Root of the Sum Squares method. Two load combinations were studied. The load combination that included dead, snow, fluid, thermal and seismic loads was selected to be the most critical. Interaction diagrams for critical sections were developed and used to check the design

  19. Cool Apps: Building Cryospheric Data Applications With Standards-Based Service Oriented Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J. A.; Truslove, I.; Billingsley, B. W.; Oldenburg, J.; Brodzik, M.; Lewis, S.; Liu, M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) holds a large collection of cryospheric data, and is involved in a number of informatics research and development projects aimed at improving the discoverability and accessibility of these data. To develop high-quality software in a timely manner, we have adopted a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach for our core technical infrastructure development. Data services at NSIDC are internally exposed to other tools and applications through standards-based service interfaces. These standards include OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting), various OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standards including WMS (Web Map Service) and WFS (Web Feature Service), ESIP (Federation of Earth Sciences Information Partners) OpenSearch, and NSIDC-specific RESTful services. By taking a standards-based approach, we are able to use off-the-shelf tools and libraries to consume, translate and broker these data services, and thus develop applications faster. Additionally, by exposing public interfaces to these services we provide valuable data services to technical collaborators; for example, NASA Reverb (http://reverb.echo.nasa.gov) uses NSIDC's WMS services. Our latest generation of web applications consume these data services directly. The most complete example of this is the Operation IceBridge Data Portal (http://nsidc.org/icebridge/portal) which depends on many of the aforementioned services, and clearly exhibits many of the advantages of building applications atop a service-oriented architecture. This presentation outlines the architectural approach and components and open standards and protocols adopted at NSIDC, demonstrates the interactions and uses of public and internal service interfaces currently powering applications including the IceBridge Data Portal, and outlines the benefits and challenges of this approach.

  20. Regional variations in US residential sector fuel prices: implications for development of building energy performance standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.; Secrest, T.J.

    1981-03-01

    The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Energy Performance Standards for New Buildings presented life-cycle-cost based energy budgets for single-family detached residences. These energy budgets varied with regional climatic conditions but were all based on projections of national average prices for gas, oil and electricity. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking indicated that further analysis of the appropriateness of various price measures for use in setting the Standards was under way. This part of that ongoing analysis addresses the availability of fuel price projections, the variation in fuel prices and escalation rates across the US and the effects of aggregating city price data to the state, Region, or national level. The study only provides a portion of the information required to identify the best price aggregation level for developing of the standards. The research addresses some of the economic efficiency considerations necessary for design of a standard that affects heterogeneous regions. The first section discusses the effects of price variation among and within regions on the efficiency of resource allocation when a standard is imposed. Some evidence of the extreme variability in fuel prices across the US is presented. In the second section, time series, cross-sectional fuel price data are statistically analyzed to determine the similarity in mean fuel prices and price escalation rates when the data are treated at increasing levels of aggregation. The findings of this analysis are reported in the third section, while the appendices contain price distributions details. The last section reports the availability of price projections and discusses some EIA projections compared with actual prices.

  1. Plus C'est La Même Chose: Joinery Apprenticeship Arrangements in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines recent changes in the Scottish apprenticeship system of skill formation for joiners through an occupational skill ecosystem lens. Building trade apprenticeships in Scotland are based around a social partnership model more akin to "dual systems" than typical arrangements elsewhere in the UK. Drawing on in-depth…

  2. Building Maintenance Mechanic. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Mecanicien d'entretien des batiments. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for building maintenance mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related training program. They are…

  3. The SEMAINE API: Towards a Standards-Based Framework for Building Emotion-Oriented Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schröder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the SEMAINE API, an open source framework for building emotion-oriented systems. By encouraging and simplifying the use of standard representation formats, the framework aims to contribute to interoperability and reuse of system components in the research community. By providing a Java and C++ wrapper around a message-oriented middleware, the API makes it easy to integrate components running on different operating systems and written in different programming languages. The SEMAINE system 1.0 is presented as an example of a full-scale system built on top of the SEMAINE API. Three small example systems are described in detail to illustrate how integration between existing and new components is realised with minimal effort.

  4. Nearly Zero Energy Standard for Non-Residential Buildings with high Energy Demands—An Empirical Case Study Using the State-Related Properties of BAVARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keltsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 2010 calls for the Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB Standard for new buildings from 2021 onwards: Buildings using “almost no energy” are powered by renewable sources or by the energy produced by the building itself. For residential buildings, this ambitious new standard has already been reached. But for other building types, this goal is still far away. The potential of these buildings to meet a nZEB Standard was investigated by analyzing ten case studies, representing non-residential buildings with different uses. The analysis shows that the primary characteristics common to critical building types are a dense building context with a very high degree of technical installation (such as hospital, research, and laboratory buildings. The large primary energy demand of these types of buildings cannot be compensated by building- and property-related energy generation, including off-site renewables. If the future nZEB Standard were to be defined with lower requirements because of this, the state-related properties of Bavaria suggest that the real potential energy savings available in at least 85% of all new buildings would be insufficiently exploited. Therefore, it would be more useful to individualize the legal energy verification process for new buildings, to distinguish critical building types such as laboratories and hospitals from the other building types.

  5. The measures for achieving nZEB standard of retrofitted educational building for specific polish location - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Jerzy; Mijakowski, Maciej; Trząski, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    Most of the EU member states have already set a definition of nZEB for new buildings and some of the countries also done it for existing buildings. As there is no definition of nZEB for existing buildings in Poland, the paper will include various considerations of such a standard. Next, a case study of educational building retrofitting to a proposed nZEB standard will be presented. The aim of the paper is to present what measures can be used in order to decrease energy consumption in existing building. The measures are divided into three parts: architectural and construction, installations and energy sources. Thus a complexity of the solutions are presented. As the nZEB standard is related to available energy sources, also an influence of local condition will be considered. Building chosen for analysis is located in an area under historic protection which makes the work even more difficult. It was proved that used solutions were chosen not only to reduce energy demand or increase energy production from renewable energy sources, but also to increase social and aesthetic features of the building.

  6. Building the Foundation to Generate a Fundamental Care Standardized Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Lianne; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Needleman, Jack; Jackson, Debra; Kitson, Alison

    2018-02-15

    Considerable transformation is occurring in healthcare globally with organizations focusing on achieving the quadruple aim of improving the experience of care, the health of populations, and the experience of providing care while reducing per capita costs of health care. In response, health care organizations are employing performance measurement and quality improvement methods to achieve the quadruple aim. Despite the plethora of measures available to health managers, there is no standardized data set and virtually no indicators reflecting how patients actually experience the delivery of fundamental care, such as nutrition, hydration, mobility, respect, education, and psychosocial support. Given the linkages of fundamental care to safety and quality metrics, efforts to build the evidence base and knowledge that captures the impact of enacting fundamental care across the health care continuum and lifespan should include generating a routinely collected data set of relevant measures. This paper provides an overview of the current state of performance measurement, key trends, and a methodological approach to leverage in efforts to generate a standardized data set for fundamental care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. 3D BUILDING MODELING IN LOD2 USING THE CITYGML STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Preka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, scientific research has been increasingly focused on the third dimension in all fields and especially in sciences related to geographic information, the visualization of natural phenomena and the visualization of the complex urban reality. The field of 3D visualization has achieved rapid development and dynamic progress, especially in urban applications, while the technical restrictions on the use of 3D information tend to subside due to advancements in technology. A variety of 3D modeling techniques and standards has already been developed, as they gain more traction in a wide range of applications. Such a modern standard is the CityGML, which is open and allows for sharing and exchanging of 3D city models. Within the scope of this study, key issues for the 3D modeling of spatial objects and cities are considered and specifically the key elements and abilities of CityGML standard, which is used in order to produce a 3D model of 14 buildings that constitute a block at the municipality of Kaisariani, Athens, in Level of Detail 2 (LoD2, as well as the corresponding relational database. The proposed tool is based upon the 3DCityDB package in tandem with a geospatial database (PostgreSQL w/ PostGIS 2.0 extension. The latter allows for execution of complex queries regarding the spatial distribution of data. The system is implemented in order to facilitate a real-life scenario in a suburb of Athens.

  8. "Science SQL" as a Building Block for Flexible, Standards-based Data Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    We have learnt to live with the pain of separating data and metadata into non-interoperable silos. For metadata, we enjoy the flexibility of databases, be they relational, graph, or some other NoSQL. Contrasting this, users still "drown in files" as an unstructured, low-level archiving paradigm. It is time to bridge this chasm which once was technologically induced, but today can be overcome. One building block towards a common re-integrated information space is to support massive multi-dimensional spatio-temporal arrays. These "datacubes" appear as sensor, image, simulation, and statistics data in all science and engineering domains, and beyond. For example, 2-D satellilte imagery, 2-D x/y/t image timeseries and x/y/z geophysical voxel data, and 4-D x/y/z/t climate data contribute to today's data deluge in the Earth sciences. Virtual observatories in the Space sciences routinely generate Petabytes of such data. Life sciences deal with microarray data, confocal microscopy, human brain data, which all fall into the same category. The ISO SQL/MDA (Multi-Dimensional Arrays) candidate standard is extending SQL with modelling and query support for n-D arrays ("datacubes") in a flexible, domain-neutral way. This heralds a new generation of services with new quality parameters, such as flexibility, ease of access, embedding into well-known user tools, and scalability mechanisms that remain completely transparent to users. Technology like the EU rasdaman ("raster data manager") Array Database system can support all of the above examples simultaneously, with one technology. This is practically proven: As of today, rasdaman is in operational use on hundreds of Terabytes of satellite image timeseries datacubes, with transparent query distribution across more than 1,000 nodes. Therefore, Array Databases offering SQL/MDA constitute a natural common building block for next-generation data infrastructures. Being initiator and editor of the standard we present principles

  9. Conflicting strategies towards sustainable heating at an urban junction of heat infrastructure and building standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Späth, Philipp; Rohracher, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Approaches to ‘sustainability transitions’ stress the possibility of aligning actors around a shared vision of the future, e.g. at the scale of a city. Empirical accounts reveal how difficult such coordination often is due to contradictory views involved. How can we better understand related processes of searching and negotiation? What does this mean for the organization of decision making processes regarding long-term infrastructural change? We analyze a conflict which erupted in Freiburg, Germany when two strategies of reducing environmental impacts of space heating were to be applied in the Vauban ‘model district’: A) Efficient co-generation of heat and power (CHP) combined with district heating systems (DHS), and B) Reducing heat demand by low-energy designs and ambitious energy standards (‘passive house standard’). In order to understand the politics of infrastructure development, we unravel 1) enabling factors and driving forces of the conflict, 2) normative content of opposing viewpoints, 3) resources tapped into for settling the disagreement, and 4) the institutional setup of such decision making about energy policy priorities in the municipality. We reflect on implications of such a perspective on how policies and how governance arrangements should ideally be shaped and take a brief outlook on further research needed. - Highlights: • Foregrounds likeliness of conflicts over strategies within sustainability transitions. • District heating systems can be incommensurate with low energy building standards. • Studies one such conflict in an urban context (Freiburg, Germany) in depth. • Processes of urban planning can reveal frictions within and between infrastructures. • Can such junctions as opportunities for re-negotiation of strategies be anticipated?

  10. Passive energy standard in building as a perspective of sustainable development - first passive houses in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miscevic, Lj.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the projects and implementation of the first passive family houses in Croatia. The Croatian Solar House (CSH) is a national technological-development project by a group of authors, which is based on passive house standard as an energy-terms point of departure. The House EV1 is a wood-made passive house under construction, while the House M4 is the first passive house in Croatia made in poro-concrete and reinforced concrete made ceiling slabs. Both houses comply with the heating energy consumption requirements under the passive house definition, i.e., the annual consumption does not exceed 15 kWh/m2. These houses are also referred to as 'houses without heating', 'houses with thermal comfort without heating' or 'one-liter houses' because their consumption is equivalent to one liter of fuel oil by one square meter a year. Assuming the high-value thermal protection, passive house is equipped with an installation system which houses a heat pump and ventilation system for continuous introduction of fresh air indoors. The use of renewable energy sources enabled the accomplishment by far the biggest energy savings in the construction industry, ensuring optimal conditions for healthy living without harmful gas emissions. Since 1990 there is an exponential growth of constructed passive houses in Europe. Germany is leading this trend with total of 150,000 free-standing houses, house raw units or residential units in small multi-apartment buildings. The research project-program of the European Union: Cost Efficiency Passive Houses as European Union Standard (CEPHEUS) has confirmed, by scientific monitoring during several years, the energy- and cost-efficiency of such architecture and construction model in more than 250 units in Germany, France, Austria and Switzerland. Therefore the passive house is proposed as a standard for residential architecture and construction, but also for general construction of all functional types of non-residential architecture

  11. The evolution of green jobs in Scotland: A hybrid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Kevin; Allan, Grant J; McIntyre, Stuart G

    2016-01-01

    In support of its ambitious target to reduce CO 2 emissions the Scottish Government is aiming to have the equivalent of 100% of Scottish electricity consumption generated from renewable sources by 2020. This is, at least in part, motivated by an expectation of subsequent employment growth in low carbon and renewable energy technologies; however there is no official data source to track employment in these areas. This has led to a variety of definitions, methodologies and alternative estimates being produced. Building on a recent study (Bishop and Brand, 2013) we develop a “hybrid” approach which combines the detail of “bottom-up” surveys with “top-down” trend data to produce estimates on employment in Low Carbon Environmental Goods and Services (LCEGS). We demonstrate this methodology to produce estimates for such employment in Scotland between 2004 and 2012. Our approach shows how survey and official sources can combine to produce a more timely measure of employment in LCEGS activities, assisting policymakers in tracking, consistently, developments. Applying our approach, we find that over this period employment in LCEGS in Scotland grew, but that this was more volatile than aggregate employment, and in particular that employment in this sector was particularly badly hit during the great recession. - Highlights: • A “hybrid” approach estimates green jobs from bottom-up detail and top-down data. • Illustrative results show the evolution of such jobs in Scotland from 2004 to 2012. • Method provides policymakers a timely measure of the jobs success of energy policy.

  12. A complete analysis of a nuclear building to nuclear safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeretto, G.; Giuliano, V.; Lazzeri, L.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear standards impose on the designer the necessity of examining the loads, stresses and strains in a nuclear building even under extreme loading conditions, both due to plant malfunctions and environmental accidents. It is necessary then to generate, combine and examine a tremendous amount of data; really the lack of symmetry and general complication of the structures and the large number of loading combinations make an automatic analysis quite necessary. A largely automatized procedure is presented in view of solving the problem by a series of computer programs linked together as follows. After the seismic analysis has been performed by (SADE CODE) these data together with the data coming from thermal specifications, weight, accident descriptions etc. are fed into a finite element computer code (SAP4) for analysis. They are processed and combined by a computer code (COMBIN) according to the loading conditions (the usual list in Italy is given and briefly discussed), so that for each point (or each selected zone) under each loading condition the applied loads are listed. These data are fed to another computer code (DTP), which determines the amount of reinforcing bars necessary to accommodate the most severe of the loading conditions. The Aci 318/71 and Italian regulation procedures are followed; the characteristics of the program are briefly described and discussed. Some particular problems are discussed, e.g. the thermal stresses due to normal and accident conditions, the inelastic behavior of some frame elements (due to concrete cracking) is considered by means of an 'ad hoc' code. Typical examples are presented and the results are discussed showing a relatively large benefit in considering this inelastic effect

  13. Customisation and Desirable Characteristics of a Standard Method of Measurement for Building Works in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study that identified andcategorised the modifications to the 5thEdition of the British Standard Method ofMeasurement (SMM5 of building works inGhana. Typical modifications involved ‘costinsignificant items’, ‘minor labour items’,‘custom units of measurement’, ‘methodrelated items’, ‘combinable items’,‘subordinate items’, and ‘items of minorinformative impact’. It was also observed thatthe desirable characteristics/ qualities ofstandard methods of measurement (SMM ofbuilding work were noteworthy, since theyprovide insight into the nature of a SMMrequired for the construction industry inGhana.The research reviewed available literature,various SMMs and bills of quantities (BQs.The relevance of the modifications andSMM characteristics identified wasconfirmed by a survey of the opinions ofprofessional quantity surveyors conductedthrough a carefully designed questionnaire.Inferences from the opinion survey formedthe basis for grouping both SMMmodifications found and the desired qualitiesof a SMM for Ghana.Survey respondents confirmed all theidentified modifications to the British SMM,except for the elimination of items of minorinformative impact. It was held that allinformation was relevant in measurement.Desirable characteristics of a SMM were ratedin decreasing order of relevance as: easylocation of items; cost significance; simplicity;thoroughness; ease of cost analysis; goodpractice; conciseness; adoptability; precision;industry practice; stakeholders’ opinion;custom classification; regional relevance; andinclusion of jargon. It was noted that therelevance of these characteristics may varyform one region to the other as a result oftechnological, cultural and legal differences.However, the desired SMM characteristicswere recommended as fundamental indeveloping an appropriate SMM for Ghana.

  14. Recommendations for energy conservation standards for new residential buildings: Volume 2: Automated residential energy standard---user's guide--version 1. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lortz, V.B.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-05-01

    This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations from the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Special Projects Committee No. 53, designed to provide the technical foundation for the Congressionally-mandated energy standard for new residential buildings. The recommendations were developed over a 25-month period by a multidisciplinary project team under the management of the DOE and its prime contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL).

  15. Innovation and Standardization in School Building: A Proposal for the National Code in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Giuseppe

    This document discusses the University of Florence's experience and concepts as it developed the research to define a proposal for designing a new national school building code. Section 1 examines the current school building code and the Italian Reform Process in Education between 1960 and 2000. Section 2 details and explains the new school…

  16. Scan-To Output Validation: Towards a Standardized Geometric Quality Assessment of Building Information Models Based on Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonduel, M.; Bassier, M.; Vergauwen, M.; Pauwels, P.; Klein, R.

    2017-11-01

    The use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) for existing buildings based on point clouds is increasing. Standardized geometric quality assessment of the BIMs is needed to make them more reliable and thus reusable for future users. First, available literature on the subject is studied. Next, an initial proposal for a standardized geometric quality assessment is presented. Finally, this method is tested and evaluated with a case study. The number of specifications on BIM relating to existing buildings is limited. The Levels of Accuracy (LOA) specification of the USIBD provides definitions and suggestions regarding geometric model accuracy, but lacks a standardized assessment method. A deviation analysis is found to be dependent on (1) the used mathematical model, (2) the density of the point clouds and (3) the order of comparison. Results of the analysis can be graphical and numerical. An analysis on macro (building) and micro (BIM object) scale is necessary. On macro scale, the complete model is compared to the original point cloud and vice versa to get an overview of the general model quality. The graphical results show occluded zones and non-modeled objects respectively. Colored point clouds are derived from this analysis and integrated in the BIM. On micro scale, the relevant surface parts are extracted per BIM object and compared to the complete point cloud. Occluded zones are extracted based on a maximum deviation. What remains is classified according to the LOA specification. The numerical results are integrated in the BIM with the use of object parameters.

  17. Scotland's political culture : the need to put consensus first

    OpenAIRE

    Konig, Alice Rebecca; Chrisman, Matthew; Virgo, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    One year on from the Brexit Referendum vote, the Young Academy of Scotland have released a report, Brexit: The Impact on Scotland. The report comprises of ten articles, each focusing on the impact of Brexit on a different industry, sector or area of society in Scotland, written by a YAS member who is an expert in that field or expertise. Publisher PDF

  18. 24 CFR 200.942 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the following standards: (i) AATCC 20A-81—Fiber Analysis: Quantitative; (ii) AATCC 16E-82... Energy Source; (viii) ASTM D2646-79—Standard Methods of Testing Backing Fabrics; (ix) ASTM D3936-80...-81—Standard Methods for Rubber Products—Chemical Analysis; (xi) ASTM D418-82—Standard Methods of...

  19. Is there anything left to be installed?: The energy performance standard for buildings; Valt er nog wat te installeren?: Energieprestatie eis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weersink, A.M.S. [DGMR Raadgevende Ingenieurs, The Hague (Netherlands); Nobel, K.J. [Deerns Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    1995-05-01

    Starting fall 1995 building plans for new office estates must be tested according to the new Energy Performance Standard (EPS), as formulated in the Dutch Building Decree. Some effects of that standard on HVAC installations and architectural aspects are outlined. Specific energy saving measures regarding the construction of the building, the technical installations and the lighting systems must be chosen with care, taking into account the other quality aspects of the building. A simple exemplified building is used to show the consequences of the EPS. 5 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  20. Disadvantage and Poverty in Rural Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwan, David

    1996-01-01

    A 1993 survey of 500 households in rural Scotland, followed by 120 interviews, found that poverty was widespread; subjective assessments of poverty contradicted objective definitions in that people were satisfied with rural life; acceptance of government benefits was low; rental housing was scarce; employment opportunities were limited, especially…

  1. Scotland Yard gotov nazvat ubiits Litvinenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Scotland Yard on lähedal sellele, et öelda Aleksandr Litvinenko mõrvas kahtlustatavate nimed. Samas ei kavatse Vene võimud kahtlustatavaid kohtuprotsessist osavõtuks välja anda. Vene uurija väitel tahtis A. Litvinenko šantažeerida tuntud vene oligarhi ja Briti kompaniid

  2. Influence of measurement uncertainty on classification of thermal environment in buildings according to European Standard EN 15251

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    European Standard EN 15 251 in its current version does not provide any guidance on how to handle uncertainty of long term measurements of indoor environmental parameters used for classification of buildings. The objective of the study was to analyse the uncertainty for field measurements...... measurements of operative temperature at two measuring points (south/south-west and north/northeast orientation). Results of the present study suggest that measurement uncertainty needs to be considered during assessment of thermal environment in existing buildings. When expanded standard uncertainty was taken...... into account in categorization of thermal environment according to EN 15251, the difference in prevalence of exceeded category limits were up to 17.3%, 8.3% and 2% of occupied hours for category I, II and III respectively....

  3. Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Julie

    2010-05-01

    In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific (sales@andersonscientific.co.uk). The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water

  4. Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants - global method and the method per orders - by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the management the possibility to fully satisfy its need for information. We are talking about a change of conception in applying certain systems, methods and work techniques, according to the needs of efficient administration of production and the plant seen as a whole. The standard-cost method best answers to the needs of the effective management of the value side of the manufacturing process and raising economic efficiency. We consider that, in the machine building industry, these objectives can be achieved by using the standard - sole cost alternative of the standard-cost method.

  5. Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliana Geta Roman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants – global method and the method per orders – by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the management the possibility to fully satisfy its need for information. We are talking about a change of conception in applying certain systems, methods and work techniques, according to the needs of efficient administration of production and the plant seen as a whole. The standard-cost method best answers to the needs of the effective management of the value side of the manufacturing process and raising economic efficiency. We consider that, in the machine building industry, these objectives can be achieved by using the standard - sole cost alternative of the standard-cost method.

  6. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: California Energy Standards Recognize the Importance of Filter Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This 2014 Top Innovation profile describes Building America research on HVAC air filter sizing that prompted a change in the California “Title 24” Energy Code requiring filter manufacturers, HVAC designers, and HERS raters to make changes that will encourage the use of higher MERV filters without degrading HVAC performance.

  7. Writing standards for performance based building regulations. Conditions to be fulfilled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.; Walters, W.; Nouwen, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch Building Decree, a general administrative measure based on the Housing Act, is expressed in performance requirements. In each clause the performance requirement is based on a functional definit-ion. This definition expresses the intention of the performance requirement. The performance

  8. 24 CFR 200.948 - Building product standards and certification program for carpet cushion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS...-76—(Reapproved 1990) Standard Specification for Flexible Cellular Materials—Vinyl Chloride Polymers...

  9. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water Heating Systems...

  10. Building Android Apps with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript Making Native Apps with Standards-Based Web Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    It's true: if you know HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, you already have the tools you need to develop Android applications. Now updated for HTML5, the second edition of this hands-on guide shows you how to use open source web standards to design and build apps that can be adapted for any Android device. You'll learn how to create an Android-friendly web app on the platform of your choice, and then use Adobe's free PhoneGap framework to convert it to a native Android app. Discover why device-agnostic mobile apps are the wave of the future, and start building apps that offer greater flexibility and

  11. International comparison of energy standards in the building area; Internationaler Vergleich von Energiestandards im Baubereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, S.; Balthasar, A. [Institut fuer Politikstudien Interface GmbH, Lucerne (Switzerland); Eichhammer, W.; Reichert, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined the creation, implementation and effectiveness of energy standards in Switzerland and the four European countries Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark. The results of the research, which was based on interviews, documents and the literature available, are presented and commented on. The authors are of the opinion that the development of energy-standards and regulations proved to be most difficult in Switzerland as a result of heavily decentralised legislation competencies. Developments in Europe are discussed. As far as the 'sharpness' of legislation is concerned, large differences can be found between the five countries looked at. The possible export of the Swiss 'MINERGIE' standard in other European countries is examined. Recommendations are made for the further development of energy standards.

  12. Reduction in young male suicide in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Cameron; Stockton, Diane; Henderson, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Rates of suicide and undetermined death increased rapidly in Scotland in the 1980's and 1990's. The largest increases were in men, with a marked increase in rates in younger age groups. This was associated with an increase in hanging as a method of suicide. National suicide prevention work has identified young men as a priority group. Routinely collected national information suggested a decrease in suicide rates in younger men at the beginning of the 21st century. This stu...

  13. Capacity building program: Framework of Standards to secure and facilitate Global Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koech, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    Effective implementation of capacity building program in Kenya will result in maximum protection against terrorist activity/counter terrorism worldwide due to countries meeting the requirements of the program via safety and security measures at land borders, seaports, and airports. It will also result in enforcement of illegal trade pertaining to terrorist financing, money laundering, trade fraud, strategic cases including weapons of mass destruction, child pornography, intellectual property rights, document fraud, alien smuggling, drug smuggling, and general smuggling. It will also facilitate legitimate commerce.

  14. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; Langkilde, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 the European Commission (EC) issued a directive, 2002/91/EC [1]. The objective of this directive is to promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the community, taking into account outdoor climatic and local conditions, as well as indoor climate requirements...... and ventilation systems must be performed. The present paper will present the method for calculating the energy performance for heating systems. The relevant CEN-standards are presented and a sample calculation of energy performance is made for a small family house in different geographical locations: Stockholm...

  15. Building a gold standard to construct search filters: a case study with biomarkers for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John J; Stein, Corey D; Tseytlin, Eugene; Bekhuis, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    To support clinical researchers, librarians and informationists may need search filters for particular tasks. Development of filters typically depends on a "gold standard" dataset. This paper describes generalizable methods for creating a gold standard to support future filter development and evaluation using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as a case study. OSCC is the most common malignancy affecting the oral cavity. Investigation of biomarkers with potential prognostic utility is an active area of research in OSCC. The methods discussed here should be useful for designing quality search filters in similar domains. The authors searched MEDLINE for prognostic studies of OSCC, developed annotation guidelines for screeners, ran three calibration trials before annotating the remaining body of citations, and measured inter-annotator agreement (IAA). We retrieved 1,818 citations. After calibration, we screened the remaining citations (n = 1,767; 97.2%); IAA was substantial (kappa = 0.76). The dataset has 497 (27.3%) citations representing OSCC studies of potential prognostic biomarkers. The gold standard dataset is likely to be high quality and useful for future development and evaluation of filters for OSCC studies of potential prognostic biomarkers. The methodology we used is generalizable to other domains requiring a reference standard to evaluate the performance of search filters. A gold standard is essential because the labels regarding relevance enable computation of diagnostic metrics, such as sensitivity and specificity. Librarians and informationists with data analysis skills could contribute to developing gold standard datasets and subsequent filters tuned for their patrons' domains of interest.

  16. EnergyPlus Analysis Capabilities for Use in California Building Energy Efficiency Standards Development and Compliance Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip

    2008-03-28

    California has been using DOE-2 as the main building energy analysis tool in the development of building energy efficiency standards (Title 24) and the code compliance calculations. However, DOE-2.1E is a mature program that is no longer supported by LBNL on contract to the USDOE, or by any other public or private entity. With no more significant updates in the modeling capabilities of DOE-2.1E during recent years, DOE-2.1E lacks the ability to model, with the necessary accuracy, a number of building technologies that have the potential to reduce significantly the energy consumption of buildings in California. DOE-2's legacy software code makes it difficult and time consuming to add new or enhance existing modeling features in DOE-2. Therefore the USDOE proposed to develop a new tool, EnergyPlus, which is intended to replace DOE-2 as the next generation building simulation tool. EnergyPlus inherited most of the useful features from DOE-2 and BLAST, and more significantly added new modeling capabilities far beyond DOE-2, BLAST, and other simulations tools currently available. With California's net zero energy goals for new residential buildings in 2020 and for new commercial buildings in 2030, California needs to evaluate and promote currently available best practice and emerging technologies to significantly reduce energy use of buildings for space cooling and heating, ventilating, refrigerating, lighting, and water heating. The California Energy Commission (CEC) needs to adopt a new building energy simulation program for developing and maintaining future versions of Title 24. Therefore, EnergyPlus became a good candidate to CEC for its use in developing and complying with future Title 24 upgrades. In 2004, the Pacific Gas and Electric Company contracted with ArchitecturalEnergy Corporation (AEC), Taylor Engineering, and GARD Analytics to evaluate EnergyPlus in its ability to model those energy efficiency measures specified in both the residential and

  17. Law and forensic medicine in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounder, D J

    1993-12-01

    Scotland was an independent nation state until 1707 when it became the most northerly part of the United Kingdom. Today Scotland, constitutionally, is less than a state or a province in a federal union, but retains vestiges of its ancient sovereignty by having its own legal system and separate administration. English law and Scots law are two quite separate systems--a unique constitutional phenomenon within a unitary state. Scots law is a "mixed" legal system embodying aspects of both the Romano-Germanic and Anglo-American families of legal systems. A central feature is the public prosecution of crimes under the control of the Lord Advocate and the Crown Office in Edinburgh. The hierarchy of criminal courts comprises the High Court of Justiciary, the Sheriff court, and the District court. For serious offences, criminal trial is by "solemn procedure" before a judge sitting with a jury of 15 persons whose verdict of "guility", "not guilty", or "not proven" may be reached by majority. The prosecution must prove its case beyond reasonable doubt on corroborated evidence. The essential requirement for corroboration means that two pathologists must perform and sign the report on any autopsy related to criminal proceedings. The writ of habeus corpus is not operative in Scotland, but there are strict rules to prevent an accused person from languishing in prison without trial. Under solemn procedure the trial must begin within 110 days or the accused is freed with immunity from further prosecution for the crime charged. Procurators fiscal are the public prosecutors whose responsibilities include the investigation of crime and all sudden, suspicious, or unexplained deaths. There are no coroners in Scotland. Investigations are performed in private and it is uncommon for a public inquiry ("a Fatal Accident Inquiry") to be held. A Fatal Accident Inquiry is an inquisitorial proceeding heard before a sheriff sitting without a jury. In Scotland, unlike in England, the more serious

  18. State-of-the-art study on standards for the restoration of existing buildings; State of the Art Studie 'Standards fuer Sanierungen von Bestandsgebaeuden'. Vorbereitende Studie zum 'Energy and GHG Optimised Building Renovation' new annex proposal - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cypra, S.

    2009-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results of a preliminary study on energy and greenhouse-gas optimised building renovation. The proposals are based on the building standards proposed under the '2000-Watt Society' and 'One-Tonne CO{sub 2} Society' proposals. Comparisons are made with Swiss official building standards as well as Swiss and international standards for zero-energy and passive housing. These standards and requirements are discussed in detail and examples of buildings built to meet them are described. Building standards based on sustainability standards are also discussed and compared. The methodology to be used with respect to single-family homes and apartment blocks is discussed. Finally, knowledge gaps are identified and appropriate literature is listed.

  19. Product modeling standards for the building and construction industry : Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolman, F.P.

    1999-01-01

    For the past ten years most sectors of industry have been developing standards for the electronic sharing and exchange of product model data. While several related industries, such as automotive and shipbuilding manufacturing have been relatively successful in integrating electronic product models

  20. The Open Geospatial Consortium PUCK Standard: Building Sensor Networks with Self-Describing Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, T. C.; Broering, A.; del Rio, J.; Headley, K. L.; Toma, D.; Bermudez, L. E.; Edgington, D.; Fredericks, J.; Manuel, A.

    2012-12-01

    Sensor technology is rapidly advancing, enabling smaller and cheaper instruments to monitor Earth's environment. It is expected that many more kinds and quantities of networked environmental sensors will be deployed in coming years. Knowledge of each instrument's command protocol is required to operate and acquire data from the network. Making sense of these data streams to create an integrated picture of environmental conditions requires that each instrument's data and metadata be accurately processed and that "suspect" data be flagged. Use of standards to operate an instrument and retrieve and describe its data generally simplifies instrument software development, integration, operation and data processing. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) PUCK protocol enables instruments that describe themselves in a standard way. OGC PUCK defines a small "data sheet" that describes key instrument characteristics, and a standard protocol to retrieve the data sheet from the device itself. Data sheet fields include a universal serial number that is unique across all PUCK-compliant instruments. Other fields identify the instrument manufacturer and model. In addition to the data sheet, the instrument may also provide a "PUCK payload" which can contain additional descriptive information (e.g. a SensorML document or IEEE 1451 TEDS), as well as actual instrument "driver" code. Computers on the sensor network can use PUCK protocol to retrieve this information from installed instruments and utilize it appropriately, e.g. to automatically identify, configure and operate the instruments, and acquire and process their data. The protocol is defined for instruments with an RS232 or Ethernet interface. OGC members recently voted to adopt PUCK as a component of the OGC's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards. The protocol is also supported by a consortium of hydrographic instrument manufacturers and has been implemented by several of them (https://sites.google.com/site/soscsite/). Thus far

  1. XML-based clinical data standardisation in the National Health Service Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Bunduchi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to clarify the role that socio-economic factors played in shaping the development of XML-based clinical data standards in the National Health Service in Scotland from 2000 to 2004. The paper discusses the NHS Scotland approach to clinical data standardisation, emphasising the actors involved, their choices during the standard development process and the factors that have shaped these choices. The case suggests that the NHS Scotland approach to clinical data standardisation is shaped by strong political pressures for fast development of an integrated electronic patient care system, economic pressures for high efficiency and cost reductions, and organisational requirements for strong clinical support. Such economic, political and organisational pressures explain the informal approach to standard development, the emphasis on fast system development and strong clinical involvement. At the same time, market factors explain the low commitment of the IT vendors, which might have otherwise put significant pressure onNHSScotland to pursue a more formalised standardisation approach within an internationally recognised standard-setting body.

  2. Using Green Building As A Model For Making Health Promotion Standard In The Built Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Matthew J; Worden, Kelly; Pyke, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The built environment-the constructed physical parts of the places where people live and work-is a powerful determinant of both individual and population health. Awareness of the link between place and health is growing within the public health sector and among built environment decision makers working in design, construction, policy, and both public and private finance. However, these decision makers lack the knowledge, tools, and capacity to ensure that health and well-being are routinely considered across all sectors of the built environment. The green building industry has successfully established environmental sustainability as a normative part of built environment practice, policy making, and investment. We explore the value of this industry's experience as a template for promoting health and well-being in the built environment. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Weighting Factors for the Commercial Building Prototypes Used in the Development of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Bandyopadhyay, Gopal K.

    2010-01-21

    Detailed construction data from the McGraw Hill Construction Database was used to develop construction weights by climate zones for use with DOE Benchmark Buildings and for the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 development. These construction weights were applied to energy savings estimates from simulation of the benchmark buildings to establish weighted national energy savings.

  4. Sampling-standardized expansion and collapse of reef building in the Phanerozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kiessling

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Tracing the variability of reef production over long temporal scales is important to approach natural processes favoring or suppressing reef growth. Raw compilations of reef abundance per unit of time do not necessarily depict biologically meaningful patterns, because the waxing and waning of reefs might just follow the quality of the fossil record, that is, the amount of paleontological information that is available in general. Here I standardize the published record of Phanerozoic reefs, as stored in the PaleoReefs database, to the published record of marine invertebrate fossils as stored in the Paleobiology Database. The sampling-standardized peaks in reef growth are essentially identical to those of previous studies, but significant peaks are rare. Times when unusual changes in ecological conditions are likely to control changes in metazoan reef proliferation were identified in the Late Devonian, Late Triassic, Late Jurassic and Neogene. doi:10.1002/mmng.200700008

  5. Building a computer-aided design capability using a standard time share operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczanski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes how an integrated system of engineering computer programs can be built using a standard commercially available operating system. The discussion opens with an outline of the auxiliary functions that an operating system can perform for a team of engineers involved in a large and complex task. An example of a specific integrated system is provided to explain how the standard operating system features can be used to organize the programs into a simple and inexpensive but effective system. Applications to an aircraft structural design study are discussed to illustrate the use of an integrated system as a flexible and efficient engineering tool. The discussion concludes with an engineer's assessment of an operating system's capabilities and desirable improvements.

  6. Background to the development process, Automated Residential Energy Standard (ARES) in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-09-01

    This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations generated to serve as a primary basis for the Congressionally-mandated residential standard. This report treats only the residential building recommendations.

  7. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Illinois Jurisdictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.; Friedrich, Michele

    2002-05-01

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for energy efficienty design and construction of new commercial buildings. This report assesses the benefits and costs of adopting this standard as the building energy code in Illinois. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using BLAST combined with a Life-Cycle Cost approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  8. Building a portable data and information interoperability infrastructure-framework for a standard Taiwan Electronic Medical Record Template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wen-Shan; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Hao, Te-Hui; Wen, Hsyien-Chia; Hsu, Min-Huei; Lee, Yen-Liang; Li, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Polun

    2007-11-01

    Traditional electronic health record (EHR) data are produced from various hospital information systems. They could not have existed independently without an information system until the incarnation of XML technology. The interoperability of a healthcare system can be divided into two dimensions: functional interoperability and semantic interoperability. Currently, no single EHR standard exists that provides complete EHR interoperability. In order to establish a national EHR standard, we developed a set of local EHR templates. The Taiwan Electronic Medical Record Template (TMT) is a standard that aims to achieve semantic interoperability in EHR exchanges nationally. The TMT architecture is basically composed of forms, components, sections, and elements. Data stored in the elements which can be referenced by the code set, data type, and narrative block. The TMT was established with the following requirements in mind: (1) transformable to international standards; (2) having a minimal impact on the existing healthcare system; (3) easy to implement and deploy, and (4) compliant with Taiwan's current laws and regulations. The TMT provides a basis for building a portable, interoperable information infrastructure for EHR exchange in Taiwan.

  9. Development of Automated Procedures to Generate Reference Building Models for ASHRAE Standard 90.1 and India’s Building Energy Code and Implementation in OpenStudio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haves, Philip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jegi, Subhash [International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad (India); Garg, Vishal [International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad (India); Ravache, Baptiste [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This paper describes a software system for automatically generating a reference (baseline) building energy model from the proposed (as-designed) building energy model. This system is built using the OpenStudio Software Development Kit (SDK) and is designed to operate on building energy models in the OpenStudio file format.

  10. For Sale--Scotland's Most Famous Mountain Range: Land "Ownership" in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    The nature of land ownership is infrequently discussed by practitioners of outdoor education, though it is often central to the way they work. The recent controversy over the proposed sale of the Cuillin mountain range on the Isle of Skye in Scotland provoked heated discussion over rights to and benefits of this important place. The main point at…

  11. Building a logical EHR architecture based on ISO 13606 standard and semantic web technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcelo R; Bax, Marcello P; Kalra, Dipak

    2010-01-01

    Among the existing patterns of EHR interoperability, the ISO 13606 standard is an important consideration. It is believed that the use of this norm, in conjunction with semantic technologies, may aid in the construction of a robust architecture, keeping in mind the challenges of semantic interoperability. The objective of this paper is to present a proposal for an EHR architecture, based on ISO 13606 and on the utilization of semantic technologies, for a real EHR scenario. In order to accomplish that, a real EHR scenario is described, as well as its main interoperability requirements and a candidate architecture is proposed to solve the presented challenges of interoperability. The ability of the ISO 13606 EHR reference model to accommodate the scenario was highlighted, together with the support provided by the use of the ontology specification languages--RDF and OWL--in respect to the maintenance of a controlled vocabulary.

  12. Using insurance standards and policy levers to build a high performance health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Michael; Koller, Christopher

    2009-11-01

    This issue brief examines an unprecedented use of state health insurance regulatory authority to promote health system reform. In 2004, the Rhode Island legislature created the Office of the Health Insurance Commissioner (OHIC) with authority not granted to state health insurance regulatory agencies in other states. Specifically, the legislation instructed OHIC to direct insurers toward policies that promote improved accessibility, quality, and affordability for the Rhode Island health system. In 2009, OHIC used this authority to implement a set of standards to promote increased affordability through a series of requirements aimed at strengthening and expanding the state's primary care infrastructure. Insurers are required to increase their investments in primary care on a cost-neutral basis, expand use of the chronic care model medical home, and support implementation of electronic medical records. Rhode Island is testing whether state insurance regulation can foster a profound transformation in health care delivery.

