WorldWideScience

Sample records for building materials desenvolvimento

  1. Building Materials Property Table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  2. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report, drawn up at the request of the former Minister of Public Health and Environmental Affairs of the Netherlands, discusses the potential radiological consequences for the population of the Netherlands of using waste materials as building materials in housing construction. (Auth.)

  3. Building Materials in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    Building in the artic requires special attention on the appropriateness of building materials. The harsh climate makes execution difficult and sets unusual requirements for the pure material properties. In addition, there is a lack of choice of good, natural building materials in the arctic....... This results in high transport costs. The building materials situation in Greenland may potentially be improved by intensifying the reuse of building materials or by promoting the local production of building materials....

  4. Mycotoxins in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    as in future energy efficient buildings. It brings together different disciplinary points of view on indoor mold, ranging from physics and material science to microbiology and health sciences. The contents have been outlined according to three main issues: Fundamentals, particularly addressing the crucial...... for avoiding adverse health effects is the prevention (or minimization) of persistent dampness and microbial growth on interior surfaces and in building structures. This book aims to describe the fundamentals of indoor mold growth as a prerequisite to tackle mold growth in the existing building stock as well...

  5. BUILDING MATERIALS RECLAMATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Weggel; Shen-En Chen; Helene Hilger; Fabien Besnard; Tara Cavalline; Brett Tempest; Adam Alvey; Madeleine Grimmer; Rebecca Turner

    2010-08-31

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C&D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C&D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C&D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C&D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  6. Building Materials Reclamation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C and D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C and D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C and D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C and D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  7. Development of a methodology for doss assessment viewing the use of NORM on building materials; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para avaliacao de doses visando o uso de NORM em materiais de construcao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Antonio Fernando Costa de

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for estimating the radiological impact on man of the residues of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) that potentially can be used for the construction of homes and roads. Residues of this type, which are being produced in great quantities by the Brazilian mining industry, are typically deposited in non-appropriated conditions such that they may have a long-time adverse impact on the environment, and hence on man. A mathematical model was developed to calculate the doses resulting from the use of NORM residues, thus allowing a preliminary analysis of the possibility to recycle the residues. The model was used to evaluate the external dose due gamma radiation, the dose to skin caused by beta radiation, and the internal dose due to inhalation of radon and its decay products. The model was verified by comparisons with results of other studies about doses due to gamma and beta radiation from finite and infinite radioactive sources, with relatively good agreement. In order to validate the proposed methodology, a comparison was made against experimental results for a house constructed in accordance with CNEN regulations using building materials containing NORM residues. Comparisons were made of the dose due to gamma radiation and the radon concentration in the internal environment. Finally, the methodology was used also to estimate the dose caused by gamma radiation from a road constructed in the state of Rondonia, Brazil, which made use of another NORM residue. (author)

  8. Material Efficiency of Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Ruuska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Better construction and use of buildings in the European Union would influence 42% of final energy consumption, about 35% of our greenhouse gas emissions and more than 50% of all extracted materials. It could also help to save up to 30% of water consumption. This paper outlines and draws conclusions about different aspects of the material efficiency of buildings and assesses the significance of different building materials on the material efficiency. The research uses an extensive literature study and a case-study in order to assess: should the depletion of materials be ignored in the environmental or sustainability assessment of buildings, are the related effects on land use, energy use and/or harmful emissions significant, should related indicators (such as GHGs be used to indicate the material efficiency of buildings, and what is the significance of scarce materials, compared to the use of other building materials. This research suggests that the material efficiency should focus on the significant global impacts of material efficiency; not on the individual factors of it. At present global warming and greenhouse gas emissions are among the biggest global problems on which material efficiency has a direct impact on. Therefore, this paper suggests that greenhouse gas emissions could be used as an indicator for material efficiency in building.

  9. Mould growth on building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog Nielsen, K.

    Mould growth in buildings is associated with adverse health effects among the occupants of the building. However actual growth only occurs in damp and water-damaged materials, and is an increasing problem in Denmark, due to less robust constructions, inadequate maintenance, and too little...

  10. Frost resistance of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    materials, has been developed.The importance of the pore structure on the development of stresses in the material during freezing is emphasized. To verify the model, experimental investigations are made on various concretes without air-entrainment and brick tiles with different porosities.Calculations......In this thesis it is shown that the critical degree of saturation is suitable as parameter for the frost resistance of porous building materials. A numerical model for prediction of critical degrees of saturation based on fracture mechanics and phase geometry of two-phase materials, e.g. porous...

  11. Daylight as a building material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thule Kristensen, Peter; Madsen, Merete

    2005-01-01

    The article draws on examples to chronologically trace the use of daylight as building material in architecture of the 20th and early 21st century. The essay covers works of Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Erik Bryggman, Rudolf Schwarz, Alvar Aalto, Aldo Rossi, Jørn Utzon, Daniel Libeskind, Peter...

  12. Radon Exhalation Considered in Building Material Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In order to investigate the relationship between radon exhalation and specific activity of natural nuclides in building material, here different kinds of samples of building materials were measured by the

  13. Environmental Evaluation of Building Materials of 5 Slovak Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porhincak, Milan; Estokova, Adriana

    2013-11-01

    Building activity has recently led to the deterioration of environment and has become unsustainable. Several strategies have been introduced in order to minimize consumption of energy and resulting CO2 emissions having their origin in the operational phase. But also other stages of Life Cycle should are important to identify the overall environmental impact of construction sector. In this paper 5 similar Slovak buildings (family houses) were analyzed in terms of environmental performance of building materials used for their structures. Evaluation included the weight of used materials, embodied energy and embodied CO2 and SO2 emissions. Analysis has proven that the selection of building materials is an important factor which influences the environmental profile. Findings of the case study indicated that materials like concrete, ceramic or thermal insulation materials based on polystyrene and mineral wool are ones with the most negative environmental impact.

  14. MOISTURE-BUFFERING CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The humidity level of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings, as well as the durability of building components. Indoor humidity levels depend on several factors, such as moisture sources, air flow, and the adsorption/desorption properties of materials. The moisture-buffering characteristics of building materials that are in contact with indoor air may help moderate the variations of indoor humidity, especially in the summer and winter. In this study, the moisture adsorption/desorption properties of building materials were investigated experimentally and numerically. These properties can be used to characterize the ability of building materials to exchange moisture with the indoor environment. This study indicates that a building material surface resistivity was the main factor creating variations of moisture buffering.

  15. SYSTEM ORGANIZATION OF MATERIAL PROVIDING OF BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rаdkеvich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of scientific-methodical bases to the design of rational management of material streams in the field of building providing taking into account intersystem connections with the enterprises of building industry. Methodology. The analysis of last few years of functioning of building industry in Ukraine allows distinguishing a number of problems that negatively influence the steady development of building, as the component of the state economics system. Therefore the research of existent organization methods of the system of building objects providing with material resources is extremely necessary. In connection with this the article justifies the use of method of hierarchies analysis (Saati method for finding the optimal task solution of fixing the enterprises of building industry after building objects. Findings. Results give an opportunity to guidance of building organization to estimate and choose advantageous suppliers - enterprises of building industry, to conduct their rating, estimation taking into account basic descriptions, such as: quality, price, reliability of deliveries, specialization, financial status etc. Originality. On the basis of Saati method the methodologies of organization are improved, planning and managements of the reliable system of providing of building necessary material resources that meet the technological requirements of implementation of building and installation works. Practical value. Contribution to the decisions of many intricate organizational problems that are accompanied by the problems of development of building, provided due to organization of the reliable system of purchase of material resources.

  16. [Technology transfer of building materials by ECOMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses the plan for technology transfer of building materials developed by ECOMAT to the commercial private sector. Some of the materials are briefly discussed like foams, fiber reinforcement, fly ash development, and polymer fillers.

  17. Matching designs with building materials (BYGMATCH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tom

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a knowledge based approach to mathching design descriptions with proper building materials. It is based on a prototype system developed in KAPPA-PC......The paper presents a knowledge based approach to mathching design descriptions with proper building materials. It is based on a prototype system developed in KAPPA-PC...

  18. Human exposure to emissions from building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, S.; Hauschildt, P.; Pejtersen, Jan;

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. Reactions to emissions from building matrials were studied in a climate chamber as part of an intervention study in an office building. New and existing flooring materials were compared with regard to comfort and health.Methods. Twenty subjects were exposed four times for six hours...

  19. Drying kinetics of some building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Moropoulou, A.; M Karoglou; Giakoumaki, A.; Krokida, M. K.; Maroulis, Z. B.; G.D. Saravacos

    2005-01-01

    Moisture is one of the most deteriorating factors of buildings. The deteriorating effect of moisture occurs mainly during the drying phase, and not in the wetting phase. Appropriate parameters of the drying kinetics are required for the building materials. Environmental factors, such as air temperature, air humidity, and air velocity affect drying. An experimental air dryer of controlled drying air conditions was used to investigate the drying performance of 4 stone materials, 2 bricks and 7 ...

  20. New build: Materials, techniques, skills and innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition to secure, sustainable, low-energy systems will have a significant effect on the way in which we design and construct new buildings. In turn, the new buildings that are constructed will play a critical role in delivering the better performance that would be expected from such a transition. Buildings account for about half of UK carbon dioxide (CO2) production. So it is urgent to ensure that energy is used efficiently in existing buildings and that new building stock is better able to cope with whatever the future holds. Most energy used in buildings goes towards heating, lighting and cooling, but a growing percentage is consumed by domestic appliances, computers and other electrical equipment. Actual energy consumption is the product of a number of factors, including individual behaviours and expectations, the energy efficiency of appliances and the building envelope. This review focuses on the third of these, the building itself, and its design and construction. It discusses the issues faced by the construction industry today, suggesting that major changes are needed relating to materials, techniques, skills and innovation. It moves on to consider future advances to 2050 and beyond, including developments in ICT, novel materials, skills and automation, servitisation (the trend for manufacturers to offer lifetime services rather than simple products), performance measurement and reporting, and resilience. We present a vision of the new build construction industry in 2050 and recommendations for policy makers, industry organisations and construction companies

  1. Environmental Radiation Hazards of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal A. Nasser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, the importance of studying the environmental impact of building material properties grew. The main focus was to study physical, mechanical and chemical characteristics of building materials. Buildings are the environment that a human spend about 80% of his life. Human exposure to radiation doses emerging from natural and manufactured building materials caused serious diseases. The hazard of radiation doses on human body, especially Radon, was discovered. Radon is produced of the radioactive decay of Uranium and Thorium series. It is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas. It inters human body by breathing and produces harmful radioactive elements. It has become a goal to know the limits of safety for building materials and to establish green buildings. Health and environmental risks have to take first command in the construction field to take proper precautions to ward off risks. Radon emission was investigated. The radioactive concentration of indoor air may be decreased under the permissible doses by the building geometry variation and other ways as reviewed in this investigation.

  2. Moisture Buffer Value of Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut; Time, Berit;

    2007-01-01

    of a recent Nordic project to define such a quantity, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. The Moisture Buffer Value is the figure that has been developed in the project as a way to appraise the moisture buffer effect of materials, and the value is described in the paper. Also explained......When building materials are in contact with indoor air they have some effect to moderate the variations of indoor humidity in occupied buildings. But so far there has been a lack of a standardized quantity to characterize the moisture buffering capability of materials. It has been the objective...... is a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested for determination of their Moisture Buffer Value. Finally, the paper presents some of the results of a Round Robin Test on various typical building materials that has been carried out in the project....

  3. Natural Radioactivity of Some Mongolian Building Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbish, S; Ganchimeg, G

    2000-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of some building materials used in cities of Darkhan, Ulaanbaatar and Erdenet in Mongolia was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry with HP-Ge-detector. The radium equivalent concentration and the gamma absorbed dose rate in air, were estimated as the external and internal hazard indices. The results indicate that these materials are not a major source of exposure.

  4. Natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kazuo [Building Materials Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    As part of our study program on environmental radiation levels is buildings, we have undertaken to measure the natural radioactivity, such as radium-226, thorium-232, and potassium-40 in various inorganic building materials. The specimens of their materials include cements, aggregates, concretes, asbestos cement slates, tiles, gypsum boards, rock wool boards, bricks, wall clays, soils, phosphorous ore, zirconia, zircon flower and zircon sand that used in Japan. The ranges and mean values of natural radioactivity concentrations existing in their materials are tabulated and evaluated. (author)

  5. Natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of our study program on environmental radiation levels is buildings, we have undertaken to measure the natural radioactivity, such as radium-226, thorium-232, and potassium-40 in various inorganic building materials. The specimens of their materials include cements, aggregates, concretes, asbestos cement slates, tiles, gypsum boards, rock wool boards, bricks, wall clays, soils, phosphorous ore, zirconia, zircon flower and zircon sand that used in Japan. The ranges and mean values of natural radioactivity concentrations existing in their materials are tabulated and evaluated. (author)

  6. Radioactivity in building materials in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in 45 samples of different building materials used in Iraq were measured using gamma-spectroscopy system based on high-purity germanium detector with an efficiency of 40 %. Radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, external and internal hazard indices and alpha index due to radon inhalation originating from building materials were measured to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to range from below detection limit (BDL) to 223.7±9, BDL to 93.0±3 and BDL to 343.1±12, respectively. Values of average radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, indoor and outdoor annual effective doses, external and internal hazard indices and alpha index ranged from 6.5 to 124.9, 16.2 to 89.5 (nGy h-1), 0.08 to 0.44 mSv, 0.02-0.11 mSv, 0.09 to 0.53, 0.13 to 0.69 and 0.03 to 0.62, respectively. These values indicate a low dose. Therefore, the building materials used in the current study are quite safe to be used as building materials. (author)

  7. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  8. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  9. Durability of building materials and components

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, JMPQ

    2013-01-01

    Durability of Building Materials and Components provides a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to the long-term performance and durability of construction and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of durability, service life prediction methodologies, the durability approach for historical and old buildings, asset and maintenance management and on the durability of materials, systems and components. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.

  10. A drying coefficient for building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    characterisation of building materials on which the attempt is based to standardize the drying experiment as well as to derive a single number material coefficient. The drying itself is briefly reviewed and existing approaches are discussed. On this basis, possible definitions are evaluated. Finally, a drying...... coefficient is defined which can be determined based on measured drying data. The correlation of this coefficient with the water absorption and the vapour diffusion coefficient is analyzed and its additional information content is critically challenged. As result, a drying coefficient has been derived......The drying experiment is an important element of the hygrothermal characterisation of building materials. Contrary to other moisture transport experiments as the vapour diffusion and the water absorption test, it is until now not possible to derive a simple coefficient for the drying. However...

  11. Human exposure to emissions from building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Hauschildt, P.; Pejtersen, J.;

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. Reactions to emissions from building matrials were studied in a climate chamber as part of an intervention study in an office building. New and existing flooring materials were compared with regard to comfort and health.Methods. Twenty subjects were exposed four times for six hours...... effects by linoleum and carpet used and that changing to vinyl flooring may reduce these....... respectively to clean air, to emissions from linoleum, from carpet, and from an alternative new vinyl. Measurements of objective and subjective effects were made.Results. Tear film stability decreased after exposure to linoleum. The nasal volume decreased near-significantly for all exposures. No effects were...

