WorldWideScience

Sample records for building performance assurance

  1. Metrics for building performance assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koles, G.; Hitchcock, R.; Sherman, M.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents part of the work performed in phase I of a Laboratory Directors Research and Development (LDRD) funded project entitled Building Performance Assurances (BPA). The focus of the BPA effort is to transform the way buildings are built and operated in order to improve building performance by facilitating or providing tools, infrastructure, and information. The efforts described herein focus on the development of metrics with which to evaluate building performance and for which information and optimization tools need to be developed. The classes of building performance metrics reviewed are (1) Building Services (2) First Costs, (3) Operating Costs, (4) Maintenance Costs, and (5) Energy and Environmental Factors. The first category defines the direct benefits associated with buildings; the next three are different kinds of costs associated with providing those benefits; the last category includes concerns that are broader than direct costs and benefits to the building owner and building occupants. The level of detail of the various issues reflect the current state of knowledge in those scientific areas and the ability of the to determine that state of knowledge, rather than directly reflecting the importance of these issues; it intentionally does not specifically focus on energy issues. The report describes work in progress and is intended as a resource and can be used to indicate the areas needing more investigation. Other reports on BPA activities are also available.

  2. Assuring the Performance of Buildings and Infrastructures: Report of Discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Regina L.

    1999-05-28

    How to ensure the appropriate performance of our built environment in the face of normal conditions, natural hazards, and malevolent threats is an issue of emerging national and international importance. As the world population increases, new construction must be increasingly cost effective and at the same time increasingly secure, safe, and durable. As the existing infrastructure ages, materials and techniques for retrofitting must be developed in parallel with improvements in design, engineering, and building codes for new construction. Both new and renovated structures are more often being subjected to the scrutiny of risk analysis. An international conference, "Assuring the Performance of Buildings and Infrastructures," was held in May 1997 to address some of these issues. The conference was co-sponsored by the Architectural Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), the American Institute of Architects, and Sandia National Laboratories and convened in Albuquerque, NM. Many of the papers presented at the conference are found within this issue of Techno20~. This paper presents some of the major conference themes and summarizes discussions not found in the other papers.

  3. Performance metrics and life-cycle information management for building performance assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, R.J.; Piette, M.A.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1998-06-01

    Commercial buildings account for over $85 billion per year in energy costs, which is far more energy than technically necessary. One of the primary reasons buildings do not perform as well as intended is that critical information is lost, through ineffective documentation and communication, leading to building systems that are often improperly installed and operated. A life-cycle perspective on the management of building information provides a framework for improving commercial building energy performance. This paper describes a project to develop strategies and techniques to provide decision-makers with information needed to assure the desired building performance across the complete life cycle of a building project. A key element in this effort is the development of explicit performance metrics that quantitatively represent performance objectives of interest to various building stakeholders. The paper begins with a discussion of key problems identified in current building industry practice, and ongoing work to address these problems. The paper then focuses on the concept of performance metrics and their use in improving building performance during design, commissioning, and on-going operations. The design of a Building Life-cycle Information System (BLISS) is presented. BLISS is intended to provide an information infrastructure capable of integrating a variety of building information technologies that support performance assurance. The use of performance metrics in case study building projects is explored to illustrate current best practice. The application of integrated information technology for improving current practice is discussed.

  4. BUILDING "BRIDGES" WITH QUALITY ASSURANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The papr describes how, rather than building "bridges" across centuries, quality assurance (QA) personnel have the opportunity to build bridges across technical disciplines, between public and private organizations, and between different QA groups. As reviewers and auditors of a...

  5. Building Assured Systems Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    information. We would like to thank John Goodenough and Carol Woody for their thoughtful review of this report. They made many valuable comments and... tested this hypothesis by assigning “maturity levels” 1 to each area of the MSwA2010 BoK. BoK areas include assurance across life cycles, risk...studies are typically available. To test this hypothesis further, we mapped existing CERT research work, described in the 2009 CERT Research Annual

  6. Performance assurance program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, B.H.

    1997-11-06

    B and W Protec, Inc. (BWP) is responsible for implementing the Performance Assurance Program for the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) in accordance with DOE Order 470.1, Safeguards and Security Program (DOE 1995a). The Performance Assurance Program applies to safeguards and security (SAS) systems and their essential components (equipment, hardware, administrative procedures, Protective Force personnel, and other personnel) in direct support of Category I and H special nuclear material (SNM) protection. Performance assurance includes several Hanford Site activities that conduct performance, acceptance, operability, effectiveness, and validation tests. These activities encompass areas of training, exercises, quality assurance, conduct of operations, total quality management, self assessment, classified matter protection and control, emergency preparedness, and corrective actions tracking and trending. The objective of the Performance Assurance Program is to capture the critical data of the tests, training, etc., in a cost-effective, manageable program that reflects the overall effectiveness of the program while minimizing operational impacts. To aid in achieving this objective, BWP will coordinate the Performance Assurance Program for Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and serve as the central point for data collection.

  7. Building High-Performing and Improving Education Systems: Quality Assurance and Accountability. Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring, evaluation, and quality assurance in their various forms are seen as being one of the foundation stones of high-quality education systems. De Grauwe, writing about "school supervision" in four African countries in 2001, linked the decline in the quality of basic education to the cut in resources for supervision and support.…

  8. Performance assurance for IT systems

    CERN Document Server

    King, Brian

    2004-01-01

    INDIVIDUAL AREAS OF INTERESTPreparing for the ChallengeAbstractIntroductionIn the BeginningThe Need to Address New ApplicationsDefinition of PerformanceThe Required SkillsPerformance Assurance Within a Project LifecycleSummaryCaveat Emptor (Let the Buyer Beware)AbstractSoftware Product LifecycleHardware Product LifecycleMarketingTechnical Reviews of ProductsLies, Damned Lies and BenchmarksAbstractIntroductionIndustry BenchmarksVendor BenchmarksIndependent BenchmarkingIn-House Benchmarking""Tricks of the Trade""Using Benchmarks Non-Functional Requirements and SolutionsAbstractIntroductionThe Pr

  9. Quality assurance in performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maul, P.R.; Watkins, B.M.; Salter, P.; Mcleod, R [QuantiSci Ltd, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    Following publication of the Site-94 report, SKI wishes to review how Quality Assurance (QA) issues could be treated in future work both in undertaking their own Performance Assessment (PA) calculations and in scrutinising documents supplied by SKB (on planning a repository for spent fuels in Sweden). The aim of this report is to identify the key QA issues and to outline the nature and content of a QA plan which would be suitable for SKI, bearing in mind the requirements and recommendations of relevant standards. Emphasis is on issues which are specific to Performance Assessments for deep repositories for radioactive wastes, but consideration is also given to issues which need to be addressed in all large projects. Given the long time over which the performance of a deep repository system must be evaluated, the demonstration that a repository is likely to perform satisfactorily relies on the use of computer-generated model predictions of system performance. This raises particular QA issues which are generally not encountered in other technical areas (for instance, power station operations). The traceability of the arguments used is a key QA issue, as are conceptual model uncertainty, and code verification and validation; these were all included in the consideration of overall uncertainties in the Site-94 project. Additionally, issues which are particularly relevant to SKI include: How QA in a PA fits in with the general QA procedures of the organisation undertaking the work. The relationship between QA as applied by the regulator and the implementor of a repository development programme. Section 2 introduces the discussion of these issues by reviewing the standards and guidance which are available from national and international organisations. This is followed in Section 3 by a review of specific issues which arise from the Site-94 exercise. An outline procedure for managing QA issues in SKI is put forward as a basis for discussion in Section 4. It is hoped that

  10. Building a global information assurance program

    CERN Document Server

    Curts, Raymond J

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION ASSURANCE (IA)AuthenticationConfidentialityNon-repudiationBASIC CONCEPTSAttributesInformation AttributesPure Information AttributesAttributes Influenced by the SystemSystem AttributesSecurity AttributesInformation System Support Planning PrinciplesThe Bottom Line, RevisitedInformation Assurance (IA)Commercial CapabilitiesSecurityNetwork ViewsRisk ManagementCognitive HierarchyTypes of LogicSummaryRISK, THREAT AND VULNERABILITYOVERVIEW OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERINGA Systems Engineering Case StudyCase Study BackgroundThe MissionThe GoalAn Approach Toward A SolutionCase Tools:

  11. Building commissioning: The key to quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This Guide is written to aid building owners and retrofit project managers currently participating in the Rebuild America program. The Guide provides information on implementing building commissioning projects that will optimize the results of existing building equipment improvements and retrofits projects. It should be used in coordination with Rebuild America`s Community Partnership Handbook. The Handbook describes, in detail, eight important steps necessary for planning and carrying out a community-wide energy-efficiency program. In step number 7 of the Handbook, commissioning is shown to be an integral aspect of implementing a building retrofit. The commissioning process ensures that a facility is safe, efficient, comfortable, and conducive to the presumed activities for which it was constructed. Rebuild America strongly encourages its partners to incorporate commissioning into their retrofit projects. By verifying the correct installation, functioning, operation, and maintenance of equipment, the commissioning process ensures that efficiency measures will continue to deliver benefits over the long term. Although commissioning can take place after the equipment has been installed, it is more effective when it takes place over the entire equipment installation process.

  12. Green building performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, N. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A system for labelling buildings in a manner similar to product labelling already well established with respect to goods and materials in general, was proposed. The system envisaged would differ from existing labelling systems in that it would follow the principles incorporated into `Green Building Challenge `98`, (GBC`98) The GBC`98 is a two-year process of international building performance assessment, whose goal is to inform the international community of scientists, designers and builders about advances in green building performance. GBC`98 also aims to test and demonstrate an improved method for measuring building performance, establish international benchmarks for building performance while respecting regional and technical diversity, showcase `best-practice` examples of green buildings around the world, document successful elements in individual green buildings and offer direction to participating countries in the development of regionally sensitive assessment models. The genesis of GBC`98, its potential applications as a second generation tool for eco-labeling of buildings was summarized, along with a review of existing building performance assessment systems. 4 refs.

  13. Energy Performance of Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    emissions in the coming years. By approving the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive the European Union has taken a strong leadership role in promoting energy efficiency in buildings in Europe, and the Directive will be the most powerful instrument developed to date for the building sector in Europe...... programme (ECCP) was established in June 2000 to help identify the most environmentally cost-effective measures enabling the EU to meet its target under the Kyoto Protocol, namely an 8% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by 2012. Energy use in buildings accounts for almost half of all CO......-effective energy saving potential of between 22% and 40% of the energy consumption in the sector by the year 2020. The paper presents the European approach to improve sustainability in the building sector, which has a very high potential for considerable reduction of energy consumption and green house gas...

  14. Building Assurance of Regulatory Compliance in Dynamic Service Oriented Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Sabatova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A system or a particular service is considered to be reliable and credible if we are able to prove its compliance with the defined requirements in a trusted way. In the beginning of this paper the concept and the methodology of continual compliance management in SOA systems introduced by MASTER FP7 research project are described. Then the author introduces her work on compliance assurance verification based on the case study in Hospital San Raffaele in Milan, Italy (HSR.The methodology and its technical realization are explained by examples of Key Assurance Indicator (KAI and Key Security Indicators (KSIs designed for two case studies based on the pilot implementation in the HSR. Author’s original contribution is the definition of compliance patterns in the form of assessment policies for the selected use cases.

  15. Building a case for building performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, David

    2001-01-01

    You have seen the facts before. Americans make up less than 5% of the world’s population, yet consume 25% of the earth’s resources and create 25% of the world’s greenhouse gases. We are also told that the construction and operation of buildings are major contributors to this problem, and that as building industry professionals we have a major responsibility to improve the performance of the buildings and environments that we create. Although a growing number of states and municipalit...

  16. Building performance modelling for sustainable building design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufolahan Oduyemi

    2016-12-01

    The output revealed that BPM delivers information needed for enhanced design and building performance. Recommendations such as the establishment of proper mechanisms to monitor the performance of BPM related construction are suggested to allow for its continuous implementation. This research consolidates collective movements towards wider implementation of BPM and forms a base for developing a sound BIM strategy and guidance.

  17. Dynamic optimization of building performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslesa, Esmir; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Birkved, Morten;

    D develops a methodological basis and purpose-based software for simultaneous calculation of total value and environmental performance of non-residential buildings. So far, a literature study has identified 8 indicator categories that should be considered when addressing environmental performance of building....... The next step of the project combines research and practice through various case studies in which environmental building performance of non-residential buildings will be studied. Case studies will investigate which environmental indicators are used in practice and why, and disclose how building data...... management, energy management, asset management etc. The research focus of this industrial PhD is to study how these different building data sets can be used and combined for improving total value of buildings, with special emphasis on environmental building performance from lifecycle perspective...

  18. Information Assurance Alignment: A Study of Performance Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezal, Said

    2011-01-01

    The positive effect on performance of the alignment between a business strategy and its different functional strategies has a wide support in the literature. As an emerging functional area, information assurance has come to play a strategic role by providing all departments and functions across an organization with a reliable, safe, and efficient…

  19. Guidelines for Quality Assurance Inspection of Commercial Activities Contracts for Real Property Maintenance Activities. Guide Number 7: Building Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    for leaks ( Johnson 1993). (3) Bolts, pipe hangers, stainers , or drain covers are not damaged or missing. (4) Commodes are firmly fixed and do not rock...Building Services by James H. Johnson Paul C. Bresnahan OTIC .I ••JAN 0 5 1994 A Quality Assurance (QA) Program allows the Army to evaluate and...Guide #7: Building Services AT41 SB-A5 I 6. AUTHOR(S) James H. Johnson and Paul C. Bresnahan 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AODRESS(ES) 8

  20. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  1. High-performance commercial building systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical accomplishments resulting from the three year PIER-funded R&D program, ''High Performance Commercial Building Systems'' (HPCBS). The program targets the commercial building sector in California, an end-use sector that accounts for about one-third of all California electricity consumption and an even larger fraction of peak demand, at a cost of over $10B/year. Commercial buildings also have a major impact on occupant health, comfort and productivity. Building design and operations practices that influence energy use are deeply engrained in a fragmented, risk-averse industry that is slow to change. Although California's aggressive standards efforts have resulted in new buildings designed to use less energy than those constructed 20 years ago, the actual savings realized are still well below technical and economic potentials. The broad goal of this program is to develop and deploy a set of energy-saving technologies, strategies, and techniques, and improve processes for designing, commissioning, and operating commercial buildings, while improving health, comfort, and performance of occupants, all in a manner consistent with sound economic investment practices. Results are to be broadly applicable to the commercial sector for different building sizes and types, e.g. offices and schools, for different classes of ownership, both public and private, and for owner-occupied as well as speculative buildings. The program aims to facilitate significant electricity use savings in the California commercial sector by 2015, while assuring that these savings are affordable and promote high quality indoor environments. The five linked technical program elements contain 14 projects with 41 distinct R&D tasks. Collectively they form a comprehensive Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) program with the potential to capture large savings in the commercial building sector, providing significant economic benefits to

  2. Building performance modelling for sustainable building design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oduyemi, Olufolahan; Okoroh, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ...) called Ecotect for sustainable building design. Finally, it introduces a design tool analysis of a case study using Ecotect to evaluate various what if scenarios on a proposed multi-use building...

  3. Rigid performance requirements assure public safety by regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.; Glass, R.E.

    1987-07-01

    Title 10, Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) provides a set of prescriptive performance test requirements for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste transport packaging containment systems. The hypothetical accident conditions, which involve a sequence of impact, puncture, fire, and water immersion events, are referred to as rigid because of their extremely prescriptive nature. These hypothetical accident events have now been placed within the context of real transportation accidents, at least for conventional austenitic stainless steel/ lead gamma shielded cask designs. The assurance of public safety, including the issue of safety margin for very severe accident events is discussed in this paper for both conventional and innovative cask design concepts. A particular risk assessment approach that follows from work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is suggested.

  4. Rigid performance requirements assure public safety by regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.; Glass, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Title 10, Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) provides a set of prescriptive performance test requirements for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste transport packaging containment systems. The hypothetical accident conditions, which involve a sequence of impact, puncture, fire, and water immersion events, are referred to as rigid because of their extremely prescriptive nature. These hypothetical accident events have now been placed within the context of real transportation accidents, at least for conventional austenitic stainless steel/lead gamma shielded cask designs. The assurance of public safety, including the issue of safety margin for very severe accident events, is discussed in this paper for both conventional and innovative cask design concepts. A particular risk assessment approach that follows from work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is suggested. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  5. The Effect of Job Performance Aids on Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosshage, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). System Surety Engineering

    2014-06-01

    Job performance aids (JPAs) have been studied for many decades in a variety of disciplines and for many different types of tasks, yet this is the first known research experiment using JPAs in a quality assurance (QA) context. The objective of this thesis was to assess whether a JPA has an effect on the performance of a QA observer performing the concurrent dual verification technique for a basic assembly task. The JPA used in this study was a simple checklist, and the design borrows heavily from prior research on task analysis and other human factors principles. The assembly task and QA construct of concurrent dual verification are consistent with those of a high consequence manufacturing environment. Results showed that the JPA had only a limited effect on QA performance in the context of this experiment. However, there were three important and unexpected findings that may draw interest from a variety of practitioners. First, a novel testing methodology sensitive enough to measure the effects of a JPA on performance was created. Second, the discovery that there are different probabilities of detection for different types of error in a QA context may be the most far-reaching results. Third, these results highlight the limitations of concurrent dual verification as a control against defects. It is hoped that both the methodology and results of this study are an effective baseline from which to launch future research activities.

  6. The effect of job performance aids on quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosshage, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Job performance aids (JPAs) have been studied for many decades in a variety of disciplines and for many different types of tasks, yet this is the first known research experiment using JPAs in a quality assurance (QA) context. The objective of this thesis was to assess whether a JPA has an effect on the performance of a QA observer performing the concurrent dual verification technique for a basic assembly task. The JPA used in this study was a simple checklist, and the design borrows heavily from prior research on task analysis and other human factors principles. The assembly task and QA construct of concurrent dual verification are consistent with those of a high consequence manufacturing environment. Results showed that the JPA had only a limited effect on QA performance in the context of this experiment. However, there were three important and unexpected findings that may draw interest from a variety of practitioners. First, a novel testing methodology sensitive enough to measure the effects of a JPA on performance was created. Second, the discovery that there are different probabilities of detection for different types of error in a QA context may be the most far-reaching results. Third, these results highlight the limitations of concurrent dual verification as a control against defects. It is hoped that both the methodology and results of this study are an effective baseline from which to launch future research activities.

  7. Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

    2012-08-26

    This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual

  8. High-performance commercial building systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical accomplishments resulting from the three year PIER-funded R&D program, ''High Performance Commercial Building Systems'' (HPCBS). The program targets the commercial building sector in California, an end-use sector that accounts for about one-third of all California electricity consumption and an even larger fraction of peak demand, at a cost of over $10B/year. Commercial buildings also have a major impact on occupant health, comfort and productivity. Building design and operations practices that influence energy use are deeply engrained in a fragmented, risk-averse industry that is slow to change. Although California's aggressive standards efforts have resulted in new buildings designed to use less energy than those constructed 20 years ago, the actual savings realized are still well below technical and economic potentials. The broad goal of this program is to develop and deploy a set of energy-saving technologies, strategies, and techniques, and improve processes for designing, commissioning, and operating commercial buildings, while improving health, comfort, and performance of occupants, all in a manner consistent with sound economic investment practices. Results are to be broadly applicable to the commercial sector for different building sizes and types, e.g. offices and schools, for different classes of ownership, both public and private, and for owner-occupied as well as speculative buildings. The program aims to facilitate significant electricity use savings in the California commercial sector by 2015, while assuring that these savings are affordable and promote high quality indoor environments. The five linked technical program elements contain 14 projects with 41 distinct R&D tasks. Collectively they form a comprehensive Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) program with the potential to capture large savings in the commercial building sector, providing significant economic benefits to

  9. Building Congruence Between Internal Quality Assurance and External Quality Assessment: The Algerian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed MILIANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Algerian higher education system has been undergoing a strong change that can be compared to a revolution to its structures, schemes, procedures ever since 2004: a date that corresponds to the launching of the ‘Licence-Master-Doctorate’ or ‘LMD’ reform. Not least of these procedures is the erection of a Quality system that started in 2010. Yet, one of the difficulties the implementation of the LMD system experienced, was due to the policy of slow and progressive setting up of new LMD learning schemes by universities from 2004 up to 2010 (date of last issued LMD training programs. The fact that universities were not forced to enter the new scheme was somehow detrimental to the overall policy’s coherence and advancement. Indeed, it took time for universities to switch from a dual system of university programs (old and LMD systems offered to freshmen to a single frame, namely that of the LMD. The concern for Quality was then on the Ministry’s agenda from 2008 first through an international conference on Quality Assurance that was held in Algiers under the aegis of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. Part of the ministry’s strategic plan scheduled to go until 2030, is the procedure aiming at a quality system that consists of the following components: the LMD training package, the national qualifications framework, the quality assurance system, the quality assurance frame of reference, the national standards, and the key performance indicators.

  10. Combining Security Assurance and High Performance in Hostile Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    security assurance. The French national project “ SHIVA ” aims at developing a new security architecture providing mul- tiple services and such...Architecture ( SHIVA ) is currently being developed as part of this project, with consortium partners from industry, security and academic fields. This paper...security measures from various fields to develop a new security architecture. 1 DEVELOPING A NEW SECURITY ARCHITECTURE WITH SHIVA The challenges to overcome

  11. Commercial Buildings Energy Performance within Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Existing commercial buildings represent a challenge in the energy efficiency domain. Energy efficiency of a building, very often equalized to a building’s performance should not be observed as a standalone issue. For commercial buildings, energy efficiency needs to be observed and assessed within...

  12. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  13. Quality assurance and performance improvement in intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkus, Arvydas A; Rice, Kent S; McCaffrey, Michael T

    2013-03-01

    Quality assurance (QA) as it relates to intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) can be defined as the systematic monitoring, evaluation, and modification of the IONM service to insure that desired standards of quality are being met. In practice, that definition is usually extended to include the concept that the quality of the IONM service will be improved wherever possible and, although there are some differences in the two terms, in this article the term QA will be understood to include quality improvement (QI) processes as well. The measurement and documentation of quality is becoming increasingly important to healthcare providers. This trend is being driven by pressures from accrediting agencies, payers, and patients. The essential elements of a QA program are described. A real-life example of QA techniques and management relevant to IONM providers is presented and discussed.

  14. Documenting performance metrics in a building life-cycle information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, R.J.; Piette, M.A.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1998-08-01

    In order to produce a new generation of green buildings, it will be necessary to clearly identify their performance requirements, and to assure that these requirements are met. A long-term goal is to provide building decision-makers with the information and tools needed to cost-effectively assure the desired performance of buildings, as specified by stakeholders, across the complete life cycle of a building project. A key element required in achieving this goal is a method for explicitly documenting the building performance objectives that are of importance to stakeholders. Such a method should clearly define each objective (e.g., cost, energy use, and comfort) and its desired level of performance. This information is intended to provide quantitative benchmarks useful in evaluating alternative design solutions, commissioning the newly constructed building, and tracking and maintaining the actual performance of the occupied building over time. These quantitative benchmarks are referred to as performance metrics, and they are a principal element of information captured in the Building Life-cycle Information System (BLISS). An initial implementation of BLISS is based on the International Alliance for Interoperability`s (IAI) Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), an evolving data model under development by a variety of architectural, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry firms and organizations. Within BLISS, the IFC data model has been extended to include performance metrics and a structure for archiving changing versions of the building information over time. This paper defines performance metrics, discusses the manner in which BLISS is envisioned to support a variety of activities related to assuring the desired performance of a building across its life cycle, and describes a performance metric tracking tool, called Metracker, that is based on BLISS.

  15. Quality Assurance in Higher Education: Which Pasts to Build On, What Futures to Contemplate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mala

    2010-01-01

    The paper is a reflection on the pasts and futures of quality assurance in higher education. It poses questions about the correlation between the geographical and political spread of quality assurance on the one hand and the resulting educational benefits on the other; about the divergences between critics and practitioners on the likely impacts…

  16. A Conceptualisation of Available Trust-Building Mechanisms for International Quality Assurance of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensaker, Bjørn; Maassen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    While external quality assurance in higher education was originally developed to cater for various domestic needs, recent decades have seen various attempts in the use of quality assurance also as a mechanism for creating more trust in cross-national higher education activities. In this article, a conceptual framework for analysing available…

  17. Performance based building and its application to healthy buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The European funded Project PeBBu, Performance Based Building, is a Thematic network under the Competitive and Sustainable Growth program, which started September 1st, 2001 and will run for 4 years. In one of the domains of PeBBu, the domain Indoor Environment, a state-of-the-art on the Performance

  18. Performance based building and its application to healthy buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The European funded Project PeBBu, Performance Based Building, is a Thematic network under the Competitive and Sustainable Growth program, which started September 1st, 2001 and will run for 4 years. In one of the domains of PeBBu, the domain Indoor Environment, a state-of-the-art on the Performance

  19. Testing of optical components to assure performance in a high acerage power environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.; Taylor, J.R.; Eickelberg, W.K.; Primdahl, K.A.

    1997-06-24

    Evaluation and testing of the optical components used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant is critical for qualification of suppliers, development of new optical multilayer designs and monufacturing processes, and assurance of performance in the production cycle. The range of specifications requires development of specialized test equipment and methods which are not routine or readily available in industry. Specifications are given on material characteristics such as index homogeneity, subsurface damage left after polishing, microscopic surface defects and contamination, coating absorption, and high average power laser damage. The approach to testing these performance characteristics and assuring the quality throughout the production cycle is described.

  20. The European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    This paper investigates the actual energy use for building operation with the calculated energy use according to the Danish implementation of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). This is important to various stakeholders in the building industry as the calculated energy ...... calculated energy use. More buildings should be investigated in the same manner before any sound conclusion can be made regarding whether the implementation of EPBD in a wide context leads to truly energy-efficient buildings.......This paper investigates the actual energy use for building operation with the calculated energy use according to the Danish implementation of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). This is important to various stakeholders in the building industry as the calculated energy...... performance is used for estimating investment security, operating budgets and for policy making. A case study shows that the actual and calculated energy use is practically the same in an average scenario. In the worst-case uncertainty scenario, the actual energy use is 20 % higher than the corrected...

  1. Objective performance testing and quality assurance of medical ultrasound equipment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, J.M.; Weijers, G.; Korte, C.L. de

    2007-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a measurement protocol and software analysis for objective testing of the imaging performance of medical ultrasound equipment from a user's point of view. Methods for testing of imaging performance were developed. Simple test objects were used, which have a long life expe

  2. Quality assurance of performance-based maintenance partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.; Van Mossel, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Dutch housing associations develop new procurement methods for maintenance of their housing stock, namely performance-based partnership forms. Partnership forms promise the optimal use of know-how of parties involved. For contractors a performance-based approach means major changes in working proces

  3. 77 FR 2296 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee... provides the schedule for three teleconference meetings of the Green Building Advisory Committee (the..., Designated Federal Officer, Office of Federal High Performance Green Buildings, Office of...

  4. Building Trust in High-Performing Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Soudunsaari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Facilitation of growth is more about good, trustworthy contacts than capital. Trust is a driving force for business creation, and to create a global business you need to build a team that is capable of meeting the challenge. Trust is a key factor in team building and a needed enabler for cooperation. In general, trust building is a slow process, but it can be accelerated with open interaction and good communication skills. The fast-growing and ever-changing nature of global business sets demands for cooperation and team building, especially for startup companies. Trust building needs personal knowledge and regular face-to-face interaction, but it also requires empathy, respect, and genuine listening. Trust increases communication, and rich and open communication is essential for the building of high-performing teams. Other building materials are a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, willingness for cooperation, and supporting and encouraging leadership. This study focuses on trust in high-performing teams. It asks whether it is possible to manage trust and which tools and operation models should be used to speed up the building of trust. In this article, preliminary results from the authors’ research are presented to highlight the importance of sharing critical information and having a high level of communication through constant interaction.

  5. Green building performance prediction/assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papamichael, Konstantinos

    2000-02-01

    To make decisions, building designers need to predict and assess the performance of their ideas with respect to various criteria, such as comfort, esthetics, energy, environmental impact, economics, etc. Performance prediction with respect to environmental impact requires complicated models and massive computations, which are usually possible only through computer-based tools. This paper focuses on the use of computer-based tools for predicting and assessing building performance with respect to environmental impact criteria for the design of green buildings. It contains analyses of green performance prediction/assessment and descriptions of available tools, along with discussions on their use by different types of users. Finally, it includes analyses of the cost and benefits of green performance prediction and assessment.

  6. Policy Pathways: Energy Performance Certification of Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the most effective measures to address energy security, climate change and economic objectives. The Policy Pathways series can help countries capture this potential by assisting with the implementation of the 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations that were published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in 2008. This policy pathway on energy performance certification of buildings is the second in the series. It aims to provide a 'how-to' guide to policy makers and relevant stakeholders on the essential elements in implementing energy performance certification of buildings programmes. Energy performance certification of buildings is a way to rate the energy efficiency of individual buildings -- whether they be residential, commercial or public. It is a key policy instrument that can assist governments in reducing energy consumption in buildings. This policy pathway showcases experiences from countries around the world to show examples of good practice and delivers a pathway of ten critical steps to implement energy performance certification of buildings programmes.

  7. High Performance Building Mockup in FLEXLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kohler, Christian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Eleanor S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Genentech has ambitious energy and indoor environmental quality performance goals for Building 35 (B35) being constructed by Webcor at the South San Francisco campus. Genentech and Webcor contracted with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test building systems including lighting, lighting controls, shade fabric, and automated shading controls in LBNL’s new FLEXLAB facility. The goal of the testing is to ensure that the systems installed in the new office building will function in a way that reduces energy consumption and provides a comfortable work environment for employees.

  8. Evaluation of Web and PDA-based Quality Assurance on a Building Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Vogelius, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Quality assurance tends to dangerously balance between redundant externalized paperwork and real life problems in everyday processes of design and construction. This leads to too many failures and complaints from customers. This paper describes an evaluative study of the implementation and use...

  9. Hybrid ventilation systems and high performance buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utzinger, D.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). School of Architecture and Urban Planning

    2009-07-01

    This paper described hybrid ventilation design strategies and their impact on 3 high performance buildings located in southern Wisconsin. The Hybrid ventilation systems combined occupant controlled natural ventilation with mechanical ventilation systems. Natural ventilation was shown to provide adequate ventilation when appropriately designed. Proper control integration of natural ventilation into hybrid systems was shown to reduce energy consumption in high performance buildings. This paper also described the lessons learned from the 3 buildings. The author served as energy consultant on all three projects and had the responsibility of designing and integrating the natural ventilation systems into the HVAC control strategy. A post occupancy evaluation of building energy performance has provided learning material for architecture students. The 3 buildings included the Schlitz Audubon Nature Center completed in 2003; the Urban Ecology Center completed in 2004; and the Aldo Leopold Legacy Center completed in 2007. This paper included the size, measured energy utilization intensity and percentage of energy supplied by renewable solar power and bio-fuels on site for each building. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. Integrating advanced facades into high performance buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2001-05-01

    Glass is a remarkable material but its functionality is significantly enhanced when it is processed or altered to provide added intrinsic capabilities. The overall performance of glass elements in a building can be further enhanced when they are designed to be part of a complete facade system. Finally the facade system delivers the greatest performance to the building owner and occupants when it becomes an essential element of a fully integrated building design. This presentation examines the growing interest in incorporating advanced glazing elements into more comprehensive facade and building systems in a manner that increases comfort, productivity and amenity for occupants, reduces operating costs for building owners, and contributes to improving the health of the planet by reducing overall energy use and negative environmental impacts. We explore the role of glazing systems in dynamic and responsive facades that provide the following functionality: Enhanced sun protection and cooling load control while improving thermal comfort and providing most of the light needed with daylighting; Enhanced air quality and reduced cooling loads using natural ventilation schemes employing the facade as an active air control element; Reduced operating costs by minimizing lighting, cooling and heating energy use by optimizing the daylighting-thermal tradeoffs; Net positive contributions to the energy balance of the building using integrated photovoltaic systems; Improved indoor environments leading to enhanced occupant health, comfort and performance. In addressing these issues facade system solutions must, of course, respect the constraints of latitude, location, solar orientation, acoustics, earthquake and fire safety, etc. Since climate and occupant needs are dynamic variables, in a high performance building the facade solution have the capacity to respond and adapt to these variable exterior conditions and to changing occupant needs. This responsive performance capability

  11. Effective time management for high performance in an organization Case: Lasaco Assurance PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Adeojo, Adeyinka

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to determine the effect of time management on high organizational performance using LASACO ASSURANCE Plc. as a case company. In this thesis, the employees working with the company were sent questionnaires. Their responses were critically analyzed and thus related to the theories. A quantitative approach was used as the methodology. According to the theory, time management is a method for managers to increase work performance effectiveness. Time man...

  12. High-performance commercial building facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor; Selkowitz, Stephen; Bazjanac, Vladimir; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Kohler, Christian

    2002-06-01

    This study focuses on advanced building facades that use daylighting, sun control, ventilation systems, and dynamic systems. A quick perusal of the leading architectural magazines, or a discussion in most architectural firms today will eventually lead to mention of some of the innovative new buildings that are being constructed with all-glass facades. Most of these buildings are appearing in Europe, although interestingly U.S. A/E firms often have a leading role in their design. This ''emerging technology'' of heavily glazed fagades is often associated with buildings whose design goals include energy efficiency, sustainability, and a ''green'' image. While there are a number of new books on the subject with impressive photos and drawings, there is little critical examination of the actual performance of such buildings, and a generally poor understanding as to whether they achieve their performance goals, or even what those goals might be. Even if the building ''works'' it is often dangerous to take a design solution from one climate and location and transport it to a new one without a good causal understanding of how the systems work. In addition, there is a wide range of existing and emerging glazing and fenestration technologies in use in these buildings, many of which break new ground with respect to innovative structural use of glass. It is unclear as to how well many of these designs would work as currently formulated in California locations dominated by intense sunlight and seismic events. Finally, the costs of these systems are higher than normal facades, but claims of energy and productivity savings are used to justify some of them. Once again these claims, while plausible, are largely unsupported. There have been major advances in glazing and facade technology over the past 30 years and we expect to see continued innovation and product development. It is critical in this process to be able to

  13. Commercial Buildings High Performance Rooftop Unit Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commercial Building Energy Alliances (CBEAs) are releasing a new design specification for high performance rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs). Manufacturers who develop RTUs based on this new specification will find strong interest from the commercial sector due to the energy and financial savings.

  14. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes: Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M.; Taggart, J.; Sikora, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) Teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  15. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes. Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Taggart, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Sikora, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wood, A. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  16. Performance Evaluation of DSC Windows for Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Gu Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in BIPV systems with dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs that can replace building windows has increased for zero energy buildings. Although DSCs have lower efficiency in terms of electricity generation than silicon solar cells, they allow light transmission and application of various colors; they also have low production costs, which make them especially suitable for BIPV systems. DSC research is interdisciplinary, involving electrical, chemical, material, and metal engineering. A considerable amount of research has been conducted on increasing the electrical efficiency of DSC and their modules. However, there has not been sufficient research on building applications of DSC systems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the optical performance and thermal performance of DSC windows in buildings. For this study, DSC experimental models with different thicknesses and dye colors were manufactured, and their optical properties, such as transmittance and reflectivity, were measured by a spectrometer. The thermal and optical characteristics of double-glazed windows with DSC were analyzed with a window performance analysis program, WINDOW 6.0.

  17. Identification of coordination factors affecting building projects performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Salah Alaloul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects performance requires improvement to fulfil the complexity of the stakeholders’ needs and expectations. Coordination process is proposed as an efficient solution for weak performance of construction projects. Therefore, coordination factors are vital in ensuring a successful implementation of all project phases. This study aimed to identify and prioritise coordination factors that influence the performance of building projects in Malaysian context. A vast body of literature on coordination process was reviewed and resulted in 53 coordination factor. Three rounds of Delphi technique were conducted. The most effective coordination factors were ranked based on the Relative Importance Index (RII such as Scheduling (RII = 0.97, Quality assurance plan (RII = 0.93, and all parties’ participation in plans (RII = 0.89. These coordination factors have fulfilled the research gap and provided better management and higher performance for project parties. The results offer insightful perspectives to define the most effective coordination factors, for addressing the dependency between project tasks and the parties to enhance project performance.

  18. 76 FR 74050 - Measured Building Energy Performance Data Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... energy performance data taxonomy as part of its DOE Buildings Performance Database project. This... energy performance data taxonomy as part of its DOE Buildings Performance Database project. This... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Anna [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Progress Towards Net-Zero and Net-Positive-Energy Commercial Buildings and Urban Districts Through Intelligent Building Envelope Strategies Previous research and development of intelligent facades systems has been limited in their contribution towards national goals for achieving on-site net zero buildings, because this R&D has failed to couple the many qualitative requirements of building envelopes such as the provision of daylighting, access to exterior views, satisfying aesthetic and cultural characteristics, with the quantitative metrics of energy harvesting, storage and redistribution. To achieve energy self-sufficiency from on-site solar resources, building envelopes can and must address this gamut of concerns simultaneously. With this project, we have undertaken a high-performance building integrated combined-heat and power concentrating photovoltaic system with high temperature thermal capture, storage and transport towards multiple applications (BICPV/T). The critical contribution we are offering with the Integrated Concentrating Solar Façade (ICSF) is conceived to improve daylighting quality for improved health of occupants and mitigate solar heat gain while maximally capturing and transferring onsite solar energy. The ICSF accomplishes this multi-functionality by intercepting only the direct-normal component of solar energy (which is responsible for elevated cooling loads) thereby transforming a previously problematic source of energy into a high quality resource that can be applied to building demands such as heating, cooling, dehumidification, domestic hot water, and possible further augmentation of electrical generation through organic Rankine cycles. With the ICSF technology, our team is addressing the global challenge in transitioning commercial and residential building stock towards on-site clean energy self-sufficiency, by fully integrating innovative environmental control systems strategies within an intelligent and responsively dynamic building

  20. Daylight performance of adapted industrial buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkovic Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the potential of historical industrial buildings to be reused as office spaces. Belgrade’s industrial heritage has been classified according to the criteria that influence visual comfort, including glazing area, floor depth, and orientation. Daylight performance of two representative buildings has been analyzed using daylight factor, point in time illuminance and spatial daylight autonomy. Potential improvement strategies that would not have a negative impact on the historical character of buildings have then been discussed. Further studies include increased internal surface reflectance and introduction of roof-lights. The impact of roof-lights on the annual cooling and heating load has been addressed in parallel. Since LEED is the dominant sustainability assessment tool in Serbia, preliminary compliance with LEED v4 Daylight credit has been assessed for all options. The methodology and findings can be applied to a wide range of industrial buildings in similar climatic conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36035: Spatial, Environmental, Energy and Social Aspects of Developing Settlements and Climate Change

  1. Quick assessment tool for assurance of structural safety in the building process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwel, K.C.; Jansen, S.J.T.

    2014-01-01

    From forensic investigation it is known that many structural failures can be attributed to human errors and organizational factors. To provide project leaders with information on the current state of factors in the building process influencing structural safety, we developed a quick assessment tool.

  2. 77 FR 66616 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee... provides the schedule and agenda for the November 27, 2012, meeting of the Green Building Advisory... High-Performance Green Buildings, Office of Government-wide Policy, General Services...

  3. 77 FR 24494 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee... and agenda for the May 9, 2012, meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the... Sandler, Designated Federal Officer, Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, Office...

  4. Significance of Attaining Users’ Feedback in Building Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, building is a structure that provides basic shelter for the humans to conduct general activities. In common prose, the purpose of buildings is to provide humans a comfortable working and living space and protected from the extremes of climate. However, a building usage is depends on the lifespan and the change of rate effected on their impact on efficiency of use. Hence, more attention needs to be emphasized on the performance of buildings as the changes are not static over time. This paper highlights the concept and requirements in evaluating building performance. Exploration on the concept of building performance is also addressed on the purposes of building performance and the link of performance towards the end-users and incorporating their feedback. It concludes that obtaining users’ feedback is vital in building performance and the requirements of assessment must outline the performance criteria and mandates in such building.

  5. Building Enclosure Hygrothermal Performance Study, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2002-08-08

    The moisture performance of three different classes of wall systems has been investigated in the context of the preliminary hygrothermal analysis of walls in Seattle. The results reported in this phase specifically address the moisture performance of walls designed with loads that have some unintentional water penetration. The results have been developed in a manner to present the relative performance of the walls in the same climate with similar water penetration effects. The analysis was performed with the best available input data. Several limitations should be recognized within the context of this study. Results showed that selection of wooden sheathing boards on interior vapor-tight assemblies does not significantly influence the performance of stucco-clad walls. A larger effect was observed when the interior vapor control is made vapor open. When continuous cavity ventilation is employed, the effect of the selection of the type of sheathing board on the hygrothermal performance of the wall was found to be negligible. When comparing oriented strand board sheathing performance against the performance of exterior grade gypsum, the differences are very significant in terms of the amount of moisture content present in the walls. Moisture content alone does not indicate their respective durability as durability is directly related to the combination of relative humidity and temperature, mechanical, chemical, and biological properties of the substrates. This study did not investigate the durability performance of either sheathing. In terms of interior vapor control, inhabitant behavior must be considered during the wall hygrothermal design stage. If interior relative humidity is maintained below 60%, then a latex primer and paint may perform better than the use of PVA or even a polyethylene sheet. When the interior environment is maintained at a higher relative humidity, then stricter vapor control is needed. Multilayered building paper was experimentally shown to

  6. A method for optimizing the performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes a method for optimizing the performance of buildings. Design decisions made in early stages of the building design process have a significant impact on the performance of buildings, for instance, the performance with respect to the energy consumption, economical aspects......, and the indoor environment. The method is intended for supporting design decisions for buildings, by combining methods for calculating the performance of buildings with numerical optimization methods. The method is able to find optimum values of decision variables representing different features of the building......, such as its shape, the amount and type of windows used, and the amount of insulation used in the building envelope. The parties who influence design decisions for buildings, such as building owners, building users, architects, consulting engineers, contractors, etc., often have different and to some extent...

  7. 78 FR 21368 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee... provides the schedule and agenda for the May 1, 2013, meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee... Green Buildings, Office of Government-wide Policy, General Services Administration, 1275 First Street...

  8. Energy system simulation in performance-based building design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, P.J.C.J. de; Augenbroe, G.; Voorden, M. van der

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the requirements and possible solutions for the use of building simulation tools as instrument to support performance-based building design decisions. Use of an existing simulation tool to support a specific building design decision (the selection of energy saving building compo

  9. Performance Evaluation and Quality Assurance Management during the Series Power Tests of LHC Main Lattice Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Siemko, A

    2008-01-01

    Within the LHC magnet program a series production of superconducting dipoles and quadrupoles has recently been completed in industry and all magnets were cold tested at CERN. The main features of these magnets are: two-in-one structure, 56 mm aperture, two layer coils wound from 15.1 mm wide Nb-Ti cables, and all-polyimide insulation. This paper reviews the process of the power test quality assurance and performance evaluation, which was applied during the LHC magnet series tests. The main test results of magnets tested in both supercritical and superfluid helium, including the quench training, the conductor performance, the magnet protection efficiency and the electrical integrity are presented and discussed in terms of the design parameters and the requirements of the LHC project.

  10. Performance assessment of a 2D array of plastic scintillation detectors for IMRT quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Mathieu; Gingras, Luc; Archambault, Louis; Beddar, Sam; Beaulieu, Luc

    2013-07-01

    The purposes of this work are to assess the performance of a 2D plastic scintillation detectors array prototype for quality assurance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to determine its sensitivity and specificity to positioning errors of one multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf and one MLC leaf bank by applying the principles of signal detection theory. Ten treatment plans (step-and-shoot delivery) and one volumetric modulated arc therapy plan were measured and compared to calculations from two treatment-planning systems (TPSs) and to radiochromic films. The averages gamma passing rates per beam found for the step-and-shoot plans were 95.8% for the criteria (3%, 2 mm), 97.8% for the criteria (4%, 2 mm), and 98.1% for the criteria (3%, 3 mm) when measurements were compared to TPS calculations. The receiver operating characteristic curves for the one leaf errors and one leaf bank errors were determined from simulations (theoretical upper limits) and measurements. This work concludes that arrays of plastic scintillation detectors could be used for IMRT quality assurance in clinics. The use of signal detection theory could improve the quality of dosimetric verifications in radiation therapy by providing optimal discrimination criteria for the detection of different classes of errors.

  11. The energy performance of office buildings throughout their building process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.; Wamelink, J.W.F.; Geraedts, R.P.; Volker, L.

    2011-01-01

    Many innovative techniques and policy measures have been introduced to reduce energy consumption. Despite the high ambitions and societal pressures, the adoption rate of energy measures in office buildings is still low. Using adoption theories this paper provides a framework to analyse the adoption

  12. Incorporating User Performance Criteria into Building Sustainability Rating Tools (BSRTs for Buildings in Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Baird

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Current Building Sustainability Rating Tools (BSRTs are concerned mainly with the technical features of new designs. The author argues for the inclusion of user performance criteria in BSRTs for buildings in operation. The case is based on insights gained from surveys of users of sustainable buildings worldwide, and a review of the pioneering NABERS protocol. The paper advocates the establishment of a set of user performance criteria for existing buildings, as a key ingredient in making progress towards a truly sustainable building stock as buildings that perform poorly from the users‘ point of view are unlikely to ever be sustainable.

  13. A second-generation environmental performance assessment system for buildings : green building challenge `98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, N.K. [Natural Resources Canada, ON (Canada); Cole, R.J. [University of British Columbia, BC (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    The issue of testing and labelling building materials and products and the criteria that should be used to describe their performance characteristics were discussed. The Green Building Challenge Project was established to develop a method for assessing building performance with an emphasis on energy and environmental performance. International and collaborative processes will be used to develop the method of assessment. The performance of more than 30 comparable buildings from the participating countries will be assessed in 1998 and results of the process will be reported at an international conference scheduled for Vancouver during October 1998. Equal focus will be placed on the performance of the buildings and the adequacy of the assessment framework. The assessment will focus on the following design features: land use, water use, materials, air borne emissions during building production and building operation, solid waste from building operations, liquid waste flows to municipal system, indoor air quality, thermal comfort, noise and acoustics, and longevity. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. The thermal performance of earth buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heathcote, K.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the theoretical basis for the thermal performance of earth walls and links it to some test results on buildings constructed by the author, and to their predicted performance using a sophisticated computer modelling program. The analysis shows that for all earth walls the steady state thermal resistance is low but that for walls greater than about 450 mm thick the cyclic thermal resistance is high and increases exponentially. Whilst the steady state resistance of all thickness walls is low and results in higher than normal average temperatures in summer and lower than normal in winter the ability of thick earth walls to even out the swings in temperature is thought to be responsible for the materials reputation. The paper notes that good passive design principles (such as providing internal thermal mass and large areas of glazing for winter performance will greatly improve the performance of earth buildings with thin walls, but it is the author’s opinion that external earth walls should be at least 450 mm thick to gain the full benefit of thermal mass.

    Este artículo examina la base teórica del comportamiento térmico de las paredes de tierra y la relaciona con varios resultados de test realizados sobre edificios construidos por el autor, y con su comportamiento previsto utilizando un sofisticado programa de modelado por ordenador. El análisis muestra que la resistencia térmica constante es baja para todas las paredes de tierra, pero que para muros con un grosor mayor que 450 mm la resistencia térmica cíclica es alta y se incrementa exponencialmente. Mientras que la resistencia térmica constante de las paredes de cualquier grosor es baja y se traduce en temperaturas más altas que la media en verano y más bajas que la media en invierno, la capacidad de las paredes gruesas de tierra para amortiguar las variaciones de temperatura es la responsable de la reputación de los materiales. El artículo señala que los

  15. 78 FR 56703 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee..., 2013, meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the Committee) and the schedule for a... CONTACT: Ken Sandler, Designated Federal Officer, ] Office of Federal High-Performance Green...

  16. Developing an environmental performance standard for the materials in buildings for the Dutch Building Decree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.; Groot-Van Dam, A. de; Kortman, J.G.M.; Huppes, G.; Ven, B. van der; Schuurmans, A.; Anink, D.

    2001-01-01

    After consulting the building industry the Dutch government decided in February 1998 to implement sustainability requirements in the Dutch Building Decree by the year 2001. Part of these requirements will be the material-based environmental performance of a building, mepb.. An energy performance

  17. Performance of Buildings in the 2009 Western Sumatra Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deierlein, G.; Hart, T.; Alexander, N.; Hausler, E.; Henderson, S.; Wood, K.; Cedillos, V.; Wijanto, S.; Cabrera, C.; Rudianto, S.