  13. Policy and Practice of Holocaust Education in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Paula; Maitles, Henry

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the situation in England and Wales, Holocaust education in Scotland is not mandatory and is not delivered to every school student. Still, it is offered frequently. In this article we show how Scotland's changing curriculum, the introduction of Holocaust Memorial Day, and the Lessons from Auschwitz Project have contributed to the…

  14. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 as the Commercial Building Energy Code in Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-09-30

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (hereafter referred to as ASHRAE 90.1-2001 or 90.1-2001) was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The State of Tennessee is considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-2001 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropriate code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered in this report. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) simulations combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits. Tennessee currently has ASHRAE Standard 90A-1980 as the statewide voluntary/recommended commercial energy standard; however, it is up to the local jurisdiction to adopt this code. Because 90A-1980 is the recommended standard, many of the requirements of ASHRAE 90A-1980 were used as a baseline for simulations.

  15. Male suicide and occupation in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Cameron; Belbin, Alan; Hopkins, Paddy; Gibbs, Diane; Hay, Alistair; Gunnell, David

    2006-01-01

    Some occupational groups in England and Wales have higher than expected proportion of deaths from suicide or undetermined intent. This study examined the association of occupation with suicide in men in, Scotland. Information from the General Register Office for Scotland was used to identify deaths from suicide and undetermined intent in 1981-1999 for men aged 16-64 years. Proportional Mortality Ratios (PMRs) and 95 per cent confidence intervals were calculated for all occupational categories. The largest number of male deaths in groups with elevated PMRs occurred in low paying occupations, such as labourers. Counterhands (sales and stores assistants) and assistants and chefs and cooks had increased PMRs in the 16-45 year age group. Some occupations with access to lethal means of suicide had high PMRs, including medical practitioners in the 16-45 and 46-64 year age groups and hospital ward orderlies, in the younger age group. There were increased PMRs in some rural occupations including farmers, forestry workers, fishermen, and some ships' crewmembers. Groups with low

  16. Recommended Changes to Specifications for Demand Controlled Ventilation in California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

    2010-04-08

    In demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), rates of outdoor air ventilation are automatically modulated as occupant density varies. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. DCV is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. In almost all cases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors installed in buildings provide the signal to the ventilation rate control system. People produce and exhale CO{sub 2} as a consequence of their normal metabolic processes; thus, the concentrations of CO{sub 2} inside occupied buildings are higher than the concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the outdoor air. The magnitude of the indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration difference decreases as the building's ventilation rate per person increases. The difference between the indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration is also a proxy for the indoor concentrations of other occupant-generated bioeffluents, such as body odors. Reviews of the research literature on DCV indicate a significant potential for energy savings, particularly in buildings or spaces with a high and variable occupancy. Based on modeling, cooling energy savings from applications of DCV are as high as 20%. With support from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has performed research on the performance of CO{sub 2} sensing technologies and optical people counters for DCV. In addition, modeling was performed to evaluate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of using DCV in general office spaces within the range of California climates. The above-described research has implications for the specifications pertaining to DCV in section 121 of the California Title 24 Standard. Consequently, this document suggests possible changes in these specifications based on the research findings. The suggested

  17. Standards of Housing for Rent Built by Municipal Social Building Society in Bialystok (Poland) during 1996 - 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokajuk, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    The period of economic transformation in Poland started from 1989 and resulted in significant changes on the housing market. Flats became goods and process of privatizing of the housing market took place in last decade of the 20th century. It became clear, that it was necessary to create the system of housing for the people who cannot afford to buy the flat on free market. Such solutions were implemented in 1996 and since then affordable housing associations started coming into existence - organizations building flats for rent, supported by city and government budget. Large complex of such housing for rent was built in Bialystok, the major city of northeastern Poland, and it is regarded as one of the biggest in the country. The purpose of the study is characteristics of the contemporary social housing for rent in Bialystok, as good example of that kind of housing realized in Poland. The author uses a kind of parametrical method and analysis some aspects of housing environment: the urban concepts of housing developments, architectural ideas, standards of flats, and also solutions of parking places, road systems and access to basic services, including recreational areas. He gets factors of housing standards as a final result.

  18. Introduction: histories of asylums, insanity and psychiatry in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philo, Chris; Andrews, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces a special issue on 'Histories of asylums, insanity and psychiatry in Scotland', situating the papers that follow in an outline historiography of work in this field. Using Allan Beveridge's claims in 1993 about the relative lack of research on the history of psychiatry in Scotland, the paper reviews a range of contributions that have emerged since then, loosely distinguishing between 'overviews' - work addressing longer-term trends and broader periods and systems - and more detailed studies of particular 'individuals and institutions'. There remains much still to do, but the present special issue signals what is currently being achieved, not least by a new generation of scholars in and on Scotland.

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TAX OBJECT SALES VALUE ON LAND AND BUILDINGS WITH INDONESIAN VALUATION STANDARD (SIP-BASED VALUATION IN MALANG CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gani I.F.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to explore how the valuation/appraisal in determining land and building values at Tax Object Sales Value on Land and Buildings (NJOP PBB in Malang City and to analyze the comparison between the valuation of Tax Object Sales Value on Land and Buildings (NJOP PBB conducted in Malang and the valuation of land and buildings according to Indonesian Valuation Standards (SPI. Through the qualitative research with a case study approach, it was obtained that the model of mass and individual appraisals on the valuation of Tax Object Sales Value on Land and Buildings (NJOP PBB had the similar stages to the individual appraisal according to Indonesian Valuation Standards (SPI. Furthermore, from the results, the problems faced in valuing Tax Object Sales Value on Land and Buildings (NJOP PBB by the Local Revenue Office of Malang City were also known. It can be used as a consideration for the improvement of regulation or procedure in valuing Tax Object Sales Value on Land and Buildings (NJOP PBB.

  20. The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in Scotland: inferences from hospital admissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Handel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder with a highly characteristic disease distribution. Prevalence and incidence in general increase with increasing distance from the equator. Similarly the female to male sex ratio increases with increasing latitude. Multiple possible risk factors have been hypothesised for this epidemiological trend, including human leukocyte antigen allele frequencies, ultraviolet exposure and subsequent vitamin D levels, smoking and Epstein-Barr virus. In this study we undertook a study of medical records across Scotland on an NHS health board level of resolution to examine the epidemiology of MS in this region.We calculated the number and rate of patient-linked hospital admissions throughout Scotland between 1997 and 2009 from the Scottish Morbidity Records. We used weighted-regression to examine correlations between these measures of MS, and latitude and smoking prevalence. We found a highly significant relationship between MS patient-linked admissions and latitude (r weighted by standard error (r(sw = 0.75, p = 0.002. There was no significant relationship between smoking prevalence and MS patient-linked admissions.There is a definite latitudinal effect on MS risk across Scotland, arising primarily from an excess of female MS patients at more Northerly latitudes. Whether this is a true gradient or whether a threshold effect may apply at particular latitude will be revealed only by further research. A number of genetic and environmental factors may underlie this effect.

  1. Engineering-Geological Data Model - The First Step to Build National Polish Standard for Multilevel Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryżyński, Grzegorz; Nałęcz, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    of data unification, thematic vocabularies harmonisation, assumptions and results of data modelling as well as process of the integration of domain model with enterprise architecture implemented in PGS. Currently, there is no geological data standard in Poland. Lack of guidelines for borehole and spatial data management results in an increasing data dispersion as well as in growing barrier for multilevel data management and implementation of efficient decision support tools. Building the national geological data standard makes geotechnical information accessible to multiple institutions, universities, administration and research organisations and gather their data in the same, unified digital form according to the presented data model. Such approach is compliant with current digital trends and the idea of Spatial Data Infrastructure. Efficient geological data management is essential to support the sustainable development and the economic growth, as they allow implementation of geological information to assist the idea of Smart Cites, deliver information for Building Information Management (BIM) and support modern spatial planning. The engineering-geological domain data model presented in the paper is a scalable solution. Future implementation of developed procedures on other domains of PGS geological data is possible.

  2. Building America Case Study: Standard- Versus High-Velocity Air Distribution in High-Performance Townhomes, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-09

    IBACOS investigated the performance of a small-diameter high velocity heat pump system compared to a conventional system in a new construction triplex townhouse. A ductless heat pump system also was installed for comparison, but the homebuyer backed out because of aesthetic concerns about that system. In total, two buildings, having identical solar orientation and comprised of six townhomes, were monitored for comfort and energy performance. Results show that the small-diameter system provides more uniform temperatures from floor to floor in the three-story townhome. No clear energy consumption benefit was observed from either system. The builder is continuing to explore the small-diameter system as its new standard system to provide better comfort and indoor air quality. The homebuilder also explored the possibility of shifting its townhome product to meet the U.S. Department of Energy Challenge Home National Program Requirements. Ultimately, the builder decided that adoption of these practices would be too disruptive midstream in the construction cycle. However, the townhomes met the ENERGY STAR Version 3.0 program requirements.

  3. Masonic Song in Scotland: Folk Tunes and Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Campbell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the place of Masonic songs historically in Scotland, assessing the oral culture surrounding the genre. The article further shows that folk tunes were commonly used and investigates aspects of the group performance that was central to the Lodges. Finally, the study concludes with an examination of a Masonic procession in Northeast Scotland that survives to the present day, focusing especially on the role of music and song within it.

  4. Tool coupling for the design and operation of building energy and control systems based on the Functional Mock-up Interface standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouidui, Thierry Stephane; Wetter, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes software tools developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) that can be coupled through the Functional Mock-up Interface standard in support of the design and operation of building energy and control systems. These tools have been developed to address the gaps and limitations encountered in legacy simulation tools. These tools were originally designed for the analysis of individual domains of buildings, and have been difficult to integrate with other tools for runtime data exchange. The coupling has been realized by use of the Functional Mock-up Interface for co-simulation, which standardizes an application programming interface for simulator interoperability that has been adopted in a variety of industrial domains. As a variety of coupling scenarios are possible, this paper provides users with guidance on what coupling may be best suited for their application. Furthermore, the paper illustrates how tools can be integrated into a building management system to support the operation of buildings. These tools may be a design model that is used for real-time performance monitoring, a fault detection and diagnostics algorithm, or a control sequence, each of which may be exported as a Functional Mock-up Unit and made available in a building management system as an input/output block. We anticipate that this capability can contribute to bridging the observed performance gap between design and operational energy use of buildings.

  5. Calculating Impacts of Energy Standards on Energy Demand in U.S. Buildings under Uncertainty with an Integrated Assessment Model: Technical Background Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daly, Don S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hathaway, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lansing, Carina S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Ying [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McJeon, Haewon C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moss, Richard H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Patel, Pralit L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, Marty J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rice, Jennie S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhou, Yuyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-06

    This report presents data and assumptions employed in an application of PNNL’s Global Change Assessment Model with a newly-developed Monte Carlo analysis capability. The model is used to analyze the impacts of more aggressive U.S. residential and commercial building-energy codes and equipment standards on energy consumption and energy service costs at the state level, explicitly recognizing uncertainty in technology effectiveness and cost, socioeconomics, presence or absence of carbon prices, and climate impacts on energy demand. The report provides a summary of how residential and commercial buildings are modeled, together with assumptions made for the distributions of state–level population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per worker, efficiency and cost of residential and commercial energy equipment by end use, and efficiency and cost of residential and commercial building shells. The cost and performance of equipment and of building shells are reported separately for current building and equipment efficiency standards and for more aggressive standards. The report also details assumptions concerning future improvements brought about by projected trends in technology.

  6. Renewables (Energy): A Subject-Based Aspect Report by Education Scotland on Provision in Scotland's Colleges on Behalf of the Scottish Funding Council. Transforming Lives through Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Scotland, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Education Scotland publication, "External Quality Arrangements for Scotland's Colleges, Updated August 2013," specifies that Education Scotland will produce a number of subject-based aspect reports each year. These reports complement, in a subject-specific context, the generic evaluations of learning and teaching in Education…

  7. Environmental assessment in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-09-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. In this report, the scope, objectives, and approach of this EA are presented.

  8. Extreme river flow dependence in Northern Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoria, M. Franco; Scott, M.; Hoey, T.; Fischbacher-Smith, D.

    2012-04-01

    Various methods for the spatial analysis of hydrologic data have been developed recently. Here we present results using the conditional probability approach proposed by Keef et al. [Appl. Stat. (2009): 58,601-18] to investigate spatial interdependence in extreme river flows in Scotland. This approach does not require the specification of a correlation function, being mostly suitable for relatively small geographical areas. The work is motivated by the Flood Risk Management Act (Scotland (2009)) which requires maps of flood risk that take account of spatial dependence in extreme river flow. The method is based on two conditional measures of spatial flood risk: firstly the conditional probability PC(p) that a set of sites Y = (Y 1,...,Y d) within a region C of interest exceed a flow threshold Qp at time t (or any lag of t), given that in the specified conditioning site X > Qp; and, secondly the expected number of sites within C that will exceed a flow Qp on average (given that X > Qp). The conditional probabilities are estimated using the conditional distribution of Y |X = x (for large x), which can be modeled using a semi-parametric approach (Heffernan and Tawn [Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B (2004): 66,497-546]). Once the model is fitted, pseudo-samples can be generated to estimate functionals of the joint tails of the distribution of (Y,X). Conditional return level plots were directly compared to traditional return level plots thus improving our understanding of the dependence structure of extreme river flow events. Confidence intervals were calculated using block bootstrapping methods (100 replicates). We report results from applying this approach to a set of four rivers (Dulnain, Lossie, Ewe and Ness) in Northern Scotland. These sites were chosen based on data quality, spatial location and catchment characteristics. The river Ness, being the largest (catchment size 1839.1km2) was chosen as the conditioning river. Both the Ewe (441.1km2) and Ness catchments have

  9. Obesity in Scotland: a persistent inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, Elaine; Bromley, Catherine; Millard, Andrew D; Boyd, Allan; Mackie, Phil; McCartney, Gerry

    2017-07-27

    Obesity is a health problem in its own right and a risk factor for other conditions such as cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased in Scotland between 1995 and 2008 with socio-economic inequalities persisting in adults over time and increasing in children. This paper explores changes in the underlying distribution of body mass index (BMI) which is less well understood. Using data from the Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) between 1995 and 2014 for adults aged 18-64 years, we calculated population distributions for BMI for the population overall, and for age, sex and deprivation strata. We used SHeS data for children aged 2-15 years between 1998 and 2014, in addition to data from the Child Health Systems Programme (CHSP) collected from primary one (P1) children in participating local authorities, to describe the overall trends and to compare trends in inequalities by deprivation strata. Amongst adults, the BMI distribution shifted upwards, with a large proportion of the population gaining a small amount of weight between 1995 and 2008 before subsequently stabilising across the distribution. In men the prevalence of obesity showed a linear deprivation gradient in 1995 but over time obesity declined in the least deprived quintile while the remaining four quintiles converged (and stabilised). In contrast, a persistent and generally linear gradient is evident among women for most of the 1995-2014 period. For those aged 2-15 years, obesity increased between 1998 and 2014 for the most deprived 40% of children contrasted with stable trends for the least deprived. The surveillance data for P1 children in Scotland showed a persistent inequality between 2005/06 and 2014/15 though it was less clear if this is widening. The BMI distribution for adults increased between 1995 and 2008 with a large proportion of the population gaining a small amount of weight before stabilising across the distribution. Inequalities in obesity persist for adults

  10. Thermal analysis of Brazilian standards proposals for social residential buildings; Avaliacao termica das propostas de normas brasileiras para edificacoes de interesse social

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilkin, Pedro [Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Ijui, RSA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica, Estatistica e Matematica]. E-mail: dilkin@main.unijui.tche.br; Schneider, Paulo Smith [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: pss@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a critical analysis of national proposals of standards for the thermal performance of simple residential buildings. A review of some international standards is performed together with the description of the national proposals of standards, and a prototype of a house is assembled, following each one of the texts. Results are displayed and the prototypes are simulated using the TRNSYS environment, concerning winter and summer periods of Porto Alegre. Finally, the national proposal that achieved the best performance is improved by means new simulations. (author)

  11. Liberty and the individual: the colony asylum in Scotland and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmond, Gillian

    2017-03-01

    This paper analyses the buildings, spaces and interiors of Bangour Village public asylum for the insane, near Edinburgh, and compares these with an English asylum, Whalley, near Preston, of similar early-twentieth-century date. The village asylum, which developed from a European tradition of rendering the poor productive through 'colonisation', was more enthusiastically and completely adopted in Scotland than in England, perhaps due to differences in asylum culture within the two jurisdictions. 'Liberty' and 'individuality', in particular, were highly valued within Scottish asylum discourses, arguably shaping material provision for the insane poor from the scale of the buildings to the quality of the furnishings. The English example shows, by contrast, a greater concern with security and hygiene. These two differing interpretations show a degree of flexibility within the internationalized asylum model which is seldom recognized in the literature.

  12. What are the costs of Scotland's climate and renewable policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandarajah, Gabrial; McDowall, Will

    2012-01-01

    The UK government has established ambitious policies to address climate change and promote renewable energy, and has set targets both for reducing carbon emissions and for deploying renewables. Scotland, a constituent nation of the UK, has also set its own targets for climate change mitigation and renewable electricity. This paper analyses the energy, economic and environmental implications of carbon and renewable electricity targets in Scotland and the UK using a newly developed two-region UK MARKAL energy system model, where Scotland (SCT) and rest of the UK (RUK) are the two regions. The paper shows that meeting Scotland's carbon targets does not require additional decarbonisation effort if the UK meets its own targets at least cost; and that Scotland's renewable energy ambitions do imply additional costs above the least cost path to the meeting the UK's obligations under the EU renewable energy directive. Meeting Scottish renewable electricity targets diverts investment and deployment in renewables from rest of the UK to Scotland. In addition to increased energy system cost, Scottish renewable electricity targets may also require early investment in new electricity transmission capacity between Scotland and rest of the UK. - Highlights: ► Scottish climate policy is less stringent than UK policy. ► Scottish targets would complement UK targets if UK policies fail to meet UK targets. ► The possible conclusion here is that Scottish carbon targets are unnecessary. ► Scottish renewable policy is more stringent than UK policy. ► As expected, this increased stringency leads to additional costs.

  13. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Halverson, Mark A.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-30

    The state of Michigan is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  14. Cost estimating of company’s good standing with consideration of correspondence of real estate objects to the «green building» standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorobnyak Angelina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Article presents method of assessment of the value of the construction company’s goodwill based on the analysis of the current value of the company shares and value of its depositary receipts. Here analyzed main principles of the “green” building and problems of increasing of the levels of the construction company’s goodwill for assessment of which system of indicators, considering current trends and correspondence of the real estate objects to the standards of the “green” building was developed. The result of approbation of this method is calculation of cost of the business reputation of the large international construction-development company.

  15. The impact of smokefree legislation in Scotland: results from the Scottish ITC Scotland/UK longitudinal surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Louise M.; Higbee, Cheryl; Boudreau, Christian; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Borland, Ron; Cummings, K. Michael; Yan, Mi; Thompson, Mary E.; Hastings, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Background: To evaluate how Scotland's smokefree law impacted self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in hospitality venues, workplaces and in people's homes. In addition, we examine changes in support for the law, pub and restaurant patronage, smoking cessation indicators and whether any observed changes varied by socioeconomic status. Methods: A quasi-experimental longitudinal telephone survey of nationally representative samples of smokers and non-smokers interviewed before the Scottish law (February to March 2006) and 1 year later after the law (March 2007) in Scotland (n = 705 smokers and n = 417 non-smokers) and the rest of the UK (n = 1027 smokers and n = 447 non-smokers) where smoking in public places was not regulated at the time. Results: Dramatic declines in the observance of smoking in pubs, restaurants and workplaces were found in Scotland relative to the rest of the UK. The change in the percent of smokers reporting a smokefree home and number of cigarettes smoked inside the home in the evening was comparable in Scotland and the rest of the UK. Support for smokefree policies increased to a greater extent in Scotland than in the rest of the UK. Self-reported frequency of going to pubs and restaurants was generally comparable between Scotland and the rest of the UK; however, non-smokers in Scotland were more likely to frequent pubs more often. No differences in smoking cessation indicators were observed between countries. Conclusion: The Scottish smokefree law has been successful in decreasing secondhand smoke exposure while causing none of the hypothesized negative outcomes. PMID:19151105

  16. IMatter: validation of the NHS Scotland Employee Engagement Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Austyn; MacArthur, Ewan

    2014-11-08

    Employee engagement is a fundamental component of quality healthcare. In order to provide empirical data of engagement in NHS Scotland an Employee Engagement Index was co-constructed with staff. 'iMatter' consists of 25 Likert questions developed iteratively from the literature and a series of validation events with NHS Scotland staff. The aim of this study was to test the face, content and construct validity of iMatter. Cross sectional survey of NHS Scotland staff. In January 2013 iMatter was sent to 2300 staff across all disciplines in NHS Scotland. 1280 staff completed it. Demographic data were collected. Internal consistency of the scale was calculated. Construct validity consisted of concurrent application of factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Face and content validity were checked using 3 focus groups. The sample was representative of the NHSScotland population. iMatter showed very strong reliability (α = 0.958). Factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure consistent with the following interpretation: iMatter showed evidence of high reliability and validity. It is a popular measure of staff engagement in NHS Scotland. Implications for practice focus on the importance of coproduction in psychometric development.

  17. Manganese and land-use in upland catchments in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, K V

    2001-01-29

    Manganese (Mn) in surface waters is a micronutrient, but elevated concentrations are toxic to fish and impair drinking water quality. In Scotland, undesirable Mn concentrations (> 0.05 mg l(-1)) occur predominantly in upland freshwaters because the acidic pH and organic nature of catchment soils favour Mn mobilisation. The relationship between upland land-use in Scotland and Mn concentrations in surface waters is reviewed. Conifer afforestation is associated with enhanced Mn in runoff. Mn is leached from conifer foliage and litter, and mature conifers enhance acid deposition and loss of Mn from acidified catchment soils. After harvesting, increased soil pools of water-soluble Mn and elevated Mn concentrations in runoff have been observed. Liming, fertiliser addition, drainage ditch construction and ploughing to improve upland pastures, and muirburn on grouse moors may also increase Mn concentrations in runoff, but the evidence is less clear-cut. The extent to which land-use influences Mn concentrations in upland catchments in Scotland is modified by catchment hydrology and soil type. Catchment geology, instream processes and standing water stratification are probably lesser influences on Mn concentrations in surface waters of upland catchments in Scotland. The location of land-use in upland catchments, especially in the riparian zone, is critical in determining its effect on Mn in runoff. Climate change is expected to increase Mn concentrations in runoff from upland catchments in Scotland because of predicted changes in soil hydrology.

  18. Reduction in young male suicide in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Cameron; Stockton, Diane; Henderson, Rob

    2008-02-29

    Rates of suicide and undetermined death increased rapidly in Scotland in the 1980's and 1990's. The largest increases were in men, with a marked increase in rates in younger age groups. This was associated with an increase in hanging as a method of suicide. National suicide prevention work has identified young men as a priority group. Routinely collected national information suggested a decrease in suicide rates in younger men at the beginning of the 21st century. This study tested whether this was a significant change in trend, and whether it was associated with any change in hanging rates in young men. Joinpoint regression was used to estimate annual percentage changes in age-specific rates of suicide and undetermined intent death, and to identify times when the trends changed significantly. Rates of deaths by method in 15 - 29 year old males and females were also examined to assess whether there had been any significant changes in method use in this age group. There was a 42% reduction in rates in 15 - 29 year old men, from 42.5/100,000 in 2000 to 24.5/100,000 in 2004. A joinpoint analysis confirmed that this was a significant change. There was also a significant change in trend in hanging in men in this age group, with a reduction in rates after 2000. No other male age group showed a significant change in trend over the period 1980 - 2004. There was a smaller reduction in suicide rates in women in the 15 - 29 year old age group, with a reduction in hanging from 2002. There has been a reduction in suicide rates in men aged 15 - 29 years, and this is associated with a significant reduction in deaths by hanging in this age group. It is not clear whether this is related to a change in method preference, or an overall reduction in suicidal behaviour, and review of self-harm data will be required to investigate this further.

  19. Optimisation of the enforcement of energy regulations and the use of SIA building standards; Optimierung Energievollzug und Anwendung der SIA-Normen Gebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R.; Baur, M.; Signer, B. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Renaud, P.; Wermeille, Ch. [Planair, Bureau d' ingenieurs SIA, La Sagne (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the effectiveness of the enforcement of energy legislation and the value of standards in planning and building activities. The reasons for deficiencies in the enforcement of regulations are examined and suggestions are made for improving the situation. Enforcement problems are discussed, including, for example, the partly insufficient capacities at the building authority level. Detailed measures are proposed at the federal and cantonal level and better training and know-how for building professionals is recommended. Those responsible for enforcement - usually the local authorities - are advised to improve the communication of their supervisory activities. Certain improvements to legislation are proposed and professional institutions are motivated to improve quality management and the know-how of their members. The report is completed with a comprehensive list of literature on the subject.

  20. Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility (Building 7503) standards/requirements identification document adherence assessment plan at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This is the Phase 2 (adherence) assessment plan for the Building 7503 Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Facility standards/requirements identification document (S/RID). This document outlines the activities to be conducted from FY 1996 through FY 1998 to ensure that the standards and requirements identified in the MSRE S/RID are being implemented properly. This plan is required in accordance with the Department of Energy Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-2, November 9, 1994, Attachment 1A. This plan addresses the major aspects of the adherence assessment and will be consistent with Energy Systems procedure QA-2. 7 ''Surveillances.''

  1. 2H and 18O Freshwater Isoscapes of Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Kemp, Helen; Frew, Danny

    2013-04-01

    Scotland's freshwater lochs and reservoirs provide a vital resource for sustaining biodiversity, agriculture, food production as well as for human consumption. Regular monitoring of freshwaters by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) fulfils legislative requirements with regards to water quality but new scientific methods involving stable isotope analysis present an opportunity combining these mandatory monitoring schemes with fundamental research to inform and deliver on current and nascent government policies [1] through gaining a greater understanding of Scottish waters and their importance in the context of climate change, environmental sustainability and food security. For example, 2H and 18O isoscapes of Scottish freshwater could be used to underpin research and its applications in: • Climate change - Using longitudinal changes in the characteristic isotope composition of freshwater lochs and reservoirs as proxy, isoscapes will provide a means to assess if and how changes in temperature and weather patterns might impact on precipitation patterns and amount. • Scottish branding - Location specific stable isotope signatures of Scottish freshwater have the potential to be used as a tool for provenancing and thus protecting premium Scottish produce such as Scottish beef, Scottish soft fruit and Scottish Whisky. During 2011 and 2012, with the support of SEPA more than 110 samples from freshwater lochs and reservoirs were collected from 127 different locations across Scotland including the Highlands and Islands. Here we present the results of this sampling and analysis exercise isotope analyses in form of 2H and 18O isoscapes with an unprecedented grid resolution of 26.5 × 26.5 km (or 16.4 × 16.4 miles). [1] Adaptation Framework - Adapting Our Ways: Managing Scotland's Climate Risk (2009): Scotland's Biodiversity: It's in Your Hands - A strategy for the conservation and enhancement of biodiversity in Scotland (2005); Recipe For Success - Scotland

  2. Reduction in young male suicide in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockton Diane

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of suicide and undetermined death increased rapidly in Scotland in the 1980's and 1990's. The largest increases were in men, with a marked increase in rates in younger age groups. This was associated with an increase in hanging as a method of suicide. National suicide prevention work has identified young men as a priority group. Routinely collected national information suggested a decrease in suicide rates in younger men at the beginning of the 21st century. This study tested whether this was a significant change in trend, and whether it was associated with any change in hanging rates in young men. Methods Joinpoint regression was used to estimate annual percentage changes in age-specific rates of suicide and undetermined intent death, and to identify times when the trends changed significantly. Rates of deaths by method in 15 – 29 year old males and females were also examined to assess whether there had been any significant changes in method use in this age group. Results There was a 42% reduction in rates in 15 – 29 year old men, from 42.5/100,000 in 2000 to 24.5/100,000 in 2004. A joinpoint analysis confirmed that this was a significant change. There was also a significant change in trend in hanging in men in this age group, with a reduction in rates after 2000. No other male age group showed a significant change in trend over the period 1980 – 2004. There was a smaller reduction in suicide rates in women in the 15 – 29 year old age group, with a reduction in hanging from 2002. Conclusion There has been a reduction in suicide rates in men aged 15 – 29 years, and this is associated with a significant reduction in deaths by hanging in this age group. It is not clear whether this is related to a change in method preference, or an overall reduction in suicidal behaviour, and review of self-harm data will be required to investigate this further.

  3. Building Better Courses: Examining the Content Validity of the iNACOL National Standards for Quality Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, David; Barbour, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, the International Association for K-12 Online Learning released the second iteration of the "National Standards for Quality Online Courses." These standards have been used by numerous institutions and states around the country to help design and create K-12 online courses. However, there has been no reported research on the…

  4. Inequalities in Toothbrushing among Adolescents in Scotland 1998-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, K. A.; Currie, C.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine trends in toothbrushing and inequalities in toothbrushing among girls and boys in Scotland between 1998 and 2006. A secondary aim was to investigate the association between the health promoting school (HPS) initiative and toothbrushing. Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 1998, 2002 and 2006…

  5. The Modularisation Approach of Work-Based VET in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Matthias; Canning, Roy

    2017-01-01

    The issue of modularising vocational education and training (VET) systems has been the subject of heated debate in many European countries. In particular, in Scotland the use of modules within the curriculum has been seen as either restrictive or liberating depending upon the theoretical stance taken. At a more pragmatic level modularisation of…

  6. Adjustment Problems of Iranian International Students in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Narjes; Scott, Gill

    2005-01-01

    Despite the important contribution of the adjustment of international students to successful academic performance in the host country, little research has been done in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to collect factual information about adjustment problems of Iranian international students in Scotland, such as psycho-social and…

  7. The Diverse Geographies of Rural Gentrification in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Aileen

    2010-01-01

    Gentrification has for too long been investigated as an urban phenomenon. Only relatively recently has it been viewed as an avenue for fruitful rural research. This paper focuses on the repopulation of rural Scotland. Using survey and interview data it examines evidence of gentrification among in-migration flows and seeks to explore both the…

  8. Could Scotland really be seen as a northern nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Faced with the uncertainty of Brexit and many other challenges, Scotland seems to be looking towards the Arctic region for new opportunities. Faced with the prospect of no longer being an EU member state and perpetually questioning its place in the United Kingdom, it now seems to be seeking to de...

  9. HM Inspectorate of Education in Scotland: Executive Agency Framework Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The first HM Inspector of Schools was appointed in 1840 and inspectors have made significant contributions to Scottish education since that date. An important recent milestone in the development of Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education in Scotland (HMIE) was its establishment on 1 April 2001 as an Executive Agency of the Scottish Ministers under…

  10. No Lack of Principles: Leadership Development in England and Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBeath, John

    2011-01-01

    While there are significant differences between England and Scotland in the politics, the policy environment and the management of schools, leadership development both north and south of the border is charged with addressing what has been termed a recruitment and retention "crisis". An emerging phenomenon in both jurisdictions is that of…

  11. A Capital Project? "The New Deal for Musicians" in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloonan, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This article is based on empirical research conducted in Scotland between 2000 and 2002 into the New Deal for Musicians (NDfM)--a UK government training scheme for unemployed musicians which forms part of the "Welfare to Work" initiative. It argues that while the NDfM forms part of a wider lifelong agenda within current adult education…

  12. Wind power in Scotland - a critique of recent resource assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twidell, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A critical analysis of 4 recent UK official reports relating to the renewable energy resources of Scotland, particularly the large wind resource, and including institutional and economic factors. Key points are listed with comments for use in supporting wind power developments. (Author)

  13. Nitrogen Risk Assessment Model for Scotland: I. Nitrogen leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Dunn

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nitrogen Risk Assessment Model for Scotland (NIRAMS has been developed for prediction of streamwater N concentrations draining from agricultural land in Scotland. The objective of the model is to predict N concentrations for ungauged catchments, to fill gaps in monitoring data and to provide guidance in relation to policy development. The model uses nationally available data sets of land use, soils, topography and meteorology and has been developed within a Geographic Information System (GIS. The model includes modules to calculate N inputs to the land, residual N remaining at the end of the growing season, weekly time-series of leached N and transport of N at the catchment scale. This paper presents the methodology for calculating N balances for different land uses and for predicting the time sequence of N leaching after the end of the growing season. Maps are presented of calculated residual N and N leaching for the whole of Scotland and the spatial variability in N leaching is discussed. The results demonstrate the high variability in N leaching across Scotland. The simulations suggest that, in the areas with greatest residual N, the losses of N are not directly proportional to the amount of residual N, because of their coincidence with lower rainfall. In the companion paper, the hydrological controls on N transport within NIRAMS are described, and results of the full model testing are presented. Keywords: nitrogen, diffuse pollution, agriculture, leaching, land use, model, national, catchment

  14. Modern Languages in Scotland: Social Capital out on a Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    This article critically examines the state (extent of provision) and status (public esteem) of modern language education in Scotland, which as a constituent part of the United Kingdom has its own independent education system. The notion of social capital, as conceptualized by Putnam and others, is used to show how attempts by language…

  15. Additional Support Needs Reforms and Social Justice in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…

  16. Peer Tutoring in Reading in Scotland: Thinking Big

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Keith; Miller, David; Thurston, Allan; McGavock, Karen; Conlin, Nora

    2011-01-01

    A large-scale randomised-controlled trial of reading tutoring in 80 schools in Scotland used the Paired Reading (PR) technique. On long-term evaluation, cross-age PR was significantly better than regular teaching, but same-age was not. On short-term evaluation, PR pupils did significantly better than control pupils in both years, and cross-age and…

  17. Different Trajectories: Europe and Scotland in Recent Film and Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Goode

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Since approval was given via a referendum in 1997 for the advent of the Scottish Parliament, the benefits and constraints of Scotland’s devolved role within and against the UK has, understandably, formed the primary axis of political debate, despite increasing evidence that Scotland, like other nations, is part of a globalised world. It is also argued that nationalist Scotland exercises a preference for closer ties with a less imperialist Europe rather than with the colonially tainted state of the United Kingdom (Hechter 1975, 310. However, the precise meaning of Scotland’s role within a changing Europe receives little attention in mainstream debate (Imrie 2006. Meanwhile, the European Union is engaged in the ongoing process of enlarging and renegotiating its boundaries. Despite the paucity of texts that address ostensibly Scottish-European concerns, I want to consider the meaning of Europe through a focus on how these have been written into critical accounts of Scottish, British and European cinema while also examining how this relationship is given meaning in recent films produced in Scotland, in order to map the different manifestations of the relationship between Europe and Scotland.

  18. Building America Case Study: Standard- Versus High-Velocity Air Distribution in High-Performance Townhomes, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Poerschke, R. Beach, T. Begg

    2017-06-01

    IBACOS investigated the performance of a small-diameter high-velocity heat pump system compared to a conventional system in a new construction triplex townhouse. A ductless heat pump system also was installed for comparison, but the homebuyer backed out because of aesthetic concerns about that system. In total, two buildings, having identical solar orientation and comprised of six townhomes, were monitored for comfort and energy performance.

  19. Optimization of two methods based on ultrasound energy as alternative to European standards for soluble salts extraction from building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Taboada, N; Gómez-Laserna, O; Martinez-Arkarazo, I; Olazabal, M A; Madariaga, J M

    2012-11-01

    The Italian recommendation NORMAL 13/83, later replaced by the UNI 11087/2003 norm, were used as standard for soluble salts extraction from construction materials. These standards are based on long-time stirring (72 and 2h, respectively) of the sample in deionized water. In this work two ultrasound based methods were optimized in order to reduce the extraction time while efficiency is improved. The instrumental variables involved in the extraction assisted by ultrasound bath and focused ultrasounds were optimized by experimental design. As long as it was possible, the same non-instrumental parameters values as those of standard methods were used in order to compare the results obtained on a mortar sample showing a black crust by the standards and the optimized methods. The optimal extraction time for the ultrasounds bath was found to be of two hours. Although the extraction time was equal to the standard UNI 11087/2003, the obtained extraction recovery was improved up to 119%. The focused ultrasound system achieved also better recoveries (up to 106%) depending on the analyte in 1h treatment time. The repeatabilities of the proposed ultrasound based methods were comparables to those of the standards. Therefore, the selection of one or the other of the ultrasound based methods will depend on topics such as laboratory facilities or number of samples, and not in aspects related with their quality parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 'Breaking Good News': Neurologists' experiences of discussing SUDEP with patients in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Tom; Turbull, Sue; Mulhern, Sharon; Razvi, Saif

    2017-05-01

    Since the findings of a Fatal Accident Inquiry (FAI) in 2010, clinicians working in Scotland have been advised to discuss the risk of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) with patients immediately or soon after a diagnosis of epilepsy is made. A thematic analysis was used to describe the experiences discussing SUDEP of 10 clinicians (six Consultant Neurologists and four Neurology Registrars) working in Scotland. Contrary to previous research, clinicians appear to be routinely discussing SUDEP in a standardized fashion with newly diagnosed patients and the FAI appears to have instigated this change in practice. Clinicians are ambivalent about the practice and whether this is a Breaking Bad News (BBN) experience. Clinicians appear to anticipate that patients will be anxious or distressed discussing SUDEP, despite their experiences that patients do not react this way. There are further concerns that the pressure to discuss SUDEP, as a result of the FAI, hinders effective communication of the SUDEP message. Implications for guideline development are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MONJU experimental data analysis and its feasibility evaluation to build up the standard data base for large FBR nuclear core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, K.; Iwai, T.

    2006-01-01

    MONJU experimental data analysis was performed by using the detailed calculation scheme for fast reactor cores developed in Japan. Subsequently, feasibility of the MONJU integral data was evaluated by the cross-section adjustment technique for the use of FBR nuclear core design. It is concluded that the MONJU integral data is quite valuable for building up the standard data base for large FBR nuclear core design. In addition, it is found that the application of the updated data base has a possibility to considerably improve the prediction accuracy of neutronic parameters for MONJU. (authors)

  2. 24 CFR 200.946 - Building product standards and certification program for exterior finish and insulation systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... System (EIFS), Class PB. (xiv) EIMA Test Method 105.01-95—Standard Test Method for Alkali Resistance of... the administrator's mark shall be permanently affixed on the package or container of base and finish...) The minimum thickness of the base and finish coatings. (3) The fiberglass mesh is installed properly...

  3. Building an Interoperability Test System for Electric Vehicle Chargers Based on ISO/IEC 15118 and IEC 61850 Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minho Shin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric vehicle market is rapidly growing due to its environmental friendliness and governmental support. As electric vehicles are powered by electricity, the interoperability between the vehicles and the chargers made by multiple vendors is crucial for the success of the technology. Relevant standards are being published, but the methods for conformance testing need to be developed. In this paper, we present our conformance test system for the electric vehicle charger in accordance with the standards ISO/IEC 15118, IEC 61851 and IEC 61850-90-8. Our test system leverages the TTCN-3 framework for its flexibility and productivity. We evaluate the test system by lab tests with two reference chargers that we built. We also present the test results in two international testival events for the ISO/IEC 15118 interoperability. We confirmed that our test system is robust, efficient and practical.

  4. Building an Interoperability Test System for Electric Vehicle Chargers Based on ISO/IEC 15118 and IEC 61850 Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Minho Shin; Hwimin Kim; Hyoseop Kim; Hyuksoo Jang

    2016-01-01

    The electric vehicle market is rapidly growing due to its environmental friendliness and governmental support. As electric vehicles are powered by electricity, the interoperability between the vehicles and the chargers made by multiple vendors is crucial for the success of the technology. Relevant standards are being published, but the methods for conformance testing need to be developed. In this paper, we present our conformance test system for the electric vehicle charger in accordance with...

  5. ToxML, a data exchange standard with content controlled vocabulary used to build better (Q)SAR models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; Patel, M; Wilkinson, D; Judson, P; Cross, K; Bower, D

    2013-01-01

    Development of accurate quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models requires the availability of high quality validated data. International regulations such as REACH in Europe will now accept (Q)SAR-based evaluations for risk assessment. The number of toxicity datasets available for those wishing to share knowledge, or to use for data mining and modelling, is continually expanding. The challenge is the current use of a multitude of different data formats. The issues of comparing or combining disparate data apply both to public and proprietary sources. The ToxML project addresses the need for a common data exchange standard that allows the representation and communication of these data in a well-structured electronic format. It is an open standard based on Extensible Markup Language (XML). Supporting information for overall toxicity endpoint data can be included within ToxML files. This makes it possible to assess the quality and detail of the data used in a model. The data file model allows the aggregation of experimental data to the compound level in the detail needed to support (Q)SAR work. The standard is published on a website together with tools to view, edit and download it.

  6. Comparative analysis of JKR Sarawak form of contract and Malaysia Standard form of building contract (PWD203A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, A. I. A.; Muhammad, W. M. N. W.; Saaid, M. N. F.