  12. Drying kinetics of some building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moropoulou

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Moisture is one of the most deteriorating factors of buildings. The deteriorating effect of moisture occurs mainly during the drying phase, and not in the wetting phase. Appropriate parameters of the drying kinetics are required for the building materials. Environmental factors, such as air temperature, air humidity, and air velocity affect drying. An experimental air dryer of controlled drying air conditions was used to investigate the drying performance of 4 stone materials, 2 bricks and 7 plasters. Drying kinetics was examined at 4 air temperatures, 6 air humidities, and 3 air velocities. A first-order kinetics model was obtained, in which the drying time constant was a function of the drying conditions, and the equilibrium material moisture content was described by the Oswin equation. The parameters of the proposed model were found to be affected strongly by the material and the drying air conditions. The results obtained are very useful in selecting the appropriate plaster to protect existing historic buildings.

  13. Preservation of adobe buildings. Study of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velosa, A.; Rocha, F.; Costa, C.; Varum, H.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe buildings are common in the central region of Portugal due to the lack of natural stone in the surrounding area. This type of construction technique lasted until the 20th Century, at which time cementitious materials, with faster hardening and greater structural capacity substituted traditional materials and techniques. Currently, a significant percentage of these buildings is vacant and many are degraded and in need of conservation actions. Adobes from central Portugal are distinctive as they are lightly coloured and made from air lime and quarry sand. Although some adobes were manufactured locally, most were produced almost 'industrially' and sold to nearby regions. In order to preserve this heritage, conservation actions must be undertaken. So as to ensure the adequacy of these actions and compatibility between original materials and new ones, a thorough study of adobe compostion is mandatory. The current study is an initial step in the characterization of earth based construction materials from central Portugal. Adobe samples were collected from residential buildings in two different locations. The determination of the composition of adobe blocks encompassed the determination of the binder fraction and of their chemical composition and also the particle size analysis of the aggregate. For this purpose FRX analysis, acid dissolution and dry sieving were performed. Methylene blue test was also executed in order to determine the clay fraction. Additionally, the mineral composition of powder samples and oriented samples was performed using XRD analysis in order to determine the clay minerals present in the blocks. As adobe blocks are extremely prone to the action of water the Geelong test was undertaken in order to provide information in terms of durability. It was concluded that air lime was generally used in adobe compositions. However, the clay content varies in adobes from different regions, providing distinct durability characteristics to these materials.

  14. ICAN Computer Code Adapted for Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been involved in developing composite micromechanics and macromechanics theories over the last three decades. These activities have resulted in several composite mechanics theories and structural analysis codes whose applications range from material behavior design and analysis to structural component response. One of these computer codes, the Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN), is designed primarily to address issues related to designing polymer matrix composites and predicting their properties - including hygral, thermal, and mechanical load effects. Recently, under a cost-sharing cooperative agreement with a Fortune 500 corporation, Master Builders Inc., ICAN was adapted to analyze building materials. The high costs and technical difficulties involved with the fabrication of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites sometimes limit their use. Particulate-reinforced composites can be thought of as a viable alternative. They are as easily processed to near-net shape as monolithic materials, yet have the improved stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness that is characteristic of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. For example, particlereinforced metal-matrix composites show great potential for a variety of automotive applications, such as disk brake rotors, connecting rods, cylinder liners, and other hightemperature applications. Building materials, such as concrete, can be thought of as one of the oldest materials in this category of multiphase, particle-reinforced materials. The adaptation of ICAN to analyze particle-reinforced composite materials involved the development of new micromechanics-based theories. A derivative of the ICAN code, ICAN/PART, was developed and delivered to Master Builders Inc. as a part of the cooperative activity.

  15. Characterisation of natural occurring radioactive materials in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radionuclides (U,Th and K) are known to be present in significant amounts in soil, building materials and recycled industrial waste products. These findings are of our concern since we are continuously being exposed to radiations from such radionuclides, be it at home or workplace. In the study, we have chosen several commonly used building materials such as; cement brick, roof asbestos, red-clay brick, ceiling asbestos and also cement produce which form a vital component in the construction industry. The gamma gross counting method was used to analyse gamma rays at energies 609 keV, 583 keV and 1460 keV using hyperpure germanium counter with 20% efficiency. The radium equivalent activity, Raeq were computed and our findings have shown that some of the samples exhibit a high level of radium equivalent activity, exceeding those of the normal limit recommended by UNSCEAR. (Author)

  16. Rapid technique for determining building material radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid technique for determining building material radioactivity graphically, using nomogram of known uranium (226Ra), thorium (232Th), potassium contents is suggested. Nomogram usage permits to replace labour-consuming calculations of radionuclide specific activity by formula with simple rule imposition. Determination errors don't exceed 1-2%. The nomogram may be easily constructed selecting ranges of radionuclide concentration variation ranges, which are the most characteristic for the work region, and calculating scale values for U, Th and K by formula. Distance from uranium activity scale to U and Th total activity scale as well as scale factor of total specific activity are calculated by formula

  17. Green Building Construction Thermal Isolation Materials (Rockwool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Itewi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Building insulation consisting roughly to anything in a structure that is utilizes as insulation for any reason. Thermal insulation in structures is a significant feature to attaining thermal comfort for its tenants. Approach: Insulation decreases unnecessary warmth loss or gain and can reduce the power burdens of heating and cooling structures. It does not automatically having anything to do with problems of sufficient exposure to air and might or might not influence the amount of sound insulation. Results: In a constricted way insulation can just mean the insulation substance used to reduce heat loss, such as: Glass wool, cellulose, polystyrene, rock wool, urethane foam, vermiculite and the earth, but it can also entail a variety of plans and methods used to deal with the chief forms of heat movement like transmission, emission and convection substances. The efficiency of insulation is normally assessed by its R-value. However, an R-value does not allow for the superiority of assembly or narrow green issues for each structure. Building superiority matters comprise insufficient vapor obstructions and troubles with draft-proofing. Additionally, the property and concentration of the insulation substance itself is vital. Fiberglass insulation materials, for example, made out of short fibers of glass covered on top of each other is not as long-lasting as insulation prepared from extended entwined fibers of glass. Conclusion/Recommendations: Rockwool insulation is a kind of insulation that is constructed out of real rocks and minerals. It furthermore is known by the names of mineral wool insulation, stone wool insulation or slag wool insulation. A broad collection of goods can be constructed from Rockwool, because of its outstanding capability to obstruct sound and heat. Rockwool insulation is normally utilized in building assembly, manufacturing plants and in automotive purposes. In this study i proposed to use

  18. Sintered coal ash/flux materials for building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dry, C.; Meier, J.; Bukowski, J. [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). School of Architecture

    2004-03-01

    An Illinois coal ash, which has metals and a large amount of iron, is considered to be an especially difficult waste for disposal. In the process described in this paper, the high iron and metal content is used to create a building material with special properties. The metals are sequestered. The metals allow a process that creates value-added products, building materials. The products are inexpensively prepared colored, strong, lightweight insulative structural panels. By either sintering in an oven at 725{sup o}C or by adding a flux and sintering at 525{sup o}C, panels are produced which will not leach metals from the ash. The use of an acid with the fly ash as a flux was investigated in comparison with fly ash control samples. The effects of sintering samples at different temperatures and with or without vacuum were also observed. Properties of the samples, including values for strength, water absorption, insulation, and color, are presented from this study.

  19. (Durability of building materials and components)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.

    1990-11-27

    The traveler participated in the fourth meeting of RILEM 100-TSL, Techniques for Service Life Prediction,'' and The Fifth International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components.'' In addition, the traveler met with staff members at Taywood Engineering Ltd., Electricite de France, and AEA Technology. The meeting pertained to performance of concrete materials in nuclear power plant structures, time variation of concrete material properties, methods for evaluating concrete structures, and modeling to predict the effects of degradation factors on concrete materials. As many of the concrete structures in general civil engineering applications as well as nuclear power plant applications in Europe are aging, there is increasing emphasis on assessing the durability of these structures. Information was provided of direct application to the Structural Aging Program which would not have been available without these visits. Of equal, or possibly more importance, was the individual contacts established at the organizations visited. Each organization was extremely interested in both the approach and scope of the Structural Aging Program and requested that they be informed of progress. The initial steps were taken to cooperate with several of these researchers and this should help the Structural Aging Program keep abreast of related European activities. In summary, information obtained during this trip will benefit the ongoing Structural Aging Program by informing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) of the extensive European research programs addressing the durability of concrete structures, and also by forming and strengthening acquaintances with counterparts in other countries, thus enhancing the basis for possible international cooperation.

  20. Straw insulated buildings. Nature building materials; Strohgedaemmte Gebaeude. Naturbaustoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Straw is one of the major agricultural by-products and is mainly used as litter in animal husbandry and to compensate the balance of humus. A relatively recent development is the use of straw bales for the construction of buildings. The brochure under consideration documents the technical development of straw construction in Germany. Possibilities of the use of straw in single family homes up to commercial buildings are described.

  1. Nano insulating materials and energy retrofit of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, Marco

    2016-06-01

    The article offers an analysis of the use of nanotechnological insulation materials (NIMs) for energy upgrading of buildings, illustrating the possibility of their integration into the building envelope and the benefits achievable in terms of architectural quality, comfort and energy saving, within the new framework of European legislation aimed at achieving Zero energy buildings. Particular reference is given to Fibre Reinforced Aerogel Blankets for the building envelope, especially interesting for their wide possible applications even combined with phase change materials.

  2. Saving energy for ventilation by careful selection of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of the research project described in this paper was to study the potential of reducing energy used for ventilating buildings by using low-polluting building materials without compromising indoor air quality.......The main objective of the research project described in this paper was to study the potential of reducing energy used for ventilating buildings by using low-polluting building materials without compromising indoor air quality....

  3. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  4. Buildings and Health. Educational campaign for healthy buildings. Educational material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    In recent years health and comfort problems associated with the indoor climate have come to constitute a problem in Sweden. To come to grips with this a nationwide educational campaign on Buildings and Health is being run. It is directed to those involved in planning, project design, construction and management of buildings. The objective is to convey a body of knowledge to the many occupational and professional groups in the construction sector on how to avoid indoor climate problems in homes, schools, offices and other workplaces. The campaign is being run by the Swedish National Board of Housing and Planning and the Swedish Council for Building Research, in co-operation with various organizations and companies in the construction industry, and with municipalities and authorities. The knowledge which is being disseminated through the campaign is summarized in this compendium. figs., tabs.

  5. Durability of Building Materials Vol 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Rob

    1999-01-01

    Facility management has become another business management discipline and the transfer of building data from design and construction into management has been neglected. The needs of building managers need to be specified and standardised to aallow designers to provide data in the form required....

  6. Energy efficiency of buildings with phase-change materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of energy efficient buildings using innovative building materials such as phase change materials, in addition to improving indoor comfort, energy savings and costs, can be achieved by increasing their market value. Because of its ability to absorb and release energy at predictable temperatures, phase change materials are effective in controlling and maintaining the thermal environment in the building. The use of phase changing materials, materials stored latent energy storage is an effective form of heat. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36016: Experimental and theoretical investigation of frames and plates with semi-rigid connections from the view of the second order theory and stability analysis

  7. Innovated Building Material's Interactions with Structural Form in Architectural Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Mozaikci, Begüm

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Interpretation of building materials into architectural form, is gaining greater interest and attention due to the conservation of architectural heritage. This study highlight, the influences of technological developments of building materials and their interactions with structural form in architectural design projects. Architectural form and decisions can potentially effects by introduced new materials and this study focus on the interaction of new material and structural form...

  8. Building thermal envelope systems and materials (BTESM) progress report for DOE Office of Buildings Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn, G. (comp.)

    1990-10-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, and building diagnostics. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

  9. Tactile Response of Building Materials by Tactile Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    岡島, 達雄; 呉, 健丹; 堀越, 哲美; 武田, 雄二; 水谷, 章夫; 川邊, 伸二; ホリコシ, テツミ; ミズタニ, アキオ; カワベ, シンジ; Horikoshi, Tetsumi; Mizutani, Akio; Kawabe, Shinji

    1991-01-01

    The object of this paper is to clarify the tactile response of building materials by tactile sensor. We developed the compact tactile sensor that can measure the physical values of warmth, hardness and roughness of building materials. At a temperature of 2℃, psychological values of warmth, hardness and roughness were obtaind from the physical values of sixty materials by the tactile sensor. The tactile comfort value can be expressed from physical values of warmth, hardness and roughness by th...

  10. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN OUR CENTURY AND ITS EFFECTS ON BUILDING MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    PERKER, Z. Sevgen

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the study and control of matter at dimensions nanometers. Nanotechnology is also design, fabrication and application of nanostructures and nanomaterials. The research on nanotechnology is evolving and expanding very rapidly every discipline of science. One of them is material science. Nanoscale science and technology gives us unique opportunities to develop revolutionary building materials. This study focuses primarily on nanotechnology and its effects on building materials.

  11. Building Energy Efficiency and the Use of Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Luo

    To become a country of energy saving, consumption reduction, low carbon emissions and life has become a national policy background, we need to convert conception of architectural aesthetics and make necessary adjustments and consciousness. Techniques and methods of support, or method of the research are still needed in the construction, building energy conservation, the environmental protection, low carbon and recycling methods are taken measures. Developing, finding and adopingt "native" and "primary" processed materials, or in which inject new technology to form new material is an effective approach to ensure more ways from environmental protection, energy-saving building and building materials in such ideas to implement.

  12. Possibilities of Using Cellulose Fibres in Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospodarova, V.; Stevulova, N.; Sicakova, A.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, utilization of wastes from agriculture, paper production and building construction is becoming increasingly important due to environmental concerns. Material recycling is a growing trend in the development of building materials; some waste materials can be used in construction as secondary raw materials. The demand for natural non-renewable raw materials is increasing rapidly, therefore, wastes as resources for secondary raw materials can be a good substitute in the production processes. In this way, the shortage of natural raw materials can be supplemented. Construction industry uses secondary raw materials very effectively thereby substituting virgin materials. One of the interesting secondary raw materials is waste coming from natural plant fibres. In this paper, characterization of cellulose fibres from wood pulp, waste paper and their use in cement composites are considered. Technically important parameters of hardened composites are determined and tested (density, water absorbability and compressive strength).

  13. Green Building Construction Thermal Isolation Materials (Rockwool)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Itewi

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Building insulation consisting roughly to anything in a structure that is utilizes as insulation for any reason. Thermal insulation in structures is a significant feature to attaining thermal comfort for its tenants. Approach: Insulation decreases unnecessary warmth loss or gain and can reduce the power burdens of heating and cooling structures. It does not automatically having anything to do with problems of sufficient exposure to air and might or might...

