WorldWideScience

Sample records for building measures suggestions

  1. Crisis Prevention Centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are important in this area, and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, interrelated categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. Technology is required for establishing communication systems to ensure the timely flow of information between countries and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues, thereby supporting the implementation of confidence building measures and treaties. Technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries, thereby providing an important channel for improving relationships. Potential first steps for a CPC in the Middle Ease could include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a ``Hot Line` in bilateral and multilateral-lateral emergency situations. Bilateral cooperative monitoring centers could be established to assist with implementation of agreements. A centrally located CPC could serve as a regional communications hub, coordinating a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities. Specific recommendations for confidence building activities are discussed.

  2. Crisis prevention centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for Northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are particularly important and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, inter-related categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. First, technology is required to establishing communication systems and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Second, technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues. In addition, technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries. Establishing a CPC in Northeast Asia does not require the existence of an Asian security regime. Potential first steps for such a CPC should include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a {open_quotes}Hot Line{close_quotes} in bilateral and multilateral emergency situations. A central CPC could also be established as a regional communications hub. The central CPC could coordinate a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities, perhaps initially in an unofficial capacity. Specific recommendations for confidence building measures are discussed.

  3. Crisis prevention centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for Northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are particularly important and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, inter-related categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. First, technology is required to establishing communication systems and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Second, technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues. In addition, technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries. Establishing a CPC in Northeast Asia does not require the existence of an Asian security regime. Potential first steps for such a CPC should include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a {open_quotes}Hot Line{close_quotes} in bilateral and multilateral emergency situations. A central CPC could also be established as a regional communications hub. The central CPC could coordinate a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities, perhaps initially in an unofficial capacity. Specific recommendations for confidence building measures are discussed.

  4. A Suggested Model for Building Robust Biomedical Implants Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloufi, Bader; Alshagathrah, Fahad; Househ, Mowafa

    2017-01-01

    Registries are an essential source of information for clinical and non-clinical decision-makers; because they provide evidence for post-market clinical follow-up and early detection of safety signals for biomedical implants. Yet, many of todays biomedical implants registries are facing a variety of challenges relating to a poorly designed dataset, the reliability of inputted data and low clinician and patient participation. The purpose of this paper is to present a best practice model for the implementation and use of biomedical implants registries to monitor the safety and effectiveness of implantable medical devices. Based on a literature review and an analysis of multiple national relevant registries, we identified six factors that address contemporary challenges and are believed to be the keys for building a successful biomedical implants registry, which include: sustainable development, international comparability, data reliability, purposeful design, ease of patient participation, and collaborative development at the national level.

  5. Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

    2012-08-26

    This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual

  6. Suggestions on building roof waterproofing construction suggestions%建筑屋面防水施工建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海强

    2015-01-01

    从设计、材料、排水、管道四方面分析了建筑屋面出现积水、渗水以及漏水的原因,并深入探讨了建筑屋面防水施工的措施,分析了不同屋面结构防水施工的要求,以选择合理的防水技术,达到良好的防水效果。%The paper analyzes building roof ponding,seepaging and leakaging causes from four aspects of design,materials,drainage and pipe-line,explores building roof waterproofing measures,and analyzes different roof structure waterproofing construction demands,with a view to select rational waterproofing techniques and achieve good waterproofing effect as well.

  7. Noise measurements in Omerler underground colliery and suggestions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensogut, C.; Eralp, H. [Selcuk Universitesi, Kampus-Konya (Turkey)

    1998-12-31

    People who have been exposed to an excessive noise level over a long period may have a permanent hearing loss. Additionally, due to the noise in workings, the warnings from the alarm devices may be hindered resulting in the prevention of an effective competence for communication. Therefore, it also causes a series of problems in terms of labour, health and safety. Sources of noise encountered in underground collieries were researched in a lignite mine for a period of two months together with the noise intensity both for health and safety aspects. Noise measurements taken between April and June 1997 from Omerler Underground Colliery, Western Lignite Corporation, Turkish Coal Enterprises are given in detail together with the suggestions made to the mine management. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Energy Savings Modeling of Standard Commercial Building Re-tuning Measures: Large Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

    2012-06-01

    Today, many large commercial buildings use sophisticated building automation systems (BASs) to manage a wide range of building equipment. While the capabilities of BASs have increased over time, many buildings still do not fully use the BAS's capabilities and are not properly commissioned, operated or maintained, which leads to inefficient operation, increased energy use, and reduced lifetimes of the equipment. This report investigates the energy savings potential of several common HVAC system retuning measures on a typical large office building prototype model, using the Department of Energy's building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. The baseline prototype model uses roughly as much energy as an average large office building in existing building stock, but does not utilize any re-tuning measures. Individual re-tuning measures simulated against this baseline include automatic schedule adjustments, damper minimum flow adjustments, thermostat adjustments, as well as dynamic resets (set points that change continuously with building and/or outdoor conditions) to static pressure, supply air temperature, condenser water temperature, chilled and hot water temperature, and chilled and hot water differential pressure set points. Six combinations of these individual measures have been formulated - each designed to conform to limitations to implementation of certain individual measures that might exist in typical buildings. All of these measures and combinations were simulated in 16 cities representative of specific U.S. climate zones. The modeling results suggest that the most effective energy savings measures are those that affect the demand-side of the building (air-systems and schedules). Many of the demand-side individual measures were capable of reducing annual HVAC system energy consumption by over 20% in most cities that were modeled. Supply side measures affecting HVAC plant conditions were only modestly successful (less than 5% annual HVAC energy

  9. Assessing reserve-building pursuits and person characteristics: psychometric validation of the Reserve-Building Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Michael, Wesley; Zhang, Jie; Rapkin, Bruce D; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2017-09-06

    A growing body of research suggests that regularly engaging in stimulating activities across multiple domains-physical, cultural, intellectual, communal, and spiritual-builds resilience. This project investigated the psychometric characteristics of the DeltaQuest Reserve-Building Measure for use in prospective research. The study included Rare Patient Voice panel participants. The web-based survey included the Reserve-Building Measure with one-week re-test, measures of quality of life (QOL) and well-being (PROMIS General Health; NeuroQOL Cognitive Function and Positive Affect & Well-Being short-forms; Ryff Environmental Mastery subscale); and the Big Five Inventory-10 personality measure. Classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) analyses investigated psychometric characteristics of the Reserve-Building Measure. This North American sample (n = 592) included both patients and caregivers [mean age = 44, SD 19)]. Psychometric analyses revealed distinct subscales measuring current reserve-building activities (Active in the World, Games, Outdoors, Creative, Religious/Spiritual, Exercise, Inner Life, Shopping/Cooking, Passive Media Consumption,), past reserve-building activities (Childhood Activities, Achievement), and reserve-related person-factors (Perseverance, Current and Past Social Support, and Work Value). Test-retest stability (n = 101) was moderately high for 11 of 15 subscales (ICC range 0.78-0.99); four were below 0.59 indicating a need for further refinement. IRT analyses supported the item functioning of all subscales. Correlational analyses suggest the measure's subscales tap distinct constructs (range r = 0.11-0.46) which are not redundant with QOL, well-being, or personality (range r = 0.11-0.48). The Reserve-Building Measure provides a measure of activities and person-factors related to reserve that may potentially be useful in prospective research.

  10. Suggested Approaches to the Measurement of Computer Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toris, Carol

    Psychologists can gain insight into human behavior by examining what people feel about, know about, and do with, computers. Two extreme reactions to computers are computer phobia, or anxiety, and computer addiction, or "hacking". A four-part questionnaire was developed to measure computer anxiety. The first part is a projective technique which…

  11. Architectural and Building Construction Technology; A Suggested 2-Year Post High School Curriculum. Technical Education Program Series No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This curriculum guide is for administrators and their advisors to use in meeting local, state, and regional needs in training architectual and building construction technicians at the post-high school level. It was developed by a technical education specialist at the national level. The guide provides: (1) a suggested curriculum plan, (2) course…

  12. Building Custom Term Suggestion Web Services with OAI-Harvested Open Data

    CERN Document Server

    Schaer, Philipp; van Hoek, Wilko

    2012-01-01

    The problem that the same information need can be expressed in a variety of ways is especially true for scientific literature. Each scientific discipline has its own domain-specific language and vocabulary. This language is coded into documentary tools like thesauri or classifications that are used to document and describe scientific documents. When we think of information retrieval as "fundamentally a linguistic process" (Blair, 2003) users have to be aware of the most relevant search terms - which are the controlled thesauri terms the documents are described with. This can be achieved with so-called search-term-recommenders (STR) that map free search terms of a lay user to controlled vocabulary terms which can then be used as a term suggestion or to do an automatic query expansion (Hienert, Schaer, Schaible, & Mayr, 2011). State-of-the-art repository software systems like DSpace or EPrints already offer some kind of term suggestion features in search or input forms but these implementations only work as...

  13. Measure Guideline: Air Sealing Attics in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otis, C.; Maxwell, S.

    2012-06-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for owners, builders, contractors, homeowners, and other stakeholders in the multifamily building industry, and focuses on challenges found in existing buildings for a variety of housing types. It explains why air sealing is desirable, explores related health and safety issues, and identifies common air leakage points in multifamily building attics. In addition, it also gives an overview of materials and techniques typically used to perform air sealing work.

  14. Measure Guideline. Air Sealing Attics in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otis, Casey [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Maxwell, Sean [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for owners, builders, contractors, homeowners, and other stakeholders in the multifamily building industry, and focuses on challenges found in existing buildings for a variety of housing types. It explains why air sealing is desirable, explores related health and safety issues, and identifies common air leakage points in multifamily building attics. In addition, it also gives an overview of materials and techniques typically used to perform air sealing work.

  15. Specifics of Building Envelope Air Leakage Problems and Airtightness Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodinecs Anatolijs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to transmission heat loses the infiltration of outdoor air can cause significant heat losses. The external building envelope should be airtight in order to prevent uncontrolled cold air infiltration. The article analysis modern building materials and structures influence on airtightness. The practical measurements of renovated buildings’ airtightness are presented and compared to non-renovated buildings. In addition paper presents data on airtightness measurements of whole multi apartment building and single apartment in analyzed building taking inco accout properties of building materials. The airtightness of single apartment was evaluated with support pressure in neighbor apartments. The results show that the airtightness measurements of multi apartment building can be evaluated by measuring single apartment on last floor with support pressure in neighbor apartments. The practical measurement of renovated buildings had shown the air leakage rate q50 of typical Latvian construction after renovation is between 2.5 and 2.9 m3/(m2·h. Since the building envelope has to minimize the heat loses (transmission and infiltration and ventilation system either mechanical or natural has to provide necessary air exchange, the building envelope airtightness shouldn’t be dependent on type of ventilation systems.

  16. Stereovision vibration measurement test of a masonry building model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Baohua; Gao, Yunli; Shen, Yu

    2016-04-01

    To monitor 3D deformations of structural vibration response, a stereovision-based 3D deformation measurement method is proposed in paper. The world coordinate system is established on structural surface, and 3D displacement equations of structural vibration response are acquired through coordinate transformation. The algorithms of edge detection, center fitting and matching constraint are developed for circular target. A shaking table test of a masonry building model under Taft and El Centro earthquake at different acceleration peak is performed in lab, 3D displacement time histories of the model are acquired by the integrated stereovision measurement system. In-plane displacement curves obtained by two methods show good agreement, this suggests that the proposed method is reliable for monitoring structural vibration response. Out-of-plane displacement curves indicate that the proposed method is feasible and useful for monitoring 3D deformations of vibration response.

  17. Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

    CERN Document Server

    British Standards Institution. London

    1998-01-01

    Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

  18. Working meeting on blood pressure measurement: suggestions for measuring blood pressure to use in populations surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    As part of the Pan American Hypertension Initiative (PAHI), the Pan American Health Organization and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health of the United States of America conducted a working meeting to discuss blood pressure (BP) measurement methods used in various hypertension prevalence surveys and clinical trials, with the objective of developing a BP measurement protocol for use in hypertension prevalence surveys in the Americas. No such common protocol has existed in the Americas, so it has been difficult to compare hypertension prevention and intervention strategies. This piece describes a proposed standard method for measuring blood pressure for use in population surveys in the Region of the Americas. The piece covers: considerations for developing a common blood pressure measurement protocol, critical issues in measuring blood pressure in national surveys, minimum procedures for blood pressure measurement during surveillance, and quality assessment of blood pressure.

  19. Natural radioactivity measurements of building materials in Baotou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Caifeng; Lu, Xinwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Guang

    2012-12-01

    Natural radioactivity due to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the common building materials collected from Baotou city of Inner Mongolia, China was measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The radiation hazard of the studied building materials was estimated by the radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), internal hazard index (H(in)) and annual effective dose (AED). The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and Ra(eq) in the studied samples were compared with the corresponding results of other countries. The Ra(eq) values of the building materials are below the internationally accepted values (370 Bq kg(-1)). The values of H(in) in all studied building materials are less than unity. The AEDs of all measured building materials are at an acceptable level.

  20. Novel method of measurement of radon exhalation from building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awhida, A; Ujić, P; Vukanac, I; Đurašević, M; Kandić, A; Čeliković, I; Lončar, B; Kolarž, P

    2016-11-01

    In the era of the energy saving policy (i.e. more air tight doors and windows), the radon exhaled from building materials tends to increase its concentration in indoor air, which increases the importance of the measurement of radon exhalation from building materials. This manuscript presents a novel method of the radon exhalation measurement using only a HPGe detector or any other gamma spectrometer. Comparing it with the already used methods of radon exhalation measurements, this method provides the measurement of the emanation coefficient, the radon diffusion length and the radon exhalation rate, all within the same measurement, which additionally defines material's radon protective properties. Furthermore it does not necessitate additional equipment for radon or radon exhalation measurement, which simplifies measurement technique, and thus potentially facilitates introduction of legal obligation for radon exhalation determination in building materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Occupancy measurement in building: A litterature review, application on an energy efficiency research demonstrated building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caucheteux A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the energy efficiency of buildings and its confrontation with the current Building Energy Simulations now faces knowledge of what is commonly called “occupancy”. This work has been made in order to implement a monitoring system on a research demonstrator building at DLRCA in Angers (France. The goals were first to know the occupancy as input data of models but also to build occupancy models. Occupancy can be defined as all the action of occupants that affect building energy efficiency. The chosen monitoring deals with its presence, lightning, windows opening and internal gains. It seems that the use of an Infra- red detector allows a accuracy of 5 min in the detection of presence. The use of dry contact sensors allows the detection of five different rates of slide windows opening that can affect temperature decrease. Light sensors seem to be efficient to detect artificial lighting states when correctly configured.

  2. Fade Measurements into Buildings from 500 to 3000 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    Slant-path fade measurements from 500 to 3000 MHz were made into six different buildings employing a vector network analyzer, a tower-mounted transmitting antenna and an automatically positioned receiving antenna. The objective of the measurements was to provide information for satellite audio broadcasting and personal communications satellite design on the correlation of fading inside buildings. Fades were measured with 5 cm spatial separation and every 0.2% of the frequency. Median fades ranged from 10 to 20 dB in woodframe houses with metal roofs and walls without and with an aluminum heatshield, respectively. The median decorrelation distance was from 0.5 to 1.1 m and was independent of frequency. The attenuation into the buildings increased only moderately with frequency in most of the buildings with a median slope of about 1 to 3 dB/GHz, but increased fastest in the least attenuating building with a slope of 5 dB/GHz. The median decorrelation bandwidth ranged from 1.2 to 3.8% of frequency in five of the buildings, and was largest in the least attenuating building, with 20.2% of frequency.

  3. Indoor air quality measurements in 38 Pacific Northwest commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, B.H.; Brown, J.T.; Geisling-Sobotka, K.; Froehlich, D.A.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Harrison, J.; Revzan, K.L.

    1986-06-01

    A Bonneville Power Administration-funded study monitored ventilation rates and a variety of indoor air pollutants in 38 Pacific Northwest commercial buildings. The buildings ranged in age from 6 months to 90 years, in size from 864 to 34,280 m/sup 2/, and occupancy from 25 to 2500 people. Building average formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations were below the 20 ppB detection limit in 48% of the buildings. Nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) concentration averages ranged from 5 ppB to 43 ppB and were lower than outdoor concentrations in 8 of 13 buildings. At only one site, an elementary school classroom, did carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) exceed 1000 ppM. Radon (Rn) levels were elevated in one building with an average concentration of 7.4 pCiL/sup -1/. Respirable particles (RSP) concentrations in smoking areas in 32 buildings had a geometric mean of 44 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ and ranged up to 308 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ at one site. In non-smoking areas the geometric mean RSP was 15 ..mu..g m/sup -3/. Outside air ventilation rates did not appear to be the single dominant parameter in determining indoor pollutant concentrations. Measured pollutant concentrations in 2 ''complaint'' buildings were below accepted guidelines. The cause of the complaints was not identified.

  4. Development of Decision Support Process for Building Energy Conservation Measures and Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Eun Choi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As policies for energy efficiency of buildings are being actively implemented, building energy performance improvement is urgently required. However, in Korea, information on measures and technologies for building energy efficiency is dispersed and concrete methods are not established, making it difficult to apply effective measures. Therefore, it is required to apply and evaluate energy efficiency measures through database construction integrating diverse information. In this study, the energy efficiency measures in the architectural sector that satisfy domestic legal standards are built. Because of the economic evaluation is necessary for the constructed alternatives, an economic efficiency database was established. The target building was set up, and energy efficiency measures were derived. In addition, a methodology that can induce energy efficient decision making of buildings was proposed, and the energy use evaluation and the economic analysis for each of the alternatives derived from applying the methodology to the target building were carried out. Furthermore, the optimal energy efficiency measures for the target building were suggested through the application of the decision-making process.

  5. Measurement Invariance: A Foundational Principle for Quantitative Theory Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimon, Kim; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes why measurement invariance is a critical issue to quantitative theory building within the field of human resource development. Readers will learn what measurement invariance is and how to test for its presence using techniques that are accessible to applied researchers. Using data from a LibQUAL+[TM] study of user…

  6. Thermographic measurement of thermal bridges in buildings under dynamic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, G.; Bison, P.; Bortolin, A.; Cadelano, G.; De Carli, M.

    2016-05-01

    The accurate knowledge of the thermal performance could reduce significantly the impact of buildings on global energy consumption. Infrared thermography is widely recognized as one of the key technologies for building surveys, thanks to its ability to acquire at a glance thermal images of the building envelope. However, a spot measurement could be misleading when the building is under dynamic thermal conditions. In this case data should be acquired for hours or days, depending on the thermal properties of the walls. Long term thermographic monitoring are possible but imply strong challenges from a practical standpoint. This work investigates the possibilities and limitations of spot thermographic surveys coupled with contact probes, that are able to acquire continuously the thermal signal for days, to investigate the thermal bridges of a building. The goal is the estimation of the reliability and accuracy of the measurement under realistic environmental conditions. Firstly, numerical simulations are performed to determine the reference value of an experimental case. Then a long term thermographic survey is performed and integrated with the contact probe measurement, assessing the feasibility of the method.

  7. Energy savings modelling of re-tuning energy conservation measures in large office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nick; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

    2014-10-20

    Today, many large commercial buildings use sophisticated building automation systems (BASs) to manage a wide range of building equipment. While the capabilities of BASs have increased over time, many buildings still do not fully use the BAS’s capabilities and are not properly commissioned, operated or maintained, which leads to inefficient operation, increased energy use, and reduced lifetimes of the equipment. This paper investigates the energy savings potential of several common HVAC system re-tuning measures on a typical large office building, using the Department of Energy’s building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. The baseline prototype model uses roughly as much energy as an average large office building in existing building stock, but does not utilize any re-tuning measures. Individual re-tuning measures simulated against this baseline include automatic schedule adjustments, damper minimum flow adjustments, thermostat adjustments, as well as dynamic resets (set points that change continuously with building and/or outdoor conditions) to static pressure, supply-air temperature, condenser water temperature, chilled and hot water temperature, and chilled and hot water differential pressure set points. Six combinations of these individual measures have been formulated – each designed to conform to limitations to implementation of certain individual measures that might exist in typical buildings. All the individual measures and combinations were simulated in 16 climate locations representative of specific U.S. climate zones. The modeling results suggest that the most effective energy savings measures are those that affect the demand-side of the building (air-systems and schedules). Many of the demand-side individual measures were capable of reducing annual total HVAC system energy consumption by over 20% in most cities that were modeled. Supply side measures affecting HVAC plant conditions were only modestly successful (less than 5% annual HVAC energy

  8. Moisture measurements in building materials with microwaves; Rakennusmateriaalien kosteusmittauksia mikroaalloilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, H.; Rudolph, M.; Schaurich, D.; Wiggenhauser, H. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Construction and Facility Management

    1998-12-01

    In order to assess the condition and evaluate the reliability of buildings and structures, it is essential to establish the moisture condition of the floor and other structural elements of the building. NDT-methods are increasingly being used for such moisture measurements because they do not cause any damage to the building under investigation. Microwave transmission is one of the NDT-methods and has been in use for several years. In this report, the applicability of the microwave method for measuring moisture in different building materials was investigated. This method has been successfully used at BAM for repeated moisture measurements in brick and sandstone material. This project also included other materials, such as concrete, sand, gravel, insulation and wood. At the same time, information was gathered about in situ moisture determination of building materials with a microwave moisture measuring system. The equipment used in this research has been developed at BAM over the last few years. The method requires two parallel boreholes in the specimen in which two microwave antennae can be moved. The moisture content in the material can be calculated from the microwave intensity transmitted between the two boreholes. Moisture profiles along the boreholes can be obtained by moving the antennae in steps along the length of the boreholes and taking measurements at each step. Special care must be taken while drilling the holes for the antennae, as this process must not affect the moisture condition in the specimen, and the boreholes must be made as parallel to each other as possible. The microwave frequencies used in the laboratory measurements ranged from 8 to 16,5 GHz in steps of 0,5 GHz. The diameters of the antennae were between 7 and 9 mm, and of the boreholes between 8 and 12 mm. Except for the concrete specimen, all the specimens were measured using plastic tubes in the boreholes. The moisture content measured by the microwave technique was verified by the

  9. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  10. Examination of low energy retrofit measures in European office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofoed, N.U.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology used in the Design and Evaluation Group in the project 'OFFICE - Passive Retrofitting of Office Buildings to Improve their Energy Performance and Indoor Working Conditions' funded by the European Commission under the JOULE III Programme. The objectives of the OFFICE project are to promote passive solar and energy efficient retrofitting measures in terms of energy, indoor environment and economy and based on this develop global retrofitting strategies and design guidelines. Ten European office buildings are included in the project situated respectively in England, France, Greece, Italy, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Germany and Switzerland. To exemplify the type of results and analysis produced in the project, selected results from the Danish and Greek case study buildings are presented. (au)

  11. 绿色建筑的特点研究与发展建议%Characteristic research and development suggestions of green buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建楠; 赵怀明

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces contemporary environmental and resource conditions,analyzes characteristics of green buildings,puts forward suggestions of developing green building,and points out the significance of carefully studying conditions of realizing green buildings for achieving sustainable development.%介绍了当前面临的环境和资源的形势,分析了绿色建筑的特点,并提出发展绿色建筑的建议,指出认真研究实现绿色建筑的条件与实践,实现可持续发展,具有重要意义。

  12. Wal-Mart’s Corporate Culture and the Suggestions for China’s Retailing Industry in Culture-Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德洋

    2013-01-01

    With sales at a quarter of a trillion and over 1.3 million employees, Wal-Mart has been the biggest retailing success ever before. A lot of Wal-Mart’s success was attributed to the strong and pervasive culture at the company.China’s retailing industry should really learn something about corporate culture-building from this excellent enterprise, so that one day it would become a strong competitor both home and abroad in retailing industry.

  13. Building penetration loss measurements for DAB signals at 211 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. A.

    Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) is being considered as a future method of transmitting radio programs to the public. Some of the advantages of DAB over conventional Frequency Modulation (FM) include its resistance to multipath and its ruggedness in the presence of interference. Because of these qualities it is ideally suited for reception by mobile and portable receivers. It is proposed that a DAB service will be planned to be effective for use by fixed, portable, and mobile receivers. But many problems have to be overcome, to allow accurate planning of suitable transmitter sites and powers, if the desired coverage is to be obtained economically. This Report gives the results of one aspect of this work, namely the signal level received within a building compared to the level received outside. This is generally termed building penetration loss. Several different frequency bands are being considered for DAB transmission in the UK. The work reported concentrates on one of the proposed bands: Band III. The two broad aims of the work were: (1) by measuring the field strength both inside and outside buildings, determine a Building Penetration Loss figure; and (2) using first generation prototype Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (COFDM) equipment, find the relationship between field strength and some particular values of Bit Error Ratio (BER). A mean building penetration loss of approximately 8 dB was measured for the whole of the ground floor of brick-built houses. Using first generation prototype DAB transmitting and receiving equipment, in the absence of interference, a field strength of the order of 39 dB (microV/m) will provide the receiver with an adequate signal. Further work is essential to quantify the lower limit of felt strength in which a trial specification receiver will work. There is a potential saving of up to 5 dB on transmitter powers, depending on the particular levels of ambient man-made noise.

  14. Thermal Bridges in Building Construction - Measurements and Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    in building envelope constructions is given. After this a validation of both programs and guidelines is presented. The validation is performed by comparing calculated U-values with Guarded Hot Box measurements. The last part of the thesis discusses the possibilities of utilising the results of detailed...... calculations in more operational and applicable projecting tools, e.g. thermal bridge catalogues or U-value tables....

  15. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  16. Measuring integrated pest management programs for public buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Albert; Breisch, Nancy L

    2002-02-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) tends to be perceived by different stakeholder groups either as a methodology for effective pest control or as an ideology of responsible environmental stewardship. The IPM process has never been subjected to a rigorous empirical test as a control methodology in buildings; published studies have either tested isolated program components or have presented uncontrolled, sequential descriptions of IPM replacing traditional pest control service procedures. Because ideological measurement is simpler, cheaper, and more relevant than methodological testing to evaluate structural IPM performance in the public sector, data on pesticide use/risk and customer satisfaction, rather than control efficacy, are used by the General Services Administration (GSA) IPM program to demonstrate success compatible with Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) guidelines. Implementation of IPM in 1989 resulted in significant decreases both in quantities of insecticide applied indoors and requests for pest control service by building occupants throughout the first decade of the program. Although these results do not provide an empirical test of structural IPM methodological superiority as a means of reducing pest populations, they indicate that replacing sprayed insecticide formulations with baits and using client reporting as the primary pest surveillance method can successfully achieve the policy goals of a large-scale IPM program for public buildings.

  17. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials used in Samsun, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufan, M Çagatay; Disci, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, radioactivity levels of 35 different samples of 11 commonly used building materials in Samsun were measured by using a gamma spectrometry system. The analysis carried out with the high purity Germanium gamma spectrometry system. Radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 6 to 54 Bq kg(-1), 5 to 88 Bq kg(-1) and 6 to 1070 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From these results, radium equivalent activities, gamma indexes, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses were calculated for all samples. Obtained results were compared with the available data, and it was concluded that all the investigated materials did not have radiological risk.

  18. Seafloor geodesy: Measuring surface deformation and strain-build up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Heidrun; Lange, Dietrich; Hannemann, Katrin; Petersen, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Seafloor deformation is intrinsically related to tectonic processes, which potentially may evolve into geohazards, including earthquakes and tsunamis. The nascent scientific field of seafloor geodesy provides a way to monitor crustal deformation at high resolution comparable to the satellite-based GPS technique upon which terrestrial geodesy is largely based. The measurements extract information on stress and elastic strain stored in the oceanic crust. Horizontal seafloor displacement can be obtained by acoustic/GPS combination to provide absolute positioning or by long-term acoustic telemetry between different beacons fixed on the seafloor. The GeoSEA (Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the SEAfloor) array uses acoustic telemetry for relative positioning at mm-scale resolution. The transponders within an array intercommunicate via acoustic signals for a period of up to 3.5 years. The seafloor acoustic transponders are mounted on 4 m high tripod steel frames to ensure clear line-of-sight between the stations. The transponders also include high-precision pressure sensors to monitor vertical movements and dual-axis inclinometers in order to measure their level as well as any tilt of the seafloor. Sound velocity sensor measurements are used to correct for water sound speed variations. A further component of the network is GeoSURF, a self-steering autonomous surface vehicle (Wave Glider), which monitors system health and is able to upload the seafloor data to the sea surface and to transfer it via satellite. The GeoSEA array is capable of both continuously monitoring horizontal and vertical ground displacement rates along submarine fault zones and characterizing their behavior (locked or aseismically creeping). Seafloor transponders are currently installed along the Siliviri segment of the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul for measurements of strain build-up along the fault. The first 18 month of baseline ranging were analyzed by a joint-least square inversion

  19. Some possible evolutionary scenarios suggested by {sup 36}Cl measurements in Guarani aquifer groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, R.G. [CSIRO Land and Water, 120 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)], E-mail: richard.cresswell@csiro.au; Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900 Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br

    2008-08-15

    The Guarani aquifer underlies 1.2 M km{sup 2} in the Parana sedimentary basin of South America and is an important source of water for industry, agriculture, and domestic supplies. To determine the sustainability of this aquifer we need to understand the dynamics of the groundwater system. This paper describes the first {sup 36}Cl measurements on aquifer groundwaters and some measurements on South American rainwaters, thought to be indicative of the recharge water. The results are compared to previous work in the region, including other radioisotope analyses. A simple model is developed, incorporating radioactive decay, allowing scenarios to be developed for mixing different waters at different mixing rates. Thus, mixing scenarios consistent with other hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data could be assessed. A model that mixes fresh recharging waters with formational waters, that contain elevated chloride levels, but low (in situ) {sup 36}Cl levels, can explain most of the results presented here. The expectation that rainwater samples would provide a good end-member for modelling recharge proved problematic, however. As a consequence, it is suggested that either: the recharge waters are not sourced from the same locations as the rains; that the current rainfall and fallout conditions were significantly different in the past; or that the low levels of chloride in rainfall may have allowed some contamination of the samples by old ({sup 36}Cl-free) chloride during the recharge process.

  20. Infrared Emissivity Measurements of Building and Civil Engineering Materials: A New Device for Measuring Emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Marchetti, Mario; Ibos, Laurent; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves

    2014-10-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings and civil engineering structures is useful for two specific approaches. First, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures by infrared thermography requires emissivity values in the spectral bandwidth of the camera used for measurements, in order to obtain accurate surface temperatures; for instance, emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors (such as micro-bolometer arrays). Second, setting up accurate thermal balances by numerical modeling requires the total emissivity value for a large wavelength domain; this is, for instance, the case for computing the road surface temperature to predict ice occurrence. Furthermore, periodical surveys of emissivity variations due to aging or soiling of surfaces could be useful in many situations such as thermal mapping of roads or building insulation diagnosis. The use of portable emissivity measurement devices is required for that purpose. A device using an indirect measurement method was previously developed in our lab; the method uses measurement of the reflectivity from a modulated IR source and requires calibration with a highly reflective surface. However, that device uses a low-frequency, thermal modulation well adapted to laboratory measurements but unfit for fast and in situ measurements. Therefore, a new, portable system which retains the principle of an indirect measurement but uses a faster-frequency, mechanical modulation more appropriate to outdoor measurements was developed. Both devices allow measurements in the broad m to m) and narrow m to m) bands. Experiments were performed on a large number of materials commonly used in buildings and civil engineering structures. The final objective of this work is to build a database of emissivity of these materials. A comparison of laboratory and on-site measurements of emissivity values obtained in both spectral bands will be

  1. Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

    2009-04-16

    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  2. Building and measuring a high performance network architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, William T.C.; Toole, Timothy; Fisher, Chuck; Dugan, Jon; Wheeler, David; Wing, William R; Nickless, William; Goddard, Gregory; Corbato, Steven; Love, E. Paul; Daspit, Paul; Edwards, Hal; Mercer, Linden; Koester, David; Decina, Basil; Dart, Eli; Paul Reisinger, Paul; Kurihara, Riki; Zekauskas, Matthew J; Plesset, Eric; Wulf, Julie; Luce, Douglas; Rogers, James; Duncan, Rex; Mauth, Jeffery

    2001-04-20

    Once a year, the SC conferences present a unique opportunity to create and build one of the most complex and highest performance networks in the world. At SC2000, large-scale and complex local and wide area networking connections were demonstrated, including large-scale distributed applications running on different architectures. This project was designed to use the unique opportunity presented at SC2000 to create a testbed network environment and then use that network to demonstrate and evaluate high performance computational and communication applications. This testbed was designed to incorporate many interoperable systems and services and was designed for measurement from the very beginning. The end results were key insights into how to use novel, high performance networking technologies and to accumulate measurements that will give insights into the networks of the future.

  3. Influence of measurement uncertainty on classification of thermal environment in buildings according to European Standard EN 15251

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    European Standard EN 15 251 in its current version does not provide any guidance on how to handle uncertainty of long term measurements of indoor environmental parameters used for classification of buildings. The objective of the study was to analyse the uncertainty for field measurements...... measurements of operative temperature at two measuring points (south/south-west and north/northeast orientation). Results of the present study suggest that measurement uncertainty needs to be considered during assessment of thermal environment in existing buildings. When expanded standard uncertainty was taken...... of operative temperature and evaluate its effect on categorization of thermal environment according to EN 15251. A data-set of field measurements of operative temperature four office buildings situated in Denmark, Italy and Spain was used. Data for each building included approx. one year of continuous...

  4. A New Ground Motion Intensity Measure, Peak Filtered Acceleration (PFA), to Estimate Collapse Vulnerability of Buildings in Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shiyan

    In this thesis, we develop an efficient collapse prediction model, the PFA (Peak Filtered Acceleration) model, for buildings subjected to different types of ground motions. For the structural system, the PFA model covers modern steel and reinforced concrete moment-resisting frame buildings (potentially reinforced concrete shear wall buildings). For ground motions, the PFA model covers ramp-pulse-like ground motions, long-period ground motions, and short-period ground motions. To predict whether a building will collapse in response to a given ground motion, we first extract long-period components from the ground motion using a Butterworth low-pass filter with suggested order and cutoff frequency. The order depends on the type of ground motion, and the cutoff frequency depends on the building's natural frequency and ductility. We then compare the filtered acceleration time history with the capacity of the building. The capacity of the building is a constant for 2-dimentional buildings and a limit domain for 3-dimentional buildings. If the filtered acceleration exceeds the building's capacity, the building is predicted to collapse. Otherwise, it is expected to survive the ground motion. The parameters used in PFA model, which include fundamental period, global ductility and lateral capacity, can be obtained either from numerical analysis or interpolation based on the reference building system proposed in this thesis. The PFA collapse prediction model greatly reduces computational complexity while archiving good accuracy. It is verified by FEM simulations of 13 frame building models and 150 ground motion records. Based on the developed collapse prediction model, we propose to use PFA (Peak Filtered Acceleration) as a new ground motion intensity measure for collapse prediction. We compare PFA with traditional intensity measures PGA, PGV, PGD, and Sa in collapse prediction and find that PFA has the best performance among all the intensity measures. We also provide a

  5. Patterns of bacteria-host associations suggest different ecological strategies between two reef building cold-water coral species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meistertzheim, Anne.-Leila; Lartaud, Franck; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Bessalam, Manon; Le Bris, Nadine; Galand, Pierre E.

    2016-08-01

    Cold-water corals (CWC) are main ecosystem engineers of the deep sea, and their reefs constitute hot-spots of biodiversity. However, their ecology remains poorly understood, particularly, the nature of the holobiont formed by corals with their associated bacterial communities. Here, we analyzed Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa samples, collected from one location in a Mediterranean canyon in two different seasons (autumn and spring), in order to test for species specificity and temporal stability of the host-bacteria associations. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed host-specific patterns of bacterial communities associated with L. pertusa and M. oculata, both in terms of community composition and diversity. All analyzed M. oculata polyps exhibited temporally and spatially similar bacterial communities dominated by haplotypes homologous to the known cnidarians-associated genus Endozoicomonas. In contrast, the bacterial communities associated with L. pertusa varied among polyps from the same colony, as well as among distinct colonies and between seasons. While the resilient consortium formed by M. oculata and its bacterial community fit the definition of holobiont, the versatility of the L. pertusa microbiome suggests that this association is more influenced by the environmental conditions or nutritional status. Our results thus highlight distinct host/microbes association strategies for these two closely related Scleractinians sharing the same habitat, suggesting distinct sensitivity to environmental change.

  6. Indoor Environment and Energy Use in Historic Buildings - Comparing Survey Results with Measurements and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohdin, P.; Dalewski, M.; Moshfegh, B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing demand for energy efficiency places new requirements on energy use in historic buildings. Efficient energy use is essential if a historic building is to be used and preserved, especially buildings with conventional uses such as residential buildings and offices. This paper presents...... results which combine energy auditing with building energy simulation and an indoor environment survey among the occupants of the building. Both when comparing simulations with measurements as well as with survey results good agreement was found. The two efficiency measures that are predicted to increase...... energy and thermal performance the most for this group of buildings were reduced infiltration and increasing heat-exchanger efficiency....

  7. Measuring Instrument Constructs of Return Factors for Green Office Building Investments Variables Using Rasch Measurement Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Mona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a preliminary study on rationalising green office building investments in Malaysia. The aim of this paper is attempt to introduce the application of Rasch measurement model analysis to determine the validity and reliability of each construct in the questionnaire. In achieving this objective, a questionnaire survey was developed consists of 6 sections and a total of 106 responses were received from various investors who own and lease office buildings in Kuala Lumpur. The Rasch Measurement analysis is used to measure the quality control of item constructs in the instrument by measuring the specific objectivity within the same dimension, to reduce ambiguous measures, and a realistic estimation of precision and implicit quality. The Rasch analysis consists of the summary statistics, item unidimensionality and item measures. A result shows the items and respondent (person reliability is at 0.91 and 0.95 respectively.

  8. 76 FR 74050 - Measured Building Energy Performance Data Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... energy performance data taxonomy as part of its DOE Buildings Performance Database project. This... energy performance data taxonomy as part of its DOE Buildings Performance Database project. This... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. Combining Quality and Curriculum-Based Measurement: A Suggested Assessment Protocol in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzeveld, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum-Based Measures in writing (CBM-W) assesses a variety of fluency-based components of writing. While support exists for the use of CBM measures in the area of writing, there is a need to conduct further validation studies to investigate the utility of these measures within elementary and secondary classrooms. Since only countable indices…

  10. Protection Measures for Buildings Based on Coordinating Action Theory of Ground, Foundation and Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the theory of coordinating action of building ground, foundation and structure, this paper presents a modified method for calculating additional stresses on buildings in mining areas by considering the joint effect of curvature deformation and horizontal deformation on buildings. It points out that for buildings over the coal pillar, it is advisable to soften the intermediate ground of buildings when they are affected by mining. For buildings over the goaf, it is preferable to soften the ground at both ends of buildings. In order to enhance the ability of a building to resist tensile deformation, the key measure is to reinforce the bottom foundation of the building. In addition, the concept of "angle of break of building" is proposed. It is because of this angle that the protecting coal pillar is left, which is a better solution than prevailing solutions The findings provide a more scientific basis for mining under buildings.

  11. Electron Microprobe Analysis of Hf in Zircon: Suggestions for Improved Accuracy of a Difficult Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournelle, J.; Hanchar, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    It is not commonly recognized as such, but the accurate measurement of Hf in zircon is not a trivial analytical issue. This is important to assess because Hf is often used as an internal standard for trace element analyses of zircon by LA-ICPMS. The issues pertaining to accuracy revolve around: (1) whether the Hf Ma or the La line is used; (2) what accelerating voltage is applied if Zr La is also measured, and (3) what standard for Hf is used. Weidenbach, et al.'s (2004) study of the 91500 zircon demonstrated the spread (in accuracy) of possible EPMA values for six EPMA labs, 2 of which used Hf Ma, 3 used Hf La, and one used Hf Lb, and standards ranged from HfO2, a ZrO2-HfO2 compound, Hf metal, and hafnon. Weidenbach, et al., used the ID-TIMS values as the correct value (0.695 wt.% Hf.), for which not one of the EPMA labs came close to that value (3 were low and 3 were high). Those data suggest: (1) that there is a systematic underestimation error of the 0.695 wt% Hf (ID-TIMS Hf) value if Hf Ma is used; most likely an issue with the matrix correction, as the analytical lines and absorption edges of Zr La, Si Ka and Hf Ma are rather tightly packed in the electromagnetic spectrum. Mass absorption coefficients are easily in error (e.g., Donovan's determination of the MAC of Hf by Si Ka of 5061 differs from the typically used Henke value of 5449 (Donovan et al, 2002); and (2) For utilization of the Hf La line, however, the second order Zr Ka line interferes with Hf La if the accelerating voltage is greater than 17.99 keV. If this higher keV is used and differential mode PHA is applied, only a portion of the interference is removed (e.g., removal of escape peaks), causing an overestimation of Hf content. Unfortunately, it is virtually impossible to apply an interference correction in this case, as it is impossible to locate Hf-free Zr probe standard. We have examined many of the combinations used by those six EPMA labs and concluded that the optimal EPMA is done with Hf

  12. Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

    2003-04-07

    We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

  13. Fractal 1/f Dynamics Suggest Entanglement of Measurement and Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, John G.; Choi, Inhyun; Amazeen, Polemnia G.; Van Orden, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Variability of repeated measurements in human performances exhibits fractal 1/f noise. Yet the relative strength of this fractal pattern varies widely across conditions, tasks, and individuals. Four experiments illustrate how subtle details of the conditions of measurement change the fractal patterns observed across task conditions. The results…

  14. Development,Countermeasures and Suggestions of Building Energy Saving Glass%我国建筑节能玻璃发展前景及对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建梅

    2014-01-01

    该文从节能玻璃的概念、特性、分类入手,从而引出对建筑节能玻璃的前景及展望。进而在此基础上提出发展建筑节能玻璃的对策及建议。%From the aspects of the concept,characteristics,and classification of energy-saving glass,this article shows the preliminary idea of energy-saving glass to the readers.Thus,it gives rise to the analysis of the momentum of the building energy saving glass development.Based on the analysis,it puts forward the countermeasures and sug-gestions of the development of building energy saving glass.

  15. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  16. Time Delay for Aerial Ammonia Concentration Measurements in Livestock Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Hans Benny; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Correct measurements of ammonia concentration in air still present considerable challenges. The high water solubility and polarity can cause it to adsorb on surfaces in the entire sampling system, including sampling lines, filters, valves, pumps and instruments, causing substantial measuring errors and time delays. To estimate time delay characteristics of a Photo Acoustic Multi Gas Monitor 1312 and a Multi Point Sampler continuous measurement of aerial ammonia concentrations at different levels was performed. In order to obtain reproducible data, a wind tunnel was used to generate selected concentrations inside and a background concentration representing the air inlet of the tunnel. Four different concentration levels (0.8 ppm, 6.2 ppm, 9.7 ppm and 13.7 ppm) were used in the experiments, with an additional outdoor concentration level as background. The results indicated a substantial time delay when switching between the measuring positions with high and low concentration and vice versa. These properties may course serious errors for estimation of e.g. gas emissions whenever more than one measuring channel is applied. To reduce the measurement errors, some suggestions regarding design of the measurement setup and measuring strategies were presented. PMID:22399896

  17. Suggestions on management measures of pine forest ecosystems invaded by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Juan; LUO You-qing; XIA Nai-bin; WU Hai-wei; SONG Ji-ying

    2008-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle is an important invasive alien species in forests of China and has become one of the most destructive forest diseases. In order to improve the resistance and resilience of pine forest ecosystems against B. xylophilus invasion and make the pine forest ecosystem more timely responsive to PWN invasion,we made some recommendations based on five years of intensive observations. We advocate a set of management measures with the theme "Prevention is priority, but integrated with curative techniques and ecological resilience" on the pine forest ecosystem invaded by B. xylophilus; details of accurate measures are proposed. The aim is to discover the underlying problems of present pine forest ecosystems and to take, correspondingly, administrative measures and strategies, which will encourage the pine forest ecosystem to develop in a benign way.

  18. Future directions in personality, occupational and medical selection: myths, misunderstandings, measurement, and suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Lievens, Filip

    2017-02-20

    This paper has two objectives: (1) presenting recent advances in personality theory whereby personality traits are conceptualized within a framework that focuses on the dynamic interactions of behaviour, biology, context, and states, and (2) discussing the implications of these developments for measurement and medical selection. We start by presenting evidence that traits are no longer regarded as stable deterministic predictors of behaviour. Instead, traits are found to change across generations, the life span, and in response to environmental contingencies. Thus, there is an urgent need to explore how traits change as function of medical education. Second, drawing on recent theory and research (behavioural reaction norms and the density distribution model) we highlight evidence to show how the expression of trait relevant behaviour is dependent on context, and is distributed with an average (typical behaviour or personality) and a variance (plasticity or adaptability), with traditional personality measure associated with typical responding. Third, we demystify that some traits are better than others showing that so-called "good" traits have a dark-side. Fourth, we show how these developments impact on how personality might be assessed, thereby presenting recent evidence on the use of contextualized personality measures, situational judgment tests, other reports, and implicit measures. Throughout the paper, we outline the key implications of these developments for medical selection practices.

  19. Future Directions in Personality, Occupational and Medical Selection: Myths, Misunderstandings, Measurement, and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Lievens, Filip

    2017-01-01

    This paper has two objectives: (1) presenting recent advances in personality theory whereby personality traits are conceptualized within a framework that focuses on the dynamic interactions of behaviour, biology, context, and states, and (2) discussing the implications of these developments for measurement and medical selection. We start by…

  20. Heat Transmission Coefficient Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a Heat Loss Measuring Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2013-01-01

    to optimize the energy performance. This paper presents a method for measuring the heat loss by utilizing a U-value meter. The U-value meter measures the heat transfer in the unit W/Km2 and has been used in several projects to upgrade the energy performance in temperate regions. The U-value meter was also...... and mechanical ventilation in the “warm countries” contribute to an enormous energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission. In order to establish the best basis for upgrading the energy performance, it is important to make measurements of the heat losses at different places on a building facade, in order...

  1. The Building Suggestion of Information Management System of Local Vehicles%区域车辆信息管理系统建设设想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉

    2001-01-01

    Making full use of computer technology and Internet technology, carrying out vehicles management and Internet service have been a developing trend. The article put the emphasize on introducing the building suggestion of information management system of local vehicles and frame of software system.%充分利用计算机技术和Internet技术,开展车辆管理和网上服务已成为一种发展趋势。重点介绍了区域车辆信息管理系统的建设设想及软件体系构架。

  2. Measuring animal personality for use in population management in zoos: suggested methods and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Jason V; Powell, David M

    2012-01-01

    The concept that animals have personalities is gaining traction in the scientific community and is well established in zoos and aquariums. Applying knowledge of animal personalities has occurred more slowly and is most often only considered informally. However, animal personalities are likely to affect the welfare animals experience in captivity and thus should be of primary concern to zoo managers. In addition, animal personality likely affects the outcomes of zoo guest experiences and potentially guests' conservation-related behavior. With over 1,000,000 animals in the care of zoos internationally and hundreds of millions of visitors annually, it would be prudent and beneficial to maximize our use of animal personality data in zoos to effect positive conservation outcomes. Understanding how to broaden population planning techniques to include measures of animal personality and the important outcomes of welfare and education value is of prime importance to the zoo industry. In order to succeed, it is necessary to employ techniques that reliably assess animal personalities and provide measures that can easily be used in population planning models. We discuss the outcomes of recent workshops designed to determine the best techniques for measuring animal personalities in the zoo setting with the goal of incorporating personality into population planning.