    2018-04-01

    Standard form of contract is normally being used in Malaysia construction industry in establishing legal relation between contracting parties. Generally, most of Malaysia federal government construction project used PWD203A which is a standard form of contract to be used where Bills of Quantities Form Part of the Contract and it is issued by Public Works Department (PWD/JKR). On the other hand in Sarawak, the largest state in Malaysia, the state government has issued their own standard form of contract namely JKR Sarawak Form of Contract 2006. Even both forms have been used widely in construction industry; there is still lack of understanding on both forms. The aim of this paper is to identify significant provision on both forms of contract. Document analysis has been adopted in conducting an in-depth review on both forms. It is found that, both forms of contracts have differences and similarities on several provisions specifically matters to definitions and general; execution of the works; payments, completion and final account; and delay, dispute resolution and determination.

  7. Environmental justice in Scotland: policy, pedagogy and praxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scandrett, Eurig

    2007-01-01

    In the first decade of Scottish devolution, environmental justice became a significant component of environmental policy for the Scottish Executive, especially under First Minister Jack McConnell. This paper analyses how a discourse developed within policy narratives which separated environmental justice from economic growth and the interests of capital. In particular, it explores the role which research has played in justifying this discourse. By contrast, an alternative discourse has developed through reflexive and dialogical research associated with the praxis of the environmental organization Friends of the Earth Scotland. This alternative discourse is embedded in the embryonic environmental justice movement in Scotland, and identifies environmental justice as a social conflict which exposes negative externalities at the heart of economic development

  8. Environmental justice in Scotland: policy, pedagogy and praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scandrett, Eurig [Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    In the first decade of Scottish devolution, environmental justice became a significant component of environmental policy for the Scottish Executive, especially under First Minister Jack McConnell. This paper analyses how a discourse developed within policy narratives which separated environmental justice from economic growth and the interests of capital. In particular, it explores the role which research has played in justifying this discourse. By contrast, an alternative discourse has developed through reflexive and dialogical research associated with the praxis of the environmental organization Friends of the Earth Scotland. This alternative discourse is embedded in the embryonic environmental justice movement in Scotland, and identifies environmental justice as a social conflict which exposes negative externalities at the heart of economic development.

  9. SCOTLAND'S APPROACH TO PARTICIPATORY PLANNING: CHARACTERISING THE CHARRETTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainslie Kennedy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010 the ‘charrette’ has been promoted by the Scottish Government as an effective approach to community and stakeholder involvement in participatory design; yet, there has been little opportunity to formally reflect on the mainstreaming programme that has now delivered sixty charrettes across Scotland.  This paper presents a preliminary review of the programme by focusing on charrette commissioning, construction and delivery as detailed in post-completion reports. The purpose is to better understand what constitutes a Scottish charrette.  For this study the researcher identified forty-six reports published between 2011 and 2016.  A conceptual framework guided report content analysis, which found eight charrette characteristics with sufficient content to derive subcategories.  These characteristics and subcategories broadly describe charrette design and implementation. To conclude, this analysis is used to develop a charrette-descriptor table, which provides a preliminary means to distinguish between different charrette-approaches found in Scotland.

  10. Introduction: histories of asylums, insanity and psychiatry in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philo, Chris; Andrews, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue on ‘Histories of asylums, insanity and psychiatry in Scotland’, situating the papers that follow in an outline historiography of work in this field. Using Allan Beveridge’s claims in 1993 about the relative lack of research on the history of psychiatry in Scotland, the paper reviews a range of contributions that have emerged since then, loosely distinguishing between ‘overviews’ – work addressing longer-term trends and broader periods and systems – and more detailed studies of particular ‘individuals and institutions’. There remains much still to do, but the present special issue signals what is currently being achieved, not least by a new generation of scholars in and on Scotland. PMID:27956649

  11. Prevalence of asthma and wheeze in the Highlands of Scotland.

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, J B; Russell, G; Adam, M G; Mackintosh, D; Kelsey, S; Peck, D F

    1994-01-01

    To establish the prevalence of asthma and wheeze in 12 year old children in a region with low background pollution levels, a population of children resident in the Highland Region of Scotland was studied by questionnaire supported by objective data. A respiratory questionnaire was distributed to the parents of 1919 children aged from 12-13 years and attending secondary schools in the educational divisions of Lochaber, Ross and Cromarty, and Inverness including Skye in Highland Region to ascer...

  12. Wheat Prices, Bread Consumption and Health in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Leat, Philip M.K.; Toma, Luiza; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata; Cacciolatti, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The relative recent rise in food prices has increased concern about the choice of a healthy food basket, especially in the context of the formulation of a National Food Policy for Scotland. This concern has revived interest in food price and expenditure demand systems as they provide information about consumers’ food decisions. The paper focuses on the consumption of brown and white bread, as they are the most typical forms of cereals use in the UK. Moreover, nutritionists recommend the consu...

  13. Comparison of family nursing in Slovenia and Scotland: integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubič, A; Clark, D J; Štemberger Kolnik, T

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and compare the advantages and disadvantages of two systems of community nursing through the history of their development, and to compare these systems with the World Health Organization model of the Family Health Nurse. In Slovenia, the family/community nursing service is designed according to the World Health Organization policies and is performed by the generalist family/community nurse. In contrast, across Scotland there is no universal model and the current system comprises several different specialist-nursing pathways. The study aimed to describe each model and to understand why the family health nurse model was preferred in Slovenia but rejected in Scotland. This study was based on integrative review method conducted from August 2013 to September 2015 using national and international specialized databases. While the published literature on this topic is very limited, this review also includes unpublished material. For data analysis, the Walker and Avant's concept analysis model was used. Three main themes were identified through the process of the literature search; the Family Health Nurse concept, family/community nursing development in Slovenia, and community nursing development in Scotland. Findings related specifically to the different roles of nurses in the community in Slovenia and Scotland are reported. It is clear that the WHO guidelines and recommendations are not suitable for implementation in all member countries. Both models have advantages and disadvantages. In developing community nursing services, it would be wise to look for systems that represent the best solutions for treatment of the individual, the family and the community. The findings should be used when designing new models applied in different healthcare systems within each country, with a focus on strategy aimed at the welfare of the patient and his family. Findings give a possible solution for financially restricted healthcare systems, regarding

  14. Referendum in Scotland in 2014: history and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulikov N. A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available the article is devoted to the analysis of the referendum in Scotland in 2014 as a peaceful way of people's self-determination of this historical part of the United Kingdom. The author believes that the referendum is able to resolve the issue of sovereignty, and to prevent secession only if it is conducted legally and with the approval of the central authorities of states that are under the burden of separatism.

  15. Mine water pollution in Scotland. Nature, extent and preventative strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, P.L. [Water Resource Systems Research Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Newcastle, NE1 7RU Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-29

    Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution is due to net-alkaline ferruginous waters emerging from deep mines. Scrutiny of records from 80 deep mine discharges reveals that iron concentrations in these waters are only likely to exceed 20 mg/l, and the pH to be below 6.5, where the discharge emerges within 0.5 km of the outcrop of the shallowest mined seam. The bulk of mature near-outcrop mine water discharges in Scotland have<50 mg/l total Fe, and concentrations>100 mg/l are only likely where a marine bed lies within 25 m of the worked seam. Where the nearest marine bed is more than 80 m above or below the seam, then the total iron will be less than 4 mg/l, and in most cases less than 1 mg/l. Net-acidic mine waters are far more rare than net-alkaline waters in Scotland, and are most commonly associated with unreclaimed spoil heaps (bings). Both net-alkaline and net-acidic discharges have detrimental effects on the hydrochemistry and biological integrity of receiving waters. Scotland has recently pioneered the use of pre-emptive pump-and-treat solutions to prevent mine water pollution, and has also experienced the successful introduction of passive treatment technology for both abandoned and active workings.

  16. How should we go about jury research in Scotland?

    OpenAIRE

    Chalmers, James; Leverick, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Considers why jury research is needed in Scotland, and the methods that could be used. Discusses the justifications for research into jury reasoning and decision-making advanced by the Post-Corroboration Safeguards Review, and its proposals on issues such as simple majority verdicts. Examines options for research with real or mock juries, the possible research questions, and whether reform of the Contempt of Court Act 1981 would be necessary.

  17. Influences of Ancient Egypt on architecture and ornament in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Packer, John Aidan

    2012-01-01

    This work seeks to identify the forms and origins of Ancient Egyptian architecture and the complex historical progress which brought these to Scotland, identifying the affinities shared by both countries and their evolving role from their first arrival to the present day. The thesis follows Egypt’s first appearance in Scottish legend and its later influence, at the close of the 16th century, in the practices of organised Freemasonry, to be followed, from the second quarter of t...

  18. Politics and the police in Scotland: The impact of devolution

    OpenAIRE

    Scott , Kenneth B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The creation of a Scottish Parliament and Scottish government in 1999, under the process of devolution within the UK, created a significantly different constitutional and political landscape from that which preceded it. The impact on domestic issues in Scotland, such as policing, has been considerable. This is partly because of new structural arrangements, including the creation of a Justice Minister and a Justice Committee of the Parliament, and partly because of the sign...

  19. Building a robust, scalable and standards-driven infrastructure for secondary use of EHR data: the SHARPn project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Susan; Pathak, Jyotishman; Savova, Guergana; Oniki, Thomas A; Westberg, Les; Beebe, Calvin E; Tao, Cui; Parker, Craig G; Haug, Peter J; Huff, Stanley M; Chute, Christopher G

    2012-08-01

    The Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Projects (SHARP) Program, established by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology in 2010 supports research findings that remove barriers for increased adoption of health IT. The improvements envisioned by the SHARP Area 4 Consortium (SHARPn) will enable the use of the electronic health record (EHR) for secondary purposes, such as care process and outcomes improvement, biomedical research and epidemiologic monitoring of the nation's health. One of the primary informatics problem areas in this endeavor is the standardization of disparate health data from the nation's many health care organizations and providers. The SHARPn team is developing open source services and components to support the ubiquitous exchange, sharing and reuse or 'liquidity' of operational clinical data stored in electronic health records. One year into the design and development of the SHARPn framework, we demonstrated end to end data flow and a prototype SHARPn platform, using thousands of patient electronic records sourced from two large healthcare organizations: Mayo Clinic and Intermountain Healthcare. The platform was deployed to (1) receive source EHR data in several formats, (2) generate structured data from EHR narrative text, and (3) normalize the EHR data using common detailed clinical models and Consolidated Health Informatics standard terminologies, which were (4) accessed by a phenotyping service using normalized data specifications. The architecture of this prototype SHARPn platform is presented. The EHR data throughput demonstration showed success in normalizing native EHR data, both structured and narrative, from two independent organizations and EHR systems. Based on the demonstration, observed challenges for standardization of EHR data for interoperable secondary use are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Language Provision in Education: A View from Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róisín McKelvey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A tension between mobility and inclusion can be seen in public sector attempts to respond to the increasingly multilingual nature of the Scottish population. Increased mobility has contributed to greater linguistic diversity, which has led to growing demand for multilingual public services. Legal instruments and education policy in Scotland provide a promising framework in terms of promoting language learning and multilingualism, but implementation is not always successful and responding to linguistic diversity among pupils is beset with challenges. This article will consider some of these challenges, both practical and attitudinal, reflecting on language teaching in Scotland and on issues raised during interviews with officials from the English as an additional language (EAL services in Edinburgh and Glasgow. Language teaching often does not take into account the linguistic diversity present—despite the opportunity for a more inclusive approach offered by Scottish Government strategy—and this risks reinforcing negative beliefs about significant allochthonous languages in Scotland. In these circumstances, meeting the linguistic needs of increasingly multilingual school populations in an inclusive way is a challenging task.

  1. Improving Scotland's health: time for a fresh approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, D H

    2012-05-01

    Scotland's health remains the worst in the UK. There are several probable reasons for this. Of those that are amenable to change, health improvement policy has been excessively preoccupied with targeting individuals perceived to be 'at risk' rather than adopting a whole population perspective. Environmental as opposed to behavioural approaches to health improvement have been relatively neglected. To meet the challenge of Scotland's poor health more effectively in the future, new strategic thinking is necessary. Three initial steps are required: recognize that current approaches are inadequate and that fresh ideas are needed; identify the principles that should underlie future strategy development; translate these principles into achievable operational objectives. Five principles of a revitalized strategy to improve the health of Scotland in the future are proposed. These are start early and sustain effort; create a healthy and safe environment; reduce geographical as well as social inequalities in health; adopt an evidence-based approach to public health interventions; use epidemiology to assess need, plan interventions and monitor progress. These principles may then be translated into achievable operational policy and practice objectives.

  2. The Human Physiome: how standards, software and innovative service infrastructures are providing the building blocks to make it achievable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, David; Atalag, Koray; de Bono, Bernard; Geiger, Jörg; Goble, Carole; Hollmann, Susanne; Lonien, Joachim; Müller, Wolfgang; Regierer, Babette; Stanford, Natalie J; Golebiewski, Martin; Hunter, Peter

    2016-04-06

    Reconstructing and understanding the Human Physiome virtually is a complex mathematical problem, and a highly demanding computational challenge. Mathematical models spanning from the molecular level through to whole populations of individuals must be integrated, then personalized. This requires interoperability with multiple disparate and geographically separated data sources, and myriad computational software tools. Extracting and producing knowledge from such sources, even when the databases and software are readily available, is a challenging task. Despite the difficulties, researchers must frequently perform these tasks so that available knowledge can be continually integrated into the common framework required to realize the Human Physiome. Software and infrastructures that support the communities that generate these, together with their underlying standards to format, describe and interlink the corresponding data and computer models, are pivotal to the Human Physiome being realized. They provide the foundations for integrating, exchanging and re-using data and models efficiently, and correctly, while also supporting the dissemination of growing knowledge in these forms. In this paper, we explore the standards, software tooling, repositories and infrastructures that support this work, and detail what makes them vital to realizing the Human Physiome.

  3. Cosmetic websites Scotland: legal or lurid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Eilidh G M; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Athanassopoulos, Thanassi

    2014-08-01

    The provision of cosmetic interventions and their advertising have recently come under intense scrutiny in the wake of the PIP scandal and Keogh report. A study of Scottish websites offering esthetic procedures was conducted to determine adherence to the advertising standards and regulations currently in place. Regulations are provided by the Advertising Standards Authority, Committee on Advertising Practice, Independent Healthcare Advisory Services and General Medical Council. An Internet search was then conducted to search for providers of non-surgical and surgical cosmetic procedures. Overall 125 websites were reviewed. 109 local and 16 national with 17 websites associated with cosmetic surgeons. 26 websites failed to adhere to regulations. Failure was related to advertising of POM on the homepage or dropdown menu (20), offering enticements inappropriately (6). 26.6% of websites did not display qualifications of the practitioners. Only 16.6% of websites described the specific and the non-specific side effects of "anti-wrinkle injections" and only 12.5% mentioned alternative treatments. The majority of websites reviewed adhered to current advertising standards. Plastic surgeons provide a small percentage of cosmetic procedures. Greater regulation at the point of product entry and of all esthetic practitioners is required. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coronary heart disease and water hardness in Scotland--is there a relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, W C; Crombie, I K

    1987-01-01

    Scotland has a mortality rate from coronary disease which is one of the highest in the world. There is also a considerable variation in this mortality rate within Scotland. Data on water hardness throughout Scotland have been collected from Regional Water Authorities to see whether variations in coronary mortality rates can be explained by variations in water hardness. Analysis demonstrates a much weaker negative association than has been demonstrated in studies in other countries. The geogra...

  5. Promotion of Standard Treatment Guidelines and Building Referral System for Management of Common Noncommunicable Diseases in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Jindal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment services constitute one of the five priority actions to face the global crisis due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs. It is important to formulate standard treatment guidelines (STGs for an effective management, particularly at the primary and secondary levels of health care. Dissemination and implementation of STGs for NCDs on a country-wide scale involves difficult and complex issues. The management of NCDs and the associated costs are highly variable and huge. Besides the educational strategies for promotion of STGs, the scientific and administrative sanctions and sanctity are important for purposes of reimbursements, insurance, availability of facilities, and legal protection. An effective and functional referral- system needs to be built to ensure availability of appropriate care at all levels of health- services. The patient-friendly "to and fro" referral system will help to distribute the burden, lower the costs, and maintain the sustainability of services.

  6. Promotion of standard treatment guidelines and building referral system for management of common noncommunicable diseases in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Sk

    2011-12-01

    Treatment services constitute one of the five priority actions to face the global crisis due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). It is important to formulate standard treatment guidelines (STGs) for an effective management, particularly at the primary and secondary levels of health care. Dissemination and implementation of STGs for NCDs on a country-wide scale involves difficult and complex issues. The management of NCDs and the associated costs are highly variable and huge. Besides the educational strategies for promotion of STGs, the scientific and administrative sanctions and sanctity are important for purposes of reimbursements, insurance, availability of facilities, and legal protection. An effective and functional referral- system needs to be built to ensure availability of appropriate care at all levels of health- services. The patient-friendly "to and fro" referral system will help to distribute the burden, lower the costs, and maintain the sustainability of services.

  7. Scotland Yardi looja otsib tihedas pubide konkurentsis oma nishshi / Merike Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Merike

    2005-01-01

    Jaanus Thalsonile kuuluvast Scotland Yardi pubist Laagris (sisearhitekt Taavi Aunre, 2000), Tallinnas Mere puiesteel (2004) ja avatavast samanimelisest pubist Kristiine keskuses ning kohvikuketist Mmuah

  8. 'A confession of ignorance': deaths from old age and deciphering cause-of-death statistics in Scotland, 1855-1949.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alice; Garrett, Eilidh; Dibben, Chris; Williamson, Lee

    2015-07-03

    A large amount of the research undertaken in an attempt to discover the reasons underlying the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century mortality decline in Britain has relied on the statistics published by the Registrars General. The processes by which individual causes of death are recorded and then processed in order to create the statistics are not, however, well understood. In this article, the authors build on previous work to piece together a time series of causes of death for Scotland, which removes many of the discontinuities encountered in the published statistics that result from the Registrar General deciding to update the nosology, or classification system, which was being used to compile his figures. Having regrouped individual causes of death to 'smooth' the time series, the authors use the new groups to examine the changing causes of death in Scotland for selected age groups, before turning to undertake a detailed examination of mortality amongst those aged 55 or more. The authors find that when deaths from 'old age' in the latter age group are separated from other 'ill-defined' causes, it becomes obvious that there was a 'rebranding' of cause of death. The authors then use individual-level data from two Scottish communities to further dissect the roles played by 'informants' and 'doctors' in this rebranding, in order to see how these roles may have altered over time and what the consequences might be for one's view of how mortality changed in Scotland between 1855 and 1949. Finally, the authors argue that their findings have important implications for some of historical demography's most prominent theories: the McKeown thesis and the theory of epidemiological transition.

  9. Building Energy Asset Score for Building Owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2015-01-01

    The Building Energy Asset Score is a national standardized tool for evaluating the physical and structural energy efficiency of commercial and multifamily residential buildings. The Asset Score generates a simple energy efficiency rating that enables comparison among buildings, and identifies opportunities for users to invest in energy efficiency upgrades. It is web-based and free to use. This fact sheet discusses the value of the score for building owners.

  10. Building IoT Services for Aging in Place Using Standard-Based IoT Platforms and Heterogeneous IoT Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Sheik Mohammad Mostakim; Sung, Nak-Myoung; Ahn, Il-Yeup; Ryu, Minwoo; Yun, Jaeseok

    2017-01-01

    An aging population and human longevity is a global trend. Many developed countries are struggling with the yearly increasing healthcare cost that dominantly affects their economy. At the same time, people living with old adults suffering from a progressive brain disorder such as Alzheimer’s disease are enduring even more stress and depression than those patients while caring for them. Accordingly, seniors’ ability to live independently and comfortably in their current home for as long as possible has been crucial to reduce the societal cost for caregiving and thus give family members peace of mind, called ‘aging in place’ (AIP). In this paper we present a way of building AIP services using standard-based IoT platforms and heterogeneous IoT products. An AIP service platform is designed and created by combining previous standard-based IoT platforms in a collaborative way. A service composition tool is also created that allows people to create AIP services in an efficient way. To show practical usability of our proposed system, we choose a service scenario for medication compliance and implement a prototype service which could give old adults medication reminder appropriately at the right time (i.e., when it is time to need to take pills) through light and speaker at home but also wrist band and smartphone even outside the home. PMID:29019964

  11. Building IoT Services for Aging in Place Using Standard-Based IoT Platforms and Heterogeneous IoT Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheik Mohammad Mostakim Fattah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An aging population and human longevity is a global trend. Many developed countries are struggling with the yearly increasing healthcare cost that dominantly affects their economy. At the same time, people living with old adults suffering from a progressive brain disorder such as Alzheimer’s disease are enduring even more stress and depression than those patients while caring for them. Accordingly, seniors’ ability to live independently and comfortably in their current home for as long as possible has been crucial to reduce the societal cost for caregiving and thus give family members peace of mind, called ‘aging in place’ (AIP. In this paper we present a way of building AIP services using standard-based IoT platforms and heterogeneous IoT products. An AIP service platform is designed and created by combining previous standard-based IoT platforms in a collaborative way. A service composition tool is also created that allows people to create AIP services in an efficient way. To show practical usability of our proposed system, we choose a service scenario for medication compliance and implement a prototype service which could give old adults medication reminder appropriately at the right time (i.e., when it is time to need to take pills through light and speaker at home but also wrist band and smartphone even outside the home.

  12. Building IoT Services for Aging in Place Using Standard-Based IoT Platforms and Heterogeneous IoT Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Sheik Mohammad Mostakim; Sung, Nak-Myoung; Ahn, Il-Yeup; Ryu, Minwoo; Yun, Jaeseok

    2017-10-11

    An aging population and human longevity is a global trend. Many developed countries are struggling with the yearly increasing healthcare cost that dominantly affects their economy. At the same time, people living with old adults suffering from a progressive brain disorder such as Alzheimer's disease are enduring even more stress and depression than those patients while caring for them. Accordingly, seniors' ability to live independently and comfortably in their current home for as long as possible has been crucial to reduce the societal cost for caregiving and thus give family members peace of mind, called 'aging in place' (AIP). In this paper we present a way of building AIP services using standard-based IoT platforms and heterogeneous IoT products. An AIP service platform is designed and created by combining previous standard-based IoT platforms in a collaborative way. A service composition tool is also created that allows people to create AIP services in an efficient way. To show practical usability of our proposed system, we choose a service scenario for medication compliance and implement a prototype service which could give old adults medication reminder appropriately at the right time (i.e., when it is time to need to take pills) through light and speaker at home but also wrist band and smartphone even outside the home.

  13. The Health Promoting School: The Conduct of Education about Responsible Personal Relationships and Sexual Health in Scottish Schools--The Response of Schools and Education Authorities in Scotland to Circular 2/2001 and the McCabe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Ethical Standards in Public Life etc (Scotland) Act 2000 placed a duty on councils: (1) to have regard to the value of stable family life in children's development; (2) to provide education appropriate in content and approach to pupils' age, understanding and stage of development; (3) to work with parents and put in place direct procedures for…

  14. Rectal cancer survival in the Nordic countries and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, J.; Engholm, G.; Ehrnrooth, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present detailed population-based survival estimates four patients with a rectal adenocarcinoma, using cancer register data supplemented with clinical data. Based oil cancer register data. differences in rectal cancer survival have been reported between countries ill...... Europe. Variation ill the distribution of stage at diagnosis. initial therapy including surgical technique, and comorbidity are possible explanatory factors. Adenocarcinomas in the rectum. diagnosed in 1997 and identified in the national cancer registries in the Nordic countries and Scotland were...

  15. Rectal cancer survival in the Nordic countries and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Joakim; Engholm, Gerda; Ehrnrooth, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present detailed population-based survival estimates for patients with a rectal adenocarcinoma, using cancer register data supplemented with clinical data. Based on cancer register data, differences in rectal cancer survival have been reported between countries...... in Europe. Variation in the distribution of stage at diagnosis, initial therapy including surgical technique, and comorbidity are possible explanatory factors. Adenocarcinomas in the rectum, diagnosed in 1997 and identified in the national cancer registries in the Nordic countries and Scotland were included...

  16. Adoption and perception of electronic clinical communications in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pagliari

    2005-06-01

    Conclusions Significant progress was observed in the implementation of ECCI facilities across Scotland. Users reported that these improved communication and were beneficial, but system reliability, incompatibility and duplication of data hindered more widespread uptake. Data were collected at a transitional phase of the programme. Whilst, among users of ECCI facilities, perceptions of the programme and its potential benefits were generally positive, its full impact will not become evident until the new electronic tools are implemented nationally and have been more fully integrated into normal work routines.

  17. Campylobacter infection in urban and rural populations in Scotland.

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbald, C. J.; Sharp, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A review of campylobacter infection in Scotland over five years (1978-82), during which 7808 human isolates were recorded (mean annual isolation rate of 30 per 100000), revealed differences in the epidemiology of the disease between rural and urban populations which were not apparent in the national data. The incidence of infection in the two rural areas studied was greatest in the early months of the year, whereas that in the two urban areas showed a third-quarter predominance. In both urban...

  18. SCOTLAND AND EUROPE, OR: ROOM AT THE TOP FOR 'CONSTITUTIONAL REGIONS'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Bort

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Scotland, it is sometimes said, is more Euro-friendly than the rest of Britain. And, yes, some opinion polls would support that. Scotland is slightly more favourably disposed towards the Euro. And outright Euro-scepticism is not as thick on the ground as in the southern parts of England. But the differences are pretty marginal. Scotland's love for Europe might be more fiction than fact. And yet, as is often the case with myths, it is an important factor in Scottish politics. But the real issue for Scotland and Europe in the immediate future is its representation and participation in the governance of the European Union. With devolution in the UK, Scotland – with its own Parliament and Executive – has been firmly put on the political map of Europe. Together with similarly powered 'regions', Scotland's Parliament and Executive are making their case for an input of the 'third level' into a multi-level system of European governance. Is there room at the top for Scotland and the 'constitutional regions' of Europe? The answer to this question may play a significant role in determining Scotland's future: either as an integrated part of both the UK and Europe, or as an 'independent' state in the European Union.

  19. Reconciling the Perspective of Practitioner and Service User: Findings from The Aphasia in Scotland Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, James; Huby, Guro; Irving, Anne-Marie; Pringle, Ann-Marie; Conochie, Douglas; Haworth, Catherine; Burston, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is widely accepted that service users should be actively involved in new service developments, but there remain issues about how best to consult with them and how to reconcile their views with those of service providers. Aims: This paper uses data from The Aphasia in Scotland study, set up by NHS Quality Improvement Scotland to…

  20. A Barking Dog That Never Bites? The British Sign Language (Scotland) Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and analyses the pathway to the British Sign Language (Scotland) Bill and the strategies used to reach it. Data collection has been done by means of interviews with key players, analysis of official documents, and participant observation. The article discusses the bill in relation to the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005…

  1. Relational Study of Technical Education in Scotland and Nigeria for Sustainable Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umunadi, E. Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    This paper was designed to look at technical education curriculum and mode of implementation in Scotland in order to adopt the advantageous attributes of the Scottish technical education in Nigeria. The paper x-rayed the staff perceptions of technical education and its roles in Scotland; history of technical education before the advent of British…

  2. Social Change and Education in Ireland, Scotland and Wales: Historiography on Nineteenth-Century Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Deirdre; Mcdermid, Jane; Jones, Gareth Elwyn

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a summary and analysis of historiography on social change and education in Ireland, Scotland and Wales, with particular reference to nineteenth-century schooling. The nineteenth century is identified as the period during which Ireland, Scotland and Wales developed distinctive systems of schooling that reflected not only their…

  3. 8 ways to build collaborative teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Lynda; Erickson, Tamara J

    2007-11-01

    Executing complex initiatives like acquisitions or an IT overhaul requires a breadth of knowledge that can be provided only by teams that are large, diverse, virtual, and composed of highly educated specialists. The irony is, those same characteristics have an alarming tendency to decrease collaboration on a team. What's a company to do? Gratton, a London Business School professor, and Erickson, president of the Concours Institute, studied 55 large teams and identified those with strong collaboration despite their complexity. Examining the team dynamics and environment at firms ranging from Royal Bank of Scotland to Nokia to Marriott, the authors isolated eight success factors: (1) "Signature" relationship practices that build bonds among the staff, in memorable ways that are particularly suited to a company's business. (2) Role models of collaboration among executives, which help cooperation trickle down to the staff. (3) The establishment of a "gift culture," in which managers support employees by mentoring them daily, instead of a transactional "tit-for-tat culture", (4) Training in relationship skills, such as communication and conflict resolution. (5) A sense of community, which corporate HR can foster by sponsoring group activities. (6) Ambidextrous leadership, or leaders who are both task-oriented and relationship-oriented. (7) Good use of heritage relationships, by populating teams with members who know and trust one another. (8) Role clarity and task ambiguity, achieved by defining individual roles sharply but giving teams latitude on approach. As teams have grown from a standard of 20 members to comprise 100 or more, team practices that once worked well no longer apply. The new complexity of teams requires companies to increase their capacity for collaboration, by making long-term investments that build relationships and trust, and smart near-term decisions about how teams are formed and run.

  4. An Investigation on Formaldehyde Emission Characteristics of Wood Building Materials in Chinese Standard Tests: Product Emission Levels, Measurement Uncertainties, and Data Correlations between Various Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Cao, Yang; Wang, Dandan; Hou, Guojun; Shen, Zaihua; Zhang, Shuangbao

    2015-01-01

    As a large producer and consumer of wood building materials, China suffers product formaldehyde emissions (PFE) but lacks systematic investigations and basic data on Chinese standard emission tests (CST), so this paper presented a first effort on this issue. The PFE of fiberboards, particleboards, blockboards, floorings, and parquets manufactured in Beijing region were characterized by the perforator extraction method (PE), 9–11 L and 40 L desiccator methods (D9, D40), and environmental chamber method (EC) of the Chinese national standard GB 18580; based on statistics of PFE data, measurement uncertainties in CST were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method; moreover, PFE data correlations between tests were established. Results showed: (1) Different tests may give slightly different evaluations on product quality. In PE and D9 tests, blockboards and parquets reached E1 grade for PFE, which can be directly used in indoor environment; but in D40 and EC tests, floorings and parquets achieved E1. (2) In multiple tests, PFE data characterized by PE, D9, and D40 complied with Gaussian distributions, while those characterized by EC followed log-normal distributions. Uncertainties in CST were overall low, with uncertainties for 20 material-method combinations all below 7.5%, and the average uncertainty for each method under 3.5%, thus being acceptable in engineering application. A more complicated material structure and a larger test scale caused higher uncertainties. (3) Conventional linear models applied to correlating PFE values between PE, D9, and EC, with R2 all over 0.840, while novel logarithmic (exponential) models can work better for correlations involving D40, with R2 all beyond 0.901. This research preliminarily demonstrated the effectiveness of CST, where results for D40 presented greater similarities to EC—the currently most reliable test for PFE, thus highlighting the potential of Chinese D40 as a more practical approach in production control and risk

  5. Library Buildings and Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oringdulph, Robert E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Six articles discuss library buildings and construction: (1) library buildings and their parts; (2) the North Campus Library of California State University at Long Beach in 1995; (3) new structures for teaching libraries; (4) construction standards for California public libraries; (5) Sick (Library) Building Syndrome; and (6) using focus-group…

  6. Mussels and Yachts in Loch Fyne, Scotland: a Case Study of the Science-Policy Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Tett

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an application of the Science and Policy Integration for Coastal System Assessment (SPICOSA Systems Approach Framework (SAF to Loch Fyne, a fjord in western Scotland. The issue was the potential for conflict between shellfish aquaculture and recreational use for yachting. This was investigated by building an ecological-economic model to simulate: (1 release of modern anti-fouling compounds by recreational boats; (2 dilution of these in the upper layers of the loch by exchange with the sea; (3 their effects on photosynthesis by phytoplankton; (4 the role of phytoplankton (along with non-algal particulate matter in providing food for mussels; (5 the growth of seeded mussels to harvest, determining (6 the cash input to farms, offset by their costs and allowing (7 the farm revenue to be compared with that from marinas used to berth the yachts. It was concluded from simulations that no noticeable effect on mussel harvest would occur (from this route for any likely number of yachts berthed in the loch. The application took place in consultation with a local environmental forum and a small reference group of public officials; we reflect on it in the context of a 3-component schema for the science-policy interface and changes in the culture of UK science.

  7. Material flows accounting for Scotland shows the merits of a circular economy and the folly of territorial carbon reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Kimberley; Lenaghan, Michael; Mitchard, Edward T A

    2016-12-01

    It is essential that the human race limits the environmental damage created by our consumption. A realistic pathway to limiting consumption would be to transition to a system where materials are conserved and cycled through the economy as many times as possible and as slowly as possible, greatly reducing the greenhouse gas intensive processes of resource extraction, resource processing and waste management. Material flow analysis (MFA) is a method used to understand how materials are consumed within a nation. In this study, we attempt a MFA for Scotland which links carbon emissions to material consumption using data directly based on the mass of materials used in the Scottish economy. It is the first time such an analysis has been conducted for an economy in its entirety. This study aims to create a detailed material flow account (MFA) for Scotland, compare the environmental impacts and possible policy implications of different future material consumption scenarios and consider two materials, steel and neodymium, in detail. The model estimated that 11.4 Mg per capita of materials are consumed per year in Scotland, emitting 10.7 Mg CO 2 e per capita in the process, of which, 6.7 Mg CO 2 e per capita falls under territorial carbon accounting. Only the circular economy scenario for 2050 allowed for increases in living standards without increases in carbon emissions and material consumption. This result was mirrored in the steel and neodymium case studies-environmental impacts can be minimised by a national strategy that first reduces use, and then locally reuses materials. Material consumption accounts for a large proportion of the carbon emissions of Scotland. Strategic dematerialisation, particular of materials such as steel, could support future efforts to reduce environmental impact and meet climate change targets. However, policy makers should consider consumption carbon accounting boundaries, as well as territorial boundaries, if carbon savings are to be

  8. Material flows accounting for Scotland shows the merits of a circular economy and the folly of territorial carbon reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley Pratt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is essential that the human race limits the environmental damage created by our consumption. A realistic pathway to limiting consumption would be to transition to a system where materials are conserved and cycled through the economy as many times as possible and as slowly as possible, greatly reducing the greenhouse gas intensive processes of resource extraction, resource processing and waste management. Material flow analysis (MFA is a method used to understand how materials are consumed within a nation. In this study, we attempt a MFA for Scotland which links carbon emissions to material consumption using data directly based on the mass of materials used in the Scottish economy. It is the first time such an analysis has been conducted for an economy in its entirety. Research aims This study aims to create a detailed material flow account (MFA for Scotland, compare the environmental impacts and possible policy implications of different future material consumption scenarios and consider two materials, steel and neodymium, in detail. Results The model estimated that 11.4 Mg per capita of materials are consumed per year in Scotland, emitting 10.7 Mg CO2e per capita in the process, of which, 6.7 Mg CO2e per capita falls under territorial carbon accounting. Only the circular economy scenario for 2050 allowed for increases in living standards without increases in carbon emissions and material consumption. This result was mirrored in the steel and neodymium case studies—environmental impacts can be minimised by a national strategy that first reduces use, and then locally reuses materials. Conclusions Material consumption accounts for a large proportion of the carbon emissions of Scotland. Strategic dematerialisation, particular of materials such as steel, could support future efforts to reduce environmental impact and meet climate change targets. However, policy makers should consider consumption carbon accounting

  9. Interactions between land use, climate and hydropower in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, James

    2015-04-01

    To promote the transition towards a low carbon economy, the Scottish Government has adopted ambitious energy targets, including generating all electricity from renewable sources by 2020. To achieve this, continued investment will be required across a range of sustainable technologies. Hydropower has a long history in Scotland and the present-day operational capacity of ~1.5 GW makes a substantial contribution to the national energy budget. In addition, there remains potential for ~500 MW of further development, mostly in the form of small to medium size run-of-river schemes. Climate change is expected to lead to an intensification of the global hydrological cycle, leading to changes in both the magnitude and seasonality of river flows. There may also be indirect effects, such as changing land use, enhanced evapotranspiration rates and an increased demand for irrigation, all of which could affect the water available for energy generation. Preliminary assessments of hydropower commonly use flow duration curves (FDCs) to estimate the power generation potential at proposed new sites. In this study, we use spatially distributed modelling to generate daily and monthly FDCs on a 1 km by 1 km grid across Scotland, using a variety of future land use and climate change scenarios. Parameter-related uncertainty in the model has been constrained using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to derive posterior probability distributions for key model parameters. Our results give an indication of the sensitivity and vulnerability of Scotland's run-of-river hydropower resources to possible changes in climate and land use. The effects are spatially variable and the range of uncertainty is sometimes large, but consistent patterns do emerge. For example, many locations are predicted to experience enhanced seasonality, with significantly lower power generation potential in the summer months and greater potential during the autumn and winter. Some sites may require

  10. The social metabolism of Scotland: An environmental perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viglia, S.; Matthews, K.B.; Miller, D.G.; Wardell-Johnson, D.; Rivington, M.; Ulgiati, S.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study that developed and applied social metabolism methods to assess the sustainability of a regional economy, particularly the dynamics related to changes in the production and use of energy. The first objective of the study was to assess the feasibility of using existing secondary data sources as a basis for sub-nation state and regional analysis (with the regions in this case differentiating the area based on rurality). The second was to structure the outputs of the analysis in ways that provided comprehensive yet succinct and interpretable assessments of the balance of flows of material, energy and money that underpin the economy, with the intention that ultimately these assessments would be used to inform policymaking. The paper provides an introduction to the key concepts used within social metabolism analysis particularly the use of emergy (a measure of the cumulative environmental support provided to a social-ecological system). This is a unifying metric into which the myriad flows within an economy can be translated and combined in meaningful ways. It does so by, preserving information on both the quantity and quality of flows and so avoiding the need for arbitrary weightings. The paper presents a range of options for the use of emergy-based metrics that could be used to inform policy making. Comparisons for the years 2001 and 2010 are made at country level for Scotland and for three degrees of rurality. The analysis highlights how decisions on the share of the offshore energy sector attributed to Scotland and on the share of services (particularly those imported from beyond U.K.) have profound effects on the sustainability trajectory of the economy and the conclusions that might be drawn for policy. The paper concludes that the methods have the potential to add value to existing administrative datasets, and provide new perspectives that may be of value to policy making, but acknowledges that challenges remain in

  11. Leith Davis, Ian Duncan, & Janet Sorensen, eds. Scotland and the Borders of Romanticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann THOLONIAT

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Scotland and the Borders of Romanticism is a collection of essays written by scholars from Scotland, England, Canada and the United States which seeks to rehabilitate eighteenth-century Scottish literature within the wider canon of British literature. With this aim in view, the introduction, co-signed by the three editors, is legitimately polemical. The editors emphasise the role of Scotland in bodying forth not only Romanticism, but also major Victorian poetics (4. After having studied “Sco...

  12. Governing obesity policies from England, France, Germany and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-01-01

    , I present a study of four plans from four Western European countries: England, France, Germany and Scotland, identifying how obesity is defined as a political issue. The questions addressed are: How is the development in the obesity prevalence explained and who is considered responsible......Defining a phenomenon as a political problem could be considered a crucial part of any political process. Body weight, when categorised as obesity, has been defined as a political problem since the beginning of the 21st century and has entered the political agenda in many countries. In this article...... for the development? What are the suggested remedies and who is considered responsible for acting? All plans state that obesity is a po- litical issue because it causes health problems; in fact, weight is almost equated to health. The English and Scottish plans present a bio-political argument, characterising obesity...

  13. Squaring the circle. Comprehensive project management sets standards for social projects of house buildings; Die Quadratur des Kreises. Umfassendes Projektmanagement setzt Massstaebe fuer soziale Wohnbauprojekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotze, Dagmar [greenIMMO Medien, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The complexity of building projects increased in the past years substantially. The legal, financial and technical details are enshrined in such a manner into each another that no more extensive project should be started without a professional building management. Additional demands result in the case of house building, because the financial incentives for investment are limited and the return prospects are lean. And all of this although the structural requirements - and thus the building cost - increased enormously. If the risk of inefficient operational sequences comes along evenly, the building project threatens to become to a lost bargain. Having this background in the mind: How can it succeed to provide urgently needed dwelling in sufficient quantity for groups of tenants with special needs?.

  14. Report on design and technical standard planning of vibration controlling structure on the buildings, in the Tokai Reprocessing Facility, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Terada, Shuji; Shinohara, Takaharu; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Toshinari; Hosoya, Hisashi

    1997-10-01

    The Tokai reprocessing facility buildings are constituted by a lower foundation, vibration controlling layers, and upper structure. At the vibration controlling layer, a laminated rubber aiming support of the building load and extension of the eigenfrequency and a damper aiming absorption of earthquake energy are provided. Of course, the facility buildings are directly supported at the arenaceous shale (Taga Layer) of the Miocene in the Neogene confirmed to the stablest ground, as well the buildings with high vibration resistant importance in Japan. This report shows that when the vibration controlling structure is adopted for the reprocessing facility buildings where such high vibration resistance is required, reduction of input acceleration for equipments and pipings can be achieved and the earthquake resistant safety can also be maintained with sufficient tolerance and reliability. (G.K.)