  14. Natural radioactivity levels in building materials used in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    All building materials contain various amounts of radioactive nuclides. The levels of natural radioactivity in 43 selected typical building materials used in the construction of walls, windows and doors were determined. For the first time, the radioactivity of iron was measured, revealing the existence of 60Co. A shielded high-purity germanium detector was used to measure the abundance of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The materials examined in this work showed radioactivity levels below the limit estimated from radium equivalent activity for acceptable radiation doses attributable to building materials, except for the fact that one gypsum sample showed higher levels of activity than average world levels. The studied building materials were classified according to the radium equivalent activities, which varied from highest to lowest levels as follows: clay, cement, brick, gypsum except from Abu-Zaabal, sand, wood, iron, glass and hydrated lime The existence of the 137Cs isotope in some building materials was confirmed and its concentration levels were determined (ranging from 0.04 to 21.156 Bq kg-1). The alpha-activity of radon was measured in a number of building materials using CR-39 detectors.

  15. Surface Treatment of Building Materials with Water Repellent Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittman, F.H.; Siemes, T.A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.G.W.

    1995-01-01

    Water repellent agents have been applied to proteet building materials and structural elements for thousands ofyears. Initially, natural products, such as oils and fats were used exclusively. More recently, synthetic organic compounds are being developed for special applications.

  16. Modeling of electromigration salt removal methods in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2008-01-01

    can be obtained. One important issue is to be able to optimizing the salt removing electromagration method in the field by first studying it theoretically. Another benefit is that models can give some answers concerning the effect of the inner surfaces of the material on the diffusion mechanisms......A model is established for the prediction of the effect of salt removal of building materials using electromigration. Salt-induced decay of building materials, such as masonry and sandstone, is a serious threat to our cultural heritage. Electromigration of salts from building materials, sensitive...... for salt attack of various kinds, is one potential method to preserve old building envelopes. By establishing a model for ionic multi-species diffusion, which also accounts for external applied electrical fields, it is proposed that an important complement to the experimental tests and that verification...

  17. Natural radioactivity in building materials used in Changzhi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Lu, Xinwei; Zhao, Caifeng; Li, Nan

    2013-08-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used building materials collected from Changzhi, China was analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the investigated building materials range from 14.6 to 131.2, from 9.9 to 138.8 and from 96.1 to 819.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The results were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide mean activity of soil. The external and internal hazard indices and gamma index were calculated to assess the radiation hazard to residents. The external hazard index of all building materials are less than unity, while the internal hazard and gamma indexes of hollow brick and gravel aggregate exceed unity. The study shows that the investigated hollow brick and gravel aggregate are not suitable for use as building materials in dwellings.

  18. The building materials industry in China: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Feng [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Wang, Shumao [State Planning Commission, People`s Republic of China, (China). Energy Research Institute

    1994-12-01

    The present study of China`s building materials industry is a collaborative work between the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of the State Planning Commission of China and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) of the US Department of Energy (USDOE).

  19. Strengthening of building structures using carbon composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Paranicheva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the question of ensuring the reliability of various building structures both at the stage of their construction and during operation is very urgent. There are a lot of different ways and constructive methods of structures strengthening. Аt the same time, traditional ways of concrete structures strengthening with steel reinforcement are such expensive, time consuming and in some cases require to interrupt the building operation. As an alternative, it is proposed to use composite materials based on high-strength carbon fibers.The authors consider the properties, advantages, disadvantages and the methods of application of these materials. This article presents results of a technical survey carried out in a public building in 2009. In this building the CFRP was used to strengthen concrete slabs, resting on the crossbar consoles. The calculation of the strength is adduced and the section selection is made. The authors demonstrate their conclusions about the feasibility of using carbon composite materials.

  20. Rehabilitation of adobe buildings. Understanding different materials from Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cristiana; Rocha, Fernando; Velosa, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Earth construction is the oldest building material known, with documented cases of the use of earth bricks since Mesopotamia around 10 000 BC (Heathcote, 1995). The earth construction exists throughout the majority of the world in different cultures, and for some countries, nowadays it continues to be the main process of construction (Vega et al, 2011). Around 30% of the world's population lives in buildings made of earth materials. Earthen construction is an environmentally friendly technique with a social and cultural contribution; this advantage is increased when this type of construction is applied in developing countries where the material costs counterbalance with labour costs, and where other materials and techniques cannot be available (Ciancio et al, 2013). Studies of materials characterization are required in order to understand the composition and specific properties of the earth buildings, their heterogeneity and their degradation mechanisms. Some adobes from different buildings, ages and regions of Portugal were collected in order to characterize them (mineralogically, chemically and physically). It was possible to understand the composition of these materials and their differences. Main minerals are quartz, feldspars, calcite and phyllosilicates (mica and kaolinite). The mechanical behaviour of these materials isn't the best, but it is possible to improve it with some simple and cheap natural additives (kaolinitic soils). The characterization of these materials allows us to understand the differences between the materials from the different regions (controlled by locally available raw materials). Understanding these materials, and their properties, it is possible to formulate new ones for repair, conservation and rehabilitation works. The adobe bricks are an alternative of kiln baked bricks which has several advantages and one of the most important is that these materials are recyclable. Adobes are an excellent option for building rehabilitation, if

  1. Exposure effects on the optical properties of building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sarah; Cathcart, J. Michael; Harrell, J. Timothy

    2008-04-01

    Georgia Tech recently initiated a weathering effects measurement program to monitor the optical properties of several common building materials. A set of common building materials were placed outdoors and optical property measurements made over a series of weeks to assess the impact of exposure on these properties. Both reflectivity and emissivity measurements were made. Materials in this program included aluminum flashing, plastic sheets, bricks, roof shingles, and tarps. This paper will discuss the measurement approach, experimental setup, and present preliminary results from the optical property measurements.

  2. γ-ray shielding effect of various building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to know the γ-ray attenuation coefficients and the dose buildup factors for various building materials in order to evaluate the γ-ray shielding factor of the residential houses in the reactor accident. As a matter of fact, however, there is few information about these values. This report describes measurements of the linear attenuation coefficients and dose buildup factors for the typical building materials used in Japan and estimation of the γ-ray shielding effects of these materials. (author)

  3. Glass-ceramics as building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, J. María

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramics are materials composed as any ceramic material by several crystalline phases embedded in an amorphous or vitreous matrix, but their manufacture process implies the controlled devitrification or nucleation and growth of phases from an original glass. The original shape of the original glass molded by conventional methods is carried out by using pressing and sintering followed by crystallization steps. By both processing routes are obtained transparent and/or opaque materials, with or without colours, which after adequate control and design of composition and microstructure have numerous domestic and architectonic applications. They can be used as pavements or wall coatings and in various decorative elements. In fact, their use is very extensive in east-European, American and Asian (Japan countries in constructions for covering large surfaces. The greater advantage of the glass-ceramic process is that due to the own process of vitrification allows the incorporation in their structure of a wide range of compositions from mining and industrial residues, such as red muds, ashes, fangos, scraps... which they can in this way not only be inertizated, but furthermore it be converted without risk for the environment into products useful in construction applications, offering to the architect and to the decorator a new range of "eco-materials" with multiple complementary possibilities of the already existing architectural materials in the market.

    Los productos o materiales vitrocerámicos se componen, como cualquier material de tipo cerámico, de una o varias fases cristalinas embebidas en una matriz amorfa o vítrea, pero cuyo proceso de fabricación implica la desvitrificación o nucleación y cristalización controlada de un vidrio original o de partida. En el proceso de obtención de estos materiales se puede conservar la forma original conferida al vidrio de partida por los métodos convencionales de moldeado de vidrios

  4. Building biomedical materials layer-by-layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula T. Hammond

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this materials perspective, the promise of water based layer-by-layer (LbL assembly as a means of generating drug-releasing surfaces for biomedical applications, from small molecule therapeutics to biologic drugs and nucleic acids, is examined. Specific advantages of the use of LbL assembly versus traditional polymeric blend encapsulation are discussed. Examples are provided to present potential new directions. Translational opportunities are discussed to examine the impact and potential for true biomedical translation using rapid assembly methods, and applications are discussed with high need and medical return.

  5. Survey and specimen taking of building materials which are destined for house building in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation deals with the following items: (a) Some building materials cause an increase of the natural radioactive radiation level indoors, especially building materials containing a certain kind of phosphogypsum. The radiation level depends among other things on the applied quantity of building materials and on the location in the building (walls, floors or roofs, etc.). The soil underneath dwellings can also be an important radiation source. The report gives a listing of the kind of building materials used for dwellings in The Netherlands, both present ones as well as possible future ones. A survey of the quantities applied and the location of application in dwellings is also given. The different types of soil underneath the dwellings are discussed. (b) Samples were collected from various factories, dealers and other sources (both present and future samples) of the most important building materials and components thereof. The samples were handed over to Division of Technology for Society TNO, Radiological Service TNO and Netherland Energy Research Foundation, in order to measure the activity concentrations and the radon exhalations. A listing of the samples is given. (Auth.)

  6. BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS BASED ON SILICON MANGANESE SLAGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Currently of particular relevance was given to the matter of introduction in manufacture of building materials and products, resource-saving techniques and technologies; integrated use of raw materials and materials that prevent or significantly reduce their harmful impact on the environment. This allows you to recycle hundreds of thousands of tons of the fiery liquid slags of silicon manganese and to develop effective structural materials that can replace metals, non-metallic building materials of natural origin, concretes, cast stone, plastics and refractories. Purpose. The study of the structure and properties of building materials and products from electric furnace slag of silicon manganese. Conclusion. Slags from the smelting of silicon manganese are classified as acidic. Their lime factor is in the range of 0.47–0.52. The composition of the slag located in the heterogeneous region SiO2 near the line of separation of cristobalite spread to the crystallization of wollastonite, according to the ternary system MnO-CaO-SiO2, which in consideration of their stability, allows the development of technology of building materials (gravel, sand, granulated slag, etc. and products (foundation blocks, road slabs, containers for transportation and storage of hazardous waste, and others.

  7. Radon exhalation rates from some building construction materials using SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following α- decay of 226Ra in underground soil and building materials used. in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. In dwellings main source of radon are soil or rock underneath, building materials and portable water supplies. The major release of radon indoors is from building construction materials used. The radon measurements on the ground can give a clue about the hidden uranium. The exposure of population to high concentrations of radon and its daughters for a long period leads to pathological effects like the respiratory functional changes and the occurrence of lung cancer. In the present investigations radon exhalation rates from some soil and other building materials like fly ash, cement and sand collected from Panchkula, Ambala, Yamunanagar, Kurukshetra, Karnal and Panipat districts of Haryana have been estimated. For the measurement of radon concentration in these samples we used α-sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. The mass and the surface exhalation rates of radon emanated from these samples have also been calculated. The aim of study is the possible health risk assessment due to emission of radiation from building construction materials. (author)

  8. Photocatalytic construction and building materials: From fundamentals to applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun; Poon, Chi-sun [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hum Hom (China)

    2009-09-15

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis has been intensively studied in recent decades because it only requires photonic energy to activate the chemical conversion contrasting with conventional catalysis which needs heat for thermo-activation. Over the years, the theories for photochemical activity of photocatalyst including photo-induced redox reaction and super-hydrophilic conversion of TiO{sub 2} itself have been established. The progress in academic research significantly promotes its practical applications, including the field of photocatalytic construction and building materials. TiO{sub 2} modified building materials are most popular because TiO{sub 2} has been traditionally used as a white pigment. The major applications of TiO{sub 2} based photocatalytic building materials include environmental pollution remediation, self-cleaning and self-disinfecting. The advantage of using solar light and rainwater as driving force has opened a new domain for environmentally friendly building materials. In this paper, the basic reaction mechanisms on photocatalyst surface under the irradiation of ultraviolet and their corresponding applications in building and construction materials are reviewed. The problems faced in practical applications and the trends for future development are also discussed. (author)

  9. Evaluation of waste as a comparative criterion for building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Soberón, José Manuel Vicente; Gómez Soberón, M. Consolació; Cabrera Covarrubias, Francisca Guadalupe; Corral Higuera, Ramón; Gámez García, Diana C.; Guerrero Díaz, Antonio; Gómez Soberón, Luis Alberto

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, it analyzes and compares the use of three different materials (Reinforced Concrete -R. C.-, Steel and Wood) usable for the building, and construction processes that this entails. The analysis aimed to investigate which of the three materials is the most appropriate from the perspective of sustainability in order to propose alternatives that minimize the impact they have on the environment. Today, concrete is the material most commonly used in construction, and th...

  10. EUROMAT 99, Volume 6, Materials for Buildings and Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, F. H.

    2000-06-01

    Building materials are experiencing degradation phenomena due to the long-term action of the atmospheric components. The understanding of the transport characteristics in concrete is a key issue to mitigate the deleterious consequences. Conventional cement-based materials suffer from a lack of ductility. However, modern cement compositions, fiber materials and additions allow to engineer new products adjusted to the purpose. These and several key topics for modern civil engineering are discussed in this book.

  11. Design Of Material Access Shielding Door Of ISFSF Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Base on the planning to maintain of the air pressure in the reactor building, the design of material access shielding door in the ISFSF building has been done. By the installation designed, the air pressure condition in the reactor building well meet the design criteria. The system requires 12 pieces of steel beam L 4 x 3 x 1/2 inches ASTM A36 and 6 pieces steel plate by 2400 x 1200 x 3 mm dimension ASTM A514. This paper concluded that this design is feasible to be realized

  12. Ozone reactions with indoor materials during building disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poppendieck, D.; Hubbard, H.; Ward, M.;

    2007-01-01

    , and particularly after several hours of disinfection, surface reaction resistance dominated the overall resistance to ozone deposition for nearly all materials. Total building disinfection by-products (all carbonyls) were quantified per unit area of each material for the experimental period. Paper, office......There is scant information related to heterogeneous indoor chemistry at ozone concentrations necessary for the effective disinfection of buildings, i.e., hundreds to thousands of ppm. In the present study, 24 materials were exposed for 16 h to ozone concentrations of 1000-1200ppm in the inlet...... streams of test chambers. Initial ozone deposition velocities were similar to those reported in the published literature for much lower ozone concentrations, but decayed rapidly as reaction sites on material surfaces were consumed. For every material, deposition velocities converged to a relatively...

  13. The impact of roofing material on building energy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Ali

    The last decade has seen an increase in the efficient use of energy sources such as water, electricity, and natural gas as well as a variety of roofing materials, in the heating and cooling of both residential and commercial infrastructure. Oil costs, coal and natural gas prices remain high and unstable. All of these instabilities and increased costs have resulted in higher heating and cooling costs, and engineers are making an effort to keep them under control by using energy efficient building materials. The building envelope (that which separates the indoor and outdoor environments of a building) plays a significant role in the rate of building energy consumption. An appropriate architectural design of a building envelope can considerably lower the energy consumption during hot summers and cold winters, resulting in reduced HVAC loads. Several building components (walls, roofs, fenestration, foundations, thermal insulation, external shading devices, thermal mass, etc.) make up this essential part of a building. However, thermal insulation of a building's rooftop is the most essential part of a building envelope in that it reduces the incoming "heat flux" (defined as the amount of heat transferred per unit area per unit time from or to a surface) (Sadineni et al., 2011). Moreover, more than 60% of heat transfer occurs through the roof regardless of weather, since a roof is often the building surface that receives the largest amount of solar radiation per square annually (Suman, and Srivastava, 2009). Hence, an argument can be made that the emphasis on building energy efficiency has influenced roofing manufacturing more than any other building envelope component. This research project will address roofing energy performance as the source of nearly 60% of the building heat transfer (Suman, and Srivastava, 2009). We will also rank different roofing materials in terms of their energy performance. Other parts of the building envelope such as walls, foundation

  14. ASSESSMENT OF KINETIC PROCESSES OF HARDENING OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Voronov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Kinetic processes are of huge importance when producing building units and operating them as well. However, both technological and operation parameters are determined by the structure of a material under study.Results and conclusions. Kinetics with asymptotic approximation at hardening of building materials is analyzed. The validity of use of new kinetic equation is proved, characterizing harden composite systems and taking into consideration structural and topological peculiarities of new solid-like phase formation directly effecting the evolution of the processes. Results of research of change of strength at solidification a cement-sandy solution with various additives are submitted.