  3. The Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Norton, Paul [Norton Energy Research & Development, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every four years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the "average occupant" in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  4. Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engebrecht-Metzger, C.; Norton, P.

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every 4 years the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the 'average occupant' in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  5. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials in Southern Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissi, M A; El Samad, O; Zahraman, K; Milky, S; Bahsoun, F; Abumurad, K M

    2008-08-01

    Using gamma-spectroscopy and CR-39 detector, concentration C of naturally occurring radioactive nuclides (226)Ra, (222)Rn, (214)Bi, (228)Ac, (212)Pb, (212)Bi and (40)K, has been measured in sand, cement, gravel, gypsum, and paint, which are used as building materials in Lebanon. Sand samples were collected from 10 different sandbank locations in the southern part of the country. Gravel samples of different types and forms were collected from several quarries. White and gray cement fabricated by Shaka Co. were obtained. gamma-spectroscopy measurements in sand gave Ra concentration ranging from 4.2+/-0.4 to 60.8+/-2.2 Bq kg(-1) and Ra concentration equivalents from 8.8+/-1.0 to 74.3+/-9.2 Bq kg(-1). The highest Ra concentration was in gray and white cement having the values 73.2+/-3.0 and 76.3+/-3.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Gravel results showed Ra concentration between 20.2+/-1.0 and 31.7+/-1.4 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 27.5+/-1.3 Bq kg(-1). Radon concentration in paint was determined by CR-39 detector. In sand, the average (222)Rn concentration ranged between 291+/-69 and 1774+/-339 Bq m(-3) among the sandbanks with a total average value of 704+/-139 Bq m(-3). For gravel, the range was found to be from 52+/-9 to 3077+/-370 Bq m(-3) with an average value of 608+/-85 Bq m(-3). Aerial and mass exhalation rates of (222)Rn were also calculated and found to be between 44+/-7 and 2226+/-267 mBq m(-2)h(-1), and between 0.40+/-0.07 and 20.0+/-0.3 mBq kg(-1)h(-1), respectively.

  6. Model of a Generic Natural Uranium Conversion Plant ? Suggested Measures to Strengthen International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia [ORNL; Begovich, John M [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    This is the final report that closed a joint collaboration effort between DOE and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN). In 2005, DOE and CNEN started a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of a NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. Advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was triggered by the International Atomic Energy Agency s 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Prior to this policy only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and therefore, subject to the IAEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the IAEA. Two technical papers on this subject were published at the 2005 and 2008 INMM Annual Meetings.

  7. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide measurement in plasma suggests covalent modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, Ingrid; Alehagen, Urban; Dahlström, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    different proANP assays on clinical outcome. METHODS: We examined 474 elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure presenting in a primary healthcare setting. Samples were analyzed with an automated immunoluminometric midregion proANP (MR-proANP) assay and a new processing-independent assay (PIA......) developed in our laboratory. The results were compared with Bland–Altman plots, and clinical performance was assessed by generating ROC curves for different clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Despite linear regression results indicating a good correlation (r = 0.85; P measured considerably more.......74 (95% CI, 0.66–0.81); P = 0.32]. The prognostic ability to report cardiovascular mortality during a 10-year follow-up revealed AUC values of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.60–0.71) for the proANP PIA and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.63–0.74) for the MR-proANP assay (P = 0.08, for comparing the 2 assays). CONCLUSIONS: Our data...

  8. Model of a Generic Natural Uranium Conversion Plant ? Suggested Measures to Strengthen International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia [ORNL; Begovich, John M [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    This is the final report that closed a joint collaboration effort between DOE and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN). In 2005, DOE and CNEN started a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of a NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. Advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was triggered by the International Atomic Energy Agency s 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Prior to this policy only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and therefore, subject to the IAEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the IAEA. Two technical papers on this subject were published at the 2005 and 2008 INMM Annual Meetings.

  9. Whole Building Cost and Performance Measurement: Data Collection Protocol Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Spees, Kathleen L.; Kora, Angela R.; Rauch, Emily M.; Hathaway, John E.; Solana, Amy E.

    2009-03-27

    This protocol was written for the Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to be used by the public as a tool for assessing building cost and performance measurement. The primary audiences are sustainable design professionals, asset owners, building managers, and research professionals within the Federal sector. The protocol was developed based on the need for measured performance and cost data on sustainable design projects. Historically there has not been a significant driver in the public or private sector to quantify whole building performance in comparable terms. The deployment of sustainable design into the building sector has initiated many questions on the performance and operational cost of these buildings.

  10. Measuring gas emissions from livestock buildings: A review on uncertainty analysis and error sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvet, S.; Gates, R.S.; Zhang, G.; Estelles, F.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Pedersen, S.; Berckmans, D.

    2013-01-01

    Measuring gaseous and particulate emissions from livestock houses has been the subject of intensive research over the past two decades. Currently, there is general agreement regarding appropriate methods to measure emissions from mechanically ventilated buildings. However, measuring emissions from

  11. Measurement Issues for Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings: Productivity and Performance Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    In previous reports, we have identified two potentially important issues, solutions to which would increase the attractiveness of DOE-developed technologies in commercial buildings energy systems. One issue concerns the fact that in addition to saving energy, many new technologies offer non-energy benefits that contribute to building productivity (firm profitability). The second issue is that new technologies are typically unproven in the eyes of decision makers and must bear risk premiums that offset cost advantages resulting from laboratory calculations. Even though a compelling case can be made for the importance of these issues, for building decision makers to incorporate them in business decisions and for DOE to use them in R&D program planning there must be robust empirical evidence of their existence and size. This paper investigates how such measurements could be made and offers recommendations as to preferred options. There is currently little systematic information on either of these concepts in the literature. Of the two there is somewhat more information on non-energy benefits, but little as regards office buildings. Office building productivity impacts can be observed casually, but must be estimated statistically, because buildings have many interacting attributes and observations based on direct behavior can easily confuse the process of attribution. For example, absenteeism can be easily observed. However, absenteeism may be down because a more healthy space conditioning system was put into place, because the weather was milder, or because firm policy regarding sick days had changed. There is also a general dearth of appropriate information for purposes of estimation. To overcome these difficulties, we propose developing a new data base and applying the technique of hedonic price analysis. This technique has been used extensively in the analysis of residential dwellings. There is also a literature on its application to commercial and industrial

  12. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials in Southern Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobeissi, M.A.; El Samad, O.; Zahraman, K. [Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Milky, S.; Bahsoun, F. [Department of Physics, Lebanese University, Faculty of Sciences (I), Hadeth, Beirut (Lebanon); Abumurad, K.M. [Department of Physics, Yarmouk University, P.O. Box 566, Irbid 21163 (Jordan)], E-mail: abumurad@yu.edu.jo

    2008-08-15

    Using {gamma}-spectroscopy and CR-39 detector, concentration C of naturally occurring radioactive nuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb, {sup 212}Bi and {sup 40}K, has been measured in sand, cement, gravel, gypsum, and paint, which are used as building materials in Lebanon. Sand samples were collected from 10 different sandbank locations in the southern part of the country. Gravel samples of different types and forms were collected from several quarries. White and gray cement fabricated by Shaka Co. were obtained. {gamma}-Spectroscopy measurements in sand gave Ra concentration ranging from 4.2 {+-} 0.4 to 60.8 {+-} 2.2 Bq kg{sup -1} and Ra concentration equivalents from 8.8 {+-} 1.0 to 74.3 {+-} 9.2 Bq kg{sup -1}. The highest Ra concentration was in gray and white cement having the values 73.2 {+-} 3.0 and 76.3 {+-} 3.0 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Gravel results showed Ra concentration between 20.2 {+-} 1.0 and 31.7 {+-} 1.4 Bq kg{sup -1} with an average of 27.5 {+-} 1.3 Bq kg{sup -1}. Radon concentration in paint was determined by CR-39 detector. In sand, the average {sup 222}Rn concentration ranged between 291 {+-} 69 and 1774 {+-} 339 Bq m{sup -3} among the sandbanks with a total average value of 704 {+-} 139 Bq m{sup -3}. For gravel, the range was found to be from 52 {+-} 9 to 3077 {+-} 370 Bq m{sup -3} with an average value of 608 {+-} 85 Bq m{sup -3}. Aerial and mass exhalation rates of {sup 222}Rn were also calculated and found to be between 44 {+-} 7 and 2226 {+-} 267 mBq m{sup -2} h{sup -1}, and between 0.40 {+-} 0.07 and 20.0 {+-} 0.3 mBq kg{sup -1} h{sup -1}, respectively.

  13. Measuring organizational flexibility in community pharmacy: Building the capacity to implement cognitive pharmaceutical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feletto, Eleonora; Wilson, Laura Kate; Roberts, Alison Sarah; Benrimoj, Shalom Isaac

    2011-03-01

    Community pharmacy is undergoing transformation with increasing pressure to build its capacity to deliver cognitive pharmaceutical services ("services"). The theoretical framework of organizational flexibility (OF) may be used to assess the capacity of community pharmacy to implement change programs and guide capacity-building initiatives. To test the applicability of an existing scale measuring OF to the industry of community pharmacy in Australia. A mail survey was used to test a preexisting scale measuring OF amended from 28 items to 20 items testing 3 underlying factors of operational, structural, and strategic flexibility in the Australian community pharmacy context. The sample was 2006 randomly-stratified community pharmacies. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the validity and reliability of the 1-factor models for each underlying construct and the full measurement model. Responses were received from a total of 395 (19.7%) community pharmacies. The 1-factor models of operational, structural, and strategic flexibility fit the data with appropriate respecification. Overall, the favorable fit of the individual factor constructs suggested that the multiple-factor measurement model should be tested. However, this model did not yield an interpretable response. Operational flexibility covaried negatively to the other factors, whereas structural and strategic flexibility shared covariance. Despite this, the results highlighting the individual factor fit suggest the constructs have application to pharmacy. The individual OF constructs were useful in the development and initial testing of a scale adapted for community pharmacy. When further developed and validated, the scale could be used to identify group of pharmacies that require individualized assistance to build capacity and integrate services and other new endeavors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermography and complementary method: a tool for cost-effective measures in retrofitting buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyberg, Mats D.; Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1991-03-01

    Thermographic methods have a good accuracy in indicating damages and energy related conditions of building envelopes. Radiative temperature patterns indicate the extension and character of building anomalies, while radiative temperature differences indicate the severity of the anomaly. However, the usefulness of applying thermography increases substantially if combined with complementary methods. Photographic inspection, using fiber optics, of the interior of the building envelope confirms the indicated occurrence of air leak paths. The influence of air leaks may be quantified by measuring the air change rate using tracer gas techniques. The energy losses for various building components can be calculated using as input building design data and thermographic data. To retrofit or implement energy conservation measures of buildings, the most cost-effective measures must be identified. This requires the collection of relevant technical and economic data. Thermography and complementary methods provides data for making a priority between different possible measures. In this paper, we present the results from a detailed study of one building that was to be retrofitted. Before the retrofit, we analyzed the probable reduction in energy consumption for different measures proposed. Also, the highest investment cost compatible with the investment pay-ff criteria required by the building manager was calculated for each measure. This information was presented in the form of a priority list to the building manager and the contractor. Some measures were selected for implementation. After the retrofit, we have carried out an evaluation of the cost-benefit of the

  15. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  16. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  17. Measuring capacity building in communities: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberato Selma C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although communities have long been exhorted to make efforts to enhance their own health, such approaches have often floundered and resulted in little or no health benefits when the capacity of the community has not been adequately strengthened. Thus being able to assess the capacity building process is paramount in facilitating action in communities for social and health improvement. The current review aims to i identify all domains used in systematically documented frameworks developed by other authors to assess community capacity building; and ii to identify the dimensions and attributes of each of the domains as ascribed by these authors and reassemble them into a comprehensive compilation. Methods Relevant published articles were identified through systematic electronic searches of selected databases and the examination of the bibliographies of retrieved articles. Studies assessing capacity building or community development or community participation were selected and assessed for methodological quality, and quality in relation to the development and application of domains which were identified as constituents of community capacity building. Data extraction and analysis were undertaken using a realist synthesis approach. Results Eighteen articles met the criteria for this review. The various domains to assess community capacity building were identified and reassembled into nine comprehensive domains: "learning opportunities and skills development", "resource mobilization", "partnership/linkages/networking", "leadership", "participatory decision-making", "assets-based approach", "sense of community", "communication", and "development pathway". Six sub-domains were also identified: "shared vision and clear goals", "community needs assessment", "process and outcome monitoring", "sustainability", "commitment to action" and "dissemination". Conclusions The set of domains compiled in this review serve as a foundation for

  18. An experimental setup for measuring generation and transport of radon in building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pal, M.; Hendriks, N.A.; de Meijer, R.J.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Wit, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    This study describes an approach for measuring and modelling diffusive and advective transport of radon through building materials. The goal of these measurements and model calculations is to improve our understanding concerning the factors influencing the transport of radon through building

  19. The investigation of energy efficiency measures in the traditional buildings in Oporto World Heritage Site

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Background The improvement of energy efficiency in buildings is widely promoted as a measure to mitigate climate change through the reduction of CO2 emissions. Thermal regulations worldwide promote it, for both new and existing buildings. Among the existing stock, traditional and historic buildings pose the additional challenge of heritage conservation. Their energy efficiency upgrade raises the risk of provoking negative impacts on their significance. Aims and Methodology This r...

  20. Urban Skylines: building heights and shapes as measures of city size

    CERN Document Server

    Schläpfer, Markus; Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2015-01-01

    The shape of buildings plays a critical role in the energy efficiency, lifestyles, land use and infrastructure systems of cities. Thus, as most of the world's cities continue to grow and develop, understanding the interplay between the characteristics of urban environments and the built form of cities is essential to achieve local and global sustainability goals. Here, we compile and analyze the most extensive data set of building shapes to date, covering more than 4.8 million individual buildings across several major cities in North America. We show that average building height increases systematically with city size and follows theoretical predictions derived from urban scaling theory. We also study the allometric relationship between surface area and volume of buildings in terms of characteristic shape parameters. This allows us to demonstrate that the reported trend towards higher (and more voluminous) buildings effectively decreases the average surface-to-volume ratio, suggesting potentially significant ...

  1. Response measurements for two building structures excited by noise from a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1984-01-01

    Window and wall acceleration measurements and interior noise measurements ere made for two different building structures during excitation by noise from the WTS-4 horizontal axis wind turbine generator operating in a normal power generation mode. With turbine noise input pulses resulted in acceleration pulses for the wall and window elements of the two tests buildings. Response spectra suggest that natural vibration modes of the structures are excited. Responses of a house trailer were substantially greater than those for a building of sturdier construction. Peak acceleration values correlate well with similar data for houses excited by flyover noise from commercial and military airplanes and helicopters, and sonic booms from supersonic aircraft. Interior noise spectra have peaks at frequencies corresponding to structural vibration modes and room standing waves; and the levels for particular frequencies and locations can be higher than the outside levels.

  2. Procedure for Measuring and Reporting the Performance of Photovoltaic Systems in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.; Hayter, S.

    2005-10-01

    This procedure provides a standard method for measuring and characterizing the long-term energy performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems in buildings and the resulting implications to the building's energy use. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks for evaluating system performance and verifying that performance targets have been achieved. Uses may include comparison of performance with the design intent; comparison with other PV systems in buildings; economic analysis of PV systems in buildings; and the establishment of long-term performance records that enable maintenance staff to monitor trends in energy performance.

  3. Developing a Rating System for Building Energy Efficiency Based on In Situ Measurement in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Building energy consumption in China recently surpassed the US building consumption, and it is expected to increase significantly in the next decade pushed by the continuous population and urbanization increase. In response to that situation, the Chinese government introduced a series of building energy codes and rating systems to assess and enhance the building energy performance. The purpose of this study is to develop a rating system for the building energy efficiency, based on in situ measurement. The system is intended for office buildings in China’s cold zone. An evaluation framework, graphic dominant point, and principle of data collection and processing are illustrated in this paper. Three existing buildings were rated under the new rating system. The authors believe that the new system will contribute to a more accurate and comprehensive understanding for asset holders and occupants, that report on the extent to which energy efficiency buildings have been reached. Rating results are expected to be a reference for the retrofitting of existing buildings and the design of new buildings. In addition, the outlook for the rating system was also discussed.

  4. Standard Measurement and Verification Plan for Lighting Retrofit Projects for Buildings and Building Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2012-10-31

    This document provides a framework for standard measurement and verification (M&V) of lighting retrofit and replacement projects. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. It includes details on all aspects of effectively measuring light levels of existing and post-retrofit projects, conducting power measurement, and developing cost-effectiveness analysis. This framework M&V plan also enables consistent comparison among similar lighting projects, and may be used to develop M&V plans for non--lighting-technology retrofits and new installations.

  5. Measuring ICT usage quality for information society building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Danylchenko, Lesya

    2014-01-01

    , an alternative framework for IS measurement, addressing the important aspects of ICT usage quality, is developed based on data from EU member states. By applying the framework on measuring of ICT usage quality at Romania, Cyprus and Estonia, the usefulness is tested positive, and the need to evaluate the actual...

  6. Relationship between QT interval and ventricular electrical axis: A new suggestion for Lead selection in QT interval measurement

    OpenAIRE

    "Moradman S; Hatamizadeh P "

    2000-01-01

    Exploration of the interlead QT variation (QT dispersion) introduced cardiologists to some new concepts including the deed to define a standard for lead selection in the measurement of QT interval and the reason or factors contributing to QT dispersion. Hoseever, still there dose not exist a generally acceptable standard for lead selection and the reason for the QT dispersion has not been given the importance it deserves. Only a few hypotheses have been suggested, none of which have been seri...

  7. Measurements of Building Transmission Loss and Delay Spread at 2.5 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Gonsioroski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of measurements of signal transmission loss at 2.5 GHz through 10 urban buildings. This allows the characterization of different types of buildings by effective attenuation constants and consideration of the contribution of the transmitted signal in microcell coverage predictions. Power delay profiles (PDPs of the received signal were also measured and used to determine the time dispersion parameters of the channel, including the mean excess delay and the rms delay spread.

  8. New measurement technology for diagnostic evaluation of stress and deformation states in building objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollataj, Robert; Kollataj, Jerzy

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents a new wireless measurement method for static and dynamic examination of buildings, bridges, masts, towers, steel structures, silos etc. by using new generation telemetric modules operating in intelligent radio network. The system provides a possibility of steel and reinforced concrete structures evaluation by measurement of mechanical stresses, deformation and temperature - depending on used sensor. Developed and built prototype system can be used for the on line monitoring, quality assessment and the usefulness of the building objects over long time periods.

  9. Measuring relative efficiency of applied science and technology universities in province of Semnan, Iran and providing suggestions for merging units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Danaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available University of applied science and technology has been designed to create a platform for multilateral activities such as industrial, military and academic in developing countries to promote science and scientific research applications. These universities are responsible to promote practical training in quantitative and qualitative indicators and they provide appropriate infrastructure to implement theoretical graduates to solve practical problems to build necessary infrastructure to transfer modern technology into developing countries. During the past few years, there have been tremendous development on these units but some of them have not been efficient. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the relative efficiencies of various units of applied science and technology universities using data envelopment analysis. The proposed model of this paper uses two inputs including human resources as well as total assets and two outputs including the number of graduate students as well as operating profit. The results of the study have indicated that some of the units are inefficient and need to be merged with other units to increase the relative efficiency of these universities.

  10. Absorbed dose measurements in the build-up region of flattened versus unflattened megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Puysseleyr, Annemieke; Lechner, Wolfgang; De Neve, Wilfried; Georg, Dietmar; De Wagter, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated absorbed dose measurements in the build-up region of conventional (FF) versus flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beams. The absorbed dose in the build-up region of static 6 and 10MV FF and FFF beams was measured using radiochromic film and extrapolation chamber dosimetry for single beams with a variety of field sizes, shapes and positions relative to the central axis. Removing the flattening filter generally resulted in slightly higher relative build-up doses. No considerable impact on the depth of maximum dose was found. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. Monitoring in Building Road Tunnel Across Coal Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In some cases coal measures,goaf,big caves,and huge faults,as well as high initial stress cannot be avoided in road tunnel excavation.These geological features may make it more difficul practical tunnel construction. So it is necessary to take strong precautious measures against gas outburst,water bursting and roof fall in a tunnel across coal measures with risk of gas outburst.The techniques,such as advance drilling exploration,multiple-cycle shallow depth hole controlled blasting,reinforced supporting,which include concrete grouting and twice supporting,and monitoring measures are often applied in the construction of tunnels and satisfied results are achieved. Results in this paper can help others to get experiences in road tunnel construction with similar geological features.

  12. Development of a framework for resilience measurement: Suggestion of fuzzy Resilience Grade (RG) and fuzzy Resilience Early Warning Grade (REWG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Mohsen; Mazloumi, Adel; Mohammad Fam, Iraj; Nirumand, Fereshteh

    2017-01-01

    Resilience engineering (RE) can be an alternative technique to the traditional risk assessment and management techniques, to predict and manage safety conditions of modern socio-technical organizations. While traditional risk management approaches are retrospective and highlight error calculation and computation of malfunction possibilities, resilience engineering seeks ways to improve capacity at all levels of organizations in order to build strong yet flexible processes. Considering the resilience potential measurement as a concern in complex working systems, the aim of this study was to quantify the resilience by the help of fuzzy sets and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) techniques. In this paper, we adopted the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method to measure resilience in a gas refinery plant. A resilience assessment framework containing six indicators, each with its own sub-indicators, was constructed. Then, the fuzzy weights of the indicators and the sub-indicators were derived from pair-wise comparisons conducted by experts. The fuzzy evaluating vectors of the indicators and the sub-indicators computed according to the initial assessment data. Finally, the Comprehensive Resilience Index (CoRI), Resilience Grade (RG), and Resilience Early Warning Grade (REWG) were established. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, an illustrative example in a gas refinery complex (an instance of socio-technical systems) was provided. CoRI of the refinery ranked as "III". In addition, for the six main indicators, RG and REWG ranked as "III" and "NEWZ", respectively, except for C3, in which RG ranked as "II", and REWG ranked as "OEWZ". The results revealed the engineering practicability and usefulness of the proposed method in resilience evaluation of socio-technical systems.

  13. Building the repertoire of measures of walking in Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlhut, Michelle; Downs, Jenny; Leonard, Helen;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The repertoire of measures of walking in Rett syndrome is limited. This study aimed to determine measurement properties of a modified two-minute walk test (2MWT) and a modified Rett syndrome-specific functional mobility scale (FMS-RS) in Rett syndrome. METHODS: Forty-two girls and women...... with Rett syndrome (median 18.4 years, range 2.4-60.9 years) were assessed for clinical severity, gross motor skills, and mobility. To measure walking capacity, 27 of this group completed a 2MWT twice on two different assessment days. To assess walking performance, the FMS-RS was administered to the total......) and the Rett syndrome-specific functional mobility scale (FMS-RS). The 2MWT and FMS-RS offer detailed information of the capacity and performance of walking, respectively, in girls and women with RTT....

  14. Building Fluent Performance: Measuring Response Rate and Multiplying Response Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Precision teaching emerged from O.R. Lindsley's pristine application of Skinner's natural science of behavior, with a focus on response rate measurement and free operant procedures. When applied with human learners in instructional settings, these first principles led to a series of developments framed in this paper as four kinds of ceilings that…

  15. Methods for measuring diffusion coefficients of radon in building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozmuta, [No Value; van der Graaf, ER

    2001-01-01

    Two methods for determining the Rn-222 diffusion coefficient in concrete are presented. Experimentally, the flush and adsorption technique to measure radon release rates underlines both methods. Theoretically, the first method was developed fur samples of cubical geometry. The radon diffusion

  16. NAMAs as a tool to deliver energy efficiency measures in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karavai, Maryna; Petrichenko, Ksenia

    -makers on designing and implementing NAMAs aimed at improving energy efficiency in the building sector with a particular focus on tropical and sub-tropical climates. The paper covers the following topics: • generic background for the NAMA concept, it origin and founding principles • potential areas for NAMA...... interventions, policy and technology • technological measures in buildings in hot and humid climates • development process for policy NAMAs that aim to improve energy efficiency in buildings The paper concludes on future prospects for policy NAMAs related to energy efficient buildings and the necessary actions...... greenhouse gas emissions and transforming their development towards sustainable pathways. One of the sectors, which offer significant mitigation potential in developing countries, is the building sector; especially taking into account rapid urbanisation, increase in access to energy, population and economic...

  17. Rationale for Measuring Duct Leakage Flows in Large Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Diamond, Richard C.; Sherman, Max H.

    2005-07-01

    Industry-wide methods of assessing duct leakage are based on duct pressurization tests, and focus on ''high pressure'' ducts. Even though ''low pressure'' ducts can be a large fraction of the system and tend to be leaky, few guidelines or construction specifications require testing these ducts. We report here on the measured leakage flows from ten large commercial duct systems at operating conditions: three had low leakage (less than 5% of duct inlet flow), and seven had substantial leakage (9 to 26%). By comparing these flows with leakage flows estimated using the industry method, we show that the latter method by itself is not a reliable indicator of whole-system leakage flow, and that leakage flows need to be measured.

  18. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Biosourced Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Thomas; Colinart, Thibaut; Glouannec, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents both experimental and theoretical works concerning the evaluation of the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of hemp concrete. Experimental measurements of thermal properties are performed using a hot-strip technique for temperatures ranging from 3 to 30 and relative humidities ranging from 0 % to 95 %, thus creating a large database for this material. These experimental thermal conductivities are then compared with the results from the Krischer theoretical predictive model. The comparison shows good agreement, and a predictive analytical relation between the hemp concrete thermal conductivity, temperature, and relative humidity is determined.

  19. Guide for Schoolhouse Planning and Construction, Comprising Suggestions, Recommendations, and Mandatory Requirements Relating to the Construction of Public School Buildings in the State of New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This guide is designed to show architects, school board members, and educators ways to reduce the cost of school construction without impairing the educational opportunities offered to pupils, and to bring building requirements and recommendations in line with modern thinking and the newer construction materials. Its purposes are--(1) to present a…

  20. Train-induced field vibration measurements of ground and over-track buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chao; Wang, Yimin; Moore, James A; Sanayei, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Transit-oriented development, such as metro depot and over-track building complexes, has expanded rapidly over the last 5years in China. Over-track building construction has the advantage of comprehensive utilization of land resources, ease of commuting to work, and provide funds for subway construction. But the high frequency of subway operations into and out of the depots can generate excessive vibrations that transmit into the over track buildings, radiate noise within the buildings, hamper the operation of vibration sensitive equipment, and adversely affect the living quality of the building occupants. Field measurements of vibration during subway operations were conducted at Shenzhen, China, a city of 10.62 million people in southern China. Considering the metro depot train testing line and throat area train lines were the main vibration sources, vibration data were captured in five measurement setups. The train-induced vibrations were obtained and compared with limitation of FTA criteria. The structure-radiated noise was calculated using measured vibration levels. The vertical vibration energy directly passed through the columns on both sides of track into the platform, amplifying vibration on the platform by up to 6dB greater than ground levels at testing line area. Vibration amplification around the natural frequency in the vertical direction of over-track building made the peak values of indoor floor vibration about 16dB greater than outdoor platform vibration. We recommend to carefully examining design of new over-track buildings within 40m on the platform over the throat area to avoid excessive vertical vibrations and noise. For both buildings, the measured vertical vibrations were less than the FTA limit. However, it is demonstrated that the traffic-induced high-frequency noise has the potential to annoy occupants on the upper floors.

  1. Measuring site-level success in brownfield redevelopments: a focus on sustainability and green building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedding, G Christopher; Crawford-Brown, Douglas

    2007-10-01

    This research has met the following four objectives within the broader research topic of characterizing and quantifying success in brownfield revitalization: (1) to define 40 total indicators that define and determine the success of brownfield redevelopments in four categories: environment-health, finance, livability, and social-economic; (2) to use these indicators to develop a partially automated tool that stakeholders in brownfield redevelopment may use to more easily assess and communicate success (or failures) in these projects; (3) to integrate "green" building as an important aspect of successful brownfield redevelopments; and (4) to develop this tool within the framework of a specific multi-attribute decision method (MADM), the analytical hierarchical process (AHP). Future research should include the operationalization and application of this tool to specific sites. Currently, no such indicator framework or automated tool is known to exist or be in use. Indicators were chosen because of their ability to reduce data into comprehensible measurements and to systematically measure success in a standardized fashion. Appropriate indicators were selected based on (1) interviews with prominent private developers and national leaders in brownfield redevelopment, (2) a review of the relevant literature, (3) objective hierarchies created in this project, and (4) the ability for each indicator to serve goals in more than one of the four categories described above. These were combined to form the Sustainable Brownfields Redevelopment (SBR) Tool. A survey was conducted to serve as a preliminary assessment and proposed methodology for judging the validity of the SBR Tool. Professionals in the academic, private, and public sector were asked to provide an evaluation of the management tool and a weighting of the relative importance of each indicator and each of the four categories listed previously. Experts rated the tool at 7.68 out of 10 suggesting that this framework will

  2. Heat Loss Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a U-value Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    the best basis for upgrading the energy performance, it is important to measure the heat losses at different locations on a building facade, in order to optimize the energy performance. The author has invented a U-value meter, enabling measurements of heat transfer coefficients. The meter has been used...

  3. Balanced framework for measuring performance of supply chains in house building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Voordijk, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its importance, performance measurement of supply chains of house building firms has not received much attention yet in academic literature. The objective of this study is to develop a framework to measure this performance. In a first step, a comprehensive framework is developed composed of

  4. Inaccuracy of INR measurements and suggestions for improved WHO guidelines for calibration of reference preparations – a statistical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attermann, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    procedure also results in serious overestimation of the accuracy of INR measurements, thus leading to a false sense of security in oral anticoagulant therapy. In an example with data from WHO guidelines, we show that the systematic overprediction of INR (which is believed to be 0) may be as large as 5......%, when prediction is performed under the conventional WHO model. Under the same model the CV of the predicted vs. the true INR is believed to be only about 1% when it in reality is more than 4%. We suggest that the conventional calibration procedure is modified in order to reduce the twofold negative...... impact of lower true accuracy and overestimated reported accuracy on oral anticoagulant therapy and to allow for an unambiguous definition of true INR values....

  5. Measurement of PCB emissions from building surfaces using a novel portable emission test cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    the original source to adjacent materials, indoor air and via adsorption from the air to indoor surfaces, causing secondary contaminations. Remediation of buildings with unsatisfactory indoor air concentrations is a complex and difficult task due to the secondary contamination of building materials......Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in building materials like caulks and paints from 1930 e1970s and in some cases that caused elevated PCB concentrations in the indoor air at levels considered harmful to occupant health. PCBs are semivolatile organic compounds and capable of spreading from......, the chamber was used for determining emissions from PCB-containing building materials in the field as well as remediated walls. The measurements showed that sorption of PCBs to chamber walls was insignificant after 2-4 days of exposure to the source. Over a period of two weeks emission rates did not change...

  6. Owners perception on the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners' need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures. The paper is based on a questionnaire survey of 3059 homeowners (response rate of 36%) selected by stratified random sampling during the summer of 2008. The results showed that 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of adopting such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing building envelope components. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improved attic insulation has more advantages than energy efficient windows and improved wall insulation, but windows were more likely to be installed than improved attic insulation. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure. Interpersonal sources, construction companies, installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to adopt building envelope energy efficiency measures. Policy measures to facilitate the rate of adoption of energy efficient building envelope measures are discussed. (author)

  7. Assessment of Retrofitting Measures for a Large Historic Research Facility Using a Building Energy Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Tae Chae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A calibrated building simulation model was developed to assess the energy performance of a large historic research building. The complexity of space functions and operational conditions with limited availability of energy meters makes it hard to understand the end-used energy consumption in detail and to identify appropriate retrofitting options for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. An energy simulation model was developed to study the energy usage patterns not only at a building level, but also of the internal thermal zones, and system operations. The model was validated using site measurements of energy usage and a detailed audit of the internal load conditions, system operation, and space programs to minimize the discrepancy between the documented status and actual operational conditions. Based on the results of the calibrated model and end-used energy consumption, the study proposed potential energy conservation measures (ECMs for the building envelope, HVAC system operational methods, and system replacement. It also evaluated each ECM from the perspective of both energy and utility cost saving potentials to help retrofitting plan decision making. The study shows that the energy consumption of the building was highly dominated by the thermal requirements of laboratory spaces. Among other ECMs the demand management option of overriding the setpoint temperature is the most cost effective measure.

  8. Building damage survey and microtremor measurements for the source region of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masumi; Hayashida, Takumi; Mori, Jim; Mooney, Walter D.

    2016-07-01

    We performed a damage survey of buildings and carried out microtremor observations in the source region of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake. Our survey area spans the Kathmandu valley and areas to the east and north of the valley. Damage of buildings in the Kathmandu valley was localized, and the percentage of the totally collapsed buildings was less than 5 %. East of the Kathmandu valley, especially in Sindhupalchok district, damage of buildings was more severe. In the center of Chautara and Bahrabise, towns in Sindhupalchok district, the percentage of the totally collapsed houses exceeded 40 %. North of the Kathmandu valley, the damage was moderate, and 20-30 % of the buildings were totally collapsed in Dhunche. Based on the past studies and our microtremor observations near the strong motion station, the H/V spectrum in Kathmandu has a peak at around 0.3 Hz, which reflects the velocity contrast of the deep sedimentary basin. The H/V spectra in Bahrabise, Chautara, and Dhunche do not show clear peaks, which suggests that the sites have stiff soil conditions. Therefore, the more severe damage outside the Kathmandu valley compared with the relatively light damage levels in the valley is probably due to the source characteristics of the earthquake and/or the seismic performance of buildings, rather than the local site conditions.

  9. Knowledge inventory for resource efficiency measures in existing buildings; Kunskapsinventering avseende resurseffektiviserande aatgaerder inom befintlig bebyggelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarnehammar, Anna; Kildsgaard, Ivana; Prejer, Erik

    2011-07-01

    The report summarizes the state of knowledge for various renovation measures of apartment buildings built between 1941-1980. The renovation potential is estimated to give half the energy use for heating and hot water. This efficiency improvement is considered possible, but not likely. There are many case studies of individual projects with theoretical calculations of renovation potential for different measures. There are relatively many general studies of the housing stock in general where the potential for various measures have been calculated for the whole of Sweden, but few studies of actual projects completed. Binding minimum requirements related to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) for buildings for renovation has been introduced in several other countries in the EU which is also found to contribute to more energy-efficient measures introduced in major renovation projects. The key measures that we have found is the introduction of FTX system, renovation of the building envelope as well as individual metering and billing of heating and hot water.

  10. Emissivity measurements on historic building materials using dual-wavelength infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moropoulou, Antonia; Avdelidis, Nicolas P.

    2001-03-01

    The most reliable method to obtain correct emissivity values for the infrared thermographic systems and applications is to determine the emissivity of the targets to be tested. Although this approach is not possible during in situ applications, samples of the targets can be collected and measured, as in this work, in the laboratory. In the present work, the emissivity values of selected historic building materials were measured at a variety of temperatures, in the 3-5.4 micrometers and 8-12 micrometers regions of the infrared spectrum. Porous stones from the Mediterranean area and marbles, used as historic building materials, were investigated. The examined materials presented different emissivity values, caused by their surface state and microstructure. In addition, the effect of temperature and wavelength on the emissivity values of such historic building materials was also considered.

  11. Data on face-to-face contacts in an office building suggests a low-cost vaccination strategy based on community linkers

    CERN Document Server

    Génois, Mathieu; Fournet, Julie; Panisson, André; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Barrat, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Empirical data on contacts between individuals in social contexts play an important role in the information of models describing human behavior and how epidemics spread in populations. Here, we analyze data on face-to-face contacts collected in an office building. The statistical properties of contacts are similar to other social situations, but important differences are observed in the contact network structure. In particular, the contact network is strongly shaped by the organization of the offices in departments, which has consequences in the design of accurate agent-based models of epidemic spread. We then consider the contact network as a potential substrate for infectious disease spread and show that its sparsity tends to prevent outbreaks of fast-spreading epidemics. Moreover, we define three typical behaviors according to the fraction $f$ of links each individual shares outside its own department: residents, wanderers and linkers. Linkers ($f\\sim 50%$) act as bridges in the network and have large betw...

  12. Measurement of thermophysical properties coupled with LCA assessment for the optimization of a historical building retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, A.; Bison, P.; Cadelano, G.; Ferrarini, G.; Fortuna, S.

    2015-11-01

    Historical buildings are a significant part of the Italian building stock and, in most cases, need deep refurbishment interventions to reach the energy criteria required by the current standards. A workflow that integrates on-site surveys and building modeling is mandatory to obtain effective energy saving measures. This work describes the analysis and modeling of the San Vito alla Rivera church, a XIV century building that was damaged during 2009 L'Aquila earthquake, suffering a partial collapse of the façade and of the roof. The latter was selected for a complete restoration that could improve its thermal performance while maintaining, as much as possible, the original structure. Several elements of the roof were collected in situ in order to measure, in laboratory, its thermophysical properties applying standard techniques and alternative methods based on infrared thermography. The accurate characterization of the materials was the starting point for the estimation of the environmental impact of the retrofit aimed to reach a defined thermal transmittance. A model of the building was created with TRNSYS software to calculate the energy consumption before and after the intervention. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis was conducted on different insulation materials to determine the one with the lowest impact.

  13. Analysis of Detailed Energy Audits and Energy Use Measures of University Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Valančius

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the results of a detailed energy audit of the buildings of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. Energy audits were performed with reference to the international scientific project. The article presents the methodology and results of detailed measurements of energy balance characteristics.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Developing Common Measures in Evaluation Capacity Building: An Iterative Science and Practice Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labin, Susan N.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental reason for doing evaluation capacity building (ECB) is to improve program outcomes. Developing common measures of outcomes and the activities, processes, and factors that lead to these outcomes is an important step in moving the science and the practice of ECB forward. This article identifies a number of existing ECB measurement…

  15. A Quantitative introduction of physical safety measures for realising buildings above roads and railway tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suddle, S.I.; Ale, B.J.M.; Weerheijm, J.; Waarts, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. This paer will propose effects of safety measures for multiple use of space projects for critical scenarios i.e. fires, explosions, release of toxic substances and mechan

  16. A quantitative introduction of physical safety measures for realising buildings above roads and railway tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suddle, S.I.; Ale, B.J.M.; Waarts, P.H.; Weerheijm, J.

    2003-01-01

    Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. This paper will propose effects of safety measures for multiple use of space projects for critical scenarios i.e. fires, explosions, release of toxic substances and mecha

  17. A Quantitative introduction of physical safety measures for realising buildings above roads and railway tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suddle, S.I.; Ale, B.J.M.; Weerheijm, J.; Waarts, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. This paer will propose effects of safety measures for multiple use of space projects for critical scenarios i.e. fires, explosions, release of toxic substances and mechan

  18. A quantitative introduction of physical safety measures for realising buildings above roads and railway tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suddle, S.I.; Ale, B.J.M.; Waarts, P.H.; Weerheijm, J.

    2003-01-01

    Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. This paper will propose effects of safety measures for multiple use of space projects for critical scenarios i.e. fires, explosions, release of toxic substances and mecha

  19. Using Selected Transient Methods for Measurements of Thermophysical Parameters of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cviklovič Vladimír

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with thermophysical properties of red and white bricks. If we want to protect the high standard of quality building materials, we need to know the physical parameters which can evaluate the quality. The most important for building materials are mainly thermophysical, mechanical parameters and parameters which can determine the structure of materials. The article presents results of thermophysical parameters measurements of red and white bricks during the temperature stabilization for different values of moisture content. For our measurements, we have chosen a hot wire method and a dynamic plane source method. Both methods are classified as transient methods and they are very convenient for measurements of thermophysical parameters of materials with a compact structure. The results of measurements show that temperature and moisture content have a significant effect on thermophysical parameters of bricks.

  20. Low-cost NORM concentrations measuring technique for building materials of Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarov, Akmal; Safarov, Askar; Azimov, Askarali; Darby, Iain G.

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of natural radionuclides of building materials are important in order to estimate exposure of humans to radiation, who can spend up to 80% of their time indoors. One of the indicators of building materials' safety is the radium equivalent activity, which is regulated by national and international normative documents [1,2,3]. Materials with Ra(eq) =ageing. Long measurement times including ageing of samples are major constraints for performing large number of analyses [6]. Typically ageing of samples and analysis is 40 days. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of brick, crushed stone, red sand, granite, white marble and concrete cubes was performed both before and after ageing of samples (10, 20, 30 and 40 days). Measurement times of samples were 1, 3, 6 and 12 hours. Samples were measured in 1 liter Marinelli beaker geometry, using NaI(Tl) spectrometers with crystal sizes 2.5 x 2.5 in and 3.1 x 3.1 in. Efficiency calibration of spectrometers was done using certified volumetric (1 liter Marinelli beaker) Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 sources filled with silica sand and density 1,7 kg/l. Herein we present results indicating that one hour measuring may be sufficient for samples in 1 liter Marinelli beakers offering prospect of significant time and cost improvements. References: 1. NEA-OECD (1979): Exposure to radiation from natural radioactivity in building materials. Report by Group of Experts of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Paris 2. STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) (2003): The radioactivity of building materials and ash. Regulatory Guides on Radiation Safety (ST Guides) ST 12.2 (Finland) (8 October 2003) 3. GOST 30108-94 (1995): Building materials and elements. Determination of specific activity of natural radioactive nuclei. Interstate Standard. 4. Krisiuk E.M. et al., (1971). A study on Radioactivity in Building Materials (Leningrad: Research Institute for radiation Hygiene) 5. Beretka, J., & Mathew, P. J. (1985). Natural radioactivity of

  1. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  2. Routing Corners of Building Structures - by the Method of Vector Addition - Measured with RTN GNSS Surveying Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżek, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The paper deals with the problem of surveying buildings in the RTN GNSS mode using modernized indirect methods of measurement. As a result of the classical realtime measurements using indirect methods (intersection of straight lines or a point on a straight line), we obtain a building structure (a building) which is largely deformed. This distortion is due to the inconsistency of the actual dimensions of the building (tie distances) relative to the obtained measurement results. In order to eliminate these discrepancies, and thus to ensure full consistency of the building geometric structure, an innovative solution was applied - the method of vector addition - to modify the linear values (tie distances) of the external face of the building walls. A separate research problem tackled in the article, although not yet fully solved, is the issue of coordinates of corners of a building obtained after the application of the method of vector addition.

  3. A new data-driven controllability measure with application in intelligent buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2017-01-01

    and sensors, and information obtained by data processing. This differs from the traditional model-based approaches that are based on mathematical models of systems. We propose and describe a data-driven controllability measure for discrete-time linear systems. The concept is developed within a data-based......Buildings account for ca. 40% of the total energy consumption and ca. 20% of the total CO2 emissions. More effective and advanced control integrated into Building Management Systems (BMS) represents an opportunity to improve energy efficiency. The ease of availability of sensors technology...... and instrumentation within today's intelligent buildings enable collecting high quality data which could be used directly in data-based analysis and control methods. The area of data-based systems analysis and control is concentrating on developing analysis and control methods that rely on data collected from meters...

  4. Indoor environment and energy consumption optimization using field measurements and building energy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Chasapis, Kleanthis; Gazovic, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Modern buildings are usually equipped with advanced climate conditioning systems to ensure comfort of their occupants. However, analysis of their actual operation usually identifies large potential for improvements with respect to their efficiency. Present study investigated potential...... for improvements in an existing office building – a Town Hall of Viborg, Denmark. Thorough field measurements of indoor environment and occupant satisfaction survey were conducted to identify and describe indoor environmental quality problems. Collected data were also used to calibrate computer simulation model......, which was used for optimization of building’s performance. Proposed optimization scenarios bring 21-37% reduction on heating consumption and thermal comfort improvement by 7-12%. The approach (procedure) can help to optimize building operation and shorten the adjustment period....

  5. Energy savings for residential heating in two pairs of buildings achieved by implementation of actually consumed energy measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of heating energy consumption measurements in two pairs of buildings in community New Belgrade for two heating seasons. Influence of these measurements on energy savings is also presented. The measurements were carried out during heating seasons 2002/03 and 2003/04 in buildings in Block 34 and 63, connected to the district heating system "Beogradske elektrane". The buildings in each pair have similar architectural and thermal characteristics. One of the buildings in a pair was "test" building and the other "control" one. In the "test" building the energy consumption for heating of each apartment was measured, as well as total energy consumption for the whole building in the substation. Occupants were able to regulate the heating system. In the "control" building the energy consumption was measured only for the whole building, and occupants had almost no impact on heating energy consumption. The comparison of energy consumption for heating in the "test" and "control" buildings is given in the paper, as well as analysis of the influence of energy consumption measurements on the achieved energy savings. .

  6. A System for Measuring the Sway of the Vehicle Assembly Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley; Lane, John; Simmons, Stephen; Ihlefeld, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    A system was developed to measure the sway of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center. This system was installed in the VAB and gathered more than one total year of data. The building movement was correlated with measurements provided by three wind towers in order to determine the maximum deflection of the building during high-wind events. The VAB owners were in the process of obtaining new platforms for use in assembling very tall rockets when analysis of the VAB showed that a high wind could move the building sufficiently that an upper platform might impact a rocket. The problem arises because safety requires a relatively small gap between the platform and the rocket, while a large enough gap is needed to ensure that stacking tolerances prevent contact between the rocket and the platform. This only leaves an inch or two (approximately 2 to 5 cm) of total clearance, so when the analysis showed that more than a couple of inches of motion could occur in a high wind, there was a potential for damaging the rocket. The KSC Applied Physics Laboratory was asked to install a system in the VAB that could measure the motion of the building in high winds to determine the actual building sway. The motion of the VAB roof under wind load was measured optically, and under analysis, it was determined that a relatively large-aperture optical system would be required to reduce diffraction effects to less than a small fraction of an inch (approximately mm) at a distance of 500 ft (˜150 m). A 10-in. (approximately 250 mm) telescope was placed on the floor of the building, looking at the ceiling. On the ceiling, a flat plate with three white LEDs was mounted in an "L" shape, such that the telescope was essentially looking at three stars. Software was written to track the motion of these three points using an image processing system. This provided a better than 1/10-in. (approximately 2.5-mm) 2D measurement faster than once a second. Data was downloaded once a

  7. Hydrographic and oceanographic measurements for a hydrokinetic power farm in Dardanelles, Turkey and suggested system for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezairli, Yunus

    Hydrographic and oceanographic measurements were processed in order to evaluate the suitability of a location for a hydrokinetic power farm in Dardanelles, Turkey. Data provided included bathymetric, chirp, CTD and current measurements. A conceptual vertical Gorlov helical turbine platform design was proposed. Hydrographic and oceanographic survey measurement showed that, a conceptual semi-submersible turbine platform design could create enough power to make a farm feasible. The design of the mooring was decided based on the bathymetry, sediment distribution, current measurement, side-scan sonar and sub bottom profile analysis.