  15. Making inferences about patterns in wildlife tourism activities in Scotland using social media

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The Power Point file contains the slides of my talk for the BES 2016 annual meeting. The title of the talk is: "Making inferences about patterns in wildlife tourism activities in Scotland using social media".

  16. Management of congenital talipes equino varus in Scotland: a nationwide audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, D J; Barker, S L; Macnicol, M F; Porter, R W; Maffulli, N

    2004-02-01

    The Scottish Talipes Register is a record of all newly diagnosed cases of idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) in Scotland over a four.year period. Two hundred and sixteen children were entered into the register, which recorded initial management and all subsequent interventions, both non-operative and operative. The data, therefore, represent a record of the different management regimens used within Scotland highlighting the variations in duration of conservative management and variations in surgical intervention following different methods of conservative management.

  17. ‘Breaking Good News’: Neurologists' experiences of discussing SUDEP with patients in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Nisbet, Tom; Turnbull, Susan; Mulhern, Sharon; Razvi, Saif

    2017-01-01

    Since the findings of a Fatal Accident Inquiry (FAI) in 2010, clinicians working in Scotland have been advised to discuss the risk of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) with patients immediately or soon after a diagnosis of epilepsy is made. A thematic analysis was used to describe the experiences discussing SUDEP of 10 clinicians (six Consultant Neurologists and four Neurology Registrars) working in Scotland. Contrary to previous research, clinicians appear to be routinely discussin...

  18. Climate Justice Begins at Home: Conceptual, Pragmatic and Transformative Approaches to Climate Justice in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroz-Aitken, Mhairi; Christman, Ben; Bonaventura, Mike; van der Horst, Dan; Holbrook, Julian

    2016-01-01

    n March 2012 the Scottish Parliament unanimously passed a motion ‘strongly endors[ing] the opportunity for Scotland to champion climate justice’. To date, discussions around climate justice within Scottish policy have largely focussed on international dimensions. Questions remain as to what climate justice means at home in Scotland. This article aims to engage with such questions. It begins with an overview of the theoretical underpinnings of climate justice discourses and discusses the vario...

  19. Provision of out-of-hours interventional radiology services in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zealley, I.A.; Gordon, T.J.; Robertson, I.; Moss, J.G.; Gillespie, I.N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the availability of out-of-hours (OOH) interventional radiology (IR) services in Scotland and discuss implications for service redesign. Materials and methods: Data were gathered via a survey conducted by telephone/e-mail interview. The setting was hospitals in Scotland with acute medical and/or surgical beds. The interviewees were consultant interventional radiologists representing each of the 14 geographical Health Boards in Scotland. Results: Three of the 14 geographical Health Boards provided a formal, prospectively planned OOH IR service in at least one hospital. Fourteen of the 34 acute hospitals provided an in-hours IR service, which includes endovascular haemorrhage control. Eight of the 34 acute hospitals had formal, prospectively planned on-call IR arrangements, 12 had an ad-hoc service, and 20 transferred patients to other facilities. Thirty-eight of the 223 consultant radiologists in Scotland were able to perform endovascular haemorrhage control procedures: only 18 of these 38 (47%) were included in on-call rotas. A further 42 radiologists were able to perform nephrostomy and a further 61 were able to perform abscess drainage. Eighty-two radiologists did not perform any interventional procedures. Conclusions: The provision of OOH IR services in Scotland is limited and available resources, both skills and equipment, are being underutilized. These data will be used to inform a process of OOH IR service redesign in Scotland.

  20. Identifying dietary differences between Scotland and England: a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie; Barton, Karen L; Albani, Viviana; Anderson, Annie S; Wrieden, Wendy L

    2017-10-01

    Rates of premature mortality have been higher in Scotland than in England since the 1970s. Given the known association of diet with chronic disease, the study objective was to identify and synthesise evidence on current and historical differences in food and nutrient intakes in Scotland and England. A rapid review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature was carried out. After an initial scoping search, Medline, CINAHL, Embase and Web of Science were searched. Relevant grey literature was also included. Inclusion criteria were: any date; measures of dietary intake; representative populations; cross-sectional or observational cohort studies; and English-language publications. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-sectional Studies. A narrative synthesis of extracted information was conducted. Fifty publications and reports were included in the review. Results indicated that children and adults in Scotland had lower intakes of vegetables and vitamins compared with those living in England. Higher intakes of salt in Scotland were also identified. Data were limited by small Scottish samples, difficulty in finding England-level data, lack of statistical testing and adjustment for key confounders. Further investigation of adequately powered and analysed surveys is required to examine more fully dietary differences between Scotland and England. This would provide greater insight into potential causes of excess mortality in Scotland compared with England and suitable policy recommendations to address these inequalities.

  1. Evaluating the scope for energy-efficiency improvements in the public sector: Benchmarking NHSScotland's smaller health buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Joe; Pahl, O.; Burek, S.

    2008-01-01

    The National Health Service in Scotland (NHSScotland) has, in recent years, done much to reduce energy consumption in its major healthcare buildings (hospitals). On average, a reduction of 2% per year has been achieved since 2000, based on hospital buildings. However, there had been little or no attention paid to smaller premises such as health centres, clinics, dentists, etc. Such smaller healthcare buildings in Scotland constitute 29% of the total treated floor area of all NHSScotland buildings and, therefore, may contribute a similar percentage of carbon and other emissions to the environment. By concentrating on a sample of local health centres in Scotland, this paper outlines the creation of an energy benchmark target, which is part of a wider research project to investigate the environmental impacts of small healthcare buildings in Scotland and the scope for improvements. It was found that energy consumption varied widely between different centres but this variation could not be linked to building style, floor area or volume. Overall, it was found that a benchmark of 0.2 GJ/m 3 would be challenging, but realistic

  2. National supervised toothbrushing program and dental decay in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, L M D; Anopa, Y; Conway, D I; McMahon, A D

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to assess the association between the roll-out of the national nursery toothbrushing program and a reduction in dental decay in five-year-old children in a Scotland-wide population study. The intervention was supervised toothbrushing in nurseries and distribution of fluoride toothpaste and toothbrushes for home use, measured as the percentage of nurseries participating in each health service administrative board area. The endpoint was mean d(3)mft in 99,071 five-year-old children, covering 7% to 25% of the relevant population (in various years), who participated in multiple cross-sectional dental epidemiology surveys in 1987 to 2009. The slope of the uptake in toothbrushing was correlated with the slope in the reduction of d(3)mft. The mean d(3)mft in Years -2 to 0 (relative to that in start-up Year 0) was 3.06, reducing to 2.07 in Years 10 to 12 (difference = -0.99; 95% CI -1.08, -0.90; p toothbrushing correlated with the decline in d(3)mft (correlation = -0.64; -0.86, -0.16; p = 0.011). The result improved when one outlying Health Board was excluded (correlation = -0.90; -0.97, -0.70; p toothbrushing.

  3. Accounting for the Assimilative Capacity of Water Systems in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Novo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A key methodological challenge in understanding the relationship between the economy and the underlying ecosystem base resides in how to account for the ecosystem’s degradation and the decline of associated ecosystem services. In this study, we use information on nutrients and metals concentrations from the Environmental Change Network (ECN database and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA for the period 2000–2010 in order to assess the assimilation capacity of water systems. The research covers five upstream sites and 17 downstream sites in northeast Scotland. Our results highlight the relevance of considering a number of pollutants, and suggest that elements such as arsenic, lead and mercury can pose a threat to ecosystems’ sustainability and health. However, little research has been done in terms of their assimilation capacity and their impact on grey water footprint assessments. In addition, the results indicate that background conditions might be relevant when performing sustainability analysis at different spatial scales. The study also poses relevant questions in relation to land management approaches versus traditional ‘end-of-pipe’ water treatment approaches, and the definition of maximum and background concentrations. In this regard, further studies will be required to understand the trade-offs between different ecosystem services depending on how these concentrations are defined.

  4. Enigmatic Fossils from the Lower Carboniferous Shrimp Bed, Granton, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapalski, Mikołaj K; Clarkson, Euan N K

    2015-01-01

    The Lower Carboniferous (Visean) Granton Lagerstätte (Edinburgh, Scotland) is principally known for the discovery of the conodont animal, but has also yielded numerous crustaceans and other faunas. Here we report on small branching colonies, reaching 10 mm in length. They are small, erect, arborescent, and irregularly branched with predominant monopodial and dichotomous growth. They bud in a single plane. In one specimen the wall microstructure is well preserved and it is composed of evenly spaced, linear fibers, running parallel to the axis of the stems, and connected by transverse bars. We discuss possible biological affinities of these organisms; we consider algal, poriferan, hydrozoan and bryozoan affinities. The general pattern of branching, presence of fan-like structures (interpreted here as possible gonophores) and microstructure suggests affinity to Hydrozoa, affinity to non-calcifying algae is less likely. Assuming hydrozoan nature; the microstructure might suggest affinities with the extant family Solanderiidae Marshall, 1892 that possess an internal chitinous skeleton. The EDS analysis shows that fossils discussed here are preserved as phosphates. The skeletons were probably not mineralized, the presence of phosphorus suggests that the colonies were originally composed of chitin. We describe these organisms as Caledonicratis caridum gen. et sp. nov. (Solanderiidae?, Capitata?). Colonies of C. caridum gen et. sp. nov. sometimes encrust the exuviae of crustaceans, which very probably lived in fresh to brackish water thus indicating a likely habitat of Caledonicratis.

  5. Radiologist perceptions of radiographer role development in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, Lesley J.; Robertson, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To survey the perceptions of the Scottish radiology community in relation to radiographer role development. Methods: A postal questionnaire was sent to all consultant radiologists recorded on the NHS Scotland database of consultants. Results: Response rate was 63%. (i) Respondents considered increased professional standing of radiographers, best use of manpower resources, reduced pressure on the service and improved recruitment and retention, as positive advantages of radiographer development. (ii) The potential impact on radiology specialist registrar training, lack of clear medico-legal responsibilities and radiographers recognising the limitations of their abilities were identified as the main areas of radiologist anxiety. (iii) Fifty-seven percent did not consider current post-registration radiography education and training resources adequate to underpin the requirement of developed roles. (iv) Barriers to radiographer development were identified as lack of radiography and radiology staff, suitable education, financial constraints, traditional views and resistance to change. (v) Eighty-two percent reported support for radiographer role development and willingness to participate actively in developments. Conclusion: Despite reservations Scottish radiologists are supportive of the development of radiography colleagues, however, guidance is required on the medico-legal and accountability aspects of radiographers assuming new roles. Radiologist involvement in education and training for new roles may increase their confidence and trust in radiographers to work within the limitations of their competency and training

  6. Water Institutional Reforms in Scotland: Contested Objectives and Hidden Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A.R. Ioris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available One fundamental limitation of the contemporary debate over water institutional reforms has been the excessive concentration on scientific assessments and management techniques, with insufficient consideration of the underlying politics of decision-making and socio-economic asymmetries. This article examines the 'sociology of water regulation' to demonstrate how the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD in Scotland is profoundly influenced by broader political and economic circumstances. The ongoing reforms of regulatory institutions became entangled in the reorganisation of a devolved Scottish Administration in the late 1990s, which has directly influenced the channels of representation and the overall decision-making processes. It is claimed here that, despite a discursive construction around sustainability and public participation, the new institutional landscape has so far failed to improve long-term patterns of water use and conservation. The article also analyses how the exacerbation of the economic dimension of water management has permeated the entire experience, serving as a political filter for the assessment of impacts and formulation of solutions. The ultimate conclusion is that formal changes in the legislation created a positive space for institutional reforms, but the effective improvement of water policy and catchment management has been curtailed by political inertia and the hidden balance of power.

  7. Legal Crisis and Artistic Innovation in Thirteenth-Century Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Barker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Weathered, damaged, and largely forgotten, the thirteenth-century effigies of Walter and Mary Stewart lie amid the evocative ruins of Inchmahome Priory on an island in the Lake of Menteith, Stirlingshire (Scotland. This tomb has been overlooked by art historians, yet it is the earliest surviving example in the British Isles of effigies of husband and wife lying side-by-side on the same tomb, the forerunner of a trend for commemorating marriage which would not become widespread for almost another hundred years. The intimacy of Walter and Mary’s relationship is expressed through a complex exchange of gestures, unparalleled in medieval funerary sculpture: both figures stretch out an arm to embrace one another around the shoulder, while Walter reaches across with his other hand to pull the folds of Mary’s cloak over her body. The following article considers the possible connection between this remarkable instance of artistic innovation and Walter and Mary’s involvement in a long-running dispute over their possession of the earldom of Menteith. Examining the gestures of the figures, the decision to place the monument at Inchmahome, and the probable identity of Walter as patron, I argue that the effigies were intended as an enduring witness to the legitimacy of Walter and Mary’s possession of their title and lands.

  8. Artificial radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, W.A.; Bonnett, P.J.P.; Barr, H.M.; Howorth, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A study has been carried out to determine the impact of Sellafield discharges on the levels of radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland. The likely areas of tidal inundations along the Nith, Urr, Dee, Fleet and Cree (including nearby Bladnoch) rivers were assessed using maps and aerials photographs. These were then visited and gamma radiation measurements taken at regular intervals to enable the external dose from anthropogenic nuclides to be estimated. A further survey followed where soil cores were taken from the areas on each river where the external dose appeared highest and analysed for a range of artificial radionuclides. The levels of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am found, although small, were clearly in excess of the background from other sources. A habit survey was carried out to provide site specific information of tide washed pasture usage, which, with the spatial radionuclide data was used to estimate doses to appropriate critical groups. The maximum annual dose calculated to arise was 60 μSv which is less than 6% of the ICRP principal dose limit of 1 mSv. (author)

  9. Protocol for the building construction process with regard to the implementation trajectory protocols EWN and EUN. Manual for commissioners, contractors, building management offices and energy efficiency standard advisors; Handleiding opnameprotocollen EWN en EUN. Voor opdrachtgevers, aannemers, bouwmanagementbureaus en EPN-adviseurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeleman, J. [DWA installatie- en energieadvies, Duitslandweg 4, Postbus 274, 2410 AG Bodegraven (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    In the year 2012 it was foreseen to base the energy label for new buildings on the Energy Efficiency Coefficient (EPC in Dutch). This is a protocol for residential and utility buildings, with the aim to check whether and to what extent buildings were constructed according the EPC and to determine the realized EPC. In order to gain experience with the new protocols and the voluntary ventilation test the Protocol for the Energy Label for New Houses (EWN in Dutch) and the Protocol for the Energy Label for New Utility Buildings (EUN in Dutch) were conducted in 12 newly built housing projects and 5 projects in the utility building sector. With this manual you can realize energy efficient houses and/or utility buildings that meet the standards [Dutch] In het jaar 2012 was voorzien om het nieuwbouwlabel te baseren op de EPC (Energie Prestatie Coefficient). Hiervoor is een opnameprotocol opgesteld voor de woningbouw en de utiliteitsbouw, met als doel te controleren of en in hoeverre conform de EPC is gebouwd en om de gerealiseerde EPC te bepalen. Om ervaring op te doen met de nieuwe opnameprotocollen en de vrijwillige ventilatietoets werden het Opnameprotocol Energielabel Woningen Nieuwbouw (EWN) en Opnameprotocol Energielabel Utiliteitsgebouwen Nieuwbouw (EUN) uitgevoerd bij 12 nieuwbouwprojecten in de woningbouw en 5 projecten in de utiliteitsbouw. Met deze handleiding realiseert u energiezuinige woningen en/of utiliteitsgebouwen die aan de verwachtingen voldoen.

  10. ‘A confession of ignorance’: deaths from old age and deciphering cause-of-death statistics in Scotland, 1855–1949

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alice; Garrett, Eilidh; Dibben, Chris; Williamson, Lee

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of the research undertaken in an attempt to discover the reasons underlying the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century mortality decline in Britain has relied on the statistics published by the Registrars General. The processes by which individual causes of death are recorded and then processed in order to create the statistics are not, however, well understood. In this article, the authors build on previous work to piece together a time series of causes of death for Scotland, which removes many of the discontinuities encountered in the published statistics that result from the Registrar General deciding to update the nosology, or classification system, which was being used to compile his figures. Having regrouped individual causes of death to ‘smooth’ the time series, the authors use the new groups to examine the changing causes of death in Scotland for selected age groups, before turning to undertake a detailed examination of mortality amongst those aged 55 or more. The authors find that when deaths from ‘old age’ in the latter age group are separated from other ‘ill-defined’ causes, it becomes obvious that there was a ‘rebranding’ of cause of death. The authors then use individual-level data from two Scottish communities to further dissect the roles played by ‘informants’ and ‘doctors’ in this rebranding, in order to see how these roles may have altered over time and what the consequences might be for one's view of how mortality changed in Scotland between 1855 and 1949. Finally, the authors argue that their findings have important implications for some of historical demography's most prominent theories: the McKeown thesis and the theory of epidemiological transition. PMID:26900320

  11. A survey of principal researchers who lead research into Adults with Incapacity in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A C; Lees, K R; Booth, M G; Bailey, A; Hunter, W

    2013-02-01

    Scotland's 'A' Research Ethics Committee (SAREC, previously MREC A) has exclusive authority to consider research involving Adults with Incapacity in Scotland. No appeal facility exists although resubmissions are accepted. Legislation covering research in England and Wales has created anomalies. RECs 'recognised' by the UK Ethics Committee (3 in Scotland, several in England) can approve drug studies involving Adults with Incapacity in Scotland. Several English RECs can approve studies led from outside Scotland. We conducted an anonymous online survey of researchers experienced in studies involving Adults with Incapacity to establish their opinions on the role of SAREC. The survey had 5 multiple-choice questions. Two questions invited a free-text comment. Seventy-seven researchers (45% response) completed the survey. The majority (61/76, 80%) received a favourable opinion from SAREC immediately/after minor revision. The consensus was a single, experienced committee is advantageous to researchers (69/77 (90%)) and research participants (65/75 (87%)). There was no association between application outcome and opinion on whether a single committee is advantageous for researchers (p = 0.39 (Fisher's exact test)) or research participants (p = 0.49). Most (42/76, 55%) favoured the current system for reviewing decisions. The research establishment favours retaining expertise in one committee. Most are content not having an external appeal facility.

  12. Genome sequence analysis of emm89 Streptococcus pyogenes strains causing infections in Scotland, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beres, Stephen B; Olsen, Randall J; Ojeda Saavedra, Matthew; Ure, Roisin; Reynolds, Arlene; Lindsay, Diane S J; Smith, Andrew J; Musser, James M

    2017-12-01

    Strains of type emm89 Streptococcus pyogenes have recently increased in frequency as a cause of human infections in several countries in Europe and North America. This increase has been molecular epidemiologically linked with the emergence of a new genetically distinct clone, designated clade 3. We sought to extend our understanding of this epidemic behavior by the genetic characterization of type emm89 strains responsible in recent years for an increased frequency of infections in Scotland. We sequenced the genomes of a retrospective cohort of 122 emm89 strains recovered from patients with invasive and noninvasive infections throughout Scotland during 2010 to 2016. All but one of the 122 emm89 infection isolates are of the recently emerged epidemic clade 3 clonal lineage. The Scotland isolates are closely related to and not genetically distinct from recent emm89 strains from England, they constitute a single genetic population. The clade 3 clone causes virtually all-contemporary emm89 infections in Scotland. These findings add Scotland to a growing list of countries of Europe and North America where, by whole genome sequencing, emm89 clade 3 strains have been demonstrated to be the cause of an ongoing epidemic of invasive infections and to be genetically related due to descent from a recent common progenitor.

  13. Orbital cellulitis in Scotland: current incidence, aetiology, management and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C; Livingstone, I; Foot, B; Murgatroyd, H; MacEwen, C J

    2014-11-01

    Orbital cellulitis is a potentially blinding and life-threatening condition. There are little published data on the incidence of orbital cellulitis and little is known about the differences between children and adults affected. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence, aetiology, management and outcome of orbital cellulitis in children and adults in Scotland. This study was a 1-year prospective observational study using the Scottish Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit reporting system among Scottish ophthalmologists. The response rate from ophthalmologists was 66.4%. There were 15 children and 5 adults reported giving an incidence of 1.6 per 100 000 and 0.1 per 100 000 in children and adults, respectively. 47% of children had a preceding upper respiratory tract infection with 87% having radiological evidence of sinus disease. Within the adult group, there was preceding immunosuppression and trauma. Streptococcus (66%) and Haemophilus (46%) species were the most commonly isolated pathogens in children. Respiratory pathogens were less predictable in adults. All patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics. All children with orbital and subperiosteal abscesses had surgery; one adult with orbital abscess did not have surgery. There were two cases of series morbidity: one intracranial spread of infection and one evisceration. The incidence of orbital cellulitis is higher in children than in adults. In children, it commonly follows upper respiratory infection and sinus disease; however, in adults, preceding illness and trauma are more common. Respiratory pathogens are common in affected children. Intravenous antibiotics and surgical treatment of abscesses remain the preferred management. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Education in nuclear decommissioning in the north of Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catlow, F.; Reeves, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the work covered and experience gained in the first two years of operation of DERC, a Centre for Decommissioning and Environmental Remediation in the Highlands of Scotland. The Centre is a unique development which was set up to teach nuclear decommissioning as a separate discipline, address the problem of a declining skills base in the field of nuclear technologies and to take advantage of the unique and exceptional innovative, technical and research opportunities offered through the decommissioning of Britain's fast reactor site at Dounreay. The Centre is an offshoot from North Highland College which is a member of UHI, the University in embryo of the Highlands and Islands. The Centre currently supports ten PhD students completing various diverse projects mainly in the field of nuclear environmental remediation. In addition there area number of full and part time MSc students who participate in NTEC (Nuclear Technology Education Consortium) a consortium of British Universities set up specifically to engender interest and skills in nuclear technology at postgraduate level. At undergraduate level, courses are offered in Nuclear Decommissioning and related subjects as part of Electrical and Mechanical degree courses. In addition to our relationship with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) the Dounreay site licensee, we have links with Rolls-Royce and the Ministry of Defence who also share the Dounreay site and with other stakeholders such as, the UK regulator (HSE/NII), the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), local and international contractors and we liaise with the newly formed Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), who provide some sponsorship and support. We possess our own equipment and laboratories for taking and analysing soil samples and for conducting environmental surveys. Recently we commissioned an aerial survey of contamination in the locality from natural sources, other background levels such as

  15. Governing obesity policies from England, France, Germany and Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-12-01

    Defining a phenomenon as a political problem could be considered a crucial part of any political process. Body weight, when categorised as obesity, has been defined as a political problem since the beginning of the 21st century and has entered the political agenda in many countries. In this article, I present a study of four plans from four Western European countries: England, France, Germany and Scotland, identifying how obesity is defined as a political issue. The questions addressed are: How is the development in the obesity prevalence explained and who is considered responsible for the development? What are the suggested remedies and who is considered responsible for acting? All plans state that obesity is a political issue because it causes health problems; in fact, weight is almost equated to health. The English and Scottish plans present a bio-political argument, characterising obesity as a serious threat to the countries' economies. So does the German plan, but not with the same emphasis. The plans portray people with obesity as being economically harmful to their fellow citizens. The French plan expresses another concern by focussing on the discrimination and stigmatization of obese people. All plans define the physical and food environment as a crucial factor in the obesity development, but only the Scottish Government is prepared to use statutory means towards industry and other actors to achieve change. The policies convey an unresolved dilemma: To govern or not to govern? The Governments want individuals to choose for themselves, yet they try to govern the populations to choose as the Governments find appropriate. The plans have a legitimising function, showing that the Governments take the issue seriously. Accordingly, in this case, the actual problematisations seem to be less crucial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. BIOCIDE TREATMENT OF PONDS IN SCOTLAND TO ERADICATE SIGNAL CRAYFISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEAY S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed to eradicate illegally introduced signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus in the North Esk catchment, Scotland. Sites treated were (1 an isolated gravel-pit (c. 9,000 m3, with crayfish present for 6 years; (2 three dammed ponds, (c. 5,000 m3 and (3 a leaking, offline pond (c. 6,000 m3, with crayfish for two years. Preliminary toxicity tests with substrate present indicated doses. Treatment at sites (1 and (2 (in October 2004, water temperature 13°C comprised deoxygenation with sodium sulphite to stimulate emergence, then application of natural pyrethrum (Pyblast. Exposed margins were sprayed with Pyblast to prevent escapes. Crayfish mortality was high, but one survivor was seen after 5 days. Pyblast was applied from a tank with Na2SO3 residue, which subsequent investigation indicated reduced Pyblast below the target 0.1 mg l-1. Site (1 was re-treated (end October, target 0.15 mg l-1 Pyblast, no Na2SO3, 9°C. Mortality was confirmed using caged crayfish. Prior to treatment at site (2, throughflow was stopped and fish removed. Biomonitoring was carried out with freshwater shrimps Gammarus in the adjacent watercourse. Treatment of site (3 (December, target 0.2 mg l-1, 4°C necessitated continuous back-pumping of leakage for a 2-week recovery period to avoid contamination of the river downstream. Caged crayfish took up to 5 days for 100% mortality. No crayfish were found in a summer survey after the treatments with Pyblast alone, but were caught in the ponds with Na2SO3 pre-treatment. Monitoring is required for 2-5 years.

  17. Slow pace of dietary change in Scotland: 2001-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrieden, Wendy L; Armstrong, Julie; Sherriff, Andrea; Anderson, Annie S; Barton, Karen L

    2013-05-28

    Monitoring changes in the food and nutrient intake of a nation is important for informing the design and evaluation of policy. Surveys of household food consumption have been carried out annually in the UK since 1940 and, despite some changes over the years 1940-2000, the method used for the Expenditure and Food Survey (Living Costs and Food Survey from 2008) has been fundamentally the same since 2001. Using these surveys an analytical procedure was devised to compare food consumption and nutrient intake in Scotland with the Scottish dietary targets, and monitor change. This method takes into account contributions to composite foods and losses due to food preparation, as well as inedible and edible waste. There were few consistent improvements in consumption of foods or nutrients targeted for change over the period 2001-9. A significant but small increase was seen in mean fruit and vegetable consumption (259 g/d in 2001, 279 g/d in 2009, equating to an increase of less than 3 g/person per year). There was also a significant decrease in the percentage of food energy from SFA (15·5 % in 2001, 15·1 % in 2009) and from non-milk extrinsic sugars (15·5 % in 2001, 14·8 % in 2009), concurrent with a reduction in whole milk consumption and soft drink consumption, respectively. These small changes are encouraging, but highlight the time taken for even modest changes in diet to occur. To achieve a significant impact on the health of the present Scottish population, the improvements in diet will need to be greater and more rapid.

  18. Building a World-Class Front-Line Workforce: The Need for Occupational Skill Standards in State Workforce Preparation Programs. EQW Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Robert G.

    Establishment of a national-state system of world-class occupational skill standards is a first step in restructuring adult vocational-technical education and job training programs. Occupational skills standards provide the necessary foundation for addressing three major state policy issues: the state's proper role in private work-based training,…

  19. Building up a database of spectro-photometric standard stars from the UV to the near-IR: A status report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernet, J.; Kerber, F.; Saitta, F.; Mainieri, V.; D'Odorico, S.; Lidman, C.; Mason, E.; Bohlin, R.C.; Rauch, T.; Ivanov, V.D.; Smette, A.; Walsh, J.R.; Fosbury, R.A.E.; Goldoni, P.; Groot, P.; Hammer, F.; Horrobin, M.; Kaper, L.; Kjaergaard-Rasmussen, P.; Pallavicini, R.; Royer, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a project aimed at establishing a set of 12 spectro-photometric standards over a wide wavelength range from 320 to 2500 nm. Currently no such set of standard stars covering the near-IR is available. Our strategy is to extend the useful range of existing well-established optical flux

  20. External validation of the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) risk prediction model in critical care units in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David A; Lone, Nazir I; Haddow, Catriona; MacGillivray, Moranne; Khan, Angela; Cook, Brian; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2014-01-01

    Risk prediction models are used in critical care for risk stratification, summarising and communicating risk, supporting clinical decision-making and benchmarking performance. However, they require validation before they can be used with confidence, ideally using independently collected data from a different source to that used to develop the model. The aim of this study was to validate the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) model using independently collected data from critical care units in Scotland. Data were extracted from the Scottish Intensive Care Society Audit Group (SICSAG) database for the years 2007 to 2009. Recoding and mapping of variables was performed, as required, to apply the ICNARC model (2009 recalibration) to the SICSAG data using standard computer algorithms. The performance of the ICNARC model was assessed for discrimination, calibration and overall fit and compared with that of the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II model. There were 29,626 admissions to 24 adult, general critical care units in Scotland between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2009. After exclusions, 23,269 admissions were included in the analysis. The ICNARC model outperformed APACHE II on measures of discrimination (c index 0.848 versus 0.806), calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-squared statistic 18.8 versus 214) and overall fit (Brier's score 0.140 versus 0.157; Shapiro's R 0.652 versus 0.621). Model performance was consistent across the three years studied. The ICNARC model performed well when validated in an external population to that in which it was developed, using independently collected data.

  1. The Kuwait-Scotland eHealth Innovation Network (KSeHIN): a sustainable approach to quality improvement in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, N T; Wotayan, R Al; Alkuzam, A; Al-Refaei, F F; Badawi, D; Barake, R; Bell, A; Boyle, G; Chisholm, S; Connell, J; Emslie-Smith, A; Goddard, C A; Greene, S A; Halawa, N; Judson, A; Kelly, C; Ker, J; Scott, M; Shaltout, A; Sukkar, F; Wake, D; Morris, A; Sibbald, D; Behbehani, K

    2014-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Kuwait represents a significant challenge for the country's healthcare system. Diabetes care in Scotland has improved by adopting a system of managed clinical networks supported by a national informatics platform. In 2010, a Kuwait-Dundee collaboration was established with a view to transforming diabetes care in Kuwait. This paper describes the significant progress that has been made to date. The Kuwait-Scotland eHealth Innovation Network (KSeHIN) is a partnership among health, education, industry and government. KSeHIN aims to deliver a package of clinical service development, education (including a formal postgraduate programme and continuing professional development) and research underpinned by a comprehensive informatics system. The informatics system includes a disease registry for children and adults with diabetes. At the patient level, the system provides an overview of clinical and operational data. At the population level, users view key performance indicators based on national standards of diabetes care established by KSeHIN. The national childhood registry (CODeR) accumulates approximately 300 children a year. The adult registry (KHN), implemented in four primary healthcare centres in 2013, has approximately 4000 registered patients, most of whom are not yet meeting national clinical targets. A credit-bearing postgraduate educational programme provides module-based teaching and workplace-based projects. In addition, a new clinical skills centre provides simulator-based training. Over 150 masters students from throughout Kuwait are enrolled and over 400 work-based projects have been completed to date. KSeHIN represents a successful collaboration between multiple stakeholders working across traditional boundaries. It is targeting patient outcomes, system performance and professional development to provide a sustainable transformation in the quality of diabetes healthcare for the growing population of

  2. Whole population secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in Scotland: the HEARTS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Frank M; Donnan, Peter T; Love, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Implementing the evidence base for the management of chronic disease is as challenging as discovering which interventions are effective. The HEARTS collaboration (Heart disease Evidence-based Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland) is achieving that goal for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD by linking national databases to manually validated hospital and family practice electronic patient records. Specific data from the system is fed back to practices in a facilitated educational process and through the NHS intranet. This paper describes some of the key features of this strategic decision support system. All residents of the Tayside region of Scotland (n=484,013 mid year estimate 2002) are covered by the system. 9,828 patients who have suffered a myocardial infarction(MI) or who have undergone angioplasty or bypass surgery are registered on the system. Improvements in clinical status and prescribing of effective therapies are 5-10% greater than elsewhere in Scotland.

  3. The First Detailed 2H and 18O Isoscapes of Freshwater in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Augenstein, W.; Hoogewerff, J.; Kemp, H. F.; Frew, D.

    2012-04-01

    Scotland's freshwater lochs and reservoirs provide a vital resource for sustaining biodiversity, agriculture, food production as well as for human consumption. Regular monitoring of freshwater quality by the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) fulfils the legislative requirements but new scientific methods involving stable isotope analysis present an opportunity for delivering on current and nascent government policies [1] and gaining a greater understanding of Scottish waters and their importance in the context of climate change, environmental sustainability and the aforementioned functions. In brief, 2H and 18O isoscapes of Scottish freshwater could be used to support fundamental and applied research in: • Climate change - These first ever isoscapes will provide a baseline against which future environmental impact can be assessed due to changes in the characteristic isotope composition of freshwater lochs and reservoirs. • Scottish branding - Location specific stable isotope signatures of Scottish freshwater have the potential to be used as a tool for provenancing and thus protecting premium Scottish produce such as Scottish beef, Scottish berries and Scottish Whisky. During 2011, freshwater samples were collected with the support of SEPA from more than 80 freshwater lochs and reservoirs across Scotland. Here we present the result of the 2H and 18O stable isotope analyses of these water samples together with the first isoscapes generated based on these data. [1] Adaptation Framework - Adapting Our Ways: Managing Scotland's Climate Risk (2009): Scotland's Biodiversity: It's in Your Hands - A strategy for the conservation and enhancement of biodiversity in Scotland (2005); Recipe For Success - Scotland's National Food and Drink Policy (2009); Scottish Planning Policy Environmental Report (2009); Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) 15 Planning for Rural Development (2005); National Planning Policy Guideline (NPPG) 14: Natural Heritage (1999).

  4. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  5. Public health significance of Campylobacter spp. colonisation of wild game pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguino, Alessandro; Chintoan-Uta, Cosmin; Smith, Sionagh H; Shaw, Darren J

    2018-09-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. Chicken meat is considered the main source of human infection; however, C. jejuni and C. coli have also been reported in a range of livestock and wildlife species, including pheasants. Wild pheasant meat reaches the consumer's table because of hunting but there is a lack of information concerning the risk of Campylobacter infection in humans. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in wild game pheasants in Scotland, to identify the main sequence types (STs) present and to evaluate their impact on public health. A total of 287 caecal samples from five Scottish regions were collected during the hunting season 2013/2014. Campylobacter was detected and enumerated using standard culture methods. PCR and High Throughput Multi Locus Sequence Typing (HiMLST) were used for species identification and sequence typing. In total, 36.6% of 287 caecal samples (n = 105; 95% CI: 14-59.2) were Campylobacter positive. Using PCR, 62.6% of samples (n = 99) were identified as C. coli and 37.4% as C. jejuni. HiMLST (n = 80) identified 19 different STs. ST-828 (n = 19) was the most common, followed by ST-827 (n = 12) and ST19 (n = 7). Sixteen of the 19 STs isolated are present in humans and eight are C. coli STs that account for 6.96% of human infections, although the overall risk to public health from pheasant meat is still considered to be low. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of coronary heart disease in Scotland: Scottish Heart Health Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, W C; Kenicer, M B; Tunstall-Pedoe, H; Clark, E C; Crombie, I K

    1990-01-01

    Data from 10,359 men and women aged 40-59 years from 22 districts in the Scottish Heart Health Study were used to describe the prevalence rates of coronary heart disease in Scotland in 1984-1986 and their relation to the geographical variation in mortality in these districts. Prevalence was measured by previous history, Rose chest pain questionnaire, and the Minnesota code of a 12 lead resting electrocardiogram. The prevalence of coronary heart disease in Scotland was high compared with studi...

  7. Prevention of poultry-borne salmonellosis by irradiation: Costs and benefits in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, B.F; Forbes, G.I.; MacLeod, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    Poultry-borne salmonellosis is the most common foodborne infection in Scotland for which the vehicle can be identified. The cost of the disease to society in terms of health service use, absence from work, morbidity, and mortality is substantial. The study estimates the total cost of poultry-borne salmonellosis in Scotland and compares it with the cost of a single preventive measure: the irradiation of poultry meat. The results suggest that the public health benefits exceed irradiation costs. This conclusion is, however, sensitive to assumptions made in the analysis, particularly those related to the cost of unreported cases of salmonellosis. 19 refs, 3 tabs

  8. Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyborn, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development resources require a cross disciplinary approach, data from various domains will need to be integrated from globally distributed sources also via machine to machine formats. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the existing standards can be very domain specific and most existing data transfer formats require human intervention. Where groups from different communities do try combine data across the domain/discipline boundaries much time is spent reformatting and reorganizing the data and it is conservatively estimated that this can take 80% of a project's time and resources. Four different types of standards are required for machine to machine interaction: systems, syntactic, schematic and semantic. Standards at the systems (WMS, WFS, etc) and at the syntactic level (GML, Observation and Measurement, SensorML) are being developed through international standards bodies such as ISO, OGC, W3C, IEEE etc. In contrast standards at the schematic level (e.g., GeoSciML, LandslidesML, WaterML, QuakeML) and at the semantic level (ie ontologies and vocabularies) are currently developing rapidly, in a very uncoordinated way and with little governance. As the size of the community that can machine read each others data depends on the size of the community that has developed the schematic or semantic standards, it is essential that to achieve global integration of earth and space science data, the required standards need to be developed through international collaboration using accepted standard proceedures. Once developed the

  9. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  10. Geographic determinants of reported human Campylobacter infections in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessell, Paul R; Matthews, Louise; Smith-Palmer, Alison; Rotariu, Ovidiu; Strachan, Norval J C; Forbes, Ken J; Cowden, John M; Reid, Stuart W J; Innocent, Giles T

    2010-07-15

    Campylobacteriosis is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in most developed countries. People are exposed to infection from contaminated food and environmental sources. However, the translation of these exposures into infection in the human population remains incompletely understood. This relationship is further complicated by differences in the presentation of cases, their investigation, identification, and reporting; thus, the actual differences in risk must be considered alongside the artefactual differences. Data on 33,967 confirmed Campylobacter infections in mainland Scotland between 2000 and 2006 (inclusive) that were spatially referenced to the postcode sector level were analysed. Risk factors including the Carstairs index of social deprivation, the easting and northing of the centroid of the postcode sector, measures of livestock density by species and population density were tested in univariate screening using a non-spatial generalised linear model. The NHS Health Board of the case was included as a random effect in this final model. Subsequently, a spatial generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) was constructed and age-stratified sensitivity analysis was conducted on this model. The spatial GLMM included the protective effects of the Carstairs index (relative risk (RR) = 0.965, 95% Confidence intervals (CIs) = 0.959, 0.971) and population density (RR = 0.945, 95% CIs = 0.916, 0.974. Following stratification by age group, population density had a significant protective effect (RR = 0.745, 95% CIs = 0.700, 0.792) for those under 15 but not for those aged 15 and older (RR = 0.982, 95% CIs = 0.951, 1.014). Once these predictors have been taken into account three NHS Health Boards remain at significantly greater risk (Grampian, Highland and Tayside) and two at significantly lower risk (Argyll and Ayrshire and Arran). The less deprived and children living in rural areas are at the greatest risk of being reported as a case of Campylobacter infection

  11. Courthouse Prototype Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    As part of DOE's support of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 and IECC, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) apply a suite of prototype buildings covering 80% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S. for new construction. Efforts have started on expanding the prototype building suite to cover 90% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S., by developing prototype models for additional building types including place of worship, public order and safety, public assembly. Courthouse is courthouse is a sub-category under the “Public Order and Safety" building type category; other sub-categories include police station, fire station, and jail, reformatory or penitentiary.ORNL used building design guides, databases, and documented courthouse projects, supplemented by personal communication with courthouse facility planning and design experts, to systematically conduct research on the courthouse building and system characteristics. This report documents the research conducted for the courthouse building type and proposes building and system characteristics for developing a prototype building energy model to be included in the Commercial Building Prototype Model suite. According to the 2012 CBECS, courthouses occupy a total of 436 million sqft of floor space or 0.5% of the total floor space in all commercial buildings in the US, next to fast food (0.35%), grocery store or food market (0.88%), and restaurant or cafeteria (1.2%) building types currently included in the Commercial Prototype Building Model suite. Considering aggregated average, courthouse falls among the larger with a mean floor area of 69,400 sqft smaller fuel consumption intensity building types and an average of 94.7 kBtu/sqft compared to 77.8 kBtu/sqft for office and 80 kBtu/sqft for all commercial buildings.Courthouses range in size from 1000 sqft to over a million square foot building gross square feet and 1 courtroom to over 100 courtrooms. Small courthouses

  12. Redefining What It Means to Be a Teacher through Professional Standards: Implications for Continuing Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Deirdre; Forde, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This article connects with an international debate around the place of professional standards in educational policy targeted at enhancing teacher quality, with associated implications for continuing teacher education. Scotland provides a fertile context for discussion, having developed sets of professional standards in response to a recent…

  13. European standards for composite construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The European Standards Organisation (CEN) has planned to develop a complete set of harmonized European building standards. This set includes standards for composite steel and concrete buildings and bridges. The Eurocodes, being the design standards, form part of this total system of European

  14. Authorization for change in operating standards, 221 and 224 Building, pertaining to process changes during the period March 1, 1951--December 1, 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailor, W.C.

    1952-12-02

    Since the issuance of HW-17398, Separations Section Operating Standards - Part I relating to the Bismuth Phosphate Process on March 1, 1951, several changes in the process have been found desirable and have been reduced to practice. This document presents these changes.