  15. Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure of members of the public can be increased appreciably by the use of building materials containing above-normal levels of natural radioactivity. This phenomenon has attracted attention in recent years, and in this review, an attempt is made to the quantify exposures incurred under various circumstances. The second section of the review is a general survey of those building materials, mostly industrial wastes, that have aroused interest in Member countries. The probability that environmental pressures may cause such wastes to be used more and more by building industries may lead to similar situations in the future. Other review material of a relevant nature is described in the third section. Primordial radionuclides only are considered here. They are: potassium-40 (K-40); radium-226 (Ra-226) and its decay products; the series headed by thorium-232 (Th-232). The important radiological consequences of the natural radioactivity in building materials are two-fold, irradiation of the body by gamma rays and irradiation of the lung tissues by radon-222 (Rn-222) decay products or daughters. These consequences cannot be explored quantitatively except in relation to the specific activities of the nuclides of interest, and the approach adopted in this review is to assess the consequences in terms of the incremental radiation exposures that would be incurred by occupants of substantial dwellings entirely constructed of materials with various specific activities or combinations thereof. Gamma rays are dealt with in the fourth section and radon daughters in the fifth

  16. Proceedings of the workshop on cool building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Fishman, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Frohnsdorff, G. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NEL), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building Materials Div.] [eds.

    1994-04-01

    The Option 9, Cool Communities, of the Clinton-Gore Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) calls for mobilizing community and corporate resources to strategically plant trees and lighten the surfaces of buildings and roads in order to reduce cooling energy use of the buildings. It is estimated that Cool Communities Project will potentially save over 100 billion kilowatt-hour of energy per year corresponding to 27 million tons of carbon per year by the year 2015. To pursue the CCAP`s objectives, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on behalf of the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency, in cooperation with the Building and Fire Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), organized a one-day meeting to (1) explore the need for developing a national plan to assess the technical feasibility and commercial potential of high-albedo (``cool``) building materials, and if appropriate, to (2) outline a course of action for developing the plan. The meeting took place on February 28, 1994, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The proceedings of the conference, Cool Building Materials, includes the minutes of the conference and copies of presentation materials distributed by the conference participants.

  17. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials with Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the setting of this work, the natural radioactivity of building materials used in Tunisia has been measured by gamma spectrometry. These products have been ground and dried at 100 degree for 12 h. Then, they have been homogenized, weighed and finally conditioned during 23 days in order to reach the radioactive equilibrium. The measures' results proved that all building materials studied except bauxite and the ESC clay, possess doses lower than the acceptable limit (1 mSv.an-1). However, the possibility of reinforcement of the natural radioactivity in some industry of building can exist. To insure that the cement, the most used in the world, don't present any radiological risk on the workers' health, a survey has been made in the factory - les Ciments de Bizerte - about its manufacture's process. The results of this survey showed that this product can be considered like a healthy product.

  18. Review on phase change materials for building applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia SOCACIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In nowadays, the Phase Change Material (PCM is a viable alternative for reducing the energy consumption and for increase the thermal comfort in buildings. The use of PCM in building applications provides the potential to increase the indoor thermal comfort for occupants due to the reduced indoor temperature fluctuations and lower global energy consumption. The possibility to incorporate the PCM into the material of construction for cooling and heating the buildings gained the interest of researchers from all the world because the PCM have a high heat of fusion, meaning it is capable to storing and release large amounts of energy in the form of heat during its melting and solidifying process at a specific temperature.

  19. COMPOSITION BUILDING MATERIALS ON THE BASIS OF MODIFIED LIQUID OLIGODIENES

    OpenAIRE

    D. E. Barabash

    2010-01-01

    The results of elaboration of efficient building composites on the basis of modified oligodienes are presented. The basic propositions on design of ma-terial formulations for different purposes with consideration for the particu-larities of their use are given. The ways of improvement of technology of composites preparation subject to proposed operation conditions are sug-gested.

  20. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR A CANDIDATE BUILDING MATERIALS RADIUM STANDARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a candidate building materials radium standard. It contains the standard and a summary of the technical basis for the standard. (NOTE: The Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP), sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and the...

  1. Spectral Signatures of Surface Materials in Pig Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, GuoQiang; Strøm, Jan; Blanke, Mogens;

    2006-01-01

    . In this study, the optical properties of different types of surfaces to be cleaned and the dirt found in finishing pig units were investigated in the visual and the near infrared (VIS-NIR) optical range. Four types of commonly used materials in pig buildings, i.e. concrete, plastic, wood and steel were applied...

  2. High-albedo materials for reducing building cooling energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, H.; Sailor, D.; Akbari, H.

    1992-01-01

    One simple and effective way to mitigate urban heat islands, i.e., the higher temperatures in cities compared to those of the surrounds, and their negative impacts on cooling energy consumption is to use high-albedo materials on major urban surfaces such as rooftops, streets, sidewalks, school yards, and the exposed surfaces of parking lots. High-albedo materials can save cooling energy use by directly reducing the heat gain through a building`s envelope (direct effect) and also by lowering the urban air temperature in the neighborhood of the building (indirect effect). This project is an attempt to address high-albedo materials for buildings and to perform measurements of roof coatings. We search for existing methods and materials to implement fighter colors on major building and urban surfaces. Their cost effectiveness are examined and the possible related technical, maintenance, and environmental problems are identified. We develop a method for measuring albedo in the field by studying the instrumentation aspects of such measurements. The surface temperature impacts of various albedo/materials in the actual outdoor environment are studied by measuring the surface temperatures of a variety of materials tested on an actual roof. We also generate an albedo database for several urban surfaces to serve as a reference for future use. The results indicate that high-albedo materials can have a large impact on the surface temperature regime. On clear sunny days, when the solar noon surface temperatures of conventional roofing materials were about 40{degrees}C (72{degrees}F) warmer than air, the surface temperature of high-albedo coatings were only about 5{degrees}C warmer than air. In the morning and in the late afternoon, the high-albedo materials were as cool as the air itself. While conventional roofing materials warm up by an average 0.055{degrees}C/(W m{sup {minus}2}), the high-albedo surfaces warm up by an average 0.015{degrees}C/(W m{sup {minus}2}).

  3. Assessment of the radiological impact of selected building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials are a source of external and internal radiation exposure to essentially the entire Polish population. The programme of our studies met two main aspects on radioactivity of building materials: Gamma dose rate and radon or alpha potential energy concentration measurements in dwellings of various kinds of structure and materials in both industrial and rural districts of Poland. Gamma dose rate measurements were made in about 2200 dwellings and radon or alpha potential energy concentration measurements - in 750 dwellings. On the basis of these studies the annual effective dose equivalent to the Polish population due to gamma and alpha radiation indoors was estimated to be 0.39 mSv/a and 0.99 mSv/a, respectively. The contribution of external (from gamma) and internal (from alpha) radiation exposure due to naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials to the total radiation exposure of Polish population was assessed to be 3.6 per cent and 34.2 per cent, respectively. Measurements of about 1500 samples of various kinds of building materials and raw materials were made to determine radionuclide concentrations in them. The highest values were obtained in samples of phosphogypsum, fly ash and slag: potassium concentration ranges up to 36 pCi g-1 (a slag sample), radium - up to 17 pCi g-1 (a phosphogypsum sample) and thorium - up to 4 pCi g-1 (a phosphogypsum). On the basis of the results of our studies we came to the conclusion that it was necessary to work out a control system which could protect habitants against enhancement of indoor exposure to ionizing radiation

  4. Mould growth on building materials under low water activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Holm, G.; Uttrup, L.P.;

    2004-01-01

    The influence of relative humidity (RH) and temperature on growth and metabolism of eight microfungi on 21 different types of building material was investigated. The fungi were applied as a dry mixture to the materials, which were incubated at 5degreesC, 10degreesC, 20degreesC and 25degrees......C at three humidity levels in the range 69-95% RH over 4-7 months. The lower limit for fungal growth on wood, wood composites and starch-containing materials was 78% RH at 20-25degreesC and increased to 90% RH at 5degreesC. An RH of 86% was necessary for growth on gypsum board. Ceramic materials supported...... growth at RH > 90%, although 95% RH was needed to yield chemically detectable quantities of biomass. Almost exclusively only Penicillium, Aspergillus and Eurotium (contaminant) species grew on the materials. Production of secondary metabolites and mycotoxins decreased with humidity and the quantities...

  5. High-albedo materials for reducing building cooling energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, H.; Sailor, D.; Akbari, H.

    1992-01-01

    One simple and effective way to mitigate urban heat islands, i.e., the higher temperatures in cities compared to those of the surrounds, and their negative impacts on cooling energy consumption is to use high-albedo materials on major urban surfaces such as rooftops, streets, sidewalks, school yards, and the exposed surfaces of parking lots. High-albedo materials can save cooling energy use by directly reducing the heat gain through a building's envelope (direct effect) and also by lowering the urban air temperature in the neighborhood of the building (indirect effect). This project is an attempt to address high-albedo materials for buildings and to perform measurements of roof coatings. We search for existing methods and materials to implement fighter colors on major building and urban surfaces. Their cost effectiveness are examined and the possible related technical, maintenance, and environmental problems are identified. We develop a method for measuring albedo in the field by studying the instrumentation aspects of such measurements. The surface temperature impacts of various albedo/materials in the actual outdoor environment are studied by measuring the surface temperatures of a variety of materials tested on an actual roof. We also generate an albedo database for several urban surfaces to serve as a reference for future use. The results indicate that high-albedo materials can have a large impact on the surface temperature regime. On clear sunny days, when the solar noon surface temperatures of conventional roofing materials were about 40{degrees}C (72{degrees}F) warmer than air, the surface temperature of high-albedo coatings were only about 5{degrees}C warmer than air. In the morning and in the late afternoon, the high-albedo materials were as cool as the air itself. While conventional roofing materials warm up by an average 0.055{degrees}C/(W m{sup {minus}2}), the high-albedo surfaces warm up by an average 0.015{degrees}C/(W m{sup {minus}2}).

  6. The effect of atmospheric pollution on building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, C. M.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2002-11-01

    This chapter surveys main effects of atmospheric pollution on building materials. It summarises these effects on stone, bricks, mortar, concrete, glass, metals (iron, zinc, copper, bronze, aluminium, lead and silver), polymers, paints and timber. Special attention is paid to stone because of its extensive use as building material in the cultural heritage. In general, main damaging agent is sulfur dioxide which leads to sulfation of many materials, particularly carbonate-bearing stones. However, the decline of sulfur dioxide in cities means that the recognition of the prime role of this pollutant presents something of a dilemma. It is increasingly necessary to consider other substances that can contribute to material decay e.g. nitrogen oxides, chlorides and ozone, either acting as synergistic to the sulfation reaction or as main decay agents, such as the case of aluminium and polymers. Particulate matter often from diesel vehicles can also accelerate the oxidation of SO2 on the surface (traditionally sulfur dioxide with Fe-rich particles) and blacken the materials surface in the case of soot. These processes contribute to the formation of black-crusts when embedded in the gypsum layer resulting from the material sulfation, but again the rate in the modem atmosphere is a matter of much research.

  7. Natural radioactivity and indoor radiation measurements in buildings and building materials in Gobichettipalayam town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of natural and manufactured building materials used by the people of Gobichettipalayam town have been analyzed for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K using gamma-ray spectrometry. Radium equivalent activity of the materials has been measured using the formula given by OECD and the geometric mean value of sand, clay and cements are found to be 53.53 Bq x kg-1, 89.09 Bq x kg-1 and 72.25 Bq x kg-1, respectively. The radium equivalent activities obtained in the building materials are all well below the acceptable limit. The indoor gamma-dose has been measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters and it was found in the range of 1051.2-3946.0 μGy/year. The annual effective indoor gamma radiation dose to the people of Gobichettipalayam town has been found to be 0.8 mSv/y. (author)

  8. Assessment of the material properties of a fire damaged building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo OLOMO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies a process for assessing the material properties of a fire damaged building so as to determine whether the remains can be utilized in construction or be demolished. Physical and chemical analysis were carried out on concrete and steel samples taken from various elements of the building after thorough visual inspection of the entire building had been conducted. The physical (non-destructive tests included the Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests on the concrete samples, tensile strength test on the steel samples and chemical tests involving the assessment of the quantities of cement, sulphates and chloride concentrations in the samples. A redesign of the building elements was also carried out and the results were compared with the existing design. The non-destructive test results indicated compressive strengths as low as 9.9 N/mm2, the tensile strength test indicated a maximum strength of 397.48 N/mm2 and the chemical test indicated chloride contents as high as 0.534 g per gramme of concrete. These properties deviated significantly from standard requirements. Based on these results, it was concluded that the remains of the building should be demolished.

  9. Moisture measurements in building materials with microwaves; Rakennusmateriaalien kosteusmittauksia mikroaalloilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, H.; Rudolph, M.; Schaurich, D.; Wiggenhauser, H. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Construction and Facility Management

    1998-12-01

    In order to assess the condition and evaluate the reliability of buildings and structures, it is essential to establish the moisture condition of the floor and other structural elements of the building. NDT-methods are increasingly being used for such moisture measurements because they do not cause any damage to the building under investigation. Microwave transmission is one of the NDT-methods and has been in use for several years. In this report, the applicability of the microwave method for measuring moisture in different building materials was investigated. This method has been successfully used at BAM for repeated moisture measurements in brick and sandstone material. This project also included other materials, such as concrete, sand, gravel, insulation and wood. At the same time, information was gathered about in situ moisture determination of building materials with a microwave moisture measuring system. The equipment used in this research has been developed at BAM over the last few years. The method requires two parallel boreholes in the specimen in which two microwave antennae can be moved. The moisture content in the material can be calculated from the microwave intensity transmitted between the two boreholes. Moisture profiles along the boreholes can be obtained by moving the antennae in steps along the length of the boreholes and taking measurements at each step. Special care must be taken while drilling the holes for the antennae, as this process must not affect the moisture condition in the specimen, and the boreholes must be made as parallel to each other as possible. The microwave frequencies used in the laboratory measurements ranged from 8 to 16,5 GHz in steps of 0,5 GHz. The diameters of the antennae were between 7 and 9 mm, and of the boreholes between 8 and 12 mm. Except for the concrete specimen, all the specimens were measured using plastic tubes in the boreholes. The moisture content measured by the microwave technique was verified by the

  10. Estimation of radon emanation factor in Indian building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, B.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail: bijay@barc.gov.in; Nathwani, Dipen; Eappen, K.P.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Gaware, J.J.; Mayya, Y.S. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2007-09-15

    Results of estimation of radon ({sup 222}Rn) emanation factors of the commonly used building materials in India are presented. All the samples were analyzed for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K contents by gamma spectrometric method. {sup 222}Rn mass exhalation rates of the various samples were determined using an Alphaguard, a continuous radon monitoring system. From the {sup 226}Ra content and {sup 222}Rn mass exhalation rate obtained, the {sup 222}Rn emanation factor was evaluated for the samples. Results showed that the estimated {sup 222}Rn emanation factors of the studied building materials and soil samples under dry condition and in powder form varied from 0.1% to 20.8 %.