  8. Amplitude-sensitive modulation thermography to measure moisture in building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Walter; Buescher, Konstantin A.; Wiggenhauser, Herbert

    1998-03-01

    There have been reports about moisture detection in building walls by reflective IR-thermography. Typically, only limited results could be obtained because of the emission coefficient variations, leaking radiation or inhomogeneous illumination of the object. In addition, the quantitative relation between remission spectra and the moisture has often been unclear. Reflectometry uses constant excitation illumination which is recorded by the IR camera. With the use of the 'lock-in-technology' a low frequency modulated signal of an IR radiation source is coupled with the thermo camera and a frequency and phase sensitive signal from the thermal images can be derived. The advantage is, that emission coefficient dependencies are eliminated and that leaking radiation does not have any influence on the measured signal. The selective water measurement is possible, because there is an interference filter mounted in front of the radiator which has its transmission maximum at the wavelength of an absorption band of water. The area investigated is therefore illuminated under well defined circumstances and quantitative moisture measurement on the surface of building materials becomes a possibility. The illumination modulation is done with a sine wave to facilitate the calculation of the temporal intensity behavior of the amplitude signal. Subsequently, the amplitude image is used to determine the distribution and the level of moisture quantitatively. Point measurements in the laboratory were carried out on several building materials with changing moisture levels. It could be shown that this method successfully eliminates disturbing contributions to the measured signal like surface effects or leaking radiation.

  9. TMI-2 Reactor Building source term measurements: surfaces and basement water and sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C V; Keefer, D G

    1984-10-01

    Presented in this report are the results of radiochemical and elemental analyses performed on samples collected from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building from August 1979 to December 1983. The quantities of fission products and core materials that were measured on the external surfaces in the Reactor Building or in the water and sediment in its basement are summarized. Recent analysis results for access panels removed from the air cooling assembly and for liquid and particulate samples collected from the Reactor Building sump and reactor coolant drain tank are included in the report. Measurements show that 59% of the /sup 3/H, 2.7% of the /sup 90/Sr, 15% of the /sup 129/I, 20% of the /sup 131/I, and 42% of the /sup 137/Cs originally in the core at the time of the accident could be accounted for outside the core in the Reactor Building. With the exceptions of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 144/Ce, the vast majority of each radionuclide released was found dispersed in the water and sediment in the basement.

  10. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOX from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, Adam R.; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K.; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D.; Alastair C. Lewis; Purvis, Ruth M.; Carslaw, David C.; Allen H. Goldstein; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D.; Karl, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over Lo...

  11. A SOFTWARE TOOL TO COMPARE MEASURED AND SIMULATED BUILDING ENERGY PERFORMANCE DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maile, Tobias; Bazjanac, Vladimir; O' Donnell, James; Garr, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    Building energy performance is often inadequate when compared to design goals. To link design goals to actual operation one can compare measured with simulated energy performance data. Our previously developed comparison approach is the Energy Performance Comparison Methodology (EPCM), which enables the identification of performance problems based on a comparison of measured and simulated performance data. In context of this method, we developed a software tool that provides graphing and data processing capabilities of the two performance data sets. The software tool called SEE IT (Stanford Energy Efficiency Information Tool) eliminates the need for manual generation of data plots and data reformatting. SEE IT makes the generation of time series, scatter and carpet plots independent of the source of data (measured or simulated) and provides a valuable tool for comparing measurements with simulation results. SEE IT also allows assigning data points on a predefined building object hierarchy and supports different versions of simulated performance data. This paper briefly introduces the EPCM, describes the SEE IT tool and illustrates its use in the context of a building case study.

  12. [The measurement of radon in kindergarten and infant nursery buildings in East-North Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, M; Karpińska, M; Mnich, Z; Kapała, J

    1998-01-01

    The measurements of radon concentration in 58 buildings of day nursery schools and kindergartens were performed in the six province of the East North Poland. The measurements of indoor radon were performed by means of a charcoal canister (Pico-Rad). The concentration ranged from 4.5 to 320 Bq/m3 and have arthimetic average 24.5 Bq/m3, geometric average 15.7 Bq/m3, median 15 Bq/m3. The highest average values were observed in Suwałki Province and Olsztyn Province. The results of all these measurements do not exceeded the limit of the Polish law.

  13. Radon measurements during the building of a low-level laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Antanasijevic, R; Bikit, I; Banjanac, R; Dragic, A; Joksimovic, D; Krmpotic, D; Udovicic, V; Vukovic, J

    1999-01-01

    Radon measurements were provided during the different stages of building of a low-level laboratory in Belgrade. The depth of the laboratory is 12 m, equivalent to 30 m of water with an area of 45 m sup 2. The whole of the laboratory is hermetically lined with 1 mm A1 foil and is ventilated with filtered air. Radon concentrations were measured with the CR-39 detector as well as via the gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements. The radon concentrations in the air were achieved to 20 Bqm sup - sup 3 and reduction of secondary and tertiary cosmic-ray fluxes is five times when ventilation, filtering and sealing was applied.

  14. Measurement of ground and nearby building vibration and noise induced by trains in a metro depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chao; Wang, Yimin; Wang, Peng; Guo, Jixing

    2015-12-01

    Metro depots are where subway trains are parked and where maintenance is carried out. They usually occupy the largest ground areas in metro projects. Due to land utilization problems, Chinese cities have begun to develop over-track buildings above metro depots for people's life and work. The frequently moving trains, when going into and out of metro depots, can cause excessive vibration and noise to over-track buildings and adversely affect the living quality of the building occupants. Considering the current need of reliable experimental data for the construction of metro depots, field measurements of vibration and noise on the ground and inside a nearby 3-story building subjected to moving subway trains were conducted in a metro depot at Guangzhou, China. The amplitudes and frequency contents of velocity levels were quantified and compared. The composite A-weighted equivalent sound levels and maximum sound levels were captured. The predicted models for vibration and noise of metro depot were proposed based on existing models and verified. It was found that the vertical vibrations were significantly greater than the horizontal vibrations on the ground and inside the building near the testing line. While at the throat area, the horizontal vibrations near the curved track were remarkably greater than the vertical vibrations. The attenuation of the vibrations with frequencies above 50 Hz was larger than the ones below 50 Hz, and the frequencies of vibration transmitting to adjacent buildings were mainly within 10-50 Hz. The largest equivalent sound level generated in the throat area was smaller than the testing line one, but the instantaneous maximum sound level induced by wheels squeal, contact between wheels and rail joints as well as turnout was close to or even greater than the testing line one. The predicted models gave a first estimation for design and assessment of newly built metro depots.

  15. Applicability and economic efficiency of earthquake retrofit measures on existing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research discussed in this contribution contains two aspects: on one side the economic efficiency of seismic retrofit measures, and on the other their applicability. The research was limited to housing buildings. Bucharest, the capital of Romania, was the object of the research. Strong earthquakes affect Bucharest about three times in a century, the damaging earthquakes of the 20th century being in 1940 and 1977. Other strong earthquakes occurred in 1986 and 1990. Since it is a broad topic, first the building type was determined, which should serve further research. For this scope the building types of the 20th century, which are common in Bucharest, Romania, were investigated. For each building type reports have been written, which comprised the earthquake resilient features, the seismic defficiencies, the damage patterns and the retrofit measures. Each of these features was listed for elements of the building. A first result of the research was an integrated system in order to include latter aspects in the planning in the first steps. So already at the building survey attention has to be paid on how a building is subdivided in order to be able to determine the economic efficiency of the planned action. So were defined the `retrofit elements`. In a first step the characteristics were defined, through which these retrofit elements (for example column, wall part between two windows) can be recognised in the building survey. In a further one, which retrofit measures can be connected to these. Diagrams were built, in order to visualise these findings. For each retrofit element and the corresponding measure the costs were calculated. Also, these retrofit elements and the measures connected to them were modelled for the simulation with the structural software, so that the benefit of the measures could be determined. In the part which regarded the economic efficiency, benefits and costs of retrofit measures had to be compared, so the improvement in the rigidity

  16. Methane emission from naturally ventilated livestock buildings can be determined from gas concentration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerg, Bjarne; Zhang, Guoqiang; Madsen, Jørgen; Rom, Hans B

    2012-10-01

    Determination of emission of contaminant gases as ammonia, methane, or laughing gas from natural ventilated livestock buildings with large opening is a challenge due to the large variations in gas concentration and air velocity in the openings. The close relation between calculated animal heat production and the carbon dioxide production from the animals have in several cases been utilized for estimation of the ventilation air exchange rate for the estimation of ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions. Using this method, the problem of the complicated air velocity and concentration distribution in the openings is avoided; however, there are still some important issues remained unanswered: (1) the precision of the estimations, (2) the requirement for the length of measuring periods, and (3) the required measuring point number and location. The purpose of this work was to investigate how estimated average gas emission and the precision of the estimation are influenced by different calculation procedures, measuring period length, measure point locations, measure point numbers, and criteria for excluding measuring data. The analyses were based on existing data from a 6-day measuring period in a naturally ventilated, 150 milking cow building. The results showed that the methane emission can be determined with much higher precision than ammonia or laughing gas emissions, and, for methane, relatively precise estimations can be based on measure periods as short as 3 h. This result makes it feasible to investigate the influence of feed composition on methane emission in a relative large number of operating cattle buildings and consequently it can support a development towards reduced greenhouse gas emission from cattle production.

  17. Management of metrology in measuring of the displacement of building construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kratochvíl

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The metrology management of the measurement of the displacement of building construction is not regulated in the standard ČSN ISO 73 0405 - Measurement of the displacement of building construction. But the metrology management has to be included in the project of measurement of the displacement (Stage of project. Then we have to pay an attention to the metrological management during this measurement (Stage of realization and during the evaluation of this measurement (Stage of evaluation. We have to insist on the subsequent improving of metrology management within the frame of the next project (so-called feedback. The metrology management in the measurement of the displacement during the stages should be based on an application of statutory instruments and technical standards. We should insist especially on the system of standards for the quality control ISO 9000. Considering specialities of geodetic measurements it is necessary to adapt the metrology management. That is why it will differ from the metrology management in other fields of knowledge. This paper includes some steps of metrological provision which must not be ignored.

  18. Measuring the effect of Evaluation Capacity Building Initiatives in Africa: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Morkel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growing demand for evidence to support policy decisions, guide resource allocation and demonstrate results has elevated the need for expertise in monitoring and evaluation (M&E. Despite the mushrooming of short courses in M&E, their impact on improving the capacity to meet the demand has not been adequately and comprehensively measured or evaluated. The purpose of this article was to highlight the need for improving the measurement of evaluation capacity building (ECB to better understand what works in building M&E capacity in Africa.Objectives: This article provides important insights into the need for empirical and rigorous measurement of ECB interventions and their role in strengthening evaluation practice.Method: The study was primarily a desktop review of existing literature, corroborated by a survey of a few senior representatives of organisations responsible for capacity building across the African continent.Results: The review found that there remains little empirical evidence that indicates whether ECB processes, activities and outcomes are ultimately effective. There is also very little empirical evidence that helps to interpret how change happens, and how this may shape ECB efforts. Training is acknowledged as only one element of ECB, and there is a need for a multi-pronged approach to ECB.Conclusion: Much more empirical and rigorous research is needed to build a clear understanding of what conditions are needed in ECB in Africa to strengthen evaluation practice. This article is useful for guiding further research into measuring the effect of ECB, as well as implementing more effective models of ECB towards strengthening evaluation practice in Africa.

  19. 关于民用建筑消防给排水的相关建议%Suggestions about the Civil Building Fire Protection Water Supply and Drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志辉; 杨瑄

    2014-01-01

    Civil construction relates to residents' life and property security, which need to strengthen the fire fighting capacity. Therefore, the fire protection water supply and drai-nage as the fire protection infrastructure project to which need to pay more atention. In this article, the author starts from the type of fire protection water supply and drainage, and put for-ward the design suggestions of fire protection water supply and drainage in the civil construction.%民用建筑关乎居民生命财产的安全,其消防能力更是需要大力加强。因此,消防给排水作为消防基础项目,亟需得到重视。本文从消防给水的类型入手,提出了民用建筑中,消防给排水的设计建议。

  20. Field Measurement-Based System Identification and Dynamic Response Prediction of a Unique MIT Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Young-Jin; Trocha, Peter; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-07-01

    Tall buildings are ubiquitous in major cities and house the homes and workplaces of many individuals. However, relatively few studies have been carried out to study the dynamic characteristics of tall buildings based on field measurements. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of the Green Building, a unique 21-story tall structure located on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA), was characterized and modeled as a simplified lumped-mass beam model (SLMM), using data from a network of accelerometers. The accelerometer network was used to record structural responses due to ambient vibrations, blast loading, and the October 16th 2012 earthquake near Hollis Center (ME, USA). Spectral and signal coherence analysis of the collected data was used to identify natural frequencies, modes, foundation rocking behavior, and structural asymmetries. A relation between foundation rocking and structural natural frequencies was also found. Natural frequencies and structural acceleration from the field measurements were compared with those predicted by the SLMM which was updated by inverse solving based on advanced multiobjective optimization methods using the measured structural responses and found to have good agreement.

  1. Field Measurement-Based System Identification and Dynamic Response Prediction of a Unique MIT Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jin Cha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tall buildings are ubiquitous in major cities and house the homes and workplaces of many individuals. However, relatively few studies have been carried out to study the dynamic characteristics of tall buildings based on field measurements. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of the Green Building, a unique 21-story tall structure located on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA, was characterized and modeled as a simplified lumped-mass beam model (SLMM, using data from a network of accelerometers. The accelerometer network was used to record structural responses due to ambient vibrations, blast loading, and the October 16th 2012 earthquake near Hollis Center (ME, USA. Spectral and signal coherence analysis of the collected data was used to identify natural frequencies, modes, foundation rocking behavior, and structural asymmetries. A relation between foundation rocking and structural natural frequencies was also found. Natural frequencies and structural acceleration from the field measurements were compared with those predicted by the SLMM which was updated by inverse solving based on advanced multiobjective optimization methods using the measured structural responses and found to have good agreement.

  2. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  3. Hot water use of a utility building tested by measurements; Warmwaterverbruik utiliteitsbouw getoetst met metingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieterse-Quirijns, E.J.; Beverloo, H.; Blokker, E.J.M. [KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    In the Netherlands, several guidelines exist to design indoor water mains and hot water installations. They often lead to larger dimensions with possible negative consequences for energy and hygiene. Improved values for the required design parameters can be derived from realistic daily water demand patterns. Simdeum is a simulation model for modelling the water use of various types of both residential buildings and non-residential buildings. This paper shows, that the simulated daily patterns of cold and hot water of various standardised buildings correlate well with measured patterns on a per second base. Simdeum provides insight in the hot water use of several buildings. Thus, the simulated patterns form a solid basis for new design rules. [Dutch] Voor de dimensionering van waterleidinginstallaties en de keuze van warmwaterinstallaties bestaan verschillende richtlijnen. Deze leiden vaak tot overdimensionering met mogelijk negatieve energetische en hygienische gevolgen. Ontwerpkentallen kunnen beter afgeleid worden uit realistische afnamepatronen van het waterverbruik over een dag. Het simulatiemodel Simdeum kan het waterverbruik voor verschillende woningtypen en verschillende typologieen in de utiliteitsbouw modelleren. Dit is vergeleken met metingen op secondebasis. Simdeum geeft inzicht in het warmwaterverbruik van verschillende gebouwen. Hierdoor vormen de gesimuleerde patronen een zeer betrouwbare basis voor nieuwe ontwerprichtlijnen.

  4. Infrared Emissivity Measurements for Mineral Materials and Materials Used for Infrastructure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Ibos, Laurent; Marchetti, Mario; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves; Ausset, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings, civil engineering structures and soils studies is useful for two specific approaches. Firstly, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures using infrared thermography requires the emissivity value of materials in the spectral bandwidth of the camera. For instance emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors like micro-bolometers arrays. The knowledge of emissivity is in that case needed for computation of surface temperature fields. Secondly, accurate thermal balance requires the emissivity value in a large wavelength domain. This is for instance the case for computing roads surface temperature to predict ice forming. A measurement of emissivity just after construction and a regular survey of its variations due to ageing or soiling of surfaces could be useful in many situations like thermal mapping of roads or building insulation diagnosis. For mineral materials, a lot of studies exist, but often in situ value of emissivity could be different. Mineral materials are not pure, and could be soiled. Real value obtained with a field device is required. The use of portable emissivity measurement devices is required for that purpose. Thus, two devices using the indirect measurement method were developed. The emissivity value is deduced from the measurement of the reflectivity of the material under study after calibration with a highly reflective surface. The first device uses a slow modulation frequency well adapted to laboratory measurements whereas the second one is a portable system using a faster modulation frequency authorizing outdoor measurements. Both devices allow measurements in broad band (1 to 40μm) and band III (8 to 14μm). Experiments were performed on a large number of materials commonly used in buildings and civil engineering structures. For instance at that time 180 samples of different pavement wearing course

  5. Field Measurements of PCB emissions from Building Surfaces Using a New Portable Emission Test Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Haven, Rune; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure PCB-emission rates from indoor surfaces on-site in contaminated buildings using a newly developed portable emission test cell. Emission rates were measured from six different surfaces; three untreated surfaces and three remediated surfaces in a contaminated...... Danish elementary school. The emission test cell was capable of measuring widely varying specific emission rates of PCBtotal (8-3357 ng/(m2·h)). Remediated measures were found to reduce the emission rates by more than 96% compared with similar untreated surfaces. Emission rates may be affected...... by the conditions in the test cell (such as clean air and increased air velocity) and thereby potentially be different without the test cell attached to the surface. Still the measured emission rates obtained by using the test cell are valuable for determination of mitigation strategies. Additionally the test cell...

  6. Home energy information measuring and managing energy consumption in residential buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David

    2014-01-01

    The book contains the data required to measure and manage energy consumption in residential buildings. This book describes energy information in detail so that any homeowner can measure energy use on a continuing basis, make decisions regarding how to conserve energy, implement improvements, then monitor the results of those improvements. In the past, it has been difficult to collect residential energy consumption data in real-time. This book helps overcome that challenge by teaching readers how to use self-installed data collection devices that monitor consumption of circuits or appliances, a

  7. NLOS Correction/Exclusion for GNSS Measurement Using RAIM and City Building Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Ta; Gu, Yanlei; Kamijo, Shunsuke

    2015-07-17

    Currently, global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers can provide accurate and reliable positioning service in open-field areas. However, their performance in the downtown areas of cities is still affected by the multipath and none-line-of-sight (NLOS) receptions. This paper proposes a new positioning method using 3D building models and the receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) satellite selection method to achieve satisfactory positioning performance in urban area. The 3D building model uses a ray-tracing technique to simulate the line-of-sight (LOS) and NLOS signal travel distance, which is well-known as pseudorange, between the satellite and receiver. The proposed RAIM fault detection and exclusion (FDE) is able to compare the similarity between the raw pseudorange measurement and the simulated pseudorange. The measurement of the satellite will be excluded if the simulated and raw pseudoranges are inconsistent. Because of the assumption of the single reflection in the ray-tracing technique, an inconsistent case indicates it is a double or multiple reflected NLOS signal. According to the experimental results, the RAIM satellite selection technique can reduce by about 8.4% and 36.2% the positioning solutions with large errors (solutions estimated on the wrong side of the road) for the 3D building model method in the middle and deep urban canyon environment, respectively.

  8. Measurement of Moisture in Wood for Application in the Restoration of Old Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moron

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many historic buildings whose construction is based on timber frame walls. Most buildings built during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were based on timber frame walls with vertical support elements. These timber frame elements are affected by their moisture content and by the passage of time. If the interaction of the timber frame walls with hygrothermal fluctuations were known, the maintenance of these buildings could be improved significantly. To determine the moisture content of wood there are two types of meters on the market: on the one hand, capacitance meters which consist of two side ends and where the moisture content is measured locally between two peaks. On the other hand, there are meters based on the variation of electromagnetic transmittance of timber, which depends on the moisture of timber. The second ones are very expensive and difficult to handle. This work presents a new non-intrusive capacitive sensor that measures the global moisture content in a section of the timber frame walls and therefore its accuracy is similar to the accuracy that can be obtained with electromagnetic transmittance meters. Additionally, as it is a capacitive sensor, it is low cost and easy to operate.

  9. Measurement of Moisture in Wood for Application in the Restoration of Old Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moron, Carlos; Garcia-Fuentevilla, Luisa; Garcia, Alfonso; Moron, Alberto

    2016-05-14

    There are many historic buildings whose construction is based on timber frame walls. Most buildings built during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were based on timber frame walls with vertical support elements. These timber frame elements are affected by their moisture content and by the passage of time. If the interaction of the timber frame walls with hygrothermal fluctuations were known, the maintenance of these buildings could be improved significantly. To determine the moisture content of wood there are two types of meters on the market: on the one hand, capacitance meters which consist of two side ends and where the moisture content is measured locally between two peaks. On the other hand, there are meters based on the variation of electromagnetic transmittance of timber, which depends on the moisture of timber. The second ones are very expensive and difficult to handle. This work presents a new non-intrusive capacitive sensor that measures the global moisture content in a section of the timber frame walls and therefore its accuracy is similar to the accuracy that can be obtained with electromagnetic transmittance meters. Additionally, as it is a capacitive sensor, it is low cost and easy to operate.

  10. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D. [and others

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  11. Thermal bridges in building construction - Measurements and calculations; Kuldebroer i klimaskaermskonstruktioner - Maalt og beregnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, J.

    1999-11-01

    Detailed calculation methods for evaluating heat loss through building envelope constructions have been investigated in the project. First a detailed description of the calculation methods, i.e. both calculation programs and guidelines, for calculating typical thermal bridges in building envelope constructions is given. After this a validation of both programs and guidelines is presented. The validation is performed by comparing calculated U-values with Guarded Hot Box measurements. The last part of the thesis discusses the possibilities of utilising the results of detailed calculations in more operational and applicable projecting tools, e.g. thermal bridge catalogues or U-value tables. A calculation of a one-family house is described in detail. All the important thermal bridges are covered by the detailed calculations, and from the analysis both the methods of the revised Danish standard and the European standards are evaluated. It is shown that the Danish standard is both reliable and accurate. All calculations have shown a very good compliance with corresponding measurments and the analysis has shown that a direct translation from physical construction to mathematical description can be used. The detailed methods of calculating are excellent for the development of new constructions but not very operational for projecting buildings. Due to the time-consuming modelling and in some cases also calculations, there is a need for developing simpler methods to utilise the results from detailed calculations. An investigation concerning the possibilities of developing different tools to simplify the projecting calculations for new buildings has been carried out. It is concluded that there is a need for a further enhancement of the existing methods, e.g. U-value catalogues. (LN) EFP-96. 58 refs.

  12. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials and soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Pankaj; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, Rohit

    2017-03-01

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpur districts of Himachal Pradesh has been done with solid state alpha track detectors, LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors. The radon exhalation rate for the soil samples varies from 39.1 to 91.2 mBq kg-1 h-1 with a mean value 59.7 mBq kg-1 h-1. Also the radium concentration of the studied area is found and it varies from 30.6 to 51.9 Bq kg-1 with a mean value 41.6 Bq kg-1. The exhalation rate for the building material samples varies from 40.72 (sandstone) to 81.40 mBq kg-1 h-1 (granite) with a mean value of 59.94 mBq kg-1 h-1.

  13. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials and soil samples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pankaj Bala; Vinod Kumar; Rohit Mehra

    2017-03-01

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpurdistricts of Himachal Pradesh has been done with solid state alpha track detectors, LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors. The radon exhalation rate for the soil samples varies from 39.1 to 91.2 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹with a mean value 59.7 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹. Also the radium concentration of the studied area is found and it varies from 30.6 to 51.9 Bq kg⁻¹ with a mean value 41.6 Bq kg⁻¹ . The exhalation rate for the building material samples varies from 40.72 (sandstone) to 81.40 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹ (granite) with a mean value of59.94 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹.

  14. Design of information-measuring and control systems for intelligent buildings. Trends of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Irina Yur’evna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the modern requirements for integrated management systems of a smart home. The authors propose a hierarchical classification of the levels of house automation, which allows allocating different levels of information transfer. The article considers the trends of development of information-measuring and control systems of intelligent buildings. The generalized scheme of information-measuring and control subsystems of an intelligent building are given. The energy-information model of the knowledge base of physical and technical effects described in the article allows developing a system of automated support of the conceptual stage of elements design in information measuring and control systems. With the help of this knowledge base the system allows dozens of times expanding the scope of knowledge actively used by specialists and two or three times reducing the time of creating new solutions by selecting the most efficient of the options and the underlying calculation of the essential characteristics of their conceptual models, which significantly reduces the number of created prototypes and field tests.

  15. Extremely low frequency magnetic field measurements in buildings with transformer stations in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin; Jenni, Daniela; Kheifets, Leeka; Mezei, Gabor

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an exposure assessment method that classifies apartments in three exposure categories of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) based on the location of the apartment relative to the transformer room. We completed measurements in 39 apartments in 18 buildings. In each room of the apartments ELF-MF was concurrently measured with 5 to 6 EMDEX II meters for 10 min. Measured arithmetic mean ELF-MF was 0.59 μT in 8 apartments that were fully adjacent to a transformer room, either directly above the transformer or touching the transformer room wall-to-wall. In apartments that only partly touched the transformer room at corners or edges, average ELF-MF level was 0.14 μT. Average exposure in the remaining apartments was 0.10 μT. Kappa coefficient for exposure classification was 0.64 (95%-CI: 0.45-0.82) if only fully adjacent apartments were considered as highly exposed (>0.4 μT). We found a distinct ELF-MF exposure gradient in buildings with transformer. Exposure classification based on the location of the apartment relative to the transformer room appears feasible. Such an approach considerably reduces effort for exposure assessment and may be used to eliminate selection bias in future epidemiologic studies.

  16. Inflation model building with an accurate measure of e-folding

    CERN Document Server

    Chongchitnan, Sirichai

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the problem of measuring the number of e-folding during inflation. It has become standard practice to take the logarithmic growth of the scale factor as a measure of the amount of inflation. However, this is only an approximation for the true amount of inflation required to solve the horizon and flatness problems. The aim of this work is to quantify the error in this approximation, and show how it can be avoided. We present an alternative framework for inflation model building using the inverse Hubble radius, aH, as the key parameter. We show that in this formalism, the correct number of e-folding arises naturally as a measure of inflation. As an application, we present an interesting model in which the entire inflationary dynamics can be solved analytically and exactly, and, in special cases, reduces to the familiar class of power-law models.

  17. Gamma Radiation Measurements and Dose Rates in Commonly Used Building Materials in Cyprus

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, F; Parpottas, Y

    2010-01-01

    A first comprehensive study is presented on radioactivity concentrations and dose rates in 87 commonly used materials, manufactured or imported in Cyprus, for building purposes. The natural radioactivity of K-40, Th-232, U-238 and Ra-226 is determined using high-resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. The respective dose rates and the associated radiological effect indices are also calculated. A comparison of the measured specific activity values with the corresponding world average values shows that most of them are below the world average activity values. The annual indoor effective dose rates received by an individual from three measured imported granites and four measured imported ceramics are found to be higher than the world upper limit value of 1 mSv y-1. Hence, these materials should have a restricted use according to their corresponding calculated activity concentration index values and the related EC 1999 guidelines.

  18. Energy reduction in buildings in temperate and tropic regions utilizing a heat loss measuring device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2012-01-01

    to ACMV in the "warm countries" contribute to an enormous energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission. In order to establish the best basis for energy renovation, it is important to have measures of the heat losses on a building façade, for optimizing the energy renovation. This paper will present...... penetration through facades with the aim to reduce the costs to AC. The paper will introduce a common project between NUS (National University of Singapore), AAU (Aalborg University) and HT-Meter, the latter as the U-value Meter developer company. In the project we will measure the heat transfer in the unit W...... of the project. Furthermore this paper present results from already conducted heat loss measurements in the temperate regions....

  19. Measurement and Exploration of Individual Beliefs About the Consequences of Building Information Modelling Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Richard; Harty, Chris

    2013-01-01

    expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, compatibility, and attitude toward using technology were adapted from existing measures. In an analysis of responses from 762 construction employees the scales showed acceptable measurement properties. Expectations about......Information and communication technology (ICT) is becoming increasingly important in construction although the rate of adoption is considered slow and the industry faces specific implementation challenges. Mainstream information systems research has shown that individuals’ beliefs and expectations...... of the consequences of ICT use predict subsequent usage. We describe the development of scales to measure beliefs about the consequences of building information modelling (BIM) and their use in a survey of employees of a large construction contracting organization in the United Kingdom. Scales for performance...

  20. Measured performance of 12 demonstation projects - IEA Task 13 "advanced solar low energy buildings"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Poel, Bart

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from measurements and experiences gained from interviews on 12 advanced solar low energy houses designed and built as part of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme – Task 13. Three years after the IEA Task 13 formally ended, the results were collected...... % compared with typical houses was achieved. Prevention of overheating requires special attention also at northern lati-tudes. Interviews with occupants revealed the need to explain the building's behaviour thoroughly to its users and elaboration of user manuals....

  1. Flood loss reduction of private households due to building precautionary measures -- lessons learned from the Elbe flood in August 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kreibich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Building houses in inundation areas is always a risk, since absolute flood protection is impossible. Where settlements already exist, flood damage must be kept as small as possible. Suitable means are precautionary measures such as elevated building configuration or flood adapted use. However, data about the effects of such measures are rare, and consequently, the efficiency of different precautionary measures is unclear. To improve the knowledge about efficient precautionary measures, approximately 1200 private households, which were affected by the 2002 flood at the river Elbe and its tributaries, were interviewed about the flood damage of their buildings and contents as well as about their precautionary measures. The affected households had little flood experience, i.e. only 15% had experienced a flood before. 59% of the households stated that they did not know, that they live in a flood prone area. Thus, people were not well prepared, e.g. just 11% had used and furnished their house in a flood adapted way and only 6% had a flood adapted building structure. Building precautionary measures are mainly effective in areas with frequent small floods. But also during the extreme flood event in 2002 building measures reduced the flood loss. From the six different building precautionary measures under study, flood adapted use and adapted interior fitting were the most effective ones. They reduced the damage ratio for buildings by 46% and 53%, respectively. The damage ratio for contents was reduced by 48% due to flood adapted use and by 53% due to flood adapted interior fitting. The 2002 flood motivated a relatively large number of people to implement private precautionary measures, but still much more could be done. Hence, to further reduce flood losses, people's motivation to invest in precaution should be improved. More information campaigns and financial incentives should be issued to encourage precautionary measures.

  2. Measurements of radioactivity and dose assessments in some building materials in Bitlis, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayakökü, Halime; Karatepe, Şule; Doğru, Mahmut

    2016-09-01

    In this study, samples of perlite, pumice and Ahlat stones (Ignimbrite) extracted from mines in Bitlis and samples of other building materials produced in facilities in Bitlis were collected and analyzed. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in samples of building materials were measured using NaI detector (NaI(Tl)) with an efficiency of 24%. The radon measurements of building material samples were determined using CR-39 nuclear track detectors. (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K radioactivity concentrations ranged from (29.6±5.9 to 228.2±38.1Bq/kg), (10.8±5.4 to 95.5±26.1Bq/kg) and (249.3±124.7 to 2580.1±266.9Bq/kg), respectively. Radon concentration, radium equivalent activities, absorbed dose rate, excess lifetime cancer risk and the values of hazard indices were calculated for the measured samples to assess the radiation hazards arising from using those materials in the construction of dwellings. Radon concentration ranged between 89.2±12.0Bq/m(3) and 1141.0±225.0Bq/m(3). It was determined that Raeq values of samples conformed to world standards except for perlite and single samples of brick and Ahlat stone. Calculated values of absorbed dose rate ranged from 81.3±20.5 to 420.6±42.8nGy/h. ELCR values ranged from (1.8±0.3)×10(-3) to (9.0±1.0)×10(-3). All samples had ELCR values higher than the world average. The values of Hin and Hex varied from 0.35±0.11 to 1.78±0.18 and from 0.37±0.09 to 1.17±0.13, respectively. The results were compared with standard radioactivity values determined by international organizations and with similar studies. There would be a radiation risk for people living in buildings made of perlite, Ahlat-1 and Brick-3.

  3. Full scale measurements and simulations of the wind speed in the close proximity of the building skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponechal Radoslav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 36 meteorological stations are located on the facade of the Research Centre building´s from 2016. Weather stations measure basic climate parameters and wind velocity and direction using a powerful ultra-sonic anemometers. These are located on the walls of the building oriented to four cardinal points at different heights and positions on the façade. The location selections were made with use of CFD simulation which analysed flow around the building. Thus they give faithful image of wind flow near the façade of five-storey office building. Such detailed measurements make it possible to achieve high accurate calibration of CFD models and measurements in the wind tunnel. This paper describes these meteorological stations in detail. First outputs from measurement in autumn are published and analysed.

  4. The BINP HLS to measurement vertical changes on PAL-XFEL building and ground

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Hyo-Jin; Gil, Kye-Hwan; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Kang, Heung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    PAL-XFEL, a 4th generation light source, is currently being installed and will be completed by December of 2015 so that users can be supported beginning in 2016. PAL-XFEL equipment should continuously maintain the bunch-to-bunch beam parameter (60Hz, Energy 10GeV, Charge 200pC, Bunch Length 60fs, Emittance X/Y 0.481mm/0.256mm rad) in order to supply the energy, flux and timing of stable photons in tests by beam line users. To this end, PAL-XFEL equipment has to be kept precisely aligned (Linear Accelerator +/- 100um, Undulator +/- 50um). As a part of the process for installing PAL-XFEL, a GPS-used surface geodetic network is being constructed for precise equipment measurement and alignment, and the installation of a tunnel measurement network inside buildings is in preparation; additionally, the fiducialization of major equipment is underway. After PAL-XFEL equipment is optimized and aligned, if the ground and buildings go through vertical changes during operation, misalignment (and tilt) of equipment includi...

  5. Cultural consensus modeling to measure transactional sex in Swaziland: Scale building and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Dunkle, Kristin L; Cooper, Hannah L F; Windle, Michael; Hadley, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV and gender based violence in southern Africa and around the world. However the typical quantitative operationalization, "the exchange of gifts or money for sex," can be at odds with a wide array of relationship types and motivations described in qualitative explorations. To build on the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative research streams, we used cultural consensus models to identify distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland. The process allowed us to build and validate emic scales of transactional sex, while identifying key informants for qualitative interviews within each model to contextualize women's experiences and risk perceptions. We used logistic and multinomial logistic regression models to measure associations with condom use and social status outcomes. Fieldwork was conducted between November 2013 and December 2014 in the Hhohho and Manzini regions. We identified three distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland based on 124 Swazi women's emic valuation of what they hoped to receive in exchange for sex with their partners. In a clinic-based survey (n = 406), consensus model scales were more sensitive to condom use than the etic definition. Model consonance had distinct effects on social status for the three different models. Transactional sex is better measured as an emic spectrum of expectations within a relationship, rather than an etic binary relationship type. Cultural consensus models allowed us to blend qualitative and quantitative approaches to create an emicly valid quantitative scale grounded in qualitative context.

  6. The relationship between measured moisture conditions and fungal concentrations in water-damaged building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A L; Rautiala, S; Kasanen, J P; Raunio, P; Rantamäki, J; Kalliokoski, P

    2000-06-01

    We determined the moisture levels, relative humidity (RH) or moisture content (MC) of materials, and concentrations of culturable fungi, actinomycetes and total spores as well as a composition of fungal flora in 122 building material samples collected from 18 moisture problem buildings. The purpose of this work was to clarify if the is any correlation between the moisture parameters and microbial levels or generic composition depending on the type of materials and the time passed after a water damage. The results showed an agreement between the concentrations of total spores and culturable fungi for the wood, wood-based and gypsum board samples (r > 0.47). The concentrations of total spores and/or culturable fungi correlated with RH of materials particularly among the wood and insulation materials (r > 0.79), but not usually with MC (r 0.51), while such a relationship could not be observed for the samples taken from dry damage. A wide range of fungal species were found in the samples from ongoing damage, whereas Penicillia and in some cases yeasts dominated the fungal flora in the dry samples. This study indicates that fungal contamination can be evaluated on the basis of moisture measurements of constructions in ongoing damage, but the measurements are not solely adequate for estimation of possible microbial growth in dry damage.

  7. Comparison of real-time instruments and gravimetric method when measuring particulate matter in a residential building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuocheng; Calderón, Leonardo; Patton, Allison P; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Senick, Jennifer; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-11-01

    This study used several real-time and filter-based aerosol instruments to measure PM2.5 levels in a high-rise residential green building in the Northeastern US and compared performance of those instruments. PM2.5 24-hr average concentrations were determined using a Personal Modular Impactor (PMI) with 2.5 µm cut (SKC Inc., Eighty Four, PA) and a direct reading pDR-1500 (Thermo Scientific, Franklin, MA) as well as its filter. 1-hr average PM2.5 concentrations were measured in the same apartments with an Aerotrak Optical Particle Counter (OPC) (model 8220, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN) and a DustTrak DRX mass monitor (model 8534, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN). OPC and DRX measurements were compared with concurrent 1-hr mass concentration from the pDR-1500. The pDR-1500 direct reading showed approximately 40% higher particle mass concentration compared to its own filter (n = 41), and 25% higher PM2.5 mass concentration compared to the PMI2.5 filter. The pDR-1500 direct reading and PMI2.5 in non-smoking homes (self-reported) were not significantly different (n = 10, R(2) = 0.937), while the difference between measurements for smoking homes was 44% (n = 31, R(2) = 0.773). Both OPC and DRX data had substantial and significant systematic and proportional biases compared with pDR-1500 readings. However, these methods were highly correlated: R(2) = 0.936 for OPC versus pDR-1500 reading and R(2) = 0.863 for DRX versus pDR-1500 reading. The data suggest that accuracy of aerosol mass concentrations from direct-reading instruments in indoor environments depends on the instrument, and that correction factors can be used to reduce biases of these real-time monitors in residential green buildings with similar aerosol properties.

  8. Effect of the calibration in water and the build-up cap on the Mg(Ar) ionization chamber measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunoro, H; Hyvönen, H; Uusi-Simola, J; Jokelainen, I; Kosunen, A; Kortesniemi, M; Seppälä, T; Auterinen, I; Savolainen, S

    2011-12-01

    Magnesium-walled argon gas flow ionization chamber (Mg(Ar)) is used for photon dose measurements in the epithermal neutron beam of FiR 1 reactor in Finland. In this study, the photon dose measurements were re-evaluated against calculations applying a new chamber calibration factor defined in water instead of in air. Also, effect of the build-up cap on the measurements was investigated. The new calibration factor provides improved agreement between measured and calculated photon dose. Use of the build-up cap does not affect the measured signal in water in neutron beam.

  9. Effect of the calibration in water and the build-up cap on the Mg(Ar) ionization chamber measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivunoro, H., E-mail: hanna.koivunoro@helsinki.fi [Boneca Corporation, FI-00290 Helsinki (Finland)] [Department of Physics, P.O.B. 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)] [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O.B. 180, 00029 HUS (Finland); Hyvoenen, H. [Boneca Corporation, FI-00290 Helsinki (Finland); Uusi-Simola, J. [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, University of Helsinki (Finland); Jokelainen, I.; Kosunen, A. [Radiation Metrology Laboratory, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK, FI-00881 (Finland); Kortesniemi, M. [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, University of Helsinki (Finland); Seppaelae, T. [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O.B. 180, 00029 HUS (Finland); Auterinen, I. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Savolainen, S. [Department of Physics, P.O.B. 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)] [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-12-15

    Magnesium-walled argon gas flow ionization chamber (Mg(Ar)) is used for photon dose measurements in the epithermal neutron beam of FiR 1 reactor in Finland. In this study, the photon dose measurements were re-evaluated against calculations applying a new chamber calibration factor defined in water instead of in air. Also, effect of the build-up cap on the measurements was investigated. The new calibration factor provides improved agreement between measured and calculated photon dose. Use of the build-up cap does not affect the measured signal in water in neutron beam.

  10. Measurements of indoor thermal environment and energy analysis in a large space building in typical seasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chen; Zou, Zhijun; Li, Meiling; Wang, Xin; Huang, Wugang; Yang, Jiangang [University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Li, Wei; Xiao, Xueqin [Shanghai International Gymnastics Stadium, Shanghai (China)

    2007-05-15

    Shanghai International Gymnastics Stadium is the selected object for site-measurement. The site-measurements have been carried out during summer, winter, and the transitional seasons. Their indoor thermal environments were controlled by continuous air-conditioning, intermittent air-conditioning and natural ventilation, respectively. The site-measurement includes outdoor environment (the weather conditions and peripheral hallway), indoor air temperature distribution (the occupant zone temperature, radial temperature near upper openings and the vertical temperature distributions, etc.), and the heat balance of air-conditioning system, etc. It is found that temperature stratification in winter with air-conditioning is most obvious. The maximum difference of vertical temperature is 15{sup o}C in winter. The second largest one is 12{sup o}C in summer, and less than 2{sup o}C in the transitional season. The results of measurements indicate that it is different in the characteristics on energy saving of upper openings during the different seasons. With heat balance measurements, it is discovered that the roof load and ventilated and infiltrated load account for larger percentages in terms of cooling and heating load. In this paper, many discussions on the results of site measurements show some characteristics and regulations of indoor thermal environment in large space building. (author)

  11. Designing, Building, Measuring and Testing a Constant Equivalent Fall Height Terrain Park Jump

    CERN Document Server

    Petrone, Nicola; McNeil, James A; Hubbard, Mont

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has presented both a theoretical foundation for designing terrain park jumps that control landing impact and computer software to accomplish this task. US ski resorts have been reluctant to adopt this more engineered approach to jump design, in part due to questions of feasibility. The present study demonstrates this feasibility. It describes the design, construction, measurement and experimental testing of such a jump. It improves on previous efforts with more complete instrumentation, a larger range of jump distances, and a new method for combining jumper- and board-mounted accelerometer data to estimate equivalent fall height, a measure of impact severity. It unequivocally demonstrates the efficacy of the engineering design approach, namely that it is possible and practical to design and build free style terrain park jumps with landing surface shapes that control for landing impact as predicted by the theory.

  12. Output-Only Modal Identification of a Containment Building from Ambient Vibration Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo-Yong; Shin, Yung-Moo; Kim, Ha-Yeon [Korea Maritime University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Hyuk [Korea National Railroad College, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Chang-Hun; Kim, Moon-Soo; Kim, Sang-Yun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Ensuring and maintaining the structural integrity of the containment building (CB) in nuclear power plants is essential in preserving the nuclear reactor and other safety related systems from man-made as well as natural disasters, and protecting plant workers and publics from hazardous radioactive materials. To date, the structural integrity of the CB has been evaluated periodically via visual inspections, chemical tests, nondestructive strength tests, etc. However, these methods can only provide the local information on the structural condition and require considerable time and cost to estimate overall structural integrity. In this paper, the possibility of monitoring the structural integrity of a CB utilizing ambient vibration measurement (AVM) is explored. The ambient vibration testing has gained attention which can avoid the interruption of normal operation of civil structures. To fulfill the objective, the ambient vibration of the CB of the Ulchin 5th unit was measured, and the modal parameters, resonant frequencies and corresponding mode shapes, were extracted.

  13. Design and Build of an Electrical Machines’ High Speed Measurement System at Low Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos C. Kontogiannis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of high speed measurement and acquisition equipment design and build in the laboratory at a very low cost. The presented architecture employees highly integrated market components eliminating thus the complexity of the hardware and software stack. The key element of the proposed system is a Hi-Speed USB to Serial/FIFO development module that is provided with full software and driver support for most popular operating systems. This module takes over every single task needed to get the data from the A/D to the user software gluelessly and transparently, solving this way the most difficult problem in data acquisition systems which is the fast and reliable communication with a host computer. Other ideas tested and included in this document offer Hall Effect measuring solutions using some excellent features and very low cost ICs widely available on the market today.

  14. Social Capital in a Region: Revisiting the Measurement and Building of an Indicator Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanas’ev Dmitrii Vladimirovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social capital is gaining certain stability in the social studies. The heuristic potential of the concept is confirmed by numerous studies which prove the positive impact of levels and types of social capital on a wide range of social phenomena. Approaches to theoretical justification of social capital empirical appraisal are being formed, which is particularly relevant amid of general economic and structural crisis. However, science still lacks a generally accepted definition of social capital and the agreement on the ways to measure it. The article aims to theoretically justify the building of an indicator model for empirical measurement of social capital, which implies a set of indicators generated for a particular conceptual framework and helping obtain organized information about the phenomenon under study in order to identify the correlation between its components. The article is intended to foreground the need for social capital empirical measurement and comparison. The article contains analysis of theoretical approaches to the definition of social capital, notes its multi-aspect nature and productive ideas about the triadic nature of social capital lying at the interface between sociology, political science and economics. On the basis of generalization of positions concerning the types of social capital presented in scientific literature, the authors make a conclusion about the fundamental importance of distinguishing bridging and bonding social capital; of the necessity to identify special indicators for these types of social capital and their formal and informal components. The article presents the authors’ approach to building a social capital indicator model, including cognitive (readiness to join, responsibility for the state of affairs and structural elements (degree of participation in public activity, degree of participation in political activity, ability to influence the state of affairs, which helps obtain a

  15. Seismic damage diagnosis of a masonry building using short-term damping measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Leonidas Alexandros S.; Penna, Andrea; Magenes, Guido

    2017-04-01

    It is of considerable importance to perform dynamic identification and detect damage in existing structures. This paper describes a new and practical method for damage diagnosis of masonry buildings requiring minimum computational effort. The method is based on the relative variation of modal damping and validated against experimental data from a full scale two storey shake table test. The experiment involves a building subjected to uniaxial vibrations of progressively increasing intensity at the facilities of EUCENTRE laboratory (Pavia, Italy) up to a near collapse damage state. Five time-histories are applied scaling the Montenegro (1979) accelerogram. These strong motion tests are preceded by random vibration tests (RVT's) which are used to perform modal analysis. Two deterministic methods are applied: the single degree of freedom (SDOF) assumption together with the peak-picking method in the discrete frequency domain and the Eigen realisation algorithm with data correlations (ERA-DC) in the discrete time domain. Regarding the former procedure, some improvements are incorporated to locate rigorously the natural frequencies and estimate the modal damping. The progressive evolution of the modal damping is used as a key indicator to characterise damage on the building. Modal damping is connected to the structural mass and stiffness. A square integrated but only with two components expression for proportional (classical) damping is proposed to fit better with the experimental measurements of modal damping ratios. Using this Rayleigh order formulation the contribution of each of the damping components is evaluated. The stiffness component coefficient is proposed as an effective index to detect damage and quantify its intensity.