  15. Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores and other commercial buildings in California. Issues related to the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Apte, Mike G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-10-31

    This report considers the question of whether the California Energy Commission should incorporate the ASHRAE 62.1 ventilation standard into the Title 24 ventilation rate (VR) standards, thus allowing buildings to follow the Indoor Air Quality Procedure. This, in contrast to the current prescriptive standard, allows the option of using ventilation rate as one of several strategies, which might include source reduction and air cleaning, to meet specified targets of indoor air concentrations and occupant acceptability. The research findings reviewed in this report suggest that a revised approach to a ventilation standard for commercial buildings is necessary, because the current prescriptive ASHRAE 62.1 Ventilation Rate Procedure (VRP) apparently does not provide occupants with either sufficiently acceptable or sufficiently healthprotective air quality. One possible solution would be a dramatic increase in the minimum ventilation rates (VRs) prescribed by a VRP. This solution, however, is not feasible for at least three reasons: the current need to reduce energy use rather than increase it further, the problem of polluted outdoor air in many cities, and the apparent limited ability of increasing VRs to reduce all indoor airborne contaminants of concern (per Hodgson (2003)). Any feasible solution is thus likely to include methods of pollutant reduction other than increased outdoor air ventilation; e.g., source reduction or air cleaning. The alternative 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure (IAQP) offers multiple possible benefits in this direction over the VRP, but seems too limited by insufficient specifications and inadequate available data to provide adequate protection for occupants. Ventilation system designers rarely choose to use it, finding it too arbitrary and requiring use of much non-engineering judgment and information that is not readily available. This report suggests strategies to revise the current ASHRAE IAQP to reduce its current limitations. These

  16. Students’ attitudes toward playing games and using games in education: Comparing Scotland and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hainey, Thomas; Westera, Wim; Connolly, Thomas M.; Boyle, Liz; Baxter, Gavin; Beeby, Richard B.; Soflano, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Hainey, T., Westera, W., Connolly, T. M., Boyle, L., Baxter, G., Beeby, R. B., & Soflano, M. (2013). Students’ attitudes toward playing games and using games in education: Comparing Scotland and the Netherlands. Computers & Education, 69, 474-484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.07.023

  17. Changing the Landscape of School/University Partnership in Northern Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Yvonne; Bruce, Jayne; Weir, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    This article is a descriptive analysis of the local impact of a national school/university partnership programme in Scotland. Starting from a high-level report on improving teacher education, a series of recommendations was filtered through various stages and agencies until local providers (local authorities and higher education institutions) were…

  18. James Hutton's Geological Tours of Scotland: Romanticism, Literary Strategies, and the Scientific Quest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Rather than focussing on the relationship between science and literature, this article attempts to read scientific writing as literature. It explores a somewhat neglected element of the story of the emergence of geology in the late eighteenth century--James Hutton's unpublished accounts of the tours of Scotland that he undertook in the years…

  19. Five key recommendations for the implementation of Hospital Electronic Prescribing and Medicines Administration systems in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Cresswell

    2017-01-01

    Our five recommendations will, we hope, provide a starting point for the strategic deliberations of policy makers. Throughout this journey, it is important to view the deployment of HEPMA as part of a wider strategic goal of creating integrated digital infrastructures across Scotland.

  20. Discourses, Decisions, Designs: "Special" Education Policy-Making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pei Wen; Graham, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    This comparative analysis investigates the influence of neo-liberal and inclusive discourses in "special" education policy-making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia. The centrality of competition, selectivity and accountability in the discourses used in New South Wales and Malaysia suggests a system preference for…

  1. How Stable Is the Stratification of Higher Education in England and Scotland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffe, David; Croxford, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This paper asks whether the institutional hierarchies defined by "golden triangle", other Russell Group, other pre-1992 and post-1992 universities in England, and by ancient, old and new universities in Scotland, have become weaker since the 1990s. Using indicators constructed from Universities and Colleges Admissions Service data for…

  2. Oral hygiene habits, denture plaque, presence of yeasts and stomatitis in institutionalised elderly in Lothian, Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Wight, C; Cumming, C

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between oral hygiene habits, denture plaque, presence of yeasts and stomatitis in institutionalised elderly. A sample of 201 residents, 48-99 yr of age (mean age 82 yr), was selected from four different institutions in Lothian, Scotland...

  3. Gaelic language erosion and revitalization on the Isle of Skye, Scotland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smakman, D.; Smith-Christmas, C.; Graaf, de T.; Ostler, N.; Salverda, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the language loss of three generations of a Gaelic-speaking family located on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. Participants' linguistic skills were assessed via language ability tests. We focused on plurals, passives, and tense, and we examined synthetic forms. The results confirmed

  4. Meeting the needs of homeless people: Interprofessional work in Norway and Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Isobel; Dyb, Evelyn; Ytrehus, Siri

    2012-01-01

    Samarbeidsrapport The main theme of the project are: how cooperation between welfare agencies and professions contribute to a better life for homeless people, and the role of housing in interprofessional work. The project is a comparative study between Norway and Scotland. The Housing Bank

  5. Eco-Schools Scotland: Lessons Learned from First-Hand Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Secondary schools are tasked with becoming sustainable institutions but this can be difficult to achieve because of a lack of time, shortage of project ideas and limited environmental management expertise. The Eco-Schools initiative exists to overcome these issues, and lessons learned from some schools in Scotland can help other schools implement…

  6. Pathogenic Potential to Humans of Bovine Escherichia coli O26, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Tracy; Allison, Lesley J.; Courcier, Emily; Evans, Judith; McKendrick, Iain J.; Pearce, Michael C.; Handel, Ian; Caprioli, Alfredo; Karch, Helge; Hanson, Mary F.; Pollock, Kevin G.J.; Locking, Mary E.; Woolhouse, Mark E.J.; Matthews, Louise; Low, J. Chris; Gally, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli O26 and O157 have similar overall prevalences in cattle in Scotland, but in humans, Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O26 infections are fewer and clinically less severe than E. coli O157 infections. To investigate this discrepancy, we genotyped E. coli O26 isolates from cattle and humans in Scotland and continental Europe. The genetic background of some strains from Scotland was closely related to that of strains causing severe infections in Europe. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling found an association between hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and multilocus sequence type 21 strains and confirmed the role of stx2 in severe human disease. Although the prevalences of E. coli O26 and O157 on cattle farms in Scotland are equivalent, prevalence of more virulent strains is low, reducing human infection risk. However, new data on E. coli O26–associated HUS in humans highlight the need for surveillance of non-O157 enterohemorrhagic E. coli and for understanding stx2 phage acquisition. PMID:22377426

  7. Engaging with a History of Counselling, Spirituality and Faith in Scotland: A Readers' Theatre Script

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Alette; Bondi, Liz; Burgess, MaryCatherine; Miller, Gavin; Fergusson, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an abbreviated version of a verbatim script developed from oral history interviews with individuals key to the development of counselling and psychotherapy in Scotland from 1960 to 2000. Earlier versions were used in workshops with counsellors and pastoral care practitioners to share counter-narratives of counselling and to…

  8. Curriculum Differentiation and Social Inequality in Higher Education Entry in Scotland and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Cristina; Smyth, Emer; Klein, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relative importance of upper secondary subject choice and attainment in explaining social inequalities in access to higher education (HE) in Scotland and Ireland. These two countries differ in the extent of curriculum differentiation, in the degree of standardisation in school examination and in HE entry criteria. In…

  9. Landowners and the Structure of Affordable Housing Provision in Rural Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsangi, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper looks at the behaviour of private landowners in rural Scotland in relation to housing supply, particularly renting and low-cost housing. The theme is one that has received relatively little research. In consequence, the paper is set in the context of two rather broader traditions in the literature of examining investor/developer…

  10. The Urgent Need for New Approaches in School Evaluation to Enable Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Niall

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents observations on the nature of school audit methods in light of the implementation of Scotland's incoming Curriculum for Excellence and the major normative, technological, and cultural changes affecting schools. It points to a mismatch between the concepts and structures of the incoming curriculum and that of the universalistic…

  11. Attitudes of Scottish abortion care providers towards provision of abortion after 16 weeks' gestation within Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Rosemary A; Cameron, Sharon T

    2013-06-01

    In Scotland, in contrast to the rest of Great Britain, abortion at gestations over 20 weeks is not provided, and provision of procedures above 16 weeks varies considerably between regions. Women at varying gestations above 16 weeks must travel outside Scotland, usually to England, for the procedure. To determine the views of professionals working within Scottish abortion care about a Scottish late abortion service. Delegates at a meeting for abortion providers in Scotland completed a questionnaire about their views on abortion provision over 16 weeks and their perceived barriers to service provision. Of 95 distributed questionnaires, 70 (76%) were analysed. Fifty-six respondents (80%) supported a Scottish late abortion service, ten (14%) would maintain current service arrangements, and five (7%) were undecided. Forty (57%) of the supporters of a Scottish service would prefer a single national service, and 16 (22%) several regional services. Perceived barriers included lack of trained staff (n = 39; 56%), accommodation for the service (n = 34; 48%), and perception of lack of support among senior management (n = 28; 40%). The majority of health professionals surveyed who work in Scottish abortion services support provision of abortion beyond 16 weeks within Scotland, and most favour a single national service. Further work on the feasibility of providing this service is required.

  12. Secession within the Union: Scotland said NO, but the quest for a legal framework continues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.; Vandamme, T.

    2014-01-01

    By a narrow margin, the 300-year-old union between Scotland and the rest of the United Kingdom survived the referendum held on 18 September 2014. British - and Scottish - membership in the EU has been one of the prominent factors in the political debate, which has addressed issues like the effect of

  13. Development of a Cross-Cultural HPV Community Engagement Model within Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, Elaine; Whittaker, Anne; Gray Brunton, Carol; Hogg, Rhona; Kennedy, Catriona; Hilton, Shona; Harding, Seeromanie; Pollock, Kevin G.; Pow, Janette

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine cultural barriers and participant solutions regarding acceptance and uptake of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine from the perspective of Black African, White-Caribbean, Arab, Indian, Bangladeshi and Pakistani young people. Methods: In total, 40 young people from minority ethnic communities in Scotland took part in a…

  14. Mortality counts and rates for injuries in Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, England, Scotland and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Injury Observatory for Britain and Ireland (IOBI)

    2014-01-01

    Number of deaths and age-standardised death rates by type of injury for the following regions and year of occurrence:Republic of Ireland 1982, 1983, 1995-2004Northern Ireland 1982, 1983, 1995-2002England 1996-2003Scotland 1982, 1983, 1995-2004Wales 1996-2003

  15. Public Views of Minority Languages as Communication or Symbol: The Case of Gaelic in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Lindsay; O'Hanlon, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Two social roles for language have been distinguished by Edwards--the communicative and the symbolic. Using data from a survey of public attitudes to Gaelic in Scotland, the article investigates the extent to which people's view of language may be characterised as relating to these roles. Respondents were grouped, using statistical cluster…

  16. The epidemiology of Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae at two historic gardens in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Elliot; T.R. Meagher; C. Harris; K. Searle; B.V. Purse; A. Schlenzig

    2013-01-01

    This study looked at the factors that facilitated the spread of Phytophthora ramorum andP. kernoviae at two locations in the west of Scotland. Spore traps, river baiting, bait plants, and soil sampling were used to both confirm the presence of, and measure the amount of, inoculum in the environment in order...

  17. New bioeroding sponges from Mingulay coldwater reefs, north-west Scotland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Beglinger, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    The relatively shallow coldwater coral reefs growing off the eastern coast of Mingulay, north-west Scotland, are excavated by five sponge species, three of which, Alectona millari, Pione vastifica and Cliona lobata, were known previously from Scottish waters. The other two species are new to

  18. Draft genome sequences of Phytophthora kernoviae and Phytophthora ramorum lineage EU2 from Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Sambles

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Newly discovered Phytophthora species include invasive pathogens that threaten trees and shrubs. We present draft genome assemblies for three isolates of Phytophthora kernoviae and one isolate of the EU2 lineage of Phytophthora ramorum, collected from outbreak sites in Scotland.

  19. A tale of two cities – oesophageal cancer in Malawi and Scotland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high incidence of oesophageal cancer in both Scotland and Malawi can be attributed to a combination of environmental and lifestyle factors. The aim of this study is to give a perspective on the comparative epidemiology of oesophageal cancer in these two very different populations (Blantyre, Malawi and Aberdeen, ...

  20. Elaboration of global quality standards for the thermal design of buildings in the french tropical islands; Elaboration d'un label de conception thermique des batiments dans les departements d'outremer francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garde, F.; Boyer, H. [Universite de la Reunion (France). Laboratoire de Genie Industriel; Celaire, R.

    2000-04-01

    Electric load profiles of tropical islands in developed countries are characterised by morning, midday and evening peaks arising from all year round high power demand in the commercial and residential sectors, mostly due to air conditioning appliances and bad thermal conception of the building. In early 1995, a DSM pilot initiative has been launched in the french islands of Guadeloupe and Reunion through a partnership between the French Public Utility EDF, institutions involved in energy conservation, environment preservation (ADEME) and construction quality improvement, the University of Reunion Island and several other public and private partners (low cost housing institutions, architects, energy consultant, etc..). To solve this problem, the work presented in this paper has led to the conception of a global quality standards obtained through optimized bio-climatic urban planning and architectural design, the use of passive cooling architectural components, natural ventilation and energy efficient systems such as solar water heaters. We evaluated, with the aid of an airflow and thermal building simulation software (CODYRUN), the impact of each technical solution on thermal comfort within the building. These technical solution have been implemented in 300 new pilot dwelling projects through the year 1996 in Reunion island and in Guadeloupe island. An experimental follow up is still in process in the first ECODOM dwellings to validate experimentally the impact of the passive cooling solutions on the comfort of the occupants and to modify them if necessary. (authors)

  1. Occupant Interactions and Effectiveness of Natural Ventilation Strategies in Contemporary New Housing in Scotland, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Sharpe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce carbon emissions and fuel poverty has led to increased building envelope air tightness, intended to reduce uncontrolled ventilation heat losses. Ventilation strategies in dwellings still allow the use of trickle ventilators in window frames for background ventilation. The extent to which this results in “healthy” Indoor Air Quality (IAQ in recently constructed dwellings was a concern of regulators in Scotland. This paper describes research to explore this. First a review of literature was conducted, then data on occupant interactions with ventilation provisions (windows, doors, trickle vents gathered through an interview-based survey of 200 recently constructed dwellings, and measurements made on a sample of 40 of these. The main measured parameter discussed here is CO2 concentration. It was concluded after the literature review that 1000 ppm absolute was a reasonable threshold to use for “adequate” ventilation. The occupant survey found that there was very little occupant interaction with the trickle ventilators e.g., in bedrooms 63% were always closed, 28% always open, and in only 9% of cases occupants intervened to make occasional adjustments. In the measured dwellings average bedroom CO2 levels of 1520 ppm during occupied (night time hours were observed. Where windows were open the average bedroom CO2 levels were 972 ppm. With windows closed, the combination of “trickle ventilators open plus doors open” gave an average of 1021 ppm. “Trickle ventilators open” gave an average of 1571 ppm. All other combinations gave averages of 1550 to 2000 ppm. Ventilation rates and air change rates were estimated from measured CO2 levels, for all dwellings calculated ventilation rate was less than 8 L/s/p, in 42% of cases calculated air change rate was less than 0.5 ach. It was concluded that trickle ventilation as installed and used is ineffective in meeting desired ventilation rates, evidenced by high CO2 levels reported

  2. Seven key investments for health equity across the lifecourse: Scotland versus the rest of the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, John; Bromley, Catherine; Doi, Larry; Estrade, Michelle; Jepson, Ruth; McAteer, John; Robertson, Tony; Treanor, Morag; Williams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While widespread lip service is given in the UK to the social determinants of health (SDoH), there are few published comparisons of how the UK's devolved jurisdictions ‘stack up’, in terms of implementing SDoH-based policies and programmes, to improve health equity over the life-course. Based on recent SDoH publications, seven key societal-level investments are suggested, across the life-course, for increasing health equity by socioeconomic position (SEP). We present hard-to-find comparable analyses of routinely collected data to gauge the relative extent to which these investments have been pursued and achieved expected goals in Scotland, as compared with England and Wales, in recent decades. Despite Scotland's longstanding explicit goal of reducing health inequalities, it has recently been doing slightly better than England and Wales on only one broad indicator of health-equity-related investments: childhood poverty. However, on the following indicators of other ‘best investments for health equity’, Scotland has not achieved demonstrably more equitable outcomes by SEP than the rest of the UK: infant mortality and teenage pregnancy rates; early childhood education implementation; standardised educational attainment after primary/secondary school; health care system access and performance; protection of the population from potentially hazardous patterns of food, drink and gambling use; unemployment. Although Scotland did not choose independence on September 18th, 2014, it could still (under the planned increased devolution of powers from Westminster) choose to increase investments in the underperforming categories of interventions for health equity listed above. However, such discussion is largely absent from the current post-referendum debate. Without further significant investments in such policies and programmes, Scotland is unlikely to achieve the ‘healthier, fairer society’ referred to in the current Scottish Government's official aspirations for

  3. Mechanical grooming and beach award status are associated with low strandline biodiversity in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilburn, Andre S.

    2012-07-01

    Beach grooming and beach award status are both shown to be associated with low macroinvertebrate taxon richness in Scotland. Previous studies in California have revealed that mechanical raking to remove wrack from sandy beaches has negative ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. In the current study the presence and absence of eight common taxa that inhabit beached wrack on sandy beaches in Scotland was assessed at 60 sites, 24 of which were groomed and 29 of which were in receipt of a beach award. On average 4.86 of the eight taxa were found to be present on ungroomed beaches, whereas only 1.13 taxa were present on groomed beaches. Thus, beach grooming seems to be having a major effect on the biodiversity of beach macroinvertebrates in Scotland. Fewer macroinvertebrate taxa were also found on award (1.5) compared to non-award (4.38) beaches. It was also revealed that award beaches were much more likely to be groomed than non-award beaches, with 69% of award beaches surveyed being groomed compared to only 6% of non-award beaches. This pattern is surprising as the awarding bodies discourage the removal of seaweed and regulations state that beached wrack should only be removed if it constitutes a nuisance. It is concluded that award status, not nuisance level, has the main factor driving most beach grooming and that this has resulted in the substantial loss of macroinvertebrate biodiversity from award beaches in Scotland. In conclusion it is shown that beach grooming has a substantial negative impact upon strandline macroinvertebrate biodiversity in Scotland and that grooming is much more likely to occur on award beaches.

  4. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  5. Building calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Christian; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion......Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion...

  6. Building Sustainability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bragança; Mateus; Koukkari

    2010-01-01

    Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D and standardization are thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the environmental methods. Other directions of research aim at performance...

  7. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  8. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Ouden, C.; Steemers, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  9. Auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, I.; Lestyan, E.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear power station represents a complicated and a particular industrial project. Consequently, the design of the auxiliary buildings serving the power station (offices, kitchen, refreshment room, workshops, depots, water treatment plant building, boiler houses, etc.) requires more attention than usual. This chapter gives a short survey of the auxiliary buildings already completed and discusses the problems of their design, location and structure. (author)

  10. Generation Scotland: the Scottish Family Health Study; a new resource for researching genes and heritability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralston Stuart H

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generation Scotland: the Scottish Family Health Study aims to identify genetic variants accounting for variation in levels of quantitative traits underlying the major common complex diseases (such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, mental illness in Scotland. Methods/Design Generation Scotland will recruit a family-based cohort of up to 50,000 individuals (comprising siblings and parent-offspring groups across Scotland. It will be a six-year programme, beginning in Glasgow and Tayside in the first two years (Phase 1 before extending to other parts of Scotland in the remaining four years (Phase 2. In Phase 1, individuals aged between 35 and 55 years, living in the East and West of Scotland will be invited to participate, along with at least one (and preferably more siblings and any other first degree relatives aged 18 or over. The total initial sample size will be 15,000 and it is planned that this will increase to 50,000 in Phase 2. All participants will be asked to contribute blood samples from which DNA will be extracted and stored for future investigation. The information from the DNA, along with answers to a life-style and medical history questionnaire, clinical and biochemical measurements taken at the time of donation, and subsequent health developments over the life course (traced through electronic health records will be stored and used for research purposes. In addition, a detailed public consultation process will begin that will allow respondents' views to shape and develop the study. This is an important aspect to the research, and forms the continuation of a long-term parallel engagement process. Discussion As well as gene identification, the family-based study design will allow measurement of the heritability and familial aggregation of relevant quantitative traits, and the study of how genetic effects may vary by parent-of-origin. Long-term potential outcomes of this research include the targeting of

  11. Haemochromatosis gene mutations and risk of coronary heart disease: a west of Scotland coronary prevention study (WOSCOPS) substudy

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, I R; Maxwell, F K; Gaffney, D; McMahon, A D; Packard, C J

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the frequency of genotypes of the HFE (haemochromatosis) gene in patients recruited to the west of Scotland coronary prevention study (WOSCOPS), and relate them to the subsequent occurrence of coronary clinical events.

  12. Case and control recruitment, and validation of cases for the MICA case-control study in England, Scotland and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, N R; Arscott, A; Thorogood, M; Thomas, S; Davison, H; Richardson, J

    1999-07-01

    To describe the processes involved in the selection of cases and controls, and the validation of case diagnosis, in a large case-control study on the association between myocardial infarction (MI) and oral contraceptives. Community case-control study in England, Scotland and Wales. Cases were women aged 16-44 with a diagnosis of MI. Controls were age and general practice matched women without a diagnosis of MI. The proportion of interviewed cases per number eligible was 19% (95% CI 12-26%) lower in England and Wales than in Scotland. The kappa score for agreement between three cardiologists on diagnostic categories of the potential cases was 0.52 overall ('moderate' agreement). For the 35 cases resubmitted for categorization, the kappa scores for agreement between the first and second classification for the two national committee cardiologists were 0.32 and 0.23 ('fair' agreement). Age matching of controls was better in Scotland than England and Wales, the proportion of the first choice controls being 14% (95% CI 8-19%) higher in Scotland. The mean time to complete a cluster of interviews (one case and four controls) was 36 days in Scotland and 63 days in England and Wales. Very close age-matching was achieved overall, although the process was more efficient in Scotland than in England and Wales. Some suggestions for improvement in the case validation process are made. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Lean principles to optimize instrument utilization for spine surgery in an academic medical center: an opportunity to standardize, cut costs, and build a culture of improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardini, David; Arington, Richard; Canacari, Elena G; Gamboa, Kelly; Wagner, Katiri; McGuire, Kevin J

    2014-09-15

    Case study OBJECTIVE.: To optimize the utilization of operating room instruments for orthopedic and neurosurgical spine cases in an urban level 1 academic medical center through application of Lean principles. Process improvement systems such as Lean have been adapted to health care and offer an opportunity for frank assessment of surgical routines to increase efficiency and enhance value. The goal has been to safely reduce the financial burden to the health care system without compromising care and if possible reallocate these resources or gains in efficiency to further improve the value to the patient. The investigators identified instruments as a source of waste in the operating room and proposed a Lean process assessment. The instruments and the instrument processing workflow were described. An audit documented the utilization of each instrument by orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons through observation of spine cases. The data were then presented to the stakeholders, including surgeons, the perioperative director, and representatives from nursing, central processing, and the surgical technicians. Of the 38 cases audited, only 89 (58%) of the instruments were used at least once. On the basis of the data and stakeholder consensus, 63 (41%) of the instruments were removed, resulting in a weight reduction of 17.5 lb and consolidation of 2 instrument sets into 1. Projected cost savings were approximately $41,000 annually. Although new instruments were purchased to standardize sets, the return on investment was estimated to be 2 years. Inefficient surgical routines may comprise significant resource waste in an institution. Process assessment is an important tool in decreasing health care costs, with objectivity provided by Lean or similar principles, and essential impetus to change provided by stakeholders. 4.

  14. The future potential for wine production in Scotland under high-end climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Miriam; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.; Boberg, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    -first century. This raises the possibility of future temperatures becoming sufficiently high to support the growth of wine grapes. In this paper, we explore to what extent Scotland might become suitable for wine production under HECC using a climate analogue approach. Specifically, we address the following...... grape growing regions? The temperature analogues towards the end of the twenty-first century occurred at more southerly latitudes in Europe, with some variability from west to east arising from the influence of continental climates. Temperature analogues alone match with several current wine grape...... growing regions of Europe, suggesting that future climates in Scotland could support wine production. However, when precipitation and/or lithology and topography are also taken into account, no matches were found with existing European wine grape growing regions. This study demonstrates how the use...

  15. Financing of the National Churches in the Nordic Countries, England and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Sidsel; Bille, Trine

    the seven national churches. We suggest that the source of finance is a determinant factor for the level of finance of national churches. Comparing the sources and level of financing of seven national churches in the Nordic countries, England and Scotland shows that financing by a taxation right yields......This article analyses the financing of seven national churches in a large comparative study. The national churches in the Nordic countries and in England and Scotland are compared. They have many similarities in terms of history, intertwinement with the state, type and level of religiosity...... of the population, public role and public responsibilities, but the level of financing differs greatly. The purpose of the article is to discuss possible explanations for the differences in the level of financing. Adjusting for cost of public service tasks and for GDP leaves a large difference in financing among...

  16. An assessment of the potential for business use of wind turbines on farms in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, A.G.M.; Graham, R.; Morgan, O.W.

    1998-01-01

    High wind speeds on farms in Scotland, coupled with on-site demands for electricity, suggest there is potential for installing single wind turbines on these farms to generate electricity. The benefit of avoided costs for on-site supplies will help to lower the effective generating costs of surplus electricity for sale. Using a sensitivity analysis to examine a range of parameter settings for financial costs, wind speeds, and farm grants, it is shown that a turbine can be viable on a farm. The key to viability is to have correct and accurate matching between turbine and farm business, there being a place for both large turbines and small turbines under separate circumstances. There are scenarios where a wind turbine is viable on half the farms in Scotland. (Author)

  17. Can health feasibly be considered as part of the planning process in Scotland?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Martin; Douglas, Margaret; Muirie, Jill

    2005-01-01

    The planning system is significant because of its capacity to determine the quality of the built environment as well as the health, well-being and quality of life of the individuals and communities therein. Development planning is especially important because of the long-term impact of the decisions. This paper was developed in response to increasing recognition amongst HIA practitioners in Scotland of the importance of planning for health. It focuses on the relationship between the planning system in Scotland, specifically the Development Planning element of it, and population health and considers how the health impact assessment (HIA) approach can facilitate and support joint working with planners. In particular, consideration is given to the potential impact of the introduction of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) on the linkages between health, HIA and planning

  18. Choice of Domestic Air-Sourced Solar Photovoltaic Thermal Systems through the Operational Energy Cost Implications in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masa Noguchi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Scotland, homebuilders are requested to take valiant efforts to meet the government’s ambition that all newly built homes should be carbon-neutral by 2016/17. In delivering net zero carbon homes, the application of renewable energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaic (PV power generating systems, is almost inevitable. Cost-effectiveness of emerging green technologies is a major factor that affects stakeholders’ housing design decision-making on whether or not the innovations can be applied in practical terms. Based on the United Kingdom (UK government’s Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP for energy rating of dwellings, this study conducted a comparative value assessment of 19 design alternatives set. The options also included ones that encompassed both electricity and heat generation potentials of PV applications—i.e., air-sourced PV thermal (PV/T systems. Based on the SAP simulation results, it concluded that operational energy use and cost, as well as carbon dioxide (CO2 emission levels, can drastically be reduced particularly when a PV/T system is combined with a low-energy and high-performance mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR system that can extract fresh air heated by PV. This study led to visualizing the cost-effectiveness of PV/T MVHR systems and identifying the economic value over 10 years at the interest rate of 10%, based on an assumption that the innovations are applied to Scottish homes today.

  19. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available have controllable internal blinds and external solar shading which can be used to maximise internal daylight quality and avoid glare and solar gain. • Ecological: Green building envelopes aim to support the development of ecosystems and plant... problems such as large solar heat gains which can only be solved through mechanical plant. • Large sections: 1:10 sections of building envelopes are very useful in understanding the design of a building envelope and should be developed early...

  20. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  1. Kilts, tanks, and aeroplanes: Scotland, cinema, and the First World War

    OpenAIRE

    David Archibald; Maria Velez-Serna

    2015-01-01

    This article charts commercial cinema’s role in promoting the war effort in Scotland during the First World War, outlining three aspects of the relationship between cinema and the war as observed in Scottish non-fiction short films produced between 1914 and 1918. The existing practice of local topical filmmaking, made or commissioned by cinema managers, created a particular form of engagement between cinema and war that was substantially different from the national newsreels or official fi...

  2. The accuracy of scat identification in distribution surveys: American mink, , in the northern highlands of Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Lauren A.; Harrington, Andrew L.; Hughes, Joelene; Stirling, David; Macdonald, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Distribution data for elusive species are often based on detection of field signs rather than of the animal itself. However, identifying field signs can be problematic. We present here the results of a survey for American mink, Neovison vison, in the northern highlands of Scotland to demonstrate the importance of verifying field sign identification. Three experienced surveyors located scats, which they identified as mink scats, at seven of 147 sites surveyed and ?possible?...

  3. Teacher Activism in Equity and Anti-discrimination in Scotland: An interpretive study

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad, Rowena

    2009-01-01

    Scots have long acknowledged that education has a central role in shaping a nation’s identity, culture and economic prosperity. Education is a key area within which values and attitudes are formed and perpetuated. Scotland has also held sacrosanct the concept of ‘education for all’, viewing education as a democratic enterprise which can assist the reduction of privilege and contribute to the development of the collective democratic intellect. Teachers are key within that proces...

  4. Education, employment and school religious denomination in Scotland in the 1950s

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, Lindsay; Calvin, Catherine; Deary, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Newly available survey data allows the investigation of the educational and employment opportunities open to Roman Catholics in Scotland in the mid-twentieth century. Previous research has shown that Catholic disadvantage in education and the labour market in the early twentieth century had weakened or vanished by the end of the century, and that the main change in that respect had come with the advent of comprehensive secondary schooling in the 1960s. However, the extension of Catholic secon...

  5. New pre-Paleozoic nannofossils from the Stoer Formation /Torridonian/, northwest Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, P.; Germs, A.

    1971-01-01

    The nature of the sph eroidal unicellular fossils 10 to 62 micrometers in diameter that are abundant in black shales referred to the Stoer Formation of lower Torridonian age at Stoer Bay, in northwest Scotland, is examined. It is shown that their biological affinities are obscure; it is, however, not unlikely that many or most of them are independent unicellular members of the marine phytoplankton.

  6. International trends in health science librarianship Part 9: the UK - Scotland and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Ann; Bruch, Sarah; Foster, Wendy; Gorman, Meg; Peters, Janet

    2014-03-01

    This is the 9th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship. The previous article in this series looked at Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. In this issue the focus is Scotland and Wales. There will be three or four more articles this year tracking trends in the Far East, Africa, South Asia and the Middle East. JM. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.

  7. Ethnic differences in glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Negandhi, Preeti H; Ghouri, Nazim; Colhoun, Helen M; Fischbacher, Colin M; Lindsay, Robert S; McKnight, John A; Petrie, John; Philip, Sam; Sattar, Naveed; Wild, Sarah H; Scottish Diabetes Research Network Epidemiology Group

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims:\\ud \\ud Previous studies have investigated the association between ethnicity and processes of care and intermediate outcomes of diabetes, but there are limited population-based studies available. The aim of this study was to use population-based data to investigate the relationships between ethnicity and glycaemic control in men and women with diabetes mellitus living in Scotland.\\ud \\ud Methods:\\ud \\ud We used a 2008 extract from the population-based national electronic d...

  8. Poverty and social justice in the devolved Scotland: Neoliberalism meets social democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Gill; Mooney, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on current debates in social policy, this paper considers the extent to which social justice has and is informing social policy making in devolved Scotland. Relating to the work of social justice theorists Young, Fraser and Lister in particular, it critically examines some key Scottish social policy measures since 1999, considering some of the ways in which these have been constructed in terms of social justice and which make claims to the Scottish national. Through a focus on the iss...

  9. Legislation on smoking in enclosed public places in Scotland: how will we evaluate the impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Sally J; Gruer, Laurence; Amos, Amanda; Currie, Candace; Fischbacher, Colin; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hastings, Gerard; Malam, Sally; Pell, Jill; Scott, Calum; Semple, Sean

    2006-03-01

    From 26 March 2006, smoking will be prohibited in wholly and substantially enclosed public places in Scotland, and it will be an offence to permit smoking or to smoke in no-smoking premises. We anticipate that implementation of the smoke-free legislation will result in significant health gains associated with reductions in exposure to both environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and personal tobacco consumption as well as other social and economic impacts. Health Scotland in conjunction with the Information Services Division (ISD) Scotland and the Scottish Executive have developed a comprehensive evaluation strategy to assess the expected short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes. Using routine health, behavioural and economic data and commissioned research, we will assess the impact of the smoke-free legislation in eight key outcome areas--knowledge and attitudes, ETS exposure, compliance, culture, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption, tobacco-related morbidity and mortality, economic impacts on the hospitality sector and health inequalities. The findings from this evaluation will make a significant contribution to the international understanding of the health effects of exposure to ETS and the broader social, cultural and economic impacts of smoke-free legislation.

  10. Distribution and presentation of Lyme borreliosis in Scotland - analysis of data from a national testing laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavin, S; Watson, E J; Evans, R

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the distribution of laboratory-confirmed cases of Lyme borreliosis in Scotland and the clinical spectrum of presentations within NHS Highland. Methods General demographic data (age/sex/referring Health Board) from all cases of Lyme borreliosis serologically confirmed by the National Lyme Borreliosis Testing Laboratory from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2013 were analysed. Clinical features of confirmed cases were ascertained from questionnaires sent to referring clinicians within NHS Highland during the study period. Results The number of laboratory-confirmed cases of Lyme borreliosis in Scotland peaked at 440 in 2010. From 2008 to 2013 the estimated average annual incidence was 6.8 per 100,000 (44.1 per 100,000 in NHS Highland). Of 594 questionnaires from NHS Highland patients: 76% had clinically confirmed Lyme borreliosis; 48% erythema migrans; 17% rash, 25% joint, 15% neurological and 1% cardiac symptoms. Only 61% could recall a tick bite. Conclusion The incidence of Lyme borreliosis may be stabilising in Scotland but NHS Highland remains an area of high incidence. Lyme borreliosis should be considered in symptomatic patients that have had exposure to ticks and not just those with a definite tick bite.

  11. The impact of different prioritisation policies on waiting times: case studies of Norway and Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januleviciute, Jurgita; Askildsen, Jan Erik; Kaarboe, Oddvar; Holmås, Tor Helge; Sutton, Matt

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the distributional consequences of two different waiting times initiatives, one in Norway, and one in Scotland. The primary focus of Scotland's recent waiting time reforms, introduced in 2003, and modified in 2005 and 2007, has been on reducing maximum waiting times through the imposition of high profile national targets accompanied by increases in resources. In Norway, the focus of the reform introduced in September 2004, has been on assigning patients referred to hospital a maximum waiting time based on disease severity, the expected benefit and the cost-effectiveness of the treatment. We use large, national administrative datasets from before and after each of these reforms and assign priority groups based on the maximum waiting times stipulated in medical guidelines. The analysis shows that the lowest priority patients benefited most from both reforms. This was at the cost of longer waiting times for patients that should have been given higher priority in Norway, while Scotland's high priority patients remained unaffected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rough Justice? Exploring the Relationship Between Information Access and Environmental and Ecological Justice Pertaining to Two Controversial Coastal Developments in North-east Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Baxter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between information access and environmental and ecological justice through an historical comparison of two controversial coastal developments in Aberdeenshire, North-east Scotland: the building of a North Sea gas reception terminal by the British Gas Council and the French exploration company Total Oil Marine in the 1970s; and the more recent construction of ‘the greatest golf course anywhere in the world’ by the American property tycoon, Donald Trump. These two projects have much in common, not least because each one has had actual or potential impacts on an environmentally sensitive site, and because each has also been affected by plans for another major structure in its immediate vicinity. But the Trump golf course project has taken place during a period when access to information and citizens’ influence on major planning decisions in Scotland has been significantly greater, at least theoretically. With these points in mind, the paper considers whether or not environmental justice (more specifically, procedural environmental justice and ecological justice are now more attainable in the current era of supposed openness, transparency and public engagement, than in the more secretive and less participative 1970s. It reveals that, at the planning application stage, information on the potential environmental impact of Trump’s golf resort was more readily obtainable, compared with that provided by the Gas Council and Total forty years earlier. However, during and after the construction stage, when considering whether or not the developments have met environmental planning conditions – and whether or not ecological justice has been done – the situation with the gas terminal has been far clearer than with Trump’s golf resort. Despite the golf course being built in an era of government openness, there remain a number of unanswered questions concerning its environmental impact.

  13. Energy efficient building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  14. Building Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Koukkari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D and standardization are thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the environmental methods. Other directions of research aim at performance-based design and methods to take regional and cultural aspects into account. In this paper, the perspectives of the sustainability assessment of a whole building are presented, based on a state of the art, feasibility study on performance analysis and the development of an extended life-cycle assessment for buildings. Using various tools, and based on the case studies of building sustainability assessment, environmental indicators were often shown to be of lesser importance than the other, soft ones. The first steps in the development of a building sustainability assessment method for Portuguese residential buildings will be presented and discussed in the end.

  15. Building Software with Gradle

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Studer, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we will give an overview of the key concepts and main features of Gradle, the innovative build system that has become the de-facto standard in the enterprise. We will cover task declaration and task graph execution, incremental builds, multi-project builds, dependency management, applying plugins, extracting reusable build logic, bootstrapping a build, and using the Gradle daemon. By the end of this talk, you will have a good understanding of what makes Gradle so powerful yet easy to use. You will also understand why companies like Pivotal, LinkedIn, Google, and other giants with complex builds count on Gradle. About the speakers Etienne is leading the Tooling Team at Gradleware. He has been working as a developer, architect, project manager, and CTO over the past 15 years. He has spent most of his time building software products from the ground up and successfully shipping them to happy customers. He had ...

  16. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  17. Uniform measurement standard for heat supply in housing and utility building construction. A protocol to compare alternatives for heat supply at building construction sites. Version 3.1; Uniforme Maatlat voor de warmtevoorziening in de woning- en utiliteitsbouw. Een protocol voor het vergelijken van alternatieven voor de warmtevoorziening op bouwlocaties. Versie 3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuiten, P. [W/E adviseurs, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Ree, B. [Primum, Driebergen-Rijsenburg (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The uniform measurement standard is one of the methods that the National Expertise Heat Centre develops to compare the energy efficiency of different techniques (such as heat pumps, heat and cold storage, collective systems, waste heat, combustion of woody biomass, etc.). The development of the uniform standard was started for the residential and utility building construction industry. In the future, the standard calculation method will also be made available for other sectors [Dutch] De uniforme maatlat is 1 van de methoden die het Nationaal Expertisecentrum Warmte ontwikkelt om de energieprestaties van verschillende technieken (zoals warmtepompen, warmte-koudeopslag, collectieve systemen, restwarmte, verbranding van houtachtige biomassa, etc.) goed vergelijkbaar te maken. De ontwikkeling van de uniforme maatlat is gestart voor de woning- en utiliteitsbouw. In de toekomst zal de uniforme maatlat ook voor andere sectoren beschikbaar komen. In deze versie van de uniforme maatlat is aansluiting gezocht bij de kengetallen van de Energieprestatienorm voor Maatregelen op Gebiedsniveau (EMG), zodat de resultaten van de uniforme maatlat in lijn zijn met die van de EMG.