  11. Regularities of radiation defects build up on oxide materials surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of experimental data by radiation defects study on different oxide elements (silicon, beryllium, aluminium, rare earth elements) irradiated by the photo-, gamma-, neutron-, alpha- radiation, protons and helium ions show, that gas adsorption process on the surface centers and radiation defects build up in metal oxide correlated between themselves. These processes were described by the equivalent kinetic equations for analysis of radiation defects build up in the different metal oxides. It was revealed in the result of the analysis: number of radiation defects are droningly increasing up to limit value with the treatment temperature growth. Constant of radicals death at ionizing radiation increases as well. Amount of surface defects in different oxides defining absorbing activity of these materials looks as: silicon oxide→beryllium oxide→aluminium oxide. So it was found, that most optimal material for absorbing system preparation is silicon oxide by it power intensity and berylium oxide by it adsorption efficiency

  12. Drying and wetting of building materials and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book, Drying and Wetting of Building Materials and Components, provides a collection of recent contributions in the field of drying and wetting in porous building materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.

  13. Measurement of Moisture Storage Parameters of Building Materials

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jiřičková; Černý, R.; P. Rovnaníková

    2003-01-01

    The moisture storage parameters of three different building materials: calcium silicate, ceramic brick and autoclaved aerated concrete, are determined in the hygroscopic range and overhygroscopic range. Measured sorption isotherms and moisture retention curves are then combined into moisture storage functions using the Kelvin equation. A comparison of measured results with global characteristics of the pore space obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry shows a reasonable agreement; the medi...

  14. Production of mycotoxins on artificially and naturally infested building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Gravesen, S.; Nielsen, P.A.;

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the ability to produce mycotoxins during growth on artificially infested building materials was investigated for Penicillium chrysogenum, Pen. polonicum, Pen. brevicompactum, Chaetomium spp., Aspergillus ustus, Asp. niger, Ulocladium spp., Alternaria spp., and Paecilomyces spp., all......., alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether were detected. From Ulocladium spp., Paecilomyces spp., and Asp. ustus no known mycotoxins were detected, although the latter two are known mycotoxin producers. Asp. niger produced several naphtho-gamma-pyrones and tetra-cyclic compounds. All investigated species...

  15. Valorisation of phosphogypsum as building material: Radiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayibi, H.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, alternative uses of phosphogypsum (PG in the building industry are being considered in several countries; however, the natural radioactivity level in the PG could be a restriction for those uses. United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA classified PG as Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM. This drawback could be avoided controlling its percentage in the cement preparation and the radionuclides content in the other raw materials used in its production, and calculating the activity concentration index (I in the final by-products. The valorization of PG as a building material has been studied, from a radiological point of view, by developing a new stabilisation/solidification process. PG is incorporated within a polymeric sulphur matrix, obtaining a concrete-like material, which presents lower natural radioactive content than the initial PG. The 226Ra content of this material ranged between 26-27 Bq·kg-1 and it is quite similar to that of common Spanish building materials.

    Actualmente, en muchos países se está contemplando el uso alternativo del fosfoyeso (PG en la industria de la construcción, aunque su contenido en radionucleidos naturales puede presentar ciertas restricciones para dicha aplicación (material clasificado por la US-EPA como TENORM: “Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Materials. No obstante, estos inconvenientes podrían paliarse controlando el porcentaje del PG y los niveles de radioactividad en las materias primas a incorporar al cemento y calculando el índice de concentración de actividad (I en los productos finales. La valorización del PG como material de construcción se ha estudiado en este trabajo desde el punto de vista radiológico, desarrollando un nuevo proceso de estabilización/solidificación, obteniéndose un material de características similares al cemento y que presenta menor contenido de radionucleidos naturales que el

  16. Dynamic solar radiation control in buildings by applying electrochromic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelle, B.P.; Gustavsen, A.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Smart windows like electrochromic windows (ECWs) are windows which are able to regulate the solar radiation throughput by application of an external voltage. The ECWs may decrease heating, cooling and electricity loads in buildings by admitting the optimum level of solar energy and daylight into the buildings at any given time, e.g. cold winter climate versus warm summer climate demands. In order to achieve as dynamic and flexible solar radiation control as possible, the ECWs may be characterized by a number of solar radiation glazing factors, i.e. ultraviolet solar transmittance, visible solar transmittance, solar transmittance, solar material protection factor, solar skin protection factor, external visible solar reflectance, internal visible solar reflectance, solar reflectance, solar absorbance, emissivity, solar factor and colour rendering factor. Comparison of these solar quantities for various electrochromic material and window combinations and configurations enables one to select the most appropriate electrochromic materials and ECWs for specific buildings. Measurements and calculations were carried out on two different electrochromic window devices. (Author)

  17. Radon exhalation rate of some building materials used in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, A F; Ashraf, F A

    2005-09-01

    Indoor radon has been recognized as one of the health hazards for mankind. Common building materials used for construction of houses, which are considered as one of the major sources of this gas in indoor environment, have been studied for exhalation rate of radon. Non-nuclear industries, such as coal fired power plants or fertilizer production facilities, generate large amounts of waste gypsum as by-products. Compared to other building materials waste gypsum from fertilizer production facilities (phosphogypsum) shows increased rates of radon exhalation. In the present, investigation solid state alpha track detectors, CR-39 plastic detectors, were used to measure the indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rates from some building materials used in Egypt. The indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate ranges were found to be 24-55 Bq m(-3 )and 11-223 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively. The effective dose equivalent range for the indoor was found 0.6-1.4 mSv y(-1). The equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters increased with the increase of relative humidity.

  18. Permeability of some building construction material for radon diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the radon diffusion coefficient and diffusion lengths for some building construction materials viz: soil, sand, cement, fly ash have been calculated. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. The diffusion of the radon through the ground is a complex process and is related to the porosity, permeability, which is dependent on grain size distribution, degree of compaction and the water content of the soil. The apparatus designed for the study of radon diffusion through different building construction materials consists of a hollow plastic cylinder of inner diameter 25 cm and length 50 cm deployed vertically. The radon source covered with latex membrane is fixed at the bottom of the cylinder in the cavity. Open-ended cylindrical tubes of diameter 1.5 cm and of length 15 and 25 cm are installed in hollow plastic cylinder. The top end of each diffusion tube holds LR-115 type-II plastic detector such that its sensitive side always faces the source of radon. The building construction materials under study in the pulverized form are filled in diffusion tubes and the system is left undisturbed for a period of 30 days. The detectors are chemically etched in NaOH solution. The alpha tracks are counted using an optical Olympus microscope

  19. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials used in Samsun, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufan, M Çagatay; Disci, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, radioactivity levels of 35 different samples of 11 commonly used building materials in Samsun were measured by using a gamma spectrometry system. The analysis carried out with the high purity Germanium gamma spectrometry system. Radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 6 to 54 Bq kg(-1), 5 to 88 Bq kg(-1) and 6 to 1070 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From these results, radium equivalent activities, gamma indexes, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses were calculated for all samples. Obtained results were compared with the available data, and it was concluded that all the investigated materials did not have radiological risk.

  20. Bioinspired Design of Building Materials for Blast and Ballistic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yan Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacre in abalone shell exhibits high toughness despite the brittle nature of its major constituent (i.e., aragonite. Its specific structure is a major contributor to the energy absorption capacity of nacre. This paper reviews the mechanisms behind the performance of nacre under shear, uniaxial tension, compression, and bending conditions. The remarkable combination of stiffness and toughness on nacre can motivate the development of bioinspired building materials for impact resistance applications, and the possible toughness designs of cement-based and clay-based composite materials with a layered and staggered structure were discussed.

  1. Photon attenuation coefficients and shielding effects of Jordanian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The mass attenuation coefficients were calculated for the 50–3000 keV gamma-ray energy. • Values obtained were used to evaluate the protection provided by different building. • Significant benefits could be achieved in using the basement and lower floors. - Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the attenuation properties of building materials commonly used in Jordan. The photon interactions with materials of interest were discussed in terms of mass attenuation coefficients for the 50–3000 keV gamma-ray energy range. The linear attenuation coefficients were measured at several photon energies using a NaI(Tl) detector and a narrow beam geometry technique. The values obtained were used to evaluate the shielding provided by different construction styles, against a hypothetical release of radioactive material as a function of the photon energy of the released material. The results obtained revealed that wall mass thickness and material chemical compositions, of the investigated construction styles, are crucial factors in shielding against radiation. An exterior wall with mass thickness of 52 g/cm2, attenuates more than 98% of the incident photons of energy 662 keV. Moreover, the addition of a high density limestone layer to the face of a concrete wall, has increased its shielding effectiveness by about 10%

  2. Impact of Different Building Materials on Summer Comfort in Low-Energy Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozoliņš A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current paper is to analyse thermal comfort and overheating risks in the low-energy buildings in a summer season under Latvian climate conditions both experimentally and numerically. An interior temperature and relative humidity are analysed under free-floating conditions. Two cases are analysed: in one case, the solar influence through the window is taken into account; in the other this influence is omitted. Three different building solutions are observed: two building structures which mainly consist of the mineral wool and wooden materials and one structure from aerated clay bricks and mineral wool. The experiments have been implemented in test stands in Riga, Latvia. The numerical simulations based on measurements obtained from test stands have been performed using software WUFI Plus. The results show that the wooden constructions have high overheating risks.

  3. Experimental Study on the Comparison of the Material Properties of Glass Wool Used as Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Woo KIM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial mineral fibers such as glass wool or stone wool are commonly used in building walls, ceilings and floors as a major insulation material for buildings. Among the material properties of building materials, thermal conductivity, the sound absorption coefficient, compressibility, and dynamic stiffness are regarded as important performance requirements since they directly affect the thermal and acoustic properties of the building. This study measured the changes of the thermal and acoustical performances of glass wool that was actually installed for a long time to the outer wall of a building as an insulation material through a comparison with recently produced glass wool. The results showed that the measured thermal conductivities of the old and the new specimens both rise with an increase of temperature, showing quite similar results in both specimens over temperature ranges of (0 – 20 ºC. The noise reduction coefficient decreased by 0.1 in the old specimen and the difference of the compressibilities in both specimens was shown to be 7.32 mm. The dynamic stiffness of the old specimen was found to be 1.28 MN/m3 higher than that of the new specimen.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3714

  4. Natural Radioactivity in some building materials from Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miro, C. [Universidad de Extremadura (UEX), 10071-Caceres (Spain); Madruga, M.J.; Reis, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    Studies of natural radiation are of great importance because it is the main source of exposure of human kind. Building materials is one of the sources which cause direct radiation exposure because of their radium, thorium and potassium content. The aim of this work is to measure gamma activity due to {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in samples of commonly used as a building materials in Spain. Cement, gypsum, plaster, marble, slates, granite and wood had been analysed. These materials are used for private and public building. Radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}) and various hazard indices were also calculated to assess the radiation hazard. Results were also compared with the data available in the literature for other countries of the world. Cement, gypsum and plaster samples were collected from hardware stores. Marble, slates and granite samples were taken from different quarries. And the wood samples were taken from eucalyptus trees from forest. Activity concentrations {sup 40}K-, {sup 226}Ra- and {sup 232}Th-activity was determined by gamma spectrometry using a HPGe coaxial detector. The results show that the range of average values of the activity concentrations due to {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were found between 37 and 1340 Bq/kg, 0.007 and 104 Bq/kg, and <0.005 and 75 Bq/kg, respectively. Maxima values were obtained in granite. Radium equivalent activities range from 3.7 Bq/kg to 283 Bq/kg, calculated in wood and granite, respectively. Therefore all the samples showed Raeq activities within the limit, 370 Bq/kg, set by UNSCEAR. Values of external hazard index for all samples under investigation are below the unity, while the internal hazard index for granite exhibits a value around the unity. Acknowledgements to the financial support of the Junta de Extremadura (project PRI09A092 and FEDER-group GRU09053). (authors)

  5. Device for storage of radioactive material in a building with heat pipes set in the building wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When storing radio-active material in a building, safe and sufficient heat removal must always be guaranteed. On the other hand, the building should be safely closed to the environment. The invention makes it possible to ensure, for such a building with heat pipes set in the building wall, that it is possible to use at least part of the heat generated in the building without limiting the removal of heat. Cooling sleeves are fitted to the heat pipes near the building wall for this purpose, where a cooling circuit with a circulating coolant is connected to the cooling sleeves. (orig.)

  6. Radiological risk of building materials using homemade airtight radon chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab.; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Soil based building materials known to contain various amounts of natural radionuclide mainly {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K. In general most individuals spend 80% of their time indoors and the natural radioactivity in building materials is a main source of indoor radiation exposure. The internal exposure due to building materials in dwellings and workplaces is mainly caused by the activity concentrations of short lived {sup 222}Radon and its progenies which arise from the decay of {sup 226}Ra. In this study, the indoor radon concentration emanating from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were measured in a homemade airtight radon chamber using continuous radon monitor 1029 model of Sun Nuclear. Radon monitor were left in the chamber for 96 hours with an hour counting time interval. From the result, the indoor radon concentrations for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples determined were 396 Bq m{sup −3}, 192 Bq m{sup −3}, 176 Bq m{sup −3} and 28 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. The result indicates that the radon concentration in the studied building materials have more than 100 Bq m{sup −3} i.e. higher than the WHO action level except for Portland cement sample. The calculated annual effective dose for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were determined to be 10 mSv y{sup −1}, 4.85 mSv y{sup −1}, 4.44 mSv y{sup −1} and 0.72 mSv y{sup −1}, respectively. This study showed that all the calculated effective doses generated from indoor radon to dwellers or workers were in the range of limit recommended ICRP action levels i.e. 3 - 10 mSv y{sup −1}. As consequences, the radiological risk for the dwellers in terms of fatal lifetime cancer risk per million for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement were calculated to be 550, 267, 244 and 40 persons respectively.

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR CARRIER PREPARATION BUILDING MATERIALS HANDLING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Ziegler

    2001-02-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) carrier preparation building materials handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Preclosure Safety and Systems Engineering Section. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 2000). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2000).