  16. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings and other buildings in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Talita de Oliveira [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br; Rocha, Zildete [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Quimica e Radioquimica]. E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Radon is a radioactive noble gas derived from the natural decay series of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 232}Th, which are present in rocks and soils. By diffusion and convection, radon migrates from the rocks and soils to the surface and through fissures, pipes and holes it may enter the dwellings and other buildings. Another important indoor radon source is the building material construction. Therefore, it may accumulate indoor environments with reduced ventilation rates. Radon progeny attach to the aerosol particle in the air. The attached and unattached radon progeny may deposit in the lungs and irradiate to the lung tissue as they decay. Radon has been recognized as a radiation hazard, that causes excess of lung cancer among underground miners and there is an evidence that radon is also a heath hazard in dwellings and other indoor environments. Radon accounts for about half of all human exposure to natural radiation. Radon concentration measurements were carried out in dwellings, schools and shopping centers in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte - RMBH. Most part of the inhabitants of the RMBH lives over the granitic gneissic complex, which has a variable depth out coming in some areas. For the radon concentration measurement continuous detectors, AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO, RAD7 and Pylon Lucas Cells were used and, for Potential Alpha Energy Concentration-PAEC measurement a solid state alpha spectroscope, the DOSEman PRO was used. The experiments showed that most results are below 50 Bqm{sup -3} (mean+3{sigma}). This value is bellowing the action levels of the USEPA, ICRP and others, which varies in the range from 148 to 200 Bqm{sup -3}. The values are in the low range, as it was expected for a tropical climate. (author)

  17. Measuring indoor occupancy in intelligent buildings using the fusion of vision sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dixin; Guan, Xiaohong; Du, Youtian; Zhao, Qianchuan

    2013-07-01

    In intelligent buildings, practical sensing systems designed to gather indoor occupancy information play an indispensable role in improving occupant comfort and energy efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel method for occupancy measurement based on the video surveillance now widely used in buildings. In our method, we analyze occupant detection both at the entrance and inside the room. A two-stage static detector is presented based on both appearances and shapes to find the human heads in rooms, and motion-based technology is used for occupant detection at the entrance. To model the change of occupancy and combine the detection results from multiple vision sensors located at entrances and inside rooms for more accurate occupancy estimation, we propose a dynamic Bayesian network-based method. The detection results of each vision sensor play the role of evidence nodes of this network, and thus, we can estimate the true occupancy at time t using the evidence prior to (and including) time t. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  18. Surface activity and radiation field measurements of the TMI-2 reactor building gross decontamination experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C V

    1983-10-01

    Surface samples were collected from concrete and metal surfaces within the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building on December 15 and 17, 1981 and again on March 25 and 26, 1982. The Reactor Building was decontaminated by hydrolasing during the period between these dates. The collected samples were analyzed for radionuclide concentration at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The sampling equipment and procedures, and the analysis methods and results are discussed. The measured mean surface concentrations of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr on the 305-ft elevation floor before decontamination were, respectively, 3.6 +- 0.9 and 0.17 +- 0.04 ..mu..Ci/cm/sup 2/. Their mean concentrations on the 347-ft elevation floor were about the same. On both elevations, walls were found to be considerably less contaminated than floors. The fractions of the core inventories of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, and /sup 129/I deposited on Reactor Building surfaces prior to decontamination were calculated using their mean concentrations on various types of surfaces. The calculated values for these three nuclides are 3.5 +- 0.4 E-4, 2.4 +- 0.8 E-5, and 5.7 +- 0.5 E-4, respectively. The decontamination operations reduced the /sup 137/Cs surface activity on the 305- and 347-ft elevations by factors of 20 and 13, respectively. The /sup 90/Sr surface activity reduction was the same for both floors, that being a factor of 30. On the whole, decontamination of vertical surfaces was not achieved. Beta and gamma exposure rates that were measured during surface sampling were examined to determine the degree to which they correlated with measured surface activities. The data were fit with power functions of the form y = ax/sup b/. As might be expected, the beta exposure rates showed the best correlation. Of the data sets fit with the power function, the set of December 1981 beta exposure exhibited the least scatter. The coefficient of determination for this set was calculated to be 0.915.

  19. Extraction of Building Features from Stand-Off Measured Through-Wall Radar Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.J.M. de; Rossum, W.L. van

    2016-01-01

    Automated extraction of building features is a great aid in synthesizing building maps from radar data. In this paper, a model-based method is described to detect and classify canonical scatters, such as corners and planar walls, inside a building. Once corners and walls have been located, a buildin

  20. Measure Guideline. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jayne [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Ludwig, Peter [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, Larry [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This guideline provides building owners, professionals involved in multifamily audits, and contractors insights for improving the balance and tuning of steam systems. It provides readers an overview of one-pipe steam heating systems, guidelines for evaluating steam systems, typical costs and savings, and guidelines for ensuring quality installations. It also directs readers to additional resources for details not included here. Measures for balancing a distribution system that are covered include replacing main line vents and upgrading radiator vents. Also included is a discussion on upgrading boiler controls and the importance of tuning the settings on new or existing boiler controls. The guideline focuses on one-pipe steam systems, though many of the assessment methods can be generalized to two-pipe steam systems.

  1. Computer simulated building energy consumption for verification of energy conservation measures in network facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankey, B.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program called ECPVER (Energy Consumption Program - Verification) was developed to simulate all energy loads for any number of buildings. The program computes simulated daily, monthly, and yearly energy consumption which can be compared with actual meter readings for the same time period. Such comparison can lead to validation of the model under a variety of conditions, which allows it to be used to predict future energy saving due to energy conservation measures. Predicted energy saving can then be compared with actual saving to verify the effectiveness of those energy conservation changes. This verification procedure is planned to be an important advancement in the Deep Space Network Energy Project, which seeks to reduce energy cost and consumption at all DSN Deep Space Stations.

  2. Measurements of gross energy consumption in new buildings meeting Danish building Regulations 2005. Project summary; Maeling af bruttoenergiforbrug i nybyggeri svarende til BR2005 energikrav. Projektresume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommerup, H.

    2004-07-01

    During the heating season of 2003/2004, gross energy measurements have been made on a number of single-family houses that represent ordinary building systems in Denmark and meet future stricter energy requirements in new energy regulations of the building regulations. All the houses have floor heating and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. When new energy regulations are introduced in the building regulations, the primary energy requirements on buildings will be based on the gross energy consumption, corresponding to the total energy consumption except electricity consumption for appliances. In relation to this, the object of the project has been to document and analyse the test result that have come to light and to compare with future requirements on the gross energy consumption. The electricity consumption of appliances is interesting too, however, as this has an effect on the heat demand. The object of the project has therefore also been to gather operation experience for the electricity consuming equipment in general with a view to throwing light on its influence on the heat demand, including to investigate how large a part of the electricity consumption proves of use in the heating of the house, and more overriding how the electricity consumption influences the heat consumption. (au)

  3. Experimental measurements of thermal properties for Mexican building materials to simulate thermal behavior to save energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez-Galan, Jesus; Almanza, Rafael; Rodriguez, Neftali [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Inst. de Ingenieria

    2008-07-01

    One of the main factors that determine the reliability of building's thermal design is the values of thermal and heat transfer properties used during this process. In order to optimizing such thermal design process, there is little information available of the most utilized building materials in Mexico; hence, some measurements were carried out. We present thermal conductivity experimental results for: red brick, tepetate, adobe and concrete. Furthermore, experimental data of convective heat transfer coefficients are reported on: red brick, tepetate, adobe and concrete walls. Kondratyev methodology was used for thermal conductivity estimations. Kondratyev methodology is based on the cooling off of bodies in regular state analysis. Thermal conductivity values were: red brick k{sub L} = 0.906 W/mC, tepetate k{sub T} = 0.648 W/mC, adobe k{sub A} = 0.570 W/mC, and concrete k{sub C} = 1.918 W/mC. Red brick, tepetate, adobe and concrete test walls of 0.46 x 0.56 and 0.06 m thick, were manufactured, as well as a prototype of testing for mounting the walls, in order to evaluate their convective heat transfer coefficients. Measurements were carried out at the Institute of Engineering-UNAM Wind-Tunnel, for an air velocities interval of 2-10 m/s. Reported values for convective coefficients fluctuate on 16-134 W/m{sup 2}2 C, depending on material and position wall, as well as air velocity. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of Stiffness Changes in a High-Rise Building by Measurements of Lateral Displacements Using GPS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Woon Choi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The outrigger truss system is one of the most frequently used lateral load resisting structural systems. However, little research has been reported on the effect of installation of outrigger trusses on improvement of lateral stiffness of a high-rise building through full-scale measurements. In this paper, stiffness changes of a high-rise building due to installation of outrigger trusses have been evaluated by measuring lateral displacements using a global positioning system (GPS. To confirm the error range of the GPS measurement system used in the full-scale measurement tests, the GPS displacement monitoring system is investigated through a free vibration test of the experimental model. Then, for the evaluation of lateral stiffness of a high-rise building under construction, the GPS displacement monitoring system is applied to measurements of lateral displacements of a 66-story high-rise building before and after installation of outrigger truss. The stiffness improvement of the building before and after the installation is confirmed through the changes of the natural frequencies and the ratios of the base shear forces to the roof displacements.

  5. Confidence building measures at sea:opportunities for India and Pakistan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vohra, Ravi Bhushan Rear Admiral (; ); Ansari, Hasan Masood Rear Admiral (; )

    2003-12-01

    The sea presents unique possibilities for implementing confidence building measures (CBMs) between India and Pakistan that are currently not available along the contentious land borders surrounding Jammu and Kashmir. This is due to the nature of maritime issues, the common military culture of naval forces, and a less contentious history of maritime interaction between the two nations. Maritime issues of mutual concern provide a strong foundation for more far-reaching future CBMs on land, while addressing pressing security, economic, and humanitarian needs at sea in the near-term. Although Indian and Pakistani maritime forces currently have stronger opportunities to cooperate with one another than their counterparts on land, reliable mechanisms to alleviate tension or promote operational coordination remain non-existent. Therefore, possible maritime CBMs, as well as pragmatic mechanisms to initiate and sustain cooperation, require serious examination. This report reflects the unique joint research undertaking of two retired Senior Naval Officers from both India and Pakistan, sponsored by the Cooperative Monitoring Center of the International Security Center at Sandia National Laboratories. Research focuses on technology as a valuable tool to facilitate confidence building between states having a low level of initial trust. Technical CBMs not only increase transparency, but also provide standardized, scientific means of interacting on politically difficult problems. Admirals Vohra and Ansari introduce technology as a mechanism to facilitate consistent forms of cooperation and initiate discussion in the maritime realm. They present technical CBMs capable of being acted upon as well as high-level political recommendations regarding the following issues: (1) Delimitation of the maritime boundary between India and Pakistan and its relationship to the Sir Creek dispute; (2) Restoration of full shipping links and the security of ports and cargos; (3) Fishing within

  6. Radon measurement studies in workplace buildings of the Rawalpindi region and Islamabad Capital area, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S.U.; Anwar, J. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Rafique, M. [Department of Physics, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan); Matiullah [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2010-02-15

    A survey concerning measurement of the indoor radon levels has been carried out in 105 workplaces of the Rawalpindi region and Islamabad Capital Territory using CR-39 based radon detectors. The main objective of this study was to assess the health hazard due to the indoor radon. CR-39 based NRPB type detectors were installed in offices/rooms located on first floors, ground floors and basements and were exposed to indoor radon for six months. The measured indoor radon concentration in the buildings surveyed ranged from 12 {+-} 5 to 293 {+-} 19 Bq m{sup -3} with an overall mean value of 64 {+-} 32 Bq m{sup -3}. The highest mean radon concentration (113 {+-} 48 Bq m{sup -3}) was observed in the offices located in basements of the Rawalpindi city. The overall average annual effective dose in the studied workplaces was estimated to be 0.61 {+-} 0.30 mSv. The mean annual effective doses in basements, ground floor and first floor were found to be 0.87 {+-} 0.34 mSv, 0.55 {+-} 0.28 mSv, and 0.47 {+-} 0.29 mSv, respectively. These values are less than the action level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  7. Work Measurement Techniques Utilized by The Building Industry in The Midlands Province Of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirivavi Moyo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Zimbabwean construction industry, both in the private and public sector, is characterized by cost and time overruns. Whilst the causes are innumerable, labour productivity control, through use of effective work measurement techniques, is paramount as labour constitutes a considerable portion of any construction project. It is therefore expedient that an investigation of the work measurement techniques utilized by the industry be undertaken. Focus was made on the Midlands province, it being resident to a considerable number of mining entities undergoing building construction growth momentum on the back of significant investments since 2009. The survey was undertaken through use of interview administered questionnaires on Construction Industry Federation of Zimbabwe registered companies that are resident in the province and on those that have undertaken or are undertaking construction projects within the same province. Construction companies in the Midlands province have overwhelmingly, albeit inappropriately, used the estimating technique as alluded to by 95% of the respondents. The outputs generated from use of this technique are significantly different from the actual outputs directly causing time overruns on the project sites. The other methods of time study at 33%, work sampling at 10% and synthesis at 5% have been sparingly utilized. The results from the use of time study and work sampling in combination with the estimating technique are within the allowable limits and hence these projects have no time overrun concerns emanating from the use of these techniques.

  8. Treatment Conditions of Building Wastes in China and Its Integrated Management Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dan; Zha Kun; Li Qibin

    2006-01-01

    The status of utilization and disposal of the building wastes are introduced on the basis of analysis of its compositions, generation and effects on urban environment. The basic framework of the integrated building waste management, including control of the sources, reduction of the integrated process and final disposal, are proposed in view of the problems existing in recovery of the building wastes and the experiences from the developed countries.

  9. Measurement of Moisture in Wood for Application in the Restoration of Old Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Moron; Luisa Garcia-Fuentevilla; Alfonso Garcia; Alberto Moron

    2016-01-01

    There are many historic buildings whose construction is based on timber frame walls. Most buildings built during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were based on timber frame walls with vertical support elements. These timber frame elements are affected by their moisture content and by the passage of time. If the interaction of the timber frame walls with hygrothermal fluctuations were known, the maintenance of these buildings could be improved significantly. To determine the moistu...

  10. Field Measurements of Water Supply and Drainage Noise in the Bathrooms of Korea’s Multi-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Seok Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, water supply and drainage noises result in one of the main noise complaints because more than 50% of people reside in multi-residential buildings. In this study, a series of field measurements were therefore carried out to examine the current noise situation. The noise levels were measured in the bathrooms of the upper and lower floors, as well as in habitable rooms. The measurement results for the bathrooms of the lower floor (N = 113 are 47.8 dBA (water closet, 42.7 dBA (basin, and 33.9 dBA (bathtub for water drainage, while values vary between 33.7 dBA and 37.0 dBA for the water supply. The results suggest that the water drainage noise needs to be controlled first. The system bathroom (42.8 dBA produced lower noise levels than the wet construction method (48.2 dBA for all of the sanitary wares. The highest noise levels in the living rooms (N = 11 and bedrooms (N = 8 of the lower floor are 34.3 dBA and 39.1 dBA, respectively. The average noise level in the rooms (N = 19 is 37.8 dBA. The overall result suggests that it is necessary to develop an acoustic guideline to satisfy the higher Class of the 2nd ISO/CD 19488, although the current noise level satisfies Class C (living room and Class D (bedroom.

  11. Customisation and Desirable Characteristics of a Standard Method of Measurement for Building Works in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study that identified andcategorised the modifications to the 5thEdition of the British Standard Method ofMeasurement (SMM5 of building works inGhana. Typical modifications involved ‘costinsignificant items’, ‘minor labour items’,‘custom units of measurement’, ‘methodrelated items’, ‘combinable items’,‘subordinate items’, and ‘items of minorinformative impact’. It was also observed thatthe desirable characteristics/ qualities ofstandard methods of measurement (SMM ofbuilding work were noteworthy, since theyprovide insight into the nature of a SMMrequired for the construction industry inGhana.The research reviewed available literature,various SMMs and bills of quantities (BQs.The relevance of the modifications andSMM characteristics identified wasconfirmed by a survey of the opinions ofprofessional quantity surveyors conductedthrough a carefully designed questionnaire.Inferences from the opinion survey formedthe basis for grouping both SMMmodifications found and the desired qualitiesof a SMM for Ghana.Survey respondents confirmed all theidentified modifications to the British SMM,except for the elimination of items of minorinformative impact. It was held that allinformation was relevant in measurement.Desirable characteristics of a SMM were ratedin decreasing order of relevance as: easylocation of items; cost significance; simplicity;thoroughness; ease of cost analysis; goodpractice; conciseness; adoptability; precision;industry practice; stakeholders’ opinion;custom classification; regional relevance; andinclusion of jargon. It was noted that therelevance of these characteristics may varyform one region to the other as a result oftechnological, cultural and legal differences.However, the desired SMM characteristicswere recommended as fundamental indeveloping an appropriate SMM for Ghana.

  12. Measuring the Actual Energy Cost Performance of Green Buildings: A Test of the Earned Value Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay N. Dwaikat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced energy consumption is a key aspect of the green building. Nonetheless, research indicates that there is a performance gap between the predicted and the actual energy performance once buildings are occupied, which implies a cost deviation from the anticipated energy cost performance. However, the cost deviation also might result from lower or higher energy rates than expected. As an appropriate research methodology for existing theory testing, case study research strategy was adopted to empirically examine the earned value management (EVM approach to measure the actual life cycle cost performance of energy in green buildings. With slight methodological and terminological adaptations, it is found that the EVM approach can be applied to conduct a holistic cost performance measurement of the actual energy consumption in green buildings. The strength of the earned value approach is that it allows for detecting whether the energy cost saving or overrun results from lower or higher energy consumption, or from actual energy rate variations. The earned value approach allows for quantifying each cost variance independently, which is a significant aspect of actual energy cost performance measurement in green buildings.

  13. Comparison of simplified and advanced building simulation tool with measured data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Schiønning, Peder; Dethlefsen, Espen

    2013-01-01

    In the future building design must progress to a format where CO 2 neutral societies are optimized as a whole and innovative technologies integrated. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the problems using a simplified design tool to simulate a complicated building and how this may not give...

  14. Computer simulation and measurements of a building with top-cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lain, M.; Bartak, M.; Drkal, F.; Hensen, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of computer simulations both for design support of a new building including its heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems and for optimization of the HVAC control strategy during operation of the completed building. In the early design phases for a new co

  15. Identifying the damping contribution of building components based on measured top vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, R.L.J. van den; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a damping model for a high-rise building is introduced. This model is used to investigate the possibilities to identify the relative damping contribution of the internal material damping in building elements, energy loss at element interfaces and energy outflow at the interface with t

  16. Computer simulation and measurements of a building with top-cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lain, M.; Bartak, M.; Drkal, F.; Hensen, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of computer simulations both for design support of a new building including its heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems and for optimization of the HVAC control strategy during operation of the completed building. In the early design phases for a new

  17. Development of an Online Toolkit for Measuring Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Performance -- Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na

    2013-03-13

    This study analyzes the market needs for building performance evaluation tools. It identifies the existing gaps and provides a roadmap for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a toolkit with which to optimize energy performance of a commercial building over its life cycle.

  18. Developing information-space Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) between India and Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamin, Tughral

    2014-06-01

    The Internet has changed the world in ways hitherto unknown. The international financial system, air, land and maritime transport systems are all digitally linked. Similarly most militaries are fully or partially networked. This has not only sped up the decision making processes at all levels, it has also rendered these systems vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Cyber-warfare is now recognized as the most potent form of non-kinetic war fighting. In order to prevent large scale network-attacks, cyber-powers are simultaneously spending a lot of time, money and effort to erect redundant cyber-defenses and enhancing their offensive cyber capabilities. Difficulties in creating a stable environment in information-space stem from differing national perceptions regarding the freedom of the Internet, application of international law and problems associated with attribution. This paper discusses a range of Confidence Building Measures that can be created between India and Pakistan in information-space to control malicious cyber behavior and avert an inadvertent war.

  19. A comparison of experimental methods for measuring water permeability of porous building rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvan, S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares different experimental methods for measuring water permeability in 17 different porous building rocks. Both commercial apparatus and specially made designed permeameters are used for characterising intrinsic permeability and hydraulic conductivity, k, of rocks in the range of 10−12 to 10−4 m/s (~ 10−19−10−11 m2 or ~ 10−4−104 mD. We use both falling head and constant head permeameter methods including the triaxial and modified triaxial tests and a classical constant head permeameter. Results showed that for very low and low permeability samples (k−6 m/s, triaxial conditions were found the most accurate procedures and they provided similar or slightly lower permeability values than constant and falling head methods. The latter techniques were highly recommended for permeable and high permeable porous building materials. Water permeability values were also linked to effective porosity and interpreted in terms of interparticle and vugs porosity. Finally, some modifications in the apparatus and procedures were carried out in order to assess water permeability in soft materials, which involve the use of non-saturated samples.Se comparan diferentes métodos experimentales para la medida de la permeabilidad al agua en rocas porosas usadas como material de construcción. Se usaron diferentes permeabilímetros, (comerciales y desarrollados específicamente empleando los métodos triaxial, triaxial modificado, carga constante y carga variable. Se caracterizó la permeabilidad intrínseca y conductividad hidráulica, k, con valores que var.an desde 10−12 a 10−4 m/s (~ 10−19−10−11 m2 or ~ 10−4−104 mD. Para muestras poco y muy poco permeables el ensayo con célula triaxial fue el mas reproducible. Los ensayos de carga constante son muy recomendables para rocas porosas de construcción permeables y muy permeables. Además, se definen los parámetros experimentales más apropiados para caracterizar la

  20. Measured Energy Savings from the Application of Reflective Roofs in 3 AT and T Regeneration Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashen; Rainer, Leo

    2000-11-01

    Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in three AT and T regeneration buildings during the summer of 2000. These buildings are constructed with concrete and are about 14.9 m2 (160 f2; 10x16 ft)in size. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. Then, the roofs of the buildings were painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original roof reflectances were about 26 percent; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72 percent. In two of these buildings, we monitored savings of about 0.5kWh per day (8.6 kWh/m2 [0.8 kWh/ft2]). The third building showed a reduction in air-conditioning energy use of about 13kWh per day. These savings probably resulted from the differences in the performance (EER) of the two dissimilar AC units in this building. The estimated annual savings for two of the buildings are about 125kWh per year; at a cost of dollar 0.1/kWh, savings are about dollar 12.5 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote location of the buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them with white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence the payback time for having reflective roofs is nil, and the reflective roofs save an accumulated 370kWh over 30 years of the life of the roof.

  1. Marginal costs of intensified energy-efficiency measures in residential buildings; Grenzkosten bei forcierten Energie-Effizienzmassnahmen in Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, M.; Jochem, E. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Zuerich (Switzerland); Kristen, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Architektur und Baurealisation, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    This detailed report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the large potential for increasing the energy efficiency of residential buildings in Switzerland. The aims of the research project are described including investigation of costs and marginal costs for thermal insulation and efficiency measures, the updating of technical parameters for cost - efficiency characteristics on an empirical basis, a transparent presentation of cost/benefit ratios for different concepts. Another aim is to obtain a more detailed overview of costs and benefits that could be of use for planners, building owners and technology companies. The methodology used for the collection of data for the study is described. The report also takes a look at the indirect advantages of improving the thermal insulation of buildings and examines the initial economic and technical situation. A detailed review of the costs and benefits is given for the various elements of a building such as walls, floors and windows and a reference development scenario for the period 2000 -2030 is presented. Marginal cost curves for various categories of buildings are presented for thermal insulation and ventilation measures.

  2. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials of Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India using gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravisankar, R; Vanasundari, K; Chandrasekaran, A; Rajalakshmi, A; Suganya, M; Vijayagopal, P; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2012-04-01

    The natural level of radioactivity in building materials is one of the major causes of external exposure to γ-rays. The primordial radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the radioactivity level in building materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the specific activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in commonly used building materials from Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India, using gamma-ray spectrometer. The radiation hazard due to the total natural radioactivity in the studied building materials was estimated by different approaches. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and the radium equivalent activity in studied samples were compared with the corresponding results of different countries. From the analysis, it is found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  3. Heat Loss Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a U-value Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    Heating of buildings in Denmark accounts for approximately 40% of the entire national energy consumption. For this reason, a reduction of heat losses from building envelopes are of great importance in order to reach the Bologna CO2 emission reduction targets. Upgrading of the energy performance...... of buildings is a topic of huge global interest these years. Not only heating in the temperate and arctic regions are important, but also air conditioning and mechanical ventilation in the tropical countries contribute to an enormous energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission. In order to establish...... of energy for heating and cooling of buildings. There is a huge energy-saving potential in this area for reducing both the global climate problems as well as economy challenges. In fact, global energy efficiency can be obtained in two ordinary ways. One way is to improve the energy production and supply...

  4. Technological Measures in Building Energy Efficiency Design%设计中的建筑节能技术措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲

    2013-01-01

      该文论述了建筑节能设计中的技术措施。在设计中通过节能技术措施,引入绿色天然的环保能源,减少对不可再生资源的损耗,以求实现建筑节能和可持续发展。%Technological measures in building energy efficiency design are elaborated. Green energy is introduced in the design to reduce the consumption of non-renewable resource and to achieve building energy efficiency and sustainable development.

  5. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials used in Urumqi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiang; Lu, Xinwei; Zhao, Caifeng; Yang, Guang; Li, Nan

    2013-07-01

    Building materials contain natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, which cause direct radiation exposure of the public. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in commonly used building materials of Urumqi, China have been analysed using gamma-ray spectrometry. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (40)K and (232)Th in the studied building materials range from 19.8 to 87.4, from 273.3 to 981.2 and from 11.6 to 47.7 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), gamma index (Iγ) and alpha index (Iα) were calculated to assess the radiation hazards to people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The calculated Raeq values of all the building materials are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1) for building materials. The values of Iγ and Iα of all the building materials are less than unity. The study shows that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  6. Highly-Damped Spectral Acceleration as a Ground Motion Intensity Measure for Estimating Collapse Vulnerability of Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyco, K.; Heaton, T. H.

    2016-12-01

    Current U.S. seismic code and performance-based design recommendations quantify ground motion intensity using 5%-damped spectral acceleration when estimating the collapse vulnerability of buildings. This intensity measure works well for predicting inter-story drift due to moderate shaking, but other measures have been shown to be better for estimating collapse risk.We propose using highly-damped (>10%) spectral acceleration to assess collapse vulnerability. As damping is increased, the spectral acceleration at a given period T begins to behave like a weighted average of the corresponding lowly-damped (i.e. 5%) spectrum at a range of periods. Weights for periods longer than T increase as damping increases. Using high damping is physically intuitive for two reasons. Firstly, ductile buildings dissipate a large amount of hysteretic energy before collapse and thus behave more like highly-damped systems. Secondly, heavily damaged buildings experience period-lengthening, giving further credence to the weighted-averaging property of highly-damped spectral acceleration.To determine the optimal damping value(s) for this ground motion intensity measure, we conduct incremental dynamic analysis for a suite of ground motions on several different mid-rise steel buildings and select the damping value yielding the lowest dispersion of intensity at the collapse threshold. Spectral acceleration calculated with damping as high as 70% has been shown to be a better indicator of collapse than that with 5% damping.

  7. Measurement and simulation of transparent building components with sun-shading; Messung und Simulation von transparenten Bauteilen mit Sonnenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmler, H.; Manz, H.; Haas, A. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Favarolo, P.A. [Universita Technica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy)

    2004-12-15

    This paper takes a look at the construction and simulation of modern office buildings that often feature lightweight construction and a high proportion of glazing or even double building skins completely made of glass. In particular, those thermal comfort and cooling aspects are discussed that require that the solar attributes of facade elements are taken into account. Work done at the Swiss Federal materials institute EMPA as part of the International Energy Agency's IEA Task 27 'Performance, durability and sustainability of advanced windows and solar components for building envelopes' is discussed. The properties of glazing and shading systems are presented and discussed. Results obtained by calculation are compared with those obtained from measurements. Modules for the calculation of the properties of glazing elements and their simulation are discussed, as are transparent insulation systems.

  8. Measurement and simulation of transparent building components with sun-shading; Messung und Simulation von transparenten Bauteilen mit Sonnenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmler, H.; Manz, H.; Haas, A. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Favarolo, P.A. [Universita Technica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy)

    2004-12-15

    This paper takes a look at the construction and simulation of modern office buildings that often feature lightweight construction and a high proportion of glazing or even double building skins completely made of glass. In particular, those thermal comfort and cooling aspects are discussed that require that the solar attributes of facade elements are taken into account. Work done at the Swiss Federal materials institute EMPA as part of the International Energy Agency's IEA Task 27 'Performance, durability and sustainability of advanced windows and solar components for building envelopes' is discussed. The properties of glazing and shading systems are presented and discussed. Results obtained by calculation are compared with those obtained from measurements. Modules for the calculation of the properties of glazing elements and their simulation are discussed, as are transparent insulation systems.

  9. Establishment of Passive Energy Conservation Measure and Economic Evaluation of Fenestration System in Nonresidential Building of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Eun Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ECO2 (building energy efficiency rating program and passive energy conservation measures (ECMs were established as a basic study for targeted methodologies and decision support systems development in Korea to meet national regulations. The primary energy consumption and economic evaluation of nonresidential buildings was performed. Passive ECMs were classified as planning and performance elements. The planning elements are the window-to-wall ratio (WWR and horizontal shading angle. The performance elements are the thermal transmittance (U-value of the walls, roof, and floor and the U-value and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC of windows. This study focused on the window-to-wall ratio and the U-value and solar heat gain coefficient of windows. An economic efficiency database for the constructed alternatives was built; the target building was set and the Passive ECM List for the target building was derived. The energy consumption evaluation and economic evaluation were performed for each of the constructed alternatives, and a methodology for guiding energy efficiency decisions was proposed based on the performance evaluation results, and the optimal Passive ECM List for the target building was derived.

  10. Structural Performance Assessment Based on Statistical and Wavelet Analysis of Acceleration Measurements of a Building during an Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the analysis of structural health monitoring (SHM system based on acceleration measurements during an earthquake. The SHM system is applied to assess the performance investigation of the administration building in Seoul National University of Education, South Korea. The statistical and wavelet analysis methods are applied to investigate and assess the performance of the building during an earthquake shaking which took place on March 31, 2014. The results indicate that (1 the acceleration, displacement, and torsional responses of the roof recording point on the top floor of the building are more dominant in the X direction; (2 the rotation of the building has occurred at the base recording point; (3 95% of the energy content of the building response is shown in the dominant frequency range (6.25–25 Hz; (4 the wavelet spectrum illustrates that the roof vibration is more obvious and dominant during the shaking; and (5 the wavelet spectrum reveals the elasticity responses of the structure during the earthquake shaking.

  11. Impact of Thermal Mass Oriented Measures Over CO2 Emissions Of a Thermally Insulated Lowrise Apartment Building in Izmir, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mümine Gerçek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has drawn the attention of many researchers and practitioners to focus on the methods to address the challenges in achieving low-carbon buildings and cities and in future developments. Nevertheless, few studies have explored the impacts of thermal mass applications for the lowest carbon emissions of building operational energy consumption. A comparative study of CO2 emissions due to different wall and floor compositions is presented in accordance with their lifespans for a hot-humid climate site. Aim of this study is to examine the relation between the energy oriented operations and carbon emissions of the building. Firstly, an existing low-rise building in İzmir is selected, then modelled in the dynamic simulation model software DesignBuilder v4 by synchronizing drawings with basic operational principles of the program. Furthermore, various influence factors of building envelope thermal characteristics are selected as follows: type, location, thickness and thermal specifications of materials used by keeping thermal conductivity value constant. At the end, the research presents remarkable influence of thermal mass oriented measures on reducing energy demands and carbon footprints.

  12. Building Scorecards in Academic Research Libraries: Performance Measurement and Organizational Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Lewis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper describes the experiences of four prominent North American research libraries as they implemented Balanced Scorecards as part of a one-year initiative facilitated by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL. The Balanced Scorecard is a widely accepted organizational performance model that ties strategy to performance in four areas: finance, learning and growth, customers, and internal processes.Methods – Four universities participated in the initiative: Johns Hopkins University, McMaster University, the University of Virginia, and the University of Washington. Each university sent a small group of librarians to develop their Scorecard initiatives and identified a lead member. The four teams met with a consultant and the ARL lead twice for face-to-face training in using the Scorecard. Participants came together during monthly phone calls to review progress and discuss next steps. Additional face-to-face meetings were held throughout the year in conjunction with major library conferences.Results – The process of developing the Scorecards included the following steps: defining a purpose statement, identifying strategic objectives, creating a strategy map, identifying measures, selecting appropriate measures, and setting targets. Many commonalities were evident in the four libraries’ slates of strategic objectives. There were also many commonalities among measures, although the number chosen by each institution varied significantly, from 26 to 48.Conclusion – The yearlong ARL initiative met its initial objectives. The four local implementations are still a work in progress, but the leads are fully trained and infrastructure is in place. Data is being collected, and the leadership teams are starting to see their first deliverables from the process. The high level of commonality between measures proposed at the four sites suggests that a standardized slate of measures is viable.

  13. 利用云计算建立进出口信息管理系统的探讨%Suggestion on Using Cloud Computing to Build Import and Export Information Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文雄; 杨灿荣

    2012-01-01

    本文建议国家相关主管部门建立基于云计算的进出口信息管理系统,按照国家对进出口信息系统管理的要求,将整个进出口企业、报关报检代理、海关、检验检疫、外汇管理部门、口岸办等各相关进出口职能部门的内部与外部数据库连接起来,随时掌握数据并实时更新,以利于进出口相关各个部门之间共享进出口的各项信息、密切合作,加强对进出口业务的管理,促进我国进出口贸易的发展。%This paper suggests the related departments should build cloud computing import and export information man- agement system and it should comply with our country's regulation. The internal and external database should be linked together, including the import and export enterprises, customs foreign exchange management, port office and other related partments on the share of the information, strengthen trade development in our country. inspection agents, customs, inspection and quarantine, departments. The update data would benefit the related de- management on the import and export enterprise and promote the

  14. Stiff Columns as Liquefaction Mitigation Measure for Retrofit of Existing Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Ahmed Almani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ground reinforcement with jet grouted columns under shallow foundations of existing buildings was analysed using numerical modelling. This study is related with ground reinforcement by installing stiff jet grouted columns around the shallow foundations of existing building when the foundation soil is liquefied during an earthquake. The isolated shallow square footing pad supporting a typical simple frame structure was constructed on the reinforced ground with stiff jet grouted column rows at the shallow depth from the ground surface. This soil-structure system was modelled and analyzed as plane-strain using the FLAC (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua 2D dynamic modelling and analysis software. The results showed that liquefaction-induced large settlement of shallow foundation of existing building can be reduced to tolerable limits by applying ground reinforcement with continuous rows vertical jet grouted columns adjacent to footing pad.

  15. Proxy measures of fitness suggest coastal fish farms can act as population sources and not ecological traps for wild gadoid fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Dempster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecological traps form when artificial structures are added to natural habitats and induce mismatches between habitat preferences and fitness consequences. Their existence in terrestrial systems has been documented, yet little evidence suggests they occur in marine environments. Coastal fish farms are widespread artificial structures in coastal ecosystems and are highly attractive to wild fish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate if coastal salmon farms act as ecological traps for wild Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and saithe (Pollachius virens, we compared proxy measures of fitness between farm-associated fish and control fish caught distant from farms in nine locations throughout coastal Norway, the largest coastal fish farming industry in the world. Farms modified wild fish diets in both quality and quantity, thereby providing farm-associated wild fish with a strong trophic subsidy. This translated to greater somatic (saithe: 1.06-1.12 times; cod: 1.06-1.11 times and liver condition indices (saithe: 1.4-1.8 times; cod: 2.0-2.8 times than control fish caught distant from farms. Parasite loads of farm-associated wild fish were modified from control fish, with increased external and decreased internal parasites, however the strong effect of the trophic subsidy overrode any effects of altered loads upon condition. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Proxy measures of fitness provided no evidence that salmon farms function as ecological traps for wild fish. We suggest fish farms may act as population sources for wild fish, provided they are protected from fishing while resident at farms to allow their increased condition to manifest as greater reproductive output.

  16. Hygrothermal evaluation of a museum storage building based on actual measurements and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Kollias, Christos Georgios

    2015-01-01

    environment facilities of a passive museum storage building in Vejle region in Denmark, are investigated. Results demonstrate that the weather conditions of the previous yearś considerably affect the indoor environment of the storage. What is more, concentrated dehumidification is a sufficient technique...

  17. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  18. Quantifying Littered Cigarette Butts to Measure Effectiveness of Smoking Bans to Building Perimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Christopher M.; Strack, Robert W.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Rosario, Carrie; Haugh, Christie; Rice, Rebecca; Wyrick, David L.; Wagner, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors estimated the number of violations of a university policy that prohibited smoking within 25 ft of all campus buildings. Participants: The project was conducted by 13 student researchers from the university and a member of the local public health department. Methods: Students quantified cigarette butts that were littered in a…

  19. Measured energy savings from the application of reflective roofsin 2 small non-residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2003-01-14

    Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in two small (14.9 m{sup 2}) non-residential buildings during the summer of 2000. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. The roofs of the buildings were then painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original solar reflectivities of the roofs were about 26%; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72%. The monitored electricity savings were about 0.5kWh per day (33 Wh/m2 per day). The estimated annual savings are about 125kWh per year (8.4 kWh/m2); at a cost of $0.1/kWh, savings are about $0.86/m2 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote locations of these buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them a white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence, a reflective roof saves energy at no incremental cost.

  20. Modelling Measured Deposition and Resuspension Rates of Particles in Animal Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Moser, A.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    on the surfaces is shown as a function of time. High contents of organic dust in animal buildings can affect the health of both people and animals. Deposition on indoor surfaces is an important removal mechanism to reduce the airborne particle concentration. As a basis to develop methods to eliminate dust related...

  1. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  2. What a New Energy Efficiency Measure for Commercial Buildings Means to You

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2016-12-19

    This article describes a new path for compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016. The new approach will lead to increased flexibility for designers, multiple uses for the same building energy models, increased recognition of energy saving design strategies, and lower energy modeling costs.

  3. Using Wireless Power Meters to Measure Energy Use of Miscellaneous and Electronic Devices in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA USA; Brown, Richard; Lanzisera, Steven; Cheung, Hoi Ying (Iris); Lai, Judy; Jiang, Xiaofan; Dawson-Haggerty, Stephen; Taneja, Jay; Ortiz, Jorge; Culler, David

    2011-05-24

    Miscellaneous and electronic devices consume about one-third of the primary energy used in U.S. buildings, and their energy use is increasing faster than other end-uses. Despite the success of policies, such as Energy Star, that promote more efficient miscellaneous and electronic products, much remains to be done to address the energy use of these devices if we are to achieve our energy and carbon reduction goals. Developing efficiency strategies for these products depends on better data about their actual usage, but very few studies have collected field data on the long-term energy used by a large sample of devices due to the difficulty and expense of collecting device-level energy data. This paper describes the development of an improved method for collecting device-level energy and power data using small, relatively inexpensive wireless power meters. These meters form a mesh network based on Internet standard protocols and can form networks of hundreds of metering points in a single building. Because the meters are relatively inexpensive and do not require manual data downloading, they can be left in the field for months or years to collect long time-series energy use data. In addition to the metering technology, we also describe a field protocol used to collect comprehensive, robust data on the miscellaneous and electronic devices in a building. The paper presents sample results from several case study buildings, in which all the plug-in devices for several homes were metered, and a representative sample of several hundred plug-in devices in a commercial office building were metered for several months.

  4. Data on comparison between FLEC and CLIMPAQ methods used for fast sorption measurements of VOCs on building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Rizk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A test emission chamber called CLIMPAQ has been coupled to a chromatography analyzer GC to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC concentration during a sorption experiments (Fast sorption measurements of VOCs on building materials: Part 2 – Comparison between FLEC and CLIMPAQ methods, (Rizk et al., In press [1]. The equations used to calculate the mass transfer coefficient and the thickness of the boundary layer developed on the surface of a material are presented. In addition, the experimental profiles obtained using the CLIMPAQ chamber is also presented in the presence and the absence of a building material. Finally, the impact of chamber size on the obtained concentration profile using different chambers is shown using 3 types of chambers having different volumes, 1 m3, 30 m3 and a micro chamber of 40 mL.

  5. Measurement of macrocyclic trichothecene in floor dust of water-damaged buildings using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry-dust matrix effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Rena; Park, Ju-Hyeong; LeBouf, Ryan; Green, Brett J; Park, Yeonmi

    2016-01-01

    Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used to detect fungal secondary metabolites. Detection of verrucarol, the hydrolysis product of Stachybotrys chartarum macrocyclic trichothecene (MCT), was confounded by matrix effects associated with heterogeneous indoor environmental samples. In this study, we examined the role of dust matrix effects associated with GC-MS/MS to better quantify verrucarol in dust as a measure of total MCT. The efficiency of the internal standard (ISTD, 1,12-dodecanediol), and application of a matrix-matched standard correction method in measuring MCT in floor dust of water-damaged buildings was additionally examined. Compared to verrucarol, ISTD had substantially higher matrix effects in the dust extracts. The results of the ISTD evaluation showed that without ISTD adjustment, there was a 280% ion enhancement in the dust extracts compared to neat solvent. The recovery of verrucarol was 94% when the matrix-matched standard curve without the ISTD was used. Using traditional calibration curves with ISTD adjustment, none of the 21 dust samples collected from water damaged buildings were detectable. In contrast, when the matrix-matched calibration curves without ISTD adjustment were used, 38% of samples were detectable. The study results suggest that floor dust of water-damaged buildings may contain MCT. However, the measured levels of MCT in dust using the GC-MS/MS method could be significantly under- or overestimated, depending on the matrix effects, the inappropriate ISTD, or combination of the two. Our study further shows that the routine application of matrix-matched calibration may prove useful in obtaining accurate measurements of MCT in dust derived from damp indoor environments, while no isotopically labeled verrucarol is available.

  6. Measure Guideline: Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2013-04-01

    This report was written as a resource for professionals involved in multifamily audits, retrofit delivery, and program design, as well as for building owners and contractors. It is intended to serve as a guide for those looking to evaluate and improve the efficiency and operation of one-pipe steam heating systems. In centrally heated multifamily buildings with steam or hydronic systems, the cost of heat for tenants is typically absorbed into the owner's operating costs. Highly variable and rising energy costs have placed a heavy burden on landlords. In the absence of well-designed and relevant efficiency efforts, increased operating costs would be passed on to tenants who often cannot afford those increases. Misinvestment is a common problem with older heating systems -- multiple contractors may inadequately or inappropriately upgrade parts of systems and reduce system functionality and efficiency, or the system has not been properly maintained.

  7. A Statistical Approach for Selecting Buildings for Experimental Measurement of HVAC Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowski Paweł

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a statistical methodology for selecting representative buildings for experimentally evaluating the performance of HVAC systems, especially in terms of energy consumption. The proposed approach is based on the k-means method. The algorithm for this method is conceptually simple, allowing it to be easily implemented. The method can be applied to large quantities of data with unknown distributions. The method was tested using numerical experiments to determine the hourly, daily, and yearly heat values and the domestic hot water demands of residential buildings in Poland. Due to its simplicity, the proposed approach is very promising for use in engineering applications and is applicable to testing the performance of many HVAC systems.

  8. Millimeter-wave radiometric measurements of a treeline and building for aircraft obstacle avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikner, David A.

    2003-08-01

    Passive millimeter-wave (MMW) imagers have the potential to be used on low-flying aircraft for terrain-following / terrain-avoidance during low-visibility conditions. This potential exists because of the inherent nature of MMW radiation that allows it to penetrate many visible and IR obscurants such as fog, clouds, and smoke. The phenomenology associated with this application, however, has not been fully explored. Specifically, the radiometric signatures of the various obstacles that might be encountered during a low-altitude flight need to be thoroughly understood. The work described in this paper explores the 93-GHz passive signature of a deciduous treeline and a concrete/glass building. The data were taken from the roof of a 4-story building to simulate the view of a low-flying aircraft. The data were collected over many months with an ARL-built Stokes-vector radiometer. This radiometer is a single-beam system that raster scans over a scene to collect a calibrated 93-GHz image. The data show the effects of weather and tree lifecycle on the 93-GHz brightness temperature contrast between the horizon sky and the obstacles. For the case of trees, it is shown that the horizon sky brightness temperature is greater than that of the trees when the leaves are on because of the reflective properties of the leaves. This made the trees quite detectable to our system during the late spring, summer, and early fall. Concrete buildings are inherently low-contrast obstacles because their vertical nature reflects the horizon behind the sensor and can easily mimic the forward horizon sky. Solar loading can have a large effect on building signatures.

  9. Some Suggestions and Measures for Computerized Ac- counting Teaching Reform%关于会计电算化课程教学改革的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦晓岚

    2014-01-01

    会计电算化是以培养具备扎实会计理论和会计电算化操作技术的应用型人才为教学目标的实践性学科。本文针对目前会计电算化课程中存在的课程结构设置不合理、教学模式落后、教学内容单调、讲师综合素质等方面问题进行分析,并提出了会计电算化课程教学改革的相关思考。%Accounting computerization is a practical discipline with the teaching goal of cultivating applied talents with solid ac-counting theory and accounting computerization operation tech-nology. This paper analyzed the problems of this course in cur-riculum structure setting, teaching model, teaching content and instructors' comprehensive quality, and then put forward some suggestions and measures for computerized accounting teaching reform.

  10. Suggestions for the New Social Entrepreneurship Initiative: Focus on Building a Body of Research-Proven Programs, Shown to Produce Major Gains in Education, Poverty Reduction, Crime Prevention, and Other Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible approach to implementing the Social Entrepreneurship initiative, focused on building a body of research-proven program models/strategies, and scaling them up, so as to produce major progress in education, poverty reduction, crime prevention, and other areas. The paper summarizes the rationale for this approach, then…

  11. Testing of the QUIC-plume model with wind-tunnel measurements for a high-rise building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M. D. (Michael D.); Brown, M. J. (Michael J.); Boswell, D. (David); Singh, B. (Balwinder); Pardyjak, E. M. (Eric M.)

    2004-01-01

    ), QUICPLUME, a model that describes dispersion near buildings (Williams et al., 2003), and a graphical user interface QUIC-GUI (Boswell et al., 2004). The QUIC dispersion code is currently being used for building scale to neighborhood scale transport and diffusion problems with domains on the order of several kilometers. Figure 1 illustrates the modeled dispersion for a release in downtown Salt Lake City. This paper describes the QUIC-PLUME randomwalk dispersion model formulation, the turbulence parameterization assumptions, and shows comparisons of model-computed concentration fields with measurements from a single-building wind-tunnel experiment. It is shown that the traditional three-term random walk model with a turbulence scheme based on gradients of the mean wind performs poorly for dispersion in the cavity of the single-building, and that model-experiment comparisons are improved significantly when additional drift terms are added and a non-local mixing scheme is implemented.

  12. On energy-saving technical measures in public buildings%公共建筑节能技术措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梅兰

    2012-01-01

    结合我国社会经济和能源可持续发展的战略,探讨了公共建筑节能技术措施,阐述了针对建筑的体型和朝向合理设计实现节能的方法,并着重介绍了智能光伏玻璃幕墙和光伏屋面两种新节能技术,以期指导实践。%Combining with the strategies for the social economy and resource sustainable development in China,the paper explores the energy-saving technical measures in the public buildings,illustrates the methods for realizing the energy-saving for the building styles and the reasonable designs,and introduces the intelligent photovoltaic glass curtain walls and photovoltaic roof,so as to direct the practice.

  13. Field measurements of perceived air quality and concentration of volatile organic compounds in four offices of the university building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Kabrhel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Field measurements of perceived air quality were conducted in four refurbished offices at the Czech Technical University in Prague. The offices were refurbished as part of the research project Clear-up to serve as a field test facility. The present paper describes measurements conducted...... to investigate the perceived air quality, sensory pollution load and concentration of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the offices. As the refurbishment comprised also installation of demand controlled ventilation (DCV), its influence on the perceived air quality was also tested. Measurements comprised...... the assessments of perceived air quality and objective measurements of operative temperature, relative humidity, CO2 and VOCs concentrations. Results showed that the mean sensory pollution load in unoccupied offices was 0.09 ± 0.01 olf/m2 (mean ± SEM). This falls into the category of a low-polluting building...