  18. Impact and cost-effectiveness of chlamydia testing in Scotland: a mathematical modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, Katharine J; Wallace, Lesley A; Turner, Katherine M E

    2015-01-15

    Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in Scotland, and is associated with potentially serious reproductive outcomes, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and tubal factor infertility (TFI) in women. Chlamydia testing in Scotland is currently targeted towards symptomatic individuals, individuals at high risk of existing undetected infection, and young people. The cost-effectiveness of testing and treatment to prevent PID and TFI in Scotland is uncertain. A compartmental deterministic dynamic model of chlamydia infection in 15-24 year olds in Scotland was developed. The model was used to estimate the impact of a change in testing strategy from baseline (16.8% overall testing coverage; 0.4 partners notified and tested/treated per treated positive index) on PID and TFI cases. Cost-effectiveness calculations informed by best-available estimates of the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost due to PID and TFI were also performed. Increasing overall testing coverage by 50% from baseline to 25.2% is estimated to result in 21% fewer cases in young women each year (PID: 703 fewer; TFI: 88 fewer). A 50% decrease to 8.4% would result in 20% more PID (669 additional) and TFI (84 additional) cases occurring annually. The cost per QALY gained of current testing activities compared to no testing is £40,034, which is above the £20,000-£30,000 cost-effectiveness threshold. However, calculations are hampered by lack of reliable data. Any increase in partner notification from baseline would be cost-effective (incremental cost per QALY gained for a partner notification efficacy of 1 compared to baseline: £5,119), and would increase the cost-effectiveness of current testing strategy compared to no testing, with threshold cost-effectiveness reached at a partner notification efficacy of 1.5. However, there is uncertainty in the extent to which partner notification is currently done, and hence the amount by which it could potentially be

  19. Importance of heart failure as a cause of death. Changing contribution to overall mortality and coronary heart disease mortality in Scotland 1979-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, D R; Love, M P; Robb, S D; McDonagh, T A; Davie, A P; Ford, I; Capewell, S; Morrison, C E; McMurray, J J

    1998-12-01

    As heart failure is a syndrome arising from another condition, such as coronary heart disease, it is rarely officially coded as the underlying cause of death regardless of the cause recorded by the physician at the time of certification. We sought to assess the true contribution of heart failure to overall mortality and coronary heart disease mortality and to examine how this contribution has changed over time. We carried out a retrospective analysis of all death certificates in Scotland between 1979 and 1992 for which heart failure was coded as the underlying or a contributory cause of death. From a total of 833622 deaths in Scotland between 1979 and 1992, heart failure was coded as the underlying cause in only 1.5% (13695), but as a contributory cause in a further 14.3% (126073). In 1979, 28.5% of male and 40.4% of female deaths attributed to coronary heart disease (coded as the underlying cause of death) also had a coding for heart failure. In 1992 these percentages had risen significantly to 34.1% and 44.8%, respectively (both Pheart failure as the underlying or contributory cause of death, standardized by age and sex, fell significantly over the period studied in all ages and in both sexes: by 31% in men and 41% in women or =65 years, respectively (Pheart failure is substantially underestimated by official statistics. Furthermore, one third or more of deaths currently attributed to coronary heart disease may be related to heart failure and this proportion appears to be increasing. While the absolute numbers of deaths caused by heart failure remains constant, this study is the first to show that standardized mortality rates are declining.

  20. Spatiotemporal Reconstruction of the Introduction of Hepatitis C Virus into Scotland and Its Subsequent Regional Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Anna L; Cameron, Iain Dugald; Wignall-Fleming, Elizabeth B; Biek, Roman; McLauchlan, John; Gunson, Rory N; Templeton, Kate; Tan, Harriet Mei-Lin; Leitch, E Carol McWilliam

    2015-11-01

    A more comprehensive understanding of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission dynamics could facilitate public health initiatives to reduce the prevalence of HCV in people who inject drugs. We aimed to determine how HCV sequences entered and spread throughout Scotland and to identify transmission hot spots. A Scottish data set with embedded demographic data was created by sequencing the NS5B of 125 genotype 1a (Gt1a) samples and 166 Gt3a samples and analyzed alongside sequences from public databases. Applying Bayesian inference methods, we reconstructed the global origin and local spatiotemporal dissemination of HCV in Scotland. Scottish sequences mainly formed discrete clusters interspersed between sequences from the rest of the world; the most recent common ancestors of these clusters dated to 1942 to 1952 (Gt1a) and 1926 to 1942 (Gt3a), coincident with global diversification and distribution. Extant Scottish sequences originated in Edinburgh (Gt1a) and Glasgow (Gt3a) in the 1970s, but both genotypes spread from Glasgow to other regions. The dominant Gt1a strain differed between Edinburgh (cluster 2 [C2]), Glasgow (C3), and Aberdeen (C4), whereas significant Gt3a strain specificity occurred only in Aberdeen. Specific clusters initially formed separate transmission zones in Glasgow that subsequently overlapped, occasioning city-wide cocirculation. Transmission hot spots were detected with 45% of samples from patients residing in just 9 of Glasgow's 57 postcode districts. HCV was introduced into Scotland in the 1940s, concomitant with its worldwide dispersal likely arising from global-scale historical events. Cluster-specific transmission hubs were identified in Glasgow, the key Scottish city implicated in HCV dissemination. This fine-scale spatiotemporal reconstruction improves understanding of HCV transmission dynamics in Scotland. HCV is a major health burden and the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma. Public health needle exchange and "treatment as

  1. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  2. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae.

    1990-01-01

    At least one valve rack is disposed in a reactor building, on which pipeways to a main closure valve, valves and bypasses of turbines are placed and contained. The valve rack is fixed to the main body of the building or to a base mat. Since the reactor building is designed as class A earthquake-proofness and for maintaining the S 1 function, the valve rack can be fixed to the building main body or to the base mat. With such a constitution, the portions for maintaining the S 1 function are concentrated to the reactor building. As a result, the dispersion of structures of earthquake-proof portion corresponding to the reference earthquake vibration S 1 can be prevented. Accordingly, the conditions for the earthquake-proof design of the turbine building and the turbine/electric generator supporting rack are defined as only the class B earthquake-proof design conditions. In view of the above, the amount of building materials can be saved and the time for construction can be shortened. (I.S.)

  3. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    ‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which......, which gives the book a challenging contribution to the existing body of knowledge....

  4. Extracting Small and Long-Wavelength Vertical Land Surface Movements from an InSAR Time Series: The Case of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockamp, J.; Li, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the effects of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) in Scotland is essential for the assessment of past and future sea-level trends around the coast. Against the backdrop of climate change and the global rise of sea-levels, the question arises as to what are the modern rate and spatial distribution of GIA-related crustal uplift in Scotland. Differential SAR Interferometry (D-InSAR) is an established technique for analysing crustal motion and land surface deformation caused by co- and interseismic processes, volcanic activity, landslides or subsidence. When it comes to the detection of small, long-wavelength displacements, such as GIA-induced vertical land movement, the application of D-InSAR becomes challenging and a very high quality standard in terms of precision and accuracy is necessary to make it a competitive tool to established geodetic techniques, such as GNSS. This study investigates the applicability of a D-InSAR time series technique, the Small Baseline approach, in its ability to determine recent rates of vertical land movement in Scotland with a high accuracy and precision (in the mm/yr level) and on a broader spatial scale than conventional geodetic techniques that rely on spatial interpolation. A range of error signals (atmospheric water vapour, orbital ramps, temporal decorrelation, topographic artefacts etc.) require to be addressed before the extraction of any uplift signal is possible. This includes the advancement of error correction techniques for such artefacts within the time series inversion processing chain. To reduce orbit errors in the interferograms, an improved network correction technique, that incorporates phase loop triplets of interferograms into the observation equations, has been tested with good results. In addition, further methods are being explored for the separation of the desired deformation signal from residual orbital and atmospheric errors, such as Principal Component Analysis and Independent Component

  5. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  6. Building Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — Explore real estate information about buildings in the Town of Cary.This file is created by the Town of Cary GIS Group. It contains data from both the Wake, Chatham...

  7. Salmonellosis in garden birds in Scotland, 1995 to 2008: geographic region, Salmonella enterica phage type and bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycott, T W; Mather, H A; Bennett, G; Foster, G

    2010-04-03

    Salmonellosis was diagnosed in garden birds from 198 incidents in Scotland between September 1995 and August 2008. Salmonellosis was essentially a disease of finches in the north of Scotland, but in the south of Scotland it was also a problem in house sparrows. Almost all of the incidents were caused by Salmonella Typhimurium phage types 40 or 56/variant, but regional variation in phage types was observed. In the north of Scotland, one phage type (DT 40) predominated, but in the south of Scotland two phage types were commonly isolated (DTs 40 and 56/variant, with the latter the more common of the two phage types). This regional difference was statistically significant for salmonellosis in greenfinches, chaffinches and 'other garden birds', but not for house sparrows. Different temporal patterns for different species of bird and different phage types were also observed within regions. These findings suggest that the epidemiology of salmonellosis in garden birds varies depending on the phage type of Salmonella and the species of garden bird, with additional regional differences depending on the wild bird populations and the phage types of Salmonella in circulation. An awareness of these differences will help when formulating guidelines aimed at reducing the impact of salmonellosis in garden birds.

  8. INL Green Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  9. Net ZEB case study buildings, measures and solution sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aelenei, Laura; Waldren, David; Aelenei, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The chapter summarises techniques - combined in solution sets - used in the case studied buildings to achieve buildings with net zero energy or energy neutral standard.......The chapter summarises techniques - combined in solution sets - used in the case studied buildings to achieve buildings with net zero energy or energy neutral standard....

  10. Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagorskas, Jurgis; Mykolas Paliulis, Grazvydas; Burinskiene, Marija

    2013-01-01

    is creating a demand for suitable materials, retrofitting techniques and research. The differences between refurbishment of new-build projects and historical or valuable buildings are insufficiently recognized – mostly the buildings without further cultural preservation requirements are studied. This article......Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and the market follows these changes by constructing new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of the existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends in European construction market show tremendous increase...... in building retrofit works. It can be predicted that after the end of this decade, more than half of the construction works in European cities will be taking place in existing buildings, pushing the construction of new buildings to a less important role. Such a growth in building refurbishment works...

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Commercial Reference Building Models of the National Building Stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Field, K.; Studer, D.; Benne, K.; Griffith, B.; Torcellini, P.; Liu, B.; Halverson, M.; Winiarski, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Yazdanian, M.; Huang, J.; Crawley, D.

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program has set the aggressive goal of producing marketable net-zero energy buildings by 2025. This goal will require collaboration between the DOE laboratories and the building industry. We developed standard or reference energy models for the most common commercial buildings to serve as starting points for energy efficiency research. These models represent fairly realistic buildings and typical construction practices. Fifteen commercial building types and one multifamily residential building were determined by consensus between DOE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and represent approximately two-thirds of the commercial building stock.

  12. Targeted screening of hip dysplasia in newborns: experience at a district general hospital in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Tyagi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available National Health Service Quality Improvement Scotland (NHS QIS published a health technology scoping report in 2006 acknowledging that there are serious concerns within Scotland in relation to Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH as there is no formal screening program in place and there are significant variations between NHS boards leading to confusion for staff and parents. NHS QIS identified need for audit work to improve hip screening in Scotland. The aim of this study is to review of current practice of selective screening for DDH. All newborns who had their first hip scan during one year period (2014 were included in this retrospective study and followed up until June 2015 to include any surgical intervention for dysplastic hip. Out of 428 babies (856 hip scans, abnormality was seen in 119 babies/147 hips (134 Graf 2a/2b, 10 hips were 2c and 3 hips were Graf grade 3. Average age when first scan was performed was 5 weeks (range 3 weeks to 22 weeks. Analysis of risk factors in 119 babies with abnormal scan was consistent with literature (83 breech, 12 family history, 12 HBW, 10 instability and 2 twins of breech. Twelve babies (16 hips required treatment and were successfully treated in Pavlik harness. There was one case of missed/late dislocation, which lived in outside catchment area for 3 years since birth. During this study period there was no case of avascular necrosis or femoral nerve palsy as a result of treatment. In our experience, selective hip screening by ultrasound scan is useful in avoiding overtreatment and minimizing late presentations.

  13. A Younger Dryas plateau icefield in the Monadhliath, Scotland, and implications for regional palaeoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Clare M.; Lukas, Sven; Carr, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    A record of Younger Dryas glaciation in Scotland is well established. However, the role of the Monadhliath, a significant plateau area extending over 840 km2 in central Scotland, has never been investigated systematically. We present the first systematic glacial geomorphological mapping across the whole region, which has led to the identification of hitherto-unrecorded glacial and associated landforms. The spatial distribution of these landforms indicates that the last phase of glaciation in the area was that of a local plateau icefield. In addition, a clear morphostratigraphical signature provides a strong indication that the icefield dates to the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.7 ka), which is supported by numerical ages in the southeast of the study area. Based on the geomorphological evidence and 2D glacier surface profile modelling, a 280 km2 icefield is reconstructed. A novel approach is introduced to quantify plateau icefield thickness for equilibrium line altitude (ELA) and palaeoprecipitation calculations, resulting in greater overall data confidence compared to traditional reconstruction methods. The ELA for the whole icefield is calculated to be 714 ± 25 m, whilst the ELAs of individual outlet glaciers range from 560 m in the west to 816 m in the east, demonstrating a significant W-E precipitation gradient across the region during the Younger Dryas. These ELAs compare well with those calculated for Younger Dryas ice masses reconstructed in neighbouring regions and are in good agreement with overall precipitation patterns suggested for Scotland during this time. Whilst the total amount of precipitation calculated from these ELAs is highly dependent on the method used, irrespective of this, the study suggests a more arid Younger Dryas climate in the region compared to the present day.

  14. Implementing health and social care integration in Scotland: Renegotiating new partnerships in changing cultures of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Charlotte; Watson, Nick

    2018-01-18

    Health and social care integration has been a long-term goal for successive governments in Scotland, culminating in the implementation of the recent Public Bodies (Joint Working) Scotland Act 2014. This laid down the foundations for the delegation of health and social care functions and resources to newly formed Integrated Joint Boards. It put in place demands for new ways of working and partnership planning. In this article, we explore the early implementation of this Act and how health and social care professionals and the third sector have begun to renegotiate their roles. The paper draws on new empirical data collated through focus groups and interviews with over 70 professionals from across Scotland. The data are explored through the following key themes: changing cultures, structural imbalance, governance and partnership and the role of individuals or "boundary spanners" in implementing change. We also draw on evidence from other international systems of care, which have implemented integration policies, documenting what works and what does not. We argue that under the current framework much of the potential for integration is not being fulfilled and that the evidence suggests that at this early stage of roll-out, the structural and cultural policy changes that are required to enable this policy shift have not yet emerged. Rather, integration has been left to individual innovators or "boundary spanners" and these are acting as key drivers of change. Where change is occurring, this is happening despite the system. As it is currently structured, we argue that too much power is in the hands of health and despite the rhetoric of partnership working, there are real structural imbalances that need to be reconciled. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Joint inspection of services for people with learning disabilities in Scotland: compliance or commitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Campbell

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article describes the development of a practical model of joint, integrated inspection of managed care services for people with learning disabilities in Scotland. The model will give a reliable measure of the impact services are making to people's lives and the quality of service that individuals are actually receiving. Context of case: At present health, social services and education services for people with learning disabilities in Scotland are inspected separately, by up to nine different agencies. The first joint, integrated inspections of all services for people with learning disabilities in Scotland will take place in 2006. This is the first inspection of its kind in the UK, and the first to involve carers and people with learning disabilities on the inspection team. Data sources: Quality Outcome Indicators were developed in 21 different areas, or domains. Evidence based best practice, and evaluative data from previous inspections were the primary sources of data. Case description: This paper reviews the background and rationale for the integrated, joint inspection process. Strengths and constraints of this approach to inspection are discussed, including the crucial importance of commitment from services and from inspectors, rather than mere compliance with demands. Some guidance on how to fully involve staff, carers and services users in the inspection process is given. Conclusions and discussion: The model will produce data to inform decision-making for managers in integrated services and give services users clear information about how well local needs are being met, what areas need development, and what capacity the organisations have to improve. The model of inspection may be of interest to practitioners in a national and international context. The model will be evaluated, following the first joint inspection.

  16. An audit of growth hormone replacement for GH-deficient adults in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sam; Howat, Isobel; Carson, Maggie; Booth, Anne; Campbell, Karen; Grant, Donna; Patterson, Catherine; Schofield, Christopher; Bevan, John; Patrick, Alan; Leese, Graham; Connell, John

    2013-04-01

    Guidelines on the clinical use of growth hormone therapy in adults were issued by the UK National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) in August 2003. We conducted a retrospective clinical audit on the use of growth hormone (GH) in Scotland to evaluate the use of these guidelines and their impact on clinical practice. The audit had two phases. In phase I, the impact of NICE criteria on specialist endocrine practice in starting and continuing GH replacement was assessed. In phase II, the reasons why some adults in Scotland with growth hormone deficiency were not on replacement therapy were evaluated. A retrospective cross-sectional case note review was carried out of all adult patients being followed up for growth hormone deficiency during the study period (1 March 2005 to 31 March 2008). Phase I of the audit included 208 patients and phase II 108 patients. Sellar tumours were the main cause of GH deficiency in both phases of the audit. In phase I, 53 patients (77%) had an AGHDA-QoL score >11 documented before commencing GH post-NICE guidance, compared with 35 (25%) pre-NICE guidance. Overall, only 39 patients (18%) met the full NICE criteria for starting and continuing GH (pre-NICE, 11%; post-NICE, 35%). Phase II indicated that the main reasons for not starting GH included perceived satisfactory quality of life (n = 47, 43%), patient reluctance (16, 15%) or a medical contraindication (16, 15%). Although the use of quality of life assessments has increased following publication of the NICE guidelines, most adults on GH in Scotland did not fulfil the complete set of NICE criteria. The main reason for not starting GH therapy in adult GH-deficient patients was perceived satisfactory quality of life. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Car dependence in rural Scotland: transport policy, devolution and the impact of the fuel duty escalator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D. [The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen (United Kingdom). The Centre for Transport Policy; Farrington, J.; Shaw, J.; Martin, S. [University of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Department of Geography; Roberts, D. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    This paper examines dependence on the car in rural Scotland, assesses the impact of the fuel duty escalator on rural communities and discusses the role of the new Scottish Executive in shaping future rural transport policy. Questionnaires, interviews and travel diaries were used in five areas and revealed that households in rural Scotland enjoy high levels of car ownership, and that the car is used for over three-quarters of all journeys. Isolation and income levels are the most significant predictors of car use. Those living in 'removed' areas - i.e. locations distant from main roads and/or bus routes - are more likely to own vehicles and make a higher proportion of their journeys by car. Affluent households enjoy higher levels of car ownership, and make more journeys over greater distances by this mode than those on low-incomes. Less affluent households are also more likely to have disposed of a vehicle without replacing it, suggesting a more fluctuating dependence on the car. Although those living in rural Scotland appear to count on the car, a distinction is made between those who have no alternative (structurally dependent) and those who have alternatives but rely on their vehicles. It is difficult to predict the exact impact of the fuel duty escalator, but it is argued that the majority of households will cope with increases in the cost of motoring, while a significant minority of low income households in isolated areas will struggle to absorb the extra cost. The study highlights the need for the Scottish legislature to secure additional funding in order to sustain rural communities in the face of the rising fuel costs and suggests that an appropriate policy response might be to support isolated shops and services, i.e. subsidising alternatives to the journey as well as alternatives to the car. (author)

  18. Rainfall thresholds and susceptibility mapping for shallow landslides and debris flows in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dijkstra, Tom; Dixon, Neil

    2017-04-01

    Shallow translational slides and debris flows (hereafter 'landslides') pose a significant threat to life and cause significant annual economic impacts (e.g. by damage and disruption of infrastructure). The focus of this research is on the definition of objective rainfall thresholds using a weather radar system and landslide susceptibility mapping. In the study area Scotland, an inventory of 75 known landslides was used for the period 2003 to 2016. First, the effect of using different rain records (i.e. time series length) on two threshold selection techniques in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was evaluated. The results show that thresholds selected by 'Threat Score' (minimising false alarms) are sensitive to rain record length and which is not routinely considered, whereas thresholds selected using 'Optimal Point' (minimising failed alarms) are not; therefore these may be suited to establishing lower limit thresholds and be of interest to those developing early warning systems. Robust thresholds are found for combinations of normalised rain duration and accumulation at 1 and 12 day's antecedence respectively; these are normalised using the rainy-day normal and an equivalent measure for rain intensity. This research indicates that, in Scotland, rain accumulation provides a better indicator than rain intensity and that landslides may be generated by threshold conditions lower than previously thought. Second, a landslide susceptibility map is constructed using a cross-validated logistic regression model. A novel element of the approach is that landslide susceptibility is calculated for individual hillslope sections. The developed thresholds and susceptibility map are combined to assess potential hazards and impacts posed to the national highway network in Scotland.

  19. An analysis of suicide trends in Scotland 1950-2014: comparison with England & Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougall, Nadine; Stark, Cameron; Agnew, Tim; Henderson, Rob; Maxwell, Margaret; Lambert, Paul

    2017-12-20

    Scotland has disproportionately high rates of suicide compared with England. An analysis of trends may help reveal whether rates appear driven more by birth cohort, period or age. A 'birth cohort effect' for England & Wales has been previously reported by Gunnell et al. (B J Psych 182:164-70, 2003). This study replicates this analysis for Scotland, makes comparisons between the countries, and provides information on 'vulnerable' cohorts. Suicide and corresponding general population data were obtained from the National Records of Scotland, 1950 to 2014. Age and gender specific mortality rates were estimated. Age, period and cohort patterns were explored graphically by trend analysis. A pattern was found whereby successive male birth cohorts born after 1940 experienced higher suicide rates, in increasingly younger age groups, echoing findings reported for England & Wales. Young men (aged 20-39) were found to have a marked and statistically significant increase in suicide between those in the 1960 and 1965 birth cohorts. The 1965 cohort peaked in suicide rate aged 35-39, and the subsequent 1970 cohort peaked even younger, aged 25-29; it is possible that these 1965 and 1970 cohorts are at greater mass vulnerability to suicide than earlier cohorts. This was reflected in data for England & Wales, but to a lesser extent. Suicide rates associated with male birth cohorts subsequent to 1975 were less severe, and not statistically significantly different from earlier cohorts, suggestive of an amelioration of any possible influential 'cohort' effect. Scottish female suicide rates for all age groups converged and stabilised over time. Women have not been as affected as men, with less variation in patterns by different birth cohorts and with a much less convincing corresponding pattern suggestive of a 'cohort' effect. Trend analysis is useful in identifying 'vulnerable' cohorts, providing opportunities to develop suicide prevention strategies addressing these cohorts as they age.

  20. CT chest abdomen pelvis doses in Scotland: has the DRL had its day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, D G; McVey, S; Gentle, D; Hince, A J; MacDonald, N; McCallum, S

    2014-09-01

    This article reports on a pilot study designed to collect dose data representative of current CT chest abdomen pelvis (CAP) practice in Scotland, make any immediately obvious interventions and to identify if the current UK diagnostic reference level (DRL) of 940 mGy cm is still appropriate. The aims are to identify if a Scotland-wide picture archiving and communication system (PACS)-based dose audit of a number of CT examinations is likely to have value in terms of optimization of patient doses and to comment on the significance of the results in terms of future optimization strategies. Dose audit of CT CAP examinations at 32 different scanner sites across Scotland using accepted data collection and analysis methods. The minimum sample size was 30. RESULTS indicate that CT CAP doses are lower than those previously reported (median, 800 mGy cm, 75th percentile 840 mGy cm) but follow a distribution that is not in keeping with the concept of DRLs as presently understood or implemented. There is value in a PACS-based dose audit project to provide serial snapshots of patient doses as optimization efforts take place and to revise current knowledge about CT doses. In our opinion, the results call into question whether DRLs or the concept of "achievable dose" are suitable for devising optimization strategies once a certain degree of optimization has taken place. The results reported here suggest that it may be time to take a different approach to optimization, concentrating on tools that are more refined than the DRL, which may have become more of a compliance tool than an aid to optimization.

  1. Building a capacity building manual

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clinton, DD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available ? Capacity building in developed nations ? renewal stage HOW can capacity be developed and maintained? Through mentoring , training, education, physical projects, the infusion of financial and other resources and more importantly the motivation...

  2. The Radical Thread - Liberalism and the rise of Labour in Scotland 1886 - 1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona MacDonald

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available PreambleThis paper is a revised version of a lecture delivered to the Liberal Democrat History Meeting at the Scottish Liberal Democrat Conference in 2009. It was the subject of a report in the Journal of Liberal History (Winter 2009-2010, pp. 32-38. See also Catriona M.M. Macdonald, The Radical Thread: Political Change in Scotland, Paisley 1885-1924 (John Donald, 2000.Contemporary resonances are seductive when reflecting on the historic and recent past of the Liberal Party in Britain and i...

  3. Use of Supermarket Scanner Data to Measure Bread Consumption and Nutrition Choice in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Toma, Luiza; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata; Leat, Philip M.K.; Cacciolatti, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The recent rise in food prices has increased the concern about the choice of a healthy food basket, especially in the context of the discussion around the formulation of a National Food Policy for Scotland. This concern has brought back the interest in the price and expenditure demand systems as they provide information about consumers’ food decisions. The paper focuses on the consumption of brown and white bread, as they are the most typical ways of cereals use in the UK and nutritionists re...

  4. Bread Prices, Consumption and Nutrition Implications for Scotland: A Regional Analysis Using Supermarket Scanner Data

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Toma, Luiza; Leat, Philip M.K.; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata; Cacciolatti, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The recent rise in food prices has increased the concern about the choice of a healthy food basket, especially in the context of the discussion around the formulation of a National Food Policy for Scotland. This concern has brought back the interest in the price and expenditure demand systems as they provide information about consumers’ food decisions. The paper focuses on the consumption of brown and white bread, as they are the most typical ways of cereals use in the UK and nutritionists re...

  5. Promoting weight management services in community pharmacy: perspectives of the pharmacy team in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Anita Elaine; MacLure, Katie; Marshall, Sarah; Gray, Gwen; Stewart, Derek

    2015-08-01

    Obesity has reached pandemic levels with more than 1.4 billion adults affected worldwide. While there is a need to systematically develop and evaluate community pharmacy based models of weight management, it is imperative to describe and understand the perspectives of pharmacy staff. In the UK, trained and accredited community pharmacy medicines counter assistants (MCAs) are commonly the front line staff involved in patient consultations and sale of over-the-counter medicines. To explore the beliefs and experiences of pharmacists and MCAs in the North-East of Scotland on community pharmacy weight management. All 135 community pharmacies in the North-East of Scotland. A qualitative approach of semi-structured telephone interviews with 31 pharmacists and 20 MCAs in the North-East of Scotland. The semi-structured interview schedule was developed with reference to key domains describing professional practice (i.e. awareness and knowledge, skills, practicalities, motivation, acceptance and beliefs) and contextualised with policy documents and published research on community pharmacy based weight management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Pharmacists' and MCAs' beliefs and experiences with delivering weight management services in community pharmacy. There were mixed responses from pharmacists and MCAs around pharmacy based weight management services from positive views of providing the service in community pharmacy to those more reticent who would always favour patients visiting their physician. While all described similar services e.g. measurement of weight, healthy eating advice, supply of products, they acknowledged that support was often opportunistic at the request of customers, with little integration of other providers. Roles described varied from pharmacist only functions to any staff member. While pharmacists generally felt comfortable and confident, MCAs gave more diverse responses. Both Pharmacist and MCAs highlighted

  6. Assessing the water resources of Scotland--perspectives, progress and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T J; Anderson, J L

    2002-07-22

    This paper reviews historical progress in the assessment of rainfall, evaporation, runoff and groundwater resources in Scotland and, within the same water-balance framework, considers recent advances in quantifying the major hydrological fluxes, with particular reference to river flows. The contributions of hydrological models and digital cartography are considered against a background of changing information needs and the likelihood that the long term stability which has characterised water resource variability in the past may not, continue in the future. The complementary roles of modelling and hydrometric monitoring networks are considered and the need for greater integration, and an increased strategic dimension to network design and evolution is discussed.

  7. Reconciling the perspective of practitioner and service user: findings from The Aphasia in Scotland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, James; Huby, Guro; Irving, Anne-Marie; Pringle, Ann-Marie; Conochie, Douglas; Haworth, Catherine; Burston, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that service users should be actively involved in new service developments, but there remain issues about how best to consult with them and how to reconcile their views with those of service providers. This paper uses data from The Aphasia in Scotland study, set up by NHS Quality Improvement Scotland to identify the direction of the development of services for people with aphasia in Scotland. It examines the views both of those who provide and of those who receive those services. The study integrated findings from a questionnaire to all speech and language therapists treating people with aphasia across Scotland with findings from focus groups with service users and aphasia practitioners. Three themes were identified: (1) public and professional awareness of the impact of aphasia on the individual and their family; (2) current service provision and gaps in services; and (3) directions for the future development of services and barriers to change. Although the impact of aphasia is well recognized amongst most professionals (that is, not just speech and language therapists), considerable concern was expressed about the level of knowledge amongst professionals who do not specialize in stroke care and about public awareness of aphasia. Service providers indicated a shift in the model of service delivery of which the service users were largely unaware. Although the majority of speech and language therapists spend most of their time providing one-to-one therapy, and this is valued by service users, there is undoubtedly an emerging shift towards a focus on broader social function and the inclusion of the person with aphasia in supportive social networks. This creates tensions because of the existing pressure for individualized models of delivery. Concern was expressed by practitioners, although not echoed by patients, about the transition from the acute sector to primary care. Practitioners also expressed concern about the introduction of more recent

  8. Oral hygiene habits, denture plaque, presence of yeasts and stomatitis in institutionalised elderly in Lothian, Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Wight, C; Cumming, C

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between oral hygiene habits, denture plaque, presence of yeasts and stomatitis in institutionalised elderly. A sample of 201 residents, 48-99 yr of age (mean age 82 yr), was selected from four different institutions in Lothian, Scotland....... Clinical recordings were carried out under standardised circumstances using well recognised indices. Information about oral hygiene habits was obtained through structured interviews conducted immediately before the clinical examination. A multivariate analysis, principal component, was carried out...

  9. Review of the Dinosaur Remains from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. L. Clark

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are rare from the Middle Jurassic worldwide. The Isle of Skye, is the only place in Scotland thus far to have produced dinosaur remains. These remains consist mainly of footprints, but also several bones and teeth. These Bajocian and Bathonian remains represent an important collection of a basal eusauropod, early examples of non-neosauropod and possible basal titanosauriform eusauropods, and theropod remains that may belong to an early coelurosaur and a possible megalosaurid, basal tyrannosauroid, or dromaeosaurid. The footprints from here also suggest a rich and diverse dinosaur fauna for which further better diagnosable remains are likely to be found.

  10. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipton Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one counselling, set a quit date and quit 4 weeks later. Methods This was a descriptive epidemiological study using routinely collected data supplemented by questionnaire information from specialist pregnancy cessation services. Results 13266 of 52370 (25% pregnant women reported being current smokers at maternity booking and 3133/13266 (24% were referred to specialist cessation services in 2005/6. Two main types of specialist smoking cessation support for pregnant women were in place in Scotland. The first involved identification using self-report and carbon monoxide breath test for all pregnant women with routine referral (1936/3352, 58% referred to clinic based support (386, 11.5% engaged. 370 (11% women set a quit date and 116 (3.5% had quit 4 weeks later. The second involved identification by self report and referral of women who wanted help (1195/2776, 43% referred for home based support (377/1954, 19% engaged. 409(15% smokers set a quit date and 119 (4.3% had quit 4 weeks later. Cost of home-based support was greater. In Scotland only 265/8062 (3.2% pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking, living in areas with recognised specialist or good generic services, quit smoking during 2006. Conclusions In Scotland, a small proportion of pregnant smokers are supported to stop. Poor outcomes are a product of current limitations to each step of service provision - identification, referral, engagement and treatment. Many smokers are not asked about smoking

  11. First cases of squirrelpox in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, C J; Coulter, L; Dagleish, M P; Fiegna, C; Gilray, J; Willoughby, K; Cole, M; Milne, E; Meredith, A; Everest, D J; Macmaster, A-M

    2009-04-25

    Squirrelpox, caused by a poxvirus, is a major threat to the remaining UK red squirrel population. The spread of antibody-positive grey squirrels has been monitored in the UK for the past decade. In 2005 grey squirrels that had been exposed to the virus appeared in the south of Scotland for the first time, followed approximately two years later by the appearance of squirrelpox disease in the local red squirrels. Four squirrels were examined. They all had gross external lesions and histological lesions typical of squirrelpox disease, but no significant internal lesions. The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR, electron microscopy and serology.

  12. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    U.S. and China are the world’s top two economics. Together they consumed one-third of the world’s primary energy. It is an unprecedented opportunity and challenge for governments, researchers and industries in both countries to join together to address energy issues and global climate change. Such joint collaboration has huge potential in creating new jobs in energy technologies and services. Buildings in the US and China consumed about 40% and 25% of the primary energy in both countries in 2010 respectively. Worldwide, the building sector is the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas emission. Better understanding and improving the energy performance of buildings is a critical step towards sustainable development and mitigation of global climate change. This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  13. Later Life Learning for Adults in Scotland: Tracking the Engagement with and Impact of Learning for Working-Class Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findsen, Brian; McEwan, Brett; McCullough, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Undertaken in the context of an ageing population and under-representation of older adults in formal education in Scotland, this paper reports on selected findings from research funded by the West of Scotland Wider Access Forum. Using a longitudinal design, the project sought, over a two-year period, to track the experiences of 85 working class…

  14. Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Bourrelle, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    clear and consistent definition and a commonly agreed energy calculation methodology. The most important issues that should be given special attention before developing a new ZEB definition are: (1) the metric of the balance, (2) the balancing period, (3) the type of energy use included in the balance...... on the review of the most of the existing ZEB definitions and the various approaches towards possible ZEB calculation methodologies. It presents and discusses possible answers to the abovementioned issues in order to facilitate the development of a consistent ZEB definition and a robust energy calculation......The concept of Zero Energy Building (ZEB) has gained wide international attention during last few years and is now seen as the future target for the design of buildings. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires...

  15. Building-wake diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-01-01

    A recent review of building-wake diffusion models compares model predictions of centerline concentrations in building wakes with concentrations observed in experiments at seven nuclear reactors. In general, the model predictions are conservative in that they tend to predict concentrations that are greater than those actually observed. However, the models show little skill in accounting for variations in the observed concentrations. Analysis of experimental data indicates that the general form of the standard wake diffusion models is inconsistent with observed variations of concentrations in the wakes. The inconsistency is especially marked for ground-level releases. As an interim measure, multiple linear regression techniques have been used to develop a statistical building-wake model alternative to the current models. This paper describes the statistical wake model and compares it with other models

  16. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences...... on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  17. Public attitudes towards alcohol control policies in Scotland and England: Results from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jessica; Lovatt, Melanie; Eadie, Douglas; Dobbie, Fiona; Meier, Petra; Holmes, John; Hastings, Gerard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie

    2017-03-01

    The harmful effects of heavy drinking on health have been widely reported, yet public opinion on governmental responsibility for alcohol control remains divided. This study examines UK public attitudes towards alcohol policies, identifies underlying dimensions that inform these, and relationships with perceived effectiveness. A cross-sectional mixed methods study involving a telephone survey of 3477 adult drinkers aged 16-65 and sixteen focus groups with 89 adult drinkers in Scotland and England was conducted between September 2012 and February 2013. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to reduce twelve policy statements into underlying dimensions. These dimensions were used in linear regression models examining alcohol policy support by demographics, drinking behaviour and perceptions of UK drinking and government responsibility. Findings were supplemented with a thematic analysis of focus group transcripts. A majority of survey respondents supported all alcohol policies, although the level of support varied by type of policy. Greater enforcement of laws on under-age sales and more police patrolling the streets were strongly supported while support for pricing policies and restricting access to alcohol was more divided. PCA identified four main dimensions underlying support on policies: alcohol availability, provision of health information and treatment services, alcohol pricing, and greater law enforcement. Being female, older, a moderate drinker, and holding a belief that government should do more to reduce alcohol harms were associated with higher support on all policy dimensions. Focus group data revealed findings from the survey may have presented an overly positive level of support on all policies due to differences in perceived policy effectiveness. Perceived effectiveness can help inform underlying patterns of policy support and should be considered in conjunction with standard measures of support in future research on alcohol control policies

  18. STORYLINE APPROACH AS ENHANCEMENT OF LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND CHARACTER BUILDING AT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frimadhona Syafri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Using stories in teaching foreign language, it forces the teacher to be crative and innovative to encourage the young learners to enjoy reading stories. The teacher has to be smart to select which one approaches or methods which can enhance learning foreign language and character building in the teaching foreign language process.The storyline approach was specifically designed for the use at primary schools. The storyline method (Storyline for teaching children at primary schools was mainly developed in 1967 by a team of teachers from Jordanhill College of Education (now known as University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, Scotland. The primary schools in Scotland use a curriculum that involves integration of new topics, such as environmental studies and expressive arts, in their teaching foreign language process. This method could be one of alternative method that be applied in teaching foreign language to Elementary School or English Courses for Children in Indonesia.

  19. Indoor air pollution and sick building syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The topics discussed in this paper are accept that SBS (Sick building syndrome) is a reality ; understand the dimensions of the problem ; differentiate between sick building syndrome and building related illness ; introduce standards ; understanding the economics ; act pro-actively not re-actively

  20. Green commercial building insurance in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu Xin Ou; Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Tan, Lay Hong

    2017-03-01

    Green building construction is growing tremendously globally even in Malaysia. Currently, there are approximate 636 buildings have registered and to be certified with Green Building Index. Among these buildings, 45 buildings have already fulfilled the requirements and fully certified. The other buildings still under provisional certification stage. Malaysia had adopted Green Building Index in 2009 to support a move to promote green building concept. Malaysia starts to move towards green building because Malaysian construction and building industry realizes that both energy consumed and waste produced are reduced without irreversible impacts to ecosystems. Consequently, insurance companies such as Fireman's Fund from America has started the green building insurance policies for their green building in the year of 2006, while Malaysia still remain the coverage for green buildings using conventional property insurance. There are lacks of efforts to be seen from insurance companies to propose green building insurance for these green buildings. There are a few factors which can take into consideration for insurance companies to start the very first green building insurance in Malaysia. Although there are challenges, some efficient strategies have been identified to overcome the problems. The methods used in this research topic is qualitative research. The results obtained shows that green commercial building insurance has a huge business opportunity in Malaysia because the number of green commercial buildings are increasing tremendously in Malaysia. It is a favor to implement green building insurance in Malaysia. Furthermore, insurance companies can consider to add in extra coverage in standard building policy to provide extra protection for non-certified green buildings which have the intention to rebuilt in green when damage happens. Generally, it is very important to introduce green commercial buildings insurance into Malaysia so that all of the green commercial

  1. Life between buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan

    2001-01-01

    A classic is republished. Life between Buildings was first published in 1971. This book - frequently revised over the years - is still the best source for understanding how people use public spaces in our cities. Published in many languages, it is a standard textbook in Architecture and Planning...... Schools around the world, and continues to be the undisputed basic introduction to the interplay between public space design and social life. This book is now available in its third English language version....

  2. Building energy efficiency in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China's total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to provide for basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China's success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation. - Highlights: • Building energy use is larger in rural China than in cities. • Rural buildings are very energy intensive, and energy use is growing with incomes. • A new design standard aims to help rural communities build more efficiently. • Important challenges remain with implementation

  3. Self-Reported Digital Literacy of the Pharmacy Workforce in North East Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie MacLure

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In their day-to-day practice, pharmacists, graduate (pre-registration pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, dispensing assistants and medicines counter assistants use widely available office, retail and management information systems alongside dedicated pharmacy management and electronic health (ehealth applications. The ability of pharmacy staff to use these applications at home and at work, also known as digital literacy or digital competence or e-skills, depends on personal experience and related education and training. The aim of this research was to gain insight into the self-reported digital literacy of the pharmacy workforce in the North East of Scotland. A purposive case sample survey was conducted across NHS Grampian in the NE of Scotland. Data collection was based on five items: sex, age band, role, pharmacy experience plus a final question about self-reported digital literacy. The study was conducted between August 2012 and March 2013 in 17 community and two hospital pharmacies. With few exceptions, pharmacy staff perceived their own digital literacy to be at a basic level. Secondary outcome measures of role, age, gender and work experience were not found to be clear determinants of digital literacy. Pharmacy staff need to be more digitally literate to harness technologies in pharmacy practice more effectively and efficiently.

  4. Fingerprinting of bed sediment in the Tay Estuary, Scotland: an environmental magnetism approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Jenkins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment fingerprinting is commonly used for sediment provenance studies in lakes, rivers and reservoirs and on hillslopes and floodplains. This investigation explores the mixing of terrestrial and marine-derived sediment in the Tay Estuary, Scotland, using mineral magnetic attributes for fingerprinting. Samples representative of the estuary sediments and of four sources (end-members were subjected to a suite of magnetic susceptibility and remanence measurements. Sediment samples from the beds of the Rivers Tay and Earn represented fluvial inputs while samples from the Angus and Fife coasts represented marine input. Multivariate discriminant and factor analysis showed that the sources could be separated on the basis of six magnetic parameters in a simple multivariate unmixing model to identify source contributions to estuarine bed sediments. Multi-domain magnetite signatures, characteristic of unweathered bedrock, dominate the magnetic measurements. Overall contributions of 3% from the River Earn, 17% from the River Tay, 29% from the Angus coast and 51% from the Fife coast source end-members, demonstrated the present-day regime of marine sediment derivation in the Tay Estuary. However, this conceals considerable spatial variability both along-estuary and in terms of sub-environments, with small-scale variations in sediment provenance reflecting local morphology, particularly areas of channel convergence. Keywords: bed sediment, environmental magnetism, fingerprinting, Tay Estuary, Scotland

  5. Flood Risk Management Policy in Scotland: Research Questions Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Hastings, Emily; MacDonald, Jannette

    2016-04-01

    Scotland's Centre of Expertise for Waters (CREW) delivers accessible research and expert opinion to support the Scottish Government and its delivery partners in the development and implementation of water policy. It was established in 2011 by the Scottish Government (Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services) in recognition of a gap in the provision of short term advice and research to policy (development and implementation). Key policy areas include the Water Framework Directive, Floods Directive, Drinking Water Directive, Habitats Directive and Scotland's Hydro Nation Strategy. CREW is unique in its demand-driven and free service for policy makers and practitioners, managing the engagement between scientists, policy makers and practitioners to work effectively across this interface. The users of CREW are the Scottish Government, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Natural Heritage and Scottish Water. CREW has funded around 100 projects relating to water policy since its inception in 2011. Of these, a significant number relate to flood risk management policy. Based on a review of work to date, this poster will give an overview of these projects and a forward look at the challenges that remain. From learning from community led flood risk management to surface water flood forecasting for urban communities, links will be made between sustainable and traditional flood risk management while considering the perceptions of stakeholders to flood risk management. How can we deliver fully integrated flood risk management options? How policy makers, scientists and land managers can better work together will also be explored.