  8. Measurement of Moisture Storage Parameters of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiřičková

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The moisture storage parameters of three different building materials: calcium silicate, ceramic brick and autoclaved aerated concrete, are determined in the hygroscopic range and overhygroscopic range. Measured sorption isotherms and moisture retention curves are then combined into moisture storage functions using the Kelvin equation. A comparison of measured results with global characteristics of the pore space obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry shows a reasonable agreement; the median pore radii by volume are well within the interval given by the beginning and the end of the characteristic steep parts of the moisture retention curves.

  9. Building Blocks Incorporating Waste Materials Bound with Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper described an investigation and evaluation which was carried out in the United Kingdom-UK, on the properties of masonry building block materials that incorporate waste materials, namely: steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, rice husk ash (RHA, incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA, municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA or shortened as IBA, bound with bitumen or asphalt, named as Bitublock. The binder used was 50 pen bitumen. The properties of the blocks evaluated were: compressive strength, density, porosity, initial rate of suction (IRS, creep, and volume stability. It was found that the Bitublock performance can be improved by optimizing porosity and curing regime. Compaction level of 2 MPa and curing regime of 200°C for 24 hours gave satisfactory bitublock performances that at least comparable to concrete block found in the United Kingdom (UK. The Volume stability (expansion of the unit is affected by environment relative humidity.

  10. Associations between Fungal Species and Water-Damaged Building Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Birgitte; Jens C Frisvad; Søndergaard, Ib; Rasmussen, Ib S.; Larsen, Lisbeth S.

    2011-01-01

    Fungal growth in damp or water-damaged buildings worldwide is an increasing problem, which has adverse effects on both the occupants and the buildings. Air sampling alone in moldy buildings does not reveal the full diversity of fungal species growing on building materials. One aim of this study was to estimate the qualitative and quantitative diversity of fungi growing on damp or water-damaged building materials. Another was to determine if associations exist between the most commonly found f...

  11. CARRIER PREPARATION BUILDING MATERIALS HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-28

    The Carrier Preparation Building Materials Handling System receives rail and truck shipping casks from the Carrier/Cask Transport System, and inspects and prepares the shipping casks for return to the Carrier/Cask Transport System. Carrier preparation operations for carriers/casks received at the surface repository include performing a radiation survey of the carrier and cask, removing/retracting the personnel barrier, measuring the cask temperature, removing/retracting the impact limiters, removing the cask tie-downs (if any), and installing the cask trunnions (if any). The shipping operations for carriers/casks leaving the surface repository include removing the cask trunnions (if any), installing the cask tie-downs (if any), installing the impact limiters, performing a radiation survey of the cask, and installing the personnel barrier. There are four parallel carrier/cask preparation lines installed in the Carrier Preparation Building with two preparation bays in each line, each of which can accommodate carrier/cask shipping and receiving. The lines are operated concurrently to handle the waste shipping throughputs and to allow system maintenance operations. One remotely operated overhead bridge crane and one remotely operated manipulator is provided for each pair of carrier/cask preparation lines servicing four preparation bays. Remotely operated support equipment includes a manipulator and tooling and fixtures for removing and installing personnel barriers, impact limiters, cask trunnions, and cask tie-downs. Remote handling equipment is designed to facilitate maintenance, dose reduction, and replacement of interchangeable components where appropriate. Semi-automatic, manual, and backup control methods support normal, abnormal, and recovery operations. Laydown areas and equipment are included as required for transportation system components (e.g., personnel barriers and impact limiters), fixtures, and tooling to support abnormal and recovery operations. The

  12. Desenvolvimento de material de referência para microbiologia de alimentos contendo Listeria monocytogenes em matriz queijo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luiz Lima Brandão

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005, uma das normas mais utilizadas em laboratórios de ensaio, descreve como um de seus critérios para a garantia da qualidade dos resultados analíticos a participação periódica dos laboratórios em ensaios de proficiência (EP. Os analitos, utilizados nos EP são materiais de referência (MR provenientes de um mesmo lote, e devem apresentar características de homogeneidade e estabilidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi produzir um MR qualitativo destinado ao ensaio de pesquisa de Listeria monocytogenes em matriz queijo pela técnica de liofilização. Para a produção do MR, foi utilizado como matriz o queijo Minas frescal (QMF ultrafiltrado. A matriz foi distribuída em frascos, contaminada com a bactéria alvo e submetida à liofilização, tendo a sacarose como crioprotetor. O MR produzido foi considerado homogêneo e estável na temperatura de ≤-70°C durante todo o período estudado (10 meses. O material apresentou estabilidade a 4, 25, 30 e 35°C por quatro dias e a -20°C por 48 dias, e os resultados estatísticos indicam tendência à estabilidade. Conclui-se que o material apresentou todos os requisitos necessários de um MR de qualidade e poderia ser transportado aos laboratórios participantes de um EP à temperatura máxima de 35°C por até quatro dias, uma vez que os resultados indicaram a manutenção da concentração celular nesse período. Esse foi o primeiro trabalho a descrever uma metodologia de produção de MR contendo L. monocytogenes em matriz queijo.

  13. PCM-enhanced building components an application of phase change materials in building envelopes and internal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kosny, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Presenting an overview of the use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) within buildings, this book discusses the performance of PCM-enhanced building envelopes. It reviews the most common PCMs suitable for building applications, and discusses PCM encapsulation and packaging methods. In addition to this, it examines a range of PCM-enhanced building products in the process of development as well as examples of whole-building-scale field demonstrations. Further chapters discuss experimental and theoretical analyses (including available software) to determine dynamic thermal and energy performance ch

  14. Pathology of Building Materials in Historic Buildings. Relationship Between Laboratory Testing and Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerma, C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of historic buildings requires a pathology analysis of the construction materials used in order to define their conservation state. Usually we can find capillary moisture, salt crystalli-zation or density differences by deterioration. Sometimes this issue is carried out by destructive testing which determine materials’ physical and chemical characteristics. However, they are unfavorable regarding the building’s integrity, and they are sometimes difficult to implement. This paper presents a technique using infrared thermography to analyze the existing pathology and has the advantage of being able to diagnose inaccessible areas in buildings. The results obtained by this technique have been compared with those obtained in the laboratory, in order to validate this study and thus to extrapolate the methodology to other buildings and materials.El estudio de edificios históricos requiere un análisis de la patología de los materiales de construcción empleados para poder definir su estado de conservación. Habitualmente nos encontramos con humedades por capilaridad, cristalización de sales o diferencias de densidad por deterioro. En ocasiones esto se lleva a cabo mediante ensayos destructivos que nos determinan las características físicas y químicas de los materiales, pero que resultan desfavorables respecto a la integridad del edificio, y en ocasiones resulta complejo llevarlos a cabo. Este trabajo presenta una técnica para analizar la patología existente mediante el empleo de termografía infrarroja con la ventaja de poder diagnosticar zonas de difícil acceso en los edificios. Para validar este estudio se han comparado los resultados obtenidos mediante esta técnica con los alcanzados en el laboratorio. De esta forma podemos extrapolar la metodología empleada a otros edificios y materiales.

  15. Natural Radioactivity in Clay and Building Materials Used in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riekstina D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of natural radionuclide concentration and activity index study in materials used for construction in Latvia. Special attention is given to clay and clay ceramics. Concentrations of K-40 and Th- 232, U-238 radioactivity were determined using gamma-spectrometry method. In some building ware, maximal concentration of K-40 was 1440 Bq/kg, and of U-238 - 175 Bq/kg. In granite, the determined maximum concentration of Th-232 was 210 Bq/kg. It was found that radionuclide content in different period clay deposits can differ by more than two times, and up to five times in different clay ceramics. The results obtained are compared with analogous data from the other Baltic and North European countries.

  16. Towards proteomic analysis of milk proteins in historical building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckova, S.; Crhova, M.; Vankova, L.; Hnizda, A.; Hynek, R.; Kodicek, M.

    2009-07-01

    The addition of proteinaceous binders to mortars and plasters has a long tradition. The protein additions were identified in many sacral and secular historical buildings. For this method of peptide mass mapping, three model mortar samples with protein additives were prepared. These samples were analysed fresh (1-2 weeks old) and after 9 months of natural ageing. The optimal duration of tryptic cleavage (2 h) and the lowest amount of material needed for relevant analysis of fresh and weathered samples were found; the sufficient amounts of weathered and fresh mortars were set to 0.05 and 0.005 g. The list of main tryptic peptides coming from milk additives (bovine milk, curd, and whey), their relative intensities and theoretical amino acid sequences assignment is presented. Several sequences have been "de novo" confirmed by mass spectrometry.

  17. Millennium-long damage to building materials in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M

    2009-02-01

    Damage functions from a range of sources are used to estimate deterioration of carbonate stone, iron and copper, in addition to the rate of blackening of stone surfaces in London across the period 1100-2100 CE. Meteorological and pollution input is available for only a relatively short part of this span, so non-instrumental weather records and modelled pollution are utilised for historic values, while future climate is adapted from the HadCM3A2 model output and pollution assessed from likely regulatory trends. The results from the different damage functions compare reasonably well showing comparable changes in damage rates with time. A potential square-root dependence of change in deposition velocity of SO2 to limestone suggests a possible overestimate of damage when pollution is high. Deterioration is especially intense from the 1700s. It is difficult to be certain whether the corrosion of copper accelerated as early as this or it developed in the 20th century. Nevertheless all the functions predict a decline in copper corrosion from the end of the 20th century. A blackening function was developed to relate elemental carbon concentration and the colour of deposited particulate matter to blackening rate, which suggests that soiling was particularly rapid in the late 19th century. The increase and subsequent decrease in damage to building materials is interpreted in terms of a Kuznets curve. The centuries where pollution controlled damage to durable building material seems to be over. Weathering, in a changing climate may have the greatest impact in the future.

  18. Formação de competências para o desenvolvimento de produtos em subsidiárias brasileiras de montadoras de veículos Building competencies for product development in Brazilian subsidiaries of the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amatucci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O Desenvolvimento de Produtos (DP em subsidiárias de multinacionais traz enormes ganhos para o país em termos do amadurecimento de fatores de produção avançados, aproveitamento e alavancagem de especialização de mão-de-obra, e inserção estratégica do país na divisão internacional do trabalho. Este trabalho analisa as condições de capacitação de subsidiárias de montadoras de veículos para o DP e apresenta um modelo explicativo do desenvolvimento desta capacitação. O estudo foi feito em duas montadoras que desenvolveram carros no Brasil, a GM e a VW, com a utilização de Grounded Theory. O modelo mostra que a capacitação é resultado de uma combinação da estratégia da matriz com a estratégia da subsidiária, tendo em vista fatores ambientais globais, a saber: a necessidade de adaptação de modelos globais e a impossibilidade de fazê-lo centralizadamente; e fatores locais, a saber, fatores locais do ambiente brasileiro, aprendizado gradualista por adaptação e as ligações com fontes de competências. Implicações para a teoria e para a prática são indicadas.Product Development (PD carried out in subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs located in countries with emerging economies provides advances in factors of production, creates high-quality jobs, increases specialisation of the workforce, and it is favourable to a strategic insertion of the host country in the international division of labour. This paper analyses the overall conditions of Product Development competence building at subsidiaries of automotive companies located in Brazil, and puts forward an aexplanatory model of this competence building process. The study was held at two Brazilian subsidiaries that had effectively developed new products - General Motors do Brasil and Volkswagen do Brasil - with the use of Grounded Theory. The model shows that competence building is caused by global factors such as the need for adapting global models and

  19. Rice Husk Ash Sandcrete Block as Low Cost Building Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.Sangeetha,

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a widely used construction material for various types of structures due to its structural stability and strength. The construction industry is today consuming more than 400 million tonnes of concrete every year .Most of the increase in cement demand will be met by the use of supplementary cementing materials, as each ton of Portland cement clinker production is associated with similar amount of CO2 emission, which is a major source of global warming. Partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement with mineral admixtures like fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, metakaolin, Rice husk Ash (RHA,etc with plasticizers eliminates these drawbacks. The use of rice husk modifies the physical qualities of fresh cement paste as well as microstructure of paste after hardening. By burning the rice husk under a uncontrolled temperature in the atmosphere, a highly reactive RHA was obtained and the ash was utilized as a supplementary cementing material. This paper presents the effects of using Rice Husk Ash (RHA as a partial cement replacement material in mortar mixes. This work is based on an experimental study of mortar made with replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC with 10%, 20% 30% & 40% RHA. The properties investigated were the compressive strength, setting time, consistency, workability and specific gravity. Finally, a cost analysis was also done to compare the efficiency of rice husk ash sandcrete blocks. From the test results it can be concluded that rice husk ash can be utilized in day today life of manufacturing building blocks which are more economical and more eco-friendly than the cement concrete blocks which are produced now-a-days.

  20. Radiation interaction with composite materials: Building materials mixed with trommel sieve waste in different proportions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building materials (Portland cement, lime and pointing) mixed with different percentages (25, 50, 75%) of trommel sieve waste have been studied with respect to the photon interaction parameters. Measurements of the total mass attenuation coefficients of building materials mixed with trommel sieve waste (TSW) have been carried out using a high resolution Si(Li) detector. These coefficients were then used to calculate photon interaction cross sections, effective atomic numbers and effective electron densities. A narrow beam good geometry set-up was performed using a gamma radiation source (Cd109) of different energies. Photon interaction parameters were discussed on the basis of photon energy and chemical composition. The experimentally obtained values of photon interaction parameters have been compared with the ones calculated from theory.

  1. Decreased bio-inhibition of building materials due to transport of biocides

    OpenAIRE

    Erich, S.J.F.; Mendoza, S.M.; Floor, W.; Hermanns, S.P.M.; Homan, W.J.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Bio-inhibition of buildings and structures is an important issue. In many cases building materials have biocides added to prevent growth of micro-organisms. Growth of microorganisms on building materials has several negative effects; (1) Aesthetic damage, e.g. fungi, algae grow on the material, resulting in early replacement and high cleaning costs, (2) Material damage, and (3) Health problems. However, current legislation forces manufacturers to reduce the biocide load, which requires manufa...

  2. Utilizing Repurposed Materials to Construct Utility Buildings and Small Animal Shelters

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, C. Kim

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet describes how to use repurposed materials such as shipping pallets, scraps from construction sites or other building projects, to construct utility buildings and small animal shelters.

  3. TiO2-based building materials: Above and beyond traditional applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Sen; WU ZhongBiao; ZHAO WeiRong

    2009-01-01

    In the 1910s, TiO2 began to be used in building materials as pigments and opacifier due to its excellent optical property. Since the photocatalytic property of TiO2 was observed in 1972, its application field was expanded to air cleaning and sterilization. Thereafter, people added TiO2 into building materials to develop novel and facile building materials. These materials were widely used for air cleaning, sterili-zation, self-cleaning, anti-fogging, decoration, and building cooling. The combination of building and other functions can serve simultaneously. Although TiO2-based building materials have bright pros-pects, some aspects such as improving the stability and enhancing photoactive performance of the materials are of importance for future research.