  14. Evaluation of accurate mass and relative isotopic abundance measurements in the LTQ-orbitrap mass spectrometer for further metabolomics database building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Heilier, Jean-François; Madalinski, Geoffrey; Genin, Eric; Ezan, Eric; Tabet, Jean-Claude; Junot, Christophe

    2010-07-01

    Recently, high-resolution mass spectrometry has been largely employed for compound identification, thanks to accurate mass measurements. As additional information, relative isotope abundance (RIA) is often needed to reduce the number of candidates prior to tandem MS(n). Here, we report on the evaluation of the LTQ-Orbitrap, in terms of accurate mass and RIA measurements for building further metabolomics spectral databases. Accurate mass measurements were achieved in the ppm range, using external calibration within 24 h, and remained at evaluated in different data sets. First of all, 137 solutions of commercial compounds were analyzed by flow injection analysis in both the positive and negative ion modes. It was found that the ion abundance was the main factor impacting the accuracy of RIA measurements. It was possible to define some intensity thresholds above which errors were systematically transmission between the LTQ ion trap and the Orbitrap analyzer on RIA measurement errors was found, whereas the reliability of RIA measurements was dramatically improved by reducing the mass detection window. It was also observed that the signal integration method had a significant impact on RIA measurement errors, with the most-reliable results being obtained with peak height integrations. Finally, automatic integrations using the data preprocessing software XCMS and MZmine gave results similar to those obtained by manual integration, suggesting that it is relevant to use the RIA information in automatic elemental composition determination software from metabolomic peak tables.

  15. A METHOD FOR MEASURING THE SENSITIVITY OF BUILDING STRUCTURAL MEMBERS TO FIRE DECAY PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gernay

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Firefighters face a major threat when intervening in a building during a fire: the possibility of structural collapse during the cooling phase of the fire, or soon thereafter. At present, this threat is amplified by the fact that the behaviour of structures after the time of peak gas temperature is not well understood, and is not taken into account in the design. This work presents an analysis of the behaviour of different structural members under natural fires, and develops a method for characterizing their sensitivity to fire decay phases. Thermo-mechanical numerical simulations based on the non-linear finite element method are conducted using the parametric fire model of the Eurocode to represent natural fires. The results show that, for all the members (a column, a beam and materials (reinforced concrete, steel and timber that are studied here, structural failure during or after the cooling phase of a fire is a possible event. The major factors that promote delayed structural failure are thermal inertia and the constituting material of the member. A method, based on a new indicator, is proposed for quantifying the propensity to delayed failure for structural members under natural fire. This work enhances the understanding of the behaviour of structures under natural fires, and has important implications for the safety of fire brigades and of people responsible for making a building inspection after a fire.

  16. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  17. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  18. 关于科学构建中国原料奶定价机制的探讨%Policy Suggestions to Build China' s Raw Milk Pricing Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东杰

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at China's raw milk prices' fluctuate condition, this study would pay attention to discuss the pricing mechanism of raw milk in United States, Japan, The European Union. At the same time, there would be different measures in Shanghai and Heilongjiang. According to China's raw milk of the specific conditions of the market, and there put forward some suggestions, the government should led raw milk pricing mechanism and made production plan established the pricing system for quality, did the work of cost investigation, monitoring and warning, supervision and inspection, etc.%针对中国原料奶价格不断波动的情况,本研究集中探讨了美国、日本、欧盟以及国内的上海和黑龙江在原料奶定价机制方面的做法和经验.认为:中国原料奶定价机制的构建应该以政府主导制定生产计划,建立按质定价体系,做好成本调查、监测预警和监督检查等工作.

  19. Description and testing of three moisture sensors for measuring surface wetness on carbonate building stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, R.B.; Reddy, M.M.; Martin, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Three moisture sensors were tested as a means for determining the surface wetness on carbonate building stones exposed to conditions that produce deposition of moisture. A relative-humidity probe, a gypsum-coated circuit grid, and a limestone-block resistor were tested as sensors for determining surface wetness. Sensors were tested under laboratory conditions of constant relative humidity and temperature and also under on-site conditions of variable relative humidity and temperature for eight weeks at Newcomb, NY. Laboratory tests indicated that relative humidity alone did not cause sensors to become saturated with water. However, the rates of drying indicated by the sensors after an initial saturation were inversely related to the relative humidity. On-site testing of the relative-humidity probe and the gypsum-coated ciruit grid indicated that they respond to a diurnal wetting and drying cycle; the limestone-block resistor responded only to rainfall.

  20. Simulation of Electron-Cloud Build-Up for the Cold Arcs of the LHC and Comparison with Measured Data

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, H; Rumolo, G; Tavian, L; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    The electron cloud generated by synchrotron radiation or residual gas ionization is a concern for LHC operation and performance. We report the results of simulations studies which examine the electron cloud build-up, at injection energy, 3.5 TeV for various operation parameters. In particular, we determine the value of the secondary emission yield corresponding to the multipacting threshold, and investigate the electron density, and heat as a function of bunch intensity for dipoles and field-free regions. We also include a comparison between simulations results and measured heat-load data from the LHC scrubbing runs in 2011.

  1. Water Resources Security and Its Countermeasure Suggestions in Building Silk Road Economic Belt%丝绸之路经济带建设中的水资源安全问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭利丹; 周海炜; 夏自强; 黄峰; 鄢波

    2015-01-01

    The strategy of Silk Road Economic Belt brings about both opportunities of social-economic development and regional cooperation for countries along this belt, and many potential constraints and challenges. Water resources safety is one of strategic and prospective issues in promoting the economic belt construction, which should be paid high attention to. In this study, some key regions involved in the economic belt, including Northwest China, Central Asia and West Asia, were selected as the cases. And in-depth analyses of water resources security problems, including water distribution, water demand and environmental conditions, and transboundary water disputes and cooperation practices of these tranboundary basins had been conducted. To solve these water problems in the construction process of economic belt, and on the basis of experiences and lessons learned from transboundary river management in Central Asia and West Asia regions, countermeasure suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of strategic layout for Chinese government and policy-making sectors. The territorial scope linked to the Silk Road Economic Belt extends far beyond the scope of a specific tranboundary river basin, and so countries along the belt are facing with more complex and multiple constraints of water security problem. China should develop a strategic framework of water resources to coordinate development with neighboring countries in Central Asia, which should be followed with a propose to build water cooperation corridor in the economic belt along the Silk Road, in order to improve transboundary water cooperation mechanism to strengthen regional cooperation in water resources. Besides, the support system of the water resources security should be improved by focusing on strengthening critical technology research and information monitoring of regional co-development of water resources and protection.%“丝绸之路经济带”的战略构想既为沿线国家带来了经济社

  2. Energy Prediction versus Energy Performance of Green Buildings in Malaysia. Comparison of Predicted and Operational Measurement of GBI Certified Green Office in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Suzaini M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forward from the sustainability agenda of Brundtland in 1987 and the increasing demand for energy efficient buildings, the building industry has taken steps in meeting the challenge of reducing its environmental impact. Initiatives such as ‘green’ or ‘sustainable’ design have been at the forefront of architecture, while green assessment tools have been used to predict the energy performance of building during its operational phase. However, there is still a significant hap between predicted or simulated energy measurements compared to actual operational energy consumption, or is more commonly referred as the ‘performance gap’. This paper tries to bridge this gap by comparing measured operational energy consumption of a Green Building Index (GBI certified office building in Kuala Lumpur, with its predicted energy rating qualification.

  3. Methane emission from naturally ventilated livestock buildings can be determined from gas concentration measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, B; Zhang, Guoqiang; Madsen, J

    2012-01-01

    in the openings is avoided; however, there are still some important issues remained unanswered: (1) the precision of the estimations, (2) the requirement for the length of measuring periods, and (3) the required measuring point number and location. The purpose of this work was to investigate how estimated average...

  4. The effect of optical anisotropies on building glass façades and its measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Illguth

    2015-06-01

    Furthermore a method for the quantitative measurement of anisotropies is proposed and prescribed in detail. This method can assist in the quality assurance process. Measurements are showing that probably the best tempered glass offers slight anisotropies and that under unfavorable conditions these anisotropies can become evident.

  5. Building capacity for national carbon measurements for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N.; Horning, N.; Pelletier, J.; Jantz, P.; Ndunda, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many tropical countries are now working on developing their strategies for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, including activities that result in conservation or enhancement of forest carbon stocks and sustainable management of forests to effectively decrease atmospheric carbon emissions (i.e. REDD+). A new international REDD+ agreement is at the heart of recent negotiations of the parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). REDD+ mechanisms could provide an opportunity to not only diminish an important source of emissions, but also to promote large-scale conservation of tropical forests and establish incentives and opportunities to alleviate poverty. Most tropical countries still lack basic information for developing and implementing their forest carbon stock assessments, including the extent of forest area and the rate at which forests are being cleared and/or degraded, and the carbon amounts associated with these losses. These same countries also need support to conduct integrated assessments of the most promising approaches for reducing emissions, and in identifying those policy options that hold the greatest potential while minimizing potential negative impacts of REDD+ policies. The WHRC SERVIR project in East Africa is helping to provide these data sets to countries via best practice tools and methods to support cost effective forest carbon monitoring solutions and more informed decision making processes under REDD+. We will present the results of our capacity building activites in the region and planned future efforts being coordinated with the NASA-SERVIR Hub in Kenya to support to REDD+ decision support.

  6. Modal Parameters Estimation of Building Structures from Vibration Test Data Using Observability Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seung Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The load distribution to each mode of a structure under seismic loading depends on the modal participation factors and mode shapes and thus the exact estimation of modal participation factors and mode shapes is essential to analyze the seismic response of a structure. In this study, an identification procedure for modal participation factors and mode shapes from a vibration test is proposed. The modal participation factors and mode shapes are obtained from the relationship between observability matrices realized from the system identification. Using the observability matrices, it is possible to transform an arbitrarily identified state space model obtained from the experimental data into a state space model which is defined in a domain with physical meaning. Then, the modal participation factor can be estimated based on the transformation matrix between two state space models. The numerical simulation is performed to evaluate the proposed procedure, and the results show that the modal participation factor and mode shapes are estimated from the structural responses accurately. The procedure is also applied to the experimental data obtained from the shaking table test of a three-story shear building model.

  7. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station installed on buildings in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Slavkovic, Vladimir; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar

    2016-03-01

    As a result of dense deployment of public mobile base stations, additional electromagnetic (EM) radiation occurs in the modern human environment. At the same time, public concern about the exposure to EM radiation emitted by such sources has increased. In order to determine the level of radio frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive EM field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations, from which 276 locations refer to the case of base stations with antenna system installed on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (42 %) of locations with installations on buildings, as well as the inevitable presence of people in their vicinity, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed. Measurement results showed that the maximum recorded value of total electric field strength has exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection general public exposure reference levels at 2.5 % of locations and Serbian national reference levels at 15.6 % of locations. It should be emphasised that the values exceeding the reference levels were observed only outdoor, while in indoor total electric field strength in no case exceeded the defined reference levels.

  8. The challenge of measuring emergency preparedness: integrating component metrics to build system-level measures for strategic national stockpile operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian A; Faith, Kay Sullivan

    2013-02-01

    Although significant progress has been made in measuring public health emergency preparedness, system-level performance measures are lacking. This report examines a potential approach to such measures for Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) operations. We adapted an engineering analytic technique used to assess the reliability of technological systems-failure mode and effects analysis-to assess preparedness. That technique, which includes systematic mapping of the response system and identification of possible breakdowns that affect performance, provides a path to use data from existing SNS assessment tools to estimate likely future performance of the system overall. Systems models of SNS operations were constructed and failure mode analyses were performed for each component. Linking data from existing assessments, including the technical assistance review and functional drills, to reliability assessment was demonstrated using publicly available information. The use of failure mode and effects estimates to assess overall response system reliability was demonstrated with a simple simulation example. Reliability analysis appears an attractive way to integrate information from the substantial investment in detailed assessments for stockpile delivery and dispensing to provide a view of likely future response performance.

  9. Cartilage formation measured by a novel PIINP assay suggests that IGF-I does not stimulate but maintains cartilage formation ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, S H; Sondergaard, B C; Jensen, Anne-Christine Bay;

    2009-01-01

    . Proteoglycan levels retained in the explants after 22 days of culture were extracted and measured by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) assay. RESULTS: In the absence of stimulation, PIINP markedly decreased as a function of time (99.4%, p collagen formation...... explants were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM):F12 in the presence of 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 ng/mL of IGF-I. The viability of the chondrocytes was measured by the colorimetric Alamar blue assay. Collagen formation was assessed from the conditioned medium by the PIINP assay...

  10. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency improvement...

  11. Measurement of color in different construction materials. The restoration in sandstone buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Pascua, N.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of construction materials and their subsequent repair purposes include a search of knowledge and preservation of their original appearance. For this reason, the main aim of this study is to determine a color range which does not change with the possible actions on a building, both when restoration works which imply the use and repair of "ancient" materials are carried out, and when construction is carried out with new materials. It is necessary to obtain the quantification of this property in order to check its variation over the passage of time. Each construction material must be taken into account as an isolated problem, since the color is different in each case.

    El empleo de materiales de construcción y la aplicación sobre ellos de productos de reparación requiere un detallado estudio sobre su forma de actuación y la importancia de la conservación del aspecto original de los mismos. Por este motivo, el objetivo principal de este estudio es el determinar un intervalo de color que se conserve a pesar de todas las posibles intervenciones que se acometan en el edificio, tanto cuando se realizan trabajos de restauración, que implican el uso y reparación de materiales "viejos", o bien cuando se llevan a cabo trabajos de construcción con materiales nuevos. Es necesario cuantificar dicha propiedad para poder controlar el paso del tiempo. Cada material de construcción debe ser considerado como un problema aislado, ya que el color es distinto en cada caso.

  12. [Building artificial neural networks model on portable NIR integrity wheat component measuring apparatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hai-yan; Wen, Ming; Hao, Bin

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative analysis model of protein in integrity wheat was built by three layers back propagation artificial neural networks for portable near infrared (NIR) integrity wheat component measuring apparatus. The structure diagram of integrity wheat component measuring apparatus, light route structure of apparatus and the spectrum of integrity wheat were given in the present paper. The theory of artificial neural network was briefly introduced and the results of quantitative analysis model of protein were given. For calibration set and prediction set, the correlation coefficient was 0.90 and 0.96 respectively; the relative standard deviation is 3.77% and 4.46% respectively. Because of the influence of light route structure, electrical circuit, and integrity sample forms on the measuring apparatus, some nonlinearity exists between the spectral parameters and chemical values. The results of artificial neural networks nonlinear model were superior to linear model.

  13. Improved Thermal Transmittance Measurement with HFM Technique on Building Envelopes in the Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aversa Patrizia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the designed theoretical value of U can be derived from the thermal parameters of layers composing an opaque element, according to ISO 6946:2007, measurements are necessary to confirm the expected behaviour. Currently, the measurements of thermal transmittance based on Heat Flow Meter method (HFM and according to standard ISO 9869-1:2014 are widely accepted. Anyway, some issues related to difficulties in measurements are present: the roughness of wall surfaces, the proper contact between the heat flow plate and the temperature probes with wall surfaces, undesired changes in weather conditions. This work presents the results obtained in thermal transmittance measurements with a modified HFM method, widely described in this paper. Differences between U-values obtained with the modified HFM method and theoretical ones were in the range 0.6 - 6.5 %. Moreover, the modified HFM method provided a result closer to the theoretical one, when compared to that obtained with standard HFM method (discrepancy with theoretical value were 0.6% and 16.4%, respectively.

  14. Variable volume loading method: a convenient and rapid method for measuring the initial emittable concentration and partition coefficient of formaldehyde and other aldehydes in building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jianyin; Yan, Wei; Zhang, Yinping

    2011-12-01

    The initial emittable formaldehyde and VOC concentration in building materials (C(0)) is a key parameter for characterizing and classifying these materials. Various methods have been developed to measure this parameter, but these generally require a long test time. In this paper we develop a convenient and rapid method, the variable volume loading (VVL) method, to simultaneously measure C(0) and the material/air partition coefficient (K). This method has the following features: (a) it requires a relatively short experimental time (less than 24 h for the cases studied); and (b) is convenient for routine measurement. Using this method, we determined C(0) and K of formaldehyde, propanal and hexanal in one kind of medium density fiberboard, and repeated experiments were performed to reduce measurement error. In addition, an extended-C-history method is proposed to determine the diffusion coefficient and the convective mass transfer coefficient. The VVL method is validated by comparing model predicted results based on the determined parameters with experimental data. The determined C(0) of formaldehyde obtained via this method is less than 10% of the total concentration using the perforator method recommended by the Chinese National Standard, suggesting that the total concentration may not be appropriate to predict emission characteristics, nor for material classification.

  15. Energy use in low-energy and passive buildings: A comparison of predicted and measured energy; Energibruk i lavenergi- og passivbygg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langseth, Benedicte; Everett, Emilie Naerum; Havskjold, Monica

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to get a better view of the real energy use in low-energy and passive buildings in relation to what is intended in the design phase.There is obtained 64 observations of expected and measured energy use in low-energy and passive buildings. Some of these observations are the average of several homes in the same field. There have been some difficulties to obtain information on energy use in Norwegian buildings. This is partly because there are few such buildings in Norway so far, it has not been a focus on energy monitoring, and partly that some building owners have not wanted to give up information.The data show that the measured energy use in buildings, on average, is higher than expected energy consumption. There are some very large differences between expected and measured energy use, both in terms of energy for heating and total energy consumption. In addition, there is big variation in the differences - some observations have almost no difference, others have large positive deviations while others have large negative deviation.There are five main reasons for discrepancies that go on in our findings, these are: errors in building body, faulty technical equipment, improper design of the building, higher indoor temperatures than expected, and improper use of the building. The first three reasons should be relatively easy to reduce the impact of, through increased training and knowledge of the developer, better monitoring of energy use, and especially the communication between the developer and the residents / operator. Many of them Xrgia have been in contact with think they could build 'correct' at the next opportunity. For the last two reasons, indoor temperature and the use of the building, this will be largely dependent on the individual. Data show that more than one building with the same expected energy consumption can have significant variations in measured energy use. Our conclusion is that the use of the building is

  16. Suggestion of Policy and Measurement in Nutritional Improvement in China%我国未来营养改善的策略与措施建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兵; 张伋; 翟凤英; 张继国; 杜文雯; 王惠君; 苏畅; 刘爱东; 王志宏; 黄辉; 周蕊

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition not only illustrates health status of the residents, but also affects manpower for economic development. China is in a critical period of economic development, however, nutritional status of residents will not improve with economic development, and nutritional deficiencies and over-nutrition will not disappear and effective strategies and measures need to be taken to ensure nutrition and health of residents develop in good direction. Short and long term nutritional goals, strategies, and measures need to be established in China according to different stages and needs.%营养问题不仅关系居民的健康,也影响经济发展的人力资源质量.我国正处在经济发展的关键时期,居民的营养状况并不会因为经济的发展而自然改善,营养缺乏和营养过剩问题也不会自己消失,需要采取有效策略和措施,才能保证居民营养与健康状况向着良好的方向发展.国家需要根据发展的不同阶段和需求,确立近期和远期的营养目标、策略和措施.

  17. Measurements of Hard X-Ray Emission Suggest Absorption Along the Path of the Inner Beams in High Foot Implosion Experiments on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Joseph; Pak, Arthur; Otto, Landen; Kritcher, Andrea; Ma, Tammy; Charles, Jarrott; Callahan, Debra; Hinkel, Denise; Berzak Hopkins, Laura; Moody, John; Khan, Shahab; Doeppner, Tilo; Rygg, Ryan; Hurricane, Omar

    2016-10-01

    The current high foot hohlraum design fielded on the National Ignition Facility is aimed at providing uniform x-ray drive to provide a spherical implosion by lowering the gas fill from 1.6 to 0.6 mg/cc and increasing the hohlraum width from 5.75 to 6.72 mm while maintaining the same 1.8 mm capsule diameter from previous designs. These changes are intended to improve beam propagation without the need for crossed beam energy transfer. Analysis of the measurements of hard x-ray emission from the gated x-ray detector (GXD) and the static x-ray imager (SXI) looking through the laser entrance hole indicate a significant fraction of the inner beam incident energy is absorbed in the high z blow-off region (either uranium or gold) before reaching the inner wall near the equator. Comparison of inner beam absorption in this region and its effect on the implosion symmetry measurements will be presented. Additionally, the sensitivity of this absorption feature and therefore the implosion symmetry to the pulse shape, hohlraum fill pressure and fraction of energy in beams depositing energy at the hohlraum equator will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Introducing Explorer of Taxon Concepts with a case study on spider measurement matrix building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hong; Xu, Dongfang; Chong, Steven S; Ramirez, Martin; Rodenhausen, Thomas; Macklin, James A; Ludäscher, Bertram; Morris, Robert A; Soto, Eduardo M; Koch, Nicolás Mongiardino

    2016-11-17

    Taxonomic descriptions are traditionally composed in natural language and published in a format that cannot be directly used by computers. The Exploring Taxon Concepts (ETC) project has been developing a set of web-based software tools that convert morphological descriptions published in telegraphic style to character data that can be reused and repurposed. This paper introduces the first semi-automated pipeline, to our knowledge, that converts morphological descriptions into taxon-character matrices to support systematics and evolutionary biology research. We then demonstrate and evaluate the use of the ETC Input Creation - Text Capture - Matrix Generation pipeline to generate body part measurement matrices from a set of 188 spider morphological descriptions and report the findings. From the given set of spider taxonomic publications, two versions of input (original and normalized) were generated and used by the ETC Text Capture and ETC Matrix Generation tools. The tools produced two corresponding spider body part measurement matrices, and the matrix from the normalized input was found to be much more similar to a gold standard matrix hand-curated by the scientist co-authors. Special conventions utilized in the original descriptions (e.g., the omission of measurement units) were attributed to the lower performance of using the original input. The results show that simple normalization of the description text greatly increased the quality of the machine-generated matrix and reduced edit effort. The machine-generated matrix also helped identify issues in the gold standard matrix. ETC Text Capture and ETC Matrix Generation are low-barrier and effective tools for extracting measurement values from spider taxonomic descriptions and are more effective when the descriptions are self-contained. Special conventions that make the description text less self-contained challenge automated extraction of data from biodiversity descriptions and hinder the automated reuse of the

  19. Dilated Chi-Square : a novel interestingness measure to build accurate and compact decion list

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Yu; Janssens, Davy; Chen, Guoqing; Wets, Geert

    2005-01-01

    Associative classification has aroused significant attention in recent years. This paper proposed a novel interestingness measure, named dilated chi-square, to statistically reveal the interdependence between the antecedents and the consequent of classificaton rules. Using dilated chi-square, instead of confidence, as the primary ranking criterion for rules under the framework of popular CBA algorithm, the adapted algorithm presented in this paper can empirically generate more accurate and mu...

  20. 浅谈节能建筑设计措施%Discuss the Energy Efficient Measures of Building Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春云

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the society, people’s req-uirements for construction in constant growth, and the energy consumption of building is also increasing. People must dev-elop the energy conservation and environmental protection technology so as to make the energy conservation and environ-mental protection of our country into a new level. This article mainly introduces the residential building energy saving design measures in hot summer and warm winter area in China.%随着社会的发展,人们对建筑要求在不断的增长,建筑能耗也在不断的增加。我们必须大力发展节能环保技术,以便使我国节能环保进入一个新的水平。本文主要介绍了在我国夏热冬暖地区,居住建筑节能设计的一些措施。

  1. Theories of Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W

    1928-02-01

    The word "suggestion" has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence.Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena.The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability.Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct "inhibited in its aim" (transference) and brings in his distinction of "ego" and "ego-ideal" (or "super-ego") to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible.

  2. Building a measure of fatigue: the functional assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eleanor; Lai, Jin-Shei; Cella, David

    2010-05-01

    The shared goal of all clinical disciplines is to optimize the well-being of people who become patients and find themselves diminished by illness and recovery. This goal relies on sound tools to evaluate both real and perceived deficits in a way that can be used for a particular patient over time and also across medical disciplines and patient populations. Fatigue is a critical and notoriously subjective aspect of many illnesses. Although the soundness of research is often correlated with the objectivity of data, certain clinical measures must, by definition, be patient centered, with all the complexities and challenges of patient-reported evaluations. Measurement of fatigue has been an important and evolving component of symptom management in the field of oncology. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Scale is a self-administered fatigue-assessment tool that has found wide application across diverse medical fields and that has demonstrated validity and utility across a broad range of populations. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Scale has become one in a repository of tools in the item banks that are accumulating under the auspices of The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, a National Institutes of Health initiative to deploy the most clinically relevant and technologically agile tools that we have to advance research in medicine and patient care. As much as with any other discipline, physical medicine and rehabilitation stands to gain from the collective knowledge and creative horizons in the assessment and treatment of fatigue. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of internal building mass for room temperature measurements; Gebruik van interne gebouwmassa voor metingen kamertemperatuur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindhe, J. [Sydtotal, Malmoe (Sweden); Johansson, D. [Research and Development, Swegon AB, Tomelilla (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The indoor temperature is an important parameter for indoor comfort. Therefore, the indoor temperature is always measured during field tests related to the indoor environment of a house. Sometimes the daily average air temperature is of interest and sometimes it is the daily average operational temperature. [Dutch] De binnentemperatuur is een belangrijke parameter voor het binnencomfort. Daarom moet de binnentemperatuur altijd worden gemeten tijdens veldonderzoeken die gerelateerd zijn aan het binnenklimaat van een willekeurig huis. Soms is de dagelijkse gemiddelde luchttemperatuur van belang en soms de dagelijkse gemiddelde operatieve temperatuur.

  4. Understanding Solar Induced Fluorescence: Building up from Leaf Scale Measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J. A.; Van der Tol, C.; Frankenberg, C.; Joiner, J.; Guanter, L.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence have long been a key method for probing the mechanisms of photosynthesis in laboratory studies. Recent advances in satellite spectroscopy have enabled retrieval of chlorophyll fluorescence from terrestrial ecosystems at a global scale. Analyses of these retrievals show promising potential as an indicator of photosynthetic rate and of its response to environmental stress. This talk will explore the mechanistic basis for interpreting and modeling of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence ( SIF). SIF is essentially a leak of photons from photosynthetic membranes, and it is, therefore, related to the flux of photons absorbed by chlorophyll and to biochemical processes that regulate the processing of these photons in macromolecuar complexes associated with photosystem II. Thus: SIF = aPAR * φF, where aPAR is the flux of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and φF, is the yield (light-use efficiency) of fluorescence. (For simplicity we will ignore the transport of fluorescence from its sources to the sensor for the moment). This expression for SIF is similar to a common expression for photosynthesis or gross primary productivity, GPP = aPAR * LUE, where LUE, is the light-use-efficiency for CO2 uptake. These equations can be combined and simplified to illustrate the relationship between SIF and GPP; GPP =SIF *LUE / φF. The extent to which GPP is proportional to SIF hinges on the stability of the ratio, LUE / φF, and it leads to the key question to be considered here. What is the relationship between the light-use-efficiency for photosynthesis and that for fluorescence? Satellite retrievals of SIF occur at mid-day, conditions where the capacity for CO2 fixation usually limits the rate of photosynthesis. Under this condition the rate of the photo-acts must be down-regulated to protect from photo-damage. This balancing the source with the sink is accomplished by opening non-photochemical trapping centers that compete with

  5. A novel method for measuring the diffusion, partition and convective mass transfer coefficients of formaldehyde and VOC in building materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyin Xiong

    Full Text Available The diffusion coefficient (D(m and material/air partition coefficient (K are two key parameters characterizing the formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOC sorption behavior in building materials. By virtue of the sorption process in airtight chamber, this paper proposes a novel method to measure the two key parameters, as well as the convective mass transfer coefficient (h(m. Compared to traditional methods, it has the following merits: (1 the K, D(m and h(m can be simultaneously obtained, thus is convenient to use; (2 it is time-saving, just one sorption process in airtight chamber is required; (3 the determination of h(m is based on the formaldehyde and VOC concentration data in the test chamber rather than the generally used empirical correlations obtained from the heat and mass transfer analogy, thus is more accurate and can be regarded as a significant improvement. The present method is applied to measure the three parameters by treating the experimental data in the literature, and good results are obtained, which validates the effectiveness of the method. Our new method also provides a potential pathway for measuring h(m of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC by using that of VOC.

  6. Suggested safeguards an

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    ... COORDINATION. (FACILITATION OR CASE MANAGEMENT) IN SOUTH AFRICA ... SUGGESTED SAFEGUARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE AND .... professional practice.27 They have to assess the situation; educate the parents.

  7. Building America Case Study: Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    This guide provides information and recommendations to the following groups: Insulation contractors, General contractors, Builders, Home remodelers, Mechanical contractors, and Homeowners as a guide to the work that needs to be done. The order of work completed during home construction and retrofit improvements is important. Health and safety issues must be addressed first and are more important than durability issues. And durability issues are more important than saving energy. Not all techniques can apply to all houses. Special conditions will require special action. Some builders or homeowners will wish to do more than the important but basic retrofit strategies outlined by this guide. The following are best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and home builders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant items were discussed with the group which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane: 4. Horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible 5. Where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials 6. Frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation Section 5 of this measure guideline contains the detailed construction procedure for the three recommended methods to effectively seal the joints in exterior insulating sheathing to create a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane.

  8. Field measurement of the interactions between heat pumps and attic duct systems in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modera, M.P.; Jump, D.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1994-11-01

    Research efforts to improve residential heat-pump performance have tended to focus on laboratory and theoretical studies of the machine itself, with some limited field research having been focused on in-situ performance and installation issues. One issue that has received surprisingly little attention is the interaction between the heat pump and the duct system to which it is connected. This paper presents the results of a field study that addresses this interaction. Field performance measurements before and after sealing and insulating the duct systems were made on three heat pumps. From the pre-retrofit data it was found that reductions in heat-pump capacity due to low outdoor temperatures and/or coil frosting are accompanied by lower duct-system energy delivery efficiencies. The conduction loss reductions, and thus the delivery temperature improvements, due to adding duct insulation were found to vary widely depending on the length of the particular duct section, the thermal mass of that duct section, and the cycling characteristics of the heat-pump. In addition, it was found that the use of strip-heat back-up decreased after the retrofits, and that heat-pump cycling increased dramatically after the retrofits, which respectively increase and decrease savings due to the retrofits. Finally, normalized energy use for the three systems which were operated consistently pre- and post-retrofit showed an average reduction of 19% after retrofit, which corresponds to a chance in overall distribution-system efficiency of 24%.

  9. Building America Case Study: Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    This guide provides information and recommendations to the following groups: Insulation contractors, General contractors, Builders, Home remodelers, Mechanical contractors, and Homeowners as a guide to the work that needs to be done. The order of work completed during home construction and retrofit improvements is important. Health and safety issues must be addressed first and are more important than durability issues. And durability issues are more important than saving energy. Not all techniques can apply to all houses. Special conditions will require special action. Some builders or homeowners will wish to do more than the important but basic retrofit strategies outlined by this guide. The following are best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and home builders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant items were discussed with the group which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane: 4. Horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible 5. Where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials 6. Frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation Section 5 of this measure guideline contains the detailed construction procedure for the three recommended methods to effectively seal the joints in exterior insulating sheathing to create a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane.

  10. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  11. Development of a methodology for selecting office building upgrading solutions based on a test survey in European buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittchen, K.B.; Brandt, E. [Danish Building and Urban Research, Horsholm (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The potential for using the TOBUS methodology to select office building upgrading solutions have been investigated during field tests in 15 European office buildings in 5 European countries. The 15 office buildings represent a variety of building traditions, architectural designs, construction periods and energy and indoor performance. The buildings were audited following the TOBUS methodology developed within the project. The results of the test surveys were primarily used to improve the TOBUS methodology and secondly to suggest general upgrading solutions and energy retrofit measures for the surveyed buildings. This paper describes the development of the TOBUS methodology based on the 15 test surveys. (author)

  12. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls, Lawrence, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-10-01

    ?There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content and relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100 percent RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15 percent) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  13. Research Suggestions for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to perform accurate research. Also includes suggestions for specific research projects under such headings as: (1) types; (2) environments; (3) interactions; (4) classification; (5) hexagonal model; and (6) differentiation. (HMV)

  14. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Contributors offer suggestions concerning parents as reading stimulators, book discussions, a test bank for the secondary school/college reading lab, standardized reading tests, television reading, plagiarism, vocabulary development, and book reports. (FL)

  15. Open To Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Suggests class activities in three short articles including: (1) "Students Evaluate Reading," by Lenore Sandel; (2) "Solving Verbal Analogies," by Edward J. Dwyer; and (3) "Becoming Testwise," by Dean Schoen. (RS)

  16. 关联数据应用的体系框架及构建关联数据应用的建议%Architecture on Linked Data Based Applications and Some Suggestions for Building Linked Data Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永文; 岳笑; 刘建华

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces the definition, characteristics and categories of linked data applications. After analyzing the key issues in linked data application architecture, it brings forward that we should pay attention to the data linkage reuse and creation, query results representation, query processing performance, data quality and validation for a linked data application. Finally, it presents some suggestions for linked data applications in library.%介绍关联数据应用的涵义、特点以及关联数据应用的分类,分析关联数据应用的体系架构和需要解决的关键问题,提出实施关联数据应用时,需要重视数据之间的关联关系的利用和建立、结果的展现方式、查询效率、数据质量和有效性问题,最后给出图书馆开展关联数据应用的建议。

  17. Energy-saving Necessity and Measures of Apartment Buildings of Employees%职工住宅节能的必要性和措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the present situation of energy and building energy consumption in China and makes the discusses on the energy saving issue of the Ansteel' s apartment buildings for employees, proposing the technical modification measures for the energy saving of apartment buildings and looking forward to the future development of the energy-saving apartment buildings in Ansteel.%介绍了我国能源状况和建筑能耗现状,阐述了鞍钢职工住宅节能状况,推荐了住宅节能改造措施,并展望了鞍钢节能住宅的发展。

  18. Attitudes to Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER; JOHNSON

    2007-01-01

    As an Australian expat teaching English in China for over four years, I often encourage my students to not only learn the English language but also try to understand Western culture. This includes the fact that Westerners frequently initiate proactive suggestions on any aspects of soci-

  19. The effects of atmospheric pollutants upon standstone: evidence from real time measurements and analysis of decay features on historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D.P.; Dews, J.; Harris, F.C. [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Construction, Engineering and Technology; Mitchell, D.J. [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Applied Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Due to the urbanisation and industrialisation of the West Midlands, UK, historic sandstone buildings are exposed to atmospheric pollution. In order to assess the impact of this pollution upon their deterioration, chemical analysis of runoff water, from sandstone and control surfaces, has been carried out. The amount of stone affected by atmospheric pollution has been quantified by surveying selected sandstone buildings. (author)

  20. Design of passive cooling by night ventilation: evaluation of a parametric model and building simulation with measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfafferott, J.; Herkel, S.; Jaeschke, M. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2003-12-01

    At the new institute building of Fraunhofer ISE, both mechanical and free night ventilation is used for passive cooling of the offices. The results from a long-term monitoring show, that room temperatures are comfortable even at high ambient air temperatures. In two offices, experiments were carried out in order to determine the efficiency of night ventilation dependent on air change rate, solar and internal heat gains. The aim is to identify characteristic building parameters and to determine the night ventilation effect with these parameters. The experiments (one room with and one without night ventilation) are evaluated by using both a parametric model and the ESP-r building simulation programme. Both models are merged in order to develop a method for data evaluation in office buildings with night ventilation and to provide a simple model for integration in a building management system. (Author)

  1. Suggestions for Teaching Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Na-na

    2013-01-01

    Teacher development and teaching practice(TP) have caught the eyes of researchers at home and abroad for many years. Many western scholars hold that reflective teaching is an efficient way to promote teacher development, but traditional TP is prevailing in China. Based on the merits and demerits of traditional TP and reflective TP, the author hopes to provide some suggestions for the people involved to promote the development of teacher education.

  2. SUGGEST AN INTELLIGENT FRAMEWORK FOR BUILDING BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Almutairi Raed; Dr. Djamal Ziani

    2015-01-01

    As companies enter into the digital world, information technology is playing a major role in bringing process improvements to the forefront of business management. In the recent decades, many organizations have struggled to redesign and improve their business processes to reduce their total cost. The main contribution of this research study is to propose an intelligent framework that possesses the ability to employ a database of best practices, business standards, and business act...

  3. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  4. Retrofitting Listed Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a case study where the energy demand for a listed building constructed in 1900 is reduced. Many older buildings are listed and have restrictions that include the entire building or that include only its exterior. For the building presented, only its exterior facade is listed....... The paper demonstrates measures for the improvement of the thermal insulation of the building with solid brick walls. Durable customised measures are shown. The customised measures are required not to change the overall exterior architecture as the building is considered to contribute to the uniqueness...... of the local urban environment and therefore listed. The reduced energy demand, related to individual measures, is estimated and building physics requirements are addressed together with the economic options for evaluating the profitability....

  5. Measurements of airtightness of building components using the blower door method - DB Hamm; Bestimmung der Luftdichtheit von einzelnen Gebaeudeteilen mit Hilfe der Blower-Door-Methode - DB Hamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, H.; Dahlem, K.H.; Rechenbach, O.

    2001-08-24

    The blower door measuring system consisted of a variable frame with airtight foil and integrated speed-controlled blower, a volume flow meter and differential pressure manometer. It was not possible in all cases to generate sufficient volume flow for achieving the desired pressure gradient, both in the atrium and the building as a whole. In these cases, only the volume flow for a pressure gradient was measured. The curve was approximated using typical curves, and an n{sub 50} value was extrapolated which is not a real n{sub 50} value but an estimated value based on the values measured for low pressure gradients. Extensive measurements were carried out on different parts of the building.

  6. Building a measurement framework of burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eton DT

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available David T Eton,1 Djenane Ramalho de Oliveira,2,3 Jason S Egginton,1 Jennifer L Ridgeway,1 Laura Odell,4 Carl R May,5 Victor M Montori1,61Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2College of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 3Medication Therapy Management Program, Fairview Pharmacy Services LLC, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 4Pharmacy Services, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 5Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 6Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USABackground: Burden of treatment refers to the workload of health care as well as its impact on patient functioning and well-being. We set out to build a conceptual framework of issues descriptive of burden of treatment from the perspective of the complex patient, as a first step in the development of a new patient-reported measure.Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with patients seeking medication therapy management services at a large, academic medical center. All patients had a complex regimen of self-care (including polypharmacy, and were coping with one or more chronic health conditions. We used framework analysis to identify and code themes and subthemes. A conceptual framework of burden of treatment was outlined from emergent themes and subthemes.Results: Thirty-two patients (20 female, 12 male, age 26–85 years were interviewed. Three broad themes of burden of treatment emerged including: the work patients must do to care for their health; problem-focused strategies and tools to facilitate the work of self-care; and factors that exacerbate the burden felt. The latter theme encompasses six subthemes including challenges with taking medication, emotional problems with others, role and activity limitations, financial challenges, confusion about medical information, and health care delivery obstacles

  7. Measuring the value of nonwage employee benefits: building a model of the relation between benefit satisfaction and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathington, Bart L; Jones, Allan P

    2006-11-01

    Researchers have commonly assumed benefits that employees view as more valuable have a greater influence on their attitudes and behaviors. Researchers have used 2 common methods to measure benefit value: attaching a monetary value to benefits and using self-reports of benefit importance. The present authors propose that the 2 approaches are conceptually distinct and have different implications. They use a social exchange perspective to justify this distinction and integrate both approaches and benefit satisfaction into a more comprehensive model of benefit perception. Results suggest that both measures have practical applications depending on the nature of the exchange relationship between the organization and employees. However, this relationship depends on the specific benefit and on employee satisfaction with that benefit. Some benefits lend themselves to a monetary estimate, whereas others lend themselves more to a nonmonetary valuation.

  8. Use of three new SSNTD methods for evaluating thorium contents in different building materials and measuring thoron and its progeny concentrations inside dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdaq, M A

    2002-08-01

    Three new methods based on using CR-39 and LR- 115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) were used for measuring thorium concentrations (in 10(-6)g/g (ppm)) inside different building materials and evaluating the resulting concentrations of thoron and its progenies in dwellings built by the studied materials. The first technique consists of determining the probabilities for alpha-particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series inside the building materials or by the radon and thoron groups inside the dwelling atmosphere to reach and be registered as tracks on the SSNTD utilized and exploiting the resulting track density rates. The second method consists of evaluating the mean critical angles of etching of the CR-39 and LR-115 II SSNTD and measuring the resulting track densities registered on the detectors utilized. The third technique is based on calculating the detection efficiencies of the CR-39 and LR-115 II SSNTD for a-particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series in the building materials or by the radon and thoron groups in air and measuring track density rates registered on these detectors. The influence of the building material's nature and ventilation rate on the thoron and its decay products inside the dwelling rooms studied has been investigated.

  9. 木结构建筑火灾危险性及防火措施解析%Fire Risk with Wooden Buildings and Measures to Prevent Fires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莹莹

    2012-01-01

    Wooden buildings have a character of a long time of use, a good resistance to the earthquake and a variety of designs. This paper offers some fire - prevention measures regarding wooden buildings based on the current struc- tures of these wooden buildings.%木结构建筑具有使用寿命长,抗震性能好,舒适度高和设计多样化的特点。根据我国现阶段木结构建筑的发展现状,通过分析木结构建筑自身特点和特殊的火灾危险性。提出木结构建筑的防火措施。

  10. 建筑电气节能设计措施解析%Analysis on building electricity energy-saving design measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段新生

    2015-01-01

    Under the background of broadcasting building design energy-saving and environment protection,the apper analyzes building electricity energy-saving design measures including lighting system and power supply and distribution system device and so on,and studies solar energy pow-er generation working principles and application technologies,with a view to improve building electricity energy-saving effect.%在提倡建筑设计节能环保的背景下,分析了照明系统与供配电系统装置等建筑电气的节能设计措施,并对太阳能发电工作原理及应用技术进行了研究,以提升建筑电气的节能效果。

  11. 生态建筑中的节能环保措施研究%Energy Saving and Environmental Protection Measures of Ecological Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡琴

    2011-01-01

    由于现代建筑大规模修建,功能复杂多样,需要消耗各种大量的能源和资源,给人类赖以生存的环境带来了很大的负担。发展生态建筑是解决目前建筑物能耗大、污染严重的必然途径。从生态建筑的围护结构、建筑设备、楼宇自控系统等方面提出了诸多节能措施,能有效减低能耗、减少对环境的污染,使人类与环境能持续发展。%As large-scale construction of modem buildings, functional complex and diverse, consume a variety of large amounts of energy and resources, the environment for human survival is a big burden. Development of eco-building is the solution to the current building energy consumption and serious pollution of the inevitable way. From the ecological building envelope, construction equipment, building automation systems and other aspects of the many energy-saving measures can effectively reduce energy consumption, reduce environmental pollution, so that human beings and the environment to sustainable development.

  12. Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building Materials Sub-council of CCPIT is the other sub-council in construction field. CCPIT Building Materials Sub-council (CCPITBM), as well as CCOIC Build-ing Materials Chamber of Commerce, is au-thorized by CCPIT and state administration of building materials industry in 1992. CCPITBM is a sub-organization of CCPIT and CCOIC.

  13. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF FACTORS AND COGNISANT MEASURES FOR PROJECT QUALITY IN THE DESIGN PHASE: A CASE OF BUILDING PROJECTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING AND ENGINEERING SERVICES OF BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N.D. Dodoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: There were numerous complaints regarding the quality of building projects performed by the Department of Building and Engineering Services (DBES in Botswana. This empirical study has two objectives: first, to evaluate participants in DBES projects by using 16 identified factors in the project design phase that may influence the quality of building projects; second, to explore the inter-relationships between the 16 factors in the project design phase and the five measures of which the design phase takes cognisance. The study applied a quantitative research methodology. A total of 115 survey questionnaires were distributed to collect data. A descriptive and a multivariate analysis was performed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In Botswana was daar verskeie klagtes ontvang aangaande die kwaliteit van bouprojekte soos uitgevoer deur die Departement van Bou- en Ingenieursdienste (DBES in Botswana. Twee doelwitte is vir hierdie studie gestel: Eerstens om deelnemers in DBES projekte te evalueer aan die hand van 16 geïdentifiseerde faktore ten opsigte van die kwaliteit van bouprojekte tydens die ontwerpfase van hierdie projekte; en tweedens om die verwantskap te ondersoek tussen die 16 faktore in die ontwerpfase van bouprojekte en die vyf maatstawwe wat tydens die ontwerpfase in aanmerking geneem word. ‘n Kwantitatiewe navorsingsmetodiek is tydens hierdie studie gebruik, waar ‘n totaal van 115 vraelyste uitgestuur is. ‘n Beskrywende en meerveranderlike analise is uitgevoer.

  14. Localization of the places of stress-strain state changes of building structures based on the vibrodiagnostic measurement data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhraman'yan Andrey Mikhaylovich

    Full Text Available The method of localization of changes in the deflected mode is based on the analysis of time series of oscillations (displacement, velocity, acceleration of building constructions and structures. The method is based on the hypothesis that any changes in the deflected mode of structures result in changes in the oscillation energy. In this case, once the information on the structure oscillation parameters in different points of the building is available, the changes in the oscillation energy will signify the changes in the deflected mode in the relevant points.

  15. The relation between the adoption of sustainable measures and the composition of an environmental assessment tool for buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Brouwers, Jos

    2009-01-01

    Owing to a general perception of resource efficiency and due to the fact that the construction industry is traditionally a large user of natural resources, the necessity to design buildings with a low environmental impact is increasing. In the last decade many tools were developed to calculate the

  16. Brand Development Suggestions of Chinese Clothing Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 陈素英

    2013-01-01

    According to the analysis of the current situation and problems of Chinese clothing brand, the corresponding measures are raised from three aspects of brand positioning, brand broadcast and brand extension strategy. Some guidance and reference value is provided for the brand building and upgrading of Chinese clothing brand.

  17. The noise environment of a school classroom due to the operation of utility helicopters. [acoustic measurements of helicopter noise during flight over building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, D. A.; Pegg, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Noise measurements under controlled conditions have been made inside and outside of a school building during flyover operations of four different helicopters. The helicopters were operated at a condition considered typical for a police patrol mission. Flyovers were made at an altitude of 500 ft and an airspeed of 45 miles per hour. During these operations acoustic measurements were made inside and outside of the school building with the windows closed and then open. The outside noise measurements during helicopter flyovers indicate that the outside db(A) levels were approximately the same for all test helicopters. For the windows closed case, significant reductions for the inside measured db(A) values were noted for all overflights. These reductions were approximately 20 db(A); similar reductions were noted in other subjective measuring units. The measured internal db(A) levels with the windows open exceeded published classroom noise criteria values; however, for the windows-closed case they are in general agreement with the criteria values.

  18. Baseline indoor air quality measurements collected from 136 metropolitan New York region commercial office buildings between 1997-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, John P; Esposito, William A; Cleversey, Keith W

    2002-01-01

    Between January 1997 and December 1999, 648 surveys were performed in 136 commercial office buildings in the metropolitan New York region as part of an ongoing proactive indoor environmental quality (IEQ) program. Sampling was performed on a spot basis in "nonproblem" buildings, during normal business hours, either quarterly or semiannually. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were among the various physical and gaseous parameters sampled for. More than 15,000 data points were collected, and the results were analyzed to determine the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation for each of those parameters. The data was then compared to various standards and/or guidelines applicable to the indoor environment. The results indicated that 98% of the CO2 readings were below 1000 ppm, and 99.9% of the CO readings were below 10 ppm. However, for TVOCs, nearly 88% of the readings exceeded the proposed European guideline value of 0.3 mg/m3. Ultimately, these results can be used to compare both baseline and periodic readings collected in future studies, and to help determine if potential problems exist within a building.