    2009-12-01

    The M7.6 earthquake of 30 September 2009 in Western Sumatra, Indonesia caused significant damage and collapse to hundreds of buildings and the deaths of 1,117 people. In Padang City, with a population of about 900,000 people, building collapse was the primary cause of deaths and serious injuries (313 deaths and 431 serious injuries). The predominant building construction types in Padang are concrete moment frames with brick infill and masonry bearing wall systems. Concrete frames are common in multistory commercial retail buildings, offices, schools, and hotels; and masonry bearing wall systems are primarily used in low-rise (usually single story) residential and school buildings. In general, buildings that collapsed did not conform to modern seismic engineering practices that are required by the current Indonesian building code and would be expected in regions of moderate to high seismicity. While collapse of multi-story concrete buildings was more prevalent in older buildings (more than 10 years old), there were several newer buildings that collapsed. Primary deficiencies identified in collapsed or severely damaged buildings included: (a) soft or weak stories that failed in either by sidesway mechanisms or shear failures followed by loss of axial capacity of columns, (b) lack of ductile reinforcing bar detailing in concrete beams, columns, and beam-column joints, (c) poor quality concrete and mortar materials and workmanship, (d) vulnerable building configurations and designs with incomplete or deficient load paths, and (e) out-of-plane wall failures in unreinforced (or marginally reinforced) masonry. While these deficiencies may be expected in older buildings, damage and collapse to some modern (or recently rennovated buildings) indicates a lack of enforcement of building code provisions for design and construction quality assurance. Many new buildings whose structural systems were undamaged were closed due to extensive earthquake damage to brick infill walls

  18. Development of a building performance laboratory for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR Building Science and Technology Competence area is currently in the process of establishing a Building Performance Laboratory (BPL). The BPL is aimed at becoming a centre at which the knowledge generation and technology development...

  19. Environmental value engineering (EVE): a green building performance assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudebush, W. H. [Bowling Green Univ., College of Technology, OH (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Establishing criteria for assessing green building performance is discussed. Performance criteria identified include building energy consumption, building material reduction, pollution minimization, indoor air quality, waste reduction, and occupant performance/output maximization. This paper specifically focuses on the use of an assessment methodology called environmental value engineering to maximize building performance at the least cost to the environment, i.e. the least quantity of inputs required per unit of building function. The inputs are grouped into four categories of: environment, fuel energy, goods, and services. The assessment is conducted at various points in the building`s life cycle (natural resource formation, exploration and extraction, material production, construction, use, demolition, natural resource recycling and disposal), with the four categories of inputs accounted for during each of the life cycle phases. Environmental value engineering is based on the EMERGY Analysis methodology developed at the University of Florida, and the ASTM (1993) UNIFORMAT of building subsystem organization. Total EMERGY per unit of function is considered to be the measure of building performance. The methodology can be used to compare traditional building performance to green building performance towards sustainable development. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Data Quality Assurance Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Gonzalez; Stephanie Suhr

    2016-01-01

    This deliverable describes the ELIXIR-EXCELERATE Quality Management Strategy, addressing EXCELERATE Ethics requirement no. 5 on Data Quality Assurance Governance. The strategy describes the essential procedures and practices within ELIXIR-EXCELERATE concerning planning of quality management, performing quality assurance and controlling quality. It also depicts the overall organisation of ELIXIR with emphasis on authority and specific responsibilities related to quality assurance.

  1. Energy Performance of Buildings - The European Approach to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the European approach to improve sustainability in the building sector, which has a very high potential for considerable reduction of energy consumption in the coming years. By approving the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive the European Union has taken a strong leadership role in promoting energy efficiency in buildings in Europe, that will be the most powerful instrument developed to date for the building sector in Europe. This paper presents the European appr...

  2. Revisit of Energy Use and Technologies of High Performance Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng; Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-03-30

    Energy consumed by buildings accounts for one third of the world?s total primary energy use. Associated with the conscious of energy savings in buildings, High Performance Buildings (HPBs) has surged across the world, with wide promotion and adoption of various performance rating and certification systems. It is valuable to look into the actual energy performance of HPBs and to understand their influencing factors. To shed some light on this topic, this paper conducted a series of portfolio analysis based on a database of 51 high performance office buildings across the world. Analyses showed that the actual site Energy Use Intensity (EUI) of the 51 buildings varied by a factor of up to 11, indicating a large scale of variation of the actual energy performance of the current HPBs. Further analysis of the correlation between EUI and climate elucidated ubiquitous phenomenon of EUI scatter throughout all climate zones, implying that the weather is not a decisive factor, although important, for the actual energy consumption of an individual building. On the building size via EUI, analysis disclosed that smaller buildings have a tendency to achieving lower energy use. Even so, the correlation is not absolute since some large buildings demonstrated low energy use while some small buildings performed opposite. Concerning the technologies, statistics indicated that the application of some technologies had correlations with some specific building size and climate characteristic. However, it was still hard to pinpoint a set of technologies which was directly correlative with a group of low EUI buildings. It is concluded that no a single factor essentially determines the actual energy performance of HPBs. To deliver energy-efficient buildings, an integrated design taking account of climate, technology, occupant behavior as well as operation and maintenance should be implemented.

  3. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

  4. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

  5. Simulation of building performances. Special issue; Gebouwprestatiesimulatie. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensen, J.; Yahiaoui; Djunaedy, E. [Center for Building and Systems, TNO en Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Van Schijndel, A.W.M. [Faculteit Bouwkunde, FAGO, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Andre, P. [Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgeoise FUL, Arlon (Belgium); Asada, H.; Boelman, E.C.; Van der Voorden, M. [Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Elkhuizen, B.; Loomans, M.; Soethout, L.L.; Maassen, W.H.; De Wilde, P.; Zonneveldt, L.; De Groot, E.; Van Dijk, H.A.L.; Oversloot, H.P.; Versluis, R. [TNO Bouw, Delft (Netherlands); Plokker, W. [Vereniging voor Automatisering in de Bouw en Installatietechniek VABI, Delft (Netherlands); Stec, W.; Van Paassen, A.H.C. [Faculteit OCP, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Geebelen, B. [Departement Architectuur, Stedenbouw en Ruimtelijke Ordening, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Itard, L.C.M. [Deerns Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Yu, B. [Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); De Bondt, A. [Ooms Avenhorn Holding, Scharwoude (Netherlands); Pearce, M. [Architect (Zimbabwe); Saelens, D. [Laboratorium Bouwfysica, Departement Burgerlijke Bouwkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Augenbroe, G. [College of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2003-12-01

    A large number of articles in this issue is dedicated to building performance simulation, one of the most important tools in predicting building and installation performances for analysis, design and management. Most of the articles are translations of papers from the Building Simulations 2003 conference of the International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA) which was held in Eindhoven, Netherlands, August 2003. [Dutch] Gebouwprestatiesimulatie is een van de belangrijkste hulpmiddelen bij het voorspellen van gebouw- en installatieprestaties voor analyse, ontwerp en beheer. De laatste jaren is er ook in Nederland en Belgie een verhoogde inspanning waarneembaar op academisch niveau. Om een indruk te geven van het huidige onderzoek in onze regio op het gebied van gebouwprestatiesimulatie bestaat dit themanummer uit uitgebreide in het Nederlands vetaalde samenvattingen van papers die zijn gepresenteerd op het tweejaarlijkse congres Building Simulations 2003 van de International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBSPA), eind augustus in Eindhoven.

  6. A method for optimizing the performance of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Frank

    2006-07-01

    This thesis describes a method for optimizing the performance of buildings. Design decisions made in early stages of the building design process have a significant impact on the performance of buildings, for instance, the performance with respect to the energy consumption, economical aspects, and the indoor environment. The method is intended for supporting design decisions for buildings, by combining methods for calculating the performance of buildings with numerical optimization methods. The method is able to find optimum values of decision variables representing different features of the building, such as its shape, the amount and type of windows used, and the amount of insulation used in the building envelope. The parties who influence design decisions for buildings, such as building owners, building users, architects, consulting engineers, contractors, etc., often have different and to some extent conflicting requirements to buildings. For instance, the building owner may be more concerned about the cost of constructing the building, rather than the quality of the indoor climate, which is more likely to be a concern of the building user. In order to support the different types of requirements made by decision-makers for buildings, an optimization problem is formulated, intended for representing a wide range of design decision problems for buildings. The problem formulation involves so-called performance measures, which can be calculated with simulation software for buildings. For instance, the annual amount of energy required by the building, the cost of constructing the building, and the annual number of hours where overheating occurs, can be used as performance measures. The optimization problem enables the decision-makers to specify many different requirements to the decision variables, as well as to the performance of the building. Performance measures can for instance be required to assume their minimum or maximum value, they can be subjected to upper or

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Tryggvason, T.

    1998-01-01

    An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution will be introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment. The building energy performance...

  8. Re-Assessing Green Building Performance: A Post Occupancy Evaluation of 22 GSA Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.; Henderson, Jordan W.; Kora, Angela R.

    2010-06-01

    2nd report on the performance of GSA's sustainably designed buildings. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of measured whole building performance as it compares to GSA and industry baselines. The PNNL research team found the data analysis illuminated strengths and weaknesses of individual buildings as well as the portfolio of buildings. This section includes summary data, observations that cross multiple performance metrics, discussion of lessons learned from this research, and opportunities for future research. The summary of annual data for each of the performance metrics is provided in Table 25. The data represent 1 year of measurements and are not associated with any specific design features or strategies. Where available, multiple years of data were examined and there were minimal significant differences between the years. Individually focused post occupancy evaluation (POEs) would allow for more detailed analysis of the buildings. Examining building performance over multiple years could potentially offer a useful diagnostic tool for identifying building operations that are in need of operational changes. Investigating what the connection is between the building performance and the design intent would offer potential design guidance and possible insight into building operation strategies. The 'aggregate operating cost' metric used in this study represents the costs that were available for developing a comparative industry baseline for office buildings. The costs include water utilities, energy utilities, general maintenance, grounds maintenance, waste and recycling, and janitorial costs. Three of the buildings that cost more than the baseline in Figure 45 have higher maintenance costs than the baseline, and one has higher energy costs. Given the volume of data collected and analyzed for this study, the inevitable request is for a simple answer with respect to sustainably designed building performance. As previously stated

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Tryggvason, Tryggvi

    An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution will be introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment. The building energy performance...... simulation program requires a detailed description of the energy flow in the air movement which can be obtained by a CFD program. The paper describes an energy consumption calculation in a large building, where the building energy simulation program is modified by CFD predictions of the flow between three...... program and a building energy performance simulation program will improve both the energy consumption data and the prediction of thermal comfort and air quality in a selected area of the building....

  10. High Performance Home Building Guide for Habitat for Humanity Affiliates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey Marburger

    2010-10-01

    This guide covers basic principles of high performance Habitat construction, steps to achieving high performance Habitat construction, resources to help improve building practices, materials, etc., and affiliate profiles and recommendations.

  11. Acquisition of building geometry in the simulation of energy performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2001-06-28

    Building geometry is essential to any simulation of building performance. This paper examines the importing of building geometry into simulation of energy performance from the users' point of view. It lists performance requirements for graphic user interfaces that input building geometry, and discusses the basic options in moving from two- to three-dimensional definition of geometry and the ways to import that geometry into energy simulation. The obvious answer lies in software interoperability. With the BLIS group of interoperable software one can interactively import building geometry from CAD into EnergyPlus and dramatically reduce the effort otherwise needed for manual input.The resulting savings may greatly increase the value obtained from simulation, the number of projects in which energy performance simulation is used, and expedite decision making in the design process.

  12. The effect of team building practices on safety performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sykes, Marshall T.

    1998-01-01

    CIVINS Team Building creates a working atmosphere where characteristics are developed that enable the team to be effective. Construction projects that have successful safety programs have many of the same characteristics of effective teams. This thesis analyzes whether team building use affects safety performance for different sized projects. Comparisons are also made of safety practices based on team building use. The analysis is centered on the data collected in the 1996 and 1997 Benchma...

  13. Thermal performance of a passive solar office building in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Helder; Silva, António Rocha e; Rodrigues, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the thermal performance of a Passive Solar Office Building in Portugal in winter and summer 2006 and 2007. This Building, called Solar XXI, pretends to be an example of passive design both for heating and cooling. It contains a direct gain system assisted by a solar thermal system for winter conditions. In summer a ground cooling system (buried pipes) is used to cool the building, together with night cooling strategies. It also integrate in the vertical south envelope a Ph...

  14. Methods for implementing Building Information Modeling and Building Performance Simulation approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondrup, Thomas Fænø

    In the present thesis, a number of studies into the adoption of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Building Performance Simulation (BPS) are presented. The thesis has two main goals. The first is to explore the benefits and challenges of adopting (a) BIM as a platform for Architecture......, Engineering, Construction, and Facility Management (AEC/ FM) communication, and (b) BPS as a platform for early-stage building performance prediction. The second is to develop (a) relevant AEC/FM communication support instruments, and (b) standardized BIM and BPS execution guidelines and information exchange...... to improve early-stage building performance prediction. However, because of complex BPS information exchange structures, the BPS process is not always practical, highlighting the need for these structures to be simplified and more, clearly articulated. In this thesis, buildingSMART standard approaches...

  15. Energy Performance of Buildings - The European Approach to Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the European approach to improve sustainability in the building sector, which has a very high potential for considerable reduction of energy consumption in the coming years. By approving the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive the European Union has taken a strong leader...

  16. High-Performance Green Building: Towards a Conceptual Framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available , biomimicry, the Natural Step, eco-efficiency, ecological economics, biophilia, and the precautionary principle” (2013:7). It has been argued (Gross 1996) that building performance is not a well understood or articulated concept in the building and property...

  17. Energy-Performance-Based Design-Build Process: Strategies for Procuring High-Performance Buildings on Typical Construction Budgets: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.

  18. Duct thermal performance models for large commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.

    2003-10-01

    Despite the potential for significant energy savings by reducing duct leakage or other thermal losses from duct systems in large commercial buildings, California Title 24 has no provisions to credit energy-efficient duct systems in these buildings. A substantial reason is the lack of readily available simulation tools to demonstrate the energy-saving benefits associated with efficient duct systems in large commercial buildings. The overall goal of the Efficient Distribution Systems (EDS) project within the PIER High Performance Commercial Building Systems Program is to bridge the gaps in current duct thermal performance modeling capabilities, and to expand our understanding of duct thermal performance in California large commercial buildings. As steps toward this goal, our strategy in the EDS project involves two parts: (1) developing a whole-building energy simulation approach for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings, and (2) using the tool to identify the energy impacts of duct leakage in California large commercial buildings, in support of future recommendations to address duct performance in the Title 24 Energy Efficiency Standards for Nonresidential Buildings. The specific technical objectives for the EDS project were to: (1) Identify a near-term whole-building energy simulation approach that can be used in the impacts analysis task of this project (see Objective 3), with little or no modification. A secondary objective is to recommend how to proceed with long-term development of an improved compliance tool for Title 24 that addresses duct thermal performance. (2) Develop an Alternative Calculation Method (ACM) change proposal to include a new metric for thermal distribution system efficiency in the reporting requirements for the 2005 Title 24 Standards. The metric will facilitate future comparisons of different system types using a common ''yardstick''. (3) Using the selected near-term simulation approach

  19. The impacts of green building strategies on the durability and performance of building enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, P. [RDH Building Engineering Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    All buildings experience some level of failure during their lifetime. As such, it is to be expected that green buildings are likely to experience the same range of durability and building enclosure problems that affect conventional buildings, unless specific measures are taken. The author emphasized that when durability problems are identified in a green building, it is important to fully understand into which category the problems fall. This study used the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system as a comparison framework for evaluating the environmental impact of green design strategies. LEED was also the focus of the study because of concerns that the processes involved in achieving LEED certification may themselves have negative impacts. Each of the following performance categories was reviewed in this paper: sustainable sites; water efficiency; energy and atmosphere; materials and resources; and, indoor environmental quality. The recommended design strategies to achieve each credit were also identified. It was concluded that the main problem in investigating durability issues in relation to green buildings is that so many of the buildings are new and relatively untested. The performance of these buildings will only become apparent over time. As such, ongoing monitoring and verification of performance is needed. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. Danish and Brazilian Modeling of Whole-Building Hygrothermal Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Mendes, Nathan; Grau, Karl

    2006-01-01

    computational analysis of the hygrothermal performance of whole buildings. Such developments have led to new hygrothermal models for whole buildings. The paper gives examples of two such recent developments and will illustrate some calculation results that can be obtained. Finally the paper will mention some......The humidity of rooms and moisture conditions of materials in the enclosure of buildings depend much on each other because of the moisture exchange that takes place over the interior surfaces. These moisture influences also depend strongly on the thermal conditions of indoor spaces and enclosure...... the humidity low and thus reduce the risk of moisture damage in the building enclosure. In either case the indoor humidity has a direct or indirect impact on the energy performance of the HVAC system of a building. To analyze this situation, one could benefit from some recent developments in integrated...

  1. Building America Performance Analysis Procedures: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-06-01

    To measure progress toward multi-year research goals, cost and performance trade-offs are evaluated through a series of controlled field and laboratory experiments supported by energy analysis techniques using test data to calibrate simulation models.

  2. Energy performance of buildings; La certificazione energetica degli edifici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitruzzella, Salvatore [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy). Facolta di architettura; Milone, Daniele [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy). Dipartimento Progetto e Costruzione edilizia

    2005-05-15

    This paper aims to display the issues concerning the enforcement of the European Directive 2002/91/CE on Energy Performance of Building. The objective of the Directive is to promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the Community in order to meet the requirements of Kyoto Agreement. Each Member State will have to bring it into force at latest on 4. of January 2006. The potentialities and characteristics of buildings will be assessed in order to reduce the consumption of energy.

  3. A simplified methd of evaluating the seismic performance of buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashutosh Bagchi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified method of evaluating the seismic performance of buildings. The proposed method is based on the transformation of a multiple degree of freedom (MDOF) system to an equivalent single degree of freedom (SDOF) system using a simple and intuitive process. The proposed method is intended for evaluating the seismic pertormance of the buildings at the intermediate stages in design, while a rigorous method would be applied to the final design. The performance of the method is evaluated using a series of buildings which are assumed to be located in Victoria in western Canada, and designed based on the upcoming version of the National Building Code of Canada which is due to bc published in 2005. To resist lateral loads, some of these buildings contain reinforced concrete moment resisting frames,while others contain reinforced concrete shear walls. Each building model has been subjected to a set of site-specific seismic spectrum compatible ground motion records, and the response has been determined using the proposed method and the general method for MDOF systems. The results from the study indicate that the proposed method can serve as a useful tool for evaluation of seismic performance of buildings, and carrying out performance based design.

  4. A method for optimizing the performance of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Frank

    2006-07-01

    This thesis describes a method for optimizing the performance of buildings. Design decisions made in early stages of the building design process have a significant impact on the performance of buildings, for instance, the performance with respect to the energy consumption, economical aspects, and the indoor environment. The method is intended for supporting design decisions for buildings, by combining methods for calculating the performance of buildings with numerical optimization methods. The method is able to find optimum values of decision variables representing different features of the building, such as its shape, the amount and type of windows used, and the amount of insulation used in the building envelope. The parties who influence design decisions for buildings, such as building owners, building users, architects, consulting engineers, contractors, etc., often have different and to some extent conflicting requirements to buildings. For instance, the building owner may be more concerned about the cost of constructing the building, rather than the quality of the indoor climate, which is more likely to be a concern of the building user. In order to support the different types of requirements made by decision-makers for buildings, an optimization problem is formulated, intended for representing a wide range of design decision problems for buildings. The problem formulation involves so-called performance measures, which can be calculated with simulation software for buildings. For instance, the annual amount of energy required by the building, the cost of constructing the building, and the annual number of hours where overheating occurs, can be used as performance measures. The optimization problem enables the decision-makers to specify many different requirements to the decision variables, as well as to the performance of the building. Performance measures can for instance be required to assume their minimum or maximum value, they can be subjected to upper or

  5. Performance evaluation of a passive solar building in Western Himalayas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandel, S.S. [Passive Solar Building Research Group, State Council for Science, Technology and Environment, B-34, SDA Complex, Kasumpti, Shimla 171 009, Himachal Pradesh (India); Aggarwal, R.K. [Passive Solar Building Research Group, State Council for Science, Technology and Environment, B-34, SDA Complex, Kasumpti, Shimla 171 009, Himachal Pradesh (India); Department of Basic Sciences, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan 173 230 (India)

    2008-10-15

    Under the Passive Solar Building Programme, more than 100 buildings have been constructed in the high altitude region of the Indian State of Himachal Pradesh. A policy decision has been taken by the State that all government/semi-government buildings are to be designed and constructed as per passive solar housing technology. The evaluation studies of some of these buildings have been carried out by our group. In the present study, the thermal performance of a passive solar bank building at Shimla, has been evaluated. This solar building incorporates a heat-collecting wall and a roof-top solar air heater with an electric heating backup, sunspaces and double-glazed windows. The monitoring of the building shows that the solar passive features in the building results in comfortable living conditions. The study shows that the high cost central electric/gas/wood-fired heating systems can be replaced by a low cost solar heating system with backup heaters. This will result not only in reducing higher installation costs of these systems but also the annual running and maintenance costs. It is shown that the solar passive features save electricity required for space heating and reduce the heat losses in the building by about 35%. The strategy to be followed for the propagation of passive solar technology on large scale in this Himalayan State or in any other cold hilly region is also presented. (author)

  6. Building Cost and Performance Metrics: Data Collection Protocol, Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Solana, Amy E.; Spees, Kathleen L.

    2005-09-29

    This technical report describes the process for selecting and applying the building cost and performance metrics for measuring sustainably designed buildings in comparison to traditionally designed buildings.

  7. LED Lighting in a Performing Arts Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J.; Kaye, S. M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Coleman, P. M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Wilkerson, A. M.; Perrin, T. E.; Sullivan, G. P. [Efficiency Solutions, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-31

    At the University of Florida in Gainesville, the DOE Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY program evaluated LED architectural and theatrical lighting in four academic/performance-related spaces within the Nadine McGuire Theatre + Dance Pavilion. Due to a wise choice of products and luminaire light distributions, the change brought significant quality improvements including improved controllability and color.

  8. Building Leadership Talent through Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Most states and districts scramble to provide professional development to support principals, but "principal evaluation" is often lost amid competing priorities. Evaluation is an important method for supporting principal growth, communicating performance expectations to principals, and improving leadership practice. It provides leaders…

  9. Building Investigation: Material or Structural Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof M.Z.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Structures such as roof trusses will not suddenly collapse without ample warning such as significant deflection, tilting etc. if the designer manages to avoid the cause of structural failure at the material level and the structural level. This paper outlines some principles and procedures of PDCA circle and QC tools which can show some clues of structural problems in terms of material or structural performance

  10. Building Performance Simulation tools for planning of energy efficiency retrofits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondrup, Thomas Fænø; Karlshøj, Jan; Vestergaard, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Designing energy efficiency retrofits for existing buildings will bring environmental, economic, social, and health benefits. However, selecting specific retrofit strategies is complex and requires careful planning. In this study, we describe a methodology for adopting Building Performance...... to energy efficiency retrofits in social housing. To generate energy savings, we focus on optimizing the building envelope. We evaluate alternative building envelope actions using procedural solar radiation and daylight simulations. In addition, we identify the digital information flow and the information...... Simulation (BPS) tools as energy and environmentally conscious decision-making aids. The methodology has been developed to screen buildings for potential improvements and to support the development of retrofit strategies. We present a case study of a Danish renovation project, implementing BPS approaches...

  11. 76 FR 35894 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Establishment of the Green Building Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...] Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Establishment of the Green Building Advisory...: Notice. SUMMARY: GSA announces the establishment of the Green Building Advisory Committee (the Committee... strategic plans, products and activities of the Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings...

  12. Dosimetric performance and array assessment of plastic scintillation detectors for stereotactic radiosurgery quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Jean-Christophe; Theriault, Dany; Guillot, Mathieu; Archambault, Louis; Beddar, Sam; Gingras, Luc; Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 94, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: To compare the performance of plastic scintillation detectors (PSD) for quality assurance (QA) in stereotactic radiosurgery conditions to a microion-chamber (IC), Gafchromic EBT2 films, 60 008 shielded photon diode (SD) and unshielded diodes (UD), and assess a new 2D crosshair array prototype adapted to small field dosimetry. Methods: The PSD consists of a 1 mm diameter by 1 mm long scintillating fiber (BCF-60, Saint-Gobain, Inc.) coupled to a polymethyl-methacrylate optical fiber (Eska premier, Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Output factors (S{sub c,p}) for apertures used in radiosurgery ranging from 4 to 40 mm in diameter have been measured. The PSD crosshair array (PSDCA) is a water equivalent device made up of 49 PSDs contained in a 1.63 cm radius area. Dose profiles measurements were taken for radiosurgery fields using the PSDCA and were compared to other dosimeters. Moreover, a typical stereotactic radiosurgery treatment using four noncoplanar arcs was delivered on a spherical phantom in which UD, IC, or PSD was placed. Using the Xknife planning system (Integra Radionics Burlington, MA), 15 Gy was prescribed at the isocenter, where each detector was positioned. Results: Output Factors measured by the PSD have a mean difference of 1.3% with Gafchromic EBT2 when normalized to a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} field, and 1.0% when compared with UD measurements normalized to the 35 mm diameter cone. Dose profiles taken with the PSD crosshair array agreed with other single detectors dose profiles in spite of the presence of the 49 PSDs. Gamma values comparing 1D dose profiles obtained with PSD crosshair array with Gafchromic EBT2 and UD measured profiles shows 98.3% and 100.0%, respectively, of detector passing the gamma acceptance criteria of 0.3 mm and 2%. The dose measured by the PSD for a complete stereotactic radiosurgery treatment is comparable to the planned dose corrected for its SD-based S{sub c,p} within 1.4% and 0.7% for 5 and 35 mm diameter cone

  13. ASPECTS REGARDING THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE ASSURANCE OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilies Radu Ovidiu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to outline the importance of e-logistics programs, based on the new information technologies and successful e-business applications in the case of Romanian companies that activate in the production and services field, namely producers, suppliers or distributors. The redesigning of the logistic system and the reconfiguration of the supply chain management (SCM challenge the firms, especially the small ones, to explore new e-business applications, on the basis of feasibility studies before getting implemented. For a long time, firms considered that commercial changes are the last solution to resolve SCM problems, however many supply chains have been a failure. The explanation resides in the fact that a number of companies that had integrated their supply chains noticed that there was little or no response to the existing requests in this field. Although commercial changes represent an important part of Business to Business programs, actually very few managers understand the way to deal with them, which is integrating them in e-business programs. This paper outlines the companies’ need to develop e-business programs and the importance of these programs for the whole supply chain to obtain performances, taking into account that many firms that get integrated in the supply chain lack the technological capacity to implement electronic means for processing, transmitting and receiving data. One remedy might be their initiative to use Business to Business programs, with the purpose to offer easily configurable optimized networks and interactive solutions based on Web, at competitive prices. This system should have different assisting functions to help the partners of a supply chain, especially the small firms, to easily integrate up-to-date management and informational system refinement methods, in an efficient and effective way. As it has been pointed out in the paper, a major role for the enhancement of SCM performances is

  14. Real-time supervision of building HVAC system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, Natasa

    2008-07-01

    This thesis presents techniques for improving building HVAC system performance in existing buildings generated using simulation-based tools and real data. Therefore, one of the aims has been to research the needs and possibilities to assess and improve building HVAC system performance. In addition, this thesis aims at an advanced utilization of building energy management system (BEMS) and the provision of useful information to building operators using simulation tools. Buildings are becoming more complex systems with many elements, while BEMS provide many data about the building systems. There are, however, many faults and issues in building performance, but there are legislative and cost-benefit forces induced by energy savings. Therefore, both BEMS and the computer-based tools have to be utilized more efficiently to improve building performance. The thesis consists of four main parts that can be read separately. The first part explains the term commissioning and the commissioning tool work principal based on literature reviews. The second part presents practical experiences and issues introduced through the work on this study. The third part deals with the computer-based tools application in design and operation. This part is divided into two chapters. The first deals with improvement in the design, and the second deals with the improvement in the control strategies. The last part of the thesis gives several rules for fault diagnosis developed using simulation tools. In addition, this part aims at the practical explanation of the faults in the building HVAC systems. The practical background for the thesis was obtained though two surveys. The first survey was carried out with the aim to find the commissioning targets in Norwegian building facilities. In that way, an overview of the most typical buildings, HVAC equipment, and their related problems was obtained. An on-site survey was carried out on an example building, which was beneficial for introducing the

  15. Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Anna [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings: Previous research and development of intelligent facades systems has been limited in their contribution towards national goals for achieving on-site net zero buildings, because this R&D has failed to couple the many qualitative requirements of building envelopes such as the provision of daylighting, access to exterior views, satisfying aesthetic and cultural characteristics, with the quantitative metrics of energy harvesting, storage and redistribution. To achieve energy self-sufficiency from on-site solar resources, building envelopes can and must address this gamut of concerns simultaneously. With this project, we have undertaken a high-performance building- integrated combined-heat and power concentrating photovoltaic system with high temperature thermal capture, storage and transport towards multiple applications (BICPV/T). The critical contribution we are offering with the Integrated Concentrating Solar Façade (ICSF) is conceived to improve daylighting quality for improved health of occupants and mitigate solar heat gain while maximally capturing and transferring on- site solar energy. The ICSF accomplishes this multi-functionality by intercepting only the direct-normal component of solar energy (which is responsible for elevated cooling loads) thereby transforming a previously problematic source of energy into a high- quality resource that can be applied to building demands such as heating, cooling, dehumidification, domestic hot water, and possible further augmentation of electrical generation through organic Rankine cycles. With the ICSF technology, our team is addressing the global challenge in transitioning commercial and residential building stock towards on-site clean energy self-sufficiency, by fully integrating innovative environmental control systems strategies within an intelligent and responsively dynamic building envelope. The advantage of being able to use the entire solar spectrum for

  16. Strategic Behavior in Certifying Green Buildings: An Inquiry of the Non-building Performance Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang Hsieh, Lin-Han; Noonan, Douglas

    2017-08-01

    This study determines the magnitude of the market signaling effect arising from Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certification for green buildings and explores the mechanisms behind the signaling effect. Previous studies have shown that signaling or marketability plays an important role in the pursuit for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and equivalent green-building certification. By analyzing all new construction projects receiving Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certification from 2000 to 2012 in the US, this study estimates the relative importance of `green' signaling. This broad perspective using project-level data enables an analysis of some drivers of signaling and the pursuit of marketing benefits. The roles of local competition and market conditions, as well as municipal regulations are examined, especially as they differ between types of building owners (e.g., for-profit firms, governments, nonprofits). The results indicate that the non-building performance value—value captured by Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design signals above and beyond the specific building attributes that Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certifies—dominates the attainment of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design scores around certification tier thresholds. Further, strong evidence of spatial clustering of this non-building performance value for some owner types indicates that for-profit owners may be more responsive to local competition than non-profit owners. Local legislative mandates predict greater signaling intensity by government-owned buildings, as expected, but for-profit-owned projects tend to signal less, even after controls for local conditions. The results highlight the importance of local conditions, including peer effects and regulations, in driving non-building performance values across a wide range of green buildings.

  17. Strategic Behavior in Certifying Green Buildings: An Inquiry of the Non-building Performance Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang Hsieh, Lin-Han; Noonan, Douglas

    2017-08-01

    This study determines the magnitude of the market signaling effect arising from Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certification for green buildings and explores the mechanisms behind the signaling effect. Previous studies have shown that signaling or marketability plays an important role in the pursuit for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and equivalent green-building certification. By analyzing all new construction projects receiving Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certification from 2000 to 2012 in the US, this study estimates the relative importance of 'green' signaling. This broad perspective using project-level data enables an analysis of some drivers of signaling and the pursuit of marketing benefits. The roles of local competition and market conditions, as well as municipal regulations are examined, especially as they differ between types of building owners (e.g., for-profit firms, governments, nonprofits). The results indicate that the non-building performance value-value captured by Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design signals above and beyond the specific building attributes that Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certifies-dominates the attainment of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design scores around certification tier thresholds. Further, strong evidence of spatial clustering of this non-building performance value for some owner types indicates that for-profit owners may be more responsive to local competition than non-profit owners. Local legislative mandates predict greater signaling intensity by government-owned buildings, as expected, but for-profit-owned projects tend to signal less, even after controls for local conditions. The results highlight the importance of local conditions, including peer effects and regulations, in driving non-building performance values across a wide range of green buildings.

  18. Key Performance Indicator of Building Maintenance and Its Effect on the Building Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Othuman Mydin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Building maintenance is considered as one of the national agenda. Multitude barriers received by the services providers have undergone various difficulties in satisfying public interest have been progressively resolved as a sign towards becoming a more developed country. In real practice, building maintenance is the thing which we mostly tolerate. If the building is able to weather the elements, we may with delay taking action on it. Most buildings are always treated with ‘ad-hoc’ maintenance. In some instances, the building disrepair will wait until complaints are made before any repair work is done. It shows that the situation is not considered critical as it may. Maintenance is still being practiced in improper procedure by the maintenance managers which subsequently caused bad impacts to the facilities and the services provided. It can be seen that the managers prefer carrying out reactive maintenance works rather than proactive works and at times do not consider the clients satisfaction and also the performance of services. This paper will focus on some important elements of building maintenance and its relation to building performance holistically.

  19. [Quality assurance in interventional cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülker, H

    2009-10-01

    Quality assurance in clinical studies aiming at approval of pharmaceutical products is submitted to strict rules, controls and auditing regulations. Comparative instruments to ensure quality in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are not available in interventional cardiology, likewise in other fields of cardiovascular medicine. Quality assurance simply consists of "quality registers" with basic data not externally controlled. Based on the experiences of clinical studies and their long history of standardization it is assumed that these data may be severely flawed thus being inappropriate to set standards for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The precondition for quality assurance are quality data. In invasive coronary angiography and intervention medical indications, the decision making process interventional versus surgical revascularization, technical performance and after - care are essential aspects affecting quality of diagnostics and therapy. Quality data are externally controlled data. To collect quality data an appropriate infrastructure is a necessary precondition which is not existent. For an appropriate infrastructure investments have to be done both to build up as well as to sustain the necessary preconditions. As long as there are no infrastructure and no investments there will be no "quality data". There exist simply registers of data which are not proved to be a basis for significant assurance and enhancement in quality in interventional coronary cardiology. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  20. Sustainable construction building performance simulation and asset and maintenance management

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of recent research works that highlight best practice solutions, case studies and practical advice on the implementation of sustainable construction techniques. It includes a set of new developments in the field of building performance simulation, building sustainability assessment, sustainable management, asset and maintenance management and service-life prediction. Accordingly, the book will appeal to a broad readership of professionals, scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties.

  1. Building envelope influence on the annual energy performance in office buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmati Norbert L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to determine the quantitative influence of building envelope on the annual heating and cooling energy demand in office buildings demonstrated on a reference office-tower building located in Novi Sad, Serbia. The investigation intended to find preferable and applicable solutions for energy performance improvement in currently inefficient office buildings. A comparative and evaluative analysis was performed among the heating energy expenses and simulated values from the multi-zone model designed in EnergyPlus engine. The research determines an improved window to wall ratio using dynamic daylight simulation and presents the influence of glazing parameters (U-value, Solar heat gain coefficient - SHGC on the annual energy performance. Findings presented window to wall ratio reduction down to 30% and point out the significance of the SHGC parameter on the overall energy performance of buildings with high internal loads. The calculation of the air-ventilation energy demand according to EN 15251 is included respectively. Results offer effective methods for energy performance improvement in temperate climate conditions.

  2. An Examination of the Performance Based Building Code on the Design of a Commercial Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Greenwood

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Building Code of Australia (BCA is the principal code under which building approvals in Australia are assessed. The BCA adopted performance-based solutions for building approvals in 1996. Performance-based codes are based upon a set of explicit objectives, stated in terms of a hierarchy of requirements beginning with key general objectives. With this in mind, the research presented in this paper aims to analyse the impact of the introduction of the performance-based code within Western Australia to gauge the effect and usefulness of alternative design solutions in commercial construction using a case study project. The research revealed that there are several advantages to the use of alternative designs and that all parties, in general, are in favour of the performance-based building code of Australia. It is suggested that change in the assessment process to streamline the alternative design path is needed for the greater use of the performance-based alternative. With appropriate quality control measures, minor variations to the deemed-to-satisfy provisions could easily be managed by the current and future building surveying profession.

  3. Residential building thermal performance energy efficiency in Yangtze River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王厚华; 庄燕燕; 吴伟伟

    2009-01-01

    Using energy consumption software VisualDOE4.0,simulation was carried out on the energy consumption of a typical residential building in Yangtze River basin,with a focus on thermal performance of envelope each component and application of total heating recovery equipment. The effects of thermal performance of building envelope each component on energy efficiency ratio were analyzed. Comprehensive measures schemes of energy saving were designed by the orthogonal experiment. The energy efficiency ratios of different envelopes combination schemes were gained. Finally,the optimize combination scheme was confirmed. With the measurement dates,the correctness of the simulation dates was completely verified.

  4. Building and managing high performance, scalable, commodity mass storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekashman, John

    1998-01-01

    The NAS Systems Division has recently embarked on a significant new way of handling the mass storage problem. One of the basic goals of this new development are to build systems at very large capacity and high performance, yet have the advantages of commodity products. The central design philosophy is to build storage systems the way the Internet was built. Competitive, survivable, expandable, and wide open. The thrust of this paper is to describe the motivation for this effort, what we mean by commodity mass storage, what the implications are for a facility that performs such an action, and where we think it will lead.

  5. The impact of roofing material on building energy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Ali

    The last decade has seen an increase in the efficient use of energy sources such as water, electricity, and natural gas as well as a variety of roofing materials, in the heating and cooling of both residential and commercial infrastructure. Oil costs, coal and natural gas prices remain high and unstable. All of these instabilities and increased costs have resulted in higher heating and cooling costs, and engineers are making an effort to keep them under control by using energy efficient building materials. The building envelope (that which separates the indoor and outdoor environments of a building) plays a significant role in the rate of building energy consumption. An appropriate architectural design of a building envelope can considerably lower the energy consumption during hot summers and cold winters, resulting in reduced HVAC loads. Several building components (walls, roofs, fenestration, foundations, thermal insulation, external shading devices, thermal mass, etc.) make up this essential part of a building. However, thermal insulation of a building's rooftop is the most essential part of a building envelope in that it reduces the incoming "heat flux" (defined as the amount of heat transferred per unit area per unit time from or to a surface) (Sadineni et al., 2011). Moreover, more than 60% of heat transfer occurs through the roof regardless of weather, since a roof is often the building surface that receives the largest amount of solar radiation per square annually (Suman, and Srivastava, 2009). Hence, an argument can be made that the emphasis on building energy efficiency has influenced roofing manufacturing more than any other building envelope component. This research project will address roofing energy performance as the source of nearly 60% of the building heat transfer (Suman, and Srivastava, 2009). We will also rank different roofing materials in terms of their energy performance. Other parts of the building envelope such as walls, foundation

  6. Environmental performance of green building code and certification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sangwon; Tomar, Shivira; Leighton, Matthew; Kneifel, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential life-cycle environmental impact reduction of three green building code and certification (GBCC) systems: LEED, ASHRAE 189.1, and IgCC. A recently completed whole-building life cycle assessment (LCA) database of NIST was applied to a prototype building model specification by NREL. TRACI 2.0 of EPA was used for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). The results showed that the baseline building model generates about 18 thousand metric tons CO2-equiv. of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and consumes 6 terajoule (TJ) of primary energy and 328 million liter of water over its life-cycle. Overall, GBCC-compliant building models generated 0% to 25% less environmental impacts than the baseline case (average 14% reduction). The largest reductions were associated with acidification (25%), human health-respiratory (24%), and global warming (GW) (22%), while no reductions were observed for ozone layer depletion (OD) and land use (LU). The performances of the three GBCC-compliant building models measured in life-cycle impact reduction were comparable. A sensitivity analysis showed that the comparative results were reasonably robust, although some results were relatively sensitive to the behavioral parameters, including employee transportation and purchased electricity during the occupancy phase (average sensitivity coefficients 0.26-0.29).

  7. Assurance Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-26

    2015 Carnegie Mellon University Assurance Cases Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Charles B...1. REPORT DATE 26 JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assurance Cases 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER... Assurance Cases Charles B. Weinstock, January 2015 © 2015 Carnegie Mellon University Copyright 2015 Carnegie Mellon University This material is based upon

  8. Real-time supervision of building HVAC system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, Natasa

    2008-07-01

    This thesis presents techniques for improving building HVAC system performance in existing buildings generated using simulation-based tools and real data. Therefore, one of the aims has been to research the needs and possibilities to assess and improve building HVAC system performance. In addition, this thesis aims at an advanced utilization of building energy management system (BEMS) and the provision of useful information to building operators using simulation tools. Buildings are becoming more complex systems with many elements, while BEMS provide many data about the building systems. There are, however, many faults and issues in building performance, but there are legislative and cost-benefit forces induced by energy savings. Therefore, both BEMS and the computer-based tools have to be utilized more efficiently to improve building performance. The thesis consists of four main parts that can be read separately. The first part explains the term commissioning and the commissioning tool work principal based on literature reviews. The second part presents practical experiences and issues introduced through the work on this study. The third part deals with the computer-based tools application in design and operation. This part is divided into two chapters. The first deals with improvement in the design, and the second deals with the improvement in the control strategies. The last part of the thesis gives several rules for fault diagnosis developed using simulation tools. In addition, this part aims at the practical explanation of the faults in the building HVAC systems. The practical background for the thesis was obtained though two surveys. The first survey was carried out with the aim to find the commissioning targets in Norwegian building facilities. In that way, an overview of the most typical buildings, HVAC equipment, and their related problems was obtained. An on-site survey was carried out on an example building, which was beneficial for introducing the

  9. 77 FR 43084 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... available for download from the Office of Federal High-Performance Green Building Web site Library at-- http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/117699 . The Facilities Management Institute, FMI.innovations.gov....innovations.gov (available 08/01/ 2012), an open site where the public, Federal agencies,...

  10. Building America System Research Results. Innovations for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-05-01

    This report provides a summary of key lessons learned from the first 10 years of the Building America program and also included a summary of the future challenges that must be met to reach the program’s long term performance goals.

  11. Comfort Indicators for the Assessment of Indoor Environmental Building Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Bendtsen, A.; Sørensen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor environmental building performance assessment requires efficient indicators of the indoor comfort. In order to be effective and useful the comfort indicators must be able to include the temporal variation of indoor comfort as well as the degree of discomfort perceived by the occupants....... This paper discusses and presents a number of comfort indicators that includes both the temporal variation and the degree of discomfort in the calculations. A test case comprising a ventilated office building is used to show the application of the various comfort indices. It is found that the new comfort...... indices provide substantially new information and constitute much better decision tools....

  12. Performance evaluation of the Solar Building Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The general performance of the NASA Solar Building Test Facility (SBTF) and its subsystems and components over a four year operational period is discussed, and data are provided for a typical one year period. The facility consists of a 4645 sq office building modified to accept solar heated water for operation of an absorption air conditioner and a baseboard heating system. An adjoining 1176 sq solar flat plate collector field with a 114 cu tank provides the solar heated water. The solar system provided 57 percent of the energy required for heating and cooling on an annual basis. The average efficiency of the solar collectors was 26 percent over a one year period.

  13. Comparison of user performance when applying system identification for assessment of the energy performance of building components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Androutsopoulos, A. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), Buildings Department, 19th km Marathonos Av., 190 09 Pikermi (Greece); Bloem, J.J. [Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Renewable Energies Unit, Via E. Fermi 1, TP 450, I-21020 Ispra (Italy); Dijk, H.A.L. van [TNO, Department of Building Physics, Indoor Climate and Systems, P.O. Box 49, 2600 AA Delft (Netherlands); Baker, P.H. [Centre for Research on Indoor Climate and Health, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    The application of system identification techniques to the energy performance assessment of buildings and building components requires a high level of knowledge of physical and mathematical processes. This factor, combined with the quality of the data, the description of the monitoring procedure and test environment, together with the experience of the user of the analysis software itself, can produce varying results from different users when applying different models and software packages. Past international system identification competitions (1994 and 1996) demonstrated the spread in results that can be expected regarding the application of different models and techniques to the same benchmark data. The PASLINK EEIG has attempted to consolidate and strengthen knowledge and expertise of system identification techniques within the grouping and also ensure that data analysis meets minimum quality levels. This paper compares the spread in results obtained during the previous competitions to that obtained during the workshops carried out by the PASLINK EEIG following 10 years of networking activities in the field. The objective is to identify the extent to which the networking activities have strengthened the position of the individual teams working in the field and to identify the areas where quality assurance is met and, furthermore, where further improvements can be made. A direct comparison of the quality of results obtained during data analysis from the previous decade is made with recent results after a significant period of collaboration and networking activities. (author)

  14. Best Practices Guide for High-Performance Indian Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Reshma [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sartor, Dale [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This document provides best practice guidance and energy- efficiency recommendations for the design, construction, and operation of high-­performance office buildings in India. Through a discussion of learnings from exemplary projects and inputs from experts, it provides recommendations that can potentially help achieve (1) enhanced working environments, (2) economic construction/faster payback, (3) reduced operating costs, and (4) reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It also provides ambitious (but achievable) energy performance benchmarks, both as adopted targets during building modeling (design phase) and during measurement and verification (operations phase). These benchmarks have been derived from a set of representative best-in-class office buildings in India. The best practices strategies presented in this guide would ideally help in delivering high-­performance in terms of a triad—of energy efficiency, cost efficiency, and occupant comfort and well-­being. These best practices strategies and metrics should be normalized—that is, corrected to account for building characteristics, diversity of operations, weather, and materials and construction methods.

  15. Data Preparation Process for the Buildings Performance Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Travis; Dunn, Laurel; Mercado, Andrea; Brown, Richard E.; Mathew, Paul

    2014-06-30

    The Buildings Performance Database (BPD) includes empirically measured data from a variety of data sources with varying degrees of data quality and data availability. The purpose of the data preparation process is to maintain data quality within the database and to ensure that all database entries have sufficient data for meaningful analysis and for the database API. Data preparation is a systematic process of mapping data into the Building Energy Data Exchange Specification (BEDES), cleansing data using a set of criteria and rules of thumb, and deriving values such as energy totals and dominant asset types. The data preparation process takes the most amount of effort and time therefore most of the cleansing process has been automated. The process also needs to adapt as more data is contributed to the BPD and as building technologies over time. The data preparation process is an essential step between data contributed by providers and data published to the public in the BPD.

  16. Impact of the U.S. National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS) on Building Energy Performance Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2007-08-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Building Sciences (NIBS) started the development of the National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS). Its goal is to define standard sets of data required to describe any given building in necessary detail so that any given AECO industry discipline application can find needed data at any point in the building lifecycle. This will include all data that are used in or are pertinent to building energy performance simulation and analysis. This paper describes the background that lead to the development of NBIMS, its goals and development methodology, its Part 1 (Version 1.0), and its probable impact on building energy performance simulation and analysis.

  17. Energy Performance of Verandas in the Building Retrofit Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossano Albatici

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Passive solar elements for both direct and indirect gains, are systems used to maintain a comfortable living environment while saving energy, especially in the building energy retrofit and adaptation process. Sunspaces, thermal mass and glazing area and orientation have been often used in the past to guarantee adequate indoor conditions when mechanical devices were not available. After a period of neglect, nowadays they are again considered as appropriate systems to help face environmental issues in the building sector, and both international and national legislation takes into consideration the possibility of including them in the building planning tools, also providing economic incentives. Their proper design needs dynamic simulation, often difficult to perform and time consuming. Moreover, results generally suffer from several uncertainties, so quasi steady-state procedures are often used in everyday practice with good results, but some corrections are still needed. In this paper, a comparative analysis of different solutions for the construction of verandas in an existing building is presented, following the procedure provided by the slightly modified and improved Standard EN ISO 13790:2008. Advantages and disadvantages of different configurations considering thermal insulation, windows typology and mechanical ventilation systems are discussed and a general intervention strategy is proposed. The aim is to highlight the possibility of using sunspaces in order to increase the efficiency of the existing building stock, considering ease of construction and economic viability.

  18. Building communities through performance: emerging approaches to interculturality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Roger

    2009-08-01

    Changing definitions of culture are modifying approaches to intercultural education and training. This paper outlines the principal features of these emerging models for innovation and capacity building in communities. Semiotics provides a theoretical frame for the interdisciplinary analysis of research on cultural competency, especially regarding recent studies on "cultural intelligence", performance and creativity. Interdisciplinary research on cultural literacy is shifting from cultural knowledge to intercultural know-how. This know-how translates into the individual's capacity to innovate and illustrates the influence of culture on individual and group performance. Research on cultural intelligence, performance and creativity provides promising new models for capacity building in communities. These approaches constitute a synthesis of previous research on cultural competency and provide new avenues for innovative social action through intercultural exchange.

  19. Performance profiles of exterior fire protective building envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarnskjold Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fire protective envelope of any building consists of multiple elements with widely differing properties relating to a fire, such as glass, roof tiles and sheathings, wood cladding, gaps and openings. Where resistance to an exterior fire is required, all elements should be verified to provide a comparable risk of burn-through. Elements are rated by either the material response to fire or fire resistance. In Europe, cladding sheets and wall membranes can be rated by K classes, which effectively include a measure of the time to burn through. A determination of burn-through time of each element of a specific building envelope should be obtained. A design tool to verify the performance of a building's fire protective envelope has been developed. In this paper, a general description of passive elements of the envelope, which should be included in a risk assessment tool such as an index method, is presented. An illustrative approach to visualise the profiles for areas densely spaced structures where an exterior fire may trigger building-to-building fire spread is also included. The research is based on the hypothesis that a relatively subtle and pointed upgrading of an exterior building envelope will severely reduce the speed of building-to-building fire spread, thus allowing firefighting efforts to get on top of the situation. For a burning structure to expose other buildings to fire, the fire has to settle, which leads to a burn-through to the inside. Once inside, an enclosure fire needs to develop and burn through the roof or break one or more large window panes. It is estimated that a 5–10 min delay for a structure to expose other structures to fire can be sufficient to avoid loss of multiple structures. A 10–50 min burn-through time allows for an extended intervention by the fire brigade, which is significant in rural areas. A fire protective envelope may prevent an exterior fire from penetrating the protective envelope at all and the

  20. Numerical methods for optimizing the performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The many different parties that influence design and control decisions for buildings, such as building owners, users, architects, consulting engineers, contractors, etx. may have different and to some extent conradicting requirements to buildings. Furthermore, national building regulations specif...