  6. Cardiovascular disease and air pollution in Scotland: no association or insufficient data and study design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willocks Lorna J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease and stroke are leading causes of mortality and ill health in Scotland, and clear associations have been found in previous studies between air pollution and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to use routinely available data to examine whether there is any evidence of an association between short-term exposure to particulate matter (measured as PM10, particles less than 10 micrograms per cubic metre and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease, in the two largest cities in Scotland during the years 2000 to 2006. Methods The study utilised an ecological time series design, and the analysis was based on overdispersed Poisson log-linear models. Results No consistent associations were found between PM10 concentrations and cardiovascular hospital admissions in either of the cities studied, as all of the estimated relative risks were close to one, and all but one of the associated 95% confidence intervals contained the null risk of one. Conclusions This study suggests that in small cities, where air quality is relatively good, then either PM10 concentrations have no effect on cardiovascular ill health, or that the routinely available data and the corresponding study design are not sufficient to detect an association.

  7. Cardiovascular disease and air pollution in Scotland: no association or insufficient data and study design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willocks, Lorna J; Bhaskar, Abita; Ramsay, Colin N; Lee, Duncan; Brewster, David H; Fischbacher, Colin M; Chalmers, James; Morris, George; Scott, E Marian

    2012-03-22

    Coronary heart disease and stroke are leading causes of mortality and ill health in Scotland, and clear associations have been found in previous studies between air pollution and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to use routinely available data to examine whether there is any evidence of an association between short-term exposure to particulate matter (measured as PM₁₀, particles less than 10 micrograms per cubic metre) and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease, in the two largest cities in Scotland during the years 2000 to 2006. The study utilised an ecological time series design, and the analysis was based on overdispersed Poisson log-linear models. No consistent associations were found between PM₁₀ concentrations and cardiovascular hospital admissions in either of the cities studied, as all of the estimated relative risks were close to one, and all but one of the associated 95% confidence intervals contained the null risk of one. This study suggests that in small cities, where air quality is relatively good, then either PM₁₀ concentrations have no effect on cardiovascular ill health, or that the routinely available data and the corresponding study design are not sufficient to detect an association.

  8. Life-years gained from coronary heart disease mortality reduction in Scotland: prevention or treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, J A; Capewell, S; Unal, B

    2003-06-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) death rates have fallen considerably in many countries. We estimated the life-years-gained (LYG) in Scotland between 1975 and 1994 attributable to cardiology treatments, and population reductions in major CHD risk factors, using a previously validated mortality model. This combines published effectiveness data with information on uptake of CHD treatments; risk factor trends; and median survival by age and sex. Compared with 1975, there were 4,536 fewer CHD deaths in 1994, resulting in approximately 48,016 LYG among those aged 45-84 (maximum estimate 53,317; minimum estimate 36,867). Medical and surgical treatments for CHD patients gained approximately 12,025 life-years; the largest contribution coming from pharmacologic secondary prevention. Population reductions in major risk factors (smoking, cholesterol, and blood pressure) accounted for some 35,991 LYG, reductions in smoking accounted for over 50% of this. Modern cardiologic treatments gained many thousands of life-years in Scotland, but modest reductions in risk factors gained almost three times as many life-years.

  9. Third Way Parenting and the Creation of the “Named Person” in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Waiton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article has been developed through the experience of working with the various organizations and individuals who have been part of the No to Named Person campaign. The aim of the article is to understand the emergence of the Named Person in Scotland and to explain the significant distance between legislators and policy makers and those who have opposed the Named Person initiative. We propose that the key to understanding these divergent views is predicated upon profoundly different views of the family, the collapse of the ideal of family autonomy, and its replacement with what can be described as “third way parenting.” Here, the meaning of the “Named Person” as laid out in the Children and Young People (Scotland Act 2014, and the opposing views that have been made against this act are explained. The “Named Person” provision in the legislation, it is argued, has developed with the rise of micro-managerial politics, the construction of the “at risk” child and the anxiety expressed about the early years of children, seen most clearly in the significance of early intervention policies. Within this context, parenting has become problematized and increasingly understood as a skills activity requiring training, support, and surveillance.

  10. Risk assessment and management of unstable slopes on the national forest estate in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, M.; Nettelton, I.; Leech, K.

    2015-09-01

    The National Forest Estate in Scotland has a wide range of geotechnical hazards present, primarily landslides, which may cause a significant risk to people and key infrastructure. UK land owners are increasingly required to understand the risks associated with their land and how their activities may affect landsliding and, in particular, where landslides originating from their land may impact third party assets. A Geographic Information System (GIS) based landslide susceptibility assessment by the British Geological Survey (BGS) identified a number of sites in the National Forest Estate as being susceptible to landslide hazards. Coffey Geotechnics Ltd and the BGS are currently undertaking “ground- truthing” of selected sites to identify and characterise the hazards, pathways and elements at risk. A “Slope Stability Appraisal of Risk” system was used to assign a risk category to areas identified during the “ground-truthing” phase which need to be managed. This system is based on the combination of hazards, receptor type, vulnerability and pathway in a similar manner to that of the Australian Geomechanics Society. A long term strategy for risk management of unstable slopes is under development by Forestry Commission Scotland to provide strategic guidance on future land management and guidance for existing felled sites. Options for risk management include: maintenance of existing systems i.e. drainage; silviculture where establishment of woodland can assist in slope stabilisation; and engineering works such as barrier systems, retaining structures and rock remedial works.

  11. Distribution of physical activity facilities in Scotland by small area measures of deprivation and urbanicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogilvie David

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physical activity facilities by area-level deprivation in Scotland, adjusting for differences in urbanicity, and exploring differences between and within the four largest Scottish cities. Methods We obtained a list of all recreational physical activity facilities in Scotland. These were mapped and assigned to datazones. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used to investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities relative to population size and quintile of area-level deprivation. Results The results showed that prior to adjustment for urbanicity, the density of all facilities lessened with increasing deprivation from quintiles 2 to 5. After adjustment for urbanicity and local authority, the effect of deprivation remained significant but the pattern altered, with datazones in quintile 3 having the highest estimated mean density of facilities. Within-city associations were identified between the number of physical activity facilities and area-level deprivation in Aberdeen and Dundee, but not in Edinburgh or Glasgow. Conclusions In conclusion, area-level deprivation appears to have a significant association with the density of physical activity facilities and although overall no clear pattern was observed, affluent areas had fewer publicly owned facilities than more deprived areas but a greater number of privately owned facilities.

  12. Determinants of utilisation differences for cancer medicines in Belgium, Scotland and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Alessandra

    2017-12-01

    Little comparative evidence is available on utilisation of cancer medicines in different countries and its determinants. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical model to test the correlation between utilisation and possible determinants in selected European countries. A sample of 31 medicines for cancer treatment that obtained EU-wide marketing authorisation between 2000 and 2012 was selected. Annual data on medicines' utilisation covering the in- and out-patient public sectors were obtained from national authorities between 2008 and 2013. Possible determinants of utilisation were extracted from HTA reports and complemented by contacts with key informants. A longitudinal mixed effect model was fitted to test possible determinants of medicines utilisation in Belgium, Scotland and Sweden. In the all-country model, the number of indications reimbursed positively correlated with increased consumption of medicines [one indication 2.6, 95% CI (1.8-3.6); two indications 2.4, 95% CI (1.4-4.3); three indications 4.9, 95% CI (2.2-10.9); all P medicines introduced in the past 15 years were: medicines coverage and time since marketing authorisation. Prices had a negative effect on consumption in Belgium and Sweden. The positive impact of financial MEAs in Scotland suggests that the latter may remove the regressive effect of list prices on consumption.

  13. Neptunism and Transformism: Robert Jameson and other Evolutionary Theorists in Early Nineteenth-Century Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Bill

    2016-08-01

    This paper sheds new light on the prevalence of evolutionary ideas in Scotland in the early nineteenth century and establish what connections existed between the espousal of evolutionary theories and adherence to the directional history of the earth proposed by Abraham Gottlob Werner and his Scottish disciples. A possible connection between Wernerian geology and theories of the transmutation of species in Edinburgh in the period when Charles Darwin was a medical student in the city was suggested in an important 1991 paper by James Secord. This study aims to deepen our knowledge of this important episode in the history of evolutionary ideas and explore the relationship between these geological and evolutionary discourses. To do this it focuses on the circle of natural historians around Robert Jameson, Wernerian geologist and professor of natural history at the University of Edinburgh from 1804 to 1854. From the evidence gathered here there emerges a clear confirmation that the Wernerian model of geohistory facilitated the acceptance of evolutionary explanations of the history of life in early nineteenth-century Scotland. As Edinburgh was at this time the most important center of medical education in the English-speaking world, this almost certainly influenced the reception and development of evolutionary ideas in the decades that followed.

  14. Self-Reported Digital Literacy of the Pharmacy Workforce in North East Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLure, Katie; Stewart, Derek

    2015-10-15

    In their day-to-day practice, pharmacists, graduate (pre-registration) pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, dispensing assistants and medicines counter assistants use widely available office, retail and management information systems alongside dedicated pharmacy management and electronic health (ehealth) applications. The ability of pharmacy staff to use these applications at home and at work, also known as digital literacy or digital competence or e-skills, depends on personal experience and related education and training. The aim of this research was to gain insight into the self-reported digital literacy of the pharmacy workforce in the North East of Scotland. A purposive case sample survey was conducted across NHS Grampian in the NE of Scotland. Data collection was based on five items: sex, age band, role, pharmacy experience plus a final question about self-reported digital literacy. The study was conducted between August 2012 and March 2013 in 17 community and two hospital pharmacies. With few exceptions, pharmacy staff perceived their own digital literacy to be at a basic level. Secondary outcome measures of role, age, gender and work experience were not found to be clear determinants of digital literacy. Pharmacy staff need to be more digitally literate to harness technologies in pharmacy practice more effectively and efficiently.

  15. Counting the cost of water use in hydroelectric generation in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, Michael; Moran, Dominic; Spencer, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Increasing the proportion of renewable capacity in the national energy mix may give rise to a range of economic costs. This paper considers the nature of water use in hydroelectric generation in Scotland. Hydroelectric generation is currently the highest volumetric use of water in Scotland. After calculating this volume, the paper considers the nature of some of the non-priced costs associated with this use. The paper is set in the context of the transposed EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), which states that users of water should face the full costs. This article of the Directive has yet to be fully implemented, and may have consequences for hydroelectricity that have not yet been fully explored. For example, the low value of water use in hydro schemes compared to competing uses, implies an opportunity cost, which is a signal of potential resource misallocation that the WFD aims to address. In practice however, there are likely to be limited circumstances where economic misallocation can be practically redressed

  16. The introduction, deployment and impact of assistant practitioners in diagnostic radiography in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.; Miller, L.; Hicks, B.; Higgs, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the outcomes of an evaluation of the impact of introducing Assistant Practitioners (AP) roles into imaging departments in 13 of the 14 NHS Boards in Scotland. Between 2006 and 2009 some 34 individuals were trained as APs in diagnostic radiography with 33 subsequently taking up AP posts. In 2010 NHS Education for Scotland commissioned an evaluation of the impact brought about through introduction of the diagnostic imaging AP role in imaging departments. The research found that a minority of the managers had considered the workforce implications of introducing the new roles or the supervisory arrangements that would be required. In some sites implementation of the roles had resulted in the release of radiographers for additional training and higher level activities, but in others financial constraints had limited such initiatives. Managers believed that APs had helped maintain or improve service capacity and quality. - Highlights: • Minority of managers consider implications of new roles or supervisory arrangements. • Assistant practitioners (APs) help maintain or improve service capacity and quality. • Financial constraints limit training and initiatives. • APs can allow staff release for training and work in specialist modalities. • Data collection key in measuring financial effectiveness, capacity and impact

  17. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...

  18. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...

  19. Building Sandcastles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø; Korsgaard, Steffen; Shumar, Wes

    of entrepreneurship education. Our theoretical and methodological approach builds on Actor-Network Theory. The empirical settings of our study consist of two entrepreneurship courses which differ in terms of temporal extension and physical setting. Data is collected using observation and interview techniques. Our...

  20. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  1. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency improvement...

  2. Guidelines for Building Science Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rashkin, Samuel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huelman, Pat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) residential research and demonstration program, Building America, has triumphed through 20 years of innovation. Partnering with researchers, builders, remodelers, and manufacturers to develop innovative processes like advanced framing and ventilation standards, Building America has proven an energy efficient design can be more cost effective, healthy, and durable than a standard house. As Building America partners continue to achieve their stretch goals, they have found that the barrier to true market transformation for high performance homes is the limited knowledge-base of the professionals working in the building industry. With dozens of professionals taking part in the design and execution of building and selling homes, each person should have basic building science knowledge relevant to their role, and an understanding of how various home components interface with each other. Instead, our industry typically experiences a fragmented approach to home building and design. After obtaining important input from stakeholders at the Building Science Education Kick-Off Meeting, DOE created a building science education strategy addressing education issues preventing the widespread adoption of high performance homes. This strategy targets the next generation and provides valuable guidance for the current workforce. The initiative includes: • Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Engages universities and provides students who will be the next generation of architects, engineers, construction managers and entrepreneurs with the necessary skills and experience they need to begin careers in clean energy and generate creative solutions to real world problems. • Building Science to Sales Translator: Simplifies building science into compelling sales language and tools to sell high performance homes to their customers. • Building Science Education Guidance: Brings together industry and academia to solve problems related to

  3. Business, Management and Administration: A Subject-Based Aspect Report by Education Scotland on Behalf of the Scottish Funding Council on Provision in Scotland's Colleges. Transforming Lives through Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Scotland, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In preparing this report, reviewers visited a sample of four colleges, detailed in Appendix 1. They also drew on the findings of published Education Scotland external reviews of colleges, and examined other relevant publications and reports. They consulted and held focus groups with key stakeholders, including the Scottish Qualifications Authority…

  4. Students' attitudes to learning physics at school and university levels in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skryabina, Elena

    revealed that although boys and girls are equally interested in certain areas of the subject, there are areas in Physics where boys and girls interests are significantly different. No differences were found in intensity of boys' and girls' interests towards suggested Physics topics at primary P6/P7 level, S3 and S5/S6 levels. At S2 and S4 levels a significant decline of girls' interests relative to boys interests was observed. S2 and S4 stages are decision making ones when pupils have the opportunity to select courses for the future. It was also revealed that the ratio of boys to girls in Physics once established at S2 level remains unchanged through the years of Standard Grade and Higher Grade Physics courses. This may indicate that if the number of girls in Physics is an issue for concern then attention should be paid to the primary and, especially early secondary years to attract girls to Physics. School Physics courses in Scotland revealed a high retention rate of girls in Physics. Analyses of preferred activities revealed that practical work is the most enjoyable activity in Science/Physics lessons for both girls and boys at every stage of schooling and studying the theory was found to be the least enjoyable activity at school for both genders at every age. The picture was almost the reverse with university Physics students.

  5. Energy audit role in building planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahutar, Riman; Bizzy, Irwin

    2017-11-01

    An energy audit is one way to overcome the excessive use of energy in buildings. The increasing growth of population, economy, and industry will have an impact on energy demand and the formation of greenhouse gas emissions. Indonesian National Standard (SNI) concerning the building has not been implemented optimally due to the socialization process by a government not yet been conducted. An energy audit of buildings has been carried out at offices and public services. Most electrical energy in buildings used for air refresher equipment or air conditioning. Calculation of OTTV has demonstrated the importance of performing since the beginning of the planning of a building to get energy-efficient buildings.

  6. Linklater's Scotland

    CERN Multimedia

    Linklater, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    Some day a plaque may be fixed t the door of 1 Roxburgh Street, Edinburgh. It was here, in July 1964, that Peter Higgs began to formulate a scientific theory that would dominate the world of particle physics for the next 40 years

  7. Physical Education at Preschools: The Meaning of "Physical Education" to Practitioners at Three Preschool Settings in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preschool physical education has been largely unexplored by researchers. This article examines the meaning of the term "physical education", in relation to preschool contexts, to 14 practitioners working at three preschool settings in Scotland. Our focus on preschool physical education reflects a change in the language…

  8. Education as an Agent of Social Evolution: The Educational Projects of Patrick Geddes in Late-Victorian Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the educational projects of Patrick Geddes in late-Victorian Scotland. Initially a natural scientist, Geddes drew on an eclectic mix of social theory to develop his own ideas on social evolution. For him education was a vital agent of social change which, he believed, had the potential to develop active citizens whose…

  9. Educational Outcomes of Young People in Scotland Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Intersections of Deafness and Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, Mariela; Riddell, Sheila; O'Neill, Rachel; Weedon, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the intersection between deafness and social class in the context of the unstable economic circumstances in Scotland following the 2007 recession. More specifically, this research investigated the following in the case of young people who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH): (1) the interaction between educational attainment…

  10. Helium isotope signature of the Permo-Carboniferous magmatic province in Scotland - no role for a mantle Plume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirstein, L.A.; Dunai, T.J.; Davies, G.R.; Upton, B.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Noble gas studies of well-characterized spinel-peridotite-facies lithospheric mantle xenoliths and garnet megacrysts from Scottish Permo-Carboniferous dykes, sills and vents demonstrate that the mantle beneath Scotland during the late Palaeozoic was more radiogenic than the source of mid-ocean ridge

  11. [EDRP public local inquiry] Radioactive waste management policy in the UK (with particular reference to Scotland) (Revised statement)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.E.S.

    1986-03-01

    The U.K. Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes with reference to Scotland, taking account of the latest developments, is set out. Areas covered include responsible bodies, environmental monitoring, discharges from UK reprocessing sites, waste from reprocessing of spent fuel from overseas. (U.K.)

  12. The Professional Learning Needs and Priorities of Higher-Education-Based Teacher Educators in England, Ireland and Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniawski, Gerry; Gray, Donald; MacPhail, Ann; Bain, Yvonne; Conway, Paul; Guberman, Ainat

    2018-01-01

    Against a rapidly changing policy landscape for teacher education, exacerbated by 'Brexit' in the UK, findings are presented from an electronic survey of 272 higher-education based teacher educators in England, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland about their experiences of, and priorities for, professional learning. While the data generated were…

  13. Quality Assurance in Education: Current Debates. A Report on a SOED-Sponsored Seminar (Stirling, Scotland, United Kingdom, June 1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, Ian, Ed.

    Proceedings of a workshop held at the University of Stirling, Scotland, to critically examine issues in quality assurance (QA) in education are provided in this document. QA is the generic title for a series of business-management models that have been applied to educational contexts to describe and promote school effectiveness. Five papers and…

  14. The Water of Life: Creative Non-Fiction and Lived Experience on an Interdisciplinary Canoe Journey on Scotland's River Spey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Peter; Wattchow, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on an educational encounter between staff, students and the River Spey, Scotland in September 2009. The themes of water and embodied and culturally constructed ways of knowing the river were used to inform a creative non-fiction narrative that was drafted during and shortly after the journey, and was later refined. Textual…

  15. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  16. An Early Medieval Tradition of Building in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardiner, Mark

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Early medieval houses in Britain were largely constructed of timber. Various approaches have been adopted for interpreting the character of these buildings, since no standing structure survives. These include the study of water-logged timber, the reproduction of methods of working and the reconstruction of buildings, as well as the conventional analysis of the plans of excavations. The problems of identifying the ethnic affiliations of houses in Britain are particularly acute because the structural features which define the building traditions in England and Scotland have rarely been identified. However, it is argued that it is possible to identify a distinctive tradition of building in timber which persists from the fifth to the eleventh or even twelfth century, and is found throughout England and into southern Scotland.En la Gran Bretaña de la alta Edad Media se solían construir las viviendas de madera y por consiguiente no queda ninguna estructura en pie. Así, se han adoptado varios enfoques para interpretar las características de dichas viviendas, como el análisis de la madera saturada de agua, la recreación de la metodología de trabajo y la reconstrucción de edificios, así como los tradicionales análisis de las plantas de las construcciones en las excavaciones. La atribución étnica de las viviendas en Gran Bretaña resulta especialmente difícil porque rara vez se han identificado las tradiciones constructivas de Inglaterra y Escocia. No obstante, se ha argumentado que es posible identificar a una tradición característica de construcción en madera que se mantuvo del siglo V al siglo XI e incluso hasta el siglo XII y que se puede encontrar en toda Inglaterra y en el sur de Escocia.

  17. The dental caries experience of 5-year-old children in England and Wales (2003/4) and in Scotland (2002/3). Surveys co-ordinated by the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, N B; Boyles, J; Nugent, Z J; Thomas, N; Pine, C M

    2005-03-01

    This paper reports the results of standardized clinical caries examinations of 5 year old children from across England and Wales in 2003/4 and Scotland in 2002/3. These co-ordinated surveys are the latest in a series which seek to monitor the dental health of children and to assess the delivery of dental services. The criteria and conventions of the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry were used. Representative samples were drawn from participating strategic health authorities (SHAs), primary care trusts (PCTs) and health boards (HBs). Caries was diagnosed at the caries into dentine threshold using a visual method without radiography or fibre-optic transillumination. Data for Jersey and the Isle of Man are also included. The results again demonstrated a wide variation in disease prevalence and care strategies across Great Britain. Mean values for d3mft within the current English Strategic Health Authorities ranged from 0.47 in Maidstone Weald (South) to 3.69 in North Kirklees (North); in Wales mean values ranged from 1.48 in Flintshire (NW) to 3.73 in Merthyr (SE); while in Scotland they ranged from 1.29 in Borders to 3.67 in Argyll & Clyde. Mean d3mft across England was 1.49 (d3t = 1.12, mt = 0.19, ft = 0.18), across Wales it was 2.42 (d3t = 1.70, mt = 0.43, ft = 0.29) and across Scotland values were 2.76 (d3t = 1.87, mt = 0.65, ft = 0.24). Overall, 39.6% of children in England & Wales and 55.4% of children inspected in Scotland had evidence of caries experience in dentine (d3mft > 0, including visual dentine caries). The distribution of caries was highly skewed. Thus the mean caries experience for those with dentinal decay in England and Wales was 3.90, as opposed to the overall mean of 1.55; in Scotland the corresponding values were 4.98 and 2.76. Trends over time demonstrate virtually no change in the overall mean d3mft for England and Wales since 2001/2, although the mean value for those with dentine decay experience increased marginally

  18. Energy conservation in large buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, A.; Hafemeister, D.

    1985-11-01

    As energy prices rise, newly energy aware designers use better tools and technology to create energy efficient buildings. Thus the U.S. office stock (average age 20 years) uses 250 kBTU/ft2 of resource energy, but the guzzler of 1972 uses 500 (up×2), and the 1986 ASHRAE standards call for 100-125 (less than 25% of their 1972 ancestors). Surprisingly, the first real cost of these efficient buildings has not risen since 1972. Scaling laws are used to calculate heat gains and losses of buildings to obtain the ΔT(free) which can be as large as 15-30 °C (30-60 °F) for large buildings. The net thermal demand and thermal time constants are determined for the Swedish Thermodeck buildings which need essentially no heat in the winter and no chillers in summer. The BECA and other data bases for large buildings are discussed. Off-peak cooling for large buildings is analyzed in terms of saving peak-electrical power. By downsizing chillers and using cheaper, off-peak power, cost-effective thermal storage in new commercial buildings can reduce U.S. peak power demands by 10-20 GW in 15 years. A further potential of about 40 GW is available from adopting partial thermal storage and more efficient air conditioners in existing buildings.

  19. Experimental Standards in Sustainability Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara Anne

    In this thesis I address how experimental standards are used in the new governance paradigm to further sustainability transitions. Focusing on the case of the Active House standard in the building sector, I investigate experimental standards in three research papers examining the following dynamics......: (1) the relationship between commensuration and legitimacy in the formulation and diffusion of a standard’s specifications; (2) the role of awareness in standardizing green default rules to establish sustainable consumption in buildings; and (3) the significance of focus on humans in the development...... of technological standards for sustainable building. Launching from a critical realist social ontology, I collected ethnographic data on the Active House Alliance, its cofounder VELUX, and three of their demonstration building projects in Austria, Germany, and Belgium over the course of three years from 2013...

  20. Pneumonia hospitalisations in Scotland following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Harish; Watts, Arun Thor; Williams, Linda J; Omer, Saad B; Simpson, Colin R; Willocks, Lorna J; Cameron, J Claire; Campbell, Harry

    2016-08-09

    Scotland introduced PCV7 and PCV13 immunisation in young children in 2006 and 2010 respectively. One recent study from the United States reported a decrease in hospitalisation rates for all-cause pneumonia most notably in adults older than 75 years of age following PCV7 introduction in the US child population. We aimed to examine the effect of PCV7 and PCV13 on hospitalisation rates for all-cause pneumonia across all age groups in Scotland. We linked hospital records and death certification datasets for the entire Scottish population for the period 2000 to 2012. We included all cases where the primary / secondary diagnosis was pneumonia. Differences in hospital admission rates for pneumonia by age group were calculated using the difference in average annual rates for each period. We estimated that all-cause pneumonia hospitalisation rates in children 75 years. At the same time, the median length of hospital stay decreased by a third in children 75 years in the post-PCV13 period compared to the pre-PCV period. Additionally, there was an 11 % reduction in deaths due to all-cause pneumonia, and 30 % reduction in pneumococcal hospitalisations across all age groups in the post-PCV13 period compared with pre-PCV period. The modest and sustained decline in the rates of hospitalisation for all-cause pneumonia in children and the reduction in proportion of pneumonia hospitalisations in children coded as pneumococcal disease in the post-PCV period should alleviate concerns that pneumococcal serotype replacement may have resulted in an increased pneumonia burden in this age group. The indirect impact of child PCV immunisation in those not vaccinated (in terms of reduction in all-cause pneumonia hospitalisations in the elderly) has not been seen in Scotland. Our results are likely to be confounded by changes in clinical coding and healthcare practices over the same period. Our results illustrate that health care planners cannot, with confidence, predict indirect PCV

  1. Scotland's Water Map: Understanding water sector links to support decision making for the Hydro Nation Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Ruth E.; Gilmour, Daniel; Duffy, Alison; Isaacs, John; Stojanovic, Vladeta; O'Keeffe, Juliette; Blackwood, David

    2015-04-01

    The value of Scotland's water and sewerage market is projected to grow to £1.24bn by 2016/17. Developing future opportunities must take place alongside maintaining current service provision; however the demand on water and waste water services is constantly evolving. An integrated approach to water management requires an understanding of complex interactions that exist between key actors in the sector to allow water management strategies to exploit inter-sectorial links. Successful integrated analysis of the water sector in Scotland will support management activities key to responding to the Hydro Nation themes of 1) Governance and international development 2) Environmental protection 3) Economic opportunities 4) Research development. In order to deliver on these objectives an approach is required to capture and communicate the scope and scale of the water sector and its interconnectedness. The methodology required to determine scope, scale and interconnectedness of water sector involved the identification and application of an appropriate range of techniques from the Information and Knowledge Management disciplines combined with the Information Visualisation field. Scope and scale of the water sector was identified by a desk based study and this data was visualized using a geographic map. Sector interconnectedness was determined by interviewing key actors. The interviews identified the stakeholders associated with information flows, and the purpose of the information transfer through Reporting/Managing (R/M), Influence and Information sharing (I) or Control (C) activities. Primary information flows were also scored with respect to importance against the 4 key Hydro Nation agenda themes. Many organisations were identified who interact within Scotland's water sector including the Scottish Government and Ministers, the Regulators (WICS, DWQR, SEPA), Scottish Water (core and non-core functions), plus many other stakeholders ranging from research institutions to

  2. A review of ethylphenidate in deaths in east and west Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Claire; McKeown, Denise; Torrance, Hazel J

    2015-12-01

    Ethylphenidate is a psychostimulant and analogue of methylphenidate. Interestingly it is also produced as a metabolite from the co-ingestion of methylphenidate and alcohol (ethanol). In the UK, between April and June 2015, ethylphenidate and 6 other methylphenidate based novel psychoactive substances (NPS) were subjected to a temporary class drug order under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Ethylphenidate is being abused by both novel and habitual drug users, more prominently in the East of Scotland. What is unknown in the literature is the contribution of ethylphenidate in deaths. A search was conducted for an 18 month period (July 2013 to December 2014) to identify cases where ethylphenidate was detected during post-mortem toxicological analysis. Nineteen cases were identified and these cases were examined with regards to case circumstances, pathology findings, toxicology results and adverse effects. The individuals ranged in age from 20 to 54 (median 37) and the majority were male (n=14) and from the East of Scotland (n=16), more specifically Edinburgh and surrounding area. Current or previous heroin abuse was a common theme in these cases (n=16) and injection was a common route of administration of "legal highs" or "burst". The concentration of ethylphenidate in the cases ranged from 0.008 mg/L to over 2 mg/L in post-mortem femoral blood (median 0.25 mg/L, average 0.39 mg/L). Other drugs commonly detected were benzodiazepines (n=15), followed by opiates (n=11, 4 of which were positive for 6-monoacetylmorphine) and then methadone (n=8). All 19 cases received a full post-mortem examination and there were 10 cases where drug toxicity was the sole or potentially contributory factor to the cause of death. Ethylphenidate was specifically mentioned in the cause of death for 5 cases, chronic intravenous (IV) drug use was named as part of the cause of death for 2 cases and in 6 cases there was evidence of complications and infections through IV drug use. As far as it is

  3. Integrated inspection of services for people with learning disabilities in Scotland: the way forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Campbell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article summarises the process and the results of the first, integrated inspection of managed care services for people with learning disabilities in Scotland. The multi-agency model used was developed to be congruent with the existing performance inspection models, used by single agency inspection. The inspection activities and main outcomes are described, and suggestions are made for improvements. Context of case: In 2006 an inspection model was devised to assess the quality of health, social services and education services for people with learning disabilities in one geographical area of Scotland, as a precursor to a programme of inspections nationally. The first joint, integrated inspection of all services for people with learning disabilities in Scotland took place in June 2006, and the report was published in March 2007. This was the first multi-agency inspection of its kind in the UK, and the first to involve carers and people with learning disabilities on the inspection team. Data sources: A number of data sources were used to check existing practice against agreed Quality Outcome indicators. Primary sources of data were social work records, health records, education records, staff surveys, carer surveys, interviews with staff, family carers and people with learning disabilities, and self evaluations completed by the services being inspected. Eleven different domains, each with sub-indicators were investigated. Case description: This paper summarises the process of an integrated, multi-agency inspection, how the inspection activities were conducted and the main findings of this inspection. Practical improvements to the process are suggested, and these may be of use to other services and inspectorates. Conclusions and discussion: The integrated inspection was a qualified success. Most major objectives were achieved. The sharing of data amongst inspection agencies, establishing the level of commitment to integrated inspection

  4. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  5. Estimating the contribution of rural land uses to greenhouse gas emissions: A case study of North East Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliciano, Diana; Slee, Bill; Hunter, Colin; Smith, Pete

    2013-01-01

    Challenging greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets were set in Scotland by the Climate Change (Scotland) Act in June 2009. The national objective is to reduce GHG emissions by 42% by 2020 and 80% by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The GHG emission reduction targets apply both to the traded and non-traded sectors, thus including the rural land use sector. In North East Scotland, rural land uses cover the majority of the land area, with agriculture and forestry representing about 86% and sporting land about 10% of the total area. The objectives of this study were to provide guidance for the development of a regional GHG inventory to estimate methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from rural land uses in North East of Scotland, to compare with that of the United Kingdom (UK), and discuss the advantages of regional GHG inventories for rural land uses. The study mainly followed the guidance of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Revised Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and adapts these to the region level. Data available for North East Scotland allowed an assessment of annual GHG emissions from livestock and grassland, cropland management and sporting land, as well as carbon sequestered by forests, between 1999 and 2010. Estimated GHG emissions of 1420 ktCO 2 e from livestock, grassland and cropland management obtained in this study for 2009 compare well with estimates for the same region from larger-scale inventories. The methodology described, including the steps undertaken for data collection, the shortcomings found and strategies to overcome these, could be applied to other UK or European regions.

  6. Is there a link between childhood adversity, attachment style and Scotland's excess mortality? Evidence, challenges and potential research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M; Williamson, A E; Walsh, D; McCartney, G

    2016-07-28

    Scotland has a persistently high mortality rate that is not solely due to the effects of socio-economic deprivation. This "excess" mortality is observed across the entire country, but is greatest in and around the post-industrial conurbation of West Central Scotland. Despite systematic investigation, the causes of the excess mortality remain the subject of ongoing debate. Attachment processes are a fundamental part of human development, and have a profound influence on adult personality and behaviour, especially in response to stressors. Many studies have also shown that childhood adversity is correlated with adult morbidity and mortality. The interplay between childhood adversity and attachment is complex and not fully elucidated, but will include socio-economic, intergenerational and psychological factors. Importantly, some adverse health outcomes for parents (such as problem substance use or suicide) will simultaneously act as risk factors for their children. Data show that some forms of "household dysfunction" relating to childhood adversity are more prevalent in Scotland: such problems include parental problem substance use, rates of imprisonment, rates of suicide and rates of children being taken into care. However other measures of childhood or family wellbeing have not been found to be substantially different in Scotland compared to England. We suggest in this paper that the role of childhood adversity and attachment experience merits further investigation as a plausible mechanism influencing health in Scotland. A model is proposed which sets out some of the interactions between the factors of interest, and we propose parameters for the types of study which would be required to evaluate the validity of the model.

  7. State building energy codes status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

  8. Building and Testing with Gradle

    CERN Document Server

    Berglund, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Build and test software written in Java and many other languages with Gradle, the open source project automation tool that's getting a lot of attention. This concise introduction provides numerous code examples to help you explore Gradle, both as a build tool and as a complete solution for automating the compilation, test, and release process of simple and enterprise-level applications. Discover how Gradle improves on the best ideas of Ant, Maven, and other build tools, with standards for developers who want them and lots of flexibility for those who prefer less structure. Use Gradle with Gr

  9. Sustainable building versus ecological building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available and sensitivity to a site that are required to efficiently meet the energy needs of a building and occupants with renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal, etc), designers must apply holistic design principles and take advantage of the free, naturally... monumental waste: the product which they deliver requires resources such as energy and water to operate over its entire life-cycle, a period measured in decades, and often in centuries. Throughout this process, construction activities often result...

  10. Key Practice for Green Building Management In Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Aghili Nasim; Bin Mohammed Abdul Hakim; Sheau-Ting Low

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies the management practices for green building management in Malaysia. A set of practices was ascertained from the reviewed of various established Green Building Standard in the world. Green building practices are significant role in attaining sustainability particularly in the construction industry. Green building is constructed for minimizing impacts to environment as well as decreasing building effects on occupants. To achieve the goals of green buildings, set of managem...

  11. Secondhand smoke exposure and intermittent claudication: a Scotland-wide study of 4231 non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liya; Mackay, Daniel F; Pell, Jill P

    2013-09-01

    Active smoking is an important risk factor for peripheral arterial disease. In contrast, published evidence on the association with secondhand smoke (SHS) is very limited. The aim of this study was to examine the association between SHS exposure and intermittent claudication (IC) among middle aged non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounders. The Scottish Health Survey, a pan-Scotland, representative survey of the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the Scottish Health Surveys undertaken between 1998 and 2010. Inclusion was restricted to participants aged > 45 years. Of the 4231 confirmed non-smokers (self-reported non-smokers with salivary cotinine concentrations coronary heart disease and stroke, SHS exposure was independently associated with IC. Our findings add to the published evidence in support of protecting the general public from SHS exposure.

  12. Ice streaming in western Scotland and the deglaciation of the Hebrides Shelf and Firth of Lorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Riccardo; Howe, John; O'Cofaigh, Colm; Crocket, Kirsty

    2014-05-01

    Previously, numerous studies have been undertaken both onshore and offshore to decipher the morphological and sedimentological record in order to better constrain the limits and duration of the British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) (Ballantyne et al. 2009, Bradwell et al. 2008b, Clark et al. 2011, Dunlop et al. 2010, Howe et al. 2012, O'Cofaigh et al., 2012). Late glacial ice sheet dynamics have been revealed to be far more rapid and responsive to climatic amelioration than had previously been considered. Notable in this debate has been the evidence that has been obtained in the inshore and, to a lesser extent, offshore on the UK continental shelf. Here new geomorphological data, principally multibeam echo sounder (MBES) data has provided imagery of previously unseen features interpreted as being glacial in origin. In the wake of these new discoveries this projects aims to investigate the extent, timing, growth and final disintegration of the BIIS across Western Scotland. This area of particular interest for the development of the glaciated North Atlantic margin has been generally neglected in past studies, especially across the mid-outer shelf, which constitutes a missing part in the jigsaw of the reconstructed BIIS during the last ~20.000yrs. We aim to mainly focus on geomorphological analyses of MBES data collected in the Firth of Lorn and Sea of Hebrides; a study of features as moraines, glacial lineations and drumlins will provide important clues on the dynamics and maximum extension of the sheet. Subsequently we will examine the geometry and composition of the shelf sediment infill, aiming to constrain the influence of ice retreat on depositional environments using multi-element geochemical (Pb-isotopes ratios, 14C and OSL dating) and sedimentological techniques. Such an investigation will also give retrospective information on the sources for these sediments, hence more indications on ice configuration. Ultimately we aim to provide a model of deglaciation for the

  13. The challenges and opportunities in medical education for digital 'natives' and 'immigrants' in Scotland and abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Carl; Yelland, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Although the digital revolution only started towards the end of the twentieth century, it has already dramatically shifted our world away from traditional industries and ushered in a new age of information. Virtually every aspect of our modern lives has either been transformed or challenged, including medical education. This article describes three of the important factors that are causing seismic changes in medical education in Scotland and abroad. The first is the new generation of 'digital natives' that are arriving in medical schools. In response, faculty members have had to become 'digital immigrants' and adapt their pedagogies. Second, the rise of social media has allowed the creation of virtual learning environments and communities that augment but also compete with traditional brick-and-mortar institutions. Finally, an ever-increasing range of e-learning resources promise freely accessible and up-to-date evidence, but their sheer volume and lack of standardisation will require careful curation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Myocardial infarction and oral contraceptives, a retrospective case control study in England and Scotland ('MICA' Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, N R; Thorogood, M; de Caestecker, L; Mann, R D

    1997-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that modern (third generation), oral contraceptives (OC) are associated with an increased incidence of venous thromboembolic disease compared to older (second generation), OC. It is not known, however, whether this association is also true for arterial thrombosis, in particular myocardial infarction. In fact, it has been suggested that third generation OC may even be protective against myocardial infarction (MI), compared to second generation OC. The protocol for a multicentre case-control study, involving the whole of England and Scotland, is described. Cases will be female patients aged 16-44 years, who suffered an MI between 1.10.93 and 1.10.95. Controls will be drawn from the community, using the GP list, to which the case belonged. Odds ratios will be calculated primarily to compare current users of third generation OC with current users of second generation OC. Copyright 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Health and hierarchy: soldiers, civilians and mental healthcare in Scotland, 1914-34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    During the First World War injured servicemen were constructed as a better class of patient than civilians, and their care was prioritized in social and political discourses. For the mentally disordered servicemen themselves, however, these distinctions were permeable and transient. This article will challenge the reality of the 'privileged' service patient in civil asylums in Scotland. By examining the impact of the war on asylum structures, economies and patient health, this study will explore exactly which patients were valued in these difficult years. In so doing, this paper will also reveal how the lives of institutionalized ex-servicemen and the civilian insane inside district asylums were not quite as distinct as political and social groups would have liked.

  16. A 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'? Poor Law, Lunacy Law and Scotland's parochial asylums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    Scotland's parochial asylums are unfamiliar institutional spaces. Representing the concrete manifestation of the collision between two spheres of legislation, the Poor Law and the Lunacy Law, six such asylums were constructed in the latter half of the nineteenth century. These sites expressed the enduring mandate of the Scottish Poor Law 1845 over the domain of 'madness'. They were institutions whose very existence was fashioned at the directive of the local arm of the Poor Law, the parochial board, and they constituted a continuing 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'. Their origins and operation significantly subverted the intentions and objectives of the Lunacy Act 1857, the aim of which had been to institute a public district asylum network with nationwide coverage.