  19. 夏热冬暖地区建筑自保温砌块的热工设计研究及建议%Study and suggestions on thermal design of building thermal insulation block in hot summer and warm winter zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡达明

    2011-01-01

    After typical building block models in hot summer and warm winter zone were chose,and heat transfer coefficients of the blocks were calculated,insulation performance of block under kinds of scheme were obtained. This paper studies the influence and general law of building material thermal conductivity coefficient,,holes row numher and arrangement mode on the heat transfer coefficient,points out the problems need to be cared during insulation block design and puts forward corresponding suggestions%选取夏热冬暖地区典型建筑砌块模型,配以不同材料对砌块的传热系数进行计算,得出各种匹配方案下砌块的保温性能,研究了建筑材料导热系数、孔洞排数及孔洞排列方式对砌块传热系数的影响及一般规律,指出了自保温砌块设计时应注意的问题,并提出相应的建议.

  20. 地下建筑火灾烟气的特点及排烟措施%Characteristics and Measures of the Smoke Flue Gas in Underground Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游越

    2014-01-01

    This paper, through the analysis of the characteri-stics of fire smoke in underground buildings and related risk, pointing out that the key factors of fire protection of underg-round buildings is the effective control of flue gas discharge. In the fire protection measures in the underground building, we must do a good job in smoke prevention measures, so as to el-iminate fire hidden danger in the underground construction.%本文通过对地下建筑火灾烟气的特点和相关的危险性进行的分析,指出了地下建筑防火的关键因素是有效控制烟气排出。在地下建筑的防火措施中,要切实做好有效、稳妥的排烟、防烟的各项措施,从而达到能真正有效地杜绝地下建筑发生火灾的隐患的目的。

  1. 智能建筑中的绿色节能措施%Green energy-saving measures in intelligent building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯

    2014-01-01

    The green energy saving technology in intelligent building is developing very rapidly in recent years,the impact on people's life is more and more big,to explore in-depth in this paper is based on the intelligent building in our green energy-saving measures,puts forward some energy saving measures, promoting the rapid development of intelligent building health,more is to save energy, for the benefit of future generations.%智能建筑中的绿色节能技术在近些年有着很快的发展,对于人们的生活的影响也是越来越大,本文就是针对于我们的智能建筑中的绿色节能措施进行的深入的探讨,提出了几点节能措施,更好的促进智能建筑的健康快速发展,更是节约能源,为后代造福。

  2. 谈运城盐渍土地区建筑的设计措施%Discussion on the building design measures in Yuncheng salty soil region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小红

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes features of salty soil,introduces the building design measures in Yuncheng salty soil region including foundation measures,waterproofing measures and structural measures,and points out that:salty soil has collapsibility,salt expansion and corrosion. There-fore,dealing with salt foundation must follow the local conditions and adopt various measures to guarantee the building quality.%分析了盐渍土的特性,对运城市盐渍土地区的建筑设计措施进行了介绍,包括地基基础措施、防水措施、结构措施,指出盐渍土具有溶陷性、盐胀性和腐蚀性,盐渍土地基的处理一定要因地制宜,采取多种措施确保建筑物的质量。

  3. Study of Active Carbon Measuring Method for Accurate Measurements of Radon Exhalation Rates for Building Materials%活性炭盒法准确测量建材222 Rn析出率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕丽丹; 邱小平; 邱寿康; 何正忠; 贺夔

    2014-01-01

    通过活性炭-γ能谱法测量表面经过预处理后的不同建材样品氡析出率,计算求得该建材氡固有析出率。实验结果表明,建材固有氡析出率能真实反映出建材氡析出率的情况且不受建材自身形状因素的影响,不失为一种准确可靠测量建材表面氡析出率值的方法。%Radon exhalation rate from different building materials after pretreatment were measured using the charcoal canister method for calculating radon inherent exhalation rate. The results showed that radon inherent exhalation rate can represent the true radon in building materials and not be affected by the shape factor of building materials. It is simple and reliable for the method to calculate radon inherent exhalation rate. It can be regarded as a method for accurate measurements of radon exhalation rates for building materials.

  4. Indicators for energy use in buildings; Nyckeltal foer energianvaendning i byggnader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Peter; Storm, Martin

    2001-10-01

    On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment a study was performed in order to suggest energy consumption indicators (ratios) for buildings. The amount of energy supplied for space heating, hot water, cooling and operation of buildings is measured for each energy source (electricity, district heating, fuel oil, gas, coal, peat, wood fuels or other) and per useful floor space. The indicators should be separately accounted for different types of buildings (houses, apartment buildings, weekend residences, schools, offices, hospitals, industry etc)

  5. 超高层建筑钢结构测量技术%Steel structure measurement technology of super-high-rise building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健良

    2016-01-01

    以广州越秀金融大厦为例,从测量控制点引测、施工测量放样、钢结构焊接后检测等方面,对该项目的钢结构安装测量施工技术进行了论述,为今后超高层建筑的钢结构测量提供了参考。%Taking Yuexiu finance mansion in Guangzhou as an example,starting from aspects of measurement control point leading measurement, construction sampling and steel structure detection after wielding,the thesis discusses the steel structure installation measurement construction technologies,which has provided some guidance for steel structure measurement of super-high-rise building.

  6. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  7. Measurement of natural radioactivity in Jordanian building materials and their contribution to the public indoor gamma dose rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, J M; Hamideen, M S

    2013-10-01

    This study is undertaken to determine the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in samples of commonly used building materials in Jordan. Samples of seven different materials were collected from construction sites and local agencies supplying raw construction materials and analyzed using a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer, taking into account self-attenuation in bulk samples. The average specific activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K ranged from 2.84 to 41.52, 0.78 to 58.42. and 3.74 to 897 Bq/kg, respectively. All the samples had radium equivalent activities well below the limit of 370 Bq/kg set by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 1979). External and internal hazard indices, absorbed dose and annual effective dose rate associated with the radionuclides of interest were calculated and compared with the international legislation and guidance. In general, most of the activities did not exceed the recommended international limits, except for granite and ceramic samples which are usually used as secondary building materials in Jordan.

  8. Measurement and Historical Information Building: challenges and opportunities in the representation of semantically structured 3D content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Quattrini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of applying the BIM approach is an interesting challenge in the framework of 3D modelling and management/enhancement of historic buildings, especially high cultural and architectural value. A big challenge in reality based modelling is to develop simple methods to get HBIM models for cultural heritage, that guarantee accuracy, precision and quality of representation compliant with the acquired data.The present work, dealing with two cases study, highlights the feasibility of a whole approach and opens the way for the development of centralized HBIM that can be used as complete data set of information on all disciplines, in particular for the heritage restoration and preservation, but also for its dissemination and exploitation. Similar methods facilitate the HBIM diffusion for the management of survey and restoration processes of historic buildings.

  9. Building a Data Warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elliott

    2002-01-01

    Describes how to build a data warehouse, using the Schools Interoperability Framework (www.sifinfo.org), that supports data-driven decision making and complies with the Freedom of Information Act. Provides several suggestions for building and maintaining a data warehouse. (PKP)

  10. Setting the Stage with Geometry: Lessons & Worksheets to Build Skills in Measuring Perimeter, Area, Surface Area, and Volume. Poster/Teaching Guide. Expect the Unexpected with Math[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actuarial Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Setting the Stage with Geometry" is a new math program aligned with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards that is designed to help students in grades 6-8 build and reinforce basic geometry skills for measuring 2D and 3D shapes. Developed by The Actuarial Foundation, this program seeks to provide skill-building math…

  11. 实现建筑电气节能的多元措施刍议%On the Multiple Measures Realizing Building Electrical Energy Saving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何泳滨

    2014-01-01

    本文从实现建筑电气节能的必要性、建筑照明系统节能、建筑动力设备节能以及建筑供配电系统节能方面出发,论证了建筑电气节能的措施,以及为相关线路设计人员和建筑设计人员提供意见参考,推动我国建筑节能化发展,实现资源的高效利用。%This paper, starting from the necessity of impleme-nting building electrical energy saving, building energy saving lighting system, power equipment energy saving and building energy-saving power supply system, demonstrates measures of the construction electrical energy saving, as wel as provides advices to related circuit designers and architects, to promote the construction of energy development in China, realize effic-ient use of resources.

  12. Study on Construction Technology and Measures of Energy-saving Building%节能建筑施工技术及措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦君

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the research of energy saving and emission reduction technology has at racted more and more at ention al over the world, and energy saving buildings em-erged as the times required. Energy-saving building constru-ction technology can effectively reduce energy consumption, improve the living environment, and to have important sign-ificance for the sustainable development of the construction industry. This paper discussed the construction technology and measures of energy-saving building from many aspects.%近年来,节能减排技术的研究越来越受到世界各国的重视,节能建筑应运而生。节能建筑施工技术可以有效降低建筑行业的能耗、改善居住环境,对建筑行业的可持续性发展有重要意义。本文从多个方面论述了节能建筑施工技术及措施。

  13. Suggestions to Brand building to promote the development of the One Village One Agricultural Product Brand——A Case Study of Datong City in Shanxi Province%用品牌建设促进“一村一品”发展的对策建议——以山西省大同市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜明

    2013-01-01

    通过对大同市农产品品牌建设的调研,发现在“一村一品”发展中,农民品牌意识不强;政府部门扶持品牌政策落实不够;农产品品牌质量和信任度不高.为此,提出了强化品牌意识;加强品牌策划宣传和营销力度;整合资源,规划发展;提高农业标准化生产,增强农产品品质;对农业品牌实行全程监管和后期维护的5项对策,建议用品牌建设促进“一村一品”的深入发展.%Through the survey of brand building of agricultural products in Datong, it is detected that the peasants had no strong awareness of brand in the One Village One Product movement; Resides, government departments implemented the policy of supporting the brand insufficiently; and the brand quality of agricultural products was not so good and farmers' confidence is not so high; Consequently, I proposed the following five suggestions:Rrand awareness should be strengthened; The efforts of planning, publicity and marketing of brand should be made; Resources should be integrated and economy should be developed designedly; The standardization of agricultural production should be improved, and the quality of agricultural products should be enhanced; The full control and post-maintenance should be implemented for the agricultural brand: All in all, I recommend that brand building should be applied to promote the further development of the One Village One Product.

  14. Use of the BINP HLS to measure vertical changes in the locations of the building and ground at the PAL-XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo-Jin; Seo, Kwang-Won; Gil, Kye-Hwan; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Kang, Heung-Sik

    2016-09-01

    The Pohang Accelerator Laboratory's X-ray free-electron laser (PAL-XFEL), a 4 th generation light source, is currently being installed and will be completed by December 2015 so that users can be supported beginning in 2016. The PAL-XFEL equipment must continuously maintain the bunch-tobunch beam parameters (60 Hz, Energy: 10 GeV, Charge: 200 pC, Bunch Length: 60 fs, Emittance X/Y: 0.481/0.256 mm rad) in order to supply stable photons with the energy and flux appropriate for tests by beamline users. To this end, the PAL-XFEL equipment has to be kept precisely aligned (Linear Accelerator: +/- 100 μm, Undulator: +/- 50 μm). As a part of the process for installing the PAL-XFEL, a GPS-using surface geodetic network is being constructed for precise equipment measurement and alignment, and the installation of a tunnel measurement network inside the buildings is in the preparation stage; additionally, the fiducialization of major equipment is underway. After the PAL-XFEL equipment is optimized and aligned, if the ground and the buildings go through vertical changes during operation, misalignment (and tilt) of the equipment, including various magnets and RF structures, will cause errors in the electron beam's trajectory, which will lead to changes to the beam parameters. For continuous and systemic measurement of vertical changes in the buildings and monitoring of ground sinking and uplifting, the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) Ultrasonic-type Hydrostatic Levelling System (HLS) is to be installed and operated in all sections of the PAL-XFEL for the linear accelerator, the insertion device (undulator) and the beamline. This study will introduce the operation principle, design concept, and advantages (self-calibration) of the HLS and will outline its installation plan and operation plan.

  15. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...... building operation as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using 'green accounting', by applying policies for sustainability etc. The paper is based on case studies...

  16. Building calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Christian; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion......Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion...

  17. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  18. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  19. Healthy Buildings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Deborah

    Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas,…

  20. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes the way building envelopes can contribute to developing green buildings and sets out some objectives that could be aimed for. It also proposes a number of approaches that can be used to help design green building envelopes...

  1. Green building performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, N. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A system for labelling buildings in a manner similar to product labelling already well established with respect to goods and materials in general, was proposed. The system envisaged would differ from existing labelling systems in that it would follow the principles incorporated into `Green Building Challenge `98`, (GBC`98) The GBC`98 is a two-year process of international building performance assessment, whose goal is to inform the international community of scientists, designers and builders about advances in green building performance. GBC`98 also aims to test and demonstrate an improved method for measuring building performance, establish international benchmarks for building performance while respecting regional and technical diversity, showcase `best-practice` examples of green buildings around the world, document successful elements in individual green buildings and offer direction to participating countries in the development of regionally sensitive assessment models. The genesis of GBC`98, its potential applications as a second generation tool for eco-labeling of buildings was summarized, along with a review of existing building performance assessment systems. 4 refs.

  2. Proposal to Build an Electron-Photon Facility at NAL and to Measure Photon Scattering at High Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorfan, D.E.; Flatte, S.M.; Heusch, C.A.; Luxton, G.; del Papa, C.; Seiden, A.

    1971-07-18

    The National Accelerator Laboratory opens up a new era in our search of what elementary particles are like; the 100-500 GeV era. If we want to look at the structure of hadrons with the resolution provided by the wavelength of such high energy beams, what can be more natural, to paraphrase Bjorken, than looking at them, i.e. shining light at them and watching for scattering or absorption? This is precisely what we propose to do in the experiments suggested here. Photons, real and virtual, have contributed immeasurably to our understanding of hadronic matter through investigations done at lower-energy (1 {le} E {le} 20 GeV) electron accelerators. NAL, albeit a proton machine, will be our only potential source of photons beyond SLAC energies. Proton-nucleus collisions will produce photons, principally in two-step processes involving radiative hadron (notably {pi}{sup 0}) decays. It has been shown that sizeable fluxes can be obtained by the appropriate construction of beam lines. NAL will then be a unique tool for the study of electromagnetic interactions at energies in the 20-300 GeV range. At high energies ({approx}> 200 GeV), available electron fluxes will set the limit on photon intensities for experimentation; at lower energies, fluxes rise strongly, but the electronics logic involved in beam momentum definition and tagging will not permit final yields to be considerably larger than those at 200 GeV. The first generation of photon physics at NAL will therefore restrict itself to processes with relatively large cross-sections. As will be seen, some of the most exciting problems involving photons at presently existing energies will be accessible to conclusive experimentation at NAL. Our group has, from past experience at lower-energy photon laboratories and from recent studies of its members, a keen interest in working on these problems. We have been happily active on earlier feasibility studies of beams and experiments; and we are enthusiastic about the prospect of

  3. 全面提升黄河防凌减灾综合能力的对策与建议%Measures and suggestions of capacity building of ice-jam control and disaster reduction in Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡彬; 张希玉; 毕东升

    2009-01-01

    每年12月至次年3月,黄河上游、中游及下游均发生凌汛,是我国凌汛成灾最为严重的河流。在宁夏至内蒙古河段(以下简称宁蒙河段)、河南至山东河段为低纬度流向高纬度,河流封冻时下段早于上段,解冻时下段晚于上段,而且冰盖厚度下厚上薄,封、开河时容易形成冰凌卡塞和冰坝壅水引发堤防决口等凌汛灾害,危及局部滩区群众生命财产安全。黄河防凌工作已成为我国冬春季防汛工作的头等大事。

  4. Sustainable building versus ecological building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available and sensitivity to a site that are required to efficiently meet the energy needs of a building and occupants with renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal, etc), designers must apply holistic design principles and take advantage of the free, naturally... Building Handbook Volume 1 Sustainable Building versus Ecological Building Llewellyn van Wyk Principal Researcher CSIR Background and Context ?Evidence is mounting that humankind, and the environment that shapes its existence, are in the midst...

  5. Suspension-firing of wood with coal ash addition: Probe measurements of ash deposit build-up at Avedøre Power Plant (AVV2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood-firing. Investigat......This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood......-firing. Investigations of deposit formation rate were made by use of an advanced online ash deposition/shedding probe. Quantification of ash deposition and shedding was made via deposit mass uptake signals obtained from the deposit probe. The influence of coal ash, flue gas temperature, probe surface temperature...... and boiler load on ash deposition propensity was investigated. Results of ash deposition propensity showed increasing trend with increasing flue gas temperature. Video monitoring revealed that the deposits formed were not sticky and could be easily removed, and even at very high flue gas temperatures (> 1350...

  6. Cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden estimation in a building at surface level and in an underground facility using two BC408 scintillation detectors coincidence counting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Liu, Chuanlei; Mailhot, Maverick

    2016-10-01

    A series of measurements have been recently conducted to determine the cosmic-muon intensities and attenuation factors at various indoor and underground locations for a gamma spectrometer. For this purpose, a digital coincidence spectrometer was developed by using two BC408 plastic scintillation detectors and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The results indicate that the overburden in the building at surface level absorbs a large part of cosmic ray protons while attenuating the cosmic-muon intensity by 20-50%. The underground facility has the largest overburden of 39 m water equivalent, where the cosmic-muon intensity is reduced by a factor of 6. The study provides a cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden assessment, which are important parameters for analysing the background of an HPGe counting system, or for comparing the background of similar systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Building a culture of health: A new framework and measures for health and health care in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Matthew D; Plough, Alonzo

    2016-09-01

    For generations, Americans' health has been unequally influenced by income, education, ethnicity, and geography. Health care systems have operated largely apart from each other and from community life. The definition of health has been the "absence of illness," rather than the recognition that all aspects of our lives should support health. Today, a growing number of communities, regions, and states are working to redefine what it means to get and stay healthy by addressing the multiple determinants of health. The requirements of federal health care reform are changing who has access to care, how care is paid for and delivered, and how patients and providers interact. Coordinated efforts to promote wellness and prevent diseases are proliferating among a diverse set of stakeholders. These developments in health and in society present a window of opportunity for real societal transformation-a chance to catalyze a national movement that demands and supports a widely shared, multifaceted vision for a Culture of Health. To address this challenge, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation has embarked on a strategic direction to use the tools of a large national philanthropy to catalyze a social movement which we are calling Building a Culture of Health. This article presents the Foundation's new model for a Culture of Health, the trans-disciplinary research that developed a set of metrics that tie to the model, and the community engagement activities undertaken in the development of both the model and metrics. The model and associated metrics and extensive communication, in addition to partnership, and grant funding strategies, represent a culture change strategy being implemented over 20 years. Addressing underlying inequities in health affirming life conditions and improving social cohesion across diverse groups to take action to improve theses condition lay at the heart of this strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A porosity gradient in 67P/C-G nucleus suggested from CONSERT and SESAME-PP results: an interpretation based on new laboratory permittivity measurements of porous icy analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouet, Y.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Sabouroux, P.; Neves, L.; Encrenaz, P.; Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Kofman, W.; Le Gall, A.; Ciarletti, V.; Hérique, A.; Lethuillier, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft made a rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) in August 2014, soon after the Philae module landed on the small lobe of the nucleus on 12 November 2014. The CONSERT instrument, onboard Rosetta and Philae, sounded the upper part of the interior of 67P with radiowaves at 90 MHz and determined an average of the real part of the permittivity (hereafter ɛ') equal to about 1.27. The SESAME-PP instrument, onboard Philae, sounded the near-surface of the small lobe in the 400-800 Hz range and determined a lower limit of ɛ' equal to 2.45. We use a semi-empirical formula obtained from measurements of ɛ' performed in the laboratory at 243 K on water ice and ice-basaltic dust mixtures, with a controlled porosity in the 31-91% range and a dust-to-ice volumetric ratio in the 0.1-2.8 range, to interpret the results of the two instruments, taking into account the temperature and frequency dependencies. A graphical method is proposed to derive ranges of porosity and dust-mass fraction from a value of ɛ' derived from observations. The non-dispersive behaviour of ɛ' below 175 K, allows us to compare the values of ɛ' obtained by CONSERT and SESAME-PP. We show that the porosity of the small lobe of 67P increases with depth. Based on new measurements of analogues of complex extraterrestrial organic matter, the so-called tholins, we also suggest that, for the dust component in the cometary material, the presence of silicates has more effect on ɛ' than organic materials.

  9. A porosity gradient in 67P/C-G nucleus suggested from CONSERT and SESAME-PP results: an interpretation based on new laboratory permittivity measurements of porous icy analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouet, Y.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Sabouroux, P.; Neves, L.; Encrenaz, P.; Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Kofman, W.; Le Gall, A.; Ciarletti, V.; Hérique, A.; Lethuillier, A.; Carrasco, N.; Szopa, C.

    2016-11-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft made a rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) in 2014 August, soon after the Philae module landed on the small lobe of the nucleus on 2014 November 12. The CONSERT instrument, onboard Rosetta and Philae, sounded the upper part of the interior of 67P with radiowaves at 90 MHz and determined an average of the real part of the permittivity (hereafter ɛ΄) equal to about 1.27. The SESAME-PP instrument, onboard Philae, sounded the near-surface of the small lobe in the 400-800 Hz range and determined a lower limit of ɛ΄ equal to 2.45. We use a semi-empirical formula obtained from measurements of ɛ΄ performed in the laboratory at 243 K on water ice and ice-basaltic dust mixtures, with a controlled porosity in the 31-91 per cent range and a dust-to-ice volumetric ratio in the 0.1-2.8 range, to interpret the results of the two instruments, taking into account the temperature and frequency dependences. A graphical method is proposed to derive ranges of porosity and dust-mass fraction from a value of ɛ΄ derived from observations. The non-dispersive behaviour of ɛ΄ below 175 K, allows us to compare the values of ɛ΄ obtained by CONSERT and SESAME-PP. We show that the porosity of the small lobe of 67P increases with depth. Based on new measurements of analogues of complex extraterrestrial organic matter, the so-called tholins, we also suggest that, for the dust component in the cometary material, the presence of silicates has more effect on ɛ΄ than organic materials.

  10. An interpretation of the CONSERT and SESAME-PP results based on new permittivity measurements of porous water ice and ice-basaltic/organic dust mixtures suggests an increase of porosity with depth in 67P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouet, Yann; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Sabouroux, Pierre; Neves, Luisa; Encrenaz, Pierre; Poch, Olivier; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nicolas; Kofman, Wlodek; Le Gall, Alice; Ciarletti, Valérie; Hérique, Alain; Lethuillier, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    The CONSERT bistatic radar on Rosetta and Philae sounded the interior of the small lobe of 67P/C-G at 90 MHz and determined the average of the real part of the complex permittivity (hereafter ɛ') to be equal to 1.27±0.05 [1,2]. The permittivity probe (PP) of the SESAME package sounded the near-surface in the 400-800 Hz range and derived a lower limit of ɛ' equal to 2.45±0.20 [3,4]. At the time of the measurements, the temperature was found to be below 150 K at Philae's location and expected to be close or below 100 K inside the nucleus [4-6].The complex permittivity depends of the frequency, the composition, the porosity and the temperature of the material [7,8,9]. These parameters have to be taken into account to interpret the permittivity values. The non-dispersive behavior of ɛ' below 150 K [9], allows us to compare the CONSERT and SESAME-PP results and to interpret their difference in terms of porosity and/or composition. For this purpose we use a semi-empirical formula obtained from reproducible permittivity measurements performed in the laboratory at 243 K on water ice particles and ice-basaltic dust mixtures [10], with a controlled porosity in the 26-91% range and dust-to-ice volumetric ratios in the 0.1-2.8 range. The influence of the presence of organic materials on ɛ' is also discussed based on new measurements of analogues of complex extraterrestrial organic matter [11]. Our results suggest an increase of the porosity of the small lobe of 67P with depth [11], in agreement Lethuillier et al. [4]'s conclusion using a different method.[1]Kofman et al., 1998. Adv. Space Res., 21, 1589.[2]Ciarletti et al., 2015. A&A, 583, A40.[3]Seidensticker et al., 2007. Space Sci. Rev., 128, 301.[4]Lethuillier et al., 2016. A&A, 591, A32.[5]Spohn et al., 2015. Science, 349, aab0464.[6]Festou et al. (Eds.), Comets II. Univ. of Arizona Press.[7]Campbell and Ulrichs, 1969. J. Geophys. Res., 74, 5867.[8]Brouet et al., 2015. A&A, 583, A39.[9]Mattei et al., 2014. Icarus

  11. Safeguard Measures and Policy Suggestions of Real-time Logistics Distribution System%物流实时配送系统的保障措施与政策建议研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吟龙

    2011-01-01

    随着物流实时配送系统理论探索与实践的运用,如何合理有效地加强物流实时配送系统的建设,寻找物流实时配送系统实践应用的突破口,本文研究物流实时配送系统应用的客观保障措施和条件,通过对物流实时配送系统的实践应用过程分析,探索系统的投入成本同各主要因素运作水平提升之间的逻辑关系,为相关管理部门提出改革政策建议.%With the use of real-time logistics distribution system theory and its exploration and practice, this paper focuses on how to effectively strengthen the construction of the real-time logistics distribution system, looking for the breach of application and practice real-time logistics distribution system, studies the objective safeguard measures and application conditions of real-time logistics distribution system, explores the logical relationship between systematic input costs and main factors to enhance the operational level to provide reform policy suggestions for related administrative departments through analyzing process of practical application of real-time logistics distribution system.

  12. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  13. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  14. Citizen science applied to building healthier community environments: advancing the field through shared construct and measurement development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckson, Erica; Schneider, Margaret; Winter, Sandra J; Stone, Emily; Puhan, Milo; Stathi, Afroditi; Porter, Michelle M; Gardiner, Paul A; Dos Santos, Daniela Lopes; Wolff, Andrea; King, Abby C

    2017-09-29

    Physical inactivity across the lifespan remains a public health issue for many developed countries. Inactivity has contributed considerably to the pervasiveness of lifestyle diseases. Government, national and local agencies and organizations have been unable to systematically, and in a coordinated way, translate behavioral research into practice that makes a difference at a population level. One approach for mobilizing multi-level efforts to improve the environment for physical activity is to engage in a process of citizen science. Citizen Science here is defined as a participatory research approach involving members of the public working closely with research investigators to initiate and advance scientific research projects. However, there are no common measures or protocols to guide citizen science research at the local community setting. We describe overarching categories of constructs that can be considered when designing citizen science projects expected to yield multi-level interventions, and provide an example of the citizen science approach to promoting PA. We also recommend potential measures across different levels of impact. Encouraging some consistency in measurement across studies will potentially accelerate the efficiency with which citizen science participatory research provides new insights into and solutions to the behaviorally-based public health issues that drive most of morbidity and mortality. The measures described in this paper abide by four fundamental principles specifically selected for inclusion in citizen science projects: feasibility, accuracy, propriety, and utility. The choice of measures will take into account the potential resources available for outcome and process evaluation. Our intent is to emphasize the importance for all citizen science participatory projects to follow an evidence-based approach and ensure that they incorporate an appropriate assessment protocol. We provided the rationale for and a list of contextual factors

  15. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  16. 解析智能楼宇用电的节能控制措施%Analytical of Intelligent Building Power Energy Control Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵麟

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficient buildings intelligent power control measures can not be separated, so many companies have chosen to establish an integrated intelligent power management system that provides a practical and efficient and convenient solution for enterprise energy management and control. In addition, the integrated management system for building energy-efficient intelligent power management information systems, but also to ensure a reliable platform on which to run the operation and maintenance management.%楼宇的节能控制离不开智能用电措施,因此,很多企业选择建立智能用电综合管理系统,为企业的节能管控提供切实可行而又高效便捷的解决办法。另外,智能用电的综合管理系统对楼宇节能管理信息系统来说,也是保证其运行操作和维护管理的可靠平台。

  17. 浅谈我国建筑能耗与节能措施%Discussion on China's Building Energy Consumption and Energy-saving Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进; 吴慎宝

    2012-01-01

    With the shortage of resources and energy, the increasing in population and improvement of people's living standards, it is increasing in requirements for thermal environment of the building and comfortable living and consumption of energy resources are also growing. The consumption of energy in construction industry can account for more than one-third in the consumption of total energy of the community. This paper discusses the status of energy saving in the building, and proposes recommendations and practical measures to save energy and maintain green and sustainable development of the economy.%随着在全世界范围内资源能源短缺、人口增多,人们生活水平提高,对建筑的热环境要求逐步提高,居住舒适度提高,能源资源消耗量日益加大.建筑业用能在社会总能源消耗中的比重超过三分之一.本文探讨了建筑的节能现状,从而提出建议,切实可行的措施,节约能源、保持经济的绿色可持续发展.

  18. Measurements of Formaldehyde and TVOC Emission from Paints and Coating Materials using Small Chamber Method for Building Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-A KIM; Sumin KIM; Hyun-Joong KIM; Janghoo SEO

    2012-01-01

    An optimal test method for paint is proposed; additionally,the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) method used in Europe is applied as a substitute for the 20 L small chamber method.The emission factors of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and formaldehyde from oil-based paint,emulsion paint,and water-dispersion paint with a coating weight of 300 g/m2,cured for 24/48 hours,were measured using the 20 L small chamber method.The emission rate of TVOC and formaldehyde from all paints began to stabilize after approximately 7 days after 24/48 hours of curing even though Korean standards stipulate that paint should be measured and analyzed after the third day of application.The emission factor of TVOC and formaldehyde from oil-based,emulsion,and water-dispersion paints were also measured using the FLEC method.There was good correlation between the 20 L small chamber method and the FLEC method for oil-based,emulsion,and water-dispersion paint emissions.With the FLEC method,using paints prepared under identical conditions,the emission rate was stable 24 hours after installation of samples because the air flow rate of FLEC is much higher than that of a 20 L small chamber,and the relative cell volume of FLEC is much smaller than that of a 20 L small chamber.

  19. Building a better foundation: improving root-trait measurements to understand and model plant and ecosystem processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, M Luke; Guo, Dali; Iversen, Colleen M; Chen, Weile; Eissenstat, David M; Fernandez, Christopher W; Li, Le; Ma, Chengen; Ma, Zeqing; Poorter, Hendrik; Reich, Peter B; Zadworny, Marcin; Zanne, Amy

    2017-07-01

    Trait-based approaches provide a useful framework to investigate plant strategies for resource acquisition, growth, and competition, as well as plant impacts on ecosystem processes. Despite significant progress capturing trait variation within and among stems and leaves, identification of trait syndromes within fine-root systems and between fine roots and other plant organs is limited. Here we discuss three underappreciated areas where focused measurements of fine-root traits can make significant contributions to ecosystem science. These include assessment of spatiotemporal variation in fine-root traits, integration of mycorrhizal fungi into fine-root-trait frameworks, and the need for improved scaling of traits measured on individual roots to ecosystem-level processes. Progress in each of these areas is providing opportunities to revisit how below-ground processes are represented in terrestrial biosphere models. Targeted measurements of fine-root traits with clear linkages to ecosystem processes and plant responses to environmental change are strongly needed to reduce empirical and model uncertainties. Further identifying how and when suites of root and whole-plant traits are coordinated or decoupled will ultimately provide a powerful tool for modeling plant form and function at local and global scales. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Energy- and water saving measures for hot water distribution in residential buildings; Energie- und wassersparende Massnahmen bei der Warmwasserverteilung im Wohnungsbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillinger, M.H.; Pufahl, T.; Valentin, G.

    2004-02-01

    The energy need of residential buildings consists of the need for heating plus the need for preparing and distributing hot water. As over the past years the need for heating energy in residential buildings could be gradually reduced thanks to successful energy saving measures, the energy need for water heating and distribution has been gaining more and more importance. In buildings with an energy insulating standard complying with the energy saving regulation, the energy need for hot water amounts to 30 to 50% of the total energy need for heating and hot water. Another reason for the topic of hot water to gain more importance is that due to the high degree of isolation in low-energy houses, the heating period is reduced to 100 - 150 days. This cuts down the possibility of using waste heat from hot water pipes. The investigation presented here is to give planners ideas and help them in taking decisions regarding the conception and design of hot water supply in residential buildings which also include the principle of energy minimisation and saving potable water as far as possible. (orig.) [German] Der Energiebedarf fuer die Waermeversorgung von Wohngebaeuden setzt sich aus dem Bedarf fuer die Heizung und dem Bedarf fuer die Warmwassererwaermung und -verteilung zusammen. Nachdem der Heizenergiebedarf fuer Wohngebaeude infolge erfolgreicher Energieeinsparmassnahmen in den letzten Jahren mehr und mehr reduziert werden konnte, kommt dem Energiebedarf fuer die Warmwassererwaermung und -verteilung eine immer staerkere Bedeutung zu. Bei Gebaeuden mit einem Energiedaemmstandard nach Energieeinsparverordnung macht der Energiebedarf fuer das Warmwasser zwischen 30 und 50% des Gesamtenergiebedarfs fuer Heizung und Warmwasser des Haushaltes aus. Die Bedeutung der Warmwasserthematik im Wohnungsbau nimmt auch deshalb zu, weil es in Folge der hohen Waermedaemmung bei Niedrigenergiehaeusern zu einer Reduzierung der Heizperiode auf 100-150 Tage kommt. Damit wird die

  1. Building performance modelling for sustainable building design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufolahan Oduyemi

    2016-12-01

    The output revealed that BPM delivers information needed for enhanced design and building performance. Recommendations such as the establishment of proper mechanisms to monitor the performance of BPM related construction are suggested to allow for its continuous implementation. This research consolidates collective movements towards wider implementation of BPM and forms a base for developing a sound BIM strategy and guidance.

  2. Valid measures of periodic leg movements (PLMs) during a suggested immobilization test using the PAM-RL leg activity monitors require adjusting detection parameters for noise and signal in each recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Myung Sung; Montplaisir, Jacques; Desautels, Alex; Winkelman, John W; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A; Earley, Christopher J; Allen, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with restless legs syndrome (RLS) (Willis-Ekbom disease [WED]) usually have periodic leg movements (PLMs). The suggested immobilization test (SIT) measures sensory and motor features of WED during wakefulness. Surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings of the anterior tibialis (AT) are used as the standard for counting PLMs. However, due to several limitations, leg activity meters such as the PAM-RL were advanced as a potential substitute. In our study, we assessed the validity of the measurements of PLM during wakefulness (PLMW) in the SIT for PAM-RL using both default and custom detection threshold parameters compared to AT EMG. Data were obtained from 39 participants who were diagnosed with primary WED and who were on stable medication as part of another study using the SIT to repeatedly evaluate WED symptoms over 6-12 months. EMG recordings and PAM-RL, when available, were used to detect PLMW for each SIT. Complete PAM-RL and polysomnography (PSG) EMG data were available for 253 SITs from that study. The default PAM-RL (dPAM-RL) detected leg movements based on manufacturer's noise (resting) and signal (movement) amplitude criteria developed to accurately detect PLM during sleep (PLMS). The custom PAM-RL (cPAM-RL) similarly detected leg movements except the noise and movement detection parameters were adjusted to match the PAM-RL data for each SIT. The distributions of the differences between either dPAM-RL or cPAM-RL and EMG PLMW were strongly leptokurtic (Kurtosis >2) with many small differences and a few unusually large differences. These distributions are better described by median and quartile ranges than mean and standard deviation. Despite an adequate correlation (r=0.66) between the dPAM-RL and EMG recordings, the dPAM-RL on average significantly underscored the number of PLMW (median: quartiles=-13: -51.2, 0.0) and on Bland-Altman plots had a significant magnitude bias with greater underscoring for larger average PLMW/h. There also was an

  3. Discussion on Design of Technical Measures for Reducing Energy Conversation of Railway Building%铁路建筑节能设计技术措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博

    2013-01-01

    Railway buildings take a bigger share of China's railway entire energy consumption.In order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions,and realize low energy consumption,pollution and emission,starting with railway building energy conversation and combining with the regional climate characteristics,this paper,starting with building palisade struc-ture,expounded through the rational design of railway construction station and yard planning,the control of window-wall ratio,the effective use of building design and micro climate,the construction of architectural technology and ener-gy,and make full use of favorable climate conditions and withstand unfavorable climate effect.To enhance the heat pres-ervation and heat insulation performance of external building envelope of railway constructions such as walls,doors and windows,roofs,floors and sunshade,and enhance the thermal stability of construction,reduce the heat transfer coeffi-cient of the walls,doors,windows and roofs,specific measures to improve the performance of heat transfer resistance of building envelope and lower heat loss,so as to promote sustainable development of railway construction.%针对铁路建筑能耗占我国铁路总能耗较大比重的情况,为减少二氧化碳排放量,实现低能耗、低污染、低排放的减排目标,以铁路建筑节能为出发点,结合地区气候特征,从建筑物围护结构入手,阐述通过对铁路建筑合理设计站场规划、控制建筑体形系数、控制窗墙比,将建筑设计与建筑微气候,建筑技术和能源的有效利用相结合,充分利用有利的气候条件和抵御不利气候因素的影响,以增强铁路建筑物的墙体、门窗、屋顶、楼地面、遮阳等外围护结构的保温隔热性能,增强建筑的热稳定性,降低外围护墙体、门窗及屋面的传热系数,提高围护结构的传热阻,降低保温隔热性能冷热量损失的具体措施,从而促进铁路建筑可持续发展。

  4. Heat protection in summer for wooden residential buildings - Measurements on 'Minergie' single-family homes; Sommerlicher Waermeschutz bei Wohngebaeuden in Holzbauweise - Messungen in acht MINERGIE Einfamilienhaeusern - Entwurf Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, M.; Nutt, M. [Lemon Consult GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland); Keller, P. [Hochschule Luzern, Technik und Architektur, Horw (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This draft final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results obtained from measurements made in eight single-family homes built to the Swiss 'Minergie' standard. The project served to validate partly simplified simulations concerning the summertime thermal behaviour of low energy consumption buildings built of wood. The eight various 'Minergie' houses are described, as is the measurement concept chosen. The results obtained and the conclusions drawn are presented in detail and discussed, as is the implementation of measures derived from the project. Heat storage effects in the various building components are discussed. The results of the measurements are compared with the theoretical values obtained from calculations. Recommendations are presented. The report is augmented with a comprehensive appendix which includes the detailed measurement results for the buildings examined.

  5. Energy Performance of Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    emissions in the coming years. By approving the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive the European Union has taken a strong leadership role in promoting energy efficiency in buildings in Europe, and the Directive will be the most powerful instrument developed to date for the building sector in Europe...... programme (ECCP) was established in June 2000 to help identify the most environmentally cost-effective measures enabling the EU to meet its target under the Kyoto Protocol, namely an 8% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by 2012. Energy use in buildings accounts for almost half of all CO......-effective energy saving potential of between 22% and 40% of the energy consumption in the sector by the year 2020. The paper presents the European approach to improve sustainability in the building sector, which has a very high potential for considerable reduction of energy consumption and green house gas...

  6. Indoor 222Rn concentration measurements in some buildings of Hebron province during the winter season of the year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leghrouz, Amin A; Abu-Samreh, Mohammad M; Awawdah, Karam M; Abu-Taha, Mohammed I; Saleh, Abdelkarim M; Kitaneh, Rushdi M; Darwish, Saquer M

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we report on the indoor radon concentration levels in a number of locations scattered in the Hebron province, Palestine. The measurements were performed during the winter season of the year 1999/2000 using the CR-39 detectors. The radon concentration levels were found to vary from 23 to 580 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic average of the obtained radon concentration levels was found to be 91 Bq m(-3). It was found that most of the radon concentration levels in houses and school rooms are below the low reference levels limits. Most of the high-radon concentration levels were found in unpainted storage rooms.

  7. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  8. 高校图书馆党建工作品牌建设现状及对策研究%Studyon the Situation and Measures of the Brand-building in Basic Party Organization Building in College Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高卫卫; 沈元蕊; 杨寅华; 盛芳; 张云

    2014-01-01

    党建工作品牌对于促进高校图书馆党建工作与中心工作的有机融合具有重要意义。本文针对上海11所公办高校开展了关于“高校图书馆党建工作品牌建设情况”的问卷调查,总结了高校图书馆党建工作品牌建设的现状,分析了目前品牌建设方面存在的主要问题,探索了创建高校图书馆党建工作品牌的有效途径和保障机制。%The brand of basic party organization building is of vital importance in organically integrating basic party organization building and central task in college libraries. In this paper, a survey on The Situation of the Brand-building in Basic Party Organization Building in College Libraries is conducted in 11 public colleges’ libraries in Shanghai. Apart from the main problems that exist in the contemporary brand-building, the survey concerns the general situation of the brand-building, and then effective ways and the guarantee mechanism are proposed for brand in terms of party organization building for college libraries in this paper.

  9. Fast sorption measurements of volatile organic compounds on building materials: Part 1 – Methodology developed for field applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS has been coupled to the outlet of a Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC, to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC concentration during a sorption experiments (Rizk et al., this issue [1]. The limits of detection of the PTR-MS for three VOCs are presented for different time resolution (2, 10 and 20 s. The mass transfer coefficient was calculated in the FLEC cavity for the different flow rates. The concentration profile obtained from a sorption experiment performed on a gypsum board and a vinyl flooring are also presented in comparison with the profile obtained for a Pyrex glass used as a material that do not present any sorption behavior (no sink. Finally, the correlation between the concentration of VOCs adsorbed on the surface of the gypsum board at equilibrium (Cse and the concentration of VOCs Ce measured in the gas phase at equilibrium is presented for benzene, C8 aromatics and toluene.

  10. Shallow Water Measurements Using a Single Green Laser Corrected by Building a Near Water Surface Penetration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhu Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the size and cost of an integrated infrared (IR and green airborne LiDAR bathymetry (ALB system, and improve the accuracy of the green ALB system, this study proposes a method to accurately determine water surface and water bottom heights using a single green laser corrected by the near water surface penetration (NWSP model. The factors that influence the NWSP of green laser are likewise analyzed. In addition, an NWSP modeling method is proposed to determine the relationship between NWSP and the suspended sediment concentration (SSC of the surface layer, scanning angle of a laser beam and sensor height. The water surface and water bottom height models are deduced by considering NWSP and using only green laser based on the measurement principle of the IR laser and green laser, as well as employing the relationship between NWSP and the time delay of the surface return of the green laser. Lastly, these methods and models are applied to a practical ALB measurement. Standard deviations of 3.0, 5.3, and 1.3 cm are obtained by the NWSP, water-surface height, and water-bottom height models, respectively. Several beneficial conclusions and recommendations are drawn through the experiments and discussions.

  11. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Manually Coded English (MCE) Natural Gestures Speech Speech Reading (Lip Reading) Even though American Sign Language (ASL) is not a building block, it is sometimes used together with one or more building blocks. Close Information For... Media Policy Makers File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  12. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    ‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, comple...

  13. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  14. Assessment of the Minimum Sampling Frequency to Avoid Measurement Redundancy in Microclimate Field Surveys in Museum Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando-Juan García-Diego

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring temperature and relative humidity of the environment to which artefacts are exposed is fundamental in preventive conservation studies. The common approach in setting measuring instruments is the choice of a high sampling rate to detect short fluctuations and increase the accuracy of statistical analysis. However, in recent cultural heritage standards the evaluation of variability is based on moving average and short fluctuations and therefore massive acquisition of data in slowly-changing indoor environments could end up being redundant. In this research, the sampling frequency to set a datalogger in a museum room and inside a microclimate frame is investigated by comparing the outcomes obtained from datasheets associated with different sampling conditions. Thermo-hygrometric data collected in the Sorolla room of the Pio V Museum of Valencia (Spain were used and the widely consulted recommendations issued in UNI 10829:1999 and EN 15757:2010 standards and in the American Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers (ASHRAE guidelines were applied. Hourly sampling proved effective in obtaining highly reliable results. Furthermore, it was found that in some instances daily means of data sampled every hour can lead to the same conclusions as those of high frequency. This allows us to improve data logging design and manageability of the resulting datasheets.

  15. Assessment of the Minimum Sampling Frequency to Avoid Measurement Redundancy in Microclimate Field Surveys in Museum Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Verticchio, Elena; Beltrán, Pedro; Siani, Anna Maria

    2016-08-15

    Monitoring temperature and relative humidity of the environment to which artefacts are exposed is fundamental in preventive conservation studies. The common approach in setting measuring instruments is the choice of a high sampling rate to detect short fluctuations and increase the accuracy of statistical analysis. However, in recent cultural heritage standards the evaluation of variability is based on moving average and short fluctuations and therefore massive acquisition of data in slowly-changing indoor environments could end up being redundant. In this research, the sampling frequency to set a datalogger in a museum room and inside a microclimate frame is investigated by comparing the outcomes obtained from datasheets associated with different sampling conditions. Thermo-hygrometric data collected in the Sorolla room of the Pio V Museum of Valencia (Spain) were used and the widely consulted recommendations issued in UNI 10829:1999 and EN 15757:2010 standards and in the American Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers (ASHRAE) guidelines were applied. Hourly sampling proved effective in obtaining highly reliable results. Furthermore, it was found that in some instances daily means of data sampled every hour can lead to the same conclusions as those of high frequency. This allows us to improve data logging design and manageability of the resulting datasheets.

  16. Assessment of the Minimum Sampling Frequency to Avoid Measurement Redundancy in Microclimate Field Surveys in Museum Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Verticchio, Elena; Beltrán, Pedro; Siani, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring temperature and relative humidity of the environment to which artefacts are exposed is fundamental in preventive conservation studies. The common approach in setting measuring instruments is the choice of a high sampling rate to detect short fluctuations and increase the accuracy of statistical analysis. However, in recent cultural heritage standards the evaluation of variability is based on moving average and short fluctuations and therefore massive acquisition of data in slowly-changing indoor environments could end up being redundant. In this research, the sampling frequency to set a datalogger in a museum room and inside a microclimate frame is investigated by comparing the outcomes obtained from datasheets associated with different sampling conditions. Thermo-hygrometric data collected in the Sorolla room of the Pio V Museum of Valencia (Spain) were used and the widely consulted recommendations issued in UNI 10829:1999 and EN 15757:2010 standards and in the American Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers (ASHRAE) guidelines were applied. Hourly sampling proved effective in obtaining highly reliable results. Furthermore, it was found that in some instances daily means of data sampled every hour can lead to the same conclusions as those of high frequency. This allows us to improve data logging design and manageability of the resulting datasheets. PMID:27537886

  17. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  18. Clues to Technical Intervention’s Role in New Home Market Transformation: A Measure of Penetration Rates Using Building America and ENERGY STAR Datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Steward, Heidi E.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2006-08-13

    An important part of transforming markets is motivating manufacturers to improve their products. In the case of housing, manufacturers consist of a complex mix of builders ranging from Fortune 500 companies building thousands of homes per year all over the country, to small local companies that may build less than ten homes per year. Motivating these diverse companies to adopt energy-efficient building practices requires a combination of technical development, education, and the creation of a market that clearly identifies efficiency as a preference. But, in order to participate, builders need to know what to build and how to build it. ENERGY STAR® for homes has successfully found niches in many of the most active building markets in the nation. This paper explores the relationship between ENERGY STAR’s success, especially in the early years, and the role of building research and education as undertaken by DOE’s Building America Program. Using an empirical review of builder participation databases maintained by these two programs, the paper will show that Building America was instrumental in establishing a nucleus of competent builders in key markets that went on to participate in the ENERGY STAR program. Building America’s activities involved design intervention and field instruction for production builders. The paper will show that these builders went on to actively participate in ENERGY STAR, building 50% of labeled homes in some years, in selected markets. At the same time, the ENERGY STAR program motivated builders not trained by Building America to build the other 50% of houses.

  19. Measures and instruments for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from Norwegian buildings. A contribution to Climate Cure 2020; Tiltak og virkemidler for redusert utslipp av klimagasser fra norske bygninger.Et innspill til Klimakur 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Karen Byskov; Magnussen, Ingrid H.