  1. Improving Building Performance through Integrating Constructability in the Design Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzat Othman, Ayman Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The traditional procurment approaches commonly adopted in construction projects and the involvement of multitude of various project participants with diverse objectives, skills and interests tended to separate design from construction.This separation obstructs contractors from providing designers with construction feedback and suggestions for design improvement, which ultimately hampers the improvement of building performance. Because of the importance of the design phase and the vit...

  2. Design, Monitoring, and Validation of a High Performance Sustainable Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    system Rainwater collected by roof and drains to the 10,000 gallon cistern below grade Not applicable Sewage conveyance Rainwater Potable water...rating system was used as the baseline for the whole building design objectives. Monitoring data for energy and water use were collected at the...performance metrics that address the research needs and sustainable design goals of the project b. establish data collection system that allows for data

  3. Software quality assurance handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    There are two important reasons for Software Quality Assurance (SQA) at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD): First, the benefits from SQA make good business sense. Second, the Department of Energy has requested SQA. This handbook is one of the first steps in a plant-wide implementation of Software Quality Assurance at KCD. The handbook has two main purposes. The first is to provide information that you will need to perform software quality assurance activities. The second is to provide a common thread to unify the approach to SQA at KCD. 2 figs.

  4. Realizing High-Performance Buildings; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-02

    High-performance buildings (HPBs) are exceptional examples of both design and practice. Their energy footprints are small, and these are buildings that people want to work in because of their intelligent structure, operations, and coincident comfort. However, the operation of most buildings, even ones that are properly constructed and commissioned at the start, can deviate significantly from the original design intent over time, particularly due to control system overrides and growing plug and data center loads. With early planning for systems such as submetering and occupant engagement tools, operators can identify and remedy the problems. This guide is a primer for owners and owners’ representatives who are pursuing HPBs. It describes processes that have been successful in the planning, procurement, and operation of HPBs with exceptional energy efficiency. Much of the guidance offered results from a series of semi-structured conference calls with a technical advisory group of 15 owners and operators of prominent HPBs in the United States. The guide provides a prescription for planning, achieving, and maintaining an HPB. Although the guide focuses on the operations stage of buildings, many of the operations practices are specified during the planning stage.

  5. Thermal performance of integration of solar collectors and building envelopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国清; 龚小辉; 曹双华

    2009-01-01

    The integration of building with solar collector was studied. The theoretical model of integration of building envelopes and flat plate solar collectors was set up and the thermal performance of integration was studied in winter and summer,and compared to envelopes without solar collectors. The results show that the solar collection efficiency is raised in the integration of building envelopes and solar collectors with the air layer doors closed. This is true whether in winter or summer. The increment is higher as the inlet water temperature increases or the ambient temperature is low. In winter,the heat loss is significantly reduced through integration of the building envelopes and solar collectors with the closed air layer doors. The integration with the open air layer door is worse than that without collectors. In summer,the heat gains of the integration of envelopes and solar collectors are more obviously reduced than envelopes without collectors,the integration with the open air layer door is a little better than the closed one,but the difference is very small.

  6. Review on thermal performance of phase change energy storage building envelope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; ZHANG YinPing; XlAO Wei; ZENG RuoLang; ZHANG QunLi; DI HongFa

    2009-01-01

    Improving the thermal performance of building envelope is an important way to save building energy consumption. The phase change energy storage building envelope is helpful to effective use of renewable energy, reducing building operational energy consumption, increasing building thermal comfort, and reducing environment pollution and greenhouse gas emission. This paper presents the concept of ideal energy-saving building envelope, which is used to guide the building envelope material selection and thermal performance design. This paper reviews some available researches on phase change building material and phase change energy storage building envelope. At last, this paper presents some current problems needed further research.

  7. Performative Microforests: Investigating the potential benefits of integrating spatial vegetation environments into buildings, in regards to the performance of buildings, their occupants + local ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangone, G.

    2015-01-01

    The design of office buildings can substantially improve the building, social, and ecological performance of office building projects. However, existing research on improving the performance of work environments has primarily focused on identifying and evaluating methods to make work environments le

  8. Performance of a large building rainwater harvesting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S; Memon, F A; Butler, D

    2012-10-15

    Rainwater harvesting is increasingly becoming an integral part of the sustainable water management toolkit. Despite a plethora of studies modelling the feasibility of the utilisation of rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems in particular contexts, there remains a significant gap in knowledge in relation to detailed empirical assessments of performance. Domestic systems have been investigated to a limited degree in the literature, including in the UK, but there are few recent longitudinal studies of larger non-domestic systems. Additionally, there are few studies comparing estimated and actual performance. This paper presents the results of a longitudinal empirical performance assessment of a non-domestic RWH system located in an office building in the UK. Furthermore, it compares actual performance with the estimated performance based on two methods recommended by the British Standards Institute - the Intermediate (simple calculations) and Detailed (simulation-based) Approaches. Results highlight that the average measured water saving efficiency (amount of mains water saved) of the office-based RWH system was 87% across an 8-month period, due to the system being over-sized for the actual occupancy level. Consequently, a similar level of performance could have been achieved using a smaller-sized tank. Estimated cost savings resulted in capital payback periods of 11 and 6 years for the actual over-sized tank and the smaller optimised tank, respectively. However, more detailed cost data on maintenance and operation is required to perform whole life cost analyses. These findings indicate that office-scale RWH systems potentially offer significant water and cost savings. They also emphasise the importance of monitoring data and that a transition to the use of Detailed Approaches (particularly in the UK) is required to (a) minimise over-sizing of storage tanks and (b) build confidence in RWH system performance.

  9. 40 CFR 51.363 - Quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality assurance. 51.363 Section 51... Requirements § 51.363 Quality assurance. An ongoing quality assurance program shall be implemented to discover... impede program performance. The quality assurance and quality control procedures shall be...

  10. Building and measuring a high performance network architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, William T.C.; Toole, Timothy; Fisher, Chuck; Dugan, Jon; Wheeler, David; Wing, William R; Nickless, William; Goddard, Gregory; Corbato, Steven; Love, E. Paul; Daspit, Paul; Edwards, Hal; Mercer, Linden; Koester, David; Decina, Basil; Dart, Eli; Paul Reisinger, Paul; Kurihara, Riki; Zekauskas, Matthew J; Plesset, Eric; Wulf, Julie; Luce, Douglas; Rogers, James; Duncan, Rex; Mauth, Jeffery

    2001-04-20

    Once a year, the SC conferences present a unique opportunity to create and build one of the most complex and highest performance networks in the world. At SC2000, large-scale and complex local and wide area networking connections were demonstrated, including large-scale distributed applications running on different architectures. This project was designed to use the unique opportunity presented at SC2000 to create a testbed network environment and then use that network to demonstrate and evaluate high performance computational and communication applications. This testbed was designed to incorporate many interoperable systems and services and was designed for measurement from the very beginning. The end results were key insights into how to use novel, high performance networking technologies and to accumulate measurements that will give insights into the networks of the future.

  11. Research in Geant4 electromagnetic physics design, and its effects on computational performance and quality assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Augelli, M; Hauf, S; Kim, C H; Kuster, M; Pia, M G; Filho, P Queiroz; Quintieri, L; Saracco, P; Santos, D Souza; Weidenspointner, G; Zoglauer, A

    2009-01-01

    The Geant4 toolkit offers a rich variety of electromagnetic physics models; so far the evaluation of this Geant4 domain has been mostly focused on its physics functionality, while the features of its design and their impact on simulation accuracy, computational performance and facilities for verification and validation have not been the object of comparable attention yet, despite the critical role they play in many experimental applications. A new project is in progress to study the application of new design concepts and software techniques in Geant4 electromagnetic physics, and to evaluate how they can improve on the current simulation capabilities. The application of a policy-based class design is investigated as a means to achieve the objective of granular decomposition of processes; this design technique offers various advantages in terms of flexibility of configuration and computational performance. The current Geant4 physics models have been re-implemented according to the new design as a pilot project....

  12. Compilation of Quality Assurance Documentation for Analyses Performed for the Resumption of Transient Testing Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2013-11-01

    This is a companion document to the analyses performed in support of the environmental assessment for the Resumption of Transient Fuels and Materials Testing. It is provided to allow transparency of the supporting calculations. It provides computer code input and output. The basis for the calculations is documented separately in INL (2013) and is referenced, as appropriate. Spreadsheets used to manipulate the code output are not provided.

  13. Performance of thermal distribution systems in large commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Carrie, Remi F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); McWilliams, Jennifer [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wang, Duo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Modera, Mark P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-12-08

    This paper presents major findings of a field study on the performance of five thermal distribution systems in four large commercial buildings. The five systems studied are typical single-duct or dual-duct constant air volume (CAV) systems and variable air volume (VAV) systems, each of which serves an office building or a retail building with floor area over 2000 m2. The air leakage from ducts is reported in terms of effective leakage area (ELA) at 25 Pa reference pressure, the ASHRAE-defined duct leakage class CL, and air leakage ratios. The specific ELAs ranged from 0.7 to 12.9 cm2/m2 of duct surface area, and from 0.1 to 7.7 cm2/m2 of floor area served. The ASHRAE-defined duct leakage classes ranged from 34 to 606 for the five systems and systems sections tested. The air leakage ratios were estimated to be up to approximately one-third of the fan-supplied airflow in the constant air volume systems. The specific ELAs and leakage classes indicated that air leakage in large commercial duct systems varied significantly from system to system, and from system section to system section even within the same thermal distribution system. Overall, the duct systems measured were much leakier than the ductwork specified as “unsealed ducts” by ASHRAE. On the other hand, thermal losses from supply ducts induced by conduction (including convection and radiation) were significant, on the scale that was comparable to the losses induced by air leakage in the duct systems. Furthermore, the energy losses induced by leakage and conduction suggested that there exist significant energy savings potentials from duct sealing and duct insulation practice in large commercial buildings.

  14. High Performance Homes That Use 50% Less Energy Than the DOE Building America Benchmark Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes lessons learned from designing, building, and monitoring five affordable, energy-efficient test houses in a single development in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) service area. This work was done through a collaboration of Habitat for Humanity Loudon County, the US Department of Energy (DOE), TVA, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The houses were designed by a team led by ORNL and were constructed by Habitat's volunteers in Lenoir City, Tennessee. ZEH5, a two-story house and the last of the five test houses to be built, provided an excellent model for conducting research on affordable high-performance houses. The impressively low energy bills for this house have generated considerable interest from builders and homeowners around the country who wanted a similar home design that could be adapted to different climates. Because a design developed without the project constraints of ZEH5 would have more appeal for the mass market, plans for two houses were developed from ZEH5: a one-story design (ZEH6) and a two-story design (ZEH7). This report focuses on ZEH6, identical to ZEH5 except that the geothermal heat pump is replaced with a SEER 16 air source unit (like that used in ZEH4). The report also contains plans for the ZEH6 house. ZEH5 and ZEH6 both use 50% less energy than the DOE Building America protocol for energyefficient buildings. ZEH5 is a 4 bedroom, 2.5 bath, 2632 ft2 house with a home energy rating system (HERS) index of 43, which qualifies it for federal energy-efficiency incentives (a HERS rating of 0 is a zero-energy house, and a conventional new house would have a HERS rating of 100). This report is intended to help builders and homeowners build similar high-performance houses. Detailed specifications for the envelope and the equipment used in ZEH5 are compared with the Building America Benchmark building, and detailed drawings, specifications, and lessons learned in the construction and analysis of data gleaned

  15. Straw Performance Studies and Quality Assurance for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Cwetanski, Peter; Orava, Risto

    2006-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is part of the Inner Detector. It is designed as a robust and powerful gaseous detector that provides tracking through individual drift-tubes (straws) as well as particle identification via transition radiation (TR) detection. The straw tubes are operated with Xe-CO2-O2 70/27/3, a gas that combines the advantages of efficient TR absorption, a short electron drift time and minimum ageing effects. The modules of the barrel part of the TRT were built in the United States while the end-cap wheels are assembled at two Russian institutes. Acceptance tests of barrel modules and end-cap wheels are performed at CERN before assembly and integration with the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) and the Pixel Detector. This thesis first describes simulations the TRT straw tube. The argon-based acceptance gas mixture as well as two xenon-based operating gases are examined for its properties. Drift velocities and Townsend coefficients are computed with the he...

  16. High Performance Building Facade Solutions - PIER Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2009-12-31

    Building facades directly influence heating and cooling loads and indirectly influence lighting loads when daylighting is considered, and are therefore a major determinant of annual energy use and peak electric demand. Facades also significantly influence occupant comfort and satisfaction, making the design optimization challenge more complex than many other building systems.This work focused on addressing significant near-term opportunities to reduce energy use in California commercial building stock by a) targeting voluntary, design-based opportunities derived from the use of better design guidelines and tools, and b) developing and deploying more efficient glazings, shading systems, daylighting systems, facade systems and integrated controls. This two-year project, supported by the California Energy Commission PIER program and the US Department of Energy, initiated a collaborative effort between The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and major stakeholders in the facades industry to develop, evaluate, and accelerate market deployment of emerging, high-performance, integrated facade solutions. The LBNL Windows Testbed Facility acted as the primary catalyst and mediator on both sides of the building industry supply-user business transaction by a) aiding component suppliers to create and optimize cost effective, integrated systems that work, and b) demonstrating and verifying to the owner, designer, and specifier community that these integrated systems reliably deliver required energy performance. An industry consortium was initiated amongst approximately seventy disparate stakeholders, who unlike the HVAC or lighting industry, has no single representative, multi-disciplinary body or organized means of communicating and collaborating. The consortium provided guidance on the project and more importantly, began to mutually work out and agree on the goals, criteria, and pathways needed to attain the ambitious net zero energy goals defined by California and

  17. Optimizing the Time Performance of Subcontractors in Building Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy K.W Ng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The main contractors of Hong Kong building projects tend to subcontract most of their work. However, many of the subcontractors complain that they are not being fully utilized due main contractors’ poor site coordination of temporary works and interfacing works and plant supports etc. A list of critical site coordination problems caused by main contractors that had adversely influence to the time performance of subcontractors was prepared. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data to generate multiple regression equations that explain how the critical site coordination problems affected the time performance of different types of subcontractor. The survey results were validated by neural network analysis. Backward elimination method was adopted to identify the ‘most critical’ site coordination problems that enable main contractors to formulate measures to enhance their site management system.

  18. Optimizing the Time Performance of Subcontractors in Building Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D.F Price

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  The main contractors of Hong Kong building projects tend to subcontract most of their work. However, many of the subcontractors complain that they are not being fully utilized due main contractors’ poor site coordination of temporary works and interfacing works and plant supports etc. A list of critical site coordination problems caused by main contractors that had adversely influence to the time performance of subcontractors was prepared. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data to generate multiple regression equations that explain how the critical site coordination problems affected the time performance of different types of subcontractor. The survey results were validated by neural network analysis. Backward elimination method was adopted to identify the ‘most critical’ site coordination problems that enable main contractors to formulate measures to enhance their site management system.

  19. Hygienization performances of innovative sludge treatment solutions to assure safe land spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levantesi, C; Beimfohr, C; Blanch, A R; Carducci, A; Gianico, A; Lucena, F; Tomei, M C; Mininni, G

    2015-05-01

    The present research aims at the evaluation of the hygienization performances of innovative sludge treatment processes applied for the separated treatment of secondary sludge. Namely, two digestion pretreatments (sonication and thermal hydrolysis) and two sequential biological processes (mesophilic/thermophilic and anaerobic/aerobic digestion) were compared to the mesophilic (MAD) and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD). Microbial indicators (Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and Clostridium perfringens spores) and pathogens (Salmonella and enteroviruses), which show different resistances to treatment processes, were monitored in untreated and treated sludge. Overall, microbial load in secondary sludge was shown to be similar or lower than previously reported in literature for mixed sludge. Notably, the anaerobic/aerobic digestion process increased the removal of E. coli and somatic coliphages compared to the simple MAD and always achieved the hygienization requirement (2-log-unit removal of E. coli) proposed by EU Commission in the 3rd Working Document on sludge (April 2000) for the use of treated sludges in agriculture with restriction on their application. The microbial quality limits for the unrestricted use of sludge in agriculture (no Salmonella in 50 g wet weight (WW) and E. coli <500 CFU/g) were always met when thermal digestion or pretreatment was applied; however, the required removal level (6-log-unit removal of E. coli) could not be assessed due to the low level of this microorganism in raw sludge. Observed levels of indicator removal showed a higher resistance of viral particles to thermal treatment compared with bacterial cells and confirmed the suitability of somatic coliphages as indicators in thermal treatment processes.

  20. Critical evaluation of environmental and economic performance of green buildings in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Cheuk-yi; 陳卓兒

    2015-01-01

    Due to the two key drivers, energy crisis and climate change, green buildings has become increasingly important around the world and many building environmental assessment methods have been developed to assess the performance of green buildings. However, it is sometimes criticized that the environmental performance of those certified green buildings may not be guaranteed in real situation. Some green technologies used in green buildings are found to be not cost effective. This study aims to c...

  1. Quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, B.M.; Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the quality assurance and quality control practices of Hanford Site environmental monitoring and surveillance programs. Samples are analyzed according to documented standard analytical procedures. This section discusses specific measures taken to ensure quality in project management, sample collection, and analytical results.

  2. Some analytic models of passive solar building performance: a theoretical approach to the design of energy-conserving buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, D.B.

    1978-11-01

    This paper describes an application of the fundamental methods of physics to solve a problem of environmental and economic interest: the description of the thermal performance of passive solar buildings. Such a description is of great practical interest to building designers; however, this paper is not intended to be of use to architects and engineers in its present form. Its intention is to provide a theoretical basis for understanding passive solar buildings; further effort is needed to develop rules of solar engineering.

  3. Mind the Gap:Predicted vs.Actual Performance of Green Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brett Pollard

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the major North American and Australian sustainability rating tools to determine how they measure building energy performance.It then reviews the major building energy simulation software packages.The paper then details some of the literature surrounding predicted vs.actual energy performance in green buildings,and concludes with an argument for a more performance-orientated ratings regime.

  4. Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance across the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report uses EnergyPlus simulations of each building in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to document and demonstrate bottom-up methods of modeling the entire U.S. commercial buildings sector (EIA 2006). The ability to use a whole-building simulation tool to model the entire sector is of interest because the energy models enable us to answer subsequent 'what-if' questions that involve technologies and practices related to energy. This report documents how the whole-building models were generated from the building characteristics in 2003 CBECS and compares the simulation results to the survey data for energy use.

  5. Boosting Event Building Performance using Infiniband FDR for CMS Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bawej, Tomasz Adrian; Branson, James; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Forrest, Andrew Kevin; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; Nunez Barranco Fernandez, Carlos; Vivian O'Dell; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Schwick, Christoph; Stieger, Benjamin Bastian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Veverka, Jan; Zejdl, Petr

    2014-01-01

    As part of the CMS upgrade during CERN long shutdown period (LS1), the CMS data acquisition system is incorporating Infiniband FDR technology to boost event building performance for operation from 2015 onwards. Infiniband promises to provide substantial increase in data transmission speeds compared to the older 1GE network used during the 2009-2013 LHC run. Several options exist to end user developers when choosing a foundation for software upgrades, including the uDAPL (DAT Collaborative) and Infiniband verbs libraries (OFED). Due to advances in technology, the CMS data acquisition system will be able to achieve the required throughput of 100 kHz with increased event sizes while downsizing the number of nodes by using a combination of 10GE, 40GE and 56 GB Infiniband FDR. This paper presents the analysis and results of a comparison between GE and Infiniband solutions as well as a look at how they integrate into an event building architecture, while preserving the scalability, efficiency and deterministic late...

  6. Medicare: a strategy for quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, K N

    1991-01-01

    This paper has outlined a strategy proposed by an IOM study committee for a quality review and assurance program for Medicare. The committee intended that such a program respond to several major issues, including: the burdens of harm of poor quality of care (poor performance of clinicians in both technical and interpersonal ways, unnecessary and inappropriate services, and lack of needed and appropriate services); difficulties and incentives presented by the organization and financing of healthcare; the state of scientific knowledge; the problems of adversarial, punitive, and burdensome external QA activities and the need to foster successful internal, organization-based QA programs; the adequacy of quality review and assurance methods and tools; and the human and financial resources for quality assurance. In comparison with the existing federal peer review organization program, the IOM's proposed program is intended to focus far more directly on quality assurance, cover all major settings of care, emphasize both a wide range of patient outcomes and the process of care, and have a greatly expanded program evaluation component and greater public oversight and accountability. In laying out the details of such a program, the IOM committee advanced 10 recommendations to support its proposed program. Two of these call for the Secretary of DHHS to support and expand research and educational activities designed to improve the nation's knowledge base and capacity for quality assurance. Finally, the committee emphasized both the extraordinary challenges of quality assurance and the diversity of support for addressing those challenges, noting that patients, providers, and societal agents all have a responsibility in this regard. Building the nation's capacity through additional research and expanded educational efforts is a major cornerstone of the entire enterprise.

  7. Federal R&D Agenda for Net Zero Energy, High-Performance Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    indicate a gap between design intent and construction that results in reduced energy performance (Torcellini et al. 2006). Building energy efficiency is...occupant, building, or community needs and preferences. New technologies that maximize building energy efficiency and minimize operational energy use...including low-income home energy assistance program, weatherization assistance, state energy programs, state building energy efficiency codes incentives and

  8. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  9. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing that shed light on how real-world water usage affects energy saving estimates of high-efficiency water heating systems.

  10. Can High-Performance Equipment Lead to a Low-Performance Building?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonlin, Duane; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2016-08-22

    The performance-based compliance alternative available in most energy codes, intended to provide energy efficiency equivalent to that of prescriptive compliance while allowing innovation and design flexibility, can instead result in sub-standard energy performance in both the short and the long term. The potential deficiencies in modeled buildings originate with subtleties in the energy modeling rules, allowing building systems that consume more energy than their real-world, prescriptively-designed counterparts. This performance gap is exacerbated over subsequent decades as less efficient permanent features of the building remain while elements with shorter lives are regularly upgraded in most buildings. This paper summarizes an investigation into the topic for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the City of Seattle, including identification of the principal deficiencies exploited in the modeling path, and several potential code amendments that could resolve these deficiencies and establish better equivalency between prescriptive and performance compliance paths. The study, focusing on Seattle and Washington State energy codes, offers lessons and implications for other jurisdictions and energy codes.

  11. Building Momentum: National Trends and Prospects for High-Performance Green Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    This report is an outgrowth of the Green Building Roundtable of the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works held in conjunction with the U.S. Green Building Council on April 24, 2002. The roundtable brought together diverse interests to educate members of Congress on green building trends and generated discussion about the economic…

  12. Green certification and building performance: Implications for tangibles and intangibles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devine, A.; Kok, N.

    2015-01-01

    Commercial buildings represent a significant share of global energy consumption. In the general absence of regulation, voluntary labeling and green building certification schemes have been introduced to reflect this externality to building owners and tenants. The implications of such schemes have pr

  13. Building performance simulation in the early design stage: An introduction to integrated dynamic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Designing with building performance simulation feedback in the early design stage has existed since the early days of computational modeling. However, as a consequence of a fragmented building industry building performance simulations (BPSs) in the early design stage are closely related to who is...

  14. Procedure for Measuring and Reporting the Performance of Photovoltaic Systems in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.; Hayter, S.

    2005-10-01

    This procedure provides a standard method for measuring and characterizing the long-term energy performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems in buildings and the resulting implications to the building's energy use. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks for evaluating system performance and verifying that performance targets have been achieved. Uses may include comparison of performance with the design intent; comparison with other PV systems in buildings; economic analysis of PV systems in buildings; and the establishment of long-term performance records that enable maintenance staff to monitor trends in energy performance.

  15. Whole Building Cost and Performance Measurement: Data Collection Protocol Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Spees, Kathleen L.; Kora, Angela R.; Rauch, Emily M.; Hathaway, John E.; Solana, Amy E.

    2009-03-27

    This protocol was written for the Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to be used by the public as a tool for assessing building cost and performance measurement. The primary audiences are sustainable design professionals, asset owners, building managers, and research professionals within the Federal sector. The protocol was developed based on the need for measured performance and cost data on sustainable design projects. Historically there has not been a significant driver in the public or private sector to quantify whole building performance in comparable terms. The deployment of sustainable design into the building sector has initiated many questions on the performance and operational cost of these buildings.

  16. Impact of Air Tightness on the Evaluation of Building Energy Performance in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Šadauskienė

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfil the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD requirements for the reduction of energy consumption, European national requirements have been created for building envelope thermal properties and calculation methodology to determine if building energy efficiency is created. This is however not true in all methodologies. The necessity of building air tightness appears only for new A class buildings, and there are no requirements for air tightness for other building classes. Therefore, the aim of this work is to improve the methodology for the calculation of energy efficiency of buildings, while taking into account the air tightness of the buildings. In order to achieve this aim, the sum energy consumption of investigated buildings was calculated, energy efficiency classes were determined, air tightness of the buildings was measured, and reasons for insufficient air tightness were analyzed. Investigation results show that the average value of air tightness of A energy efficiency class buildings is 0.6 h−1. The results of other investigated buildings, corresponding to B and C energy efficiency classes, show insufficient air tightness (the average n50 value is 6 h−1; herewith, energy consumption for heating is higher than calculated, according to the energy efficiency methodology. This paper provides an energy performance evaluation scheme, under which performed evaluation of energy performance of buildings ensures high quality construction work, building durability, and the reliability of heat-loss calculations.

  17. Success factors of energy performance contracting (EPC) for sustainable building energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) of hotel buildings in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Pengpeng, E-mail: xupp.cn@gmail.com [Department of Building and Real Estate, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chan, Edwin Hon-Wan; Queena Kun Qian [Department of Building and Real Estate, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2011-11-15

    Hotel building is a type of high-energy-consuming building and most existing hotel buildings need energy efficiency improvement in China. Energy performance contracting (EPC) is considered a win-win mechanism to organize building energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) project. However, EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently and many EPCs have not been successful in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. This research aims to develop a set of critical success factors (CSFs) of EPC for sustainable energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) of hotel buildings in China. Semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with practitioners and other professionals were conducted. The findings reveal the relative importance of the 21 number of identified success factors. In order to explore the underlying relationship among the identified critical success factors (CSFs), factor analysis method was adopted for further investigation, which leads to grouping the 21 identified CSFs into six clusters. These are (1) project organization process, (2) EPC project financing for hotel retrofit, (3) knowledge and innovation of EPC, sustainable development (SD), and M and V, (4) implementation of sustainable development strategy, (5) contractual arrangement, and (6) external economic environment. Finally, several relevant policies were proposed to implement EPC successfully in sustainable BEER in hotel buildings. - Highlights: > EPC is a win-win mechanism to organize building energy efficiency retrofit project. > CSFs of EPC mechanism for sustainable BEER of hotel building in China are examined. > Six clusters are extracted from 21 identified CSFs based on factor analysis.

  18. Research Support Facility (RSF): Leadership in Building Performance (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    This brochure/poster provides information on the features of the Research Support Facility including a detailed illustration of the facility with call outs of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Imagine an office building so energy efficient that its occupants consume only the amount of energy generated by renewable power on the building site. The building, the Research Support Facility (RSF) occupied by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) employees, uses 50% less energy than if it were built to current commercial code and achieves the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED{reg_sign}) Platinum rating. With 19% of the primary energy in the U.S. consumed by commercial buildings, the RSF is changing the way commercial office buildings are designed and built.

  19. Quality Assurance Program Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halford, Vaughn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ryder, Ann Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Effective May 1, 2017, led by a new executive leadership team, Sandia began operating within a new organizational structure. National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (Sandia’s) Quality Assurance Program (QAP) was established to assign responsibilities and authorities, define workflow policies and requirements, and provide for the performance and assessment of work.

  20. Marshall Island radioassay quality assurance program an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrado, C.L.; Hamilton, T.F.; Kehl, S.R.; Robison, W.L.; Stoker, A.C.

    1998-09-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed an extensive quality assurance program to provide high quality data and assessments in support of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Program. Our quality assurance objectives begin with the premise of providing integrated and cost-effective program support (to meet wide-ranging programmatic needs, scientific peer review, litigation defense, and build public confidence) and continue through from design and implementation of large-scale field programs, sampling and sample preparation, radiometric and chemical analyses, documentation of quality assurance/quality control practices, exposure assessments, and dose/risk assessments until publication. The basic structure of our radioassay quality assurance/quality control program can be divided into four essential elements; (1) sample and data integrity control; (2) instrument validation and calibration; (3) method performance testing, validation, development and documentation; and (4) periodic peer review and on-site assessments. While our quality assurance objectives are tailored towards a single research program and the evaluation of major exposure pathways/critical radionuclides pertinent to the Marshall Islands, we have attempted to develop quality assurance practices that are consistent with proposed criteria designed for laboratory accre

  1. Experiments and Data for Building Energy Performance Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    in each room, and implement control of the installed electrical heaters. Furthermore a climate station is located right next to the building. The objective of the experiments is to provide data for models of the thermal dynamics of the building. The designs of the experiments is such that the conditions...... with PRBS signals controlling the heaters, and three with thermostatic control....

  2. Predictive performance simulations for a sustainable lecture building complex

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available and office building complex for the East London campus of the University of Fort Hare. The design of the building is both unique and complex, combining wind-driven technologies (an aerofoil) and solar-driven technologies (a Trombe wall) to drive a...

  3. Energy Performance of Hotel Buildings in Lijiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfang Tang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The hotel industry in China has experienced rapid growth in the past ten years and made a considerable contribution to the global tourism economy. This paper focuses on the energy performance of hotel buildings in Lijiang, China. Hotel characteristics, daily operational data, and energy use data were collected by carrying out a survey of 24 hotels. The average annual energy use intensity (EUI of four-, three-, two-, and one-star rated hotels was 180.8 kWh/m2, 113.3 kWh/m2, 74.2 kWh/m2, and 70.2 kWh/m2, respectively. Electricity, as the dominant energy source, accounted for 81% of total energy consumption and was used in the operation of air conditioning, lighting, heating, etc. Pearson correlations between EUI showed that hotel star rating, number of guest rooms, room revenue, and number of workers gave a reasonably strong correlation. A regression-based benchmarking model was established to predict EUI, and a standardization process of EUI was illustrated by statistical analysis.

  4. Impact of UK Building Regulations on design and thermal performance of dwellings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIM; D; 姚润明

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at the progressive impact of UK Building Regulations (Part L) on the energy consumption of dwellings with respect to thermal performance of the building envelope. It provides an overview of building legislation,highlighting progressive improvement in building elemental U-values and compliance methods. The focus centres on Building Regulations from 1965 to 2006,at a time when energy conservation has become an integral component of building control due to environmental concerns. Simulation software is used to compare energy consumption for 5 typical UK dwelling types through a series of case studies which illustrate the rate of impact over recent years.

  5. Building-Wide, Adaptive Energy Management Systems for High-Performance Buildings: Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavala, Victor M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science

    2016-10-27

    Development and field demonstration of the minimum ratio policy for occupancy-driven, predictive control of outdoor air ventilation. Technology transfer of Argonne’s methods for occupancy estimation and forecasting and for M&V to BuildingIQ for their deployment. Selection of CO2 sensing as the currently best-available technology for occupancy-driven controls. Accelerated restart capability for the commercial BuildingIQ system using horizon shifting strategies applied to receding horizon optimal control problems. Empirical-based evidence of 30% chilled water energy savings and 22% total HVAC energy savings achievable with the BuildingIQ system operating in the APS Office Building on-site at Argonne.

  6. Data and Analytics to Inform Energy Retrofit of High Performance Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Yang, Le; Hill, David; Feng, Wei

    2014-01-25

    Buildings consume more than one-third of the world?s primary energy. Reducing energy use in buildings with energy efficient technologies is feasible and also driven by energy policies such as energy benchmarking, disclosure, rating, and labeling in both the developed and developing countries. Current energy retrofits focus on the existing building stocks, especially older buildings, but the growing number of new high performance buildings built around the world raises a question that how these buildings perform and whether there are retrofit opportunities to further reduce their energy use. This is a new and unique problem for the building industry. Traditional energy audit or analysis methods are inadequate to look deep into the energy use of the high performance buildings. This study aims to tackle this problem with a new holistic approach powered by building performance data and analytics. First, three types of measured data are introduced, including the time series energy use, building systems operating conditions, and indoor and outdoor environmental parameters. An energy data model based on the ISO Standard 12655 is used to represent the energy use in buildings in a three-level hierarchy. Secondly, a suite of analytics were proposed to analyze energy use and to identify retrofit measures for high performance buildings. The data-driven analytics are based on monitored data at short time intervals, and cover three levels of analysis ? energy profiling, benchmarking and diagnostics. Thirdly, the analytics were applied to a high performance building in California to analyze its energy use and identify retrofit opportunities, including: (1) analyzing patterns of major energy end-use categories at various time scales, (2) benchmarking the whole building total energy use as well as major end-uses against its peers, (3) benchmarking the power usage effectiveness for the data center, which is the largest electricity consumer in this building, and (4) diagnosing HVAC

  7. Highlighting High Performance Buildings: 4 Times Square, New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-11-01

    4 Times Square is a 48-story environmentally responsible building in New York City and is the first project of its size to adopt standards for energy efficiency, indoor ecology, sustainable materials.

  8. A Model for Sustainable Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) Using Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) Mechanism for Hotel Buildings in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengpeng

    Hotel building is one of the high-energy-consuming building types, and retrofitting hotel buildings is an untapped solution to help cut carbon emissions contributing towards sustainable development. Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) has been promulgated as a market mechanism for the delivery of energy efficiency projects. EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently, and it has not been implemented successfully in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. The aim of this research is to develop a model for achieving the sustainability of Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) in hotel buildings under the Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) mechanism. The objectives include: • To identify a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for measuring the sustainability of BEER in hotel buildings; • To identify Critical Success Factors (CSFs) under EPC mechanism that have a strong correlation with sustainable BEER project; • To develop a model explaining the relationships between the CSFs and the sustainability performance of BEER in hotel building. Literature reviews revealed the essence of sustainable BEER and EPC, which help to develop a conceptual framework for analyzing sustainable BEER under EPC mechanism in hotel buildings. 11 potential KPIs for sustainable BEER and 28 success factors of EPC were selected based on the developed framework. A questionnaire survey was conducted to ascertain the importance of selected performance indicators and success factors. Fuzzy set theory was adopted in identifying the KPIs. Six KPIs were identified from the 11 selected performance indicators. Through a questionnaire survey, out of the 28 success factors, 21 Critical Success Factors (CSFs) were also indentified. Using the factor analysis technique, the 21 identified CSFs in this study were grouped into six clusters to help explain project success of sustainable BEER. Finally, AHP/ANP approach was used in this research to develop a model to

  9. Seismic Performance of High Strength Steel Building Frames

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Civil, no ramo de Construção Metálica e Mista, apresentada ao Departamento de Engenharia Civil da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra In steel building frames under seismic action, the members designed to remain elastic during an earthquake are responsible for the robustness of the structure and prevention of collapse, being characterised by high strength demands. On the other hand, seismic resistant building frames designed as ...

  10. 欧美高等教育质量保障体系建设对我国的启示%The Enlightenment of European and America Higher Education Quality Assurance System Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓鲲

    2012-01-01

      高等教育质量保障体系建设对保障、提高高等学校教育教学质量发挥不可替代的作用。分析借鉴欧美高等教育质量保障体系建设的经验,提出我国高等教育质量保障体系的建设策略是:转变政府职能,加强政府部门的宏观管理,营造创新人才培养的宏观环境;强化高等院校内涵建设、特色发展,深化以学生成长、教师专业发展为中心的内部高等教育保障体系,营造创新人才培养的微观环境;高等教育质量保障体系制定主体多元化,评价主体客观化,提升高等教育质量保障体系管理效能;科学规划高等教育质量保障体系框架,提升我国高等教育人才培养质量%  the construction of higher education quality assurance system plays an irreplaceable role in ensure and improve the quality of Higher Education Teaching. With the analysis of European and America higher education quality assurance system building, the paper pro-poses the construction strategy of China's higher education quality assurance system: transforming government functions, strengthening macro-management of government, creating a macro environment of innovating personnel training; strengthening the connotation construction and characteristic development of colleges and universities; deepening the internal security system of higher education, which takes stu-dent growth and teacher professional development as the center, to create a micro-environment of innovating personnel training; through the diversification of main formulation and the objective of main evaluation of higher education quality assurance system, enhancing the management of higher education quality assurance system; scientifically planning the framework of higher education quality assurance sys-tem to promote the quality of our higher education personnel training.

  11. Energy performance requirements for new buildings in 11 countries from Central Europe. Exemplary comparison of three buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loga, Tobias; Knissel, Jens; Diefenbach, Nikolaus

    2008-12-05

    The objective of the present comparison study is to show which energy efficiency require-ments have to be complied in different European countries when a new building is going to be constructed. For this purpose three Model Buildings were defined: a single-family house, a multi-family house and a school building. For each involved country (or region) the energy quality of the thermal envelope was determined which is necessary in order to just comply with the building code. Due to requirements on the overall energy performance the requested envelope quality usually depends also on the type of heat supply system or energy carrier. Therefore the systems were varied in a parameter study. The main result for each of the three Model Buildings is a comparison table which shows the heat transfer coefficient by transmission (a sort of mean U-value) for the different countries differenti-ated by supply system types. In a final step the primary energy demand according to the German regulation (EnEV 2007) was calculated for every envelope/system combination of the different countries. This allows a comparison of buildings with different supply systems. The study was performed by experts from 11 European member states: Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Denmark, UK, The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France. (orig.)

  12. Performance based building design to ensure building quality: from standardization to LEAN construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Zanchetta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of architectural design is influenced by the standardization activities concerning the construction and the development of tools for the coordination in the design process such as Building Information Modeling. The two disciplines contribute reciprocally to the achievement of the overall quality of the building process. To do so, it is strategic to develop researches on the following aspects: - definition of frameworks for the connection of the building system requirements to space and technology unit that defines it; - development of an inventory of interoperable and compliant technical solutions; - implementation of the discipline of model checking for project validation; and methodologies of comparison between intervention models; - implementation of collaborative environments for verification of compatibility between programs and regulations in order to identify the optimal design solution.

  13. Performance Comparison between Structural Element of Building Systems in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Abdul Kadir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Industrialized Building System (IBS was introduced in Malaysia in 1966, but it failed to establish itself on a continuous basis though there has been a sustained large market for residential projects even since. One of the reasons behind this shortcoming is the lack of scientific data on labor productivity that could convince policy maker. Hence, the objective of this study is to develop a standardized data collection methodology for measuring and comparing the conventional building system and IBS in term of labor productivity, crew size and cycle time. Labor productivity (man hours/m2 is defined as the man hours required to complete the structural element of one unit house. A total of 499 data points were obtained from seven residential projects constructed between January 2003 and April 2004. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA indicated that the labor productivity was significantly different between four structural building systems. The mean labor productivity for the conventional building system was 4.20 man hours/m2 followed by cast in-situ table form (2.70 man hours/m2, cast in-situ half tunnel form (1.88 man hours/m2 and pre-cast concrete system (1.33 man hours/m2. Further, the analysis of crew size indicated that the mean crew size of a conventional building system of 24 workers was significantly different from the IBS of 22 workers. However, the crew size within the IBS was found to be insignificant. The cycle time measured in days per house was found to be significantly different between structural building systems with the conventional building system of 4.9 days, cast in-situ table form of 3.9 days, cast in-situ half tunnel form of 2.9 days and pre-cast concrete system for 2.3 days. The labor productivity obtained from this study could be used as a preliminary guideline for a client or consultant to identify the most appropriate building system for executing a construction project and determining the labor requirement in the construction

  14. Enhancement of Seismic Performance Using Shear Link Braces in a Building Designed Only for Gravity Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniyar, S. U.; Paul, D. K.

    2012-02-01

    The present work attempts to study the behaviour of building designed for gravity loads only under the effect of lateral seismic load. Such a building is generally deficient against lateral forces and need to be retrofitted against lateral earthquake forces. A retrofitting scheme by providing aluminium shear link with chevron braces is suggested to improve its performance. Past earthquakes have shown a great deal of damages to the deficient RC frame buildings designed without any consideration to the lateral earthquake forces. Chevron braces with the aluminium shear link can be implemented as an effective retrofit measure. A comparison of the performance of building initially designed for gravity load only with the retrofitted building using chevron braces with the aluminium shear link is presented in this paper. The behaviour of building is worked out by performing nonlinear static pushover analysis and nonlinear time history analyses. A parametric study has also been carried out to study the effect of shear link and braces on the retrofitted building. The performance of RC building designed for gravity loads only as evaluated from the nonlinear static pushover analysis lies in life safety and collapse prevention range for DBE and MCE level of earthquakes respectively. The same building when retrofitted by using chevron braces with aluminium shear link show improved performance. This device is very simple, economic, effective and can be placed in a building very easily. The dissipation of damaging energy/damage is localised in shear link which can be replaced after a major earthquake.

  15. Harm A. Weber academic center, post-occupancy building performance and comfort perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Keelan P. Kaiser; David M. Ogoli; Malcolm Cook

    2012-01-01

    The Weber Center at Judson University, a mixed mode, naturally ventilated building in a continental climate, has been in operation for just over a year, with initial occupancy in August 2007. This paper compares the design objectives and building performance expectations against the first yearof actual energy consumption in a first of a series of post-occupancy evaluations. The paper contrasts the building performance with general user satisfaction and perceptions of comfort through a post oc...

  16. New Concept for Museum Storage Buildings – Evaluation of Building Performance Model for Simulation of Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Knudsen, Lise Ræder; Kollias, Christos Georgios

    2016-01-01

    is close to be CO2 neutral. The analysis shows very good agreement between simulations and measurements, meaning that the proposed methods can be used for designing museum storage buildings. The analysis also shows, that the weather conditions of previous years, affect the indoor environment...

  17. Performative Microforests: Investigating the potential benefits of integrating spatial vegetation environments into buildings, in regards to the performance of buildings, their occupants + local ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Mangone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The design of office buildings can substantially improve the building, social, and ecological performance of office building projects. However, existing research on improving the performance of work environments has primarily focused on identifying and evaluating methods to make work environments less bad, rather than focusing on how to develop work environments that are positively performing. Moreover, the potential of building projects to perform positively, in terms of economic, social, and ecological performance, remains relatively unexplored in existing research and building projects. To this end, this PhD research project is focused on exploring the positive economic, social, and ecological performance potential of buildings. Specifically, this research project identifies and evaluates the potential economic, social, and ecological performance benefits of integrating microforests into office buildings. Microforests are defined in this book as dynamic, stimulating, cohesive spatial environments that are composed of vegetation and soil layers that mimic the structural, perceptual, and ecological composition of a forest ecosystem, yet are not large enough to reliably provide the myriad of functions of a robust, mature forest ecosystem. This design research focus is based on findings from existing literature that suggest that natural environments and stimuli can provide a diverse range of economic, social, and ecological performance benefits. The Design Research Methodology [DRM], an established research methodology that facilitates the use of diverse research methods in a rigorous, effective manner, is used in this research project to explore and evaluate the performance potential of microforests, by investigating the following sub research questions:How can microforests improve the performance of office buildings?How can microforests improve employee performance + comfort?How can microforests improve the ecological performance of office

  18. [Medical quality assurance today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Robert D

    2008-01-01

    Both the quality and performance of health systems are strongly influenced by the number and the qualification of the professional staff. Quality assurance programs help to analyse causalities which are responsible for medical malpractice. On the basis of the experiences gained by the performance of established Quality Assurance Programs (QAP) in the North Rhine area since 1982 various aspects of the efficiency of these programs will be discussed. The implementation of legal regulations making these programs mandatory is criticised not only for its bureaucratic effect but also for the attempt to exclude professional experts from the interpretation of results. It is recommended to liberalize these regulations in order to facilitate improvement of methods and participation of the medical profession.

  19. Application of Partial Safety Factorsin Building Energy Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Heiselberg, Per; Hesselholt, A.;

    2009-01-01

    In practise many buildings show significant deviation between the predicted annual energy consumption and the actual energy consumption. One of the main reasons for the discrepancy is the difference between the assumptions made during the calculations and the actual conditions including occupants...

  20. Energy Performance Evaluation of a Low-Energy Academic Building: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This paper considers the energy performance analyses conducted to document and verify progress toward the building's design objectives. The authors present and discuss energy performance data and draw lessons that can be applied to improve the design of this and future low-energy buildings.

  1. Development of an Online Toolkit for Measuring Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Performance -- Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na

    2013-03-13

    This study analyzes the market needs for building performance evaluation tools. It identifies the existing gaps and provides a roadmap for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a toolkit with which to optimize energy performance of a commercial building over its life cycle.

  2. Building Better Teams 70 Tools and Techniques for Strengthening Performance Within and Across Teams

    CERN Document Server

    Barner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years in the field of human and organizational development, the approach to team building has moved from problem solving and conflict management to helping work groups and organizations build a foundation of trust, cooperation, and mutual support. Focusing on collaboration rather than resolving conflict,Creating Collaboration: Tools for Building and Strengthening Team and Organizational Performance offers at fresh approach to team building. It provides proven tools for the most common challenges faced by groups, including establishing trust, gaining goal alignment, building co

  3. Energy and financial performance of micro-CHP in connection with high performance buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicre, B.; Buhring, A. [Fraunhofer Inst. fur Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany); Platzer, B. [Chemnitz Technische Univ., Chemnitz (Germany). Fakultat fur Maschinenbau

    2005-07-01

    Micro-Combined Heating and Power plant (mCHP) installations in high performance houses were discussed in relation to energy conservation and cost savings. The effective exploitation of thermal output is crucial to achieving high levels of efficiency in mCHP systems, as they have a limited electrical conversion efficiency. However, high-performance residential buildings have a heat-to-power load ratio that is not well suited to the load ratios of mCHP systems. The results of an annual simulation confirmed that current performance of mCHP systems is not high enough to make them viable with standard high-performance energy converters. It was suggested that integrating a mCHP system into a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system may increase its efficiency. Several integration concepts were described in this paper, and assessed by simulation. A controller model capable of matching the cogeneration system output to electrical demand, thermal demand, economic and environmental criteria was developed and implemented. Three control modes were designed in order to modulate the output power of the plant. The regulating variables were the natural gas mass flow rates and the current density in the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack. SOFC performance data in terms of electrical and thermal efficiency versus fuel input and current density were provided to the controller in the form of fitting curves. The prediction of household electricity consumption was derived from the previous time step value provided by a metering system. A passive house construction was used for the building model. Domestic hot water and electricity profiles were presented, as well as details of space heating. The financial viability of the the mCHP system was also discussed. A preliminary simulation of an HVAC system was presented using a modular simulation environment. Results of the boiler and compact dwelling SOFC ventilation system were presented. It was concluded that an integrated

  4. Thermal mass impact on energy performance of a low, medium and heavy mass building in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Bojan V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy mass materials used in building structures and architecture can significantly affect building energy performance and occupant comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate if thermal mass can improve the internal environment of a building, resulting in lower energy requirements from the mechanical systems. The study was focused on passive building energy performance and compared annual space heating and cooling energy requirements for an office building in Belgrade with several different applications of thermal mass. A three-dimensional building model was generated to represent a typical office building. Building shape, orientation, glazing to wall ratio, envelope insulation thickness, and indoor design conditions were held constant while location and thickness of building mass (concrete was varied between cases in a series of energy simulations. The results were compared and discussed in terms of the building space heating and cooling energy and demand affected by thermal mass. The simulation results indicated that with addition of thermal mass to the building envelope and structure: 100% of all simulated cases experienced reduced annual space heating energy requirements, 67% of all simulated cases experienced reduced annual space cooling energy requirements, 83% of all simulated cases experienced reduced peak space heating demand and 50% of all simulated cases experienced reduced peak space cooling demand. The study demonstrated that there exists a potential for reducing space heating and cooling energy requirements with heavy mass construction in the analyzed climate region (Belgrade, Serbia.

  5. Performance assessment of a programmable five degrees-of-freedom motion platform for quality assurance of motion management techniques in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Keall, Paul; Rice, Adam; Colvill, Emma; Ng, Jin Aun; Booth, Jeremy T

    2017-07-17

    Inter-fraction and intra-fraction motion management methods are increasingly applied clinically and require the development of advanced motion platforms to facilitate testing and quality assurance program development. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a 5 degrees-of-freedom (DoF) programmable motion platform HexaMotion (ScandiDos, Uppsala, Sweden) towards clinically observed tumor motion range, velocity, acceleration and the accuracy requirements of SABR prescribed in AAPM Task Group 142. Performance specifications for the motion platform were derived from literature regarding the motion characteristics of prostate and lung tumor targets required for real time motion management. The performance of the programmable motion platform was evaluated against (1) maximum range, velocity and acceleration (5 DoF), (2) static position accuracy (5 DoF) and (3) dynamic position accuracy using patient-derived prostate and lung tumor motion traces (3 DoF). Translational motion accuracy was compared against electromagnetic transponder measurements. Rotation was benchmarked with a digital inclinometer. The static accuracy and reproducibility for translation and rotation was platform's range met the need to reproduce clinically relevant translation and rotation ranges and its accuracy met the TG 142 requirements for SABR. The range, velocity and acceleration of the motion platform are sufficient to reproduce lung and prostate tumor motion for motion management. Programmable motion platforms are valuable tools in the investigation, quality assurance and commissioning of motion management systems in radiation oncology.