  17. DEVOLUTION AND INEDEPENDENCE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM: THE CASE OF SCOTLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Guibernau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reflect upon the consequences of the devolutionprocess initiated by the Labour government in 1997. The paper considers thedevelopment of Scottish devolution since its inception up to the present day.In so doing, it establishes a distinction between the so-called unionist viewand the secessionist approach. It offers a detailed study of current plans fora referendum on secession, as planned by the Scottish National Party (SNP,while considering its main objectives and challenges. It also includes a thoroughoverview of the main recommendations of the Calman Commission(2009 set up by the Government of Scotland and the Government of theUnited Kingdom in order to evaluate ten years of devolution. The paperconcludes by offering some final reflections on the consequences of devolutionfor Scottish and British identity alike.

  18. Benchmarking Analysis of Institutional University Autonomy in Denmark, Lithuania, Romania, Scotland, and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    respective evaluation criteria and searched for similarities and differences in approaches to higher education sectors and respective autonomy regimes in these countries. The consolidated report that precedes the benchmark reports summarises the process and key findings from the four benchmark reports......This book presents a benchmark, comparative analysis of institutional university autonomy in Denmark, Lithuania, Romania, Scotland and Sweden. These countries are partners in a EU TEMPUS funded project 'Enhancing University Autonomy in Moldova' (EUniAM). This benchmark analysis was conducted...... by the EUniAM Lead Task Force team that collected and analysed secondary and primary data in each of these countries and produced four benchmark reports that are part of this book. For each dimension and interface of institutional university autonomy, the members of the Lead Task Force team identified...

  19. Qualitative study of oral health norms and behaviour among elderly people in Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Eadie, D

    1991-01-01

    between 1 1/2 and 2 1/2 hours. The results showed that oral and denture hygiene was a sensitive issue and part of individual routine behaviour which most respondents were reluctant to change. Tooth loss was expected and accepted as part of a natural ageing process. Dental visits were regarded as problem......This study was undertaken to examine oral health norms and behaviour among elderly people in Scotland. Qualitative methodology in the form of informal group discussions was used. The study population comprised 9 groups of 6-8 respondents aged 65 years and over, selected according to the quota...... criteria of sex, social class, level of dependency and oral health status. All groups were recruited by a professional market research interviewer, using a random route procedure. Discussions were conducted under the guidance of an experienced group moderator and tape recorded. Each group discussion lasted...

  20. Could a ‘reverse Greenland’ arrangement keep Scotland and Northern Ireland in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2016-01-01

    While no member state has ever left the European Union, Greenland opted to leave the EEC in 1985. Ulrik Pram Gad assesses what lessons the case of Greenland might have for the UK following its decision to leave the EU. He suggests that while the two situations are radically different, Greenland c...... could serve as inspiration for a model in which Scotland, Northern Ireland and Gibraltar could retain membership of the EU while England and Wales pursue their own arrangements.......While no member state has ever left the European Union, Greenland opted to leave the EEC in 1985. Ulrik Pram Gad assesses what lessons the case of Greenland might have for the UK following its decision to leave the EU. He suggests that while the two situations are radically different, Greenland...

  1. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Herd Immunity after Introduction of Vaccination Program, Scotland, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Ross L; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Pan, Jiafeng; Love, John; Cuschieri, Kate; Robertson, Chris; Ahmed, Syed; Palmer, Timothy; Pollock, Kevin G J

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, a national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization program using a bivalent vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18 was implemented in Scotland along with a national surveillance program designed to determine the longitudinal effects of vaccination on HPV infection at the population level. Each year during 2009-2013, the surveillance program conducted HPV testing on a proportion of liquid-based cytology samples from women undergoing their first cervical screening test for precancerous cervical disease. By linking vaccination, cervical screening, and HPV testing data, over the study period we found a decline in HPV types 16 and 18, significant decreases in HPV types 31, 33, and 45 (suggesting cross-protection), and a nonsignificant increase in HPV 51. In addition, among nonvaccinated women, HPV types 16 and 18 infections were significantly lower in 2013 than in 2009. Our results preliminarily indicate herd immunity and sustained effectiveness of the bivalent vaccine on virologic outcomes at the population level.

  2. Salmonellae in sewage sludge and abattoir effluent in south-east Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linklater, K. A.; Graham, M. M.; Sharp, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A survey into the prevalence of salmonella organisms in sewage in the Borders Region of South-east Scotland is described. A total of 317 isolates representing 34 different serotypes were made, of which only 5 serotypes appeared in animals, supporting the view that the spreading of sewage sludge on to pastureland presents little risk to livestock provided the recommended guidelines are followed. Nevertheless, Salmonella typhimurium phage type 12, identified in sewage, was also recovered from animals in incidents on 11 farms, including 4 which had received sludge from this source. A further 48 isolates (13 serotypes) were obtained from the parallel monitoring of abattoir effluents, indicating that the background level of salmonella infection in the animal population appears to be low in comparison to that in humans. PMID:3891848

  3. Lean and Six Sigma Methodologies in NHS Scotland: An Empirical Study and Directions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiju Antony

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the healthcare industry is constantly concerned to provide better quality of patient care with less waste of resources through application of continuous improvement (CI initiatives such as Lean and Six Sigma. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the status of Lean and Six Sigma methodologies in the National Health Service (NHS Scotland. Data was collected using survey instrument to determine the status of these strategies within the NHS. Although the personnel of NHS do seem to have the basic skills to successfully implement Lean Six Sigma, there appears to be a failure on the part of senior management to successfully communicate the desires and needs of these powerful CI initiatives with personnel. Moreover, a lack of encouragement and motivation, resistance to change and blame culture are quite prevalent across the sector which prevents Lean and Six Sigma strategies from being utilized in a systematic manner.

  4. Scotland as an Independent Small State: Where would it seek shelter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J.K. Bailes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A planned referendum in 2014 on Scottish independence gives cause to examine that scenario in the light of small state studies and recent European experience. One of the best-supported assumptions in small state literature is that small countries need to form alliances and seek protection from larger neighboring states and/or international institutions. Small European states have generally sought shelter from the European Union (EU and NATO. This study confirms that an independent Scotland would need strategic, political, economic and societal shelter, and could look for the various elements within existing European institutions, from its closest southern and northern neightbours, and from the US. However, protection may come with a certain cost - just as union with another entity does at present.

  5. Engaging with a history of counselling, spirituality and faith in Scotland: a readers' theatre script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Alette; Bondi, Liz; Burgess, MaryCatherine; Miller, Gavin; Fergusson, David

    2014-10-20

    This paper presents an abbreviated version of a verbatim script developed from oral history interviews with individuals key to the development of counselling and psychotherapy in Scotland from 1960 to 2000. Earlier versions were used in workshops with counsellors and pastoral care practitioners to share counter-narratives of counselling and to provide opportunities for conversations about historical and contemporary relationships between faith, spirituality, counselling and psychotherapy. By presenting intertwined histories in a readers' theatre script, the narrative nature of lives lived in context was respected. By bringing oral histories into virtual dialogue with each other and with contemporary practitioners, whether through workshops or through publications, the interplay between individual, institutional and societal narratives remains visible and open to change.

  6. Fjordic Environments of Scotland: A National Inventory of Sedimentary Blue Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, Craig; Austin, William; Davies, Althea; Baltzer, Agnes; Howe, John

    2016-04-01

    Coastal sediments potentially hold a significant store of carbon; yet there has been no comprehensive attempt to quantitatively determine the quantity of carbon in these stores. Using Scottish sea lochs (fjords) we have established a Holocene record of the quantity and type of carbon held within the sediment store of a typical Scottish sea loch. Through the use of both seismic geophysics and geochemical measurements we have developed a methodology to make first-order estimations of the carbon held with the sediment of sea lochs. This methodology was applied to four sea lochs with differing geographical locations, catchments, freshwater inputs to produce the first sedimentary Blue Carbon estimates. The resulting carbon inventories show clearly that these sea lochs hold a significant store of sedimentary carbon; for example, Loch Sunart in Argyll stores an estimated 26.88 ± 0.52 Mt C. A direct comparison of the organic carbon content per unit area suggest sea lochs have a greater OC storage potential between than Scottish peatlands on long, Holocene timescales (Loch Sunart = 0.234 Mt OC km-2; Peatland = 0.093 Mt OC km-2 (Chapman et al. 2009). The carbon values calculated for these sea lochs have been used to estimate the total carbon held within Scotland's 110 sea lochs and these up-scaled estimations are for the first time, reviewed in the context of Scotland's known terrestrial stores. Chapman, S. J., Bell, J., Donnelly, D. and Lilly, A.: Carbon stocks in Scottish peatlands, Soil Use Manag., 25(2), 105-112, doi:10.1111/j.1475-2743.2009.00219.x, 2009.

  7. Employment status and health: understanding the health of the economically inactive population in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Judith

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the association between health and unemployment has been well examined, less attention has been paid to the health of the economically inactive (EI population. Scotland has one of the worst health records compared to any Western European country and the EI population account for 23% of the working age population. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the health outcomes and behaviours of the employed, unemployed and the EI populations (further subdivided into the permanently sick, looking after home and family [LAHF] and others in Scotland. Methods Using data from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey, the differences in health and health behaviours among the employed, unemployed and the subgroups of the EI population were examined. Results Both low educational attainment and residence in a deprived community were more likely in the permanently sick group. The LAHF and the unemployed showed worse self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness compared to the employed but no significant differences were observed between these groups. The permanently sick group had significantly poorer health outcomes than all the other economic groups. Similar to the unemployed and LAHF they are more likely to smoke than the employed but less likely (along with LAHF and ‘others’ to exhibit heavy alcohol consumption. Interestingly, the LAHF showed better mental health than the rest of the EI group, but a similar mental health status to the unemployed. On the physical health element of lung function, the LAHF were no worse than the employed. Conclusion While on-going health promotion and vocational rehabilitation efforts need to be directed towards all, our data suggests that the EI group is at higher risk and policies and strategies directed at this group may need particular attention.

  8. Scotland's forgotten carbon: a national assessment of mid-latitude fjord sedimentary carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, Craig; Austin, William E. N.; Davies, Althea L.; Baltzer, Agnes; Howe, John A.; Baxter, John M.

    2017-12-01

    Fjords are recognised as hotspots for the burial and long-term storage of carbon (C) and potentially provide a significant climate regulation service over multiple timescales. Understanding the magnitude of marine sedimentary C stores and the processes which govern their development is fundamental to understanding the role of the coastal ocean in the global C cycle. In this study, we use the mid-latitude fjords of Scotland as a natural laboratory to further develop methods to quantify these marine sedimentary C stores on both the individual fjord and national scale. Targeted geophysical and geochemical analysis has allowed the quantification of sedimentary C stocks for a number of mid-latitude fjords and, coupled with upscaling techniques based on fjord classification, has generated the first full national sedimentary C inventory for a fjordic system. The sediments within these mid-latitude fjords hold 640.7 ± 46 Mt of C split between 295.6 ± 52 and 345.1 ± 39 Mt of organic and inorganic C, respectively. When compared, these marine mid-latitude sedimentary C stores are of similar magnitude to their terrestrial equivalents, with the exception of the Scottish peatlands, which hold significantly more C. However, when area-normalised comparisons are made, these mid-latitude fjords are significantly more effective as C stores than their terrestrial counterparts, including Scottish peatlands. The C held within Scotland's coastal marine sediments has been largely overlooked as a significant component of the nation's natural capital; such coastal C stores are likely to be key to understanding and constraining improved global C budgets.

  9. Offshore records of late to post-glacial environments, western Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Kate; Howe, John; Bradwell, Tom; Shimmield, Tracy

    2010-05-01

    During the Younger Dryas stadial (GS-1) of 12.8-11.5 ka BP, a substantial ice cap was present over much of western Scotland. Outlet glaciers drained westward from the main ice cap to the coast via the numerous fjord basins which indent Scotland's west coast. Onshore evidence for the Scottish Younger Dryas ice cap is manifest in landscape features such as moraines, eskers, erratics and till/outwash deposits, while the deglacial records preserved in the submarine geomorphology and sediments of the fjord basins have until quite recently been neglected, as a result of their relative inaccessibility. Here we present new data from seismic and multibeam sonar surveys carried out in Loch Linnhe and the Sound of Sleat, supported by sedimentological data and 14C dating from gravity cores. In Loch Linnhe, numerous features have been revealed, including numerous recessional moraines, roches moutonees, pockmarks resulting from gas/fluid escape at the seabed and possibly fault-related, deep current-scouring around topographic highs, and a large outwash fan south of the Corran Narrows, presumed to relate to glacier retreat during the last deglaciation. An abrupt change in sedimentary properties in a gravity core taken from the survey area has been radiocarbon-dated to 10,455 +/- 74 cal y BP, possibly representing the transition from glaciomarine to full marine conditions in the loch. The more limited survey in the Sound of Sleat reveals a substantial end moraine outside the mouth of Loch Hourn, suggesting a 2.5 km seaward extension of the presently mapped Younger Dryas glacial limit in this area. Radiocarbon dating suggests full marine conditions were established in this loch by 11.2 ka BP.

  10. Evidence for inequalities in the management of coronary heart disease in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C R; Hannaford, P C; Williams, D

    2005-05-01

    To investigate whether sex, age, and deprivation inequalities existed in the prescription of secondary preventive treatment for coronary heart disease (CHD) in Scottish general practice and whether these differences altered over time. 6 year cross sectional study based on general practice morbidity and prescribing data. 55 primary care practices in Scotland. 14,435 patients with diagnosed CHD. Prescription of various groups of secondary preventive treatment in six study years. The use of all secondary prevention treatments increased over time (63.6% of patients with CHD in 1997 to 87.6% in 2002). After adjustments for age, sex, deprivation, co-morbidities, and practice where appropriate, women received fewer secondary prevention treatments than men, a difference that increased over time (March 1997: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8 to 1.0; March 2002: OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.7). Sex differences were observed within each group of treatments studied. The oldest group of patients was less likely than the youngest group to receive any secondary preventive treatment in the year up to March 1997 (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7) but were more likely by 2002 (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) to receive secondary prevention. The most affluent patients with CHD were significantly less likely to receive a statin between March 1998 and 2001 (March 1998 OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9), a finding that disappeared by 2002 (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.1). The results suggest that inequalities exist in the secondary prevention of CHD in Scotland.

  11. Kilts, tanks, and aeroplanes: Scotland, cinema, and the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Archibald

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article charts commercial cinema’s role in promoting the war effort in Scotland during the First World War, outlining three aspects of the relationship between cinema and the war as observed in Scottish non-fiction short films produced between 1914 and 1918. The existing practice of local topical filmmaking, made or commissioned by cinema managers, created a particular form of engagement between cinema and war that was substantially different from the national newsreels or official films. The article offers an analysis of surviving short ‘topicals’ produced and exhibited in Scotland, which combine images of local military marches with kilted soldiers and enthusiastic onlookers and were designed to lure the assembled crowds back into the cinema to see themselves onscreen. Synthesising textual analysis with a historical account of the films’ production context, the article examines the films’ reliance on the romanticised militarism of the Highland soldier and the novelty appeal of mobilisation and armament, sidelining the growing industrial unrest and anti-war activities that led to the birth of the term ‘Red Clydeside’. The article then explores how, following the British state’s embracing of film propaganda post-1916, local cinema companies such as Green’s Film Service produced films in direct support of the war effort, for example Patriotic Porkers (1918, for the Ministry of Food. Through their production and exhibition practice exhibitors mediated the international conflict to present it to local audiences as an appealing spectacle, but also mobilised cinema’s position in Scottish communities to advance ideological and practical aspects of the war effort, including recruitment, refugee support, and fundraising.

  12. Problematizing official narratives of HIV and AIDS education in Scotland and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyatsanza, Tarsisio; Wood, Lesley

    2017-12-01

    When human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are framed within an intersectional approach, they have the potential to transform understandings of social justice within the curriculum and education policy and practice in general. Yet, this transformative potential is often hampered by official narratives that fail to position HIV and AIDS as an integral component of overlapping systems of oppression, domination and discrimination. This article explores how official HIV and AIDS narratives tend to promote systemic injustice and inequality within education policy and practice in both Scotland and Zimbabwe, despite their good intents. We frame our argument within a transformative education discourse which seeks to create participatory and emancipatory HIV-related messages at school, tertiary and community levels. Using a narrative enquiry design, a Foucauldian theoretical lens was used to analyse the narratives derived from key informant responses, supplemented by analysis of key documents that deal with HIV and AIDS in both Scotland and Zimbabwe. Four broad narratives emerged: the 'Gay' Narrative; the Migration Narrative; the Conspiracy Narrative; and the Religious Narrative. We discuss how each of these narratives entrench stigma across both developed and developing world contexts, and propose how a more intersectional interpretation would contribute to a deeper and less stigmatizing understanding of HIV, thus offering more useful insights into related policy and educational practices. This article will thus contribute to the growing body of intersectional HIV and AIDS knowledge that is relevant for schools, teacher education, public health and community settings, not only in the countries studied, but the world over.

  13. Impact of Scotland's smoke-free legislation on pregnancy complications: retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F Mackay

    Full Text Available Both active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure are associated with pregnancy complications. In March 2006, Scotland implemented legislation prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of this legislation on preterm delivery and small for gestational age.We conducted logistic regression analyses using national administrative pregnancy data covering the whole of Scotland. Of the two breakpoints tested, 1 January 2006 produced a better fit than the date when the legislation came into force (26 March 2006, suggesting an anticipatory effect. Among the 716,941 eligible women who conceived between August 1995 and February 2009 and subsequently delivered a live-born, singleton infant between 24 and 44 wk gestation, the prevalence of current smoking fell from 25.4% before legislation to 18.8% after legislation (p<0.001. Three months prior to the legislation, there were significant decreases in small for gestational age (-4.52%, 95% CI -8.28, -0.60, p = 0.024, overall preterm delivery (-11.72%, 95% CI -15.87, -7.35, p<0.001, and spontaneous preterm labour (-11.35%, 95% CI -17.20, -5.09, p = 0.001. In sub-group analyses, significant reductions were observed among both current and never smokers.Reductions were observed in the risk of preterm delivery and small for gestational age 3 mo prior to the introduction of legislation, although the former reversed partially following the legislation. There is growing evidence of the potential for tobacco control legislation to have a positive impact on health.

  14. Spatial analysis of agri-environmental policy uptake and expenditure in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Anastasia L; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Wilson, Ronald M; Haggett, Claire

    2014-01-15

    Agri-environment is one of the most widely supported rural development policy measures in Scotland in terms of number of participants and expenditure. It comprises 69 management options and sub-options that are delivered primarily through the competitive 'Rural Priorities scheme'. Understanding the spatial determinants of uptake and expenditure would assist policy-makers in guiding future policy targeting efforts for the rural environment. This study is unique in examining the spatial dependency and determinants of Scotland's agri-environmental measures and categorised options uptake and payments at the parish level. Spatial econometrics is applied to test the influence of 40 explanatory variables on farming characteristics, land capability, designated sites, accessibility and population. Results identified spatial dependency for each of the dependent variables, which supported the use of spatially-explicit models. The goodness of fit of the spatial models was better than for the aspatial regression models. There was also notable improvement in the models for participation compared with the models for expenditure. Furthermore a range of expected explanatory variables were found to be significant and varied according to the dependent variable used. The majority of models for both payment and uptake showed a significant positive relationship with SSSI (Sites of Special Scientific Interest), which are designated sites prioritised in Scottish policy. These results indicate that environmental targeting efforts by the government for AEP uptake in designated sites can be effective. However habitats outside of SSSI, termed here the 'wider countryside' may not be sufficiently competitive to receive funding in the current policy system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Scotland's forgotten carbon: a national assessment of mid-latitude fjord sedimentary carbon stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Smeaton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fjords are recognised as hotspots for the burial and long-term storage of carbon (C and potentially provide a significant climate regulation service over multiple timescales. Understanding the magnitude of marine sedimentary C stores and the processes which govern their development is fundamental to understanding the role of the coastal ocean in the global C cycle. In this study, we use the mid-latitude fjords of Scotland as a natural laboratory to further develop methods to quantify these marine sedimentary C stores on both the individual fjord and national scale. Targeted geophysical and geochemical analysis has allowed the quantification of sedimentary C stocks for a number of mid-latitude fjords and, coupled with upscaling techniques based on fjord classification, has generated the first full national sedimentary C inventory for a fjordic system. The sediments within these mid-latitude fjords hold 640.7 ± 46 Mt of C split between 295.6 ± 52 and 345.1 ± 39 Mt of organic and inorganic C, respectively. When compared, these marine mid-latitude sedimentary C stores are of similar magnitude to their terrestrial equivalents, with the exception of the Scottish peatlands, which hold significantly more C. However, when area-normalised comparisons are made, these mid-latitude fjords are significantly more effective as C stores than their terrestrial counterparts, including Scottish peatlands. The C held within Scotland's coastal marine sediments has been largely overlooked as a significant component of the nation's natural capital; such coastal C stores are likely to be key to understanding and constraining improved global C budgets.

  16. Inequalities in the provision of NHS primary care dental services in Scotland in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, J Timothy; Williams, Alison C; Bower, Elizabeth J

    2007-07-01

    To assess inequalities in the provision of National Health Service (NHS) primary care dental services between Health Boards and the four provider groups (General Dental Service [GDS] non-specialist, GDS salaried, specialist working in primary care, Community Dental Service [CDS]) in Scotland. A postal questionnaire survey of all dentists (N=2852) registered with the General Dental Council at an address in Scotland was undertaken. The following were assessed: the proportion of primary care dentists not accepting new children/adults for NHS care or using a waiting list, the proportion of dentists working in wheelchair-accessible surgeries, furthest distance travelled by patients to primary care surgery in an average week, waiting time for routine NHS treatment, and the proportion of dentists offering weekend or evening appointments to NHS patients. Data were analysed by Health Board and the four provider groups. A total of 2134 (74.8%) completed questionnaires were returned. One thousand, five hundred and seventy-seven dentists (73.9%) of the respondents were providing NHS primary care dental services for at least part of each week. There was a wide variation in the provision of NHS primary care dental services between Health Boards. Borders, Dumfries and Galloway, and Grampian performed poorly on most indicators, whereas Lanarkshire, Greater Glasgow, and Argyll and Clyde generally performed well. The CDS scored well on most indicators of service provision. There were problems with the provision of specialist dental services in primary care, and GDS services provided by Health Boards. Because the problem issues differed between Health Boards and the four provider groups, it is likely that both local and national solutions are required to improve the provision of services. Further research on service demand is required to confirm the apparent inequalities in provision suggested by the study.

  17. Front-line perspectives on 'joined-up' working relationships: a qualitative study of social prescribing in the west of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jane M; Cornish, Flora; Kerr, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Cross-sector collaboration has been promoted by government policies in the United Kingdom and many western welfare states for decades. Literature on joint working has focused predominantly on the strategic level, neglecting the role of individual practitioners in putting 'joined-up working' into practice. This paper takes the case of 'social prescribing' in the west of Scotland as an instance of joined-up working, in which primary healthcare professionals are encouraged to refer patients to non-medical sources of support in the third sector. This study draws on social capital theory to analyse the quality of the relationships between primary healthcare professionals and third sector practitioners. Eighteen health professionals and 15 representatives of third sector organisations participated in a qualitative interview study. Significant barriers to collaborative working were evident. The two stakeholder groups expressed different understandings of health, with few primary healthcare professionals considering non-medical sources of support to be useful or relevant. Health professionals were mistrustful of unknown third sector organisations, and concerned about their accountability for referrals that were not successful or positive for the patient. Third sector practitioners sought to build trust through face-to-face interactions with health professionals. However, primary healthcare professionals and third sector practitioners were not connected in effective networks. We highlight the ongoing imbalance of power between primary healthcare professionals and third sector organisations. Strategic collaborations should be complemented by efforts to build shared understandings, trust and connections between the diverse front-line workers whose mutual co-operation is necessary to achieve effective joined-up working. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  19. Technical Building Systems (TBS) – differences between new and existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Griffiths, Will

    The Directive uses the term “technical building system” in the Recitals and Articles 1, 2, 8 and 11. It is Article 8 that calls for minimum standards for energy performance, installation, dimensioning, adjustment and control. These standards are obligatory in existing buildings, and they refer to...

  20. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1979-01-01

    The object of this brief report is to make the pollution inspectorate aware of the radiation hazards involved in new building materials, such as gypsum boards and alum slate based concrete blocks whose radium content is high. Experience in Swedish housebuilding has shown that a significant increase in the radiation dose to the occupants can occur. Improved insulation and elimination of draughts in fuel conservation accentuate the problem. Norwegian investigations are referred to and OECD and Scandinavian discussions aiming at recommendations and standards are mentioned. Suggested measures by the Norwegian authorities are given. (JIW)

  1. Towards Collaborative Data Analytics for Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Mohamed, Nader

    2017-01-01

    , but steadily increasing trend in the number of buildings that become smart. The increase in availability and the decrease in prices of sensors and meters, have made them almost standard elements in buildings; both in newly built and existing ones. Sensors and meters enable growing collections of data from......Smart buildings are buildings equipped with the latest technological and architectural solutions, controlled by Building Management Systems (BMS), operating in fulfillment of the typical goals of increasing occupants’ comfort and reducing buildings’ energy consumption. We witness a slow...

  2. Impact of supervision of methadone consumption on deaths related to methadone overdose (1993-2008): analyses using OD4 index in England and Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Strang, John; Hall, Wayne; Hickman, Matt; Bird, Sheila M

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of introduction of supervision of methadone dosing on deaths related to overdose of methadone in Scotland and England between 1993 and 2008 while controlling for increased prescribing of methadone. Design Analysis of annual trends in deaths related to overdose of methadone in relation to defined daily doses of methadone prescribed. Setting Scotland and England. Population Deaths in which methadone was coded as the only drug involved or as one of the drugs impl...

  3. From a medical tourism hospital to a National Health Service hospitak in eight easy years! A case study of the Golden Jubilee Hospital in Glasgow, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to outline how and why a private-sector, purpose-built hospital designed to attract overseas medical tourists to Glasgow in the early 1990s, did develop into a centre of medical excellence – but one wholly owned and managed by the National Health Service Scotland (NHS Scotland), as a Special Health Board Hospital and not as a centre for medical tourism.

  4. The reference building--one approach in the evolution of building energy performance criteria for houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldenbrand, J.L.; Petersen, S.R.

    1982-12-01

    The reference building approach described in this paper was introduced in the context of the National Bureau of Standards support for the building energy conservation criteria program of the Office of Buildings and Community Systems, U.S. Department of Energy. The role of NBS is to develop technical data and methods for design, construction, and retrofitting of energy efficient buildings. Recent federal initiatives to regulate energy use at the design stage of new buildings support the broadening of performance standards to the whole-building level. A logical means of developing such standards is to provide a methodology for linking component performance standards to the whole-building design-energy-performance level. A side benefit of such a methodology is the assurance that these two paths to building design are consistent and complementary. The ''Reference Building Approach'' (RBA) reported here is one such method. As described here, the RBA approach is not a complete package suitable as a substitute for the Department of Energy's proposed Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS). However, the paper deals with an element of BEPS and offers a possible improvement to it.

  5. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put......There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...

  6. Guidelines on Building Regulations 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thse guidelines clarify and intepret the provisions of the Building Regulations of 2008 (BR08). The Guidelines, which match BR08 in terms of organisation into Parts, are accompanied by the full text of the regulations and the explanatory notes issued by the Danish Enterprise and Construction...... Authority. The Guidelines refer the reader to sources such as relevant standards, instructions and other background material which provides more detailed information. The Guidelines cover the same ground as BR08, including building control regulations, layout, fitting out, structures, fire safety, indoor...... climate, energy consumotion and services. The Guidelines are aimed at all professionals involved in building projects, particularly building design consultants, contractors and municipal application officers....

  7. Literature of Scotland and Slovenia: From Devolution to Post-devolution, from Socialism to Independence and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Ličar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the situation of nationalism and literature in both Scotland and Slovenia in the 1980s and onward until the present day. In the case of Scotland the focus is on the devolution process and the literary renaissance which followed the failed referendum. The focus is also on the post-devolution literature and the challenges it faces both in terms of retrospect and the future challenges. In Slovenia in the 1980s the main points are the role of literature and culture in the process of democratisation and the reimagining of literature to reflect on the new situations. During this process comparisons as well as differences between both nations are revealed and some are specifically pointed out. Finally, there are certain concepts of how literature can advance and also hinder the development of a nation, which should be taken into consideration in the future developments.

  8. Collapse simulation of building constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekrest'yanov Viktor Nikolaevich

    Full Text Available The physical reasons for building structures destruction are both the forces arising at stress-strain state of construction elements and external influences arising at emergency situations, as well as their moments, impulses and periodic impulses with the frequencies close to of fluctuations frequencies of construction elements. We shall call the mathematical calculation models for the parameters-reasons of destructions the basic models. The basic models of destruction of building structures elements allow not only providing necessary level of reliability and survivability of the elements and the construction as a whole already at the stage of their design, but also giving the chance, at their corresponding completion, to provide rational decisions on the general need of recovery works and their volume depending on destruction level. Especially important for rational design decisions development, which ensure the demanded constructional safety of building structures, is library creation of the basic mathematical models of standard processes of bearing elements destructions for standard construction designs for the purpose of the further forecast (assessment of the level and probabilities of standard destructions. Some basic mathematical models of destructions processes of the standard elements of building structures are presented in the present article. A model of accounting for construction defects and a model of obtaining requirements to probabilities of partial destructions of a construction are given. Both of these models are probabilistic.

  9. Use of a birth plan within woman-held maternity records: a qualitative study with women and staff in northeast Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Heather M; Entwistle, Vikki A; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Aitchison, Patricia E; Davidson, Tracey; Humphrey, Tracy; Tucker, Janet S

    2014-09-01

    Birth plans are written preferences for labor and birth which women prepare in advance. Most studies have examined them as a novel intervention or "outside" formal care provision. This study considered use of a standard birth plan section within a national, woman-held maternity record. Exploratory qualitative interviews were conducted with women (42) and maternity service staff (24) in northeast Scotland. Data were analyzed thematically. Staff and women were generally positive about the provision of the birth plan section within the record. Perceived benefits included the opportunity to highlight preferences, enhance communication, stimulate discussions, and address anxieties. However, not all women experienced these benefits or understood the birth plan's purpose. Some were unaware of the opportunity to complete it or could not access the support they needed from staff to discuss or be confident about their options. Some were reluctant to plan too much. Staff recognized the need to support women with birth plan completion but noted practical challenges to this. A supportive antenatal opportunity to allow discussion of options may be needed to realize the potential benefits of routine inclusion of birth plans in maternity notes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  11. Coronary heart disease mortality among young adults in Scotland in relation to social inequalities:time trend study

    OpenAIRE

    O'Flaherty, Martin; Bishop, Jennifer; Redpath, Adam; McLaughlin, Terry; Murphy, David; Chalmers, James; Capewell, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine recent trends and social inequalities in age specific coronary heart disease mortality.Design Time trend analysis using joinpoint regression.Setting Scotland, 1986-2006.Participants Men and women aged 35 years and over.Main outcome measures Age adjusted and age, sex, and deprivation specific coronary heart disease mortality.Results Persistent sixfold social differentials in coronary heart disease mortality were seen between the most deprived and the most affluent groups a...

  12. Assembling places and persons: a tenth-century Viking boat burial from Swordle Bay on the Ardnamurchan peninsula, western Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Oliver J.T.; Cobb, Hannah; Batey, Colleen E.; Montgomery, Janet; Beaumont, Julia; Gray, Héléna; Murtagh, Paul; Richardson, Phil

    2017-01-01

    A rare, intact Viking boat burial in western Scotland contained a rich assemblage of grave goods, providing clues to the identity and origins of both the interred individual and the people who gathered to create the site. The burial evokes the mundane and the exotic, past and present, as well as local, national and international identities. Isotopic analysis of the teeth hints at a possible Scandinavian origin for the deceased, while Scottish, Irish and Scandinavian connections are attested b...

  13. Vascular training in Scotland and Northern Ireland: The trainee perspective prior to introduction of the new vascular curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, G J K; Hussey, K K; Wilson, A M; Jamieson, R W; Marron, C D; Suttie, S A

    2015-06-01

    The last decade has seen the evolution of vascular surgery from a sub-specialty of general surgery to that of an independent, stand-alone specialty. The introduction of a vascular-only curriculum is anticipated to require significant change from the current provision for vascular surgical training to allow vascular trainees to acquire the specialist skills in elective, emergency, and endovascular surgery to provide endovascular services in the future. To provide an insight into current vascular training in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Specialty trainees in general surgery, with a sub-specialty interest in vascular in Scotland and Northern Ireland were asked to carry out a voluntary online survey between May 2012 and July 2012. 22 specialty trainees/specialist registrars who have declared a sub-specialty interest in vascular surgery were identified and polled. 20 trainees completed the survey. 13 trainees still participated in general surgical on-call rotas. Formal teaching opportunities were readily available but only 10 trainees could attend regularly. All trainees worked in units offering endovascular treatment for aneurysm and occlusive disease, but few had dedicated training sessions in endovascular skills. All endovascular simulation-based training was industry sponsored. The majority of trainees report a good overall training experience and are keen to see the implementation of a vascular-specific curriculum. 15 trainees had undertaken a dedicated period of research towards a higher degree, with only 50% based on a vascular topic. The majority of trainees reported a positive training experience with Scotland and Northern Ireland having great potential as vascular training deaneries. The survey identifies specific areas that could be improved by the development of the new curriculum in vascular surgery to provide excellent vascular training in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Copyright © 2014 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC

  14. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  15. Two tales of cardiovascular risks—middle-aged women living in Sweden and Scotland: a cross-sectional comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennerholm, Carina; Bromley, Catherine; Johansson, AnnaKarin; Nilsson, Staffan; Frank, John; Faresjö, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare cardiovascular risk factors as well as rates of cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged women from urban areas in Scotland and Sweden. Design Comparative cross-sectional study. Setting Data from the general population in urban areas of Scotland and the general population in two major Swedish cities in southeast Sweden, south of Stockholm. Participants Comparable data of middle-aged women (40–65 years) from the Scottish Health Survey (n=6250) and the Swedish QWIN study (n=741) were merged together into a new dataset (n=6991 participants). Main outcome measure We compared middle-aged women in urban areas in Sweden and Scotland regarding risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD diagnosis, anthropometrics, psychological distress and lifestyle. Results In almost all measurements, there were significant differences between the countries, favouring the Swedish women. Scottish women demonstrated a higher frequency of alcohol consumption, smoking, obesity, low vegetable consumption, a sedentary lifestyle and also more psychological distress. For doctor-diagnosed coronary heart disease, there were also significant differences, with a higher prevalence among the Scottish women. Conclusions This is one of the first studies that clearly shows that Scottish middle-aged women are particularly affected by a worse profile of CVD risks. The profound differences in CVD risk and outcome frequency in the two populations are likely to have arisen from differences in the two groups of women's social, cultural, political and economic environments. PMID:28790040

  16. Core competencies in teaching and training for doctors in Scotland: a review of the literature and stakeholder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael T; Macrae, Claire; Scott, Jayne; Renwick, Lynne; Moffat, Mandy; Needham, Gillian; Scott, Hazel; Shippey, Ben; Jackson, Catherine; Edgar, Simon; Aitken, Debbie; Evans, Phillip; Irvine, Stewart

    2014-06-01

    The UK General Medical Council requires all registered doctors to be competent in all areas of their work, including teaching and training. The current research sought consensus on core competencies for all consultants and GPs involved in teaching and training in Scotland. A draft list of 80 competencies was developed from the literature and made available as a survey to all consultants and GPs with teaching roles and all final year speciality trainees working in Scotland. Respondents rated the importance of each competency and provided free text comments. There were 1026 responses. Eighteen competencies were rated as "high priority", and are recommended as a baseline for all doctors involved in teaching and training; 55 were rated as "medium priority", and are recommended in relation to specific teaching and training roles; and 7 were rated as "low priority". Free text responses suggested the topic was controversial and emotive, and emphasised the importance of further work to engage trainers. The findings appeared to have face validity, and it was felt these could be used as the basis for developing a "Scottish Trainer Framework" for doctors and others involved in teaching and training in Scotland.

  17. How commercial and non-commercial swine producers move pigs in Scotland: a detailed descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Boden, Lisa A; Correia-Gomes, Carla; Auty, Harriet K; Gunn, George J; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-06-25

    companies provide insights into the structure of the Scottish swine industry, but also highlight different features that may increase the risk of infectious diseases spread in both Scotland and the UK. Such knowledge is critical for developing more robust biosecurity and surveillance plans and better preparing Scotland against incursions of emerging swine diseases.

  18. Modelling blanket peatland hydrology and Holocene peatland development in north-eastern Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Ward; Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils

    2017-04-01

    To study long-term peatland dynamics, several peatland models have been constructed in recent decades. Most modelling efforts have focussed on peat bogs, but for other peatland types, such as blanket peatlands, modelling studies are limited. Although blanket peatland is a rare ecosystem type on a global scale, 87 percent of the peat cover in the UK is of this type. Hillslope hydrology is fundamental to blanket peatland development and an improved representation and understanding of the relationships between climate, hydrology and peat growth is crucial to better understand the effects of environmental change on peatland evolution and the carbon balance. Here, a new spatially explicit process-based peat growth model is presented for blanket peatlands, which couples a detailed 2.5D-hillslope hydrology model with a peat accumulation and decomposition module. The resultant model allows to study the hillslope hydrology and blanket peatland development along topographically complex hillslopes over a Holocene timescale. Calibration and validation of the model parameters is based on a dataset of more than 250 peat thickness measurements along several hillslope transects and eight radiocarbon dated peat samples in the headwaters of the river Dee (Cairngorms National Park, north-eastern Scotland). The model results show that the topography-driven hillslope hydrology has a strong influence on the resultant peat development along the hillslope, stressing the need for spatial models in studying blanket peatlands. Model simulations for the studied area result in peat growth initiation dates situated mostly in the period 9000 - 7000 a BP, which corresponds largely to basal calibrated radiocarbon dates for peat deposits in central and north-eastern Scotland. The simulated blanket peat growth initiation occurs before the mid-Holocene forest cover decline. These results indicate that, for the studied area, the blanket peatland development is largely driven by the early

  19. Estimation of HPV prevalence in young women in Scotland; monitoring of future vaccine impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Estimation of pre-immunisation prevalence of HPV and distribution of HPV types is fundamental to understanding the subsequent impact of HPV vaccination. We describe the type specific prevalence of HPV in females aged 20–21 in Scotland who attended or defaulted from cervical screening using three specimen types; from attenders liquid based cytology and from defaulters urine or self-taken swabs. Methods Residual liquid based cytology samples (n = 2148), collected from women aged 20–21 attending for their first smear were genotyped for HPV. A sample (n = 709) from women who had defaulted from screening was also made available for HPV testing through the use of postal testing kits (either urine samples (n = 378) or self-taken swabs (n = 331)). Estimates of prevalence weighted by deprivation, and for the postal testing kit, also by reminder status and specimen type were calculated for each HPV type. The distribution of HPV types were compared between specimen types and the occurrence of multiple high-risk infections examined. The influence of demographic factors on high-risk HPV positivity and multiple infections was examined via logistic regression. Results The prevalence of any HPV in young women aged 20–21 was 32.2% for urine, 39.5% for self-taken swab, and 49.4% for LBC specimens. Infection with vaccine specific types (HPV 16, 18) or those associated with cross-protection (HPV 31, 33, 45, 51) was common. Individuals were more likely to test positive for high-risk HPV if they resided in an area of high deprivation or in a rural area. The overall distribution of HPV types did not vary between defaulters and attenders. Multiple infections occurred in 48.1% of high-risk HPV positive individuals. Excluding vaccine types the most common pairing was HPV 56 and 66. Conclusions Understanding of the pre-immunisation prevalence of HPV in young women puts Scotland in a prime position to assess the early effect of vaccination as the first highly

  20. Does the seal licensing system in Scotland have a negative impact on seal welfare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Nunny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the licensing system that permits seal shooting in Scotland, which was established under Part 6 Conservation of Seals of the Marine (Scotland Act 2010. Four approaches were used: data were collated and analyzed from both the Scottish Government and Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme; a survey was sent to current license holders and informal interviews were conducted with key stakeholder types. Between February 2011 and the end of October 2015, 1229 gray seals and 275 common seals were reported shot under license to the Scottish Government. The numbers of seals reported as shot has reduced year-on-year since the licensing system was put in place. While some license holders, notably fish farms, were using some non-lethal forms of deterrent to reduce seal-related damage, these were often used alongside seal shooting. Of the seals reported as shot to the Scottish Government, only a small percentage were also reported to the Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme, despite this being a licensing requirement. Only 2.3% of the shot gray seals and 4.5% of the shot common seals were necropsied. There is evidence from these necropsies that some seals had not died instantly or had not been shot in the manner recommended by the Scottish Seal Management Code of Practice. These preliminary results show that more carcasses need to be recovered and necropsied if the welfare implications of current seal shooting practice are to be properly assessed. The current legislation does not specify closed seasons to protect breeding seals and thirty-five per cent of necropsied seals were pregnant gray seals. Seals have also been shot during their lactation periods when pups are dependent on their mothers. This raises significant welfare concerns. The re-introduction of closed seasons specific to each species of seal is recommended along with greater effort to deploy non-lethal methods. Independent assessment of the number of seals being killed