    2010-03-15

    This sector report is about energy use in buildings in the service sector and households, and is backing a report to Climate Cure 2020 who came with its main report 17.february 2010 entitled 'Measures and instruments for achieving Norwegian climate targets to 2020'. The main mandate for Climate Cure 2020 was to study the measures and costs to achieve the national emissions target of 12-14 million tonnes of CO{sub 2} reduction in 2020. In this work, the use of electricity credited with zero greenhouse gas emissions. The work in Climate Cure has been divided by sectors and industry groups in society. The Norwegian Public Roads Administration was responsible for all transportation work, Climate and Pollution Agency has also been responsible for industry, waste and agriculture, the NPD petroleum and NVE has been responsible for the district heating sector and energy use in residential and commercial buildings. It follows that industrial buildings are not included in this sector report, but is taken care of in Climate and Pollution Agency sector report for industry. Dwellings and commercial buildings outside the industry currently accounts for approximately 33% of Norwegian energy and a CO{sub 2} emissions of around 3% of the total Norwegian greenhouse gas emissions. The dwellings were energy consumption 45 TWh in 2007 and 29 TWh in commercial buildings except industrial buildings. Growth in energy consumption in these two building categories were respectively 9% and 23% since 1990, but growth has leveled off in the latter half of the period. In this study of greenhouse gas reduction measures for buildings in Norway are analyzed measures to reduce use of fossil energy in the operational phase of buildings. Life-cycle analysis for buildings with construction and demolition is therefore not considered. This as a result of sectoral division of tasks in Climate Cure and challenges of imports of construction materials to Norway. The use of fossil energy, fuel oil

  20. Building Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — Explore real estate information about buildings in the Town of Cary.This file is created by the Town of Cary GIS Group. It contains data from both the Wake, Chatham...

  1. Building Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow

    2009-01-01

    The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion proje

  2. Extensive renovation the pathology of heritage building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures.......The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures....

  3. Extensive renovation the pathology of heritage buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures.......The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures....

  4. Misure in laboratorio di acustica edilizia a bassa frequenza: un approccio modale - Laboratory measurements of building acoustics at low frequency: a modal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Prato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nei tipici ambienti ordinari e di laboratorio (40-80 m3 e a bassa frequenza (50-100 Hz, il campo acustico risulta non diffuso a causa della presenza dei modi. In tali condizioni, le misure classiche di acustica edilizia (isolamento acustico per via aerea e da impatto, tempi di riverbera-zione sono inadeguate per caratterizzare correttamente le proprietà acustiche di partizioni, si-stemi di pavimentazioni e spazi chiusi. L’approccio modale permette di valutare tali proprietà studiando il comportamento dei modi. Sulla base di ciò, appropriate procedure di misura e nuovi descrittori sono proposti e discussi in modo da fornire possibili soluzioni per tali problematiche. ------ In typical laboratory and ordinary rooms (40-80 m3 and at low frequencies (50-100 Hz, the acoustic field is non-diffuse due to the presence of room modes. Under such conditions, standard building acoustics measurements (airborne and impact sound insulation, reverberation time and descriptors are not adequate to correctly characterize the acoustic property of partitions, flooring systems and rooms. The modal approach allows to evaluate such properties by studying the behavior of modes. On the basis of this, proper measurement procedures and new descriptors are proposed and discussed in order to provide possible solutions for such issues.

  5. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings....

  6. [Suggestion and hypnosis in hysteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, P

    1995-12-15

    Suggestive influences allow to resolve ambiguities. Normally they are only accepted if they correspond with the knowledge and believes of the subject. Under hypnosis or under the impact of serious psychic perturbations one may take up reality constructions which are not in conformity with these criteria. The restriction of consciousness and the ignoring of certain functions permitting this are the common basis of hypnosis and hysteria. But suggestions do not cause the later; they may only shape the symptomatology. Hypnosis can create a terrain facilitating the resolution of the problems underlying hysteria but it does not represent the treatment of hysteria.

  7. Our Buildings, Ourselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodman, David Malin; Lenssen, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    Reviews in detail environmental impacts associated with buildings. Discusses building construction, internal environments, building life spans, building materials, protection from climate, and amenities. (LZ)

  8. Brief Discussion on Green Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia-wei; Sun, Jian

    2014-08-01

    With more and more emphasizes on the environment and resources, the concept of green buildings has been widely accepted. Building materials are vectors of architectures, only if green building materials and related technical means are used, can we construct green buildings to achieve the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. This paper introduces the relationship between green building materials and green buildings, the current situation of green building materials in China, as well as the measures to accelerate the development of green building materials.

  9. A strategic approach for existing buildings to withstand climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2012-01-01

    Buildings play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. This paper suggests a strategic approach for existing buildings to withstand climate change. It emphasises the most likely climate impacts, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent...... change for buildings is given. The actions include four stages: a survey of the performance, the impact of climate change, the vulnerability of the existing building stock and climate adaptation needs. This leads to the identification of a risk-based strategic framework for adaptation to climate change...... based on the results of a vulnerability analysis. In addition, this paper describes some issues that must be addressed in case a strategic approach is not developed, as the building sector is continuously investing in measures to adapt to climate change....

  10. Domestic hot water consumption in district heated buildings - results of a representative measurement program. Brauchwarmwasserverbrauch - Messverfahren und Auswertung einer repraesentativen Messung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liptak, A. (Central Heating Station, Budapest (Hungary)); Garbai, L. (Ministry of Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Lakatos, T.; Ignacz, C. (Institute for Energy Economy, Budapest (Hungary))

    In recent years a representative measurement program has been organised by seven DH utilities in Hungary with the aim to elaborate a new standard for hot water consumption in district heated buildings. The hot water service in Hungary is based on a normative payment system, not dependent on the real consumption. The program included 10 several capacity DH substations in the range of 40-600 dwellings per substation in several cities of the country. Measuring took place during 90 days as a minimum for each substation. The integrated hot water consumption during a given time period is considered as a stochastic variable. Reference design data are characterized by a probability factor of 99%. For a given time period the dependence of consumption from the number of consumers can be determined, and for a given number of consumers the dependence of consumption from the observation period can be calculated. As a result a two-parameter description of consumption can be derived on the bases of the measured data. Regarding the aim of design data standardization the daily peak-period was basically considered. For short peak-periods a relatively small difference between weekend and working day consumption was recognised. For longer peak-periods and especially for the daily total consumption the weekend data were remarkable higher than on working days. By using the described theory the stochastic functions of consumption were elaborated with parameters as number of consumers and consumption peak-period. The range of parameters is as follows: - Number of consumers: Up to 1000 units, - consumption peak-period: From 1 minute up to 360 minutes. From the results some interesting comparison on theory and results can be made with the relevant German standard DIN 4708. (orig.).

  11. Building capacity for national level carbon Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) systems for a ``Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation'' (REDD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, N.; Goetz, S. J.; Baccini, A.; Walker, W. S.; Ndunda, P.; Mekui, P.; Kellndorfer, J. M.; Knight, D.

    2010-12-01

    An international policy mechanism is under negotiation for compensating tropical nations that succeed in lowering their greenhouse gas emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation, responsible for approximately one-fifth of worldwide carbon emissions. One of the barriers to its success is the adoption of a unique MRV system and the participation of developing countries in carbon monitoring. A successful REDD policy must rely on a robust, scalable, cost effective method that will allow the Measurement Reporting and Verification from local to national scales, while also developing well-trained technical personnel to implement national REDD carbon monitoring systems. Participation of governments and forest stakeholders in forest and carbon monitoring methods at WHRC is achieved through ongoing technical workshops which include training of participants to collect field data to calibrate biomass models, and an annual Scholar’s Program where forest officers from the tropical regions of Latin America, Africa and Southeast Asia work with Woods Hole Research Center scientsts to improve skills in forest measurement and remote sensing monitoring techniques . Capacity building activities focus on technical aspects and approaches to forest-cover and carbon mapping and the use of satellite imagery together with ground-based measurement techniques in the development of forest cover and carbon-stock maps. After two years, the three-year project has involved more than 200 forest specialists from governments and NGOs in Bolivia, Cambodia, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Kenya, Uganda, Vietnam and Zambia, among others with participation of ten scholars actively participating in the developement of National REDD plans for forest mapping and monitoring. Field Training Mbandaka- DR Congo 2010

  12. Thermal insulation made to measure. Buildings made of concrete. Planning documentation, construction information, calculation examples. 6. ed. Waermeschutz nach Mass. Hochbauten aus Beton. Planungsgrundlagen, Konstruktionshinweise, Rechenbeispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.; Krieger, R.; Moritz, H.

    1990-01-01

    The brochure contains hints, working aids and proposed solutions; it addresses, preferably, all those who are projecting new buildings. Apart from thermal insulation, it also goes into moisture-proofing, sound abatement, and fire protection. There are tables presenting the physical characteristics of all standard walls, roofs, and ceilings accepted by the building authorities. (BWI).

  13. State-of-the-art in the measurement of volatile organic compounds emitted from building products: results of European interlaboratory comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bortoli, M; Kephalopoulos, S; Kirchner, S; Schauenburg, H; Vissers, H

    1999-06-01

    Eighteen laboratories from 10 European countries participated in a comparison organized as part of the VOCEM project, a 2.5-year research collaboration among 4 research institutes and 4 industrial companies. The scope of the project was to improve the procedure used to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from building materials and products in small test chambers. The interlaboratory comparison included the GC-MS determination of 5 target compounds from carpet, 8 from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cushion vinyl and 2 from paint; for the first time, chamber recovery (sinks), homogeneity of solid materials and possible contamination during transport were tested. The results show that the intralaboratory variance (random errors) is much smaller than the interlaboratory variance (systematic errors). Causes of the largest interlaboratory discrepancies were: (i) analytical errors; (ii) losses of the heaviest compounds due to sorption on the chamber walls; and (iii) non homogeneity of the materials. The output of this work concerns both the objective of labelling materials with regard to their VOC emissions and the pre-standard drafted by the European Commitee for Standardization (CEN) for this type of determination.

  14. Interim Measures Report for the Headquarters Building Area Location of Concern (LOC) 2E East SWMU 104 John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Eric D.

    2016-01-01

    The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment portion of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit issued by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), requires identification and evaluation of all known Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Locations of Concern (LOCs) located on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) property. The KSC Headquarters Building Area (KHQA) has been identified as SWMU 104 under KSC's RCRA Program. This report summarizes the Interim Measure (IM) conducted by Geosyntec Consultants (Geosyntec) for NASA under Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity Contract NNK12CA13B at the KHQA to mitigate potential exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-affected media at the eastern side of LOC 2E. The IM activities were conducted in June and July 2015 to remediate PCBs above the FDEP Residential Direct-Exposure (R-) Soil Cleanup Target Level (SCTL) of 0.5 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg) established by Chapter 62-777, Florida Administrative Code. The IM was performed in accordance with the IM Work Plan (IMWP) approved by the FDEP, dated August 2012. IM activities were conducted in accordance with the KSC Generic PCB Work Plan (NASA 2007).

  15. Several energy-saving measures of building electricity design%建筑电气设计中的几项节能措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩云

    2015-01-01

    从变压器、配电系统线路、功率因数补偿、照明系统、电气设备等方面介绍了建筑电气设计中的节能措施,指出只有高效利用能源,降低运行损耗,合理应用节能技术,才能实现智能、绿色、低碳的可持续发展目标。%The paper introduces building electricity design energy-saving measures from aspects of transformer,distribution system route,power factor compensation,lighting system and electricity equipment and so on,and points out that:only through using energy efficiently,reducing operation consumption and rationally using energy-saving techniques,can we realize the goal of intelligent,green and low-carbon sustainable de-velopment.

  16. Suggestions on photons and fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Alvargonzalez, R

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a configuration of photons consistent with a spin $\\hbar$, and a configuration of the fermions coherent with a spin $\\hbar/2$. These suggested configurations open the way to further analyses which lead to the following conclusions: - There cannot exist elementary particles of spin $\\hbar/2$ with a mass inferior to $1m_e$ or with a radius greater than $1l_e$. - The electrostatic force derives from the centrifugal forces inherent to the spin and are propagated by photons. - The derivation of the electrostatic force explains the existence of positive and negative charges and Coulomb's law. - The enormous differences between the centrifugal forces and the centripetal forces at the surface of the protons give rise to quantic fluctuations of space which generate the energy flows necessary for equilibrium. These energy flows can explain gravitation and the strong force. - The mass of the proton, $m_p$, and the mass of the neutron, $m_n$, must each have a concrete value required for the cohes...

  17. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  18. Thermal testing of building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, O.; Kirzhanov, D.; Avramenko, V.; Budadin, O.

    2006-04-01

    Averaged heat transfer resistance of the building envelope is the primary parameter that determines the energy saving characteristics of the building. At the phase of the building design it is usually taken into account that building must preserve heat effectively. It is mostly important in northern countries where cold seasons last for more than a half of year. Usually infrared methods are used to find mechanical defects of the building envelope. In this article an alternative way to describe the building envelope using infrared camera is presented. The method includes the determination of local heat engineering characteristics of the envelope using contact measurements and the determination of averaged heat transfer resistance of the buildings envelope using its infrared image.

  19. Results of measurements in an urban development project of passive buildings at Kronsberg, Hanover; Ergebnisse der Messungen in der Passivhaussiedlung Hannover Kronsberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfluger, R.; Peper, S. [Passivhaus-Inst., Darmstadt (Germany)

    2000-03-01

    The development project is to prove the economic viability of passive buildings. The buildings will be connected to a local wind power system for auxiliary power supply. Measurements were made during the first heating period in 1999 but no conclusive results are available so far. [German] Die klimaneutrale Passivhaus-Siedlung Hannover-Kronsberg soll erstmals in Europa zeigen, dass eine vollstaendige regenerative Versorgung nicht nur technisch moeglich, sondern auch oekonomisch vertretbar ist. Der Ausgleich der verbleibenden geringen restlichen Primaerenergieverbraeuche der Passivhaeuser soll durch die Ankopplung an die ortsnahe noch zu errichtende Windkraftanlage ermoeglicht werden. Durch die Auswertung der ersten Messdaten zeigt sich, dass die Temperaturen in den 32 Haeusern im ueblichen Rahmen von Wohngebaeuden liegen. Die tagsmittleren Heizleistungen aller Haeuser in der untersuchten Zeit (12.11. bis 14.12.1999) liegt bei P{sub heiz} {sub Mittel}=3,99 W/m{sup 2}, das Maximum bei P{sub heiz} {sub Mittel}=5,66 W/m{sup 2}. Betrachtet man die Haeuser einzeln, so ist ein maximaler tagesmittlerer Wert von P{sub heiz} {sub Mittel}=17,61 W/m{sup 2} gemessen worden. Im Passivhaus werden maximale Heizleistungen von P{sub heiz}=10 W/m{sup 2} angestrebt. Damit liegen einige Ausreisser ueber den erwarteten Werten. Dies hat die Ursache vermutlich im Anheizen bis dahin nicht bewohnter Haeuser. Dabei zeigt sich positiv, dass solche erhoehten mittleren Leistungen mit dem Heizregister und dem Badheizkoerper (ca. 1,1 kW) moeglich sind. Die Waermeverbraeuche fuer den Dezember 1999 liegen bei der ueblichen Streuung fuer Wohngebaeude im Mittel bei Q{sub Heiz}=383 kWh geringfuegig ueber dem projektierten Wert von Q{sub Heiz}=367 kWh. Es zeigt sich damit, dass die Verbrauchsdaten in der erwarteten Groessenordnung liegen. Nach Bezug aller Haeuser, Beruecksichtigung der Fernwaermeleitungen sowie dem Wegfall bzw. der Reduzierung der Aufheizvorgaenge wird sich dieser Wert in der Zukunft

  20. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  1. Building Energy Efficiency in India: Compliance Evaluation of Energy Conservation Building Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Delgado, Alison

    2014-03-26

    s enactment, only two states and one territory out of 35 Indian states and union territories formally adopted ECBC and six additional states are in the legislative process of approving ECBC. There are several barriers that slow down the process. First, stakeholders, such as architects, developers, and state and local governments, lack awareness of building energy efficiency, and do not have enough capacity and resources to implement ECBC. Second, institution for implementing ECBC is not set up yet; ECBC is not included in local building by-laws or incorporated into the building permit process. Third, there is not a systematic approach to measuring and verifying compliance and energy savings, and thus the market does not have enough confidence in ECBC. Energy codes achieve energy savings only when projects comply with codes, yet only few countries measure compliance consistently and periodic checks often indicate poor compliance in many jurisdictions. China and the U.S. appear to be two countries with comprehensive systems in code enforcement and compliance The United States recently developed methodologies measuring compliance with building energy codes at the state level. China has an annual survey investigating code compliance rate at the design and construction stages in major cities. Like many developing countries, India has only recently begun implementing an energy code and would benefit from international experience on code compliance. In this paper, we examine lessons learned from the U.S. and China on compliance assessment and how India can apply these lessons to develop its own compliance evaluation approach. This paper also provides policy suggestions to national, state, and local governments to improve compliance and speed up ECBC implementation.

  2. On the Existing Problems of Technical Investigation Measures and Suggestions for Improvement%我国技术侦查措施存在的问题及完善建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彪; 陈昊

    2014-01-01

    新修改的《刑事诉讼法》对技术侦查措施作了较多、较明确的规定,是我国证据法治、侦查法治建设取得的重大成就,推动了我国技术侦查制度的法治化进程,对于有力地打击犯罪,有效地保障人权具有重要的现实意义。但是,现行《刑事诉讼法》关于技术侦查措施的规定也存在很多问题,如概念模糊、种类不确定、适用范围不清、适用条件宽松、证据材料使用不科学等,在司法实务操作中易导致技术侦查权的滥用,无法保障公民的基本权利。因此,需要明确技术侦查措施的种类,规范技术侦查措施的审批程序,严格控制采用技术侦查手段的期限;规定技术侦查措施合理的适用范围,明确技术侦查措施的实施主体;并采取有效措施,在保密的同时保证辩方的知悉权、质询权,从而使我国的技术侦查措施予以完善。%The new revised “Code of Criminal Procedure” provides more detailed and specific provisions on investigative measures, which is regarded as a great achievement in the judicial construction of evidence and investigation. It is of important and practical significance to the fighting of crimes and the effective protection of human rights. It also promotes the rule of law in the process of technical investigation system. However, there are many problems existing in the “Criminal Procedure Law”provisions on technical investigation measures, such as fuzzy concept, uncertain type, unclear scope, loose applicable conditions and unscientific material evidence etc, which may easily result in abuse of investigation power and failing to protect the basic rights of citizens. Therefore, in terms of technical investigative measures, we are supposed to ensure the following aspects, such as the specific types, standard approval procedures, strictly controlled time limit of employing the measures, reasonable scope of application and the

  3. Building energy governance in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, YiHsiu Michelle

    With Asia's surging economies and urbanization, the region is adding to its built environment at an unprecedented rate, especially those population centers in China and India. With numerous existing buildings, plus a new building boom, construction in these major Asian cities has caused momentous sustainability challenges. This dissertation focuses on China's leading city, Shanghai, to explore and assess its existing commercial building energy policies and practices. Research estimates that Shanghai's commercial buildings might become a key challenge with regard to energy use and CO2 emissions as compared to other major Asian cities. Relevant building energy policy instruments at national and local levels for commercial buildings are reviewed. In addition, two benchmarks are established to further assess building energy policies in Shanghai. The first benchmark is based on the synthesis of relevant criteria and policy instruments as recommended by professional organizations, while the second practical benchmark is drawn from an analysis of three global cities: New York, London and Tokyo. Moreover, two large-scale commercial building sites - Shanghai IKEA and Plaza 66 - are selected for investigation and assessment of their efforts on building energy saving measures. Detailed building energy savings, CO2 reductions, and management cost reductions based on data availability and calculations are presented with the co-benefits approach. The research additionally analyzes different interventions and factors that facilitate or constrain the implementation process of building energy saving measures in each case. Furthermore, a multi-scale analytical framework is employed to investigate relevant stakeholders that shape Shanghai's commercial building energy governance. Research findings and policy recommendations are offered at the close of this dissertation. Findings and policy recommendations are intended to facilitate commercial building energy governance in Shanghai and

  4. Building Sandcastles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø; Korsgaard, Steffen; Shumar, Wes

    of entrepreneurship education. Our theoretical and methodological approach builds on Actor-Network Theory. The empirical settings of our study consist of two entrepreneurship courses which differ in terms of temporal extension and physical setting. Data is collected using observation and interview techniques. Our...

  5. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...

  6. Building Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, Mary J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Defines school-business partnerships and reviews changes in such partnerships over the past 25 years. Provides steps to building effective partnerships for school-to-work activities: review the school's mission; select partners that will bring strength to the relationship; set clearly defined, realistic goals; maintain the partnership; and…

  7. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  8. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which......, which gives the book a challenging contribution to the existing body of knowledge....

  9. Building Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, Mary J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Defines school-business partnerships and reviews changes in such partnerships over the past 25 years. Provides steps to building effective partnerships for school-to-work activities: review the school's mission; select partners that will bring strength to the relationship; set clearly defined, realistic goals; maintain the partnership; and…

  10. Recent Measurements of CP Asymmetries of B \\to \\phi K^0 and B \\to \\eta' K_S at B-factories Suggest New CP Violation in Left-Handed Squark Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, M; Yamaguchi, M; Endo, Motoi; Mishima, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    Recent results on the mixing-induced CP asymmetries of B \\to \\phi K^0 and B \\to \\eta' K_S measured at B-factories appear to indicate discrepancies from the Standard Model expectation. Explanation of this possible anomaly is given in the context of supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. It is shown that the present data, if the average of two experiments is taken, implies additional CP violation appearing in the generation mixing of left-handed squarks rather than that of right-handed ones. This explanation is argued to disfavor many mediation mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking, including minimal supergravity, because renormalization group effects via Yukawa interaction are unlikely to generate the desired mass mixing.

  11. Energy flexibility in the buildings. Status and strategy; Energifleksibilitet i bygningsmassen. Status og strategi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soegnen, Ole-Gunnar

    1998-12-31

    According to this publication, Norway is now about to consume more energy than the country produces and the authorities realize that there is a need for increased energy flexibility in buildings. Traditionally, energy flexibility in buildings is defined as the possibility of using several energy sources for heating. The net total floor area in Norwegian buildings is 313 million m{sup 2}. Dwellings account for 65%, commercial buildings for 35%. Private dwellings in small houses account for 57%. Conditions are such that improvement in the energy consumption can be achieved faster by measures aiming at existing buildings rather than at new buildings. House owners and energy suppliers maintain that the prices of electricity and oil are a barrier for the introduction of new renewable energy sources. The superior strategy is that all measures suggested should contribute to the authorities` target of a sustainable development, in the climate policy and the energy supply policy. 9 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Discussion on the Measures of Fire Precautions in High-rise Building%浅谈高层火灾防范措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁江红; 夏萍; 周鹏

    2011-01-01

    The high-rise building is a symbol of urban modernization level, there are many internal blind area for controlling, which is easy to appear kinds of cases, and fire is the fatal enemy of high-rise buildings.High-rise building fire prevention should be primarily from the standardizing the management of building facilities and fire prevention.%高层建筑作为城市现代化水平的标志,内部很多地方往往是治安控制的盲区,易发生各类案件,火灾更是高层建筑物致命的敌人.高层建筑物的火灾防范工作应主要从规范建筑物设施和加强消防管理两个方面进行.

  13. Application of Technical Measures and Software in Constructing Photorealistic 3D Models of Historical Building Using Ground-Based and Aerial (UAV Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarnowski Aleksander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preparing digital documentation of historical buildings is a form of protecting cultural heritage. Recently there have been several intensive studies using non-metric digital images to construct realistic 3D models of historical buildings. Increasingly often, non-metric digital images are obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV. Technologies and methods of UAV flights are quite different from traditional photogrammetric approaches. The lack of technical guidelines for using drones inhibits the process of implementing new methods of data acquisition.

  14. Rapid Building Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    U.S. Department of Energy DPW OMD Directorate of Public Works Operations Maintenance Division ECM energy conservation measure EEB Hub Energy... EEB Hub). 5 For this project, FirstFuel worked with 11 DoD installations across the country to identify buildings for remote audit

  15. Energy planning in civil engineering: demand and measurement aspects of residential buildings; Planejamento energetico na engenharia civil: aspectos da demanda e dimensionamento de circuitos em instalacoes prediais de uso residencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Carlos A.; Borin, Fernando L. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil

    1996-12-31

    The electrical design of residential buildings has been under great attention from electrical companies and designers due to the use of modern equipment associated to the higher standard of life. This has established a great increase of electrical load and, therefore, higher levels of energy consumption. A discussion on design criteria and their optimizations, in order to get subsidies for a more adequate electrical designs using parameters which minimize the costs is presented.Practical measurements of energy consumption and demand got frm several vertical buildings at Campinas city have been considered. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Time-resolved single-photon detection module based on silicon photomultiplier: A novel building block for time-correlated measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinenghi, E.; Di Sieno, L.; Contini, D.; Sanzaro, M.; Pifferi, A.; Dalla Mora, A.

    2016-07-01

    We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm2 together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).

  17. Time-resolved single-photon detection module based on silicon photomultiplier: A novel building block for time-correlated measurement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinenghi, E; Di Sieno, L; Contini, D; Sanzaro, M; Pifferi, A; Dalla Mora, A

    2016-07-01

    We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm(2) together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).

  18. Time-resolved single-photon detection module based on silicon photomultiplier: A novel building block for time-correlated measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinenghi, E., E-mail: edoardo.martinenghi@polimi.it; Di Sieno, L.; Contini, D.; Dalla Mora, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Sanzaro, M. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Pifferi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm{sup 2} together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).

  19. An Investigation on Formaldehyde Emission Characteristics of Wood Building Materials in Chinese Standard Tests: Product Emission Levels, Measurement Uncertainties, and Data Correlations between Various Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    Full Text Available As a large producer and consumer of wood building materials, China suffers product formaldehyde emissions (PFE but lacks systematic investigations and basic data on Chinese standard emission tests (CST, so this paper presented a first effort on this issue. The PFE of fiberboards, particleboards, blockboards, floorings, and parquets manufactured in Beijing region were characterized by the perforator extraction method (PE, 9-11 L and 40 L desiccator methods (D9, D40, and environmental chamber method (EC of the Chinese national standard GB 18580; based on statistics of PFE data, measurement uncertainties in CST were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method; moreover, PFE data correlations between tests were established. Results showed: (1 Different tests may give slightly different evaluations on product quality. In PE and D9 tests, blockboards and parquets reached E1 grade for PFE, which can be directly used in indoor environment; but in D40 and EC tests, floorings and parquets achieved E1. (2 In multiple tests, PFE data characterized by PE, D9, and D40 complied with Gaussian distributions, while those characterized by EC followed log-normal distributions. Uncertainties in CST were overall low, with uncertainties for 20 material-method combinations all below 7.5%, and the average uncertainty for each method under 3.5%, thus being acceptable in engineering application. A more complicated material structure and a larger test scale caused higher uncertainties. (3 Conventional linear models applied to correlating PFE values between PE, D9, and EC, with R2 all over 0.840, while novel logarithmic (exponential models can work better for correlations involving D40, with R2 all beyond 0.901. This research preliminarily demonstrated the effectiveness of CST, where results for D40 presented greater similarities to EC-the currently most reliable test for PFE, thus highlighting the potential of Chinese D40 as a more practical approach in production control and risk

  20. 推出市政债券为新型城镇化建设融资%Policy Suggestions and Measures for Municipal Bonds, New Urbanization Construction Financing Launched in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峥嵘

    2013-01-01

    新型城镇化建设的融资需求已引起各方主体的高度重视,探索推出市政债券是其中一个重要举措。为此,当前应加快立法,加强法制建设,健全法律法规体系,完善相关法律制度;规范地方政府举债行为,强化对地方政府举债的市场约束,构建多元化的城镇化建设融资体系,建立可持续的城镇化建设融资机制;严格执行财经纪律,构建地方政府的财政信用,强化地方财政预算约束,提高地方财政预算执行的透明度;完善信用风险管理制度,加强信用风险管理,有效防范和控制市政债券的信用风险;制定市政债券投资的税收优惠政策,增强对投资者的吸引力,发展壮大投资者队伍。%the main obstacles facing the municipal bonds,municipal bonds,to launch new urbanization construction financing policy suggestions are put forward as follows:speeding up the legislation,strengthen legal construction,improve the legal system,improve the relevant legal system;for local government borrowing behavior, strengthening market restriction of local government borrowing,construction the diversified urban construction financing system, the establishment of sustainable urbanization construction financing mechanism;strictly enforce financial discipline,the construction of local government financial credit,strengthening local government budget constraints, improve the local financial budget transparency;improve the credit risk management system, strengthen the credit risk management,credit risk effective prevention and control of municipal bonds;the preferential tax policy of municipal bond investment,enhance the ability to absorb the investors, expand investment team.

  1. Tropical Zero Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter; Kristensen, Poul Erik

    2006-01-01

    The new headquarter for Pusat Tenaga Malaysia is designed to be a Zero Emission Office Building (ZEO). A full range of passive and active energy efficiency measures are implemented such that the building will need no more electricity than what can be produced via its own Building Integrated PV...... by daylight, supplemented by electric lighting during very dark and overcast periods. Extensive active energy efficiency measures are implemented in the building in order to reduce the need for electricity to an absolute minimum, without compromising the request for comfortable temperatures and adequate...... lighting. These measures include the use of high efficient lighting controlled according to demand, high efficiency pumps and fans, a high efficiency chiller, and use of energy efficient office equipment. The buildings PV system is connected to the grid. Solar electricity is exported to the grid during...

  2. Tropical Zero Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter; Kristensen, Poul Erik

    2006-01-01

    The new headquarter for Pusat Tenaga Malaysia is designed to be a Zero Emission Office Building (ZEO). A full range of passive and active energy efficiency measures are implemented such that the building will need no more electricity than what can be produced via its own Building Integrated PV...... by daylight, supplemented by electric lighting during very dark and overcast periods. Extensive active energy efficiency measures are implemented in the building in order to reduce the need for electricity to an absolute minimum, without compromising the request for comfortable temperatures and adequate...... lighting. These measures include the use of high efficient lighting controlled according to demand, high efficiency pumps and fans, a high efficiency chiller, and use of energy efficient office equipment. The buildings PV system is connected to the grid. Solar electricity is exported to the grid during...

  3. Building Cost and Performance Metrics: Data Collection Protocol, Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Solana, Amy E.; Spees, Kathleen L.

    2005-09-29

    This technical report describes the process for selecting and applying the building cost and performance metrics for measuring sustainably designed buildings in comparison to traditionally designed buildings.

  4. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...... Belgrade), Leo Pekkala (Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media/MEKU), Julie Uldam (Network on Civic Engagement and Social Innovation) and Gabriella Velics (Community Media Forum Europe)....

  5. Building Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Cabinet是种十分吸引人却很简单的衬线字体,是由一名匿名字体设计师专门为Building Letters最新的资金筹集活动所设计的。这个Building Letters包中包含一个CDROM,有32种字体,以及一本专门设计的杂志和两张由Eboy和Emigre所设计的海报。字体光盘样例是由世界顶级的字体设计师们设计的.

  6. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  7. PV cool-build

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, B.; Nuh, D.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project to develop a method for calculating the operating temperature of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) modules/laminates which are estimated to operate above ambient temperature. The aim of the study was to minimise the temperature of the BIPV in order to increase the production of clean electricity. Details are given of a series of indoor experiments, computer modelling, and outdoor measurements. The production of a readily available, user-friendly design guide for architects and building designers is discussed.

  8. How to Measure Carbon Emission Reduction in China’s Public Building Sector: Retrospective Decomposition Analysis Based on STIRPAT Model in 2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minda Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Productive building energy efficiency (BEE work is an approved factor in the progress of sustainable urbanization in China, with the assessment of carbon emission reduction in China’s public buildings (CERCPB being an essential element of this endeavor. Nevertheless, such evaluation has been hampered by inadequate and inefficient approaches; this is the first study to utilize the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index Type I (LMDI-I to decompose the equation of China’s public building carbon emissions (CPBCE with the connected driving factors (population in China, floor areas of China’s existing public buildings, building service level index of China’s existing public buildings, and the comparable CPBCE intensity, and this equation was established by the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT model. The LMDI and STIRPAT approaches subsequently assessed the CERCPB values from 2001 to 2015. The results indicated that: (1 Only the contribution of the comparable CPBCE intensity to CPBCE was negative during 2001–2015; this represents the CERCPB value for the period. (2 The assessment results indicated that CERCPB has accumulated considerably with the swift progress of BEE work in China in 2001–2015. The CERCPB values in 2001–2005, 2006–2010, and 2011–2015 were 69.29, 158.53, and 277.86 million tons of carbon dioxide, respectively. (3 This study demonstrated that the positive effect of implementing public BEE work in China had led to significant results in 2001–2015, which can be regarded as a prerequisite for producing the considerable accumulation of CERCPB over this period. Overall, this study illustrated the feasibility of employing the LMDI and STIRPAT approaches for assessing the CERCPB value. Accordingly, we believe the results of this study are a significant driving force in the next phase of the development of the carbon emission control strategy of public buildings and sustainable

  9. Analysis of building energy efficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDeying; FANYun; HAOBin

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the matter of building energy efficiency and heating system, and puts forward the measure of heating innovation, aiming at the improvement of Chinese building energy efficiency and heating innovation, which exceeds some possible advice for future development.

  10. Radon Exhalation Considered in Building Material Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In order to investigate the relationship between radon exhalation and specific activity of natural nuclides in building material, here different kinds of samples of building materials were measured by the

  11. The impact of a 'green' building on employees' physical and psychological wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Milner, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Multiple claims and some empirical findings suggest that 'green' buildings should be healthier (psychologically and physically) and promote greater productivity than conventional buildings. The empirical evidence in this regard over the last decade or so has been inconclusive suggesting either that the studies are flawed or that there are specific aspects of green buildings that promote wellbeing and productivity and others that do not. This study looks at a longitudinal comparison of two groups; a group that moved into South Africa's first GreenStar-accredited building and a group that did not. Measures were taken before the move and six months later. Results demonstrated that the 'green' building did not produce significantly better physical or psychological wellbeing, or higher perceived productivity. These results are discussed in relation to suggestions for what design features to focus on that may produce significant results.

  12. Green Building and School Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNola, Ralph; Guerra, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of green, or high-performance, buildings, such as health and comfort, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. Explores the barriers to their use by schools--most notably cost. Offers suggestions on overcoming these barriers. (EV)

  13. 建筑节能的实现途径与发展方向%Measures and Development of Building Energy Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟昕; 侯恩哲; 王霖

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese building energy consumption is analyzed to point out the importance and meaning of building energy saving. The effective ways are proposed to realize building energy-efficiency. Promoting energy-efficient residential buildings is one of the most effective methods. The building energy efficiency will be achieved through effective using of natural energy and resources, which implies the strategic idea of harmonious development between man and nature, as well as the embodiment of sustainable development.%  在分析目前中国建筑能耗状况的基础上,剖析了建筑节能的重要性及其内涵,指出实现建筑节能的有效途径,提出推广节能型住宅模式是促进建筑节能最有效的方法之一。今后建筑节能的发展将围绕资源、能源的高效利用以及最大限度地利用自然能等方式,体现人与自然的和谐发展以及可持续发展的战略理念。

  14. Commercial Building Energy Asset Score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-26

    This software (Asset Scoring Tool) is designed to help building owners and managers to gain insight into the as-built efficiency of their buildings. It is a web tool where users can enter their building information and obtain an asset score report. The asset score report consists of modeled building energy use (by end use and by fuel type), building systems (envelope, lighting, heating, cooling, service hot water) evaluations, and recommended energy efficiency measures. The intended users are building owners and operators who have limited knowledge of building energy efficiency. The scoring tool collects minimum building data (~20 data entries) from users and build a full-scale energy model using the inference functionalities from Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS). The scoring tool runs real-time building energy simulation using EnergyPlus and performs life-cycle cost analysis using FEDS. An API is also under development to allow the third-party applications to exchange data with the web service of the scoring tool.

  15. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efraimidis, Pavlos; Drosatos, George; Arampatzis, Avi; Stamatelatos, Giorgos; Athanasiadis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to o

  16. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  17. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  18. 建筑安装工程造价的影响因素和控制措施%Building installation engineering cost influencing factors and control measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱云

    2014-01-01

    Through analyzing current building installation engineering project cost problems,the paper studies effective methods of controlling building installation engineering project cost from aspects of project design,tender,completion settlement and personnel management,with a view to effectively solving building engineering project installation cost problem.%通过分析当前建筑安装工程项目造价出现的问题,从项目设计、招投标、竣工结算、人员管理等环节研究了有效控制管理建筑安装工程项目造价的手段,以期有效解决建筑工程项目安装造价的问题。

  19. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  20. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  1. The European GreenBuilding Projects Catalogue 2014

    OpenAIRE

    BERTOLDI PAOLO; Cuniberti, Barbara; De Luca, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 the European Commission launched the GreenBuilding Programme (GBP). GreenBuilding is a voluntary programme aiming at improving the energy efficiency of non-residential buildings in Europe on voluntary basis. The programme addresses owners of non-residential buildings to realise cost-effective measures which enhance the energy efficiency of their buildings in one or more technical services. The programme covers both existing and new buildings. The GreenBuilding Programme reached its 8t...

  2. MYCELIUM BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Jondelius, Olof

    2015-01-01

    This work is looking in to what possibilites and restrictions comes with using mycelium as a building material for a small house. It includes reasoning around solutions for some of the problems and presenting some ideas of how to use some of the materials properties in your favor. A general background of why we need to start look in to alternative materials for all petroleum materials are presented. Det här arbetet har varit inriktat på att se vilka möjligheter samt begränsningar det skul...

  3. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available establishment of its platform. Van Wyk believes that South Africa faces other challenges when it comes to sustainable building. “You can’t separate the process from the product,” he says. “South Africa still has to learn a lot and has to make many... stakeholders and implemented at an early stage. By G uy O lde nk ott e Bu idl ing Af ric aa rc hiv es Bu idl ing Af ric aa rc hiv es Perfect blend November 2007 jFM BUSINESS, RETAIL & LEISURE FACILITIES6 During the FM Expo...

  4. Commercial Building Partnership General Merchandise Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  5. Commercial Building Partnership Retail Food Sales Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  6. Measures and Suggestions to Improve the Labor Force in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Daniela MANEA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the recession that included almost the entire world, the global labor market is facing stressful situation. A reorientation of global labor market strategies occurs. Employment policies should be oriented so that the active work potential to be available, capable and trained to fill jobs offered by an economy in crisis. An important role in the economic strategies reorientation from the labor market in the current context, is played by the reform of education and professional training of the workforce, which is regarded as a national priority that will replace the social slogan that has been used over the last few years:"A job for everyone" with the slogan "Covering the economy with the workers needed". Challenges brought about by the labor market in Romania are related to the employment targets set in the Lisbon European Council, the achievement of employment structure based on productivity increase, reducing unemployment rate among young people, adopting an economic growth model based on employment increase.

  7. Studies on wind environment around high buildings in urban areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Huizhi; JIANG; Yujun; LIANG; Bin; ZHU; Fengrong; ZHAN

    2005-01-01

    High buildings or architectural complex in urban areas remarkably distort the urban surface wind fields. As the air flow approaches,local strong wind may appear around the buildings. The strong wind makes the pedestrians on sidewalks, entrances and terrace very uncomfortable and causes the pedestrian level wind environment problem. In this studies, hot-wire wind measurement, wind scouring in wind tunnel and numerical computation were carried out to evaluate the wind environment of tall buildings in the prevailing flow conditions in Beijing areas. The results obtained by three techniques were compared and mutually verified. The conclusions drawn from three approaches agree with each other. Also the advantages and limitations of each method were analyzed. It is suggested that the combination of different techniques may produce better assessment of wind environment around high buildings.

  8. 绿色建筑运行实效检测技术和项目实践%Measuring technologies of real effect for green buildings during operation and its project practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙大明

    2012-01-01

    In view of the characteristics of numerous measuring contents, complicated measuring conditions and long measuring periods of actual effect measuring for green buildings during operation, analyses the technical requirements of the selection of sampling amount, the determination of measuring conditions, the selection of measuring contents and the control of measuring costs. With a project example, proposes some strategies for solving the problems existing in measuring of actual effect for green building operation.%针对绿色建筑运行实效检测内容广、工况复杂以及周期长的特点,分析了抽样数量的选择、检测工况的确定、检测项的选择、检测成本的控制等技术要求,结合工程实例,提出了绿色建筑运行实效检测中遇到的各种问题的处理方案.

  9. Occupant satisfaction with the acoustical environment : green office buildings before and after treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Acoustics and Noise Research Group

    2009-07-01

    Sustainable architecture is meant to preserve the environment and conserve natural resources, as well as provide an environment for the occupants that promotes wellbeing and productivity. Occupants generally claim that the acoustical environment is the least satisfactory aspect of green office buildings. They are dissatisfied with excessive noise and poor speech privacy. This paper reported on the results of 2 studies of the acoustical environments in green office buildings before and after acoustical-control measures were installed. Acoustical quality was evaluated by occupant-satisfaction surveys and acoustical-parameter measurements. The first study, which involved 6 green office buildings, showed that buildings designed to obtain LEED ratings are unlikely to have satisfactory acoustical environments. A naturally-ventilated, green university building with a poor acoustical environment was examined in the second study. The results of this study suggest that improving acoustical environments in green buildings requires good acoustical design, with input from an acoustical specialist from the beginning of the design process. The design should consider site selection and building orientation; external envelope and penetrations in it; building layout and internal partitions; HVAC systems; appropriate dimensioning of spaces; and the amount and location of sound absorbing treatments. The study also showed that a building's energy efficiency, lighting, ventilation, air-quality and acoustics are interconnected, and that no aspect can be successfully designed in isolation. It was concluded that optimized engineering-control measures can improve poor acoustical environments. 11 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  10. Building Air Quality Guide: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Building Air Quality, developed by the EPA and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, provides practical suggestions on preventing, identifying, and resolving indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in public and commercial buildings.

  11. Carbon Efficient Building Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellervo Matilainen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the Finnish legislation have focused on energy use and especially on energy used for heating space in buildings. However, in many cases this does not lead to the optimal concept in respect to minimizing green house gases. This paper studies how CO2 emission levels are affected by different measures to reduce energy use in buildings. This paper presents two real apartment buildings with different options of energy efficiency and power sources. The calculations clearly show that in the future electricity and domestic hot water use will have high importance in respect to energy efficiency, and therefore also CO2 equivalent (eq emissions. The importance increases when the energy efficiency of the building increases. There are big differences between average Finnish production and individual power plants; CO2 eq emissions might nearly double depending on the energy source and the power plant type. Both a building with an efficient district heating as a power source, and a building with ground heat in addition to nuclear power electricity as a complimentary electricity source performed very similarly to each other in respect to CO2 eq emissions. However, it is dangerous to conclude that it is not important which energy source is chosen. If hypothetically, the use of district heating would dramatically drop, the primary energy factor and CO2 eq emissions from electricity would rise, which in turn would lead to the increase of the ground heat systems emissions. A problem in the yearly calculations is that the fact that it is very important, sometimes even crucial, when energy is needed, is always excluded.

  12. Automated Deployment of Advanced Controls and Analytics in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritoni, Marco

    Buildings use 40% of primary energy in the US. Recent studies show that developing energy analytics and enhancing control strategies can significantly improve their energy performance. However, the deployment of advanced control software applications has been mostly limited to academic studies. Larger-scale implementations are prevented by the significant engineering time and customization required, due to significant differences among buildings. This study demonstrates how physics-inspired data-driven models can be used to develop portable analytics and control applications for buildings. Specifically, I demonstrate application of these models in all phases of the deployment of advanced controls and analytics in buildings: in the first phase, "Site Preparation and Interface with Legacy Systems" I used models to discover or map relationships among building components, automatically gathering metadata (information about data points) necessary to run the applications. During the second phase: "Application Deployment and Commissioning", models automatically learn system parameters, used for advanced controls and analytics. In the third phase: "Continuous Monitoring and Verification" I utilized models to automatically measure the energy performance of a building that has implemented advanced control strategies. In the conclusions, I discuss future challenges and suggest potential strategies for these innovative control systems to be widely deployed in the market. This dissertation provides useful new tools in terms of procedures, algorithms, and models to facilitate the automation of deployment of advanced controls and analytics and accelerate their wide adoption in buildings.

  13. An Examination of the Performance Based Building Code on the Design of a Commercial Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Greenwood

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Building Code of Australia (BCA is the principal code under which building approvals in Australia are assessed. The BCA adopted performance-based solutions for building approvals in 1996. Performance-based codes are based upon a set of explicit objectives, stated in terms of a hierarchy of requirements beginning with key general objectives. With this in mind, the research presented in this paper aims to analyse the impact of the introduction of the performance-based code within Western Australia to gauge the effect and usefulness of alternative design solutions in commercial construction using a case study project. The research revealed that there are several advantages to the use of alternative designs and that all parties, in general, are in favour of the performance-based building code of Australia. It is suggested that change in the assessment process to streamline the alternative design path is needed for the greater use of the performance-based alternative. With appropriate quality control measures, minor variations to the deemed-to-satisfy provisions could easily be managed by the current and future building surveying profession.

  14. 南京地区典型居住建筑能耗模型及65%节能措施研究%Energy consumption model and 65% energy conservation measures for typical residential buildings in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金斯科; 龚延风

    2011-01-01

    Calculates the annual energy amounts consumed by a typical residential building in intermittent operation mode with 24 different envelope property combinations in Nanjing by using DeST software and establishes the regression model of building energy consumption. Analyses the impact of thermal properties of enclosure and area ratio of window to wall on building energy consumption and proposes the 65% energy conservation measures for the residential buildings in this area.%采用DeST能耗软件模拟了南京一典型居住建筑在24种围护结构参数组合及间歇空调运行模式下的建筑全年能耗,并建立了南京地区典型居住建筑的能耗回归模型.同时分析了围护结构热工参数及窗墙面积比对建筑物能耗的影响,并提出了该地区居住建筑节能65%的措施.

  15. Data management for biofied building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kohta; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Smart houses have been studied by many researchers to satisfy individual demands of residents. However, they are not feasible yet as they are very costly and require many sensors to be embedded into houses. Therefore, we suggest "Biofied Building". In Biofied Building, sensor agent robots conduct sensing, actuation, and control in their house. The robots monitor many parameters of human lives such as walking postures and emotion continuously. In this paper, a prototype network system and a data model for practical application for Biofied Building is pro-posed. In the system, functions of robots and servers are divided according to service flows in Biofield Buildings. The data model is designed to accumulate both the building data and the residents' data. Data sent from the robots and data analyzed in the servers are automatically registered into the database. Lastly, feasibility of this system is verified through lighting control simulation performed in an office space.

  16. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...

  17. Are You Suggesting That's My Hand? The Relation Between Hypnotic Suggestibility and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Guilmette, D N; Longo, M R; Moore, J W; Oakley, D A; Halligan, P W; Mehta, M A; Deeley, Q

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility (HS) is the ability to respond automatically to suggestions and to experience alterations in perception and behavior. Hypnotically suggestible participants are also better able to focus and sustain their attention on an experimental stimulus. The present study explores the relation between HS and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Based on previous research with visual illusions, it was predicted that higher HS would lead to a stronger RHI. Two behavioral output measures of the RHI, an implicit (proprioceptive drift) and an explicit (RHI questionnaire) measure, were correlated against HS scores. Hypnotic suggestibility correlated positively with the implicit RHI measure contributing to 30% of the variation. However, there was no relation between HS and the explicit RHI questionnaire measure, or with compliance control items. High hypnotic suggestibility may facilitate, via attentional mechanisms, the multisensory integration of visuoproprioceptive inputs that leads to greater perceptual mislocalization of a participant's hand. These results may provide insight into the multisensory brain mechanisms involved in our sense of embodiment.