  6. Performance profiles of exterior fire protective building envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The fire protective envelope of any building consists of multiple elements with widely differing properties relating to a fire, such as glass, roof tiles and sheathings, wood cladding, gaps and openings. Where resistance to an exterior fire is required, all elements should be verified to provide a comparable risk of burn-through. Elements are rated by either the material response to fire or fire resistance. In Europe, cladding sheets and wall membranes can be rated by K classes, which effecti...

  7. Thermal Performance of Building Roof with Infrared Reflective Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hui; TAN Hong-wei; KATSUO MIKI; LIU Xiao-yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigated the applicability and effects of infrared reflective coating on energy con-sumption of factory building in hot summer and warm winter zone. It first resorted to theoretical calculation, which demonstrated the beneficial effects of infrared reflective coating on reducing building energy consumption. Then it analyzed a field measurement done on two identical rooms respectively with ordinary coated roof and in-frared reflective coated roof from November 2006 to October 2007, on a 24h basis. The measured data include exterior and interior roof surface temperature, indoor air temperature, and indoor globe temperature. The relat-ed weather data is from a weather station near the measured area. The continuous measurement has been accom-plished in southern China, and the measured data indicate that roof surface temperature and heat gain are signifi-cantly decreased in summer while slight negative effects in winter are induced by adopting infrared reflective coating. Thus it is simple and applicable to reduce building energy consumption in this area by applying infrared reflective coating. Regress equation between reduced roof thermal property, such as surface temperature and heat gain, and reduction in absorbed solar radiation shows their highly linear relationship. Based on the mea-sured data, it is estimated that the reduced power consumption is 3.45 kWh/m2·month in June.

  8. Deficiencies in building envelope performance. Quantitative results with blower-door and thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, G.; Kalender, V.; Heidt, F.D. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Siegen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Air-tightness and lack of thermal bridges are indispensable characteristics of low energy houses and passive solar buildings. Although the German heating demand regulation (Waermeschutzverordnung) does not require a verification as yet, only measurements can give the proof of assured quality. Blower doors are well suited to test the air-tightness of buildings and thermographic records can identify and visualize thermal bridges. A new software-tool was developed to evaluate blower door measurements in accordance with the prescriptions of ISO 9972. Further, a new control of pressure differences across blower doors was developed to enable precise air flow measurements through single, small leakages in low-energy buildings by the balanced fan pressurization method. For quantitative analysis of thermographic pictures an evaluation software package was developed including an algorithm to determine lengths and surface areas of objects. Based on various assumptions and boundary conditions it is possible to determine the relative deviations of local U-values from their mean value. Measurements were carried out at 39 buildings of several construction techniques. Typical examples of commonly occuring thermal bridges and air leakages are rolling shutter boxes, window and floor joints as well as wall sockets. The total heat loss through thermal bridges can be reduced by up to 15% - as shown in simulations - with only few constructive measures. (orig.)

  9. The importance of interior daylight distribution in buildings on overall energy performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenup, P.; Bell, J.M.; Moore, I. [Quensland University of Technoogy, Brisbane (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre

    2001-03-01

    Simulations of daylight distribution within a house show that there can be significant visual discomfort associated with specific sky conditions. Thermal models of the same building, which include simplified daylight calculations and which calculate annual energy performance of the building, do not reflect extreme visual discomfort and high thermal load associated with these sky conditions. These results illustrate the importance of more detailed interior daylight distribution calculations in assessing the thermal and visual comfort of a building, and in developing energy performance ratings for buildings. Some techniques for incorporating more detailed interior daylight distribution calculations in simplified thermal models are discussed. (author)

  10. Software Assurance Using Structured Assurance Case Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Thomas; Boland, Frederick; Fong, Elizabeth; Kass, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Software assurance is an important part of the software development process to reduce risks and ensure that the software is dependable and trustworthy. Software defects and weaknesses can often lead to software errors and failures and to exploitation by malicious users. Testing, certification and accreditation have been traditionally used in the software assurance process to attempt to improve software trustworthiness. In this paper, we examine a methodology known as a structured assurance model, which has been widely used for assuring system safety, for its potential application to software assurance. We describe the structured assurance model and examine its application and use for software assurance. We identify strengths and weaknesses of this approach and suggest areas for further investigation and testing.

  11. Vacuum insulation - Panel properties and building applications. HiPTI - High Performance Thermal Insulation - IEA/ECBCS Annex 39 - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erb, M. (ed.)

    2005-12-15

    This paper takes a look at the properties of vacuum insulation panels (VIP) that have already been developed some time ago for use in appliances such as refrigerators and deep-freezers. Their insulation performance is a factor of five to ten times better than that of conventional insulation. The paper discusses the use of such panels in buildings to provide thin, highly-insulating constructions for walls, roofs and floors. The motivation for examining the applicability of high performance thermal insulation in buildings is discussed, including solutions where severe space limitations and other technical and aesthetic considerations exist. The use of nano-structured materials and laminated foils is examined and discussed. The questions arising from the use of such panels in buildings is discussed and the open questions and risks involved are examined. Finally, an outlook on the introduction of VIP technology is presented and quality assurance aspects are examined. This work was done within the framework of the Task 39 'High Performance Thermal Insulation' of the 'Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems ECBCS' programme of the International Energy Agency IEA.

  12. Calibration and Collaboration: Important Tools to Design high-Performance Affordable Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Snell, John; Helmes, Dan

    2008-03-31

    When new technologies are installed in a building, it is difficult to know how various systems will interact and if the building will perform as well as expected. A widely used technique to verify and quantify the actual energy savings from the energy-efficient features in high-performance buildings is to use the calibrated energy simulation approach. Maverick Gardens Mid-Rise A is a six-story apartment building located in East Boston, Massachusetts. The building was designed and constructed to meet the ENERGY STAR Homes Program rating and the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification. During the design phase, DOE-2.1E energy models for both budget building design and proposed building design were developed by the design team to demonstrate energy savings potential from various energy efficient technologies installed in this high-performance building. When comparing the energy use predicted by the proposed design energy model with utility bills, the design team observed that this building’s actual energy consumption was about one-third of what was estimated from the proposed design model, and therefore requested help from the authors through the U.S. Department of Energy’s Rebuild America Program to calibrate the proposed design energy model. This paper describes the energy simulation calibration approach using short-term metering data and utility bills. Details of the analysis, calibration results and the actual building energy performance are presented. This study also discusses lessons learned during the simulation calibration process and demonstrates the importance of collaboration among design professionals throughout the design, building, and commissioning process, as a way to ensure that high-performing building goals are met.

  13. Performance of masonry buildings during the 20 and 27 December 2007 Bala (Ankara earthquakes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adanur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the performance of masonry buildings during the 20 and 27 December 2007 Bala (Ankara earthquakes. Bala is a township located 50 km southeast from Ankara city in Turkey. The majority of the buildings in the affected region are built in masonry. Most of masonry buildings were formed with random or coursed stone and mud brick walls without any reinforcement. Many of these buildings were damaged or had collapsed. The cracking and failure patterns of the buildings are examined and interpreted according to current provisions for earthquake resistance of masonry structures. The damages are due to several reasons such as poor construction quality and poor workmanship of the buildings. In addition to these reasons, the two earthquakes hit the buildings within seven days, causing progressive damage.

  14. Driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance of buildings: an analysis of energy performance of Swedish buildings, 2000-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglseth, Bente Beckstroem

    2008-06-15

    The building sector is responsible for a substantial part of energy use and green house gas emissions in Europe. This report explores driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance of buildings, using the Swedish building sector as a case. The development of energy performance of buildings in Sweden from 2000 until 2006 is explored by applying a threefold understanding of energy performance of buildings: substitution from fossil fuels to renewable energy, conversion from electrical heating to thermal energy and reduction in energy demand. Three explanatory approaches are used to analyse driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance: the techno-economic approach stresses the physical aspects of infrastructure and technologies, the institutional approach emphasizes the role of institutional factors, while the regulative approach focuses on formal rules and laws. The study concludes that all factors have promoted substitution of fossil fuels with renewable energy, while they have prevented conversion from electrical heating to thermal energy and reduction in energy demand. (author). 95 refs

  15. Listening to school buildings. The performance of school buildings; Luisteren naar schoolgebouwen. Hoe presteren schoolgebouwen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosfeld, G. [BNA Onderzoek, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Juricic, S.; Van Dijken, F.; Boerstra, A. [BBA Binnenmilieu, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krist, R. [ICS adviseurs, Zwolle (Netherlands); Broekhuizen, D.; Verstegen, T.

    2011-06-15

    The aim of the multi-disciplinary research was to analyze user experiences for ten school buildings in the Netherlands: five in secondary education and five in primary education, all in use three to five years. An analysis was made of the indoor climate as well as of user experiences and costs for the period June 2010 - April 2011 [Dutch] Het doel van het multidisciplinaire onderzoek was om gebruikerservaringen te analyseren voor 10 schoolgebouwen in Nederland: vijf in het voortgezet onderwijs en vijf in het basisonderwijs, die 3-5 jaar in gebruik zijn. Er is een analyse gemaakt van het binnenmilieu, gebruikerservaringen en kosten in de periode juni 2010 - april 2011.

  16. Federal High Performance and Sustainable Buildings: Guiding Principles for the Laboratory Support Building (LSB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Jason E.

    2014-09-01

    This report documents the federal Guiding Principles conformance effort for LSB at PNNL. The effort is part of continued progress toward a campus building inventory that is 100% compliant with the Guiding Principles. The report documentation provides a narrative of how the LSB complies with each of the Guiding Principles requirements. These narratives draw from the many sources that are explained in the text and rely on extensive data collection. The descriptions point to each of these sources, providing the reader with specific policies, procedures, and data points.

  17. Web-based remote sensing of building energy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William; Nassiopoulos, Alexandre; Le Cam, Vincent; Kuate, Raphaël; Bourquin, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    The present paper describes the design and the deployment of an instrumentation system enabling the energy monitoring of a building in a smart-grid context. The system is based on a network of wireless low power IPv6 sensors. Ambient temperature and electrical power for heating are measured. The management, storage, visualisation and treatment of the data is done through a web-based application that can be deployed as an online web service. The same web-based framework enables the acquisition of distant measured data such as those coming from a nearby weather station. On-site sensor and weather station data are then adequately treated based on inverse identification methods. The algorithms aim at determining the parameters of a numerical model suitable for a short-time horizon prediction of indoor climate. The model is based on standard multi-zone modelling assumptions and takes into account solar, airflow and conductive transfers. It was specially designed to render accurately inertia effects that are used in a demand-response strategy. All the hardware or software technologies that are used in the system are open and low cost so that they comply with the constraints of on-site deployment in buildings. The measured data as well as the model predictions can be accessed ubiquously through the web. This feature enables to consider a wide range of energy management applications at the disctrict, city or national level. The entire system has been deployed and tested in an experimental office building in Angers, France. It demonstrates the potential of ICT technologies to enable remotely controlled monitoring and surveillance in real time.

  18. Do Certified Buildings Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality and Performance of Office Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Silva, Nuno Alexandre Faria; Wargocki, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of sustainability consciousness, the awareness of stakeholders for high performance buildings has also increased. The concept of green buildings has appeared. Several voluntary environmental rating schemes for buildings were created. Their focus has been energy conservation...... and environmental impacts. The schemes use different credit system for various variables and different approaches to rate indoor environmental quality (IEQ) (Figure 1). It is interesting to examine, whether human related factors are properly addressed in the schemes, especially considering the potential effects...

  19. Occupant performance and building energy consumption with different philosophies of determining acceptable thermal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Andersen, Rune Vinther; Jensen, Kasper Lynge

    2009-01-01

    Based on building energy and indoor environment simulations, this study uses a recently developed method relying on Bayesian Network theory to estimate and compare the consequences for occupant performance and energy consumption of applying temperature criteria set according to the adaptive model...... of thermal comfort and the more conventional PMV model. Simulations were carried out for an example building with two configurations (with and without mechanical cooling) located in tropical, subtropical, and temperate climate regions. Even though indoor temperatures differed significantly between building...

  20. Quality Assurance - Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaarslev, Axel

    1996-01-01

    Gives contains three main chapters:1. Quality Assurance initiated by external demands2. Quality Assurance initiated by internal company goals3. Innovation strategies......Gives contains three main chapters:1. Quality Assurance initiated by external demands2. Quality Assurance initiated by internal company goals3. Innovation strategies...

  1. Development of a Mobile Application for Building Energy Prediction Using Performance Prediction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ri Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Korean government has enforced disclosure of building energy performance, so that such information can help owners and prospective buyers to make suitable investment plans. Such a building energy performance policy of the government makes it mandatory for the building owners to obtain engineering audits and thereby evaluate the energy performance levels of their buildings. However, to calculate energy performance levels (i.e., asset rating methodology, a qualified expert needs to have access to at least the full project documentation and/or conduct an on-site inspection of the buildings. Energy performance certification costs a lot of time and money. Moreover, the database of certified buildings is still actually quite small. A need, therefore, is increasing for a simplified and user-friendly energy performance prediction tool for non-specialists. Also, a database which allows building owners and users to compare best practices is required. In this regard, the current study developed a simplified performance prediction model through experimental design, energy simulations and ANOVA (analysis of variance. Furthermore, using the new prediction model, a related mobile application was also developed.

  2. Satisfaction and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Frontczak, Monika; Schiavon, Stefano;

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines how satisfaction with indoor environmental parameters and building features affects satisfaction and self-estimated job performance. The analyses used subjective responses from around 50, 000 occupants collected mainly in US office buildings using a web-based survey administered...... by the Center for the Built Environment (CBE) over the period of ten years. Overall satisfaction with the workspace significantly improved self-estimated job performance; increased satisfaction with temperature was estimated to provide the greatest improvement in self-estimated job performance, followed...... environmental quality and building design are used, and that they should consider whether comfort or working morale are expected to be improved....

  3. A Tool for Optimizing the Build Performance of Large Software Code Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Voinea, Lucian; Kontogiannis, K; Tjortjis, C; Winter, A

    2008-01-01

    We present Build Analyzer, a tool that helps developers optimize the build performance of huge systems written in C Due to complex C header dependencies, even small code changes can cause extremely long rebuilds, which are problematic when code is shared and modified by teams of hundreds of individu

  4. Thermo Active Building Systems(TABS) - Performance in practice and possibilities for optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub

    The project “Thermo Active Building Systems (TABS) – Performance in practice and possibilities for optimization” was carried out at DTU Byg in the period form 1.9.2012 until 31.12.2014. The aim of the project was to conduct field measurements in modern office buildings equipped with TABS systems...

  5. High-Performance Buildings – Value, Messaging, Financial and Policy Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Molly

    2011-02-22

    At the request of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, an in-depth analysis of the rapidly evolving state of real estate investments, high-performance building technology, and interest in efficiency was conducted by HaydenTanner, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The analysis objectives were • to evaluate the link between high-performance buildings and their market value • to identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to appropriately value and deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings • to summarize financial mechanisms that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a literature review of relevant writings, examination of existing and emergent financial and policy mechanisms, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implications through financial modeling. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Building Technologies Program on policy and program planning for the financing of high-performance new buildings and building retrofit projects.

  6. A Tool for Optimizing the Build Performance of Large Software Code Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Voinea, Lucian; Kontogiannis, K; Tjortjis, C; Winter, A

    2008-01-01

    We present Build Analyzer, a tool that helps developers optimize the build performance of huge systems written in C Due to complex C header dependencies, even small code changes can cause extremely long rebuilds, which are problematic when code is shared and modified by teams of hundreds of

  7. Building Integrated Active Flow Control: Improving the Aerodynamic Performance of Tall Buildings Using Fluid-Based Aerodynamic Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicovich, David

    By 2050 an estimated 9 billion people will inhabit planet earth and almost all the growth in the next 40 years will be in urban areas putting tremendous pressure on creating sustainable cities. The rapid increase in population, rise in land value and decrease in plot sizes in cities around the world positions tall or more importantly slender buildings as the best suited building typology to address the increasingly critical demand for space in this pressing urbanization trend. However, the majority of new tall building urban developments have not followed principles of environmental and/or sustainable design and incentives to innovate, both technological and economic, are urgently required. The biggest climatic challenge to the design, construction and performance of tall buildings is wind sensitivity. This challenge is further emphasized seeing two market driven trends: on one hand as urban population grows, land value rises while plot sizes decrease; on the other, more cost effective modular construction techniques are introducing much lighter tall building structures. The combination of the two suggests a potential increase in the slenderness ratio of tall buildings (typically less than 6:1 but stretching to 20:1 in the near future) where not-so-tall but much lighter buildings will be the bulk of new construction in densely populated cities, providing affordable housing in the face of fast urbanization but also introducing wind sensitivity which was previously the problem of a very limited number of super tall buildings to a much larger number of buildings and communities. The proposed research aims to investigate a novel approach to the interaction between tall buildings and their environment. Through this approach the research proposes a new relationship between buildings and the flows around, through and inside them, where buildings could adapt to better control and manage the air flow around them, and consequently produce significant opportunities to reduce

  8. High-performance thermoelectric nanocomposites from nanocrystal building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Maria; Luo, Zhishan; Genç, Aziz; Piveteau, Laura; Ortega, Silvia; Cadavid, Doris; Dobrozhan, Oleksandr; Liu, Yu; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Zebarjadi, Mona; Arbiol, Jordi; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Cabot, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    The efficient conversion between thermal and electrical energy by means of durable, silent and scalable solid-state thermoelectric devices has been a long standing goal. While nanocrystalline materials have already led to substantially higher thermoelectric efficiencies, further improvements are expected to arise from precise chemical engineering of nanoscale building blocks and interfaces. Here we present a simple and versatile bottom-up strategy based on the assembly of colloidal nanocrystals to produce consolidated yet nanostructured thermoelectric materials. In the case study on the PbS-Ag system, Ag nanodomains not only contribute to block phonon propagation, but also provide electrons to the PbS host semiconductor and reduce the PbS intergrain energy barriers for charge transport. Thus, PbS-Ag nanocomposites exhibit reduced thermal conductivities and higher charge carrier concentrations and mobilities than PbS nanomaterial. Such improvements of the material transport properties provide thermoelectric figures of merit up to 1.7 at 850 K.

  9. Building Synergy: The Power of High Performance Work Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Martha A.; Van Buren, Mark E.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that high-performance work systems create the synergy that lets companies gain and keep a competitive advantage. Identifies the components of high-performance work systems and critical action steps for implementation. Describes the results companies such as Xerox, Lever Brothers, and Corning Incorporated have achieved by using them. (JOW)

  10. Using an Energy Performance Based Design-Build Process to Procure a Large Scale Low-Energy Building: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.; Shelton, D.

    2011-05-01

    This paper will review a procurement, acquisition, and contract process of a large-scale replicable net zero energy (ZEB) office building. The owners developed and implemented an energy performance based design-build process to procure a 220,000 ft2 office building with contractual requirements to meet demand side energy and LEED goals. We will outline the key procurement steps needed to ensure achievement of our energy efficiency and ZEB goals. The development of a clear and comprehensive Request for Proposals (RFP) that includes specific and measurable energy use intensity goals is critical to ensure energy goals are met in a cost effective manner. The RFP includes a contractual requirement to meet an absolute demand side energy use requirement of 25 kBtu/ft2, with specific calculation methods on what loads are included, how to normalize the energy goal based on increased space efficiency and data center allocation, specific plug loads and schedules, and calculation details on how to account for energy used from the campus hot and chilled water supply. Additional advantages of integrating energy requirements into this procurement process include leveraging the voluntary incentive program, which is a financial incentive based on how well the owner feels the design-build team is meeting the RFP goals.

  11. Code-to-Code Validation and Application of a Building Dynamic Simulation Tool for the Building Energy Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Buonomano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper details about the results of a code-to-code validation procedure of an in-house developed building simulation model, called DETECt, are reported. The tool was developed for research purposes in order to carry out dynamic building energy performance and parametric analyses by taking into account new building envelope integrated technologies, novel construction materials and innovative energy saving strategies. The reliability and accuracy of DETECt was appropriately tested by means of the standard BESTEST validation procedure. In the paper, details of this validation process are accurately described. A good agreement between the obtained results and all the reference data of the BESTEST qualification cases is achieved. In particular, the obtained results vs. standard BESTEST output are always within the provided ranges of confidence. In addition, several test cases output obtained by DETECt (e.g., dynamic profiles of indoor air and building surfaces temperature and heat fluxes and spatial trends of temperature across walls are provided.

  12. Building Capacity Through Hands-on Computational Internships to Assure Reproducible Results and Implementation of Digital Documentation in the ICERT REU Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, R.; Gentle, J.

    2015-12-01

    Modern data pipelines and computational processes require that meticulous methodologies be applied in order to insure that the source data, algorithms, and results are properly curated, managed and retained while remaining discoverable, accessible, and reproducible. Given the complexity of understanding the scientific problem domain being researched, combined with the overhead of learning to use advanced computing technologies, it becomes paramount that the next generation of scientists and researchers learn to embrace best-practices. The Integrative Computational Education and Research Traineeship (ICERT) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Site at the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC). During Summer 2015, two ICERT interns joined the 3DDY project. 3DDY converts geospatial datasets into file types that can take advantage of new formats, such as natural user interfaces, interactive visualization, and 3D printing. Mentored by TACC researchers for ten weeks, students with no previous background in computational science learned to use scripts to build the first prototype of the 3DDY application, and leveraged Wrangler, the newest high performance computing (HPC) resource at TACC. Test datasets for quadrangles in central Texas were used to assemble the 3DDY workflow and code. Test files were successfully converted into a stereo lithographic (STL) format, which is amenable for use with a 3D printers. Test files and the scripts were documented and shared using the Figshare site while metadata was documented for the 3DDY application using OntoSoft. These efforts validated a straightforward set of workflows to transform geospatial data and established the first prototype version of 3DDY. Adding the data and software management procedures helped students realize a broader set of tangible results (e.g. Figshare entries), better document their progress and the final state of their work for the research group and community

  13. The dynamics of shared leadership: building trust and enhancing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Marcus A; Korsgaard, M Audrey; Welpe, Isabell M; Picot, Arnold; Wigand, Rolf T

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we examined how the dynamics of shared leadership are related to group performance. We propose that, over time, the expansion of shared leadership within groups is related to growth in group trust. In turn, growth in group trust is related to performance improvement. Longitudinal data from 142 groups engaged in a strategic simulation game over a 4-month period provide support for positive changes in trust mediating the relationship between positive changes in shared leadership and positive changes in performance. Our findings contribute to the literature on shared leadership and group dynamics by demonstrating how the growth in shared leadership contributes to the emergence of trust and a positive performance trend over time.

  14. The transport performance evaluation system building of logistics enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: modern logistics has a significant role in today’s society, logistics cost accounts for 35% to 50% of total logistics costs, so it’s great significance to improve the transport performance of logistics enterprises. Design/methodology/approach: the authors select the transportation performance evaluation index of logistics enterprise, with the aid of the fuzzy theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP, adopt the combining method of quantitative and qualitative analysis, construct the transport performance evaluation system of logistics enterprises. Findings: the choice of transport performance evaluation indicator system for Logistics enterprise is in a state of "high", which indicates the indicator selection is reasonable. Research limitations/implications: the selected indicators with experts’ subjective factors can not accurately quantify. Practical implications: it has important practical significance to promote the development of modern logistics enterprises and save social cost. Originality/value: current research methods mainly include the PDCA cycle model, key performance indicators (KPI and benchmarking method, principal component analysis method, etc. The authors for the first time with the aid of fuzzy theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP, adopt the combining method of quantitative and qualitative research on transport performance problems.

  15. Data of cost-optimality and technical solutions for high energy performance buildings in warm climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacà, Ilaria; D'Agostino, Delia; Maria Congedo, Paolo; Baglivo, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    The data reported in this article refers to input and output information related to the research articles entitled Assessment of cost-optimality and technical solutions in high performance multi-residential buildings in the Mediterranean area by Zacà et al. (Assessment of cost-optimality and technical solutions in high performance multi-residential buildings in the Mediterranean area, in press.) and related to the research article Cost-optimal analysis and technical comparison between standard and high efficient mono residential buildings in a warm climate by Baglivo et al. (Energy, 2015, 10.1016/j.energy.2015.02.062, in press).

  16. Urban weather data and building models for the inclusion of the urban heat island effect in building performance simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, M; Inostroza, L; Villacreses, G; Lobato, A; Carrasco, C

    2017-10-01

    This data article presents files supporting calculation for urban heat island (UHI) inclusion in building performance simulation (BPS). Methodology is used in the research article "From urban climate to energy consumption. Enhancing building performance simulation by including the urban heat island effect" (Palme et al., 2017) [1]. In this research, a Geographical Information System (GIS) study is done in order to statistically represent the most important urban scenarios of four South-American cities (Guayaquil, Lima, Antofagasta and Valparaíso). Then, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is done to obtain reference Urban Tissues Categories (UTC) to be used in urban weather simulation. The urban weather files are generated by using the Urban Weather Generator (UWG) software (version 4.1 beta). Finally, BPS is run out with the Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) software (version 17). In this data paper, four sets of data are presented: 1) PCA data (excel) to explain how to group different urban samples in representative UTC; 2) UWG data (text) to reproduce the Urban Weather Generation for the UTC used in the four cities (4 UTC in Lima, Guayaquil, Antofagasta and 5 UTC in Valparaíso); 3) weather data (text) with the resulting rural and urban weather; 4) BPS models (text) data containing the TRNSYS models (four building models).

  17. Makwayela: choral performance and nation building in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Soeiro de Carvalho

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available This in an ethnomusicological study of choral performance in Maputo, the capital city of Mozambique. It includes a historical perspective over the last thirty years, and it analyzes the changes which took place in performance along with the political changes in this African country. The author studies the use of music for the purpose of creating a national identity. Makwayela, a characteristic kind of male choral performance which developed in Southern Mozambique, is used as a study case. Makwayela is described and framed within the range of expressive modes in Maputo. Its origins are discussed in the background of mining culture in Southern Africa, and its development is associated with recent social history in Mozambique, and particularly in Maputo.

  18. Predicting Energy Performance of a Net-Zero Energy Building: A Statistical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, Joshua; Webb, David

    2016-09-01

    Performance-based building requirements have become more prevalent because it gives freedom in building design while still maintaining or exceeding the energy performance required by prescriptive-based requirements. In order to determine if building designs reach target energy efficiency improvements, it is necessary to estimate the energy performance of a building using predictive models and different weather conditions. Physics-based whole building energy simulation modeling is the most common approach. However, these physics-based models include underlying assumptions and require significant amounts of information in order to specify the input parameter values. An alternative approach to test the performance of a building is to develop a statistically derived predictive regression model using post-occupancy data that can accurately predict energy consumption and production based on a few common weather-based factors, thus requiring less information than simulation models. A regression model based on measured data should be able to predict energy performance of a building for a given day as long as the weather conditions are similar to those during the data collection time frame. This article uses data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) to develop and validate a regression model to predict the energy performance of the NZERTF using two weather variables aggregated to the daily level, applies the model to estimate the energy performance of hypothetical NZERTFs located in different cities in the Mixed-Humid climate zone, and compares these estimates to the results from already existing EnergyPlus whole building energy simulations. This regression model exhibits agreement with EnergyPlus predictive trends in energy production and net consumption, but differs greatly in energy consumption. The model can be used as a framework for alternative and more complex models based on the

  19. Use of an expert system rating for the energy performance of a building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santoli, L. [Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Dip. di Fisica Tecnica, Roma (Italy); Felici, G. [CNR, Ist. Analisi dei Sistemi ed Informatica ' Antonio Ruberti' , Roma (Italy)

    2005-11-15

    In this paper we present an expert system for the energy performance evaluation of buildings. The system is obtained from the integration of different evaluation methodologies in a unified framework and results in a friendly tool made available to internet users, who can obtain, in real time, good quality performance certificates. The scope of the project is to develop a performance assessment of buildings that is both complete and flexible, and that could be extended to different environmental conditions. The project has been originated from the official European procedure EPBD 2002/91/CE which states the essential requirements in a performance-based building strategy. The expert system designed in the first stage of the project has been embedded in a software tool named BEEPS (Building Environment and Energy Performance System), where a Life Cycle Analysis technique is implemented to provide a material and energy balance over the entire life of the material, product or service. This embodies the knowledge of experts in energy evaluations and makes such knowledge available to users in a comprehensible and concise way. A dynamic set of rules processes the data on the building, draws the proper conclusions and constructs a certificate in textual form combining analysis, motivations and suggestions to improve the energetic efficiency of the considered building. The system has been customized for the production of energy performance certificates of buildings in Italy, taking into account climatic conditions, indoor environment requirements, and cost-effectiveness. Residential premises and winter have been considered in a first stage. In the paper we also describe the validation of the proposed tool on 120 case-studies related to residential real estate built in Rome during the last century. Additional components of the project that strongly contribute to the effectiveness of BEEPS are also described, such as the analysis of the building typology and the use of the

  20. Experience in the Development of the CMS Inner Tracker Analog Optohybrid Circuits: Project, Qualification, Volume Production, Quality Assurance and Final Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, Daniel; Bilei, Gian Mario; Casinini, F; Postolache, Vasile

    2005-01-01

    The Tracker system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment, will employ approximately 40,000 analog fibre-optic data and control links. The optical readout system is responsible for converting and transmitting the electrical signals coming out from the front-end to the outside counting room. Concerning the inner part of the Tracker, about 3,600 Analog Optohybrid circuits are involved in this tasks. These circuits have been designed and successfully produced in Italy under the responsibility of INFN Perugia CMS group completing the volume production phase by February 2005. Environmental features, reliability and performances of these circuits have been extensively tested and qualified. This paper reviews the most relevant steps of the manufacturing and quality assurance process: from prototypes to mass-production for the final CMS use.

  1. Invention, design and performance of coconut agrowaste fiberboards for ecologically efficacious buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokko, Mae-ling Jovenes

    As global quantities of waste by-products from food production as well as the range of their applications increase, researchers are realizing critical opportunities to transform the burden of underutilized wastes into ecological profits. Within the tropical hot-humid region, where half the world's current and projected future population growth is concentrated, there is a dire demand for building materials to meet ambitious development schemes and rising housing deficits. However, the building sector has largely overlooked the potential of local agricultural wastes to serve as alternatives to energy-intensive, imported building technologies. Industrial ecologists have recently investigated the use of agrowaste biocomposites to replace conventional wood products that use harmful urea-formaldehyde, phenolic and isocyanate resins. Furthermore, developments in the performance of building material systems with respect to cost, energy, air quality management and construction innovation have evolved metrics about what constitutes material 'upcycling' within building life cycle. While these developments have largely been focused on technical and cost performance, much less attention has been paid to addressing deeply-seated social and cultural barriers to adoption that have sedimented over decades of importation. This dissertation evaluates the development coconut agricultural building material systems in four phases: (i) non-toxic, low-energy production of medium-high density boards (500-1200 kg/m3) from coconut fibers and emerging biobinders; (ii) characterization and evaluation of coconut agricultural building materials hygrothermal performance (iii) scaled-up design development of coconut modular building material systems and (iv) development of a value translation framework for the bottom-up distribution of value to stakeholders within the upcycling framework. This integrated design methodological approach is significant to develop ecological thinking around agrowaste

  2. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-offs: Production Builders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research showing how some energy-efficiency measure cost increases can balance against measures that reduce up-front costs: Advanced framing cuts lumber costs, right sizing can mean downsizing the HVAC, moving HVAC into conditioned space cuts installation costs, designing on a 2-foot grid reduces materials waste, etc.

  3. Interactive Configuration of High Performance Renovation of Apartment Buildings by the use of CSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vareilles, E.; Thuesen, Christian; Falcon, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a prospective study which looks at the possibility of configuring high performance renovation of apartment buildings by the use of constraint satisfaction problem (CSP). This study is one part of a project called CRIBA which aims to industrialize high performance thermal renovation...... of mid-rise (up to seven stories) apartment buildings. The renovation is based on external rectangular panels, always comprising insulation and cladding, and sometimes including, in addition, doors, windows or solar modules. The panels can be fixed directly onto the walls or onto a metal structure around...... the whole building. With the new thermal envelope and equipment, the building must achieve a really low energy performance of 25 kWh=m2=year. A configuration system, based on CSP approaches, will simultaneously enable the interactive definition of the renovation, the associated bill of material (BOM...

  4. 41 CFR 102-73.75 - What functions must Federal agencies perform with regard to leasing building space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal agencies perform with regard to leasing building space? 102-73.75 Section 102-73.75 Public... functions must Federal agencies perform with regard to leasing building space? Federal agencies, upon approval from GSA, must perform all functions of leasing building space, and land incidental thereto,...

  5. Challenges in building high performance geoscientific spatial data infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubros, Fabrice; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes; Boulahya, Faiza; Quique, Robin; Le Cozanne, Goneri; Aochi, Hideo

    2016-04-01

    One of the main challenges in Geosciences is to deal with both the huge amounts of data available nowadays and the increasing need for fast and accurate analysis. On one hand, computer aided decision support systems remain a major tool for quick assessment of natural hazards and disasters. High performance computing lies at the heart of such systems by providing the required processing capabilities for large three-dimensional time-dependent datasets. On the other hand, information from Earth observation systems at different scales is routinely collected to improve the reliability of numerical models. Therefore, various efforts have been devoted to design scalable architectures dedicated to the management of these data sets (Copernicus, EarthCube, EPOS). Indeed, standard data architectures suffer from a lack of control over data movement. This situation prevents the efficient exploitation of parallel computing architectures as the cost for data movement has become dominant. In this work, we introduce a scalable architecture that relies on high performance components. We discuss several issues such as three-dimensional data management, complex scientific workflows and the integration of high performance computing infrastructures. We illustrate the use of such architectures, mainly using off-the-shelf components, in the framework of both coastal flooding assessments and earthquake early warning systems.

  6. The Hedgehog Effect The Secrets of Building High Performance Teams

    CERN Document Server

    Kets de Vries, Manfred F R

    2011-01-01

    In The Hedgehog Effect, Manfred Kets de Vries presents the case for leadership group coaching as an experiential training ground for learning to function as a high performance team. His group coaching model, incorporating living case studies, has been developed over more than 20 years of delivering programs to top-level executives and sets the standard in the field of leadership group coaching. Written for coaches, consultants, leadership development directors, and anyone working in or with teams, The Hedgehog Effect begins with an in-depth analysis of what teams and groups are all about. The

  7. Thermal Performance of Typical Residential Building in Karachi with Different Materials for Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Shaheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work deals with a study of a residential building located in climatic context of Karachi with the objective of being the study of thermal performance based upon passive design techniques. The study helps in reducing the electricity consumption by improving indoor temperatures. The existing residential buildings in Karachi were studied with reference to their planning and design, analyzed and evaluated. Different construction?s compositions of buildings were identified, surveyed and analyzed in making of the effective building envelops. Autodesk® Ecotect, 2011 was used to determine indoor comfort conditions and HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Cooling loads. The result of the research depicted significant energy savings of 38.5% in HVAC loads with proposed building envelop of locally available materials and glazing.

  8. Challenges in Getting Building Performance Monitoring Tools for Everyday Use: User Experiences with A New Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Ihasalo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for building performance monitoring because it is common that buildings do not perform as intended. A number of advanced tools for the purpose have been developed within the last tens of years. However, these tools have not been widely adopted in real use. A new tool presented here utilizes building automation data and transforms the data into a set of performance metrics, and is capable of visualizing building performance from energy, indoor conditions, and HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning system perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to study the users’ perceptions of the use of tool. The research method was semi-structured interviews. Although the users were satisfied with the solution in general, it was not taken into operative use. The main challenges with the use of the solution were related to accessibility, trust, and management practices. The interviewees were struggling to manage with numerous information systems and therefore had problems in finding the solution and authenticating to it. All the interviewees did not fully trust the solution, since they did not entirely understand what the performance metrics meant or because the solution had limitations in assessing building performance. Management practices are needed to support the performance measurement philosophy.

  9. Evaluation of the main parameters affecting seismic performance of the RC buildings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hayri Baytan Ozmen; Mehmet Inel; Emrah Meral

    2014-04-01

    Low and mid-rise reinforced concrete (RC) buildings consist of an important portion of the building stock in many earthquake prone countries. Therefore understanding their seismic behaviour is important for mitigation studies. This study aims to evaluate how much and when; seismic code, number of stories, concrete strength, amount of transverse reinforcement and infill-wall contribution parameters are important for seismic performances of RC buildings. Seismic performances of the models reflecting different cases are determined for different performance levels and seismic loading conditions. Based on the considered values of the parameters, it is concluded that: modern code specifications and higher transverse reinforcement 50%, the concrete strength up to 66%, infill-walls 15% and number of story 55% increase the seismic performance for life safety level. Evaluations on the effect of the considered parameters for different performance levels and seismic loadings in relation with other parameters are also given in this paper.

  10. A Novel Performance Metric for Building an Optimized Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Typically, the accuracy metric is often applied for optimizing the heuristic or stochastic classification models. However, the use of accuracy metric might lead the searching process to the sub-optimal solutions due to its less discriminating values and it is also not robust to the changes of class distribution. Approach: To solve these detrimental effects, we propose a novel performance metric which combines the beneficial properties of accuracy metric with the extended recall and precision metrics. We call this new performance metric as Optimized Accuracy with Recall-Precision (OARP. Results: In this study, we demonstrate that the OARP metric is theoretically better than the accuracy metric using four generated examples. We also demonstrate empirically that a naïve stochastic classification algorithm, which is Monte Carlo Sampling (MCS algorithm trained with the OARP metric, is able to obtain better predictive results than the one trained with the conventional accuracy metric. Additionally, the t-test analysis also shows a clear advantage of the MCS model trained with the OARP metric over the accuracy metric alone for all binary data sets. Conclusion: The experiments have proved that the OARP metric leads stochastic classifiers such as the MCS towards a better training model, which in turn will improve the predictive results of any heuristic or stochastic classification models.

  11. Thermal performance study and evaluation of comfort temperatures in vernacular buildings of North-East India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Atreya, S.K. [Instrument Design and Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Mahapatra, Sadhan [Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India)

    2010-02-15

    Solar passive techniques are being used in vernacular buildings throughout the world. Researchers have done extensive study on thermal performance of vernacular buildings in the different parts of the world. Vernacular architecture of North-Eastern India represents the principle of climate-responsive architecture, which still lacks experimental validation and quantitative analysis. Thermal comfort not only makes the occupants comfortable but also governs energy consumption in the building. Detailed field studies on thermal performances of typical traditional vernacular dwellings in different bioclimatic zones have been undertaken. This field study includes detailed survey of 150 vernacular dwellings, field tests and thermal sensation vote of 300 occupants on ASHRAE thermal sensation scale. Field test includes measurement of temperature, humidity, illumination level and building design parameters. Thermal performances of these vernacular dwellings were evaluated for winter, pre-summer, summer/monsoon and pre-winter months of the year 2008. This evaluation is based on 'adaptive approach', which is the outcome of the field studies and is now part of ASHRAE standard 55/2004 for predicting comfortable temperature of naturally ventilated buildings. This study also tried to find out the range of comfort temperature in these vernacular buildings for different season of the year. It has been found that these vernacular dwellings perform quite satisfactorily except in the winter months and the occupants feel comfortable in a wider range of temperature. (author)

  12. A Review of Performance of Insulating Material in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazyeen Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Today India is a fast developing economy; its GDP is increasing so the per capita income is also increasing. To meet the comfort requirements, especially in scorching summer and chilling winter in one form or other, we need modern amenities like air-conditioners and room heaters. Both need energy (electricity as a fuel to perform their function, so at individual level or at national view point, energy saving has to be done. The phrase will not be wrong: “Let the energy be saved, though the heaven falls”. In this paper, a review of insulation materials along with their properties has been presented. The information given is relevant and useful for architects and engineers. This paper also has glimpses of past and future of insulating materials.

  13. Multinational Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Multinational colleges and universities pose numerous challenges to the traditional models of quality assurance that are designed to validate domestic higher education. When institutions cross international borders, at least two quality assurance protocols are involved. To guard against fraud and abuse, quality assurance in the host country is…

  14. Dynamic Simulation of the Green Roofs Impact on Building Energy Performance, Case Study of Antananarivo, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Tiana Rakotondramiarana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs improve building energy performance and constitute an alternative to sustainable buildings. A green roof model is dynamically coupled with a building thermal model to assess its energy performance that takes into account the indoor air temperature dynamic changes. Under the climate conditions in Antananarivo, we compared green and conventional roofs. The present study shows that green roofs protect the roof structure under extreme temperature and large temperature fluctuations. For the case of Antananarivo, the amplitude of the temperature fluctuations at the top face of the support is reduced by 28 °C when using green roof. The impact of the green roof on indoor air temperature and energy demand is investigated. The vegetation decreases the maximum indoor air temperature and improves the building thermal comfort during summer days. It has no effect on the minimum indoor air temperature, but additional soil thickness can increase it. In addition, a global sensitivity analysis, which is carried out on the proposed model without considering any specific weather data, allows us to identify the most influential parameters on the energy demand. It has been found that green roofs have almost insignificant thermal impact in insulated buildings; however, their potential prevails over the building envelope and weather characteristics in the case of non-insulated building.

  15. Harm A. Weber academic center, post-occupancy building performance and comfort perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keelan P. Kaiser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Weber Center at Judson University, a mixed mode, naturally ventilated building in a continental climate, has been in operation for just over a year, with initial occupancy in August 2007. This paper compares the design objectives and building performance expectations against the first yearof actual energy consumption in a first of a series of post-occupancy evaluations. The paper contrasts the building performance with general user satisfaction and perceptions of comfort through a post occupancy evaluation of user surveys and interviews. The innovations involved in this building, particularly mechanical strategies atypical in contemporary practice within this climate and region, have introduced some interesting problems that have been documented in the post-occupancy evaluation process, while confirming many of the original intentions of the design.

  16. Improved methods for evaluating base temperature for use in building energy performance lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, A.R. [London South Bank Univ., London (United Kingdom); Knight, I.; Dunn, G. [Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Gaddas, R. [Interserve Facilities Management Ltd., Carlisle (United Kingdom)

    2003-12-01

    The use of degree-days in building energy monitoring and targeting has often given rise to misinterpretation of results, which has in turn undermined confidence in such techniques. Anecdotal reporting has, by turns, suggested the use of degree-days either works very well, or does not work at all. This ambiguous position is not helpful to energy managers who need robust tools and clear guidance on their use. This paper presents evidence to show how energy/degree-day correlations i.e., building performance lines, can be properly identified, while taking account of the correct (and practical) energy balance of the building. In doing so it shows how the correct building base temperature can be identified from reduced data sets, while demonstrating that such a practice is desirable. Performance lines constructed in this way, where appropriate, give rise to greater accuracy and reliability of results, while forming the basis for improved diagnostics. (Author)

  17. Do Certified Buildings Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality and Performance of Office Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Silva, Nuno Alexandre Faria; Wargocki, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    on productivity and that an average employee cost can be >10-100 times higher than the rental operation and maintenance costs (Morrell, 2005; Persramet al., 2007). There is however lack of consistent and systematic data benchmarking benefits of green building, in particular as regards IEQ and the effects...... on humans. Health, comfort and work performance outcomes are more difficult to quantify than the effects on energy. As a result, it may be expected that credits for IEQ in the schemes be traded with other credits. If so, although claimed to have an outstanding IEQ as compared with conventional buildings...... there is any systematic evidence that these buildings outperform conventional buildings as regards IEQ either through actual IEQ measurements, subjective assessments made by occupants and/or objectively and self-estimated work performance....

  18. Improving the energy performance of historic buildings with architectural and cultural values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2017-01-01

    The thermal performance of solid walls of historic buildings can be improved by external or internal insulation. External insulation is preferred from a technical perspective, but is often disregarded as many such buildings have architectural or cultural values leaving internal insulation.......g. improvement of thermal indoor climate. The paper discusses different motivating factors for improving the thermal performance of solid walls in historic buildings with architectural and cultural values. It is argued that internal insulation, provided that it can be done without resulting in critical moisture......, instead of replacing them with new energy-efficient buildings, because of the architectural and cultural values that they possess. The underlying basis for this study is a 5-year research project, RIBuild, funded by the European Commission, running from 2015 to 2019....

  19. Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance; Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance. Teilnahme IEA-ECBCS Annex 40 (Betreiberkompetenz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuard, J.-M.

    2005-06-15

    This paper takes a look at the tasks performed in Task 40 of the 'Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems ECBCS' programme of the International Energy Agency IEA that is taking a look at the commissioning of building HVAC systems with the aim of improving the energy performance of such systems. Emphasis is put on the Swiss contribution to the task. This well-illustrated paper presents information on the structure of the task, time-lines and a diagram for its implementation structures. Also, the countries participating in Task 40 and their representatives are listed, and various work already published by the annex is noted. The paper places a focus on operator competence and lists points to be taken into account when carrying out work on optimising energy consumption. The various processes involved are noted and discussed. Management guidelines are presented and economical and market aspects are discussed. Finally, projects that will continue the work are noted.

  20. OFFICE. Passive retrofitting of office buildings to improve their energy performance and indoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The main objectives of OFFICE were to investigate the possibilities of applying passive retrofitting techniques in office buildings in order to improve their energy performance and indoor working conditions. The project was divided into the following three subgroups: The Experimental subgroup; The Design and Evaluation subgroup; The Design guidelines subgroup. The main task of the Experimental subgroup was to carry out monitoring campaigns in ten selected office buildings in Europe, in order to collect data regarding their energy performance and current state. The main task of the Design and Evaluation subgroup was to prepare and study detailed retrofitting strategies for office buildings and to quantify the impact of the proposed techniques from an energy and environmental point of view. The main task of the Design guidelines subgroup was to integrate the findings of the present research into a diagnostic assessment methodology for best practice retrofitting of office buildings. The outcome of this task includes the main final products of the project: Case studies presenting high quality examples of representative retrofitted office buildings in various parts of Europe. The studies include a description of the present situation as well as an assessment of the possibilities for energy retrofitting in each case; Rating Methodologies classifying office buildings according to their energy consumption, CO{sub 2} production and indoor thermal and visual comfort; An Atlas describing the technical potential for energy conservation of selected retrofitting scenarios for defined types of office buildings in different climatic zones in Europe. The Atlas, combined with the rating methodology, offer possibilities for the evaluation and assessment of retrofitting actions in existing office buildings; A Handbook describing and evaluating retrofitting solutions for office buildings in Europe. It includes design guidelines, performance criteria and methodologies for best practice

  1. Multi-hazard performance assessment of a transfer-plate high-rise building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangming Zhou; Y L Xu

    2007-01-01

    Many urban areas are located in regions of moderate seismicity and are sunected to strong wind.Buildings in these regions are often designed without seismic provisions.As a result,in the event of an earthquake,the potential for damage and loss of lives may not be known.In this paper,the performance of a typical high-rise building with a thick transfer plate(TP),which is one type of building structure commonly found in Hong Kong,is assessed against both earthquake and wind hazards.Seismic-and wind-resistant performance objectives are first reviewed based on relevant codes and design guidelines for high-rise buildings.After a brief introduction of wind-resistant design of the building,various methodologies,including equivalent static load analysis (ESLA),response spectrum analysis(RSA),pushover analysis (POA),linear and nonlinear time-history analysis (LTHA and NTHA),are employed to assess the seismic performance of the building when subjected to frequent earthquakes,design based earthquakes and maximum credible earthquakes.The effects of design wind and seismic action with a common 50-year return period are also compared.The results indicate that most performance objectives can be satisfied by the building,but there are some objectives,such as inter-story drift ratio,that cannot be achieved when subjected to the frequent earthquakes.It is concluded that in addition to wind,seismic action may need to be explicitly considered in the design of buildings in regions of moderate seismicity.

  2. CROSS SECTIONAL EXAMINATION OF TEAM PERFORMANCE AND IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE ON TEAM BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Yasin Munir; Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ehsan Malik; Faiqa Ejaz; Aqsa Alam; Aqsa Abbas

    2012-01-01

    In organizations proper process is made that helps the employees to bring an effective change for best team performance. Team building and change management are important factors in organizational environment. Both of these factors focus to have an outcome that affects self development, positive communication, leadership skills, and ability to work together as a team for solving problems. The main objective of our research is to know that how team building and organizational change can make b...

  3. Overcoming barriers to high performance seismic design using lessons learned from the green building industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezil, Dorothy

    NEHRP's Provisions today currently governing conventional seismic resistant design. These provisions, though they ensure the life-safety of building occupants, extensive damage and economic losses may still occur in the structures. This minimum performance can be enhanced using the Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering methodology and passive control systems like base isolation and energy dissipation systems. Even though these technologies and the PBEE methodology are effective reducing economic losses and fatalities during earthquakes, getting them implemented into seismic resistant design has been challenging. One of the many barriers to their implementation has been their upfront costs. The green building community has faced some of the same challenges that the high performance seismic design community currently faces. The goal of this thesis is to draw on the success of the green building industry to provide recommendations that may be used overcome the barriers that high performance seismic design (HPSD) is currently facing.