  4. NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN SOME BUILDING MATERIALS USING A GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER

    OpenAIRE

    AKKURT, Iskender; Betül MAVİ

    2011-01-01

    The main reason for the natural radioactivity in the earth is decay series of 40K, 238U and 232Th radionuclides. Because all building materials are soil product, they contain these radionuclides as natural so that building materials have different amounts of radioactivity. In this study the concentrations of natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used natural building materials in Isparta region have been determined. The samples have been analysed using a NaI(Tl) ƒ×-ray spectrometer sy...

  5. The effect of using low-polluting building materials on ventilation requirements and energy use in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Frontczak, M. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of the ongoing research project described in this paper was to study the potential for reducing energy used for ventilating buildings by using low-polluting building materials, without compromising the indoor air quality. To quantify this potential, the exposure-response relationships, i.e. the relationships between ventilation rate and perceived indoor air quality, were established for rooms furnished with different categories of polluting materials and the simulations of energy used for ventilation were carried out. The exposure-response relationships were based on a summary of data reported in the literature on exposure-response relationships for materials tested in laboratory settings in small-scale glass chambers, and in full-scale in climate chambers, test rooms or normal offices. New experiments were also considered in which the effect of using low-polluting materials on perceived air quality was examined in test rooms ventilated with different outdoor air supply rates, low-polluting materials being selected in small glass chambers. The results suggest that the exposure-response relationships vary between different building materials and that the perceived air quality can be improved considerably when polluting building materials are substituted with materials that pollute less. The preliminary energy simulations indicate that selecting low-polluting materials will result in considerable energy savings as a result of reducing the ventilation rates required to achieve acceptable indoor air quality. (au)

  6. Characterization of gas concrete materials used in buildings of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damla, N; Cevik, U; Kobya, A I; Celik, A; Van Grieken, R; Kobya, Y

    2009-09-15

    The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in gas concrete samples collected from different suppliers and some provinces in Turkey were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. Knowledge of radioactivity in gas concrete used in building materials enables one to assess any possible radiological risks to human health. The mean activity concentrations observed in the gas concrete samples were 82.0, 28.2 and 383.9 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices as well as terrestrial absorbed dose and annual effective dose rate was calculated. The results indicate that the radium equivalent activity values of gas concrete samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1), equivalent to a gamma-dose of 1.5 mSv y(-1). Moreover, mass attenuation coefficients were measured in some gas concrete samples. It was found that the mass attenuation coefficients decreased with increasing photon energies. Also, chemical compositions and structural analysis (XRD and SEM) of the gas concrete samples were investigated. PMID:19297097

  7. Characterization of gas concrete materials used in buildings of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in gas concrete samples collected from different suppliers and some provinces in Turkey were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. Knowledge of radioactivity in gas concrete used in building materials enables one to assess any possible radiological risks to human health. The mean activity concentrations observed in the gas concrete samples were 82.0, 28.2 and 383.9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices as well as terrestrial absorbed dose and annual effective dose rate was calculated. The results indicate that the radium equivalent activity values of gas concrete samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg-1, equivalent to a gamma-dose of 1.5 mSv y-1. Moreover, mass attenuation coefficients were measured in some gas concrete samples. It was found that the mass attenuation coefficients decreased with increasing photon energies. Also, chemical compositions and structural analysis (XRD and SEM) of the gas concrete samples were investigated.

  8. A mass transfer model for predicting emission of the volatile organic compounds in wet building materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tao; JIA Li

    2008-01-01

    A new mass transfer model is developped to predict the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from fresh wet building materials. The dry section of wet materials during the process of VOC emission from wet building materials is considered in this new model, differing from the mass transfer-based models in other literatures. The mechanism of effect of saturated vapor pressure on the surface of wet building materials in the process of VOC emission is discussed. The concentration of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) in the building materials gradually decreases as the emission of VOCs begins, and the vapor pressure of VOCs on the surface of wet building materials decreases in the case of newly wet building materials. To ensure the partial pressure of VOCs on the surface of wet building materials to be saturated vapor pressure, the interface of gas-wet layer is lowered, and a dry layer of no-volatile gases in the material is formed. Compared with the results obtained by VB model, CFD model and the ex-periment data, the results obtained by the present model agree well with the results obtained by CFD model and the experiment data. The present model is more accurate in predicting emission of VOC from wet building materials than VB model.

  9. Valores e Desenvolvimento Humano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Comim (Flavio); A. Macedo de Jesus (Anderson); R.C.B Oliveira (Raissa); A. Davison (Anna); S. Galeno (Sabrina); A.C.V. Ribeiro (Ana)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstractA primeira parte desse Relatório de Desenvolvimento Humano do Brasil 2009/2010 começa com a descrição de um amplo processo de consulta aberta à sociedade, denominada Brasil Ponto a Ponto, para a escolha do tema do relatório. A Campanha Brasil Ponto a Ponto teve por objetivo estimul

  10. Development of a ceramic material to cover walls to be applied in diagnostic radiological protection; Desenvolvimento de um material ceramico para utilizacao em protecao radiologica diagnostica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frimaio, Audrew

    2006-07-01

    This study aims to formulate a ceramic composition for wall coating seeking to contribute to the optimization of diagnosis rooms' shielding. The work was based on experimental measures of X-radiation attenuation (80 and 100 kV) using ceramic coating materials containing different ceramic bases (red, white, gres, stoneware porcelain tiles, etc). Among the appraised ceramic bases, the white gres presented better attenuation properties and it was considered the most suitable material for the targets of this work. Different formulations of white gres were studied and altered in order to obtain better attenuation properties. Simulations of ceramic compositions using gres coating were made maintaining the percentages of 12-20% clay; 6-18% kaolin; 12-25% phyllite; 8-14% quartz; 1018% feldspar; 32-40% pegmatite and 6-8% talc in the composition of the necessary raw-material. The quantitative and qualitative chemical compositions of these materials were also evaluated and the most common representative elements are SiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO and Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Formulations containing Pb and Ba oxides were studied, considering that CaO can be replaced by PbO or BaO. The attenuation properties for X-radiation were investigated by computer simulations considering the incident and transmitted X-ray spectra for the different studied compositions and they were compared to the properties of the reference materials Pb, Ba and BaSO{sub 4} (barite). The results obtained with the simulations indicated the formulated composition of gres ceramic base that presented better attenuation properties considering the X-ray energies used in diagnosis (80, 100 and 150 kV). Ceramic plates based on the formulated compositions that presented lower percentage differences related to Pb were experimentally produced and physically tested as wall coating and protecting barrier. Properties as flexion resistance module, density, load rupture, water absorption and X

  11. VOC sink behaviour on building materials--model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The event of 11 September 2001 underscored the need to study the vulnerability of buildings to weapons of mass destruction (WMD), including chemical, biological, physical, and radiological agents. Should these agents be released inside a building, they would interact with interio...

  12. Limitations on the Activity Concentration of Mineral Processing Residues Used as Building Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of mineral processing residue as a building material accounts for a significant proportion of the various uses of such material. The activity concentrations of radionuclides of natural origin in the material can be significantly elevated, resulting in enhanced exposure of occupants of the buildings concerned unless some restriction is placed on the radioactivity content. Accordingly, in order to comply with the dose limitation requirements of the relevant laws and standards, the activity concentration in the material has to be restricted. The use of mineral processing residues in building material is controlled in three categories according to a parameter known as the equivalent concentration, which can guide the product specification of the building material and control the dose received by a building occupant. (author)

  13. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials in Southern Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissi, M A; El Samad, O; Zahraman, K; Milky, S; Bahsoun, F; Abumurad, K M

    2008-08-01

    Using gamma-spectroscopy and CR-39 detector, concentration C of naturally occurring radioactive nuclides (226)Ra, (222)Rn, (214)Bi, (228)Ac, (212)Pb, (212)Bi and (40)K, has been measured in sand, cement, gravel, gypsum, and paint, which are used as building materials in Lebanon. Sand samples were collected from 10 different sandbank locations in the southern part of the country. Gravel samples of different types and forms were collected from several quarries. White and gray cement fabricated by Shaka Co. were obtained. gamma-spectroscopy measurements in sand gave Ra concentration ranging from 4.2+/-0.4 to 60.8+/-2.2 Bq kg(-1) and Ra concentration equivalents from 8.8+/-1.0 to 74.3+/-9.2 Bq kg(-1). The highest Ra concentration was in gray and white cement having the values 73.2+/-3.0 and 76.3+/-3.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Gravel results showed Ra concentration between 20.2+/-1.0 and 31.7+/-1.4 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 27.5+/-1.3 Bq kg(-1). Radon concentration in paint was determined by CR-39 detector. In sand, the average (222)Rn concentration ranged between 291+/-69 and 1774+/-339 Bq m(-3) among the sandbanks with a total average value of 704+/-139 Bq m(-3). For gravel, the range was found to be from 52+/-9 to 3077+/-370 Bq m(-3) with an average value of 608+/-85 Bq m(-3). Aerial and mass exhalation rates of (222)Rn were also calculated and found to be between 44+/-7 and 2226+/-267 mBq m(-2)h(-1), and between 0.40+/-0.07 and 20.0+/-0.3 mBq kg(-1)h(-1), respectively.

  14. Radon diffusion studies in some building materials using solid state nuclear track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Singh, B; Singh, J

    1999-01-01

    LR-115 plastic track detector has been used to study radon diffusion through some building materials, viz. cement, soil, marble chips, sand and lime as well as air. Diffusion constant and diffusion length is calculated for all these materials.

  15. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  16. Study on characteristics of double surface VOC emissions from dry flat-plate building materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinke; ZHANG Yinping; ZHAO Rongyi

    2006-01-01

    This paper sets up an analytic model of double surface emission of volatile organic compound (VOC) from dry, flat-plate building materials. Based on it, the influence of factors including air change rate, loading factor of materials in the room, mass diffusion coefficient, partition coefficient, convective mass transfer coefficient, thickness of materials, asymmetric convective flow and initial VOC concentration distribution in the building material on emission is discussed. The conditions for simplifying double surface emission into single surface emission are also discussed. The model is helpful to assess the double surface VOC emission from flat-plate building materials used in indoor furniture and space partition.

  17. Nest-building males trade-off material collection costs with territory value

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Ida; Morgan, Kate; Oschadleus, D; DeRuiter , SL; Meddle, Simone; Healy, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    Building a structurally robust nest is crucial for reproductive success in manybirds. However, we know little about the criteria birds use to select material or where they go to collect it. Here we observed the material collection of male cape weaverbirds (Ploceus capensis). Males typically selected long, strong material to build their nests and each male collected material from different locations. Males that built more nests nested in a different area of the colony and flew further to colle...

  18. Calculation of radiation dose rate arisen from radionuclide contained in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some results that we used MCNP5 program to calculate radiation dose rate arisen from radionuclide in building materials. Since then, the limits of radionuclide content in building materials are discussed. The calculation results by MCNP are compared with those calculated by analytical method. (author)

  19. 15 CFR 270.325 - Notice of authority to enter and inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to a building... Notice of authority to enter and inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and... investigated has occurred, or where building components, materials, and artifacts with respect to the...

  20. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials in Southern Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobeissi, M.A.; El Samad, O.; Zahraman, K. [Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Milky, S.; Bahsoun, F. [Department of Physics, Lebanese University, Faculty of Sciences (I), Hadeth, Beirut (Lebanon); Abumurad, K.M. [Department of Physics, Yarmouk University, P.O. Box 566, Irbid 21163 (Jordan)], E-mail: abumurad@yu.edu.jo

    2008-08-15

    Using {gamma}-spectroscopy and CR-39 detector, concentration C of naturally occurring radioactive nuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb, {sup 212}Bi and {sup 40}K, has been measured in sand, cement, gravel, gypsum, and paint, which are used as building materials in Lebanon. Sand samples were collected from 10 different sandbank locations in the southern part of the country. Gravel samples of different types and forms were collected from several quarries. White and gray cement fabricated by Shaka Co. were obtained. {gamma}-Spectroscopy measurements in sand gave Ra concentration ranging from 4.2 {+-} 0.4 to 60.8 {+-} 2.2 Bq kg{sup -1} and Ra concentration equivalents from 8.8 {+-} 1.0 to 74.3 {+-} 9.2 Bq kg{sup -1}. The highest Ra concentration was in gray and white cement having the values 73.2 {+-} 3.0 and 76.3 {+-} 3.0 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Gravel results showed Ra concentration between 20.2 {+-} 1.0 and 31.7 {+-} 1.4 Bq kg{sup -1} with an average of 27.5 {+-} 1.3 Bq kg{sup -1}. Radon concentration in paint was determined by CR-39 detector. In sand, the average {sup 222}Rn concentration ranged between 291 {+-} 69 and 1774 {+-} 339 Bq m{sup -3} among the sandbanks with a total average value of 704 {+-} 139 Bq m{sup -3}. For gravel, the range was found to be from 52 {+-} 9 to 3077 {+-} 370 Bq m{sup -3} with an average value of 608 {+-} 85 Bq m{sup -3}. Aerial and mass exhalation rates of {sup 222}Rn were also calculated and found to be between 44 {+-} 7 and 2226 {+-} 267 mBq m{sup -2} h{sup -1}, and between 0.40 {+-} 0.07 and 20.0 {+-} 0.3 mBq kg{sup -1} h{sup -1}, respectively.

  1. Smart Materials For The Realization Of An Adaptive Building Component

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, C.M.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This research focusses on the realization of adaptive architecture with the use of advanced material technology. Current material research has shown significant advances with the development of “smart” materials. Smart materials are “capable of automatically and inherently sensing or detecting chang

  2. MEIO AMBIENTE E DESENVOLVIMENTO

    OpenAIRE

    Suely Salgueiro Chacon; Daniel Rodriguez de Carvalho Pinheiro; Francisco Correia de Oliveira; Elizabeth Castelo Branco de Souza

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é resgatar elementos para subsidiar uma reflexão crítica sobre o modelo de desenvolvimento econômico prevalente na sociedade e as relações com o meio ambiente, sob a ameaça que ronda o destino da espécie humana, conforme afirmação de Lovelock (2006, p. 20) sobre o conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável: “uma ideia adorável se a tivéssemos aplicado 200 anos atrás, quando havia um bilhão de pessoas no mundo. Agora é tarde demais. Não há mais espaço para nenhum tipo de d...

  3. Using Selected Transient Methods for Measurements of Thermophysical Parameters of Building Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cviklovič Vladimír; Paulovič Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with thermophysical properties of red and white bricks. If we want to protect the high standard of quality building materials, we need to know the physical parameters which can evaluate the quality. The most important for building materials are mainly thermophysical, mechanical parameters and parameters which can determine the structure of materials. The article presents results of thermophysical parameters measurements of red and white bricks during the temperature stabili...