  18. Green building financing

    OpenAIRE

    Brunko, Pavlo

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of green buildings financing. It is noted that bank lending can be a major source of funds for construction. However, current trends in the economy of Ukraine shows that credit, especially lending to construction, is in poor condition. Accordingly, there is a need to explore the possibility of additional measures that can be applied to bringing financial resources into the construction.The author brings evidence in favor of feasibility of raising funds fo...

  19. Application of Technical Measures and Software in Constructing Photorealistic 3D Models of Historical Building Using Ground-Based and Aerial (UAV) Digital Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowski, Aleksander; Banaszek, Anna; Banaszek, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Preparing digital documentation of historical buildings is a form of protecting cultural heritage. Recently there have been several intensive studies using non-metric digital images to construct realistic 3D models of historical buildings. Increasingly often, non-metric digital images are obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Technologies and methods of UAV flights are quite different from traditional photogrammetric approaches. The lack of technical guidelines for using drones inhibits the process of implementing new methods of data acquisition. This paper presents the results of experiments in the use of digital images in the construction of photo-realistic 3D model of a historical building (Raphaelsohns' Sawmill in Olsztyn). The aim of the study at the first stage was to determine the meteorological and technical conditions for the acquisition of aerial and ground-based photographs. At the next stage, the technology of 3D modelling was developed using only ground-based or only aerial non-metric digital images. At the last stage of the study, an experiment was conducted to assess the possibility of 3D modelling with the comprehensive use of aerial (UAV) and ground-based digital photographs in terms of their labour intensity and precision of development. Data integration and automatic photo-realistic 3D construction of the models was done with Pix4Dmapper and Agisoft PhotoScan software Analyses have shown that when certain parameters established in an experiment are kept, the process of developing the stock-taking documentation for a historical building moves from the standards of analogue to digital technology with considerably reduced cost.

  20. Calculation of Level of Comfort of the Micro-Climate in Buildings During the Estimation of the Energy-Saving Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prorokova, M. V.; Bukhmirov, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    The article describes the method of valuation of comfort of microclimate of residen-tial, public and administrative buildings. The method is based on calculation of the coefficient of thermal comfort of a person in the room. Further amendments are introduced to the asym-metry of the thermal radiation, radiation cooling and air quality. The method serves as the basis for a computer program.

  1. Evaluation of health factors in high-rise buildings. 2. Bioclimatological consequences resulting from comparative measurements of the air ionisation in a high-rise building located in a heavily contaminated suburban area and at certain altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moese, J.R.; Fischer, G.

    1981-01-01

    According to accepted scientific theories inhaled small ions deliver their charges in the pulmonary alveoli and this leads to local recharges. This process stimulates structures of the central nervous system and the activity of the endocrine is excited, resulting in an enhancement of the general well-being. These possibilities of interpretation regarding a biological ionic effect are supported, with reservations by positive medical effects during and after a stay in a well-ventilated mountain climate or also in a sea-climate. Owing to their lower mobility the large ions are inhaled as small ions to an increasing extent. The chemical and physical noxa are delivered and deposited in the respiratory tract. They stick the epithelia in the trachea and in the bronchi as well as the endothelia in the lung vesicles. The number of the ciliary movements is reduced. Similar effects are known to be caused also by nicotine abuse. This results in a decreased ability of expectoration and a lower intake of oxygen by the alveoli. These facts could furnish an explanation for the increased vulnerability of city dwellers to infections diseases and to catarrh. The changed ionisation of air in urbanised areas definitely represents only one of the many risk factors. In addition to the attempt to characterize bioclimatically local weather conditions by means of the non-conventional parameter air ionisation our study has also been intended to establish biologically oriented criteria for the living in a high-rise building in a particularly unfavourable location. Under specific microclimatic conditions the uppermost storeys were at times bioclimatically favoured over the lowermost, especially when shallow air inversion is present. In such cases, small ions exclusively were registered in the upper storeys and large ions in the lower floors.

  2. Power load leveling and energy saving measures for office buildings. Power load leveling and energy saving technology for the new building of the Kobe branch of the Kansai Electric Power Co., and its effect; Office biru no denryoku fuka heijunka sho energy hosaku. Kobe shiten shinshaoku ni okeru denryoku fuka heijunka sho energy gijutsu to sono koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiyama, M. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-06-10

    This paper presents power load leveling and energy saving measures for heat source, air conditioning and lighting of the new Kobe branch building. The low-temperature hot-air system adopts an ice storage system, and reduces blowing power by 12 degreesC blowing in place of normal 16 degreesC blowing, and an initial cost by duct size reduction. The continuous air conditioning system levels an initial peak load of air conditioning as compared with normal air conditioning only for working hours for buildings with large heat capacity. In addition, as power load leveling measures for the whole building, the complete heat storage system using an underground internal melting type ice storage tank is adopted. Energy saving for lighting is achieved with a dimming lighting controlling its lighting output by inverter. The following effects are expected by these new technologies: Load leveling effect of 30%, energy saving effect of 20.2% and CO{sub 2} reduction effect of 24.1%. (NEDO)

  3. 对GPS测量的误差及处理方法在高层建筑施工中的分析%Analysis on GPS Measurement Error and the Processing Method in Construction of High-Rise Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佩强

    2013-01-01

    GPS技术应用于高层建筑施工涉及到技术方案设计、外业实施计划、测量成果的误差分析等内容,本文拟对测量成果的误差分析及处理方法进行讨论.%The application of GPS technology in high - rise building construction relates to the technical program design, implementation plan, and the measured results of error analysis. In this paper, the measurement results of the error analysis and processing method are discussed.

  4. Material Efficiency of Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Ruuska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Better construction and use of buildings in the European Union would influence 42% of final energy consumption, about 35% of our greenhouse gas emissions and more than 50% of all extracted materials. It could also help to save up to 30% of water consumption. This paper outlines and draws conclusions about different aspects of the material efficiency of buildings and assesses the significance of different building materials on the material efficiency. The research uses an extensive literature study and a case-study in order to assess: should the depletion of materials be ignored in the environmental or sustainability assessment of buildings, are the related effects on land use, energy use and/or harmful emissions significant, should related indicators (such as GHGs be used to indicate the material efficiency of buildings, and what is the significance of scarce materials, compared to the use of other building materials. This research suggests that the material efficiency should focus on the significant global impacts of material efficiency; not on the individual factors of it. At present global warming and greenhouse gas emissions are among the biggest global problems on which material efficiency has a direct impact on. Therefore, this paper suggests that greenhouse gas emissions could be used as an indicator for material efficiency in building.

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement Potential in Historical Brick Building

    OpenAIRE

    Žogla, Gatis; Blumberga, Andra; Zvaigznītis, Kristaps; Dzikēvičs, Miķelis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Burinskiene, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency in historical heritage buildings is viewed as a taboo because these buildings usually are law-protected and no energy efficiency measures that would change the appearance of building are allowed. In this paper we look at a potential of increasing energy efficiency level in historical buildings. Measurements to determine energy efficiency of a historical brick building have been done, which also give the possibility to determine the potential of energy efficiency measures in ...

  6. The EU CONCERTO project Class 1 - Demonstrating cost-effective low-energy buildings - Recent results with special focus on comparison of calculated and measured energy performance of Danish buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Ove; Thomsen, K.E.; Rose, J.

    2012-01-01

    and about 30 single family houses have been constructed. The Concerto community also includes a kindergarten (completed) and an elderly centre. Currently, because of the financial crisis, only about 200 new dwellings will be constructed. Therefore, a contingency plan (plan B) has been developed replacing...... and experiences gained from the Danish housing projects. This paper describes the comparisons between measured and calculated energy consumption in a social housing settlement and in a detached single-family house. Results show relatively large discrepancies between measured and calculated results...

  7. A method for optimizing the performance of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Frank

    2006-07-01

    building. The results indicate that the method is able to find design decisions that satisfy all requirements to the decision variables and performance measures. Furthermore, the time needed by the algorithm for solving the optimization problem is acceptable. There are still a number of unresolved issues regarding the building optimization method, which are suggested as further research in the field of building optimization methods. Two papers are included in Appendix concerning so-called space mapping algorithms. These algorithms are relevant for developing fast and reliable building optimization methods. (au)

  8. Indoor radon seasonal variability at different floors of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Francesco, S. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Tommasone, F. Pascale [Office of Civil Protection, Meteorology, Climatology and Natural Hazards, Piazza Municipio, 81051 Pietramelara, Caserta (Italy); Cuoco, E. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Tedesco, D., E-mail: dtedesco@unina.i [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); C.N.R. (Italian Council for Research), Institute of Environmental Geology and Geological Engineering, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 00100 Roma (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    Indoor radon concentrations have been measured with the {alpha} track etch integrated method in public buildings in the town of Pietramelara, north-western Campania, Southern Italy. In particular, our measurements were part of an environmental monitoring program originally aimed at assessing the range of seasonal fluctuations in indoor radon concentrations, at various floors of the studied buildings. However, subsequent analysis of the data and its comparison with the meteorological data recorded in the same period has shown an unexpected pattern at the different floors. In this report we present data suggesting that, besides the well-known medium and longterm periodicity, there could also be a differentiation in major meteorological controlling factors at the different floors of the buildings, a fact that does not appear to have been reported previously. While the lower floors proved to be markedly affected by rainfall, for the upper floors, instead, a different behaviour has been detected, which could possibly be related to global solar radiation.

  9. Enhancement of Seismic Performance Using Shear Link Braces in a Building Designed Only for Gravity Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniyar, S. U.; Paul, D. K.

    2012-02-01

    The present work attempts to study the behaviour of building designed for gravity loads only under the effect of lateral seismic load. Such a building is generally deficient against lateral forces and need to be retrofitted against lateral earthquake forces. A retrofitting scheme by providing aluminium shear link with chevron braces is suggested to improve its performance. Past earthquakes have shown a great deal of damages to the deficient RC frame buildings designed without any consideration to the lateral earthquake forces. Chevron braces with the aluminium shear link can be implemented as an effective retrofit measure. A comparison of the performance of building initially designed for gravity load only with the retrofitted building using chevron braces with the aluminium shear link is presented in this paper. The behaviour of building is worked out by performing nonlinear static pushover analysis and nonlinear time history analyses. A parametric study has also been carried out to study the effect of shear link and braces on the retrofitted building. The performance of RC building designed for gravity loads only as evaluated from the nonlinear static pushover analysis lies in life safety and collapse prevention range for DBE and MCE level of earthquakes respectively. The same building when retrofitted by using chevron braces with aluminium shear link show improved performance. This device is very simple, economic, effective and can be placed in a building very easily. The dissipation of damaging energy/damage is localised in shear link which can be replaced after a major earthquake.

  10. Ambient Vibration Test for a Multi-story Residential Building and the Vibration Mitigation Measures%多层住宅环境振动影响测试与减振措施分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌; 陈龙珠; 丁力

    2014-01-01

    Brick-concrete buildings have been extensively used in urban and rural areas.However,this type of building,which frequently contains a shallow foundation,demonstrates poor struc-tural integrity and is susceptible to influence from ambient vibrations.This case is especially validfor buildings that were constructed in previous eras.With the development of modern cities andthe increasing demand for an enhanced quality of life,environmental interference caused by ambi-ent vibrations has become a critical issue.In areas with soft soil,traffic is a primary source ofambient vibrations.Vehicle vibrations caused by road surface roughness or speed changes cancause vibrations throughout the foundation of a building.Therefore,the vibration of brick-con-crete buildings is related not only to the excitation source of the vibration but also the soil charac-teristics,the foundation conditions,and the structural style.The human response to the vibra-tions of housing structures is closely correlated with a person's cognitive level and their currentphysical and psychological conditions.Thus,the potential difference in the reactions amongbuilding occupants is significant.Residents in a six-story brick-concrete building,which is located in an area of Shanghai withsoft ground,frequently complained about the intermittent interference from vibrations,particularly residents on the upper two stories.The measures confirmed that the environmental vibra-tions were generated by heavy vehicles traveling on a road that was located approximately 80 mnorth of the building.The frequency and amplitude characteristics of the ambient vibrations andthe human comfort levels for the different stories of the building were analyzed according to the"standard for allowable vibration of building engineering"(GB50868-2013).To comprehensivelyevaluate the impact induced by the transversely horizontal vibrations,which influences humancomfort levels for the three components of building vibration,a numerical finite

  11. Extensive Renovation of Heritage Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Møller, Eva B.; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    In the debate on whether or not heritage buildings should be included in work to mitigate climate change impacts, it is important to assess the impact of these buildings. Therefore the results of an extensive energy upgrading of a listed complex was studied. Climate change and measures to mitigate...... its effects have been a global priority for more than a decade. Efforts to mitigate climate change have focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO2. As a consequence, there is an increased interest in reducing the energy consumption and increase the indoor climate standard of many...... feasible energy-upgrading measures for implementation including measures to provide an acceptable indoor climate. The energy savings as well as the reduction of CO2 emissions are calculated. Furthermore, it is discussed how measures can affect the durability of a heritage building, as measures may create...

  12. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

  13. Webis at TREC 2014: Web, Session, and Contextual Suggestion Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00...much to improve the result ranking. 4. CONTEXTUAL SUGGESTION TRACK The research question we examine in the Contextual Sug- gestion track is whether a... gestions we build upon state-of-the-art tools. Our first run uses descriptions without explanations while an explanation is added in the second run

  14. Roof greening construction development in the future-On the development of building roof greening in Jiaxing suggestions%建筑屋顶绿化发展的未来--关于嘉兴市发展建筑屋顶绿化的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈栋栋; 阮雪琴; 叶苏淼; 吴翌丹; 周宏杰

    2015-01-01

    The vigorous development of roof greening in Jiaxing wil give Jiaxing wil bring a new ecological city appearance. Describes the origin of roof greening, il ustrates the function of roof greening, roof greening were investigated and fine grass seed, the defects of the roof greening in Jia xing are studied, and some suggestions were put forward.%嘉兴屋顶绿化的蓬勃发展必定给嘉兴将带来一个全新的生态城市面貌。概括了屋顶绿化的起源,阐述了屋顶绿化的功能,进行了优良屋顶绿化草种的调查,对当前嘉兴屋顶绿化存在的不足进行了研究,并提出了建议。

  15. Radio Propagation into Modern Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Jørgensen, Niels T.K.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-efficient buildings are gaining momentum in order to comply with the new energy regulations. Especially in northern cold countries, thick reinforced walls and energy-efficient windows composed of several layers of glass plus metal coating are becoming the de facto elements in modern building...... compared to an old building. The measurements are performed for frequencies from 800 MHz to 18 GHz with the aim of identifying the frequency dependence and the impact of the new materials on not only the cellular frequency bands used today (mainly below 3 GHz), but also the potential future bands (above 3...

  16. Improving Building Energy Efficiency in India: State-level Analysis of Building Energy Efficiency Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Tan, Qing; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Gordon P.; Vu, Linh D.; Patel, Pralit L.

    2017-11-01

    India is expected to add 40 billion m2 of new buildings till 2050. Buildings are responsible for one third of India’s total energy consumption today and building energy use is expected to continue growing driven by rapid income and population growth. The implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is one of the measures to improve building energy efficiency. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study assesses growth in the buildings sector and impacts of building energy policies in Gujarat, which would help the state adopt ECBC and expand building energy efficiency programs. Without building energy policies, building energy use in Gujarat would grow by 15 times in commercial buildings and 4 times in urban residential buildings between 2010 and 2050. ECBC improves energy efficiency in commercial buildings and could reduce building electricity use in Gujarat by 20% in 2050, compared to the no policy scenario. Having energy codes for both commercial and residential buildings could result in additional 10% savings in electricity use. To achieve these intended savings, it is critical to build capacity and institution for robust code implementation.

  17. Measuring strategies for the in situ gamma spectroscopy for clearance measurements of buildings and sites in accordance with Section 29 of the German RPO; Messstrategien fuer die In-situ-Gammaspektrometrie bei Freimessungen von Gebaeuden und Bodenflaechen nach paragraph 29 StrlSchV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doescher, K.; Sauer, D. [TUeV Energie- und Systemtechnik GmbH Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany); Kosbadt, O.; Massing, B. [Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Verkehr Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany); Naber, C.; Reichert, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Schiele, C.; Stollenwerk, A. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Different measuring tasks applying the in situ gamma spectroscopy will be described. The aim is to inform all who may be concerned (operators, authorities and experts) about the possible strategies including the quantities of influence resulting from it in the clearance measurement of buildings in order to achieve as uniform a comprehension as possible of this at clearance measurements in accordance with section 29 of the RPO regarding the possibilities and limits of the situ gamma spectroscopy. Furthermore the in situ gamma spectroscopy offers the possibility of measuring very large surfaces up to whole rooms with only a single measurement. On the other hand the radiation protection ordinance in Annex IV part D nr. 3 prescribes for the clearance measurement of buildings an averaging surface area up to a maximum of 1 m{sup 2}. In specific cases the supervisory authority can authorize larger averaging surface areas for buildings, which are to be pulled down after the clearance measurement, in accordance with Annex IV part D nr. 5 sentence 2 of the radiation protection ordinance. Since there are no standards for this in general or for the in situ gamma spectroscopy in particular, we therefore would propose a criterion, which in the opinion of the authors of this report would authorize the use of larger averaging surface areas in the clearance procedure. (orig.)

  18. Suggestion on Building of a Medical Image Processing Laboratory for Researching and Teaching Based an Extensible PACS%关于基于可扩展PACS的医学影像处理科研教学实验室建设的设想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兆学; 聂生东; 郑建立; 王远军

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An idea to conceive an advanced medical image processing laboratory in medical image engineering major of a university is introduced in this paper for purpose of researching and teaching, which can promote combination of medicine, engineering, teaching and researching and bring convenience to advancement in researching, teaching and even industrialization of medical image processing technique. Methods: Firstly, a research platform should be built based on an extensible PACS, then the extensible medical image database and the researching platform about related hardware technique and the hard environments for researching and teaching of the laboratory can be gestated based on the PACS, at the same time, necessary soft environments, I.e., much mechanism dedicated to managing the laboratory, fostering research project, encouraging members and training of the graduates & excellent bachelors should be built, then the running of the laboratory will form a benign and everlasting recycling as cooperation among the laboratory, hospitals and the industry deepens gradually together with the good rolling social feedback and effect aroused by the graduated students year by year while they step into the society. Results: Such a laboratory can not only bring convenience for researching and teaching, but also can closely unite the research and development of medical image products with industrialization based on clinical practice and thus serves as a good crossing platform or inter-medium of medicine, industry, teaching and researching. Conclusions: Following ideas of distinguished engineer training, during the course of enhancing elementary functionality of the laboratory as well as its root and intermediate effect, a paradigm can thus be formed step by step. It can be forecasted that building and excellent running of such a laboratory will be widely welcomed and applauded by teachers and students, related hospital doctors and industrial stakeholders. Moreover, the

  19. Load shape development for Swedish commercial and public buildings - methodologies and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, C.

    1999-06-01

    The knowledge concerning electricity consumption, and especially load demand, in Swedish commercial buildings is very limited. The current study deals with methods for electricity consumption indicator development and application of the different methodologies on measured data. Typical load shapes and consumption indicators are developed for four different types of commercial buildings: schools, hotels, grocery stores and department stores. Two different methodologies for consumption indicator development are presented and discussed. The influence on load demand from different factors such as, installations, outdoor temperature and building activities is studied. It is suggested that building floor area is not an accurate determinant of building electricity consumption and it is necessary to consider other factors as those just mentioned to understand commercial building electricity consumption. The application of the two methodologies on measured data shows that typical load shapes can be developed with reasonable accuracy. For most of the categories it is possible to use the typical load shapes for approximation of whole-building load shapes with error rates about 10-25% depending on day-type and building type. Comparisons of the developed load shapes with measured data show good agreement 49 refs, 22 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Daylight utilisation in office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jens

    This Ph.D. thesis presents the qualitative and quantitative consequences of full-scale measurements on two daylighting systems, light shelf and Venetian blinds. The systems were investigated to assess their ability to increase daylight penetration and improve daylight distribution in the interior...... the benefits and difficulties regarding use of daylight in office buildings, but it is hoped that the report will provide daylight conscious building design in forthcoming non-domestic buil dings....

  1. The energy performance of office buildings throughout their building process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.; Wamelink, J.W.F.; Geraedts, R.P.; Volker, L.

    2011-01-01

    Many innovative techniques and policy measures have been introduced to reduce energy consumption. Despite the high ambitions and societal pressures, the adoption rate of energy measures in office buildings is still low. Using adoption theories this paper provides a framework to analyse the adoption

  2. Energy saving in office buildings through cheap bioclimatic design measures; Ahorro de energia en edificios de oficinas a partir de medidas de diseno bioclimatico de bajo costo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Chavez, Jose Roberto [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    This article shows the study performed in a building of Campus Uni dad Azcapotzalco in order to evaluate some bioclimatic design strategies. And to reach the higrothermic comfort and the appropriate lighting to favor employees to increase their performance in work activities. There are some strategies in order to solve this problem: the skylight area reduction, existing lights change, ventilation increase, fixed partition door implementation, etc. The obtained outcomes make possible the beginning of bioclimatic design use to save energy in other buildings, because sometimes edifications possess a design that cause the energy waste. [Spanish] En este articulo se muestra el estudio que se hizo en un edificio en el Campus Unidad Azcapotzalco, el fin de esta labor es evaluar ciertas estrategias de diseno bioclimatico para que las personas que operan en este edificio puedan tener confort higrotermico y una iluminacion pertinente, que den como resultado un mejor desempeno en las tareas que realizan. Algunas de las estrategias para darle solucion a esta problematica son: disminuir del area de lucernarios, cambiar las luminarias existentes, aumentar la ventilacion, implementar canceleria, etc. Con los resultados obtenidos nace la esperanza de que se utilicen estrategias de diseno bioclimatico para ahorrar energia en otros edificios, ya que muchas veces las edificaciones poseen un diseno que unicamente provoca el uso imprudente de la energia.

  3. Building performance modelling for sustainable building design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oduyemi, Olufolahan; Okoroh, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ...) called Ecotect for sustainable building design. Finally, it introduces a design tool analysis of a case study using Ecotect to evaluate various what if scenarios on a proposed multi-use building...

  4. 节能建筑推广动力机制及推广措施研究%Research on the Motivation and the Measures to Promote Energy-efficiency Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何长全; 李国昌; 陈莉

    2011-01-01

    This paper first introduces the main bodies to promote energy-efficiency buildings, analyses the promoting intensity of each one and then discusses the interaction and constraint between them, thus proposing a relationship model. On this basis, we exponds the promoting motivation,including both the macro and micro factors such as the social environment and market of energy-efficiency in buildings, the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, etc. Finally, we points out the common problems and the corresponding measures to promote energy-efficiency buildings.%本文首先介绍了节能建筑的推广主体,分析了各主体推广节能建筑的强度,探讨了各主体之间的相互影响和制约关系,并提出了其关系模式。在此基础上,研究了推广建筑节能的动力机制,主要包括建筑节能社会环境、建筑节能市场、外在动力和内在动力等宏观因素和微观因素。最后,指出了节能建筑推广时常见的问题,并提出了相应的措施。

  5. Monte Carlo correction factors for a Farmer 0.6 cm{sup 3} ion chamber dose measurement in the build-up region of the 6 MV clinical beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, J [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sanchez-Doblado, F [Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, RadioFisica, Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de FisiologIa y BioFisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Capote, R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Data Section, Vienna (Austria); Terron, J A [Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, RadioFisica, Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de FisiologIa y BioFisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Gomez, F [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-03-21

    Reference dosimetry of photon fields is a well-established subject and currently available protocols (such as the IAEA TRS-398 and AAPM TG-51) provide methods for converting the ionization chamber (IC) reading into dose to water, provided reference conditions of charged particle equilibrium (CPE) are fulfilled. But these protocols cannot deal with the build-up region, where the lack of CPE limits the applicability of the cavity theorems and so the chamber correction factors become depth dependent. By explicitly including the IC geometry in the Monte Carlo simulations, depth-dependent dose correction factors are calculated for a PTW 30001 0.6 cm{sup 3} ion chamber in the build-up region of the 6 MV photon beam. The corrected percentage depth dose (PDD) agrees within 2% with that measured using the NACP 02 plane-parallel ion chamber in the build-up region at depths greater than 0.4 cm, where the Farmer chamber wall reaches the phantom surface.

  6. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  7. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  8. A new building for testing magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A ceremony to mark the laying of the foundation stone of Building 311, which will house a magnetic measurement laboratory, took place on 22 September.   Olaf Dunkel, head of the Building 311 project, José Miguel Jiménez, head of the Technology Department, and Lluis Miralles, head of the Site Management and Buildings Department, during the ceremony for the laying of the foundation stone of Building 311. Lluis Miralles, head of the Site Management and Buildings Department, José Miguel Jiménez, head of the Technology Department, Roberto Losito, head of the Engineering Department, and Simon Baird, head of the Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection Unit, officially laid the foundation stone of Building 311 during a ceremony on Thursday, 22 September. Situated beside the water tower, the building will house a magnetic measurement laboratory for the Technology Department. With a floor space of around 1400 square metres, it will comprise a...

  9. Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagorskas, Jurgis; Mykolas Paliulis, Grazvydas; Burinskiene, Marija

    2013-01-01

    is creating a demand for suitable materials, retrofitting techniques and research. The differences between refurbishment of new-build projects and historical or valuable buildings are insufficiently recognized – mostly the buildings without further cultural preservation requirements are studied. This article...... covers the theme of refurbishment measures in historical buildings – the specific measures like inside insulation which are allowed due to the valuable façade or other heritage preservation requirements. An overview of other innovative methods for energy saving in existing buildings and their potential......Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and the market follows these changes by constructing new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of the existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends in European construction market show tremendous increase...

  10. Building effectiveness communication ratios for improved building life cycle management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, E.; Keane, M.; McCarthy, J. [Ireland National Univ., Cork (Ireland). IRUSE; O' Donnell, J. [Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Ireland National Univ., Cork (Ireland). IRUSE

    2005-07-01

    The construction and operation of buildings consumes 35 per cent of total U.S. energy production. Although the application of building energy simulation models in early design stages can significantly increase performance throughout the building life cycle, energy simulation modeling has not been widely adopted by the design community. The complexity and length of time needed to prepare energy models are considered to be barriers, as well as the lack of energy appraisal tools capable of modeling a wide spectrum of hybrid heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. A performance-based strategy using building effectiveness communication ratios stored in Building Information Models (BIM) was presented in this paper. The strategy aimed to link currently fragmented stages within the building life cycle. It was suggested that the ability to share and exchange information will reduce the amount of user time required for building simulation models. The proposed Building Energy Monitoring Analyzing and Communication (BEMAC) framework is an integrated environment that allows users to share data with other applications through an integrated data model. The data models allow each participant to employ tools specific to their needs without compromising or corrupting project data. Data values elicited from the model act as best-possible values. It was anticipated that by assigning spaces within the simulation model with proposed HVAC systems, reproductions of the energy use by these mechanical systems can contribute to overall energy data representation and analysis. Idealized Effectiveness Ratios and Performance Effectiveness Ratios were discussed in relation to a case study of the Glucksman Art Gallery at the National University of Ireland. Results indicated that the Idealized Effectiveness Ratio is applicable across the entire building life cycle, while the Performance Effectiveness Ratio allows facility managers to investigate the energy saving potential of the

  11. Design Buildings Optimally: A Lifecycle Assessment Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Hosny, Ossama

    2013-01-01

    This paper structures a generic framework to support optimum design for multi-buildings in desert environment. The framework is targeting an environmental friendly design with minimum lifecycle cost, using Genetic Algorithms (Gas). GAs function through a set of success measures which evaluates the design, formulates a proper objective, and reflects possible tangible/intangible constraints. The framework optimizes the design and categorizes it under a certain environmental category at minimum Life Cycle Cost (LCC). It consists of three main modules: (1) a custom Building InformationModel (BIM) for desert buildings with a compatibility checker as a central interactive database; (2) a system evaluator module to evaluate the proposed success measures for the design; and (3) a GAs optimization module to ensure optimum design. The framework functions through three levels: the building components, integrated building, and multi-building levels. At the component level the design team should be able to select components in a designed sequence to ensure compatibility among various components, while at the building level; the team can relatively locate and orient each individual building. Finally, at the multi-building (compound) level the whole design can be evaluated using success measures of natural light, site capacity, shading impact on natural lighting, thermal change, visual access and energy saving. The framework through genetic algorithms optimizes the design by determining proper types of building components and relative buildings locations and orientations which ensure categorizing the design under a specific category or meet certain preferences at minimum lifecycle cost.

  12. Green building: sustainable building quality; Green Building: nachhaltige Gebaeudequalitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, R.

    2010-07-01

    This article takes a look at the 'Portikon' office building near Zurich, Switzerland, that meets the 'Minergie-P' very low energy consumption requirements. The author is of the opinion that the project can be seen as a reference project for sustainable building technology. The structure of the seven-storey building with a central atrium is described and discussed. The 'Minergie-P' energy concept is discussed, as are the 1,100 square meters of photovoltaic panels on the roof of the building. Heating energy is provided by Zurich's waste incineration plant nearby. Electro-biological aspects in the building are taken care of by appropriate earthing and shielding of cables. The building's facility management system and the installations used are briefly discussed.

  13. 中国与海上丝绸之路非洲沿线国家的贸易发展态势、问题与共建思路%An Analysis of Trade Development Trend, Problems and Suggestions for Co-Building between China and African Countries along the Maritime Silk Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙江

    2014-01-01

    提升中国与海上丝绸之路非洲沿线国家的经贸合作水平,打造中非经贸合作升级版,是中国共建“21世纪海上丝绸之路”中的重要环节。中国与这一区域9国的贸易属于互补性贸易,近几年快速增长,但双方贸易规模偏小而且不平衡,仍有相当大的提升空间,同时贸易结构有待优化。因此,要在共建“21世纪海上丝绸之路”和打造“中非合作升级版”的战略下,提升双方经贸合作关系。建议双方共建“21世纪海上丝绸之路”沿“基础设施互联互通、贸易自由化投资便利化、发展援助与政治互信、海上安全合作”四大战略方向,分“非洲内部、外部和海上驿站”三大空间路径和“近、中、远期”三层时间路径展开,构建“论坛、博览会、融资”三大保障平台。%To enhance the level of economic and trade cooperation between China and African countries along the Mar-itime Silk Road, and to create an upgraded version of the Sino-African economic and trade cooperation, are an important part of China’s“21st Century Maritime Silk Road”. The trade between China and nine countries in this region belongs to com-plementary trade, and it has increased rapidly in recent years. However, the trade scale between the two sides is small and there is still considerable room for improvement. Meanwhile, the trade structure should be optimized as well. It is suggested that the two sides can upgrade the level of economic and trade cooperation along the following strategic directions:“infrastructure in-terconnection, the liberalization of trade and investment facilitation, development assistance and mutual political trust, maritime security cooperation”, with three approaches in space“Africa internal, external and offshore station” and three approaches in time“short-term, medium-term and long-term”, and construction of three security platforms“forum, exhibition, and

  14. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...... efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies....

  15. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...... efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies....

  16. Danish building typologies and building stock analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    enough to meet the government’s plan to make Danish buildings free from use of fossil fuels by 2035. This will probably require around 50 % energy savings in the Danish building stock as a whole. However, the project has proven that dedicated engagement of locals can speed up market penetration...... energy savings in residential buildings. The intension with this analysis was to investigate the possible energy reduction in Denmark if the same approach had been taken for the entire Danish building stock. The report concludes that the ZeroHome initiative clearly results in energy savings, but far from...... for energy savings in the existing Building stock....

  17. Danish building typologies and building stock analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    energy savings in residential buildings. The intension with this analysis was to investigate the possible energy reduction in Denmark if the same approach had been taken for the entire Danish building stock. The report concludes that the ZeroHome initiative clearly results in energy savings, but far from...... enough to meet the government’s plan to make Danish buildings free from use of fossil fuels by 2035. This will probably require around 50 % energy savings in the Danish building stock as a whole. However, the project has proven that dedicated engagement of locals can speed up market penetration...... for energy savings in the existing Building stock....

  18. Has social sustainability left the building?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Elle, Morten

    2012-01-01

    conceptualization has implied a narrower approach to sustainability and a lack of social sustainability measures. While earlier paradigms of sustainable buildings emphasized themes such as community building, self-provisioning, local empowerment, and shared facilities, such objectives are largely absent in the new...... types of sustainable buildings. We question to what extent it is possible to design sustainable settlements without social sustainability. By viewing sustainable buildings as technological configurations, we argue that the multiactor approach, fragmentation of roles, and absent initiatives for social...... a more narrow approach to 'sustainability' than former paradigms of sustainable building in Denmark....

  19. Sustainable building policy in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarman, H.R.; De Haan, M.A.R. [Bureau of Sustainable Building, Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment VROM, The Hague (Netherlands); Van Leeuwen, E.N. [Dutch National Sustainable Building Centre, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    The authors present their view on the development of sustainable building policy in the Netherlands and their evaluation of its results and prospects. They regard the results of the sustainable building policy as positive. The main results are the design of a regulatory framework, institutional arrangements and co-operative relations with key actors. As a result, the building practices have improved drastically, mainly during the last few years. Since 1998, certain sustainable building measures have been applied in more than 50% of the new buildings. 8 refs.

  20. Energy Management System Audit and Implementation in Educational Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the high energy consumption of educational buildings in available study; it is conducted to estimate the energy consumption at the Faculty of Humanities (Building No. 2, Science and Research Campus (SRC of the Islamic Azad University (IAU, Tehran, Iran. Auditing and implementing the energy management system in the implied building, efforts are finally made to propose managerial solutions towards reducing energy consumption in this building. After gathering data of the building, including quantity of energy consumption in a one-year period of study in 2005 and the energy consumption equipment in the building followed by a detailed data analysis, the overall energy consumption tendency is investigated in the building. As a result, it is found that the lightening system and electric motors of central heating system consumed the highest level of electricity energy and the highest thermal energy consumption due to boilers. By more analysis of the entire data, solutions are suggested for reducing the energy consumption used in lightening, central heating and cooling systems and boilers. A review of all the practical solutions for improving the systems available in the building showed that regarding the energy management matrix, the energy management system in the building stood at zero point, because the building lacked any operating unit under the title of 'Energy Management' which could monitor energy consumption at the university. Therefore, it is concluded that the energy efficiency in the building may be optimized to a certain extent by presenting a system for energy data collection, analysis and systematic implementation as well as a system for collection of basic information about energy-consuming equipment by means of measurement instruments. By providing this system, procedures are presented for optimizing energy consumption and saving in the building, while a management system and a complete information system are created at the

  1. Classification of low energy houses in Danish Building Regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    The new Danish Building Regulations (Building Regulations, 2005) introduces the total energy consumption, i.e. energy use for heating, ventilation, cooling and domestic hot water, for buildings as a measure for the energy efficiency of new buildings, i.e. moving away from the former U-value demands....... In addition to the minimum requirements for new buildings, the new Building Regulations also specify requirements for characterizing a building as either low energy building class 1 or low energy building class 2. This paper describes a type-house that is presently being built in Denmark. The type......-house easily meets the requirements for being categorized as a low energy building class 1, and the paper investigates how much U-values can be increased if the type-house were to fulfil the requirements for a low energy building class 2 or a building that just fulfils the minimum demands....

  2. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hayati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban air pollution as well as the possible reducing of negative affects of tall building on environmental pollution with respect to geographical position, technicalrules, immunization, green space, direct of wind, appropriate distance to other buildings, design in terms of visibility and landscape and urban appearance were reviewed. The study showed that the tall buildings cause increasing the air pollution in large urban area due to changing in wind and its direction and also congestion of tall buildings as a pollution sources. Therefore some techniques to design the tall building must be considered to reduce the negative affects of the tall buildings on environmental pollution. Unfortunately the lack of the construction roles in term of environmental protection and also control of the rules in construction process causing the environmental pollution particularly air pollution. It is suggested that the re-evaluate of the rules with restricted control can improve the air quality in the large cities and also utilization of green spaces in floors and roofs of buildings as environmentally friendly buildings which are attempt to reduce environmental problems.

  3. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: BetterBuildings Lowell Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heslin, Thomas

    2014-01-31

    Historic Board, which has jurisdiction in the NHP. The Historic Board was cooperative with any exterior renovations as long as they were not changing the existing aesthetics of the property. If we were replacing a rooftop condenser it needed to be placed where the existing rooftop condenser was located. Receiving proper approval from the Historic Board for any external energy conservation measures was known by all the participating contractors. One area of the retrofits that was contentious regarded venting of the new HVAC equipment. Installing external stacks was not allowed so the contractors had to negotiate with the Historic Board regarding the proper way to vent the equipment that met the needs mechanically and aesthetically. Overall BetterBuildings Lowell was successful at implementing energy and cost saving measures into 31 commercial properties located within the NHP. The 31 retrofits had 1,554,768 square feet of commercial and multifamily housing and a total predicted energy savings exceeding 22,869 a year. Overall the City of Lowell achieved its target goals and is satisfied with the accomplishments of the BetterBuildings program. The City will continue to pursue energy efficient programs and projects.

  4. Simplified analysis of naturally ventilated desert buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, E.H.; Richards, P.G.; Rousseau, P.G. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Etzion, Y.; Erell, E. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boqer (Israel). J. Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research)

    1992-10-01

    The verification of a simplified thermal analysis procedure and its application to naturally ventilated desert buildings are discussed. Measurements for buildings in the Negev Desert, made independently by the Desert Architecture Unit of the Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, were inter alia used to verify the simplified thermal analysis procedure QUICK, developed by the Centre for Experimental and Numerical Thermoflow. As detailed information for validation purposes is not always readily available to researchers, the measurements as well as the buildings' descriptions are given in detail in this paper. The effect of natural ventilation strategies on the indoor air temperatures is also investigated for the desert buildings. A simplified but novel procedure to calculate the air change rates through the building from the measured wind speeds, building geometry and surroundings is proposed. Hourly air change rates determined with the proposed procedure are employed in the simulations with QUICK. (author)

  5. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  6. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  7. Building a Low-Cost, Six-Electrode Instrument to Measure Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Monolayers of Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Ralph W.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new low-cost, six-electrode instrument for measuring the electrical properties of the self-assembled monolayers of gold particles is being described. The system can also be used to measure conductive liquids, except for those that contain aqua region.

  8. Beavers as Agents of Biogeomorphic Change: A Review and Suggestions for Teaching Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses beavers and their geomorphic impacts on their environment. Considers dam building, bank burrowing, and canal building. Suggests using the beaver as a classroom and field trip example to illustrate animals' effects on the physical landscape. Provides a review of published works on beavers in their roles as geomorphic agents. (DK)

  9. Building online brand perceptual map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, I-Ping; Lin, Chih-Ying; Wang, Kaisheng M

    2008-10-01

    Many companies have launched their products or services online as a new business focus, but only a few of them have survived the competition and made profits. The most important key to an online business's success is to create "brand value" for the customers. Although the concept of online brand has been discussed in previous studies, there is no empirical study on the measurement of online branding. As Web 2.0 emerges to be critical to online branding, the purpose of this study was to measure Taiwan's major Web sites with a number of personality traits to build a perceptual map for online brands. A pretest identified 10 most representative online brand perceptions. The results of the correspondence analysis showed five groups in the perceptual map. This study provided a practical view of the associations and similarities among online brands for potential alliance or branding strategies. The findings also suggested that brand perceptions can be used with identified consumer needs and behaviors to better position online services. The brand perception map in the study also contributed to a better understanding of the online brands in Taiwan.

  10. User Participation in the Building Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Sørensen, Kristian Birch

    2011-01-01

    of it is evaluated by the end-users in the (4) 'Solution space'. Three on-going construction projects were used as cases in the development and in the testing of VICMET. Collaborative Virtual Reality environments were tested in order to present and discuss the suggested solutions with users. The virtual environments......Virtual Innovation in Construction (VIC) is a project aiming to develop an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported methodology VIC-MET, to involve building end-users in a creative innovation process together with building designers, and to capture and formulate end-user needs...... building systems (FBS), which are realized as component building systems (CBS), which will form parts in the total building solution. The formulated needs provide input to specific requirements in order to assure expected performance of the building components. The final virtual building model or part...

  11. Based on the Full Life Cycle of the Barracks Building Energy Conservation Measures%基于全生命周期的营房建筑节能措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 刘兆勇

    2014-01-01

    在我军推进现代营房快速转型的背景下,营房建筑的节能理念显得尤为重要。基于当前我军营房建筑大多处于样式陈旧、功能落伍、建筑能耗大、用能效率低的现状,围绕营区规划设计、工程施工建造、设备系统选择、运营维护直至报废拆除等方面,提出基于全生命周期的营房建筑节能理念并进行了深入的探讨。目的是将营房建筑节能措施贯穿于建筑的各个阶段,并且通过技术、材料、管理等手段达到既服务部队生活工作,又降低能源消耗、合理利用资源的要求,最终实现真正意义上的营房建筑节能和可持续发展的宗旨。%Under the background of rapid transformation in advancing modern army barracks, the barracks building energy-saving concept is particularly important. Based on the current army barracks buildings, mostly in the old style, out of fashion, large energy consumption, low energy efficiency, around the camp construction planning and design, engineering, equipment selection, operation and maintenance system to scrap removal, we come up with the full life cycle of the barracks building energy efficiency concept and has carried on the thorough discussion. Aims to the barracks building energy saving measures throughout all phases of construction, and through technology, materials, management, and other means to achieve service troops to live and work, and reduce energy consumption and meet the requirement of the rational use of resources, finally realizes the barracks building energy efficiency and sustainable development in the true sense of purpose.

  12. Real-time supervision of building HVAC system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, Natasa

    2008-07-01

    building maintenance structure and the real hydronic heating system faults. Coupled simulation and optimization programs (EnergyPlus and GenOpt) were utilized for improving the building performances. These tools were used for improving the design and the control strategies in the HVAC systems. Buildings with a hydronic heating system were analyzed for the purpose of improving the design. Since there are issues in using the optimization tool, GenOpt, a few procedures for different practical problems have been suggested. The optimization results show that the choice of the optimization functions influences significantly the design parameters for the hydronic heating system. Since building construction and equipment characteristics are changing over time, there is a need to find new control strategies which can meet the actual building demand. This problem has been also elaborated on by using EnergyPlus and GenOpt. The control strategies in two different HVAC systems were analyzed, including the hydronic heating system and the ventilation system with the recovery wheel. The developed approach for the strategy optimization includes: involving the optimization variables and the objective function and developing information flow for handling the optimization process. The real data obtained from BEMS and the additional measurements have been utilized to explain faults in the hydronic heating system. To couple real data and the simple heat balance model, the procedure for the model calibration by use of an optimization algorithm has been developed. Using this model, three operating faults in the hydronic heating system have been elaborated. Using the simulation tools EnergyPlus and TRNSYS, several fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) rules have been generated. The FDD rules were established in three steps: testing different faults, calculating the performance indices (PI), and classifying the observed PIs. These rules have been established for the air cooling system and the

  13. Seismic performance analysis and design suggestion for frame buildings with cast-in-place staircases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; Wu, Xiaobin; Xiong, Yaoqing; Li, Congchun; Yang, Wen

    2013-06-01

    Many staircases in reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures suffered severe damage during the Wenchuan earthquake. Elastic analyses for 18 RC structure models with and without staircases are conducted and compared to study the influence of the staircase on the stiffness, displacements and internal forces of the structures. To capture the yielding development and damage mechanism of frame structures, elasto-plastic analysis is carried out for one of the 18 models. Based on the features observed in the analyses, a new type of staircase design i.e., isolating them from the master structure to eliminate the effect of K-type struts, is proposed and discussed. It is concluded that the proposed method of staircase isolation is effective and feasible for engineering design, and does not significantly increase the construction cost.

  14. Global building physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote...

  15. Global Building Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper...

  16. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    with focus on virtual building models support, new services and user environment definitions and development, virtual spaces and augmented reality, intelligent building components, application ontologies, and ICT systems integration to illustrate ICT enhanced buildings potentials and R&D needs.  ...... component systems that are accessed and integrated in the real world of building use in different contexts. The ICT systems may be physically or virtually embedded in the building. Already in 1982 AT&T established the 'intelligent buildings', IB, concept due to marketing reasons and the Informart building...

  17. Sick building syndrome: A disease of modern age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikić Dragana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome (SBS is a term used to describe situation in building when more than 30% of occupants suffer from various symptoms which tend to increase by severity during the time people spend in "sick" building and disappear when they leave the building. Typical cases of SBS report vague symptoms, which cannot be objectively measured, and sufferers usually show no clinical signs of illness. Symptom heterogeneity suggests that they do not represent a single disorder. The objective of our study was to establish if SBS is present in our town because new buildings have been built lately producing the artificial environment - exclusively artificial lightning and mechanical ventilation. A total of 812 subjects were included in our study. The investigation of SBS was performed by standardized questionnaires to determine the prevalence of symptoms and complaints. Questionnaires were used to collect data on perception of environment conditions and health during the period they work in this building. The subjects were divided in three groups according to sex, level of education and ownership. Our data suggested that the incidence of symptoms was higher in employers than in owners of the offices. Moreover, the prevalence of SBS was very high - up to 74.76%. It is obvious that certain physical, psychological and organizational factors are involved in the incidence of symptoms, but our investigation suggests that physical factor has a dominant role in development of symptoms, particularly low humidity and low air flow. In addition, our judgment is that SBS exists in our city, probably in the whole country and, therefore, it must be investigated properly.

  18. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  19. 某绿色建筑能耗实测数据校验eQUSET建筑能耗模拟软件模型的研究%Measured Data Verification of Energy Consumption in a Green Building for Building Energy Simulation Software eQUEST Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晏京; 吴祥生; 陈金华; 张小欧

    2014-01-01

    以重庆市某高校三星绿色建筑为例,对其全年实际运行能耗进行分项统计,利用eQUEST建筑能耗模拟软件建立该建筑的能耗模拟模型。逐项比较实测数据与模拟数据,分析产生误差的原因,并使校验过后的模型模拟数据误差达到相关标准要求。通过对所建模型的校验模拟,证明了经过实测数据校验的模型能够对建筑能耗进行更准确的预测。总结了一些校验模型的方法,为后续能耗模拟提供了参考。%According to the subentry statistic of a green building in Chongqing, the building energy consumption simulation model is established by eQUEST software, comparing the measured data and simu-lated data, analyzing the cause of the error, and the checked model simulation data error achieves the re-quirements of relevant standards. Through the verification of the model, data checking model can make more accurate prediction on the energy consumption of buildings. Some methods for checking model are summarized as reference for subsequent energy simulation.

  20. Sending Hidden Data via Google Suggest

    CERN Document Server

    Bialczak, Piotr; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Google Suggest is a service incorporated within Google Web Search which was created to help user find the right search phrase by proposing the autocompleting popular phrases while typing. The paper presents a new network steganography method called StegSuggest which utilizes suggestions generated by Google Suggest as a hidden data carrier. The detailed description of the method's idea is backed up with the analysis of the network traffic generated by the Google Suggest to prove its feasibility. The traffic analysis was also performed to discover the occurrence of two TCP options: Window Scale and Timestamp which StegSuggest uses to operate. Estimation of method steganographic bandwidth proves that it is possible to insert 100 bits of steganogram into every suggestions list sent by Google Suggest service.