  4. The Impact of Strategy for Building Sustainability on Performance of Software Development Business in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karun Pratoom

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present business environments, balancing between the needs of a business enterprise and its stakeholders is recognized as a critical strategy for the success and long-term survival of any firm. However, the understanding of sustainable strategy on firm performance remains a key challenge for both academia and management alike. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of strategy for building sustainability on performance. Data are collected from 122 managers of software development companies in Thailand. Results show that strategy for building sustainability positively affected Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI level, financial performance, corporate image, and stakeholder satisfaction. Furthermore, results also show that the strategy for building sustainability had indirect effects on corporate image through the CMMI level and the stakeholder satisfaction had direct effects on financial performance.

  5. High-rise buildings under multi-hazard environment assessment and design for optimal performance

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Mingfeng

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses performance-based seismic and wind-resistant design for high-rise building structures, with a particular focus on establishing an integrated approach for performance-based wind engineering, which is currently less advanced than seismic engineering. This book also provides a state-of-the-art review of numerous methodologies, including computational fluid dynamics (CFD), extreme value analysis, structural optimization, vibration control, pushover analysis, response spectrum analysis, modal parameter identification for the assessment of the wind-resistant and seismic performance of tall buildings in the design stage and actual tall buildings in use. Several new structural optimization methods, including the augmented optimality criteria method, have been developed and employed in the context of performance-based design. This book is a valuable resource for students, researchers and engineers in the field of civil and structural engineering.

  6. Satisfaction and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Frontczak, Monika; Schiavon, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines how satisfaction with indoor environmental parameters and building features affects satisfaction and self-estimated job performance. The analyses used subjective responses from around 50, 000 occupants collected mainly in US office buildings using a web-based survey administered...... by the Center for the Built Environment (CBE) over the period of ten years. Overall satisfaction with the workspace significantly improved self-estimated job performance; increased satisfaction with temperature was estimated to provide the greatest improvement in self-estimated job performance, followed...

  7. Balanced framework for measuring performance of supply chains in house building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Voordijk, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its importance, performance measurement of supply chains of house building firms has not received much attention yet in academic literature. The objective of this study is to develop a framework to measure this performance. In a first step, a comprehensive framework is developed composed of

  8. The comparison of the energy performance of hotel buildings using PROMETHEE decision-making method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujosevic Milica L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual energy performance of the atrium type hotel buildings in Belgrade climate conditions are analysed in this paper. The objective is to examine the impact of the atrium on the hotel building’s energy needs for space heating and cooling, thus establishing the best design among four proposed alternatives of the hotels with atrium. The energy performance results are obtained using EnergyPlus simulation engine, taking into account Belgrade climate data and thermal comfort parameters. The selected results are compared and the hotels are ranked according to certain criteria. Decision-making process that resulted in the ranking of the proposed alternatives is conducted using PROMETHEE method and Borda model. The methodological approach in this research includes the creation of a hypothetical model of an atrium type hotel building, numerical simulation of energy performances of four design alternatives of the hotel building with an atrium, comparative analysis of the obtained results and ranking of the proposed alternatives from the building’s energy performance perspective. The main task of the analysis is to examine the influence of the atrium, with both its shape and position, on the energy performance of the hotel building. Based on the results of the research it can be to determine the most energy efficient model of the hotel building with atrium for Belgrade climate condition areas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Spatial, Environmental, Energy and Social aspects of the Developing Settlements and Climate Change - Mutual Impacts

  9. Optimization and Performance Study of Select Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Rajeev

    Buildings contribute a significant part to the electricity demand profile and peak demand for the electrical utilities. The addition of renewable energy generation adds additional variability and uncertainty to the power system. Demand side management in the buildings can help improve the demand profile for the utilities by shifting some of the demand from peak to off-peak times. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning contribute around 45% to the overall demand of a building. This research studies two strategies for reducing the peak as well as shifting some demand from peak to off-peak periods in commercial buildings: 1. Use of gas heat pumps in place of electric heat pumps, and 2. Shifting demand for air conditioning from peak to off-peak by thermal energy storage in chilled water and ice. The first part of this study evaluates the field performance of gas engine-driven heat pumps (GEHP) tested in a commercial building in Florida. Four GEHP units of 8 Tons of Refrigeration (TR) capacity each providing air-conditioning to seven thermal zones in a commercial building, were instrumented for measuring their performance. The operation of these GEHPs was recorded for ten months, analyzed and compared with prior results reported in the literature. The instantaneous COPunit of these systems varied from 0.1 to 1.4 during typical summer week operation. The COP was low because the gas engines for the heat pumps were being used for loads that were much lower than design capacity which resulted in much lower efficiencies than expected. The performance of equivalent electric heat pump was simulated from a building energy model developed to mimic the measured building loads. An economic comparison of GEHPs and conventional electrical heat pumps was done based on the measured and simulated results. The average performance of the GEHP units was estimated to lie between those of EER-9.2 and EER-11.8 systems. The performance of GEHP systems suffers due to lower efficiency at

  10. Seismic performance evaluation of existing RC buildings designed as per past codes of practice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Rama Raju; A Cinitha; Nagesh R Iyer

    2012-04-01

    Assessing the capacity of existing building as per the present codes of practice is an important task in performance-based evaluation. In order to enhance the performance of existing buildings to the present level of ductile design prescribed by present codes and find the retrofit or design a rehabilitation system, there is an urgent need to assess accurately the actual lateral load resistance and the potential failure modes. In this paper, a typical 6-storey reinforced concrete (RC) building frame is designed for four design cases as per the provisions in three revisions of IS: 1893 and IS: 456 and it is analysed using user-defined (UD) nonlinear hinge properties or default-hinge (DF) properties, given in SAP 2000 based on the FEMA-356 and ATC-40 guidelines. An analytical procedure is developed to evaluate the yield, plastic and ultimate rotation capacities of RC elements of the framed buildings and these details are used to define user-defined inelastic effect of hinge for columns as P-M-M and for beams as M3 curves. A simplified three parameter model is used to find the stress–strain curves of RC elements beyond the post yield region of confined concrete. Building performance of structural components in terms of target building performance levels are studied with the nonlinear static analysis. The possible differences in the results of pushover analysis due to default- and user-defined nonlinear component properties at different performance levels of the building are studied.

  11. 76 FR 65511 - Office of Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High- Performance Green Buildings; the Green... provides the schedule and agenda for the first meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting...: Ken Sandler, Designated Federal Official, Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings,...

  12. Effect of heat and moisture transport and storage properties of building stones on the hygrothermal performance of historical building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    KoÅáková, Dana; Kočí, Václav; Žumár, Jaromír; Keppert, Martin; Holčapek, Ondřej; Vejmelková, Eva; Černý, Robert

    2016-12-01

    The heat and moisture transport and storage parameters of three different natural stones used on the Czech territory since medieval times are determined experimentally, together with the basic physical properties and mechanical parameters. The measured data are applied as input parameters in the computational modeling of hygrothermal performance of building envelopes made of the analyzed stones. Test reference year climatic data of three different locations within the Czech Republic are used as boundary conditions on the exterior side. Using the simulated hygric and thermal performance of particular stone walls, their applicability is assessed in a relation to the geographical and climatic conditions. The obtained results indicate that all three investigated stones are highly resistant to weather conditions, freeze/thaw cycles in particular.

  13. DEEP: A Database of Energy Efficiency Performance to Accelerate Energy Retrofitting of Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoon Lee, Sang; Hong, Tianzhen; Sawaya, Geof; Chen, Yixing; Piette, Mary Ann

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents a method and process to establish a database of energy efficiency performance (DEEP) to enable quick and accurate assessment of energy retrofit of commercial buildings. DEEP was compiled from results of about 35 million EnergyPlus simulations. DEEP provides energy savings for screening and evaluation of retrofit measures targeting the small and medium-sized office and retail buildings in California. The prototype building models are developed for a comprehensive assessment of building energy performance based on DOE commercial reference buildings and the California DEER prototype buildings. The prototype buildings represent seven building types across six vintages of constructions and 16 California climate zones. DEEP uses these prototypes to evaluate energy performance of about 100 energy conservation measures covering envelope, lighting, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, plug-loads, and domestic hot water. DEEP consists the energy simulation results for individual retrofit measures as well as packages of measures to consider interactive effects between multiple measures. The large scale EnergyPlus simulations are being conducted on the super computers at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The pre-simulation database is a part of an on-going project to develop a web-based retrofit toolkit for small and medium-sized commercial buildings in California, which provides real-time energy retrofit feedback by querying DEEP with recommended measures, estimated energy savings and financial payback period based on users’ decision criteria of maximizing energy savings, energy cost savings, carbon reduction, or payback of investment. The pre-simulated database and associated comprehensive measure analysis enhances the ability to performance assessments of retrofits to reduce energy use for small and medium buildings and business owners who typically do not have resources to conduct

  14. Evaluating the energy performance of the first generation of LEED-certified commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, Rick; Opitz, Mike; Hicks, Tom; Von Neida, Bill; Herrera, Shawn

    2006-05-01

    Over three hundred buildings have been certified under the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system for sustainable commercial buildings as of January 2006. This paper explores the modeled and actual energy performance of a sample of 21 of these buildings that certified under LEED between December 2001 and August 2005, including how extensively the design teams pursued LEED energy-efficiency credits, the modeled design and baseline energy performance, and the actual energy use during the first few years of operation. We collected utility billing data from 2003-2005 and compared the billed energy consumption with the modeled energy use. We also calculated Energy Star ratings for the buildings and compared them to peer groups where possible. The mean savings modeled for the sample was 27% compared to their modeled baseline values. For the group of 18 buildings for which we have both modeled and billed energy use, the mean value for actual consumption was 1% lower than modeled energy use, with a wide variation around the mean. The mean Energy Star score was 71 out of a total of 100 points, higher than the average score of 50 but slightly below the Energy Star award threshold of 75 points. The paper discusses the limitations inherent to this type of analysis, such as the small sample size of disparate buildings, the uncertainties in actual floor area, and the discrepancies between metered sections of the buildings. Despite these limitations, the value of the work is that it presents an early view of the actual energy performance for a set of 21 LEED-certified buildings.

  15. A simple matrix of analytical performance to identify assays that risk patients using External Quality Assurance Program data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Mark; Hegedus, Gabe; Badrick, Tony

    2016-05-01

    We propose a simple way to reliably rank assays for improvement according to patient risk, based solely on EQA imprecision and biological variation data. Because the underlying technique aligns the imprecision class of an assay from EQA data, peer performance can be used to assess achievable imprecision and the risk ranking can not only prioritise improvement but also highlight laboratory QC operating parameters that are easy to manage and provide reliable, acceptable performance. A modified Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA) is applied to produce an analyte risk rating based on three factors, each of which is graded: 1) the ease of detecting analytical errors based on the ratio of allowable limits of performance to imprecision (Assay Capability) compared to absolute standards and to peers, 2) the predicted frequency of errors in patient monitoring based on the ratio of within-individual biological variation to laboratory imprecision, and 3) the clinical importance of the assay as a surrogate marker for harm arising from an error. We provide laboratory examples to illustrate these models. The proposed models using only EQA data can objectively identify assays at risk of failing against biological variation goals for monitoring patients and suggest parameters for reliable performance. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 7 CFR 90.102 - Quality assurance review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS INTRODUCTION Quality Assurance § 90.102 Quality assurance review. (a) Each laboratory performing tests...

  17. 10 CFR 71.103 - Quality assurance organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... management level that assures that the required authority and organizational freedom, including sufficient... location or locations where activities are performed, the organizational structure for executing the... the organizational structure, the individual(s) assigned the responsibility for assuring...

  18. Performance analysis of air source heat pump system for office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dong Won; KIm, Yong Chan [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Young Soo [School of Mechanical System Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the performance of an air source heat pump system installed in a commercial building is analyzed using the developed heat pump performance model and building load simulation data of several regions in Korea. The performance test of an air source heat pump system with a variable speed compressor is tested to develop model that considers changes in the performance characteristics of the heat pump system under various operating conditions. The heat pump system is installed in an environmental chamber, and the experimental equipment is set up according to the manufacturer' specifications as well as the AHRI 1230 test specifications. The performance test conditions of the heat pump system are selected using a central composite design method, in which 29 points for each cooling and heating mode are selected. The developed performance model based on experimental data predicts experimental values with an error of ±5 %. Building cooling and heating loads in three regions in Korea are analyzed using TRNSYS software, which includes standard building and weather data from Seoul, Daejeon and Busan in Korea. The effects of outdoor air temperature and part load ratio on the performance and regional monthly average power consumption of the heat pump system are analyzed.

  19. RESIDENTIAL BUILDING DESIGN CONSIDERING THE BRAZILIAN PERFORMANCE STANDARD: ANALYSES TO WALL PARTITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alves Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, the design begins by the performance definition of the building parts. The data are then used as a reference to select the viable construction technologies. In Brazil, this practice is still uncommon, mostly in residential projects, because, first, it is defined the architectural characteristics, technological solutions and cost for after consider the technical performance requirements. However, this scenario tends to change due to the publication of the Brazilian performance standard ABNT NBR 15575 (2008 that establishes requirements and quantitative parameters to the five main residential building subsystems (structure, floors, wall partition, envelope and covering, and hydraulic installations, besides to the general requirements for all building. The current version contains requirements for structural performance, fire safety, watertightness, thermal and acoustic performances, functionality, accessibility, environmental impact, durability and maintenance. This standard also considers the concepts of Service Life, Design Life and guaranties periods. The aim of this paper is to present some considerations which must be included to the design process of wall partition for the accomplishment of the performance requirements of ABNT NBR 15575-4 (2008. The considerations are designed to wall partitions, but they can be used as an example to the others building subsystems. This paper was developed based on the bibliographical research and on four case studies, which illustrate how the design process of the wall partition needs to change and what needs to be worked on in order to attend the performance concept and requirements of NBR 15575 (2008.

  20. Evaluation of the truebeam machine performance check (MPC) geometric checks for daily IGRT geometric accuracy quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michael P; Greer, Peter B

    2017-05-01

    Machine Performance Check (MPC) is an automated and integrated image-based tool for verification of beam and geometric performance of the TrueBeam linac. The aims of the study were to evaluate the performance of the MPC geometric tests relevant to OBI/CBCT IGRT geometric accuracy. This included evaluation of the MPC isocenter and couch tests. Evaluation was performed by comparing MPC to QA tests performed routinely in the department over a 4-month period. The MPC isocenter tests were compared against an in-house developed Winston-Lutz test and the couch compared against routine mechanical QA type procedures. In all cases the results from the routine QA procedure was presented in a form directly comparable to MPC to allow a like-to-like comparison. The sensitivity of MPC was also tested by deliberately miscalibrating the appropriate linac parameter. The MPC isocenter size and MPC kV imager offset were found to agree with Winston-Lutz to within 0.2 mm and 0.22 mm, respectively. The MPC couch tests agreed with routine QA to within 0.12 mm and 0.15°. The MPC isocenter size and kV imager offset parameters were found to be affected by a change in beam focal spot position with the kV imager offset more sensitive. The MPC couch tests were all unaffected by an offset in the couch calibration but the three axes that utilized two point calibrations were sensitive to a miscalibration of the size in the span of the calibration. All MPC tests were unaffected by a deliberate misalignment of the MPC phantom and roll of the order of one degree. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. Building Energy and Cost Performance: An Analysis of Thirty Melbourne Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lay Langston

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the energy and cost performance of thirty recent buildings in Melbourne, Australia. Commonly, building design decisions are based on issues pertaining to construction cost, and consideration of energy performance is made only within the context of the initial project budget. Even where energy is elevated to more importance, operating energy is seen as the focus and embodied energy is nearly always ignored. For the first time, a large sample of buildings has been assembled and analyzed to improve the understanding of both energy and cost performance over their full life cycle, which formed the basis of a wider doctoral study into the inherent relationship between energy and cost. The aim of this paper is to report on typical values for embodied energy, operating energy, capital cost and operating cost per square metre for a range of building functional types investigated in this research. The conclusion is that energy and cost have quite different profiles across projects, and yet the mean GJ/m2 or cost/m2 have relatively low coefficients of variation and therefore may be useful as benchmarks of typical building performance.  

  2. Modernization of software quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Gokul

    1988-01-01

    The customers satisfaction depends not only on functional performance, it also depends on the quality characteristics of the software products. An examination of this quality aspect of software products will provide a clear, well defined framework for quality assurance functions, which improve the life-cycle activities of software development. Software developers must be aware of the following aspects which have been expressed by many quality experts: quality cannot be added on; the level of quality built into a program is a function of the quality attributes employed during the development process; and finally, quality must be managed. These concepts have guided our development of the following definition for a Software Quality Assurance function: Software Quality Assurance is a formal, planned approach of actions designed to evaluate the degree of an identifiable set of quality attributes present in all software systems and their products. This paper is an explanation of how this definition was developed and how it is used.

  3. Using Data Mining Techniques to Build a Classification Model for Predicting Employees Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasem A. Al-Radaideh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Human capital is of a high concern for companies’ management where their most interest is in hiring the highly qualified personnel which are expected to perform highly as well. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the data mining area, where the objective is the discovery of knowledge that is correct and of high benefit for users. In this paper, data mining techniques were utilized to build a classification model to predict the performance of employees. To build the classification model the CRISP-DM data mining methodology was adopted. Decision tree was the main data mining tool used to build the classification model, where several classification rules were generated. To validate the generated model, several experiments were conducted using real data collected from several companies. The model is intended to be used for predicting new applicants’ performance.

  4. Quality Assurance: One School's Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittemann, K. Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Since 1987, the Virginia Commonwealth University School of Dentistry has established a system of committee responsibilities for quality assurance, involving the committees for clinical affairs, academic performance, safety and therapeutics, and a council composed largely of department chairs. Additional review of procedures and records management…

  5. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexuan Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for “green” buildings and the use of “environmentally friendly” products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m3, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates.

  6. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lexuan; Su, Feng-Chiao; Batterman, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for “green” buildings and the use of “environmentally friendly” products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m3, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ) by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates. PMID:28117727

  7. Progress Toward Quality Assurance Standards for Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuels Based on Thermal Performance Testing and Chemometric Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    analyses; (2) Identify class distinguishing features, i.e., chemical compounds in the chromatographic data, that contribute to a fuel’s group ...implemented primarily to identify distinguishing chemical compounds that contribute to a fuel’s group assignment. F-ratio analysis was performed using...hydrocarbon-fueled liquid rocket engines, combustion enthalpy is transferred at high rates to thrust chamber surfaces, which are maintained at acceptably

  8. The ORC method. Effective modelling of thermal performance of multilayer building components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akander, Jan

    2000-02-01

    The ORC Method (Optimised RC-networks) provides a means of modelling one- or multidimensional heat transfer in building components, in this context within building simulation environments. The methodology is shown, primarily applied to heat transfer in multilayer building components. For multilayer building components, the analytical thermal performance is known, given layer thickness and material properties. The aim of the ORC Method is to optimise the values of the thermal resistances and heat capacities of an RC-model such as to give model performance a good agreement with the analytical performance, for a wide range of frequencies. The optimisation procedure is made in the frequency domain, where the over-all deviation between model and analytical frequency response, in terms of admittance and dynamic transmittance, is minimised. It is shown that ORC's are effective in terms of accuracy and computational time in comparison to finite difference models when used in building simulations, in this case with IDA/ICE. An ORC configuration of five mass nodes has been found to model building components in Nordic countries well, within the application of thermal comfort and energy requirement simulations. Simple RC-networks, such as the surface heat capacity and the simple R-C-configuration are not appropriate for detailed building simulation. However, these can be used as basis for defining the effective heat capacity of a building component. An approximate method is suggested on how to determine the effective heat capacity without the use of complex numbers. This entity can be calculated on basis of layer thickness and material properties with the help of two time constants. The approximate method can give inaccuracies corresponding to 20%. In-situ measurements have been carried out in an experimental building with the purpose of establishing the effective heat capacity of external building components that are subjected to normal thermal conditions. The auxiliary

  9. Improvement of energy performances of existing buildings by application of solar thermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić-Furundžić Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of energy performances of the existing buildings in the suburban settlement Konjarnik in Belgrade, by the application of solar thermal systems is the topic presented in this paper. Hypothetical models of building improvements are created to allow the benefits of applying solar thermal collectors to residential buildings in Belgrade climate conditions to be estimated. This case study presents different design variants of solar thermal collectors integrated into a multifamily building envelope. The following aspects of solar thermal systems integration are analyzed in the paper: energy, architectural, ecological and economic. The results show that in Belgrade climatic conditions significant energy savings and reduction of CO2 emissions can be obtained with the application of solar thermal collectors.

  10. Double Wall Framing Technique An Example of High Performance, Sustainable Building Envelope Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, Dr. Jan [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston; Asiz, Andi [Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Nitin, Shukla [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston

    2015-01-01

    Double wall technologies utilizing wood framing have been well-known and used in North American buildings for decades. Most of double wall designs use only natural materials such as wood products, gypsum, and cellulose fiber insulation, being one of few building envelope technologies achieving high thermal performance without use of plastic foams or fiberglass. Today, after several material and structural design modifications, these technologies are considered as highly thermally efficient, sustainable option for new constructions and sometimes, for retrofit projects. Following earlier analysis performed for U.S. Department of Energy by Fraunhofer CSE, this paper discusses different ways to build double walls and to optimize their thermal performance to minimize the space conditioning energy consumption. Description of structural configuration alternatives and thermal performance analysis are presented as well. Laboratory tests to evaluate thermal properties of used insulation and whole wall system thermal performance are also discussed in this paper. Finally, the thermal loads generated in field conditions by double walls are discussed utilizing results from a joined project performed by Zero Energy Building Research Alliance and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which made possible evaluation of the market viability of low-energy homes built in the Tennessee Valley. Experimental data recorded in two of the test houses built during this field study is presented in this work.

  11. Experimental validation of the buildings energy performance (PEC assessment methods with reference to occupied spaces heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PETCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of the series of pre-standardization research aimed to analyze the existing methods of calculating the Buildings Energy Performance (PEC in view of their correction of completing. The entire research activity aims to experimentally validate the PEC Calculation Algorithm as well as the comparative application, on the support of several case studies focused on representative buildings of the stock of buildings in Romania, of the PEC calculation methodology for buildings equipped with occupied spaces heating systems. The targets of the report are the experimental testing of the calculation models so far known (NP 048-2000, Mc 001-2006, SR EN 13790:2009, on the support provided by the CE INCERC Bucharest experimental building, together with the complex calculation algorithms specific to the dynamic modeling, for the evaluation of the occupied spaces heat demand in the cold season, specific to the traditional buildings and to modern buildings equipped with solar radiation passive systems, of the ventilated solar space type. The schedule of the measurements performed in the 2008-2009 cold season is presented as well as the primary processing of the measured data and the experimental validation of the heat demand monthly calculation methods, on the support of CE INCERC Bucharest. The calculation error per heating season (153 days of measurements between the measured heat demand and the calculated one was of 0.61%, an exceptional value confirming the phenomenological nature of the INCERC method, NP 048-2006. The mathematical model specific to the hourly thermal balance is recurrent – decisional with alternating paces. The experimental validation of the theoretical model is based on the measurements performed on the CE INCERC Bucharest building, within a time lag of 57 days (06.01-04.03.2009. The measurements performed on the CE INCERC Bucharest building confirm the accuracy of the hourly calculation model by comparison to the values

  12. Use of Advanced Plastic Materials in Nigeria: Performance Assessment of Expanded Polystyrene Building Technology System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Nkem Ede (PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The provision of affordable residential houses for the masses in the developing nations has been a mirage over the years and the future does not portend good as the cost of adopting conventional concrete material technologies is escalating while so many environmental issues like climate change are being raised in the recent times.To circumvent this poor housing provision trend, some innovative construction materials and technologies are being introduced to facilitate unique modular designs, reduction of labour, decline in the depletion of exhaustible materials,savings of time and fund. One of such materials is the expanded polystyrene. The introduction of advanced plastic materials and in particular the expanded polystyrene building technologies in the Nigerian constructionindustry will be a very useful and brilliant initiative that will aid the reduction of cost of construction and facilitate access to affordable houses for the masses.This researchaims at studying the applications of this innovative plastic material in the Nigerian building industry with special regard to the performance perception by the clients and the end users. A building estate where expanded polystyrene building technology has been predominantly used in Abuja is considered as a case study. Questionnaires were distributed among clients and residents of the building estate and statistical tools were used to analyse the data collected. Great satisfaction verified among the clients and residents and the high ranking performance confirmed for recyclability, reliability, versatility and moisture resistance of EPS building products all herald a great future for the applications of this advanced building products in the Nigerian building industry.

  13. Evaluation of Building Performance in Use - A Case Study of the Seager Distillery Development

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Michael CN; Ross, David; Harper, Steve

    2015-01-01

    A two-year post-occupancy performance evaluation has been undertaken of the apartments within Galliard Homes’ Seager Distillery redevelopment site in London. The Seager Distillery site is typical of the many new high-density developments in London, reflecting the tightening standards on energy use and pressure on land use. This paper presents the energy and environmental performance of three apartments studied in detail, including the assessment of the performance of the building fabric, MVHR...

  14. Perceived Comfort of Indoor Environment and Users' Performance in Office Building with Smart Elements - case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipová, Ivana; Vilčeková, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    A greater degree of awareness of comfort and productivity of building users according to post-occupancy evaluation and feedback of users in intelligent buildings is necessary. This report presents a summary of the results from a physical measurements, a post-occupancy evaluation study on perceived comfort of indoor environment and self-evaluation of occupant's performance in the new multifunctional 5 floor-building in city of Kosice, Slovakia. There were investigated degree of perceived comfort and user's performance with regard to objective measurement, respondents' response and building character. This case study has highlighted that influence of monitored factors of building with smart elements is positively received and wasn't determined their negative impact on perceived comfort of indoor environment and occupants' performance. Results show that respondents are mostly satisfied with their indoor environment conditions of workplace. Interviews with respondents detected they have not been perceived (negative) factors in workplace because they have been too concentric on the work and they have not felt discomfort.

  15. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) - Better Buildings Neighborhood Program at Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance: Home Performance with Energy Star® and Better Buildings Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzhauser, Andy; Jones, Chris; Faust, Jeremy; Meyer, Chris; Van Divender, Lisa

    2013-12-30

    The Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance (Energy Alliance) is a nonprofit economic development agency dedicated to helping Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky communities reduce energy consumption. The Energy Alliance has launched programs to educate homeowners, commercial property owners, and nonprofit organizations about energy efficiency opportunities they can use to drive energy use reductions and financial savings, while extending significant focus to creating/retaining jobs through these programs. The mission of the Energy Alliance is based on the premise that investment in energy efficiency can lead to transformative economic development in a region. With support from seven municipalities, the Energy Alliance began operation in early 2010 and has been among the fastest growing nonprofit organizations in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky area. The Energy Alliance offers two programs endorsed by the Department of Energy: the Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Program for homeowners and the Better Buildings Performance Program for commercial entities. Both programs couple expert guidance, project management, and education in energy efficiency best practices with incentives and innovative energy efficiency financing to help building owners effectively invest in the energy efficiency, comfort, health, longevity, and environmental impact of their residential or commercial buildings. The Energy Alliance has raised over $23 million of public and private capital to build a robust market for energy efficiency investment. Of the $23 million, $17 million was a direct grant from the Department of Energy Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The organization’s investments in energy efficiency projects in the residential and commercial sector have led to well over $50 million in direct economic activity and created over 375,000 hours of labor created or retained. In addition, over 250 workers have been trained through the Building Performance Training

  16. Climatic zoning and its application to Spanish building energy performance regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Flor, Francisco Jose Sanchez [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Universidad de Cadiz, C/Chile 1, 11002 Cadiz (Spain); Dominguez, Servando Alvarez; Felix, Jose Luis Molina; Falcon, Rocio Gonzalez [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, DIE - Grupo de Termotecnia, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    The main requirements of European Directive 2002/91/EC on the energy performance of buildings (EPBD) are the application of minimum energy performance requirements for new buildings and certification of the energy performance of buildings. Its transposition into the national law of member states of the European Union has signified the appearance of new and more onerous requirements in terms of construction quality from the point of view of energy performance, and in terms of the procedure for certification of the energy performance of buildings. In both cases, the levels required tend to be based on climatic conditions, fundamentally in countries such as Spain, where the climatic variability is very pronounced. This paper presents a methodology developed for the climatic zoning of the localities not included in the above-mentioned regulations in order to facilitate their application. By way of example, the method is shown which was used to generate the climatic files and carry out the subsequent climatic zoning of all the municipalities of the region of Andalusia in southern Spain. (author)

  17. Assessment of energy and economic performance of office building models: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X. Y.; Ye, C. T.; Li, H. S.; Wang, X. L.; Ma, W. B.

    2016-08-01

    Energy consumption of building accounts for more than 37.3% of total energy consumption while the proportion of energy-saving buildings is just 5% in China. In this paper, in order to save potential energy, an office building in Southern China was selected as a test example for energy consumption characteristics. The base building model was developed by TRNSYS software and validated against the recorded data from the field work in six days out of August-September in 2013. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for energy performance of building envelope retrofitting; five envelope parameters were analyzed for assessing the thermal responses. Results indicated that the key sensitivity factors were obtained for the heat-transfer coefficient of exterior walls (U-wall), infiltration rate and shading coefficient (SC), of which the sum sensitivity factor was about 89.32%. In addition, the results were evaluated in terms of energy and economic analysis. The analysis of sensitivity validated against some important results of previous studies. On the other hand, the cost-effective method improved the efficiency of investment management in building energy.

  18. Parametric study on the performance of green residential buildings in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The parametric study of the indoor environment of green buildings focuses on the quantitative and qualitative improvement of residential building construction in China and the achievement of indoor thermal comfort at a low level of energy use. This study examines the effect of the adaptive thermal comfort of indoor environment control in hot summer and cold winter (HSCW zones. This work is based on a field study of the regional thermal assessment of two typical cases, the results of which are compared with simulated results of various scenarios of “energy efficiency” strategy and “healthy housing” environmental control. First, the simulated results show that the adaptive thermal comfort of indoor environment control is actually balanced in terms of occupancy, comfort, and energy efficiency. Second, adaptive thermal comfort control can save more energy for heating or cooling than other current healthy housing environmental controls in China׳s HSCW zone. Moreover, a large proportion of energy use is based on the subjective thermal comfort demand of occupants in any building type. Third, the building shape coefficient cannot dominate energy savings. The ratio of the superficial area of a building to the actual indoor floor area has a significant positive correlation with and affects the efficiency of building thermal performance.

  19. Use of building typologies for energy performance assessment of national building stocks. Existent experiences in European Countries and common approach. First TABULA synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loga, Tobias; Diefenbach, Nikolaus (eds.)

    2010-06-15

    The present study examines the experiences with building typologies in the European countries. The objective is to learn how to structure the variety of energy-related features of existing build-ings. As a result of the enquiry it can be stated that there are a lot of different activities which are based on typological criteria. Some of them are concentrating on providing information material and conducting energy advice. On the other hand, building types are used for a better understand-ing of the energy performance of building portfolios on different levels: from the strategic planning of housing companies up to the evaluation of national policies and measures in the building sector. On the basis of these experiences a common approach for building typologies has been devel-oped. The core elements of this harmonised approach are a classification systematic, a structure for building and supply system data and a coherent energy balance method. Furthermore a uni-form classification of statistical data enables a concerted approach for designing national building stock models. Finally, a concise itinerary is described which allows experts to develop step by step a national or regional building typology which are compatible with the common TABULA approach. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of Dosimetric Performance among Commercial Quality Assurance Systems for Verifying Pretreatment Plans of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Using Flattening-Filter-Free Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of different commercial quality assurance (QA) systems for the pretreatment verification plan of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) technique using a flattening-filter-free beam. The verification for 20 pretreatment cancer patients (seven lung, six spine, and seven prostate cancers) were tested using three QA systems (EBT3 film, I’mRT MatriXX array, and MapCHECK). All the SBRT-VMAT plans were optimized in the Eclipse (version 11.0.34) treatment planning system (TPS) using the Acuros XB dose calculation algorithm and were delivered to the Varian TrueBeam® accelerator equipped with a high-definition multileaf collimator. Gamma agreement evaluation was analyzed with the criteria of 2% dose difference and 2 mm distance to agreement (2%/2 mm) or 3%/3 mm. The highest passing rate (99.1% for 3%/3 mm) was observed on the MapCHECK system while the lowest passing rate was obtained on the film. The pretreatment verification results depend on the QA systems, treatment sites, and delivery beam energies. However, the delivery QA results for all QA systems based on the TPS calculation showed a good agreement of more than 90% for both the criteria. It is concluded that the three 2D QA systems have sufficient potential for pretreatment verification of the SBRT-VMAT plan. PMID:27709851

  1. Thermal and Energy Performance of Conditioned Building Due To Insulated Sloped Roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, Suhandi Syiful; Ahmed, Azni Zain; Zakaria, Nor Zaini; Ibrahim, Norhati

    2010-07-01

    For low-rise buildings in equatorial region, the roof is exposed to solar radiation longer than other parts of the envelope. Roofs are to be designed to reject heat and moderate the thermal impact. These are determined by the design and construction of the roofing system. The pitch of roof and the properties of construction affect the heat gain into the attic and subsequently the indoor temperature of the living spaces underneath. This finally influences the thermal comfort conditions of naturally ventilated buildings and cooling load of conditioned buildings. This study investigated the effect of insulated sloping roof on thermal energy performance of the building. A whole-building thermal energy computer simulation tool, Integrated Environmental Solution (IES), was used for the modelling and analyses. A building model with dimension of 4.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m was designed with insulated roof and conventional construction for other parts of the envelope. A 75 mm conductive insulation material with thermal conductivity (k-value) of 0.034 Wm-1K-1 was installed underneath the roof tiles. The building was modelled with roof pitch angles of 0° , 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and simulated for the month of August in Malaysian climate conditions. The profile for attic temperature, indoor temperature and cooling load were downloaded and evaluated. The optimum roof pitch angle for best thermal performance and energy saving was identified. The results show the pitch angle of 0° is able to mitigate the thermal impact to provide the best thermal condition with optimum energy savings. The maximum temperature difference between insulated and non-insulted roof for attic (AtticA-B) and indoor condition (IndoorA-B) is +7.8 °C and 0.4 °C respectively with an average energy monthly savings of 3.9 %.

  2. Findings from Seven Years of Field Performance Data for Automated Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Mathieu, Johanna; Parrish, Kristen

    2010-05-14

    California is a leader in automating demand response (DR) to promote low-cost, consistent, and predictable electric grid management tools. Over 250 commercial and industrial facilities in California participate in fully-automated programs providing over 60 MW of peak DR savings. This paper presents a summary of Open Automated DR (OpenADR) implementation by each of the investor-owned utilities in California. It provides a summary of participation, DR strategies and incentives. Commercial buildings can reduce peak demand from 5 to 15percent with an average of 13percent. Industrial facilities shed much higher loads. For buildings with multi-year savings we evaluate their load variability and shed variability. We provide a summary of control strategies deployed, along with costs to install automation. We report on how the electric DR control strategies perform over many years of events. We benchmark the peak demand of this sample of buildings against their past baselines to understand the differences in building performance over the years. This is done with peak demand intensities and load factors. The paper also describes the importance of these data in helping to understand possible techniques to reach net zero energy using peak day dynamic control capabilities in commercial buildings. We present an example in which the electric load shape changed as a result of a lighting retrofit.

  3. Highlighting High Performance Buildings: Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-11-01

    Oberlin College's Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies is a high-performance building featuring an expansive photovoltaic system and a closed-loop groundwater heat pump system. Designers incorporated energy-efficient components and materials that are local, non-toxic, and durable.

  4. Reducing Simulation Performance Gap in Hemp-Lime Buildings Using Fourier Filtering †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Jankovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mainstream dynamic simulation tools used by designers do not have a built-in capability to accurately simulate the effect of hemp-lime on building temperature and relative humidity. Due to the specific structure of hemp-lime, heat travels via a maze of solid branches whilst the capillary tubes absorb and release moisture. The resultant heat and moisture transfer cannot be fully represented in mainstream simulation tools, causing a significant performance gap between the simulation and the actual performance. The author has developed an analysis method, based on a numerical procedure for digital signal filtering using Fourier series. The paper develops and experimentally validates transfer functions that enhance simulation results and enable accurate representation of behaviour of buildings built from hemp-lime material using the results of a post-occupancy research project. As a performance gap between design simulation and actual buildings occurs in relation to all buildings, this method has a wider scope of application in reducing the performance gap.

  5. Indoor environmental input parameters for the design and assessment of energy performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The first international standard that dealtwith all indoor environmental parameters (thermal comfort, air quality, lightingand acoustic) was published in 2007 asEN15251. This standard prescribed inputparameters for design and assessment ofenergy performance of buildings and was apart of the set...

  6. Technical Note: Development and performance of a software tool for quality assurance of online replanning with a conventional Linac or MR-Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Pei; Ahunbay, Ergun; Li, X Allen

    2016-04-01

    To develop an integrated quality assurance (QA) software tool for online replanning capable of efficiently and automatically checking radiation treatment (RT) planning parameters and gross plan quality, verifying treatment plan data transfer from treatment planning system (TPS) to record and verify (R&V) system, performing a secondary monitor unit (MU) calculation with or without a presence of a magnetic field from MR-Linac, and validating the delivery record consistency with the plan. The software tool, named ArtQA, was developed to obtain and compare plan and treatment parameters from both the TPS and the R&V system database. The TPS data are accessed via direct file reading and the R&V data are retrieved via open database connectivity and structured query language. Plan quality is evaluated with both the logical consistency of planning parameters and the achieved dose-volume histograms. Beams in between the TPS and R&V system are matched based on geometry configurations. To consider the effect of a 1.5 T transverse magnetic field from MR-Linac in the secondary MU calculation, a method based on modified Clarkson integration algorithm was developed and tested for a series of clinical situations. ArtQA has been used in their clinic and can quickly detect inconsistencies and deviations in the entire RT planning process. With the use of the ArtQA tool, the efficiency for plan check including plan quality, data transfer, and delivery check can be improved by at least 60%. The newly developed independent MU calculation tool for MR-Linac reduces the difference between the plan and calculated MUs by 10%. The software tool ArtQA can be used to perform a comprehensive QA check from planning to delivery with conventional Linac or MR-Linac and is an essential tool for online replanning where the QA check needs to be performed rapidly.

  7. A SOFTWARE TOOL TO COMPARE MEASURED AND SIMULATED BUILDING ENERGY PERFORMANCE DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maile, Tobias; Bazjanac, Vladimir; O' Donnell, James; Garr, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    Building energy performance is often inadequate when compared to design goals. To link design goals to actual operation one can compare measured with simulated energy performance data. Our previously developed comparison approach is the Energy Performance Comparison Methodology (EPCM), which enables the identification of performance problems based on a comparison of measured and simulated performance data. In context of this method, we developed a software tool that provides graphing and data processing capabilities of the two performance data sets. The software tool called SEE IT (Stanford Energy Efficiency Information Tool) eliminates the need for manual generation of data plots and data reformatting. SEE IT makes the generation of time series, scatter and carpet plots independent of the source of data (measured or simulated) and provides a valuable tool for comparing measurements with simulation results. SEE IT also allows assigning data points on a predefined building object hierarchy and supports different versions of simulated performance data. This paper briefly introduces the EPCM, describes the SEE IT tool and illustrates its use in the context of a building case study.

  8. Using passive cooling strategies to improve thermal performance and reduce energy consumption of residential buildings in U.A.E. buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Taleb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive design responds to local climate and site conditions in order to maximise the comfort and health of building users while minimising energy use. The key to designing a passive building is to take best advantage of the local climate. Passive cooling refers to any technologies or design features adopted to reduce the temperature of buildings without the need for power consumption. Consequently, the aim of this study is to test the usefulness of applying selected passive cooling strategies to improve thermal performance and to reduce energy consumption of residential buildings in hot arid climate settings, namely Dubai, United Arab Emirates. One case building was selected and eight passive cooling strategies were applied. Energy simulation software – namely IES – was used to assess the performance of the building. Solar shading performance was also assessed using Sun Cast Analysis, as a part of the IES software. Energy reduction was achieved due to both the harnessing of natural ventilation and the minimising of heat gain in line with applying good shading devices alongside the use of double glazing. Additionally, green roofing proved its potential by acting as an effective roof insulation. The study revealed several significant findings including that the total annual energy consumption of a residential building in Dubai may be reduced by up to 23.6% when a building uses passive cooling strategies.

  9. Real estate market and building energy performance: Data for a mass appraisal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaci, Pietro; Copiello, Sergio

    2015-12-01

    Mass appraisal is widely considered an advanced frontier in the real estate valuation field. Performing mass appraisal entails the need to get access to base information conveyed by a large amount of transactions, such as prices and property features. Due to the lack of transparency of many Italian real estate market segments, our survey has been addressed to gather data from residential property advertisements. The dataset specifically focuses on property offer prices and dwelling energy efficiency. The latter refers to the label expressed and exhibited by the energy performance certificate. Moreover, data are georeferenced with the highest possible accuracy: at the neighborhood level for a 76.8% of cases, at street or building number level for the remaining 23.2%. Data are related to the analysis performed in Bonifaci and Copiello [1], about the relationship between house prices and building energy performance, that is to say, the willingness to pay in order to benefit from more efficient dwellings.

  10. Introduction to Cost Control Strategies for Zero Energy Buildings: High-Performance Design and Construction on a Budget (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    Momentum behind zero energy building design and construction is increasing, presenting a tremendous opportunity for advancing energy performance in the commercial building industry. At the same time, there is a lingering perception that zero energy buildings must be cost prohibitive or limited to showcase projects. Fortunately, an increasing number of projects are demonstrating that high performance can be achieved within typical budgets. This factsheet highlights replicable, recommended strategies for achieving high performance on a budget, based on experiences from past projects.

  11. Key Performance Indicators for Maintenance Management Effectiveness of Public Hospital Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Omar Mardhiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of management in maintenance aspect holds the key element in influencing the performance of overall maintenance management. Similarly, public hospital building needs an effective maintenance management as this type of building in nature is one of the most complex issues in the field of maintenance. Improper building maintenance management adopted by the organization significantly will interrupt the overall operation of the building. Therefore, this paper is aim to identifying the key performance indicator (KPI of effectiveness of maintenance management for the public hospital building. A total of 32 set of questionnaires were distributed to the maintenance manager for each hospital in the northern region of peninsular Malaysia by using self-administration strategy. The survey answer was analyzed by performing descriptive analysis in SPSS. Overall, the result of descriptive analysis shows that all the ten factors of effectiveness of maintenance management are accepted as KPI since the mean value is at least 3.93 which classified as important and significant. The most significant factor of effectiveness of maintenance management is task planning and scheduling with the mean score of 4.35. While less significant factor is identify as maintenance approach with the value of mean score is 3.93. The both results indicates that the management need to have well-structured planning for the maintenance works and also need to embrace the exact strategy of maintenance approach in order to achieved better overall performance of maintenance management. This study may draw a standard practice for the government in assessing the performance of public facilities in terms of maintenance management.

  12. A novel preparation procedure of future weather datasets for building performance simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Chuang, Kai-Han

    2014-05-01

    The concern on climate change leads to growing demand for countermeasures against its impact on building performance. The aspects of building performance study includes the analysis of indoor thermal environment, building energy use, and energy efficiency design of building envelope. It enables and facilitates the evaluation of a building's performance during the design phase for adjusting the proposed architectural design to meet the expected performance criteria. The assessment of a building's performance is often done by hourly or sub-hourly computer dynamic simulation software with local weather datasets. These weather datasets, which are termed typical meteorological years (TMYs), are selected from long-term observed historical weather by means of Sandia method to ensure their representatives of local climate. Each TMY contains hourly values of observed data of a 1-year period. For the reason of longevous building lifespan and on-going climate change, one might ask how well the building is able to cope with future climate and what kind of countermeasure we should implement in advanced in face of climate change. However, the results obtained from the simulation with TMY couldn't forecast a building's performance in a future climate context without future climate is concerned. In this regard, future climate responsive meteorological data is needed for future climate impact study. From previous studies, as Belcher proposed, the future responsive weather data could be constructed by morphing existing TMY with future weather predicted by general circulation models (GCMs), which could substantially alleviate efforts from spatial and temporal downscaling processes. Consequently, choosing an adequate GCM that fits well with local climatic change pattern is in crucial need. The objective of the study is to develop a new GCMs selection method for generating future meteorological data. During TMY morphing procedure, monthly changes of a certain meteorological element in

  13. 10 CFR 26.137 - Quality assurance and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quality assurance and quality control. 26.137 Section 26....137 Quality assurance and quality control. (a) Quality assurance program. Each licensee testing... metabolites. (b) Performance testing and quality control requirements for validity screening tests....

  14. Quality assurance or neo-imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2013-01-01

    intention to do the opposite. Hence, we want to address how to make quality assurance can be made without imposing Western epistemologies. We call for an appreciation of different knowledges instead of mainstreaming in the name of internationalisation and globalisation. Capacity building of higher education...

  15. SECURE MATHEMATICALLY- ASSURED COMPOSITION OF CONTROL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-27

    that is provably secure against many classes of cyber -attack. The goal of the project is to provide verifiable security ; that is, system designs which...architecture of the secure SMACCMcopter, illustrating the attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 46 Failed cyber -attack...approach for building secure software. DARPA initiated the High Assurance Cyber Military Systems (HACMS) program to develop the technologies needed to

  16. Development of new methodologies for evaluating the energy performance of new commercial buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Suwon

    The concept of Measurement and Verification (M&V) of a new building continues to become more important because efficient design alone is often not sufficient to deliver an efficient building. Simulation models that are calibrated to measured data can be used to evaluate the energy performance of new buildings if they are compared to energy baselines such as similar buildings, energy codes, and design standards. Unfortunately, there is a lack of detailed M&V methods and analysis methods to measure energy savings from new buildings that would have hypothetical energy baselines. Therefore, this study developed and demonstrated several new methodologies for evaluating the energy performance of new commercial buildings using a case-study building in Austin, Texas. First, three new M&V methods were developed to enhance the previous generic M&V framework for new buildings, including: (1) The development of a method to synthesize weather-normalized cooling energy use from a correlation of Motor Control Center (MCC) electricity use when chilled water use is unavailable, (2) The development of an improved method to analyze measured solar transmittance against incidence angle for sample glazing using different solar sensor types, including Eppley PSP and Li-Cor sensors, and (3) The development of an improved method to analyze chiller efficiency and operation at part-load conditions. Second, three new calibration methods were developed and analyzed, including: (1) A new percentile analysis added to the previous signature method for use with a DOE-2 calibration, (2) A new analysis to account for undocumented exhaust air in DOE-2 calibration, and (3) An analysis of the impact of synthesized direct normal solar radiation using the Erbs correlation on DOE-2 simulation. Third, an analysis of the actual energy savings compared to three different energy baselines was performed, including: (1) Energy Use Index (EUI) comparisons with sub-metered data, (2) New comparisons against

  17. Influence of the convective surface transfer coefficients on the Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) building performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    HAM conditions. The paper focuses on the influence of the interior surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients, and investigates its effect on the hygrothermal performance. The parameter study showed that the magnitude of the convective surface transfer coefficients have a relatively large......Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in buildings assume constant boundary conditions for the temperature and relative humidity of the neighbouring air and for the surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients. These assumptions may introduce errors in the predicted...... influence on the predicted hygrothermal conditions at the surface of a building component and on the heat and vapour exchange with the indoor environment....

  18. Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R. J.; Knoll, R. H.; Jensen, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. An 1180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row are calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every 5 minutes using a mini-computer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

  19. A dynamic experimental study on the evaporative cooling performance of porous building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Lei; Meng, Qinglin; Feng, Yanshan; Chen, Yuanrui

    2017-08-01

    Conventional outdoor dynamic and indoor steady-state experiments have certain limitations in regard to investigating the evaporative cooling performance of porous building materials. The present study investigated the evaporative cooling performance of a porous building material using a special wind tunnel apparatus. First, the composition and control principles of the wind tunnel environment control system were elucidated. Then, the meteorological environment on a typical summer day in Guangzhou was reproduced in the wind tunnel and the evaporation process and thermal parameters of specimens composed of a porous building material were continuously measured. Finally, the experimental results were analysed to evaluate the accuracy of the wind tunnel environment control system, the heat budget of the external surface of the specimens and the total thermal resistance of the specimens and its uncertainty. The analysis results indicated that the normalized root-mean-square error between the measured value of each environmental parameter in the wind tunnel test section and the corresponding value input into the environment control system was internal surface of the specimen. Compared to the dry specimen, the total thermal resistance of the wet specimen was approximately doubled, indicating that the evaporation process of the porous building material could significantly improve the thermal insulation performance of the specimen.

  20. Effect of Selected Procurement Systems on Building Project Performance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga Timothy Oladirin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Every client at the beginning of any project aims at having value for the money spent via a quality structure delivered on time and within budget by the contractor. However, researches have shown that in most cases this aim is not met. Therefore, this study examines the effect of procurement systems on building project performance in Nigeria, with a view to assess their effect on cost and quality. The data for this study were collected with the aid of structured questionnaires which were administered to actors in the construction industry in Lagos state being the major hub of construction activities in Nigeria. The questionnaires were related to the variants of procurement systems common to the Nigerian construction industry. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics. The result revealed that the traditional system of procurement is the most adopted option in project execution in Nigeria. Meanwhile, design and build system performs better in cost, but lag construction management system in quality achievement. The study concluded that no procurement system is a do it all in that a procurement system may perform better than the other in an instant and fail in others as revealed in the findings. The study finally recommends that consultants and other stakeholders in the construction industry and particularly those in the building sector should be up to date as to be able to suitably advise clients when it comes to building procurement, and that before choosing a procurement system the main objective and even supporting objectives should be established

  1. Comparative assessment of environmental performance tools and the role of the Green Building Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, J.A.; Crawley, D.; Geissler, S.; Lindsey, G.

    2001-09-01

    Green Building Challenge (GBC) was intended to advance the state-of-the-art of building performance assessment, through the development, testing, and discussion of an assessment framework, criteria and tool. The contributions of GBC to building performance assessment are considered through comparing similarities and differences with a selection of available assessment tools. Unlike national or proprietary assessment systems, GBC was not designed for application to specific commercial markets. Instead, it emphasized research and involved researchers and practitioners from many countries. Consequently, GBC has been in a unique position to test and adopt new ideas and implement step changes. GBC's roles over the past five years have been to provide a reference framework, method and tools that can be used to develop new systems or improve existing systems; provide a forum for discussion among researchers and practitioners worldwide; and raise awareness and credibility of assessment systems. GBC's role has evolved as the context in which it operates has changed. Based on the analysis on GBC's specific characteristics and strengths, its potential future roles are found to reside in a unique position. Its role as a reference system has become less important to many participants as they implement their own national assessment systems. However, GBC's role as a forum and catalyst for change has taken on greater importance as researchers and practitioners continue to wrestle with the most difficult issues in building performance assessment. (author)

  2. [Quality assurance in human genetic testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhrmann-Spangenberg, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    Advances in technical developments of genetic diagnostics for more than 50 years, as well as the fact that human genetic testing is usually performed only once in a lifetime, with additional impact for blood relatives, are determining the extraordinary importance of quality assurance in human genetic testing. Abidance of laws, directives, and guidelines plays a major role. This article aims to present the major laws, directives, and guidelines with respect to quality assurance of human genetic testing, paying careful attention to internal and external quality assurance. The information on quality assurance of human genetic testing was obtained through a web-based search of the web pages that are referred to in this article. Further information was retrieved from publications in the German Society of Human Genetics and through a PubMed-search using term quality + assurance + genetic + diagnostics. The most important laws, directives, and guidelines for quality assurance of human genetic testing are the gene diagnostics law (GenDG), the directive of the Federal Medical Council for quality control of clinical laboratory analysis (RiliBÄK), and the S2K guideline for human genetic diagnostics and counselling. In addition, voluntary accreditation under DIN EN ISO 15189:2013 offers a most recommended contribution towards quality assurance of human genetic testing. Legal restraints on quality assurance of human genetic testing as mentioned in § 5 GenDG are fulfilled once RiliBÄK requirements are followed.

  3. References on EPA Quality Assurance Project Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides requirements for the conduct of quality management practices, including quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) activities, for all environmental data collection and environmental technology programs performed by or for this Agency.

  4. High assurance services computing

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Covers service-oriented technologies in different domains including high assurance systemsAssists software engineers from industry and government laboratories who develop mission-critical software, and simultaneously provides academia with a practitioner's outlook on the problems of high-assurance software development

  5. Software Assurance Competency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    2010a]: Application of technologies and processes to achieve a required level of confidence that software systems and services function in the...for specific projects. L5: Analyze assurance technologies and contribute to the development of new ones. Assured Software Development L1

  6. User Participation in the Building Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Sørensen, Kristian Birch

    2011-01-01

    of it is evaluated by the end-users in the (4) 'Solution space'. Three on-going construction projects were used as cases in the development and in the testing of VICMET. Collaborative Virtual Reality environments were tested in order to present and discuss the suggested solutions with users. The virtual environments......Virtual Innovation in Construction (VIC) is a project aiming to develop an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported methodology VIC-MET, to involve building end-users in a creative innovation process together with building designers, and to capture and formulate end-user needs...... building systems (FBS), which are realized as component building systems (CBS), which will form parts in the total building solution. The formulated needs provide input to specific requirements in order to assure expected performance of the building components. The final virtual building model or part...

  7. EPIQR - a decision making tool for apartment building refurbishment. [Energy Performance, Indoor Environmental Quality, Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccavelli, D. (Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, Cedex (France)); Balaras, C. (National Observatory of Athens, Athens (Greece)); Bluyssen, P. (TNO Building and Construction Research, Delft (Netherlands)); Flourentzou, F. (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (France)); Jaggs, M. (Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom)); Wetzel, C. (Fraunhofer-Institut

    1999-01-01

    In a large majority of European countries, the amount of the maintenance and refurbishment works represents nearly 50% of the total amount spent in the building sector. New requirements are being added to the necessity of maintaining or re-establishing the building stock's usage value. They are linked to the determination to reduce energy consumption, pollutant emissions, work site wastes, to improve the Indoor Environment Quality and all the modern conveniences inside apartment. Aware of this matter, the European Community has launched a two-year European research project, entitled EPIQR (Energy Performance, Indoor Environmental Quality, Retrofit) involving seven research institutions in the frame of the JOULE III programme. The purpose is to give architects and contracting authorities a multimedia tool to enable them to simultaneously grasp the whole process of apartment building refurbishment or retrofit. It has a number of functions: Assess the building's degradation state based on a technical diagnosis after a standardised and complete inspection of the building; Prepare work proposals. These take into account not only the renovation of the building but also the improvement of the energy performance and IEQ; Estimate the costs corresponding to these works. A data base, containing the costs of 800 refurbishment works, provides a fast estimate of the total amount of the works being considered; Estimate the evolution of the degradation of the components if none of the works were to be carried out, as well as the refurbishment costs which would result. This paper provides an overview of the EPIQR methodology and the final deliverables of the project. (au)

  8. Urban temperature analysis and impact on the building cooling energy performances: an Italian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Zinzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes and urban sprawl are dramatically increasing the heat island effect in urban environments, whatever the size and the latitude are, affecting these latter parameters the effect intensity. The urban heats island is a phenomenon observed since the last decades of the XIX century but demonstrated at large scale only one century later, characterised by the increase of air temperature in densely built urban environments respect to the countryside surround cities. Many studies are available, showing urban heat island intensities up to 12°C. This thermal stress causes social, health and environmental hazards, with major consequences on weaker social classes, as elderly and low income people, it is not by chance that survey demonstrated the increase of deaths in such categories during intense and extended heat waves. This study presents the firs results on the observation of air temperature measures in different spots of Rome, city characterised by a typical Mediterranean climate and by a complex urban texture, in which densely built areas are kept separated by relatively green or not-built zones. Six spots are monitored since June 2014 and include: historical city centre, semi-central zones with different construction typologies, surrounding areas again with various urban and building designs. The paper is focused on the analysis of summer temperature profiles, increase respect to the temperature outside the cities and the impact on the cooling performance of buildings. Temperature datasets and a reference building model were inputted into the well-known and calibrated dynamic tool TRNSYS. Cooling net energy demand of the reference building was calculated, as well as the operative temperature evolution in the not cooled building configuration. The results of calculation allow to compare the energy and thermal performances in the urban environment respect to the reference conditions, usually adopted by building codes. Advice and

  9. Generation of a Tropically Adapted Energy Performance Certificate for Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Wagner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, national green building certification indices have emerged around the globe as promising measurement tools for environmental-friendly housing. Since 2008, tools for countries in the Northern “colder” hemisphere have been adapted to tropical countries. In contrast, the Tropically Adapted Energy Performance Certificate (TEPC, established in 2012, translates the United Nations’ triple bottom line principle into green building sustainability (planet, thermal comfort (people and affordability (profit. The tool has been especially developed and revamped for affordable green building assessment helping to reduce global warming. Hence, by the comparably simple and transparent energy audit it provides, the TEPC examines buildings for their: (1 contribution to reduce CO2; (2 transmission rate in shielding a building’s envelope against the effects of the tropical heat; (3 generation of thermal comfort and (4 referring total cost of ownership to green the building further. All four dimensions are measured in the rainbow colour scale in compliance with national energy regulations. Accordingly, this research examines the tool’s implementation in tropical countries. Exemplified tropical case studies in residential areas seek to demonstrate the practicability of the approach and to derive a holistic certification by an internationally accredited certification board.

  10. Energy Performance of Three Residential College Buildings in University of Malaya Campus, Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three residential colleges located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were selected for energy performance analysis in regards to its implementation of bioclimatic design strategies. Specifically, passive design strategies on daylighting and natural ventilation were examined. In Malaysia, the residential college or hostel is a multi-residential building providing accommodation to university students. The three residential colleges in this study, namely C1, C2 and C3, were built in different years with different designs and forms, particularly with regards to enclosure and facade design, solar control devices, passive daylight concepts, and natural ventilation strategies. The building designs were carefully studied and an electric consumption analysis was carried out in each residential college. This study revealed that the wide-scale implementation of bioclimatic design strategies in college C2 help reduced the annual energy consumption. The building bioclimatic design features that are accountable to reduce energy consumption are the internal courtyard and balconies on each unit of floor area, as shown in C3.Results from this study highly recommend internal courtyard and balcony building combination for multi residential building design, especially in tropical urban regions.

  11. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  12. Implementation of the EU directive on the energy performance of buildings: Development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of buildings and inspection of boilers. Project document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    'Development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of buildings and inspection of boilers' includes major steps in implementing the EU EPB directive in Latvia. The EPB directive includes a number of efforts: 1. A methodology for calculation of the integrated energy performance of buildings 2. Application of minimum requirements on the energy performance for new buildings 3. Application of minimum requirements on the energy performance for larger existing buildings subject to major renovation 4. Energy performance certification (energy labelling) of buildings 5. Regular inspection of boilers and of air-conditioning systems in buildings, and assessment of heating installations in older systems. The present project includes activities connected to point 4 and point 5. The results will include 4 steps in implementing the EU EPB directive: 1) A Latvian training of certified independent energy auditors to be active conducting energy audits and issuing energy performance certificates. Including a handbook in energy auditing. 2) A Latvian training of certified independent experts for inspection of boilers, air-con systems and assessing older heating systems. Including a handbook in boiler inspection. 3) A proposal for the institutional set-up for a connected scheme for energy auditing and a scheme for boiler inspection 4) Initial information on the scheme of energy auditors and of the boiler inspection. (au)

  13. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  14. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Energy Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; de Carli, Michele

    2011-01-01

    According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting...... systems. This energy declaration must refer to the primary energy or CO2 emissions. The European Organization for Standardization (CEN) has prepared a series of standards for energy performance calculations for buildings and systems. This paper presents related standards for heating systems. The relevant...... CEN-standards are presented and a sample calculation of energy performance is made for a small single family house, an office building and an industrial building in three different geographical locations: Stockholm, Brussels, and Venice. The additional heat losses from heating systems can be 10...

  15. Energy performance modelling and heat recovery unit efficiency assessment of an office building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmati Norbert L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates and analyzes a typical multi-zone office building’s annual energy performance for the location and climate data of central Belgrade. The aim is to evaluate the HVAC system’s and HR unit’s performance in order to conduct the most preferable heating and cooling solution for the typical climate of Belgrade city. The energy performance of four HVAC system types (heat pump - air to air, gas-electricity, electrical and fan coil system was analyzed, compared and evaluated on a virtual office building model in order to assess the total annual energy performance and to determine the efficiency of the HR unit’s application. Further, the parameters of an energy efficient building envelope, HVAC system, internal loads, building operation schedules and occupancy intervals were implemented into the multi-zone analysis model. The investigation was conducted in EnergyPlus simulation engine using system thermodynamic algorithms and surface/air heat balance modules. The comparison and evaluation of the obtained results was achieved through the conversion of the calculated total energy demand into primary energy. The goal is conduct the most preferable heating and cooling solution (Best Case Scenario for the climate of Belgrade city and outline major criteria in qualitative enhancement.

  16. Solving Human Performance Problems with Computers. A Case Study: Building an Electronic Performance Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Barry

    1990-01-01

    Describes the design of an electronic performance support system (PSS) that was developed to help sales and support personnel access relevant information needed for good job performance. Highlights include expert systems, databases, interactive video discs, formatting information online, information retrieval techniques, HyperCard, computer-based…

  17. Developing a next-generation community college curriculum forenergy-efficient high-performance building operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, Peter; Kyriakopedi, Nick; Mills, Evan; Haves, Philip; Otto, Roland J.; Piette, Mary Ann; Xu, Peng; Diamond, Rick; Frost, Chuck; Deringer, Joe

    2004-05-01

    The challenges of increased technological demands in today's workplace require virtually all workers to develop higher-order cognitive skills including problem solving and systems thinking in order to be productive. Such ''habits of mind'' are viewed as particularly critical for success in the information-based workplace, which values reduced hierarchy, greater worker independence, teamwork, communications skills, non-routine problem solving, and understanding of complex systems. The need is particularly compelling in the buildings arena. To scope the problem, this paper presents the results of interviews and focus groups--conducted by Oakland California's Peralta Community College District and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory--in which approximately 50 industry stakeholders discussed contemporary needs for building operator education at the community college level. Numerous gaps were identified between the education today received by building operators and technicians and current workplace needs. The participants concurred that many of the problems seen today in achieving and maintaining energy savings in buildings can be traced to inadequacies in building operation and lack of awareness and knowledge about how existing systems are to be used, monitored, and maintained. Participants and others we interviewed affirmed that while these issues are addressed in various graduate-level and continuing education programs, they are virtually absent at the community college level. Based on that assessment of industry needs, we present a new curriculum and innovative simulation-based learning tool to provide technicians with skills necessary to commission and operate high-performance buildings, with particular emphasis on energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality in the context of HVAC&R equipment and control systems.

  18. Quality assurance of metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhifd, Mounir; Beger, Richard; Flynn, Thomas; Guo, Lining; Harris, Georgina; Hogberg, Helena; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Kamp, Hennicke; Kleensang, Andre; Maertens, Alexandra; Odwin-DaCosta, Shelly; Pamies, David; Robertson, Donald; Smirnova, Lena; Sun, Jinchun; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics promises a holistic phenotypic characterization of biological responses to toxicants. This technology is based on advanced chemical analytical tools with reasonable throughput, including mass-spectroscopy and NMR. Quality assurance, however - from experimental design, sample preparation, metabolite identification, to bioinformatics data-mining - is urgently needed to assure both quality of metabolomics data and reproducibility of biological models. In contrast to microarray-based transcriptomics, where consensus on quality assurance and reporting standards has been fostered over the last two decades, quality assurance of metabolomics is only now emerging. Regulatory use in safety sciences, and even proper scientific use of these technologies, demand quality assurance. In an effort to promote this discussion, an expert workshop discussed the quality assurance needs of metabolomics. The goals for this workshop were 1) to consider the challenges associated with metabolomics as an emerging science, with an emphasis on its application in toxicology and 2) to identify the key issues to be addressed in order to establish and implement quality assurance procedures in metabolomics-based toxicology. Consensus has still to be achieved regarding best practices to make sure sound, useful, and relevant information is derived from these new tools.

  19. Building and Running the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Model in a Quality Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Kalinich; K.P. Lee; J.A. McNeish

    2005-01-09

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model has been developed to support the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Yucca Mountain High-Level Waste Repository. The TSPA model forecasts repository performance over a 20,000-year simulation period. It has a high degree of complexity due to the complexity of its underlying process and abstraction models. This is reflected in the size of the model (a 27,000 element GoldSim file), its use of dynamic-linked libraries (14 DLLs), the number and size of its input files (659 files totaling 4.7 GB), and the number of model input parameters (2541 input database entries). TSPA model development and subsequent simulations with the final version of the model were performed to a set of Quality Assurance (QA) procedures. Due to the complexity of the model, comments on previous TSPAs, and the number of analysts involved (22 analysts in seven cities across four time zones), additional controls for the entire life-cycle of the TSPA model, including management, physical, model change, and input controls were developed and documented. These controls did not replace the QA. procedures, rather they provided guidance for implementing the requirements of the QA procedures with the specific intent of ensuring that the model development process and the simulations performed with the final version of the model had sufficient checking, traceability, and transparency. Management controls were developed to ensure that only management-approved changes were implemented into the TSPA model and that only management-approved model runs were performed. Physical controls were developed to track the use of prototype software and preliminary input files, and to ensure that only qualified software and inputs were used in the final version of the TSPA model. In addition, a system was developed to name, file, and track development versions of the TSPA model as well as simulations performed with the final version of the model.

  20. Simplified Assessment of R3 Nominal Assurance Degree to Seismic Action of the Existing Masonry Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Broşteanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the assessment of the performance level of a building for a given seismic hazard level. Building performance level describes the expected seismic performance given by the computation of R3 Nominal Assurance Degree to Seismic Action of the Existing Masonry Dwellings and Monumental Buildings according to the Romanian Norm P100:1992 [1], modified on 1996 with the chapters 11 and 12, until the Part 3 of P100-1:2006 [2], will be performed for the Assessment and Strengthening Structural Design of the Seismic Vulnerable, Existing Buildings, in the frame of SR EN 1998-1:2004 EC8 [3]. The framing of damages into the potential risk degrees has a social and economic impact. Assessment and retrofitting of the existing buildings have represented a huge engineering challenge as a distinct problem versus a new building design. The performance level of a vulnerable existing building shows us the expected seismic performance level due to the classified damages, the pattern of cracks, the interruption of function, the economic losses and the needed interventions, all in function of the importance class of building on next life span of use. On recommends the computation of R (R3 Nominal Assurance Degree to Seismic Action of the Vulnerable Dwellings for the assessing and strengthening design, in comparison to both norms because of the bearing conventional seismic load computed by [1], will result less than the value which will be computed by the Part 3 of P100-1:2006, i.e. the norm P100:1992 is more severe. In the case of the breakable fracture probability of the existing structural masonry members, one recommends a bigger value of ? – reduction factor unless the given values by [1] for a new structure with a high ductility, especially for the deflections calibration on the same limit state.

  1. An Adaptive Intelligent Integrated Lighting Control Approach for High-Performance Office Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karizi, Nasim

    An acute and crucial societal problem is the energy consumed in existing commercial buildings. There are 1.5 million commercial buildings in the U.S. with only about 3% being built each year. Hence, existing buildings need to be properly operated and maintained for several decades. Application of integrated centralized control systems in buildings could lead to more than 50% energy savings. This research work demonstrates an innovative adaptive integrated lighting control approach which could achieve significant energy savings and increase indoor comfort in high performance office buildings. In the first phase of the study, a predictive algorithm was developed and validated through experiments in an actual test room. The objective was to regulate daylight on a specified work plane by controlling the blind slat angles. Furthermore, a sensor-based integrated adaptive lighting controller was designed in Simulink which included an innovative sensor optimization approach based on genetic algorithm to minimize the number of sensors and efficiently place them in the office. The controller was designed based on simple integral controllers. The objective of developed control algorithm was to improve the illuminance situation in the office through controlling the daylight and electrical lighting. To evaluate the performance of the system, the controller was applied on experimental office model in Lee et al.'s research study in 1998. The result of the developed control approach indicate a significantly improvement in lighting situation and 1-23% and 50-78% monthly electrical energy savings in the office model, compared to two static strategies when the blinds were left open and closed during the whole year respectively.

  2. Review of California and National Methods for Energy PerformanceBenchmarking of Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matson, Nance E.; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-09-05

    This benchmarking review has been developed to support benchmarking planning and tool development under discussion by the California Energy Commission (CEC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and others in response to the Governor's Executive Order S-20-04 (2004). The Executive Order sets a goal of benchmarking and improving the energy efficiency of California's existing commercial building stock. The Executive Order requires the CEC to propose ''a simple building efficiency benchmarking system for all commercial buildings in the state''. This report summarizes and compares two currently available commercial building energy-benchmarking tools. One tool is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Energy Star National Energy Performance Rating System, which is a national regression-based benchmarking model (referred to in this report as Energy Star). The second is Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Cal-Arch, which is a California-based distributional model (referred to as Cal-Arch). Prior to the time Cal-Arch was developed in 2002, there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers but none that were based solely on California data. The Energy Star and Cal-Arch benchmarking tools both provide California with unique and useful methods to benchmark the energy performance of California's buildings. Rather than determine which model is ''better'', the purpose of this report is to understand and compare the underlying data, information systems, assumptions, and outcomes of each model.

  3. Energy performance of building designs: evaluation using the CIBSE Building Code Part 2(a) on a spreadsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, A.R.; Pedder, K. [South Bank University, London (United Kingdom). School of Engineering Systems and Design

    1996-12-31

    The CIBSE Building Energy Code was first published in 1981 but has not been widely used among architects, civil engineers or building services engineers. A full calculation will require about 60 separate data inputs with some 80 calculation steps; perceived complexity and opacity perhaps inevitably lead to reduction in confidence. It is however, an ideal candidate to transferring to spreadsheet format. This paper presents work developed from an educational programme which allows simplified use of an otherwise complex and time-consuming procedure. It also allows the building thermal demand targets to be calculated from first principles. (author)

  4. Multi-Objective Optimization for Energy Performance Improvement of Residential Buildings: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangji Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous conflicting criteria exist in building design optimization, such as energy consumption, greenhouse gas emission and indoor thermal performance. Different simulation-based optimization strategies and various optimization algorithms have been developed. A few of them are analyzed and compared in solving building design problems. This paper presents an efficient optimization framework to facilitate optimization designs with the aid of commercial simulation software and MATLAB. The performances of three optimization strategies, including the proposed approach, GenOpt method and artificial neural network (ANN method, are investigated using a case study of a simple building energy model. Results show that the proposed optimization framework has competitive performances compared with the GenOpt method. Further, in another practical case, four popular multi-objective algorithms, e.g., the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II, multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO, the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA and multi-objective differential evolution (MODE, are realized using the propose optimization framework and compared with three criteria. Results indicate that MODE achieves close-to-optimal solutions with the best diversity and execution time. An uncompetitive result is achieved by the MOPSO in this case study.

  5. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januševičius, Karolis; Streckienė, Giedrė

    2013-12-01

    In near zero energy buildings (NZEB) built in Baltic countries, heat production systems meet the challenge of large share domestic hot water demand and high required heating capacity. Due to passive solar design, cooling demand in residential buildings also needs an assessment and solution. Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country. The presented paper describes a simulation study of solar assisted heat pump systems carried out in TRNSYS. The purpose of this simulation was to investigate how the performance of a solar assisted heat pump combination varies in near zero energy building. Results of three systems were compared to autonomous (independent) systems simulated performance. Different solar assisted heat pump design solutions with serial and parallel solar thermal collector connections to the heat pump loop were modelled and a passive cooling possibility was assessed. Simulations were performed for three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

  6. Measurement Issues for Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings: Productivity and Performance Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    buildings. Commercially available data bases exist that, if supplemented with engineering survey for equipment and materials use, could be analyzed statistically with a hedonic price model for the valuation of both the energy-saving and productivity effects of building technologies. Uncertainties about technology performance can cause investors to delay deploying new technologies. This behavior is explained by the ''investment under uncertainty'' literature. This literature suggests that under conditions of irrecoverable (''sunk'') costs, uncertain outcomes, and the ability to defer deployment, decision makers focus on potential losses and demand risk premiums and a few support the notion of focusing on losses, the so-called ''bad news principle.'' We describe a series of approaches to isolating buyer perceptions of uncertainty and means for reducing uncertainty.

  7. Encouraging the use of renewable energy sources in the implementation of the EU energy performance building directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerepoot, M. [OTB Research Institute for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies/Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Engelund Thomsen, K. [Danish Building andUrgban Reseach, Horsholm (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    The recent EC Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (Directive 2002/91/EC, in short: EPBD) will urge member states to develop and design energy performance regulations before 2006. The international EC Fifth Framework Altener research project Build-On-RES2 was formulated with this objective in mind. The Build-On-RES project aims to develop the methodological and contextual framework to maximise the incorporation of renewable energy sources (RES) in an Energy Performance Method for both new and for existing residential buildings. Build-On-RES started by benchmarking energy regulations in five of the EU member states that have experience of energy performance regulations and scrutinised the extent to which they encourage the use of RES in buildings. In addition to energy regulations, other policy schemes that encourage use of RES techniques like financial incentives and schemes based on communication have been collected and described. On the basis of this collection of existing information, the project is designing a framework to maximise the incorporation of RES in an Energy Performance Method for use by member states that are in the process of (re)designing their (new) energy performance building regulations. This paper describes the results of the Build-on-RES research and presents in short the methodological and contextual framework to maximise the incorporation of RES in an Energy Performance Method. (orig.)

  8. EP Variants Manual for Sports Buildings. Energy performance of sports buildings; EP Variantenboek Sportgebouwen. Energieprestaties van sportgebouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    By means of the energy efficiency coefficient (EPC, abbreviated in Dutch) energy saving measures for buildings can be exchanged. In this publication the impacts of windows, indoor climate installations and lighting systems are determined for seven exemplified buildings: a sports hall, a table tennis home, an indoor tennis court and accommodations, an instruction pool, a recreation swimming pool, a community centre and gym, and a clubhouse. 10 refs.

  9. Human Perception, SBS Sympsoms and Performance of Office Work during Exposure to Air Polluted by Building Materials and Personal Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt

    The present thesis deals with the impact of polluted air from building materials and personal computers on human perception, Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms and performance of office work. These effects have been studies in a series of experiments that are described in two different chapter......, each of them with one type of pollution source.......The present thesis deals with the impact of polluted air from building materials and personal computers on human perception, Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms and performance of office work. These effects have been studies in a series of experiments that are described in two different chapters...

  10. Energy performance and indoor air quality in modern buildings in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin; Rode, Carsten; Vahala, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A new dormitory for engineering students "Apisseq" was built in Sisimiut, Greenland in 2010. Its purpose is not only to provide accommodation for students, but thanks to its complex monitoring system, it enables researchers to evaluate the building's energy performance and indoor air quality. Some......, which have negative effects on the energy performance and indoor air quality. The heat demand in 2011 was 26.5% higher than expected. One of the main causes of the extra heat demand is the fact that the ventilation system was over-dimensioned, and although it is running on the lowest fan power...

  11. A Systems Approach to High Performance Buildings: A Computational Systems Engineering R&D Program to Increase DoD Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Screening 3.1.1 Objectives and Background 3.1.1a) Background: Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit Process The key steps (see Figure 3.1.1) in the...current building energy efficiency retrofit, include 1) Facility Audit to collect building information such as: Building type (climate, usage...building. To further benefit the performance of the building, tools were developed for tractable design optimization which trades off building energy efficiency and

  12. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  13. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; Langkilde, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    and cost-effectiveness. For new and existing buildings this requires a calculation of the energy performance of the building including heating, ventilation, cooling and lighting systems, based on primary energy. Each building must have an energy certificate and regular inspections of heating, cooling...... and ventilation systems must be performed. The present paper will present the method for calculating the energy performance for heating systems. The relevant CEN-standards are presented and a sample calculation of energy performance is made for a small family house in different geographical locations: Stockholm...

  14. The use of energy management and control systems to monitor the energy performance of commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeier, K E [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Architecture

    1994-12-01

    Monitored data play a very important part in the implementation and evaluation of energy conservation technologies and programs. However, these data can be expensive to collect, so there is a need for lower-cost alternatives. In many situations, using the computerized Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCSs)--already installed in many buildings--to collect these commercial building performance data has advantages over more conventional methods. This method provides data without installing incremental hardware, and the large amounts of available operational data can be a very rich resource for understanding building performance. This dissertation addresses several of these issues. One specific objective is to describe a monitoring-project planning process that includes definition of objectives, constraints, resources and approaches for the monitoring. The choice of tools is an important part of this process. The dissertation goes on to demonstrate, through eight case studies, that EMCS monitoring is possible, and to identify and categorize the problems and issues that can be encountered. These issues lead to the creation, use, and testing of a set of methods for evaluation of EMCS monitoring, in the form of guidelines. Finally, EMCS monitoring is demonstrated and compared with conventional monitoring more methodically in a detailed case study.

  15. An implementation of co-simulation for performance prediction of innovative integrated HVAC systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trcka, Marija; Wetter, Michael; Hensen, Jan L.M.

    2010-07-01

    Integrated performance simulation of buildings and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can help reducing energy consumption and increasing level of occupant comfort. However, no singe building performance simulation (BPS) tool offers sufficient capabilities and flexibilities to accommodate the ever-increasing complexity and rapid innovations in building and system technologies. One way to alleviate this problem is to use co-simulation. The co-simulation approach represents a particular case of simulation scenario where at least two simulators solve coupled differential-algebraic systems of equations and exchange data that couples these equations during the time integration. This paper elaborates on issues important for co-simulation realization and discusses multiple possibilities to justify the particular approach implemented in a co-simulation prototype. The prototype is verified and validated against the results obtained from the traditional simulation approach. It is further used in a case study for the proof-of-concept, to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight its benefits. Stability and accuracy of different coupling strategies are analyzed to give a guideline for the required coupling frequency. The paper concludes by defining requirements and recommendations for generic cosimulation implementations.

  16. Regulative change targeting energy performance of buildings in Sweden. Key drivers and main implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglseth, Bente Beckstroem

    2009-02-15

    This report has explored changes in two regulations targeting energy performance of buildings in Sweden, energy requirements and certification of buildings. The objective has been to investigate the effect of the implementation of the EU directive on energy performance of buildings (EPBD) on these two regulations and to what degree the directive can explain the regulative changes. The analytical framework has also included domestic factors; the influence of the national government and the organizational field. The analysis revealed that whereas the EPBD has acted only as facilitator in connection with the changes in energy requirements, it has been the sole driver of some of the changes in Sweden's new certification system. Several of the changes during the period studied can however be traced to the national government and the organizational field. But the EPBD has also worked as a facilitator of the changes promoted by domestic actors. The directive has been used to legitimize radical changes that would have been difficult to implement in other ways. (Author). 40 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Requirement Assurance: A Verification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Requirement Assurance is an act of requirement verification which assures the stakeholder or customer that a product requirement has produced its "as realized product" and has been verified with conclusive evidence. Product requirement verification answers the question, "did the product meet the stated specification, performance, or design documentation?". In order to ensure the system was built correctly, the practicing system engineer must verify each product requirement using verification methods of inspection, analysis, demonstration, or test. The products of these methods are the "verification artifacts" or "closure artifacts" which are the objective evidence needed to prove the product requirements meet the verification success criteria. Institutional direction is given to the System Engineer in NPR 7123.1A NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements with regards to the requirement verification process. In response, the verification methodology offered in this report meets both the institutional process and requirement verification best practices.

  18. Analysis of Two Models for Evaluating the Energy Performance of Different Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Evangelisti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is possible to employ several software packages to evaluate building’s energy performance, each of them based on a different calculation code, with different boundary conditions in terms of environmental temperature, solar radiation, wind velocity and relative humidity. In this contribution, a comparison between two calculation codes, taking into account different types of buildings, has been carried out. In particular, a semi-stationary calculation code and a dynamic one have been employed to determine energy demands of three different building’s types: an old building, a house and a flat. Analyzing semi-stationary conditions (consequently simplified environmental conditions, a software which applies the UNI TS 11300 standard has been considered. This standard defines the procedures for the national implementation of the UNI EN ISO 13790. Furthermore, in order to consider the environmental conditions variation, a well-known dynamic software has been used.

  19. Challenge: Advancing Energy Informatics to Enable Assessable Improvements of Energy Performance in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Within the emerging discipline of Energy Informatics people are researching, developing and applying information and communication technologies, energy engineering and computer science to address energy challenges. In this paper we discuss the challenge of advancing energy informatics to enable...... assessable improvements of energy performance in buildings. This challenge follows a long-standing goal within the built environment to develop processes that enable predictable outcomes. Implementing this goal in the research framework of energy informatics creates a need for establishing a new underlying...... assumption, which states that the impact of energy informatics solutions should be assessable. This assumption applies to particular building contexts and when solutions act simultaneously. Research based on this assumption will enable new sound processes for the built environment facilitating informed...

  20. Evaluation of the effects of vegetation and green walls on building thermal performance and energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susorova, Irina

    This research explored the use of vegetation in building facades as a potential solution to the problems of urban ecology and the excessive energy consumption in buildings. Vegetated facades substantially reduce building energy use, reduce the urban heat island effect, improve air quality, and increase the biodiversity of plants and animals in cities. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effects of plants on building thermal performance and energy consumption by developing a thermal model of a building facade covered with a layer of plants. The developed mathematical model accounts for thermal physical processes in a vegetated exterior wall including solar radiation, infrared radiative exchange between the facade and sky, the facade and ground, the facade and vegetation layer, convection to and from the facade, evapotranspiration from the plant layer, heat storage in the facade material, and heat conduction through the facade. The model calculates vegetated facade surface temperature and heat flux through the facade for multiple weather conditions, plant physiological characteristics, and facade parameters inputs. The model was validated with the results of a one-week long experiment measuring the thermal properties of bare and vegetated facades on the Illinois Institute of Technology campus. The experiment and subsequent sensitivity analysis demonstrated that a plant layer can effectively reduce the facade exterior surface temperature, daily temperature fluctuations, exterior wall temperature gradient, and, as a result, provide as much additional thermal insulation to the facade as a 2.5 cm layer of expanded polystyrene insulation. The vegetated facade model was also used to analyze the reduction in energy consumption in generic office and residential thermal zones for multiple parameters. The simulations showed that energy reduction could be as high as 6.2% of annual total energy use and 34.6% of cooling energy use in residential thermal zones. Overall

  1. Performance-Based Seismic Retrofit of Soft-Story Woodframe Buildings Using Energy-Dissipation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jingjing

    Low-rise woodframe buildings with disproportionately flexible ground stories represent a significant percentage of the building stock in seismically vulnerable communities in the Western United States. These structures have a readily identifiable structural weakness at the ground level due to an asymmetric distribution of large openings in the perimeter wall lines and to a lack of interior partition walls, resulting in a soft story condition that makes the structure highly susceptible to severe damage or collapse under design-level earthquakes. The conventional approach to retrofitting such structures is to increase the ground story stiffness. An alternate approach is to increase the energy dissipation capacity of the structure via the incorporation of supplemental energy dissipation devices (dampers), thereby relieving the energy dissipation demands on the framing system. Such a retrofit approach is consistent with a Performance-Based Seismic Retrofit (PBSR) philosophy through which multiple performance levels may be targeted. The effectiveness of such a retrofit is presented via examination of the seismic response of a full-scale four-story building that was tested on the outdoor shake table at NEES-UCSD and a full-scale three-story building that was tested using slow pseudo-dynamic hybrid testing at NEES-UB. In addition, a Direct Displacement Design (DDD) methodology was developed as an improvement over current DDD methods by considering torsion, with or without the implementation of damping devices, in an attempt to avoid the computational expense of nonlinear time-history analysis (NLTHA) and thus facilitating widespread application of PBSR in engineering practice.

  2. Design and performance of the solar-powered floor heating system in a green building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, X.Q.; Wang, R.Z. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yang, J.R. [Shanghai Research Institute of Building Science, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2009-07-15

    In the green building of Shanghai Research Institute of Building Science, the evacuated tubular solar collectors with a total area of 150 m{sup 2} were installed to provide heating for the covered area of 460 m{sup 2}. The floor heating coil pipes were made of high-quality pure copper with the dimension of {phi} 12 x 0.7 mm. Under typical weather condition of Shanghai, the average heating capacity was 25.04 kW during the working hours from 9:00 to 17:00, which was sufficient to keep indoor thermal environment. The average electric COP of the floor heating system was 19.76 during the system operation. Compared with the widely used air-source heat pump heating systems with the electric COP of 3.5 in Shanghai, the solar-powered floor heating system shows great potential in energy conservation in winter. With respect to the whole heating period, the solar fraction was 56%. According to the performance analysis of the system with ambient parameters, it was observed that the system performance could be greatly enhanced with the increase of daily solar insolation. However, the system performance varied slightly with average ambient temperature. Compared with average ambient temperature, daily solar insolation had a more distinct influence on the performance of the solar-powered floor heating system. (author)

  3. Commissioning: A Highly Cost-Effective Building Energy Management Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2011-01-06

    Quality assurance and optimization are essential elements of any serious technological endeavor, including efforts to improve energy efficiency. Commissioning is an important tool in this respect. The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver-if not exceed-the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, one-time or repeated commissioning (often called retrocommissioning) identifies the almost inevitable drift in energy performance and puts the building back on course, often surpassing the original design intent. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to improving performance, rather than a discrete technology.

  4. QUALITY ASSURANCE COURSES IN VET (VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR TOURISM ORGANISED BY THE CENTRE FOR TOURISM TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA IRIMIEA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality Assurance Courses in VET (Vocational Education and Training for Tourism Organised by the Centre for Tourism Training. The article seeks to give utterance to the findings of the pilot course on quality assurance designed and organised by the Centre for Tourism Training (CTT as part of the AQUA.TS European Lifelong Learning project. The CTT has become involved in research and exchange of experience in the field of quality assurance driven by the educational policy-related background set out by the European documents and tools, including EQARF, EQAVET, the principles of lifelong learning and adult education. The main theoretic background to the present paper was assured by the European Commission documents regarding quality assurance in VET, while the experience and good practices acquired by the CTT have profoundly marked its quality assurance–oriented policy. Against this background, The Centre for Tourism Training (CTT of the Faculty of Geography, University Babes-Bolyai, Romania, delivered a pilot training course on Quality Assurance in VET during 16 March and 10 April 2015. The training consisted of a theoretical knowledge-building module (16.03. 2015 – 27.03. 2015 and a practical module (30.03.2015 -10.04.2015, the latter focused on the use of the AQUA.TS TOOLKIT, an IT device aimed at the self-evaluation of the quality of performance of trainers and training providers, whose efficiency was tested during the organised training program.

  5. Quality assurance for passive houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, H.J.; Mlecnik, E.

    2009-01-01

    For newly built houses national ambitions prescribe increasing levels of energy performances, even including achieving net zero energy or carbon neutral houses. This is in large contrast with the lack of quality in many building processes. The building regulations, processes and control will have to

  6. Empirical Validation of Simple Calculation Method for Assessment of Energy Performance in Double-Skin Façade Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Thomas, Sara Jessica; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova;

    2009-01-01

    When designing new buildings a Double-Skin Facades (DSF) concept is recurrently discussed as an energy saving solution. There is a strong demand for a tool, which could estimate the energy performance of a DSF building in an early design stage, in order to assess whether it fulfills the Energy Pe...

  7. Thermal Performance Analysis of Solar Collectors Installed for Combisystem in the Apartment Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žandeckis, A.; Timma, L.; Blumberga, D.; Rochas, C.; Rošā, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on the application of wood pellet and solar combisystem for space heating and hot water preparation at apartment buildings under the climate of Northern Europe. A pilot project has been implemented in the city of Sigulda (N 57° 09.410 E 024° 52.194), Latvia. The system was designed and optimised using TRNSYS - a dynamic simulation tool. The pilot project was continuously monitored. To the analysis the heat transfer fluid flow rate and the influence of the inlet temperature on the performance of solar collectors were subjected. The thermal performance of a solar collector loop was studied using a direct method. A multiple regression analysis was carried out using STATGRAPHICS Centurion 16.1.15 with the aim to identify the operational and weather parameters of the system which cause the strongest influence on the collector's performance. The parameters to be used for the system's optimisation have been evaluated.

  8. Building Energy Storage Panel Based on Paraffin/Expanded Perlite: Preparation and Thermal Performance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfei Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the preparation and performance of a building energy storage panel (BESP. The BESP was fabricated through a mold pressing method based on phase change material particle (PCMP, which was prepared in two steps: vacuum absorption and surface film coating. Firstly, phase change material (PCM was incorporated into expanded perlite (EP through a vacuum absorption method to obtain composite PCM; secondly, the composite PCM was immersed into the mixture of colloidal silica and organic acrylate, and then it was taken out and dried naturally. A series of experiments, including differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, scanning electron microscope (SEM, best matching test, and durability test, have been conducted to characterize and analyze the thermophysical property and reliability of PCMP. Additionally, the thermal performance of BESP was studied through a dynamic thermal property test. The results have showed that: (1 the surface film coating procedure can effectively solve the leakage problem of composite phase change material prepared by vacuum impregnation; (2 the optimum adsorption ratio for paraffin and EP was 52.5:47.5 in mass fraction, and the PCMP has good thermal properties, stability, and durability; and (3 in the process of dynamic thermal performance test, BESP have low temperature variation, significant temperature lagging, and large heat storage ability, which indicated the potential of BESP in the application of building energy efficiency.

  9. Building Energy Storage Panel Based on Paraffin/Expanded Perlite: Preparation and Thermal Performance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfei; Zhong, Yuliang; Rong, Xian; Min, Chunhua; Qi, Chengying

    2016-01-25

    This study is focused on the preparation and performance of a building energy storage panel (BESP). The BESP was fabricated through a mold pressing method based on phase change material particle (PCMP), which was prepared in two steps: vacuum absorption and surface film coating. Firstly, phase change material (PCM) was incorporated into expanded perlite (EP) through a vacuum absorption method to obtain composite PCM; secondly, the composite PCM was immersed into the mixture of colloidal silica and organic acrylate, and then it was taken out and dried naturally. A series of experiments, including differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), best matching test, and durability test, have been conducted to characterize and analyze the thermophysical property and reliability of PCMP. Additionally, the thermal performance of BESP was studied through a dynamic thermal property test. The results have showed that: (1) the surface film coating procedure can effectively solve the leakage problem of composite phase change material prepared by vacuum impregnation; (2) the optimum adsorption ratio for paraffin and EP was 52.5:47.5 in mass fraction, and the PCMP has good thermal properties, stability, and durability; and (3) in the process of dynamic thermal performance test, BESP have low temperature variation, significant temperature lagging, and large heat storage ability, which indicated the potential of BESP in the application of building energy efficiency.

  10. Design and performance of a solar-powered air-conditioning system in a green building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, X.Q.; Wang, R.Z.; Wu, J.Y.; Dai, Y.J.; Ma, Q. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2008-05-15

    A solar-powered adsorption air-conditioning system was designed and installed in the green building of Shanghai Research Institute of Building Science. The system contained 150 m{sup 2} solar collectors and two adsorption chillers with nominal refrigeration capacity of 8.5 kW. Based on performance characteristics of the adsorption chiller, the operation mode of the solar-powered air-conditioning system was optimized by maintaining a phase shift of 540 s between the two adsorption chillers. Thereafter, the whole system realized stable operation by the balance of heat consumption and refrigeration output. From June to August of 2005, the solar-powered air-conditioning system continuously ran between 9:00 and 17:00. The operation performance of the system under representative working condition showed that the average refrigeration output of the solar-powered air-conditioning system was 15.3 kW during an 8 h operation and the maximum value exceeded 20 kW. Solar fraction for the system in summer was 71.7%, which corresponded to the designed cooling load (15 kW). Compared with the ambient temperature, it was deduced that solar radiant intensity had a more distinct influence on the performance of solar-powered air-conditioning system. (author)

  11. Characterising the Actual Thermal Performance of Buildings: Current Results of Common Exercises Performed in the Framework of the IEA EBC Annex 58-Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roels, Staf; Bacher, Peder; Bauwens, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that actual thermal performance of buildings after construction may deviate significantly from that anticipated at design stage. As a result, there is growing interest in full scale testing of components and whole buildings. The IEA EBC Annex 58-project ‘Reliable Buildi...

  12. Building the infrastructure: the effects of role identification behaviors on team cognition development and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Matthew J; Ellis, Aleksander P J; Bell, Bradford S

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to extend theory and research regarding the emergence of mental models and transactive memory in teams. Utilizing Kozlowski, Gully, Nason, and Smith's (1999) model of team compilation, we examined the effect of role identification behaviors and posited that such behaviors represent the initial building blocks of team cognition during the role compilation phase of team development. We then hypothesized that team mental models and transactive memory would convey the effects of these behaviors onto team performance in the team compilation phase of development. Results from 60 teams working on a command-and-control simulation supported our hypotheses.

  13. Building a Community Infrastructure for Scalable On-Line Performance Analysis Tools around Open|Speedshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Barton

    2014-06-30

    Peta-scale computing environments pose significant challenges for both system and application developers and addressing them required more than simply scaling up existing tera-scale solutions. Performance analysis tools play an important role in gaining this understanding, but previous monolithic tools with fixed feature sets have not sufficed. Instead, this project worked on the design, implementation, and evaluation of a general, flexible tool infrastructure supporting the construction of performance tools as “pipelines” of high-quality tool building blocks. These tool building blocks provide common performance tool functionality, and are designed for scalability, lightweight data acquisition and analysis, and interoperability. For this project, we built on Open|SpeedShop, a modular and extensible open source performance analysis tool set. The design and implementation of such a general and reusable infrastructure targeted for petascale systems required us to address several challenging research issues. All components needed to be designed for scale, a task made more difficult by the need to provide general modules. The infrastructure needed to support online data aggregation to cope with the large amounts of performance and debugging data. We needed to be able to map any combination of tool components to each target architecture. And we needed to design interoperable tool APIs and workflows that were concrete enough to support the required functionality, yet provide the necessary flexibility to address a wide range of tools. A major result of this project is the ability to use this scalable infrastructure to quickly create tools that match with a machine architecture and a performance problem that needs to be understood. Another benefit is the ability for application engineers to use the highly scalable, interoperable version of Open|SpeedShop, which are reassembled from the tool building blocks into a flexible, multi-user interface set of tools. This set of

  14. Vega flow assurance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Marit; Munaweera, Sampath

    2010-07-01

    Vega is a gas condensate field located at the west coast of Norway and developed as a tie-in to the Gjoea platform. Operator is Statoil, production startup is estimated to the end of 2010. Flow assurance challenges are high reservoir pressure and temperature, hydrate and wax control, liquid accumulation and monitoring the well/template production rates. The Vega Flow Assurance System (FAS) is a software that supports monitoring and operation of the field. The FAS is based FlowManagerTM designed for real time systems. This is a flexible tool with its own steady state multiphase- and flow assurance models. Due to the long flowlines lines and the dynamic behavior, the multiphase flow simulator OLGA is also integrated in the system. Vega FAS will be used as: - An online monitoring tool - An offline what-if simulation and validation tool - An advisory control system for well production allocation. (Author)

  15. Energy Consumption and Indoor Environment Predicted by a Combination of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2003-01-01

    An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution is introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment.The article describes a calculation...... of the energy consumption in a large building where the building energy simulation program is modified by CFD predictions of the flow between three zones that are connected by pressure and buoyancy-driven air flow through open areas. The two programs are interconnected in an iterative procedure. The article...... shows also an evaluation of the air quality in the main area of the buildings based on CFD predictions. It is demonstrated that an interconnection between a CFD program and a building energy performance simulation program will improve both the energy consumption data and the prediction of thermal...

  16. Improving the Energy Performance in Existing Non-residential Buildings in Denmark Using the Total Concept Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krawczyk, Pawel; Afshari, Alireza; Simonsen, Graves K.

    2016-01-01

    This project is a part of a joint European research project, “Total Concept”, which is a method for improving the energy performance in existing non-Residential buildings. The method focuses on achieving maximum energy savings in a Building within the profitability frames set by a building owner......, who plans to invest. The method differentiates from other refurbishment approaches by using a comprehensive energy audit plan, advanced energy simulation methods, a complex economic model and analysis of measures that may have a reasonable energysaving potential. The aim of the demonstration project...... was to form a package of measures for an energy performance improvement in the building based on the Total Concept method. This paper presents results from recently analyzed data on two renovated Danish buildings according to the rules of “Total Concept” method. According to the estimation done based...

  17. Specifying a green building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, F.; McGregor, A. [Ove Arup and Partners, (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The concept of a `green` building is defined as a building that works with, rather than in spite of, the local climate to minimize fossil fuel consumption. It minimizes water consumption and waste. It uses construction materials that have a long life, are non-toxic, and which require minimum energy to produce, deliver to the building site and install. It is sufficiently flexible to permit successive changes without major construction work. With this definition as the background, this paper concentrates on the reduction of fossil fuel energy consumption in commercial buildings, and the various means available to achieve it, such as natural ventilation, thermal storage, control of solar gain, maximizing the use of daylight for illumination, and passive and active solar energy collection. Also discussed are some of the reasons why some buildings fail to satisfy owners and occupants. A strategy involving performance-based contracting, elements of value engineering and occupant education to assure energy efficiency and owner/occupants satisfaction is presented. 15 refs.

  18. Building trust through promises and performance. Can your organization achieve the stellar results and employee loyalty found at Southwest Airlines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Edward J; Annison, Michael H

    2002-01-01

    Establishing a trusting relationship with your employees can help you transform your organization into a top performer. Examine how well-defined visions and goals are some of the keys to building that trust.

  19. Just in Time Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Just in Time Assurance Ji Al F PhD U i it f Id hm ves- oss, , n vers y o a o Director Center for Secure and Dependable Computing W. Mark Vanfleet...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Just in Time Assurance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...discusses how practical and affordable recertification can become the norm instead of the rare exception 2 What Does Just in Time Mean? Manufacturing

  20. Benchmarking Software Assurance Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    product The chicken#. (a.k.a. Process Focused Assessment ) – Management Systems ( ISO 9001 , ISO 27001, ISO 2000) – Capability Maturity Models (CMMI...Assurance PRM, RMM, Assurance for CMMI)) – Lifecycle Processes ( ISO /IEEE 15288, ISO /IEEE 12207) – COBIT, ITIL, MS SDL, OSAMM, BSIMM 5 The egg...a.k.a Product Focused Assessments) – SCAP - NIST-SCAP – ISO /OMG W3C – KDM, BPMN, RIF, XMI, RDF – OWASP Top 10 – SANS TOP 25 – Secure Code Check Lists

  1. Performance analysis on a hybrid air-conditioning system of a green building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Q.; Wang, R.Z.; Dai, Y.J.; Zhai, X.Q. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-05-15

    This paper presents the performance analysis on a hybrid air-conditioning system according to the hybrid building energy system of the green building demonstration project in Shanghai, in which a 150 m{sup 2} solar collector is used to power two 10 kW adsorption chillers, a vapor compression heat pump is used to cool air in the evaporating end while the condensing heating at about 80{sup o}C is fully used to regenerate a liquid desiccant dehumidification system. In the hybrid system, the sensible cooling to the air is treated mainly by solar adsorption cooling and vapor compression cooling, whereas the latent heat is treated by the liquid desiccant dehumidification system with regeneration from the condensing heat of the heat pump. The results show that the performance of this system is 44.5% higher than conventional vapor compression system at a latent load of 30% and this improving can be achieved by 73.8% at a 42% latent load. The optimal ratio of adsorption refrigerating power to total cooling load for this kind of hybrid systems is also studied in this paper. (author)

  2. Success Factors for Building and Managing High Performance Global Virtual Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan S. Nguyen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With the phenomenon of globalization, the global virtual team (GVT is widely recognized as an innovative functioning atmosphere that relies mostly on information communication technologies (ICTs. A global virtual team is specified as a different entity whose members come from different global work locations, may not have a mutual background, is organizationally scattered, collaborate using asynchronous and synchronous ICTs, and frequently built on an impromptu basis. Hence, boundaries such as geographical space, time, and organizations are no longer conceived as major impediments for small teams to function together. Yet, numerous GVT work challenges remain as these teams involve in globally distributed collaborative efforts. Numerous of the complexities emerge from workplaces factors (e.g., cultural, functional, and organizational differences, team technologies usage, management approaches, leadership dilemmas, and technological impediments. The purpose of this paper is to present and synthesize the success factors generally accepted as critical in building and managing high performance GVTs. These success factors consisted of GVT (e.g., structure, member’ competencies, commitment and trust, communications, goals, and collaboration, leading GVTs (e.g., leadership competencies, skills, and styles and so on, management (e.g., project, risk, team, knowledge and skills, and information managements, workplace factors (e.g., cultural, functional and organizational differences, technologies (e.g., development tools, and information communication technologies, and standards of excellence and external support. Organizational managers and practitioners from various industries who are building or managing GVTs could be of benefits with the researcher’s study outcomes by implementing or developing strategies or processes that could improve GVT performance for long term sustainable development. High performances GVT outcomes include improve team overall

  3. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) consists of all activities undertaken to ensure that the electronics and materials of a space system perform to their design specifications after exposure to the mission space environment. The subset of interests for NEPP and the REAG, are EEE parts. It is important to register that all of these undertakings are in a feedback loop and require constant iteration and updating throughout the mission life. More detail can be found in the reference materials on applicable test data for usage on parts.

  4. Quality Assurance in South Africa: A Reply to John Mammen

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Grange, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this article I point out that prominence given to higher education quality assurance by contemporary states might be viewed in the context of the ascendance of neoliberalism over the past few decades and a concomitant culture of performativity. However, I argue for a shift in the angle of vision on performativity and quality assurance through a…

  5. Mission Operations Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Integrate the mission operations assurance function into the flight team providing: (1) value added support in identifying, mitigating, and communicating the project's risks and, (2) being an essential member of the team during the test activities, training exercises and critical flight operations.

  6. Lessons Learned from Case Studies of Six High-Performance Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Deru, M.; Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Judkoff, R.

    2006-06-01

    Commercial buildings have a significant impact on energy use and the environment. They account for approximately 18% (17.9 quads) of the total primary energy consumption in the United States (DOE 2005). The energy used by the building sector continues to increase, primarily because new buildings are added to the national building stock faster than old buildings are retired. Energy consumption by commercial buildings will continue to increase until buildings can be designed to produce more energy than they consume. As a result, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building Technologies Program has established a goal to create the technology and knowledge base for marketable zero-energy commercial buildings (ZEBs) by 2025.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effects of Acoustic Sound Absorbers on the Cooling Performance of Thermally Active Building Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domínguez, L. Marcos; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Rage, Nils

    2017-01-01

    Free-hanging horizontal and vertical sound absorbers are commonly used in buildings for room acoustic control; however, when these sound absorbers are used in combination with Thermally Active Building Systems, they will decrease the cooling performance of Thermally Active Building Systems...... plug-in for acoustic elements, which allows modeling free-hanging horizontal sound absorbers that partially cover the ceiling. With horizontal sound absorbers, the cooling performance of the Thermally Active Building System decreased by 11%, 23% and 36% for ceiling coverage ratios of 43%, 60% and 80...... and this will affect the thermal indoor environment in that space. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to quantify and model these effects in the design phase. This study quantifies experimentally the effects of horizontal and vertical free-hanging sound absorbers on the cooling performance of Thermally Active...

  8. The Building Fabric Thermal Performance of Passivhaus Dwellings—Does It Do What It Says on the Tin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Johnston

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Passivhaus (or Passive House Standard is one of the world’s most widely known voluntary energy performance standards. For a dwelling to achieve the Standard and be granted Certification, the building fabric requires careful design and detailing, high levels of thermal insulation, building airtightness, close site supervision and careful workmanship. However, achieving Passivhaus Certification is not a guarantee that the thermal performance of the building fabric as designed will actually be achieved in situ. This paper presents the results obtained from measuring the in situ whole building heat loss coefficient (HLC of a small number of Certified Passivhaus case study dwellings. They are located on different sites and constructed using different technologies in the UK. Despite the small and non-random nature of the dwelling sample, the results obtained from the in situ measurements revealed that the thermal performance of the building fabric, for all of the dwellings, performed very close to the design predictions. This suggests that in terms of the thermal performance of the building fabric, Passivhaus does exactly what it says on the tin.

  9. Optimization of the Building Energy Performance through Dynamic Modeling, Systems Simulation, Field Monitoring and Evaluation of Renewable Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Banerjee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The annual energy consumption in the residential and commercial sectors, in India is rising consistently at about 8% and the overall energy consumption in buildings has seen an increase from a low of 14% in the 1970s to nearly 33% in 2004/05. The electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 254.049 GW as of end of September 2014. The research paper will deal with the modeling and optimization of the building energy performance by means of the application of the dynamic building simulation, the optimization of the energy systems and the verification of the energy consumptions and comfort conditions. An integrated tool is at an early stage of development to optimize the building energy performance to be expressed in terms of total energy use. The goal of the research paper is to optimize the building energy performance through the potential of the passive building technologies and the increase of efficiency of the building system.

  10. Total Quality Management Implementation Strategy: Directorate of Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    Directorate of Quality Assurance Total Quality Management Implementation Strategy 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) 8...that job. DTIC 7: t-I ECTE I SEP29 1989 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES TOM ( Total Quality Management ), Quality Assurance, Continuous Process...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 29d- 102 DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY DIRECTORATE OF QUALITY ASSURANCE 0 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 0 89 9

  11. Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Tichy; Chuck Murray

    2003-10-01

    This document serves as the Topical Report documenting the first year of work completed by Washington State University (WSU) under US Department of Energy Grant, Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings. This project is being conducted in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and includes the participation of several industry partners including Weyerhaeuser Company, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, CertainTeed Corporation and Fortifiber. This document summarizes work completed by Washington State University August, 2002 through October, 2003. WSU's primary experimental role is the design and implementation of a field testing protocol that will monitor long term changes in the hygrothermal response of wall systems. In the first year WSU constructed a test facility, developed a matrix of test wall designs, constructed and installed test walls in the test facility, and installed instrumentation in the test walls. By the end of the contract period described in this document, WSU was recording data from the test wall specimens. The experiment described in this report will continue through December, 2005. Each year a number of reports will be published documenting the hygrothermal response of the test wall systems. Public presentation of the results will be made available to the building industry by industry partners and the University cooperators.

  12. IFC BIM-Based Methodology for Semi-Automated Building Energy Performance Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2008-07-01

    Building energy performance (BEP) simulation is still rarely used in building design, commissioning and operations. The process is too costly and too labor intensive, and it takes too long to deliver results. Its quantitative results are not reproducible due to arbitrary decisions and assumptions made in simulation model definition, and can be trusted only under special circumstances. A methodology to semi-automate BEP simulation preparation and execution makes this process much more effective. It incorporates principles of information science and aims to eliminate inappropriate human intervention that results in subjective and arbitrary decisions. This is achieved by automating every part of the BEP modeling and simulation process that can be automated, by relying on data from original sources, and by making any necessary data transformation rule-based and automated. This paper describes the new methodology and its relationship to IFC-based BIM and software interoperability. It identifies five steps that are critical to its implementation, and shows what part of the methodology can be applied today. The paper concludes with a discussion of application to simulation with EnergyPlus, and describes data transformation rules embedded in the new Geometry Simplification Tool (GST).

  13. Experimental and numerical modelling of thermal performance of a residential building in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučićević Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate simulation of thermal performance of a residential 4 floors high building placed in the suburb of Belgrade (ground and 3 upper floors with it's total surface area of 1410 m2. It's supplied with liquid petroleum gas storage tank as a fuel reservoir since there is automatic gas boiler in each apartment. Measurements have been carried out in first floor apartment (68 m2 heating area in heating season period. Measured parameters are: inside and outside air temperature and U-value of apartment envelope. Weather data is obtained by using METEONORM, the software package for climatic data calculation based on last 10 years measurements. TRNSYS 16 has been used as the simulation tool. The behavior of the building in terms of heating loads for climate on a daily and monthly basis in heating season is investigated. The calculations show possibility for saving energy by optimization inside temperature during different gas boiler working regimes.

  14. Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Tichy; Chuck Murray

    2006-05-31

    This document serves as the Topical Report documenting work completed by Washington State University (WSU) under U.S. Department of Energy Grant, Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings. This project was conducted in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and includes the participation of several industry partners including Weyerhaeuser, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, CertainTeed Corporation and Fortifiber. This document summarizes work completed by Washington State University August 2002 through June 2006. WSU's primary experimental role is the design and implementation of a field testing protocol that monitored long term changes in the hygrothermal response of wall systems. During the project period WSU constructed a test facility, developed a matrix of test wall designs, constructed and installed test walls in the test facility, installed instrumentation in the test walls and recorded data from the test wall specimens. Each year reports were published documenting the hygrothermal response of the test wall systems. Public presentation of the results was, and will continue to be, made available to the building industry at large by industry partners and the University.

  15. Infiltration rate performance of buildings in the historic centre of Oporto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves, S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a major investigation the authors are undertaking aiming to evaluate the energy performance of different retrofitting strategies for housing buildings, in order to establish preferential criteria of intervention according to its climate zone location, morphology, constructive features and patrimonial values. In the historic centre of Oporto, one of the major actions resides on a significant reduction in the heating loads of these distinctive buildings by decreasing the windows infiltration rate. To be able to accurate this potential for energy savings, in situ measurements of the infiltration rate of this houses at present were required, previous to a possible intervention. This article presents the data obtained using a fan pressurization method in two non-refurbished characteristic buildings of the Oporto’s Historic Centre, and analyses the results obtained for both a typical sash window and a casement window. Some relations between these infiltration rates and the buildings morphological and typological characteristics are considered.Este trabajo forma parte de una investigación mayor que los autores están llevando a cabo y que tiene como objetivo evaluar la eficiencia energética de diferentes estrategias de rehabilitación de edificios de viviendas, con el fin de establecer criterios preferenciales de intervención de acuerdo a la zona climáticas donde se ubica, a la morfología de los edificios, a sus características constructivas y a sus valores patrimoniales. En el centro histórico de Oporto, una de las principales acciones consistiría en la reducción significativa de la demanda de calefacción en los edificios de viviendas que lo caracterizan, mediante la disminución de la tasa de infiltración de las ventanas. Para poder precisar este potencial de ahorro de energía, se requieren mediciones in situ de las tasas de infiltración de las citadas viviendas en su estado actual, previamente a una posible

  16. Improving the Energy Performance in Existing Non-residential Buildings in Denmark Using the Total Concept Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krawczyk, Pawel; Afshari, Alireza; Simonsen, Graves K.

    2016-01-01

    This project is a part of a joint European research project, “Total Concept”, which is a method for improving the energy performance in existing non-Residential buildings. The method focuses on achieving maximum energy savings in a Building within the profitability frames set by a building owner...... on available information the identified measures in total lead to at least 22% and 37% energy saving, respectively for the building 1 and Building 2......., who plans to invest. The method differentiates from other refurbishment approaches by using a comprehensive energy audit plan, advanced energy simulation methods, a complex economic model and analysis of measures that may have a reasonable energysaving potential. The aim of the demonstration project...

  17. BYU Food Quality Assurance Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Quality Assurance Lab is located in the Eyring Science Center in the department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science. The Quality Assurance Lab has about 10...

  18. Building America Expert Meeting Report: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-10-01

    This report outlines findings resulting from a U.S. Department of Energy Building America expert meeting to determine how HVAC companies can transition from a traditional contractor status to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting. IBACOS has embarked upon a research effort under the Building America Program to understand business impacts and change management strategies for HVAC companies. HVAC companies can implement these strategies in order to quickly transition from a 'traditional' heating and cooling contractor to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting. Due to HVAC service contracts, which allow repeat interaction with homeowners, HVAC companies are ideally positioned in the marketplace to resolve homeowner comfort issues through whole house energy upgrades. There are essentially two primary ways to define the routes of transition for an HVAC contractor taking on whole house performance contracting: (1) Sub-contracting out the shell repair/upgrade work; and (2) Integrating the shell repair/upgrade work into their existing business. IBACOS held an Expert Meeting on the topic of Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors on March 29, 2011 in San Francisco, CA. The major objectives of the meeting were to: Review and validate the general business models for traditional HVAC companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Review preliminary findings on the differences between the structure of traditional HVAC Companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Seek industry input on how to structure information so it is relevant and useful for traditional HVAC contractors who are transitioning to becoming whole house energy upgrade contractors Seven industry experts identified by IBACOS participated in the session along with one representative from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The objective of the meeting was to validate the general operational

  19. A Relationship Framework for Building Information Modeling (BIM Capability in Quantity Surveying Practice and Project Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry has suffered from poor project performance and it’s crucial to find out solution to improve this issue. Quantity surveyors (QSs play a key role in managing project cost. However, their method of performing tasks is tedious till affect the project performance. Building information modeling (BIM application is attaining attention in the construction industry as a mean to improve the project performance. However, the adoption is low among QSs due to limited study of the BIM’s capabilities in their profession. This research aims to identify the BIM capabilities in quantity surveying practices and examine its relationship with project performance by developing a relationship framework. Data were collected through questionnaire survey and interview in Malaysia. Questionnaire results revealed that several BIM capabilities were significantly correlated with project performance and they were validated through interview. The relationship framework will guide QSs to focus on the identified BIM capabilities for better project outcomes.La industria de la construcción ha sufrido históricamente desviaciones en las mediciones de los materiales empleados frente a las cantidades proyectadas. Los aparejadores juegan un papel clave en este aspecto como responsables de la recepción de materiales. Sin embargo, el trabajo de medición es tedioso hasta el punto de afectar al rendimiento del proyecto. La aplicación del Building Information Modeling (BIM está logrando mejorar este trabajo. Aun así, su utilización es baja entre los aparejadores debido a la escasa formación recibida sobre las posibilidades del BIM. Esta investigación busca identificar las capacidades del BIM aplicado a la medición de materiales y examinar su relación con el rendimiento del proyecto desarrollando un marco de relación. Mediante encuestas y entrevistas realizadas en Malasia, se obtuvieron datos que revelaron que varias capacidades de BIM se correlacionan

  20. Comparison of the performance between portal dosimetry and a commercial two-dimensional array system on pretreatment quality assurance for volumetric-modulated arc and intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yon-Lae; Chung, Jin-Beom; Kim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Choi, Kyoung-Sik

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dosimetric performance and to evaluate the pretreatment quality assurance (QA) of a portal dosimetry and a commercial two-dimensional (2-D) array system. In the characteristics comparison study, the measured values for the dose linearity, dose rate response, reproducibility, and field size dependence for 6-MV photon beams were analyzed for both detector systems. To perform the qualitative evaluations of the 10 IMRT and the 10 VMAT plans, we used the Gamma index for quantifying the agreement between calculations and measurements. The performance estimates for both systems show that overall, minimal differences in the dosimetric characteristics exist between the Electron portal imaging device (EPID) and 2-D array system. In the qualitative analysis for pretreatment quality assurance, the EPID and 2-D array system yield similar passing rate results for the majority of clinical Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) cases. These results were satisfactory for IMRT and VMAT fields and were within the acceptable criteria of γ%≤1, γ avg <0.5. The EPDI and the 2-D array systems showed comparable dosimetric results. In this study, the results revealed both systems to be suitable for patient-specific QA measurements for IMRT and VMAT. We conclude that, depending on the status of clinic, both systems can be used interchangeably for routine pretreatment QA.

  1. Evaluation of Seismic Performance and Effectiveness of Multiple Slim-Type Damper System for Seismic Response Control of Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of a multiple slim-type damper system developed for the vibration control of earthquake excited buildings. The multiple slim-type damper (MSD that consists of several small slim-type dampers and linkage units can control damping capacity easily by changing the number of small dampers. To evaluate the performance of the MSD, dynamic loading tests are performed with three slim-type dampers manufactured at a real scale. Numerical simulations are also carried out by nonlinear time history analysis with a ten-story earthquake excited building structure. The seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of the MSD system are investigated according to the various installation configurations of the MSD system. From the results of numerical simulation and cost-effectiveness evaluation, it is shown that combinations of the MSD systems can effectively improve the seismic performance of earthquake excited building structures.

  2. Multiplex real-time quantitative PCR, microscopy and rapid diagnostic immuno-chromatographic tests for the detection of Plasmodium spp: performance, limit of detection analysis and quality assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralevski Filip

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate laboratory diagnosis of malaria species in returning travelers is paramount in the treatment of this potentially fatal infectious disease. Materials and methods A total of 466 blood specimens from returning travelers to Africa, Asia, and South/Central America with suspected malaria infection were collected between 2007 and 2009 at the reference public health laboratory. These specimens were assessed by reference microscopy, multipex real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR, and two rapid diagnostic immuno-chromatographic tests (ICT in a blinded manner. Key clinical laboratory parameters such as limit of detection (LOD analysis on clinical specimens by parasite stage, inter-reader variability of ICTs, staffing implications, quality assurance and cost analysis were evaluated. Results QPCR is the most analytically sensitive method (sensitivity 99.41%, followed by CARESTART (sensitivity 88.24%, and BINAXNOW (sensitivity 86.47% for the diagnosis of malaria in returning travelers when compared to reference microscopy. However, microscopy was unable to specifically identify Plasmodia spp. in 18 out of 170 positive samples by QPCR. Moreover, the 17 samples that were negative by microscopy and positive by QPCR were also positive by ICTs. Quality assurance was achieved for QPCR by exchanging a blinded proficiency panel with another reference laboratory. The Kappa value of inter-reader variability among three readers for BINAXNOW and CARESTART was calculated to be 0.872 and 0.898 respectively. Serial dilution studies demonstrated that the QPCR cycle threshold correlates linearly with parasitemia (R2 = 0.9746 in a clinically relevant dynamic range and retains a LOD of 11 rDNA copies/μl for P. falciparum, which was several log lower than reference microscopy and ICTs. LOD for QPCR is affected not only by parasitemia but the parasite stage distribution of each clinical specimen. QPCR was approximately 6-fold more

  3. Analysis Methods for Post Occupancy Evaluation of Energy-Use in High Performance Buildings Using Short-Term Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vipul

    2011-12-01

    The green building movement has been an effective catalyst in reducing energy demands of buildings and a large number of 'green' certified buildings have been in operation for several years. Whether these buildings are actually performing as intended, and if not, identifying specific causes for this discrepancy falls into the general realm of post-occupancy evaluation (POE). POE involves evaluating building performance in terms of energy-use, indoor environmental quality, acoustics and water-use; the first aspect i.e. energy-use is addressed in this thesis. Normally, a full year or more of energy-use and weather data is required to determine the actual post-occupancy energy-use of buildings. In many cases, either measured building performance data is not available or the time and cost implications may not make it feasible to invest in monitoring the building for a whole year. Knowledge about the minimum amount of measured data needed to accurately capture the behavior of the building over the entire year can be immensely beneficial. This research identifies simple modeling techniques to determine best time of the year to begin in-situ monitoring of building energy-use, and the least amount of data required for generating acceptable long-term predictions. Four analysis procedures are studied. The short-term monitoring for long-term prediction (SMLP) approach and dry-bulb temperature analysis (DBTA) approach allow determining the best time and duration of the year for in-situ monitoring to be performed based only on the ambient temperature data of the location. Multivariate change-point (MCP) modeling uses simulated/monitored data to determine best monitoring period of the year. This is also used to validate the SMLP and DBTA approaches. The hybrid inverse modeling method-1 predicts energy-use by combining a short dataset of monitored internal loads with a year of utility-bills, and hybrid inverse method-2 predicts long term building performance using utility

  4. Building M7-0505 Treatment Tank (SWMU 039) Annual Performance Monitoring Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This Annual Performance Monitoring Report presents a summary of Interim Measure (IM) activities and an evaluation of data collected during the third year (June 2014 to September 2015) of operation, maintenance, and monitoring (OM&M) conducted at the Building M7-505 (M505) Treatment Tank area, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida ("the Site"). Under KSC's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Program, the M505 Treatment Tank area was designated Solid Waste Management Unit 039. Arcadis U.S., Inc. (Arcadis) began IM activities on January 10, 2012, after completion of construction of an in situ air sparge (IAS) system to remediate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater at concentrations exceeding applicable Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Chapter 62-777, Florida Administrative Code, Natural Attenuation Default Concentrations (NADCs). This report presents a summary of the third year of OM&M activities conducted between June 2014 and September 2015.

  5. Are Biophilic-Designed Site Office Buildings Linked to Health Benefits and High Performing Occupants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Gray

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from interviews and observations of site workers. Preliminary data indicates a strong positive effect from incorporating aspects of biophilic design to boost productivity, ameliorate stress, enhance well-being, foster a collaborative work environment and promote workplace satisfaction, thus contributing towards a high performance workspace. The longitudinal study spanning over two years will track human-plant interactions in a biophilic influenced space, whilst also assessing the concomitant cognitive, social, psychological and physical health benefits for workers.

  6. Are biophilic-designed site office buildings linked to health benefits and high performing occupants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tonia; Birrell, Carol

    2014-11-26

    This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from interviews and observations of site workers. Preliminary data indicates a strong positive effect from incorporating aspects of biophilic design to boost productivity, ameliorate stress, enhance well-being, foster a collaborative work environment and promote workplace satisfaction, thus contributing towards a high performance workspace. The longitudinal study spanning over two years will track human-plant interactions in a biophilic influenced space, whilst also assessing the concomitant cognitive, social, psychological and physical health benefits for workers.

  7. Scaling earthquake ground motions for performance-based assessment of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.; Hamburger, R.O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of alternate ground-motion scaling procedures on the distribution of displacement responses in simplified structural systems is investigated. Recommendations are provided for selecting and scaling ground motions for performance-based assessment of buildings. Four scaling methods are studied, namely, (1)geometric-mean scaling of pairs of ground motions, (2)spectrum matching of ground motions, (3)first-mode-period scaling to a target spectral acceleration, and (4)scaling of ground motions per the distribution of spectral demands. Data were developed by nonlinear response-history analysis of a large family of nonlinear single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillators that could represent fixed-base and base-isolated structures. The advantages and disadvantages of each scaling method are discussed. The relationship between spectral shape and a ground-motion randomness parameter, is presented. A scaling procedure that explicitly considers spectral shape is proposed. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  8. Creating Quality Assurance and International Transparency for Quality Assurance Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Dorte; Lindeberg, Tobias

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the experiences gained in the pilot project on mutual recognition conducted by the quality assurance agencies in the Nordic countries and the future perspective for international quality assurance of national quality assurance agencies. The background of the project was the need......, on the one hand, to advance internationalisation of quality assurance of higher education, and on the other hand, allow for the differences in the national approaches to quality assurance. The paper will focus on two issues: first, the strength and weaknesses of the method employed and of the use of the ENQA...

  9. Safety Assurance in NextGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    HarrisonFleming, Cody; Spencer, Melissa; Leveson, Nancy; Wilkinson, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The generation of minimum operational, safety, performance, and interoperability requirements is an important aspect of safely integrating new NextGen components into the Communication Navigation Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) system. These requirements are used as part of the implementation and approval processes. In addition, they provide guidance to determine the levels of design assurance and performance that are needed for each element of the new NextGen procedures, including aircraft, operator, and Air Navigation and Service Provider. Using the enhanced Airborne Traffic Situational Awareness for InTrail Procedure (ATSA-ITP) as an example, this report describes some limitations of the current process used for generating safety requirements and levels of required design assurance. An alternative process is described, as well as the argument for why the alternative can generate more comprehensive requirements and greater safety assurance than the current approach.

  10. Dose Assurance in Radiation Processing Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Chadwick, K.H.; Nam, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation processing relies to a large extent on dosimetry as control of proper operation. This applies in particular to radiation sterilization of medical products and food treatment, but also during development of any other process. The assurance that proper dosimetry is performed at the radiat......Radiation processing relies to a large extent on dosimetry as control of proper operation. This applies in particular to radiation sterilization of medical products and food treatment, but also during development of any other process. The assurance that proper dosimetry is performed...... at the radiation processing plant can be obtained through the mediation of an international organization, and the IAEA is now implementing a dose assurance service for industrial radiation processing....

  11. Quality assurance and organizational effectiveness in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, R W

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some aspects of a general theoretical model within which research on the organizational impacts of quality assurance programs in hospitals may be examined. Quality assurance is conceptualized as an organizational control mechanism, operating primarily through increased formalization of structures and specification of procedures. Organizational effectiveness is discussed from the perspective of the problem-solving theory of organizations, wherein effective organizations are those which maintain at least average performance in all four system problem areas simultaneously (goal-attainment, integration, adaptation and pattern-maintenance). It is proposed that through the realization of mutual benefits for both professionals and the bureaucracy, quality assurance programs can maximize such effective performance in hospitals.

  12. Improving Building Performance at Urban Scale with a Framework for Real-time Data Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Xiufeng; Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-06-03

    This paper describes work in progress toward an urban-scale system aiming to reduce energy use in neighboring buildings by providing three components: a database for accessing past and present weather data from high quality weather stations; a network for communicating energy-saving strategies between building owners; and a set of modeling tools for real-time building energy simulation.

  13. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Reduced Call-Backs with High-Performance Production Builders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes ways Building America teams have helped builders cut call-backs. Harvard University study found builders who worked with Building America had a 50% drop in call-backs. One builder reported a 50-fold reduction in the incidence of pipe freezing, a 50% reduction in drywall cracking, and a 60% decline in call-backs.

  14. Thermoelectric generator experimental performance testing for wireless sensor network application in smart buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Musleh Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to make a conventional building more efficient or smarter, systems feedbacks are essential. Such feedbacks can include real-time or logged data from various systems, such as temperature, humidity, lighting and CO2 levels. This is only possible by the use of a network of sensors which report to the building management system. Conventional sensors are limited due to wiring and infrastructure requirements. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN however, eliminates the wiring limitations but still in certain cases require periodical battery changes and maintenance. A suitable solution for WSN limitations is to use different types of ambient energy harvesters to power battery-less sensors or alternatively to charge existing batteries so as to reduce their changing requirements. Such systems are already in place using various energy harvesting techniques. Thermoelectric Generators (TEG are one of them where the temperature gradient is used to generate electricity which is conditioned and used for WSN powering applications. Researchers in this field often face difficulty in estimating the TEG output at the low-temperature difference as manufacturers’ datasheets and performance data are not following the same standards and in most cases cover the high-temperature difference (more than 200C°. This is sufficient for industrial applications but not for WSN systems in the built environment where the temperature difference is much smaller (1-20C° is covered in this study. This paper presents a TEG experimental test setup using a temperature controlled hotplate in order to provide accurate TEG performance data at the low-temperature difference range.

  15. Measuring the Actual Energy Cost Performance of Green Buildings: A Test of the Earned Value Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay N. Dwaikat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced energy consumption is a key aspect of the green building. Nonetheless, research indicates that there is a performance gap between the predicted and the actual energy performance once buildings are occupied, which implies a cost deviation from the anticipated energy cost performance. However, the cost deviation also might result from lower or higher energy rates than expected. As an appropriate research methodology for existing theory testing, case study research strategy was adopted to empirically examine the earned value management (EVM approach to measure the actual life cycle cost performance of energy in green buildings. With slight methodological and terminological adaptations, it is found that the EVM approach can be applied to conduct a holistic cost performance measurement of the actual energy consumption in green buildings. The strength of the earned value approach is that it allows for detecting whether the energy cost saving or overrun results from lower or higher energy consumption, or from actual energy rate variations. The earned value approach allows for quantifying each cost variance independently, which is a significant aspect of actual energy cost performance measurement in green buildings.

  16. Multifamily Building Operator Job/Task Analysis and Report: September 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C. M.

    2013-09-01

    The development of job/task analyses (JTAs) is one of three components of the Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals project and will allow industry to develop training resources, quality assurance protocols, accredited training programs, and professional certifications. The Multifamily Building Operator JTA identifies and catalogs all of the tasks performed by multifamily building operators, as well as the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to perform the identified tasks.

  17. Effect of water-ice phase change on thermal performance of building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Černý, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The effect of water ice-phase change on thermal performance of integrated building material is investigated in this paper. As a characteristic construction, simple external wall made of aerated autoclaved concrete was assumed which was exposed to dynamic climatic condition of Šerák, Czech Republic. The computational modelling of hygrothermal performance was carried out using computer codes HEMOT and SIFEL that work on the basis of finite element method. The effect of phase change was taken into account by fixed-domain method, when experimentally determined effective specific heat capacity was used as a material parameter. It comprises also the effect of heat consumption and heat release that accompany the water-ice phase change. Comparing to the results with specific heat capacity, the effect of phase change on thermal performance could be quantified. The results showed that temperature fields can differ more than 6 °C. Additionally, the amount energy transported through the wall may be higher up to 4 %. This confirmed, that the effect water-ice phase change should be included in all the relevant energy calculations.

  18. Towards Building High Performance Medical Image Management System for Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusheng; Lee, Rubao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Saltz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Medical image based biomarkers are being established for therapeutic cancer clinical trials, where image assessment is among the essential tasks. Large scale image assessment is often performed by a large group of experts by retrieving images from a centralized image repository to workstations to markup and annotate images. In such environment, it is critical to provide a high performance image management system that supports efficient concurrent image retrievals in a distributed environment. There are several major challenges: high throughput of large scale image data over the Internet from the server for multiple concurrent client users, efficient communication protocols for transporting data, and effective management of versioning of data for audit trails. We study the major bottlenecks for such a system, propose and evaluate a solution by using a hybrid image storage with solid state drives and hard disk drives, RESTful Web Services based protocols for exchanging image data, and a database based versioning scheme for efficient archive of image revision history. Our experiments show promising results of our methods, and our work provides a guideline for building enterprise level high performance medical image management systems.

  19. Energy performance of semi-transparent PV modules for applications in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Yu Yan

    Owing to the increasing awareness on energy conservation and environmental protection, building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) has been developed rapidly in the past decade. A number of research studies have been conducted on the energy performance of BIPV systems. However, most of the previous studies focused on the systems that incorporated with opaque type PV modules, little attention has been devoted to semi-transparent type PV modules, which have been commonly integrated in modern architectures. This thesis aims at evaluating the energy performance of the semi-transparent BIPV modules, including heat gains to the indoor environment, power generation from the PV modules and daylight utilization. Solar radiation intensity on PV module's surfaces is an essential parameter for assessing energy performance of the PV modules. Different slope solar radiation models are analyzed and compared. The model that best suits Hong Kong situations is selected for the further development of the energy performance of the BIPV modules. The optimum orientation and tilted angle are determined in the analysis. In addition to the solar radiation models, a detailed investigation on the heat gain through the semi-transparent BIPV modules is carried out in this study. A one-dimensional transient heat transfer model, the SPVHG model, for evaluating the thermal performance of the semi-transparent BIPV modules is developed. The SPVHG model considers in detail the energy that is transmitted, absorbed and reflected in each element of the BIPV modules such as solar cells and glass layers. A computer program of the model is written accordingly. By applying the SPVHG model, the heat gain through the semi-transparent BIPV module of any thickness can be determined for any solar irradiance level. The annual performance can also be assessed by inputting annual weather data to the model. In order to verify the SPVHG model, laboratory tests have been carried out on semi-transparent BIPV modules. A

  20. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 13: Energy Performance Techniques and Technologies: Preserving Historic Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Michelle L.; Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Makela, Erin KB; Schneider, Elaine C.; Kaufman, Ned

    2011-03-01

    This guide is a resource to help contractors renovate historic houses, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. The guide is available for download from the DOE Building America website www.buildingamerica.gov.

  1. Understanding What It Means for Assurance Cases to "Work"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, David J.; Knight, John C.; Rowanhill, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This report is the result of our year-long investigation into assurance case practices and effectiveness. Assurance cases are a method for working toward acceptable critical system performance. They represent a significant thread of applied assurance methods extending back many decades and being employed in a range of industries and applications. Our research presented in this report includes a literature survey of over 50 sources and interviews with nearly a dozen practitioners in the field. We have organized our results into seven major claimed assurance case benefits and their supporting mechanisms, evidence, counter-evidence, and caveats.

  2. Reducing Transaction Costs for Energy Efficiency Investments and Analysis of Economic Risk Associated With Building Performance Uncertainties: Small Buildings and Small Portfolios Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, R.; Hendron, B.; Bonnema, E.

    2014-08-01

    The small buildings and small portfolios (SBSP) sector face a number of barriers that inhibit SBSP owners from adopting energy efficiency solutions. This pilot project focused on overcoming two of the largest barriers to financing energy efficiency in small buildings: disproportionately high transaction costs and unknown or unacceptable risk. Solutions to these barriers can often be at odds, because inexpensive turnkey solutions are often not sufficiently tailored to the unique circumstances of each building, reducing confidence that the expected energy savings will be achieved. To address these barriers, NREL worked with two innovative, forward-thinking lead partners, Michigan Saves and Energi, to develop technical solutions that provide a quick and easy process to encourage energy efficiency investments while managing risk. The pilot project was broken into two stages: the first stage focused on reducing transaction costs, and the second stage focused on reducing performance risk. In the first stage, NREL worked with the non-profit organization, Michigan Saves, to analyze the effects of 8 energy efficiency measures (EEMs) on 81 different baseline small office building models in Holland, Michigan (climate zone 5A). The results of this analysis (totaling over 30,000 cases) are summarized in a simple spreadsheet tool that enables users to easily sort through the results and find appropriate small office EEM packages that meet a particular energy savings threshold and are likely to be cost-effective.

  3. Power transformers quality assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Indrajit

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: With the view to attain higher reliability in power system operation, the quality assurance in the field of distribution and power transformers has claimed growing attention. Besides new developments in the material technology and manufacturing processes of transformers, regular diagnostic testing and maintenance of any engineering product may be ascertained by ensuring: right selection of materials and components and their quality checks. application of correct manufacturing processes any systems engineering. the user`s awareness towards preventive maintenance. The

  4. The PARTI Architecture Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    example safety critical system, 2, Issues Guidance Papers ( IGPs ) that further explain key concepts or requirements of the STAN- DARD, The guidance...Organisation (2009) IGP -OOl: Guidance Notes for Project Offices. Published as part of [20]. 4. Defence Material Organisation (2009) IGP -002: Methodsfor Safety...Architecture Analysis. Published as part of [20]. 5. Defence Material Organisation (2009) IGP -003: Methods for Design Assurance. Published as part of

  5. A review of the regulatory energy performance gap and its underlying causes in non-domestic buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Dronkelaar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the discrepancy between predicted and measured energy use in non-domestic buildings in a UK context with outlook to global studies. It explains differences between energy performance quantification and classifies this energy performance gap as a difference between compliance or performance modelling with measured energy use. Literary sources are reviewed in order to signify the magnitude between predicted and measured energy use, which is found to deviate by +34% with a standard deviation of 55% based on 62 buildings. It proceeds in describing the underlying causes for the performance gap, existent in all stages of the building life cycle, and identifies the dominant factors to be related to specification uncertainty in modelling, occupant behaviour and poor operational practices having an estimated effect of 20-60%, 10-80% and 15-80% on energy use respectively. Other factors that have a high impact are related to establishing the energy performance target, impact of early design decisions, heuristic uncertainty in modelling and occupant behaviour. Finally action measures and feedback processes in order to reduce the performance gap are discussed, indicating the need for energy in-use legislation, insight into design stage models, accessible energy data and expansion of research efforts towards building performance in-use in relation to predicted performance

  6. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  7. Key performance indicators (KPIs) and priority setting in using the multi-attribute approach for assessing sustainable intelligent buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALwaer, H. [The University of Dundee, School of Architecture, Matthew Building, 13 Perth Road, Dundee DD1 4HT (United Kingdom); Clements-Croome, D.J. [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 219, Reading RG6 6AW (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    The main objectives of this paper are to: firstly, identify key issues related to sustainable intelligent buildings (environmental, social, economic and technological factors); develop a conceptual model for the selection of the appropriate KPIs; secondly, test critically stakeholder's perceptions and values of selected KPIs intelligent buildings; and thirdly develop a new model for measuring the level of sustainability for sustainable intelligent buildings. This paper uses a consensus-based model (Sustainable Built Environment Tool- SuBETool), which is analysed using the analytical hierarchical process (AHP) for multi-criteria decision-making. The use of the multi-attribute model for priority setting in the sustainability assessment of intelligent buildings is introduced. The paper commences by reviewing the literature on sustainable intelligent buildings research and presents a pilot-study investigating the problems of complexity and subjectivity. This study is based upon a survey perceptions held by selected stakeholders and the value they attribute to selected KPIs. It is argued that the benefit of the new proposed model (SuBETool) is a 'tool' for 'comparative' rather than an absolute measurement. It has the potential to provide useful lessons from current sustainability assessment methods for strategic future of sustainable intelligent buildings in order to improve a building's performance and to deliver objective outcomes. Findings of this survey enrich the field of intelligent buildings in two ways. Firstly, it gives a detailed insight into the selection of sustainable building indicators, as well as their degree of importance. Secondly, it tesst critically stakeholder's perceptions and values of selected KPIs intelligent buildings. It is concluded that the priority levels for selected criteria is largely dependent on the integrated design team, which includes the client, architects, engineers and facilities managers

  8. Duct leakage impacts on VAV system performance in California large commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the variability of duct leakage impacts on air distribution system performance for typical large commercial buildings in California. Specifically, a hybrid DOE-2/TRNSYS sequential simulation approach was used to model the energy use of a low-pressure terminal-reheat variable-air-volume (VAV) HVAC system with six duct leakage configurations (tight to leaky) in nine prototypical large office buildings (representing three construction eras in three California climates where these types of buildings are common). Combined fan power for the variable-speed-controlled supply and return fans at design conditions was assumed to be 0.8 W/cfm. Based on our analyses of the 54 simulation cases, the increase in annual fan energy is estimated to be 40 to 50% for a system with a total leakage of 19% at design conditions compared to a tight system with 5% leakage. Annual cooling plant energy also increases by about 7 to 10%, but reheat energy decreases (about 3 to 10%). In combination, the increase in total annual HVAC site energy is 2 to 14%. The total HVAC site energy use includes supply and return fan electricity consumption, chiller and cooling tower electricity consumption, boiler electricity consumption, and boiler natural gas consumption. Using year 2000 average commercial sector energy prices for California ($0.0986/kWh and $7.71/Million Btu), the energy increases result in 9 to 18% ($7,400 to $9,500) increases in HVAC system annual operating costs. Normalized by duct surface area, the increases in annual operating costs are 0.14 to 0.18 $/ft{sup 2}. Using a suggested one-time duct sealing cost of $0.20 per square foot of duct surface area, these results indicate that sealing leaky ducts in VAV systems has a simple payback period of about 1.3 years. Even with total leakage rates as low as 10%, duct sealing is still cost effective. This suggests that duct sealing should be considered at least for VAV systems with 10% or more total duct

  9. Preparation, thermal performance and application of shape-stabilized PCM in energy efficient buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.P.; Lin, K.P.; Di, H.F.; Jiang, Y. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Building Science and Technology; Yang, B. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    Shape-stabilized phase change material (PCM) is a kind of novel PCM. It has the following salient features: large apparent specific heat for phase change temperature region, suitable thermal conductivity, keeping shape stabilized in the phase change process and no need for containers. The preparation for such kind material was investigated and its thermophysical properties were measured. Some applications of such material in energy efficient buildings (e.g., in electric under floor space heating system, in wallboard or floor to absorb solar energy to narrow the temperature swing of a day in winter) were studied. Some models of analyzing the thermal performance of the systems were developed, which were validated with the experiments. The following conclusions are obtained: (1) the applications of the novel PCM we put forward are of promising perspectives in some climate regions; (2) by using different paraffin, the melting temperature of shape-stabilized PCM can be adjusted; (3) the heat of fusion of it is in the range of 62-138 kJ kg{sup -1}; (4) for PCM floor or wallboard to absorb solar energy to narrow the temperature swing in a day in winter, the suitable melting temperature of PCM should be a little higher than average indoor air temperature of the room without PCM for the period of sunshine; (5) for the electric under-floor space heating system, the optimal melting temperature can be determined by simulation; (6) PCM layer used in the aforementioned application should not be thicker than 2 cm; (7) the models developed by us are helpful for applications of shape-stabilized PCM in buildings. (author)

  10. Learning Styles, Socio-Demographic Variables and Academic Performance of Building Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Alducin-Ochoa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives guiding this research were to determine the dominant learning style of the first year Building engineering students (University of Seville, the influence of the style on the grades in each school subject, and if learning style is influenced by socio-demographic variables. The sample was composed of 161 students, who completed the Honey-Alonso questionnaire (CHAEA and the CDAT. Descriptive and correlational methods were used. For the analysis of the data, a univariate (one-way ANOVA descriptive study was performed, and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, both with a confidence level of 95% (σ=.05 were used. The results show the predominance of the reflective style, and the fact that grades as a function of styles vary depending on the school subject. No significant differences were found in the variables gender, university admission scores, type of school (private or public of the study centers attended previous to university. Significant differences were found for some styles in the variables age, type of university admission, and if a student had to work as well as to study. The conclusions highlight the need to develop teaching strategies that encompass all the styles to improve performance, as well as the need to modify the teaching practices for the students to develop the rest of the styles in a balanced manner. This latest aspect is important so that the students can freely operate professionally, as the Engineering profession requires having all four characteristic styles simultaneously.

  11. Dynamics of safety performance and culture: a group model building approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Love, Peter E D; Stagbouer, Greg; Annesley, Chris

    2012-09-01

    The management of occupational health and safety (OHS) including safety culture interventions is comprised of complex problems that are often hard to scope and define. Due to the dynamic nature and complexity of OHS management, the concept of system dynamics (SD) is used to analyze accident prevention. In this paper, a system dynamics group model building (GMB) approach is used to create a causal loop diagram of the underlying factors influencing the OHS performance of a major drilling and mining contractor in Australia. While the organization has invested considerable resources into OHS their disabling injury frequency rate (DIFR) has not been decreasing. With this in mind, rich individualistic knowledge about the dynamics influencing the DIFR was acquired from experienced employees with operations, health and safety and training background using a GMB workshop. Findings derived from the workshop were used to develop a series of causal loop diagrams that includes a wide range of dynamics that can assist in better understanding the causal influences OHS performance. The causal loop diagram provides a tool for organizations to hypothesize the dynamics influencing effectiveness of OHS management, particularly the impact on DIFR. In addition the paper demonstrates that the SD GMB approach has significant potential in understanding and improving OHS management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 75 FR 57274 - Financial Management and Assurance; Government Auditing Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... OFFICE Financial Management and Assurance; Government Auditing Standards AGENCY: Government...Jlowbookgao.gov . Public Law 67-13, 42 Stat. 20. James R. Dalkin, Director, Financial Management and Assurance... necessary changes. The Advisory Council includes experts in financial and performance auditing drawn from...

  13. Quality assurance of absorbed energy in Charpy impact test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C. L. F.; Fabricio, D. A. K.; Costa, V. M.; Reguly, A.

    2016-07-01

    In order to ensure the quality assurance and comply with standard requirements, an intralaboratory study has been performed for impact Charpy tests, involving two operators. The results based on ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and Normalized Error statistical techniques pointed out that the execution of the tests is appropriate, because the implementation of quality assurance methods showed acceptable results.

  14. Quality Assurance for Operation of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. G.; Kwon, H. I.; Kim, K. H.; Oh, Y. W.; Lee, Y. G.; Ha, J. H.; Lim, N. J.

    2008-12-15

    This report describes QA activities performed within 'Quality Assurance for Nuclear facility project' and results thereof. Efforts were made to maintain and improve quality system of nuclear facilities. Varification activities whether quality system was implemented in compliance with requirements. QA department assisted KOLAS accredited testing and calibration laboratories, ISO 9001 quality system, establishment of QA programs for R and D, and carried out reviews and surveys for development of quality assurance technologies. Major items of this report are as follows : - Development and Improvement of QA Programs - QA Activities - Assessment of Effectiveness and Adequacy for QA Programs

  15. Quality assurance for operation of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. G.; Hwang, S. Y.; Kim, K. H.; Ha, J. H.; Kang, J. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Jang, K. J.

    2011-12-15

    This report describes QA activities performed within Quality Assurance for Nuclear facility project and results thereof. Efforts were made to maintain and improve quality system of nuclear facilities. Verification activities whether quality system was implemented in compliance with requirements. QA department assisted KOLAS accredited testing and calibration laboratories, ISO 9001 quality system, establishment of QA programs for R and D, and carried out reviews and surveys for development of quality assurance technologies. Major items of this report are as follows : - Development and Improvement of QA Programs - QA Activities - Assessment of Effectiveness and Adequacy for QA Programs.

  16. Evaluation of Heating, Ventilation, and Air conditioning (HVAC System Performance in an Administrative Building in Tehran (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mari Oriyad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the factors influencing on indoor air quality of the buildings is performance of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. These systems supply clean and odorless air, with temperature, humidity, and air velocity within comfort ranges for the residents. The aim of this study was to evaluate performance HVAC system in an administrative building in Tehran. .Material and Method: A questionnaire, developed in their research was used to assess the building occupants’ perception about the performance of HVAC system. To evaluate the performance of HVAC systems, air velocities were measured in the diffusers using a thermal anemometer. Moreover, CO2 concentration, air temperature and relative humidity were measured in the whole floors of the building. Air distribution inside the building was evaluated using smoke test. .Results: Most of the studied people complained about the direction of airflow, thermal conditions and cigarette odor. The highest level of carbon dioxide was measured at 930 ppm inside the restaurant. The maximum and minimum air temperatures and relative humidity were measured 28.3-13.8° C and 28.4-23% respectively. Smoke test showed that the air distribution/direction wasn’t suitable in one third of air diffusers. .Conclusion: Improper air distribution / direction was the main problem with the studied HVAC system which could be corrected by adjusting and balancing of the system.

  17. Ensuring Quality Assurance in Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idialu, Ethel E.

    2013-01-01

    Vocational education emphasises skill acquisition. Quality assurance in vocational education is a concept that is concerned with high performance involving activities with vocational education such as teaching, learning, infrastructures, students' behaviour and the entire academic process. Quality vocational education refers to input and output of…

  18. Energy and Environmental Performance of Multi-Story Apartment Buildings Built in Timber Construction Using Passive House Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wall

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents energy and environmental performance analyses, a study of summer indoor temperatures and occupant behavior for an eight story apartment building, with the goal to combine high energy efficiency with low environmental impact, at a reasonable cost. Southern Portvakten building is built with prefabricated timber elements using passive house principles in the North European climate. Energy performance was analyzed through parametric studies, as well as monitored energy data, and complemented with analysis of occupant behavior during one year. Results show that airtight, low-energy apartment buildings can be successfully built with prefabricated timber elements in a cold climate. The monitored total energy use was 47.6 kWh/m2, excluding household electricity (revised to a normal year, which is considerably lower than of a standard building built today in Sweden—90 kWh/m2. However, the occupancy level was low during the analyzed year, which affects the energy use compared to if the building had been fully occupied. Environmental analysis shows that the future challenges lie in lowering the household and common electricity use, as well as in improving the choices of materials. More focus should also lie on improving occupant behavior and finding smart solar shading solutions for apartment buildings.

  19. Energy efficient buildings. Sports. Programming, design, management; Batiments a hautes performances energetique. Sports. Programmer concevoir gerer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-12-31

    This guidebook is aimed for energy optimization in sport buildings; after an investigation of the sector market and its energy consumption, the characteristics of the various energy consuming systems in these buildings are reviewed and recommendations are given for cost- and energy-efficient design and operation of the different systems: site consideration, building construction and envelope, interior comfort (temperature, humidity, air renewal, lighting, acoustics), occupancy scenarios, space and water heating, air conditioning, ventilation, video systems, swimming pools, electric generators

  20. Thermal performance of residential buildings in Lisbon with large glazing areas

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Márcia; Gonçalves, Helder; Bastos, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the results of an experimental study of residential buildings (multi-family apartments) with glazing areas greater than 75% of the total façade area, and for different solar exposures in Lisbon. These buildings were designed after the implementation of the first Portuguese Buildings Thermal Regulation and they are intrinsically related with the construction and architecture practiced in the last few years. The analysis includes the thermal behaviour of the apartments select...

  1. Cost optimal building performance requirements. Calculation methodology for reporting on national energy performance requirements on the basis of cost optimality within the framework of the EPBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boermans, T.; Bettgenhaeuser, K.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    On the European level, the principles for the requirements for the energy performance of buildings are set by the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Dating from December 2002, the EPBD has set a common framework from which the individual Member States in the EU developed or adapted their individual national regulations. The EPBD in 2008 and 2009 underwent a recast procedure, with final political agreement having been reached in November 2009. The new Directive was then formally adopted on May 19, 2010. Among other clarifications and new provisions, the EPBD recast introduces a benchmarking mechanism for national energy performance requirements for the purpose of determining cost-optimal levels to be used by Member States for comparing and setting these requirements. The previous EPBD set out a general framework to assess the energy performance of buildings and required Member States to define maximum values for energy delivered to meet the energy demand associated with the standardised use of the building. However it did not contain requirements or guidance related to the ambition level of such requirements. As a consequence, building regulations in the various Member States have been developed by the use of different approaches (influenced by different building traditions, political processes and individual market conditions) and resulted in different ambition levels where in many cases cost optimality principles could justify higher ambitions. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set 'with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels'. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology. The objective of this report is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Europe around the details of such a methodology by describing possible details on how to calculate cost optimal levels and pointing towards important factors and

  2. DESQA a Software Quality Assurance Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.KhaledKh. S. Kh. Allanqawi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In current software development lifecycles of heterogeneous environments, the pitfalls businesses have to face are that software defect tracking, measurements and quality assurance do not start early enough in the development process. In fact the cost of fixing a defect in a production environment is much higher than in the initial phases of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC which is particularly true for Service Oriented Architecture (SOA. Thus the aim of this study is to develop a new framework for defect tracking and detection and quality estimation for early stages particularly for the design stage of the SDLC. Part of the objectives of this work is to conceptualize, borrow and customize from known frameworks, such as object-oriented programming to build a solid framework using automated rule based intelligent mechanisms to detect and classify defects in software design of SOA. The implementation part demonstrated how the framework can predict the quality level of the designed software. The results showed a good level of quality estimation can be achieved based on the number of design attributes, the number of quality attributes and the number of SOA Design Defects. Assessment shows that metrics provide guidelines to indicate the progress that a software system has made and the quality of design. Using these guidelines, we can develop more usable and maintainable software systems to fulfill the demand of efficient systems for software applications. Another valuable result coming from this study is that developers are trying to keep backwards compatibility when they introduce new functionality. Sometimes, in the same newly-introduced elements developers perform necessary breaking changes in future versions. In that way they give time to their clients to adapt their systems. This is a very valuable practice for the developers because they have more time to assess the quality of their software before releasing it. Other improvements in

  3. The effect of environmental regulation on firms' competitive performance: the case of the building & construction sector in some EU regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Francesco; Iraldo, Fabio; Frey, Marco

    2011-09-01

    There is a considerable debate on the effects of environmental regulation on competitive performance. Based on survey data, this paper analyzes the two main research questions, derived from literature, on the links between environmental regulation and competitiveness, by focusing on firms operating in the building and construction sector, i.e.: 1) whether environmental policy stringency affects the competitive performance of firms in the building and construction sector 2) and how a specific form of environmental regulation (direct regulation, economic instruments and soft instruments) affects this performance? By applying a regression analysis, we find that a more stringent environmental regulation, measured by inspection frequency, provides a positive impulse for increasing investments in advanced technological equipment and innovative products and on business performance. Moreover, a well-designed "direct regulation" appears to be the most effective policy instrument for prompting the positive impact of environmental policies on innovation and intangible performance while economic instruments do negatively affect business performance.

  4. Transient Analysis and Performance Prediction of Nocturnal Radiative Cooling of a Building in Owerri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Nwaigwe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study aimed at a Transient analysis and performance prediction of passive cooling of a building using long wave nocturnal radiation in Owerri, Nigeria are presented. The system modeled consists of the room of a building with a radiator panel attached to its roof, water storage tank located inside the room, pump to circulate water through the radiator panel at night and through a heat exchanger in the room during the day. The mathematical model is based on the thermal radiation properties of the local atmosphere, the heat exchange equations of the radiator panel with the sky during the night and the equations incorporating the relevant heat transfers within the space to be cooled during the day. The resulting equations were transformed into explicit finite difference forms for easy implementation on a personal computer in MATLAB language. This numerical model permits the evaluation of the rate of heat removal from the water storage tank through the radiator panel surface area, Qwt,out, temperature depression between the ambient and room temperatures (Tamb-Trm and total heat gained by water in the storage tank from the space to be cooled through the action of the convector during the day, Qwt,in. The resulting rate of heat removal from the radiator gave a value of 57.6 W/m2, temperature depression was predicted to within 1-1.5ºC and the rate of heat gain by the storage water was 60 W/m2. A sensitivity analysis of the system parameters to ±25% of the base case input values was carried out and the results given as a percentage variation of the above system performance parameters showed consistency to the base case results. An optimal scheme for the modeled 3.0×3.0×2.5 m3 room showed a radiator area of 18.2 m2, a convector area of 28.62 m2 and a tank volume of 1.57 m3. These results show that passive nocturnal cooling technique is a promising solution to the cooling needs for preservation of food and other agricultural produce. It is also

  5. Evaluation of seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings under near-field earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniri, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Near-field ground motions are significantly severely affected on seismic response of structure compared with far-field ground motions, and the reason is that the near-source forward directivity ground motions contain pulse-long periods. Therefore, the cumulative effects of far-fault records are minor. The damage and collapse of engineering structures observed in the last decades' earthquakes show the potential of damage in existing structures under near-field ground motions. One important subject studied by earthquake engineers as part of a performance-based approach is the determination of demand and collapse capacity under near-field earthquake. Different methods for evaluating seismic structural performance have been suggested along with and as part of the development of performance-based earthquake engineering. This study investigated the results of illustrious characteristics of near-fault ground motions on the seismic response of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, by the use of Incremental Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis (IDA) method. Due to the fact that various ground motions result in different intensity-versus-response plots, this analysis is done again under various ground motions in order to achieve significant statistical averages. The OpenSees software was used to conduct nonlinear structural evaluations. Numerical modelling showed that near-source outcomes cause most of the seismic energy from the rupture to arrive in a single coherent long-period pulse of motion and permanent ground displacements. Finally, a vulnerability of RC building can be evaluated against pulse-like near-fault ground motions effects.

  6. Evaluation of seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings under near-field earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniri, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Near-field ground motions are significantly severely affected on seismic response of structure compared with far-field ground motions, and the reason is that the near-source forward directivity ground motions contain pulse-long periods. Therefore, the cumulative effects of far-fault records are minor. The damage and collapse of engineering structures observed in the last decades' earthquakes show the potential of damage in existing structures under near-field ground motions. One important subject studied by earthquake engineers as part of a performance-based approach is the determination of demand and collapse capacity under near-field earthquake. Different methods for evaluating seismic structural performance have been suggested along with and as part of the development of performance-based earthquake engineering. This study investigated the results of illustrious characteristics of near-fault ground motions on the seismic response of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, by the use of Incremental Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis (IDA) method. Due to the fact that various ground motions result in different intensity-versus-response plots, this analysis is done again under various ground motions in order to achieve significant statistical averages. The OpenSees software was used to conduct nonlinear structural evaluations. Numerical modelling showed that near-source outcomes cause most of the seismic energy from the rupture to arrive in a single coherent long-period pulse of motion and permanent ground displacements. Finally, a vulnerability of RC building can be evaluated against pulse-like near-fault ground motions effects.

  7. Building a High Performance Metadata Broker using Clojure, NoSQL and Message Queues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truslove, I.; Reed, S.

    2013-12-01

    In practice, Earth and Space Science Informatics often relies on getting more done with less: fewer hardware resources, less IT staff, fewer lines of code. As a capacity-building exercise focused on rapid development of high-performance geoinformatics software, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) built a prototype metadata brokering system using a new JVM language, modern database engines and virtualized or cloud computing resources. The metadata brokering system was developed with the overarching goals of (i) demonstrating a technically viable product with as little development effort as possible, (ii) using very new yet very popular tools and technologies in order to get the most value from the least legacy-encumbered code bases, and (iii) being a high-performance system by using scalable subcomponents, and implementation patterns typically used in web architectures. We implemented the system using the Clojure programming language (an interactive, dynamic, Lisp-like JVM language), Redis (a fast in-memory key-value store) as both the data store for original XML metadata content and as the provider for the message queueing service, and ElasticSearch for its search and indexing capabilities to generate search results. On evaluating the results of the prototyping process, we believe that the technical choices did in fact allow us to do more for less, due to the expressive nature of the Clojure programming language and its easy interoperability with Java libraries, and the successful reuse or re-application of high performance products or designs. This presentation will describe the architecture of the metadata brokering system, cover the tools and techniques used, and describe lessons learned, conclusions, and potential next steps.

  8. Scale Matters: An Action Plan for Realizing Sector-Wide"Zero-Energy" Performance Goals in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen; Selkowitz, Stephen; Granderson, Jessica; Haves, Philip; Mathew, Paul; Harris, Jeff

    2008-06-16

    It is widely accepted that if the United States is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it must aggressively address energy end use in the building sector. While there have been some notable but modest successes with mandatory and voluntary programs, there have also been puzzling failures to achieve expected savings. Collectively, these programs have not yet reached the majority of the building stock, nor have they yet routinely produced very large savings in individual buildings. Several trends that have the potential to change this are noteworthy: (1) the growing market interest in 'green buildings' and 'sustainable design', (2) the major professional societies (e.g. AIA, ASHRAE) have more aggressively adopted significant improvements in energy efficiency as strategic goals, e.g. targeting 'zero energy', carbon-neutral buildings by 2030. While this vision is widely accepted as desirable, unless there are significant changes to the way buildings are routinely designed, delivered and operated, zero energy buildings will remain a niche phenomenon rather than a sector-wide reality. Toward that end, a public/private coalition including the Alliance to Save Energy, LBNL, AIA, ASHRAE, USGBC and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) are developing an 'action plan' for moving the U.S. commercial building sector towards zero energy performance. It addresses regional action in a national framework; integrated deployment, demonstration and R&D threads; and would focus on measurable, visible performance indicators. This paper outlines this action plan, focusing on the challenge, the key themes, and the strategies and actions leading to substantial reductions in GHG emissions by 2030.

  9. 现代职教体系构建背景下职业教育质量保障框架设计%Design of Vocational Education Quality Assurance Framework in the Context of Building Modern Vocational Education System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈效民; 刘磊

    2014-01-01

    现代职教体系构建对教育质量保障提出了新诉求,要求尽快摈弃传统分散、各自为政的评估范式,转变为一体化、系统化的评估范式,这就需要重新设计现代职业教育质量保障框架,遵循整体设计、分类指导、底线思维、减负高效和系统衔接的基本原则,形成国家教育行政部门、地方教育行政部门、行业企业、职业院校共同关注并参与职业教育人才培养过程的“六位一体”质量保障框架。%New demands for education quality assurance was put forward because of Modern Vocational Education System construction, which required to abandon traditional decentralized fragmented type of assessment paradigm, develop the integrated systematic assessment paradigm, and re-design modern vocational education quality assurance framework. Following the overall principles of integrated design, classified guidance, bottom line of thinking, system efficient and reducing the burden of convergence, the “Six in One” quality assurance framework was formed, which concerned and participated by national education administrative departments, local education administrative departments, industries and enterprises and vocational colleges.

  10. Lifecycle performance. Special issue on management and maintenance, hybrid ventilation concepts, installation-low buildings; Lifecycle performance. Themanummer over beheer en onderhoud, hybride ventilatieconcepten, installatie-arme gebouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierauf, I. [Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kurvers, S.R.; Van den Ham, E.R.; Leijten, J.L. [Sectie Climate Design and Sustainability, Afdeling Architectural Engineering and Technology, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands); Juricic, S. [Ecole National des Travaux Publics de l' Etat, Lyon (France); Jacobs, P. [Afdeling Energy and Comfort Systems, TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Versteeg, H. [LBP Sight, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Van Loon, P.P.M. [Stichting Scholen van Morgen, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hoek, H.C.; Van Eeden, H.; Nibbelink, J. [Collectief C-on, Haarlem (Netherlands); Veerman, J.; Maassen, W.H. [Royal Haskoning DHV, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Derksen, A.H.P. [ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Morren, K. [Universiteit Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    In 9 articles various aspects regarding the title topic are discussed: energy efficiency and user comfort, ventilation in new houses with balanced ventilation, the revised assessment for ventilation performance, air quality in school buildings, buildings with only a few installations, hybrid ventilation, the management and maintenance process, and future performance requirements [Dutch] In 9 artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan diverse aspecten m.b.t. het titelonderwerp: energie-efficientie en gebruikerscomfort, ventilatie in nieuwbouwwoningen met balansventilatie, de herziene beoordelingsrichtlijn ventilatie prestatie, luchtkwaliteit in schoolgebouwen, installatie-arme gebouwen, hybride ventilatie, het beheer- en onderhoudsproces, en de toekomstige prestatie-eisen.

  11. Design of the Building Envelope: A Novel Multi-Objective Approach for the Optimization of Energy Performance and Thermal Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ascione

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the increasing worldwide attention to energy and the environmental performance of the building sector, building energy demand should be minimized by considering all energy uses. In this regard, the development of building components characterized by proper values of thermal transmittance, thermal capacity, and radiative properties is a key strategy to reduce the annual energy need for the microclimatic control. However, the design of the thermal characteristics of the building envelope is an arduous task, especially in temperate climates where the energy demands for space heating and cooling are balanced. This study presents a novel methodology for optimizing the thermo-physical properties of the building envelope and its coatings, in terms of thermal resistance, capacity, and radiative characteristics of exposed surfaces. A multi-objective approach is adopted in order to optimize energy performance and thermal comfort. The optimization problem is solved by means of a Genetic Algorithm implemented in MATLAB®, which is coupled with EnergyPlus for performing dynamic energy simulations. For demonstration, the methodology is applied to a residential building for two different Mediterranean climates: Naples and Istanbul. The results show that for Naples, because of the higher incidence of cooling demand, cool external coatings imply significant energy savings, whereas the insulation of walls should be high but not excessive (no more than 13–14 cm. The importance of high-reflective coating is clear also in colder Mediterranean climates, like Istanbul, although the optimal thicknesses of thermal insulation are higher (around 16–18 cm. In both climates, the thermal envelope should have a significant mass, obtainable by adopting dense and/or thick masonry layers. Globally, a careful design of the thermal envelope is always necessary in order to achieve high-efficiency buildings.

  12. Parameter study on performance of building cooling by night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    Especially for commercial buildings in moderate climates, night-time ventilation seems to be a simple and energy-efficient approach to improve thermal comfort in summer. However, due to uncertainties in the prediction of thermal comfort in buildings with night-time ventilation, architects...

  13. Evaluation of financial aspects and energy performance indicators of residential building stock in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Brouwers, Jos; Kenneweg, H.; Tröger, U.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of the concept of sustainable building in the construction industry has led to different measures to reduce the environmental impact of building objects in the past decades. Because the built environment accounts for more than 40% of the total energy consumption in Europe (EC,

  14. Daylighting and energy performance of a building for composite climate: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Sudan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study includes overall energy saving through thermal as well as daylighting for composite climate for the building known as SODHA BERS COMPLEX (SBC situated at Varanasi, India. The building has been designed including all the passive concepts for thermal comfort as well daylighting to maximize the use of natural lighting for the occupants in day to day activities. This approach can be useful for multi-story building for rural and urban areas for both residential and commercial buildings. The energy saving potential and corresponding CO2 mitigation have been determined for different lifetimes of the building. The energy matrices namely energy payback time (EPBT, energy production factor (EPF and life cycle conversion efficiency (LCCE of the building have also been estimated by considering overall energy saving. An annual energy saving has been obtained as 3675.61 kW h due to daylight concept by considering different Zones in each floors of the building. Further, the EPBT has been determined as 49.25 years and 34.73 years for average 4 °C and 6 °C temperature difference between ambient and room, respectively. It has been found that when thermal heat gain increases in the building LCCE and EPF increase.

  15. Performance analysis of damaged buildings applying scenario of related non-linear analyses and damage coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosić Mladen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with methodology developed and presented for analyzing the damage on structures exposed to accidental and seismic actions. The procedure is based on non-linear numerical analysis, taking into account the principles of Performance-Based Seismic Design (PBSD. The stiffness matrix of the effects of vertical action is used as the initial stiffness matrix in non-linear analysis which simulates the collapse of individual ground-floor columns, forming thereby a number of possible scenarios. By the end of the analysis that simulates the collapse of individual columns, the stiffness matrix is used as the initial stiffness matrix for Non-linear Static Pushover Analysis (NSPA of bi-directional seismic action (X and Y directions. Target displacement analyses were conducted using the Capacity Spectrum Method (CSM. The structure's conditions/state was assessed based on the calculated global and inter-storey drifts and the damage coefficient developed. The damage level to the building was established using an integrated approach based on global and inter-storey drifts, so that, depending on the level of displacements for which the drifts are identified, a more reliable answer can be obtained. Applying the damage coefficient, a prompt, reliable and accurate indication can be obtained on the damage level to the entire structure in the capacitive domain, from elastic and non-linear to collapse state.

  16. Towards Joint Performance: Building Dynamic Capabilities for Public Critical Asset Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa-Jukka Vornanen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present path the joint performance – how the build dynamic capabilities for public critical asset maintenance. The study examined this by finding out the Sand Cone model and Kano model content linkages to the 20 Finnish largest municipality’s Council’s Action Plans (caps. The study overall is based on a case study, supplemented by the content analysis and the survey. Referring to the content analysis of Finnish 20 largest municipalities previous and current Council’s decision-making 2012–2013, a common strategic objective is economic continuity. The case study explains the implementation to conduct multi-focused strategies to the common order fulfilment process. The dynamic capabilities conduct several strategic actions. The study utilized Critical Factor Index analysis to examine network partners. The most significant contributions of the paper are the task of resource allocation to achieving multi-focused strategic goals and an example how the task has been made of.

  17. Opportunities for Using Building Information Modeling to Improve Worker Safety Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Alomari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Building information modelling (BIM enables the creation of a digital representation of a designed facility combined with additional information about the project attributes, performance criteria, and construction process. Users of BIM tools point to the ability to visualize the final design along with the construction process as a beneficial feature of using BIM. Knowing the construction process in relationship to a facility’s design benefits both safety professionals when planning worker safety measures for a project and designers when creating a project’s design. Success in using BIM to enhance safety partly depends on the familiarity of project personnel with BIM tools and the extent to which the tools can be used to identify and eliminate safety hazards. In a separate, ongoing study, the authors investigated the connection between BIM and safety to document the opportunities, barriers, and impacts. Utilizing an on-line survey of project engineers who work for construction firms together with a comprehensive literature review, the study found those who use BIM feel that it aids in communication of project information and project delivery, both of which have been found to have positive impacts on construction site safety. Further, utilizing the survey results, the authors apply the binary logistic regression econometric framework to better understand the factors that lead to safety professionals believing that BIM increases safety in the work place. In addition, according to the survey results, a large percentage of the engineers who use BIM feel that ultimately it helps to eliminate safety hazards and improve worker safety. The study findings suggest that improvements in safety performance across the construction industry may be due in part to increased use of BIM in the construction industry.

  18. Software Quality Assurance Audits Guidebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The growth in cost and importance of software to NASA has caused NASA to address the improvement of software development across the agency. One of the products of this program is a series of guidebooks that define a NASA concept of the assurance processes that are used in software development. The Software Assurance Guidebook, NASA-GB-A201, issued in September, 1989, provides an overall picture of the NASA concepts and practices in software assurance. Second level guidebooks focus on specific activities that fall within the software assurance discipline, and provide more detailed information for the manager and/or practitioner. This is the second level Software Quality Assurance Audits Guidebook that describes software quality assurance audits in a way that is compatible with practices at NASA Centers.

  19. Impact of Green Roof and Orientation on the Energy Performance of Buildings: A Case Study from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Saeed Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia is one of the largest countries in the Middle East region in terms of population, geographic area and scale of economy. It has a fast growing energy sector with over 76% of the total electricity being consumed in the building sector. Domestic buildings account for 51% of total electricity consumption. Predominantly due to hot climatic conditions, most of the energy consumption in buildings is attributed to the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC loads. In terms of supply mix, the country entirely relies on oil and gas to meet its energy requirements. The high growth in energy demand is imposing stringent energy, environmental and economic challenges for Saudi Arabia. The present work aims to explore prospects of energy saving in buildings through the application of green roof technology. With the help of ECOTECT modelling, the work examines the effectiveness of green roof on considering modern faculty homes built in the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals situated in the hot-humid climatic conditions of the Easter Province of the country. The same building has also been investigated for the hot-dry climate of Riyadh, the capital city. The work also examines the impact of orientations on the energy performance of buildings.

  20. Evaluation of a micro-scale wind model's performance over realistic building clusters using wind tunnel experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Du, Yunsong; Miao, Shiguang; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-08-01

    The simulation performance over complex building clusters of a wind simulation model (Wind Information Field Fast Analysis model, WIFFA) in a micro-scale air pollutant dispersion model system (Urban Microscale Air Pollution dispersion Simulation model, UMAPS) is evaluated using various wind tunnel experimental data including the CEDVAL (Compilation of Experimental Data for Validation of Micro-Scale Dispersion Models) wind tunnel experiment data and the NJU-FZ experiment data (Nanjing University-Fang Zhuang neighborhood wind tunnel experiment data). The results show that the wind model can reproduce the vortexes triggered by urban buildings well, and the flow patterns in urban street canyons and building clusters can also be represented. Due to the complex shapes of buildings and their distributions, the simulation deviations/discrepancies from the measurements are usually caused by the simplification of the building shapes and the determination of the key zone sizes. The computational efficiencies of different cases are also discussed in this paper. The model has a high computational efficiency compared to traditional numerical models that solve the Navier-Stokes equations, and can produce very high-resolution (1-5 m) wind fields of a complex neighborhood scale urban building canopy (~ 1 km ×1 km) in less than 3 min when run on a personal computer.

  1. Quality assurance and product quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, D.; Bastiani, P. de [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    The basic quality assurance requirements have to be completed by means that are oriented towards the quality of products; in COGEMA LOGISTICS our approach is based on four principles: 1) an integrated management system: Quality, health and safety, environment 2) an organization based on the responsibility of all actors, trust and transparency 3) a methodical approach to continuously improve the methods that are employed to achieve quality: -process management -corrective and preventive actions -self assessments and various surveys 4) but at the same time strong procedures for control and monitoring of all activities: -technical and quality audits (external and internal) -at source inspections -engineering activities inspections This performance-based approach is necessary to guaranty the effectiveness of the traditional formal QA means.

  2. Optimizing lighting, thermal performance, and energy production of building facades by using automated blinds and PV cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Hussain Hendi

    Energy consumption in buildings has recently become a major concern for environmental designers. Within this field, daylighting and solar energy design are attractive strategies for saving energy. This study seeks the integrity and the optimality of building envelopes' performance. It focuses on the transparent parts of building facades, specifically, the windows and their shading devices. It suggests a new automated method of utilizing solar energy while keeping optimal solutions for indoor daylighting. The method utilizes a statistical approach to produce mathematical equations based on physical experimentation. A full-scale mock-up representing an actual office was built. Heat gain and lighting levels were measured empirically and correlated with blind angles. Computational methods were used to estimate the power production from photovoltaic cells. Mathematical formulas were derived from the results of the experiments; these formulas were utilized to construct curves as well as mathematical equations for the purpose of optimization. The mathematical equations resulting from the optimization process were coded using Java programming language to enable future users to deal with generic locations of buildings with a broader context of various climatic conditions. For the purpose of optimization by automation under different climatic conditions, a blind control system was developed based on the findings of this study. This system calibrates the blind angles instantaneously based upon the sun position, the indoor daylight, and the power production from the photovoltaic cells. The functions of this system guarantee full control of the projected solar energy on buildings' facades for indoor lighting and heat gain. In winter, the system automatically blows heat into the space, whereas it expels heat from the space during the summer season. The study showed that the optimality of building facades' performance is achievable for integrated thermal, energy, and lighting

  3. Structural Performance Assessment Based on Statistical and Wavelet Analysis of Acceleration Measurements of a Building during an Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the analysis of structural health monitoring (SHM system based on acceleration measurements during an earthquake. The SHM system is applied to assess the performance investigation of the administration building in Seoul National University of Education, South Korea. The statistical and wavelet analysis methods are applied to investigate and assess the performance of the building during an earthquake shaking which took place on March 31, 2014. The results indicate that (1 the acceleration, displacement, and torsional responses of the roof recording point on the top floor of the building are more dominant in the X direction; (2 the rotation of the building has occurred at the base recording point; (3 95% of the energy content of the building response is shown in the dominant frequency range (6.25–25 Hz; (4 the wavelet spectrum illustrates that the roof vibration is more obvious and dominant during the shaking; and (5 the wavelet spectrum reveals the elasticity responses of the structure during the earthquake shaking.

  4. Attaining Performance with Building Information Modelling: A systematic literature review of product and process modelling in AEC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadonikolaki, E.; Koutamanis, A.; Wamelink, J.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a systematic literature review of approximately 200 scientific sources. It is designed with the aim to identify the current benefits and factors of high performance in Architecture, Engineering, Construction (AEC) since the introduction of Building Information

  5. A Bayesian Network approach to the evaluation of building design and its consequences for employee performance and operational costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Lynge; Toftum, Jørn; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    and the associated objective thermal measurements from 12,000 office occupants from different parts of the world. A Performance Index (P) is introduced that can be used to compare directly the different building designs and furthermore to assess the total economic consequences of the indoor climate with a specific...

  6. The future 2015 Danish Building Regulations concerning energy performance of multi framed windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacksen Kampmann, Thomas

    The future Danish Building Regulation BR 2015 will reduce energy consumption within the overall building stock. Regarding the very important field windows, it seems that BR 2015 will be based on the same rules as today, except for a simple reduction of the limits for energy loss. Since a big part...... of the total amount of energy consumption in buildings is lost through windows, and the regulations concerning multi framed windows are already highly problematic today, there is a risk of the problem getting bigger in the future....

  7. Subspecialty surgical pathologist′s performances as triage pathologists on a telepathology-enabled quality assurance surgical pathology service: A human factors study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth L. Braunhut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The case triage practice workflow model was used to manage incoming cases on a telepathology-enabled surgical pathology quality assurance (QA service. Maximizing efficiency of workflow and the use of pathologist time requires detailed information on factors that influence telepathologists′ decision-making on a surgical pathology QA service, which was gathered and analyzed in this study. Materials and Methods: Surgical pathology report reviews and telepathology service logs were audited, for 1862 consecutive telepathology QA cases accrued from a single Arizona rural hospital over a 51 month period. Ten university faculty telepathologists served as the case readers. Each telepathologist had an area of subspecialty surgical pathology expertise (i.e. gastrointestinal pathology, dermatopathology, etc. but functioned largely as a general surgical pathologist while on this telepathology-enabled QA service. They handled all incoming cases during their individual 1-h telepathology sessions, regardless of the nature of the organ systems represented in the real-time incoming stream of outside surgical pathology cases. Results: The 10 participating telepathologists′ postAmerican Board of pathology examination experience ranged from 3 to 36 years. This is a surrogate for age. About 91% of incoming cases were immediately signed out regardless of the subspecialty surgical pathologists′ area of surgical pathology expertise. One hundred and seventy cases (9.13% were deferred. Case concurrence rates with the provisional surgical pathology diagnosis of the referring pathologist, for incoming cases, averaged 94.3%, but ranged from 88.46% to 100% for individual telepathologists. Telepathology case deferral rates, for second opinions or immunohistochemistry, ranged from 4.79% to 21.26%. Differences in concordance rates and deferral rates among telepathologists, for incoming cases, were significant but did not correlate with years of experience as a

  8. CHP Fundamentals, NFMT High Performance Buildings (Presentation) – June 3, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation discusses how CHP can improve energy efficiency at a building or facility, and play a major role in reducing carbon emissions, optimizing fuel flexibility, lowering operating costs, and earning LEED points.

  9. Highlighting High Performance: Four Times Square. Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Brochure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-11-01

    4 Times Square is a 48-story environmentally responsible building in New York City and is the first project of its size to adopt standards for energy efficiency, indoor ecology, sustainable materials.

  10. Introduction to Building Systems Performance: Houses that Work II. Revised February 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-03-01

    The Building Science Consortium (BSC) design recommendations are based on the hygrothermal regions with reference to the annual rainfall. Local climate must be addressed if it differs significantly from the climate described for a particular design.

  11. Analysis of building envelope insulation performance utilizing integrated temperature and humidity sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, San-Shan; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Hsu, Cheng-Jui; Chen, Shih-Wei

    2012-01-01

    A major cause of high energy consumption for air conditioning in indoor spaces is the thermal storage characteristics of a building's envelope concrete material; therefore, the physiological signals (temperature and humidity) within concrete structures are an important reference for building energy management. The current approach to measuring temperature and humidity within concrete structures (i.e., thermocouples and fiber optics) is limited by problems of wiring requirements, discontinuous monitoring, and high costs. This study uses radio frequency integrated circuits (RFIC) combined with temperature and humidity sensors (T/H sensors) for the design of a smart temperature and humidity information material (STHIM) that automatically, regularly, and continuously converts temperature and humidity signals within concrete and transmits them by radio frequency (RF) to the Building Physiology Information System (BPIS). This provides a new approach to measurement that incorporates direct measurement, wireless communication, and real-time continuous monitoring to assist building designers and users in making energy management decisions and judgments.

  12. Building America Expert Meeting Report. Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This expert meeting was hosted by the IBACOS Building America research team to determine how HVAC companies can transition from a traditional contractor status to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting.

  13. Tools for Performance Simulation of Heat, Air and Moisture Conditions of Whole Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woloszyn, Monika; Rode, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Humidity of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings as well as durability of building components. Indoor humidity depends on several factors, such as moisture sources, air change, sorption in materials and possible condensation. Since all...... and moisture transfer processes that take place in “whole buildings” by considering all relevant parts of its constituents. It is believed that full understanding of these processes for the whole building is absolutely crucial for future energy optimization of buildings, as this cannot take place without...... these phenomena are strongly dependent on each other, numerical predictions of indoor humidity need to be integrated into combined heat and airflow simulation tools. The purpose of a recent international collaborative project, IEA ECBCS Annex 41, has been to advance development in modelling the integral heat, air...

  14. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-06-01

    The sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series presents information that is useful throughout the U.S. for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in each of the volumes.

  15. The case of sustainability assurance: constructing a new assurance service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dwyer, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth longitudinal case study examining the processes through which practitioners in two Big 4 professional services firms have attempted to construct sustainability assurance (independent assurance on sustainability reports). Power’s (1996, 1997, 1999, 2003) theorization o

  16. Building America Case Study: Standard- Versus High-Velocity Air Distribution in High-Performance Townhomes, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Poerschke, R. Beach, T. Begg

    2017-06-01

    IBACOS investigated the performance of a small-diameter high-velocity heat pump system compared to a conventional system in a new construction triplex townhouse. A ductless heat pump system also was installed for comparison, but the homebuyer backed out because of aesthetic concerns about that system. In total, two buildings, having identical solar orientation and comprised of six townhomes, were monitored for comfort and energy performance.

  17. Parametric study on the performance of green residential buildings in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xi Wang; Hasim Altan; Jian Kang

    2015-01-01

    The parametric study of the indoor environment of green buildings focuses on the quantitative and qualitative improvement of residential building construction in China and the achievement of indoor thermal comfort at a low level of energy use. This study examines the effect of the adaptive thermal comfort of indoor environment control in hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) zones. This work is based on a field study of the regional thermal assessment of two typical cases, the results of which ar...

  18. Building Envelope Performance Assessments in Harsh Climates: Methods for Geographically Dependent Design

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The lifetime of the built environment depends strongly on the severity of local climatic conditions. A well-functioning and reliable infrastructure is a precondition for economic growth and social development. The climate and topography of Norway puts great demands on the design and localization of buildings. The relationship between materials, structures and climatic impact is highly complex; illustrating the need for new and improved methods for vulnerability assessment of building envelope...

  19. Parametric study on the performance of green residential buildings in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xi Wang; Hasim Altan; Jian Kang

    2015-01-01

    The parametric study of the indoor environment of green buildings focuses on the quantitative and qualitative improvement of residential building construction in China and the achievement of indoor thermal comfort at a low level of energy use. This study examines the effect of the adaptive thermal comfort of indoor environment control in hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) zones. This work is based on a field study of the regional thermal assessment of two typical cases, the results of which ar...

  20. Critical Care Organizations: Business of Critical Care and Value/Performance Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sharon; Gregg, Sara R; Coopersmith, Craig M; Layon, A Joseph; Oropello, John; Brown, Daniel R; Pastores, Stephen M; Kvetan, Vladimir

    2017-08-31

    New, value-based regulations and reimbursement structures are creating historic care management challenges, thinning the margins and threatening the viability of hospitals and health systems. The Society of Critical Care Medicine convened a taskforce of Academic Leaders in Critical Care Medicine on February 22, 2016, during the 45th Critical Care Congress to develop a toolkit drawing on the experience of successful leaders of critical care organizations in North America for advancing critical care organizations (Appendix 1). The goal of this article was to provide a roadmap and call attention to key factors that adult critical care medicine leadership in both academic and nonacademic setting should consider when planning for value-based care. Relevant medical literature was accessed through a literature search. Material published by federal health agencies and other specialty organizations was also reviewed. Collaboratively and iteratively, taskforce members corresponded by electronic mail and held monthly conference calls to finalize this report. The business and value/performance critical care organization building section comprised of leaders of critical care organizations with expertise in critical care administration, healthcare management, and clinical practice. Two phases of critical care organizations care integration are described: "horizontal," within the system and regionalization of care as an initial phase, and "vertical," with a post-ICU and postacute care continuum as a succeeding phase. The tools required for the clinical and financial transformation are provided, including the essential prerequisites of forming a critical care organization; the manner in which a critical care organization can help manage transformational domains is considered. Lastly, how to achieve organizational health system support for critical care organization implementation is discussed. A critical care organization that incorporates functional clinical horizontal and

  1. Controlling Capital Costs in High Performance Office Buildings: A Review of Best Practices for Overcoming Cost Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a set of 15 best practices for owners, designers, and construction teams of office buildings to reach high performance goals for energy efficiency, while maintaining a competitive budget. They are based on the recent experiences of the owner and design/build team for the Research Support Facility (RSF) on National Renewable Energy Facility's campus in Golden, CO, which show that achieving this outcome requires each key integrated team member to understand their opportunities to control capital costs.

  2. The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2007-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted interim groundwater remedial activities on the Hanford Site since the mid-1990s for several groundwater contamination plumes. DOE established the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project (Technologies Project) in 2006 to evaluate alternative treatment technologies. The objectives for the technology project are as follows: develop a 300 Area polyphosphate treatability test to immobilize uranium, design and test infiltration of a phosphate/apatite technology for Sr-90 at 100-N, perform carbon tetrachloride and chloroform attenuation parameter studies, perform vadose zone chromium characterization and geochemistry studies, perform in situ biostimulation of chromium studies for a reducing barrier at 100-D, and perform a treatability test for phytoremediation for Sr-90 at 100-N. This document provides the quality assurance guidelines that will be followed by the Technologies Project. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is based on the quality assurance requirements of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance, and 10 CFR 830, Subpart A--Quality Assurance Requirements as delineated in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Standards-Based Management System. In addition, the technology project is subject to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA/240/B-01/003, QA/R-5). The Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD, DOE/RL-96-68) apply to portions of this project and to the subcontractors. HASQARD requirements are discussed within applicable sections of this plan.

  3. Cost-optimal levels of minimum energy performance requirements in the Danish Building Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggerholm, S.

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of the report is to analyse the cost optimality of the energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations 2010, BR10 to new building and to existing buildings undergoing major renovation. The energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations have by tradition always been based on the cost and benefits related to the private economical or financial perspective. Macro economical calculations have in the past only been made in addition. The cost optimum used in this report is thus based on the financial perspective. Due to the high energy taxes in Denmark there is a significant difference between the consumer price and the macro economical for energy. Energy taxes are also paid by commercial consumers when the energy is used for building operation e.g. heating, lighting, ventilation etc. In relation to the new housing examples the present minimum energy requirements in BR 10 all shows gaps that are negative with a deviation of up till 16 % from the point of cost optimality. With the planned tightening of the requirements to new houses in 2015 and in 2020, the energy requirements can be expected to be tighter than the cost optimal point, if the costs for the needed improvements don't decrease correspondingly. In relation to the new office building there is a gap of 31 % to the point of cost optimality in relation to the 2010 requirement. In relation to the 2015 and 2020 requirements there are negative gaps to the point of cost optimality based on today's prices. If the gaps for all the new buildings are weighted to an average based on mix of building types and heat supply for new buildings in Denmark there is a gap of 3 % in average for the new building. The excessive tightness with today's prices is 34 % in relation to the 2015 requirement and 49 % in relation to the 2020 requirement. The component requirement to elements in the building envelope and to installations in existing buildings adds up to significant energy efficiency

  4. A Specific Model for Assessing the Financial Performance:Case study on Building Sector Enterprises of Galati County - Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is designed a specific model for assessing the financial performance, based on models of bankruptcy risk, for enterprises acting in the building sector from Galati County - Romania. The main purpose of the paper is designing and development a model for evaluation financial performance that important for ranking enterprises. To choose model variables was used discriminate analysis on 22 variables proposed that separate objectively performant by non-performant enterprises. The proposed model with five variables was tested using the initial sample of enterprises obtaining an average success ratio of 81.82%.

  5. Music and Space From 20th Century to the Present Time: The Performing Arts Buildings at Tokyo & Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Gündem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is observed that the technical facilities of the performing arts building in Istanbul city are insufficient when it is compared with the examples from the world. The reason of this problem depends on the fact of the tremendous developing constructions of housing, shopping malls or public spaces instead of concert halls, opera houses or theatre buildings which require big investments with high cost. The visitors and artists complain about this a lot in order to have spaces which mainly serve for art. Performing arts architecture is still not a primary subject in the competitive platform of design in Turkey and stays behind as an architectural symbol of the city. The aim of this paper is to show how the musical spaces in Istanbul can be more functional and more closer to the technical standarts of the ideal examples around the world by the analysing the buildings in Europe, America and especially the ones from Tokyo to bring solutions to the current problems in the context of the relationship of music and space. The suggestions for providing architectural development of the performing arts buildings consist in Istanbul which present lower standarts of spatial volumes and technical qualities compared to Tokyo are stated at the results section of the thesis in order to create an awareness and make people conscious of art to encourage the usage and construction of these types of structures filled with art.

  6. Quality assurance standards for purchasing and inventory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, D P

    1985-03-01

    A process is described for quality assurance in pharmaceutical purchasing and inventory control. A quality assurance program should ensure that quality drugs are purchased at the lowest price, drug products are available when needed, the system is managed efficiently, internal controls are provided, drug products are stored under appropriate conditions, and laws, regulations, accreditation standards, and procedures are followed. To meet these objectives, product quality, vendor performance, the department's system of internal controls, purchasing data, and storage conditions should be monitored. A checklist for evaluating purchasing and inventory practices and a sample audit form listing quality assurance criteria, standards, procedures, and recommended actions are provided. A quality assurance program for pharmaceutical purchasing and inventory control should define institution-specific criteria and standards and use these standards for continual evaluation of all aspects of the purchasing and inventory control system. Documentation of quality assurance activities should be provided for use by the purchasing department, hospital administration, and regulatory bodies.

  7. Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

    2010-09-20

    The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed

  8. Construction quality assurance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscha, V.

    1994-09-08

    This report provides a summary of the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and test results, including: The results of the geosynthetic and soil materials conformance testing. The observation and testing results associates with the installation of the soil liners. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the HDPE geomembrane liner systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the leachate collection and removal systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the working surfaces. The observation and testing results associated with in-plant manufacturing process. Summary of submittal reviews by Golder Construction Services, Inc. The submittal and certification of the piping material specifications. The observation and verification associated of the Acceptance Test Procedure results of the operational equipment functions. Summary of the ECNs which are incorporated into the project.

  9. FESA Quality Assurance

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    FESA is a framework used by 100+ developers at CERN to design and implement the real-time software used to control the accelerators. Each new version must be tested and qualified to ensure that no backward compatibility issues have been introduced and that there is no major bug which might prevent accelerator operations. Our quality assurance approach is based on code review and a two-level testing process. The first level is made of unit-test (Python unittest & Google tests for C++). The second level consists of integration tests running on an isolated test environment. We also use a continuous integration service (Bamboo) to ensure the tests are executed periodically and the bugs caught early. In the presentation, we will explain the reasons why we took this approach, the results and some thoughts on the pros and cons.

  10. PG and E`s tool lending service: Helping customers collect and interpret data on building performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcomb, J.; Gustafson, B.

    1994-12-31

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company has established a lending library of measurement and evaluation tools, backed by technical support services, to help its customers collect and interpret data on building performance. Using simple, hand-held data loggers, building owners and operators are often able to diagnose common operating problems, such as malfunctioning economizers in HVAC systems, that can be remedied at low cost, resulting in energy and peak demand savings. More costly and sophisticated tools for specialized applications are also available through the tool lending library. This approach may be widely applicable among other utilities, and even for some corporate energy management programs, where low-cost access to such tools and advice on how to use them is highly valuable to building owners and operators. Tool lending services might eventually be marketed by utilities or other organizations on a fee-for-service basis, or as a complement to other energy services.

  11. 10 CFR 72.142 - Quality assurance organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... activities are performed, the organizational structure for executing the quality assurance program may take... the required authority and organizational freedom. Irrespective of the organizational structure, the... functions of structures, systems, and components which are important to safety. These activities include...

  12. Reform of Teacher Education and the Problem of Quality Assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    Educational reform developments focusing on academic issues are contrasted with those emphasizing teacher performance. The concept of quality assurance in teacher education is considered, as is using student achievement as an indicator of teacher effectiveness. (Author/MT)

  13. Recent Trends in Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Alberto; Rosa, Maria Joao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a brief description of the evolution of quality assurance in Europe, paying particular attention to its relationship to the rising loss of trust in higher education institutions. We finalise by analysing the role of the European Commission in the setting up of new quality assurance mechanisms that tend to promote…

  14. Printed Circuit Board Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Bhanu

    2016-01-01

    PCB Assurance Summary: PCB assurance actives are informed by risk in context of the Project. Lessons are being applied across Projects for continuous improvements. Newer component technologies, smaller/high pitch devices: tighter and more demanding PCB designs: Identifying new research areas. New materials, designs, structures and test methods.

  15. Role of adolescent female volleyball players' psychophysiological properties and body build in performance of different elements of the game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Raini; Stamm, Meelis; Thomson, Kaivo

    2005-08-01

    Body-build peculiarities (49 body measurements) and psychophysiological properties (21 computerized tests) of 32 adolescent female volleyballers were studied to assess their significance in performance at competitions. Games were recorded by the original computer program Game, and an index of proficiency representative elements of the game was calculated for each player. Regression analysis was applied to predict the best psychophysiological and anthropometric models for serve, reception, block, feint, and attack. Seven tests of psychophysiological indices and 14 anthropometric variables explained 38-98% and 32-83% of skill performance, respectively. Consequently, to improve young volleyball players' performance, everyday coaching should be complemented by detailed assessment of their body build and psychophysiological characteristics.

  16. Effects of salinity build-up on the performance and bacterial community structure of a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenhai; Phan, Hop V; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of salinity increase on bacterial community structure in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment. The influent salt loading was increased gradually to simulate salinity build-up in the bioreactor during the operation of a high retention-membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR). Bacterial community diversity and structure were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes of MBR mixed liquor samples. Results show that salinity increase reduced biological performance but did not affect microbial diversity in the bioreactor. Unweighted UniFrac and taxonomic analyses were conducted to relate the reduced biological performance to the change of bacterial community structure. In response to the elevated salinity condition, the succession of halophobic bacteria by halotolerant/halophilic microbes occurred and thereby the biological performance of MBR was recovered. These results suggest that salinity build-up during HR-MBR operation could be managed by allowing for the proliferation of halotolerant/halophilic bacteria.

  17. MEASURING PERFORMANCE – IDINSPENSABLE ELEMENT IN ASSURING TRANSPARENCY IN DECISION MAKING PROCESS OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS IMPLEMENTATION (the example of municipality Chisinau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor PAVALEAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation proved to be an indispensable component, both, for ensuring the performance criteria budget locally, but also, for ensuring the legality of the investment projects implementation, focusing on quality of the works for which public financial sources were invested,in order to respond effectively to the needs of urban comfort.

  18. Improving Thermal Performance of a Residential Building, Related to Its Orientations - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshaya, S.; Harish, S.; Arthy, R.; Muthu, D.; Venkatasubramanian, C.

    2017-07-01

    Urban planners and stakeholders require knowledge about the effectiveness of city-scale climate adaptation measures in order to develop climate resilient cities and to push forward the political process for the implementation of climate adaptation strategies. This study examines the impact of modifications in orientation of buildings with respect to heat load. Heat load calculation is a mathematical process to determine the best capacity, application and style of HVAC system. The purpose is to ensure energy efficiency while also maximizing comfort inside the building. This study of load calculation is essential for a building because it helps to pick the best orientation and focuses to find an orientation that will reduce energy due to direct solar radiation. One of the factors affecting this assessment is the latitude of the location. The heat gain is effective through walls and fenestration. Improper management through ineffective orientation of the building’s natural heat gain leads to excessive consumption of energy in the form of CL. The total heat gain for the above factors is calculated with the equations and assumptions as per ASHRAE code. After the calculation of heat load for different orientations, the best suited orientation of the building is found. By altering the building to suitable orientation, the dependence on electrical equipment can be minimized and thereby helps in energy conservation.

  19. Three approaches to integrating building performance simulations tools in architecture and engineering undergraduate education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, P.P. [Roger Williams Univ., Bristol, RI (United States). School of Architecture, Art and Historic Preservation; Thomas, C.R. [Roger Williams Univ., Bristol, RI (United States). School of Engineering, Computing and Construction Management

    2008-07-01

    This paper described past and on-going teaching experiences at Roger Williams University in Bristol, Rhode Island. In particular, the university has offered several new architecture courses where building simulation tools have played a key role in explaining hard-to-grasp physical phenomena at play in a building. The university also offers a new course to both undergraduate architecture and engineering students to promote collaboration between these two disciplines. The course focuses on the elements of simulation tools that are adapted to sustainable building design. The paper concluded with the advantages and limitations of these teaching methods and provided perspectives to future improvement of some of the pedagogical models. It was concluded that in general, the integration of building simulation tools in the architecture studios and courses have provided students with valuable insight into the dynamic nature of the building environment and about comfort, particularly when the software have transient simulation capabilities. The simulation tools expand the realm of the design beyond the mere visual. Multiple simulation runs of design options help reinforce in the student the basic notion of the iterative nature of the design process. 17 refs.

  20. The limits of sterility assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Thomas; Kramer, Axel

    2008-09-03

    Sterility means the absence of all viable microorganisms including viruses. At present, a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10(-6) is generally accepted for pharmacopoeial sterilization procedures, i.e., a probability of not more than one viable microorganism in an amount of one million sterilised items of the final product. By extrapolating the reduction rates following extreme artificial initial contamination, a theoretical overall performance of the procedure of at least 12 lg increments (overkill conditions) is demanded to verify an SAL of 10(-6). By comparison, other recommendations for thermal sterilization procedures demand only evidence that the difference between the initial contamination and the number of test organisms at the end of the process amount to more than six orders of magnitude. However, a practical proof of the required level of sterility assurance of 10(-6) is not possible. Moreover, the attainability of this condition is fundamentally dubious, at least in non-thermal procedures. Thus, the question is discussed whether the undifferentiated adherence to the concept of sterility assurance on the basis of a single SAL of 10(-6) corresponds with the safety requirements in terms of patient or user safety, costs and energy efficiency. Therefore, in terms of practical considerations, a concept of tiered SALs is recommended, analogous to the comparable and well-established categorization into "High-level disinfection", "Intermediate-level disinfection" and "Low-level disinfection". The determination of such tiered SALs is geared both to the intended application of the sterilized goods, as well as to the characteristics of the products and the corresponding treatment options.In the case of aseptic preparation, filling and production procedures, a mean contamination probability of 10(-3) is assumed. In automated processes, lower contamination rates can be realized. In the case of the production of re-usable medical devices, a reduction of at least 2