  4. Recycling and reuse of chosen kinds of waste materials in a building industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferek, B.; Harasymiuk, J.; Tyburski, J.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the current state of knowledge and practice in Poland concerning recycling as a method of reuse of chosen groups of waste materials in building industry. The recycling of building scraps is imposed by environmental, economic and technological premises. The issue of usage of sewage residues is becoming a problem of ever -growing gravity as the presence of the increasing number of pernicious contaminants makes their utilization for agricultural purposes more and more limited. The strategies of using waste materials on Polish building sites were analyzed. The analysis of predispositions to salvage for a group of traditional materials, such as: timber, steel, building debris, insulation materials, plastics, and on the example of new materials, such as: artificial light aggregates made by appropriate mixing of siliceous aggregates, glass refuses and sewage residues in order to obtain a commodity which is apt for economic usage also was made in the article. The issue of recycling of waste materials originating from building operations will be presented in the context of the binding home and EU legal regulations. It was proved that the level of recycling of building wastes in Poland is considerably different from one which is achieved in the solid market economies, both in quantity and in assortment. The method of neutralization of building refuses in connection with special waste materials, which are sewage sludge that is presented in the article may be one of the alternative solutions to the problem of recycling of these wastes not only on the Polish scale.

  5. 10 CFR 434.402 - Building envelope assemblies and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... The building shall be unoccupied. (c) During the testing period, the average wind speed during the... increased by 50% if a shading device is used that blocks over 50% of the solar gain during the peak cooling... cumulative annual energy flux attributable to thermal transmittance and solar gains shall be less than...

  6. Investigation of thermal effect on exterior wall surface of building material at urban city area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fadhil Md Din, Hazlini Dzinun, M. Ponraj, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan, Zainura Zainun Noor, Dilshah Remaz, Kenzo Iwao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the investigation of heat impact on the vertical surfaces of buildings based on their thermal behavior. The study was performed based on four building materials that is commonly used in Malaysia; brick, concrete, granite and white concrete tiles. The thermal performances on the building materials were investigated using a surface temperature sensor, data logging system and infrared thermography. Results showed that the brick had the capability to absorb and store heat greater than other materials during the investigation period. The normalized heat (total heat/solar radiation of the brick was 0.093 and produces high heat (51% compared to granite, confirming a substantial amount of heat being released into the atmosphere through radiation and convection. The most sensitive material that absorbs and stores heat was in the following order: brick > concrete > granite > white concrete tiles. It was concluded that the type of exterior wall material used in buildings had significant impact to the environment.

  7. Investigation of thermal effect on exterior wall surface of building material at urban city area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dzinun, Hazlini; Ponraj, M.; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Noor, Zainura Zainun [Institute of Environmental Water Resources and Management (IPASA), Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Remaz, Dilshah [Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Iwao, Kenzo [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the investigation of heat impact on the vertical surfaces of buildings based on their thermal behavior. The study was performed based on four building materials that is commonly used in Malaysia; brick, concrete, granite and white concrete tiles. The thermal performances on the building materials were investigated using a surface temperature sensor, data logging system and infrared thermography. Results showed that the brick had the capability to absorb and store heat greater than other materials during the investigation period. The normalized heat (total heat/solar radiation) of the brick was 0.093 and produces high heat (51% compared to granite), confirming a substantial amount of heat being released into the atmosphere through radiation and convection. The most sensitive material that absorbs and stores heat was in the following order: brick > concrete > granite > white concrete tiles. It was concluded that the type of exterior wall material used in buildings had significant impact to the environment.

  8. Gamma-ray attenuation coefficients of some building materials available in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass attenuation coefficients of various types of building materials were measured using a high-resolution HPGe spectrometer detector. Samples were irradiated by gamma-rays emitted from point sources of 241Am, 133Ba, 60Co and 137Cs. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations of XCOM code. The effectiveness of building materials in shielding were determined over the range 50-3000 keV. Finally, the protection efficiency of walls and roofs from radiation exposure were determined. The effectiveness of all tested building materials was better than the internationally accepted limit, and they are therefore acceptable for use.

  9. Desenvolvimento de material de referência para microbiologia de alimentos contendo estafilococos coagulase positiva em matriz queijo Development of reference material for the microbiology of foods containing coagulase-positive Staphylococcus in a cheese matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luiz Lima Brandão

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de materiais de referência (MR é uma das principais ferramentas utilizadas para garantia e controle da qualidade de laboratórios de microbiologia de alimentos. No Brasil, a RDC n.º 12/01 da Anvisa prevê como um dos parâmetros para a avaliação da qualidade de queijos a enumeração de estafilococos coagulase positiva (ECP. O grande desafio na produção de MR destinados a ensaios microbiológicos é a instabilidade natural dos micro-organismos, o que dificulta o desenvolvimento e a manutenção desses MR. O objetivo deste estudo foi produzir um MR quantitativo destinado ao ensaio de enumeração de ECP em matriz queijo. Uma amostra de queijo ultrafiltrado com contagem de ECP The use of reference materials (RM is one of the principal tools used for assurance and quality control in food microbiology laboratories. In Brazil, Anvisa RDC nº 12/01 specifies the enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococcus (CPS as one of the parameters for evaluating cheese quality. The main challenge in the production of RM destined for microbiological assays is the natural instability of the microorganisms, which makes it difficult to develop and maintain them. This study aimed to produce a quantitative RM for use in enumeration assays of CPS in cheese matrixes. A sample of an ultra-filtered cheese with a CPS count of <10 CFU/g and a total nº of viable aerobes of 1.2 × 10³ CFU/g was used as the matrix to produce the RM. The matrix was distributed in flasks, contaminated with specific concentrations of the target bacteria and submitted to freeze-drying. Sucrose was used as the cryo-protector. The RM produced was considered homogeneous and stable at < -70ºC during the entire study period (10 months. The material was shown to be stable at 4, 25, 30 and 35 ºC for 4 days, although the results indicated a decrease in cell concentration at 35 ºC. At -20 ºC the RM was stable for 48 days. It was concluded that the material showed all the necessary

  10. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhari, Ramin [Renewable Energy Group

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  11. Assessment of thermal insulation materials and systems for building applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The primary goal of the study was to provide a proper foundation for decision making by the federal government, industry, and consumer. The report may be used to identify areas where new test methods and standards are needed to establish new programs for improving thermal performance of buildings, and as a basis for setting new or improved standards after the recommended test programs have been completed.

  12. Microfungal contamination of damp buildings--examples of risk constructions and risk materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Iversen, R; Nielsen, K. F.

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate problems with microfungal infestation in indoor environments, a multidisciplinary collaborative pilot study, supported by a grant from the Danish Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, was performed on 72 mold-infected building materials from 23 buildings. Water leakage through roofs, rising damp, and defective plumbing installations were the main reasons for water damage with subsequent infestation of molds. From a score system assessing the bioavailability of the building mater...

  13. Magnetization of Steel Building Materials and Structures in the Natural Geomagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Čermáková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the physical basis of the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials and shows their relationships with external geomagnetic field. It graphically processes the experimental data detected by an HMR magnetometer. Taking into account the natural geomagnetic field under the effects of steel U profiles, variations of the natural geomagnetic field in a steel structure building are indicated and the potential existence of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS in these types of buildings is pointed out. 

  14. The influence of surface treatment on mass transfer between air and building material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwiatkowski, Jerzy; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard;

    2008-01-01

    The processes of mass transfer between air and building structure and in the material influence not only the conditions within the material but also inside the connected air spaces. The material which absorbs and desorbs water vapour can be used to moderate the amplitude of indoor relative humidi...

  15. Low-cost NORM concentrations measuring technique for building materials of Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarov, Akmal; Safarov, Askar; Azimov, Askarali; Darby, Iain G.

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of natural radionuclides of building materials are important in order to estimate exposure of humans to radiation, who can spend up to 80% of their time indoors. One of the indicators of building materials' safety is the radium equivalent activity, which is regulated by national and international normative documents [1,2,3]. Materials with Ra(eq) =Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 sources filled with silica sand and density 1,7 kg/l. Herein we present results indicating that one hour measuring may be sufficient for samples in 1 liter Marinelli beakers offering prospect of significant time and cost improvements. References: 1. NEA-OECD (1979): Exposure to radiation from natural radioactivity in building materials. Report by Group of Experts of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Paris 2. STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) (2003): The radioactivity of building materials and ash. Regulatory Guides on Radiation Safety (ST Guides) ST 12.2 (Finland) (8 October 2003) 3. GOST 30108-94 (1995): Building materials and elements. Determination of specific activity of natural radioactive nuclei. Interstate Standard. 4. Krisiuk E.M. et al., (1971). A study on Radioactivity in Building Materials (Leningrad: Research Institute for radiation Hygiene) 5. Beretka, J., & Mathew, P. J. (1985). Natural radioactivity of Australian building materials, waste and by-products. Health Physics, 48, 87-95. 6. Uosif M.A.M. (2014). Estimation of Radiological Hazards of Some Egyptian Building Materials Due to Natural Radioactivity. International Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology. Vol.7, No.2 (2014), pp.63-76

  16. Further developments of a poultice for electrochemical desalination of porous building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Salt induced deterioration of buildings is a frequently present problem and is in connection with traditional buildings a source for increased maintenance and costs. Especially in connection with Cultural Heritage (e.g. murals) even surface deterioration of original materials is unacceptable...

  17. Radioactivity of building materials and the gamma radiation in dwellings in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building materials are known to contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). The radionuclides which contribute to the external exposure are 40 K and the gamma emitters members of the natural decay series 238U, 235U and 232Th. Samples of the statistically more important buildings materials utilized in the Metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte were collected and their uranium and thorium concentration were determined by INAA. The gamma emitters were spectrometrically determined by solid state detectors HPGe in a very low background laboratory. A model room was used for calculating the indoor mean exposure in dwellings. Due to the lack of regulation for radioactivity in buildings in Brazil, the measured activity concentration was compared with those of other countries. A discussion about the utilization of building material containing TENORM industrial residues is presented. (author)

  18. Optimization of a phase change material wallboard for building use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznik, Frederic; Virgone, Joseph [Thermal Sciences Center of Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5008, INSA de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Bat Freyssinet, 40 Rue des Arts, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Noel, Jean [Free-lance Scientific Software Developer, 15 Place Carnot, 69002 Lyon (France)

    2008-08-15

    In construction, the use of phase change materials (PCM) allows the storage/release of energy from the solar radiation and/or internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. A wallboard composed of a new PCM material is investigated in this paper to enhance the thermal behavior of a lightweight internal partition wall. The paper focuses on the optimization of phase change material thickness. The in-house software CODYMUR is used to optimize the PCM wallboard by the means of numerical simulations. The results show that an optimal PCM thickness exists. The optimal PCM thickness value is then calculated for use in construction. (author)

  19. Introduction to the environmental impact of construction and building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    “Woodhead Publishing series in civil and structural engineering, nr. 49” Earth's natural resources are finite and face increasing human pressure. Over the last few decades, concern has been growing about resource efficiency and the environmental impact of material consumption. The construction industry is responsible for the consumption of a relevant part of all produced materials, however, only recently has this industry started to worry about its environmental impacts. This chapter highl...

  20. Cost Optimization of Industrial Enterprises of Building Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Belovodskaya Alena A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper has proved that one of the directions of increasing profitability of construction materials industry enterprises’ activity can be optimizing costs dealing with sales. Tools of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) or so called sensor marketing have been proposed for use to choose the most effective technology of market promoting construction materials. Use of method of solving optimization tasks in mathematical programming has allowed getting a ranked series of NLP measures for decreas...

  1. Review of Development Survey of Phase Change Material Models in Building Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein J. Akeiber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of phase change materials (PCMs in green buildings has been increasing rapidly. PCM applications in green buildings include several development models. This paper briefly surveys the recent research and development activities of PCM technology in building applications. Firstly, a basic description of phase change and their principles is provided; the classification and applications of PCMs are also included. Secondly, PCM models in buildings are reviewed and discussed according to the wall, roof, floor, and cooling systems. Finally, conclusions are presented based on the collected data.

  2. Development of a impact limiter for radioactive material transport packages - characterization of the polymeric material used; Desenvolvimento de amortecedor de impacto para embalagens para transporte de material radioativo - caracterizacao do material polimerico utilizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: mouraor@urano.cdtn.br; Mattar Neto, Miguel [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mmattar@net.ipen.br

    2000-07-01

    Impact limiters are sacrificial components widely used to protect radioactive waste packages against damages arising from falls, fires and collisions with protruding objects. Several materials have been used as impact limiter filling: wood, aluminum honeycomb, and metallic or polymeric foams. Besides, hollow structures are also used as shock absorbers, either as a single shell or as a tube array. One of the most popular materials among package designers is rigid polyurethane foam, owing to its toughness, workability, low specific weight, low costs and commercial availability. In Brazil, a foam developed using the polymer extracted from the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) is being studied as a potential impact limiter filling. For a better performance of this material, it is necessary to minimize the impact limiter dimensions without compromising the package safety. For this, a detailed knowledge of the foam physical and mechanical properties is essential. A relatively vast amount of data about regular polymeric foams can be found in the literature and in foreign manufacturers brochures, but no data has been published about the properties of the castor oil foam. This paper presents data gathered in an ongoing research program aiming at the development of a Type-B packaging. Foam samples were submitted to uniaxial static compression tests and to hydrostatic tests. The results obtained reveal that the castor oil foam has a mechanical behavior similar to that of regular foams, with good property reproducibility and homogeneity. (author)

  3. “GENTE DE FIBRA”: A PRODUÇÃO DA ARTE EM PAPEL E MATERIAL RECICLÁVEL COMO FORMA DE DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIMA, Tatiane Aparecida dos Santos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is an alternative able to assert to future generations the right of enjoythe same opportunities of development that present generations enjoy nowadays. In this context, the presentstudy analyses the institution named “Cooperativa Mariense de Artesanato – Oficina Gente de Fibra” and, triesto demonstrate its influence in economic, social and, cultural aspects of co-opearators routine, as experience inthe community and besides as subsistence guaranty and life quality. The study was made with a group of artisansfrom Maria da Fé city, Brazil; this group is organized in a cooperative that appeared as a proposal to produceincome and ambient education, besides work with the importance of recycling. This activities are transmitted tocommunity through sensibilization, training and, sell of products. Nowadays, this cooperative is a reference herein Brazil and in foreign lands. The pieces produced by the artisans are exported to several countries, the materialis valorized by its artistic technique and by ambient protection.O desenvolvimento sustentável é uma alternativa capaz de assegurar às gerações futuras o direito deusufruir das mesmas oportunidades de desenvolvimento das gerações presentes. Neste contexto, esse textoanalisa a “Cooperativa Mariense de Artesanato – Oficina Gente de Fibra”, e procura demonstrar sua influêncianos aspectos econômico, social e cultural no cotidiano dos cooperados, como experiência na comunidade eainda, como garantia de subsistência e qualidade de vida. O foco de estudo foi o grupo de artesão da cidade deMaria da Fé - MG, que é organizado em cooperativa de artesanato que surgiu como proposta para geração derenda e educação ambiental, além de trabalhar a importância da reciclagem, atividades que são transmitidas àcomunidade através da sensibilização, treinamento e comercialização dos produtos. Atualmente, essacooperativa é referência no Brasil e no exterior; as

  4. Building construction materials effect in tropical wet and cold climates: A case study of office buildings in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modeste Kameni Nematchoua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental study that was conducted in 15 office buildings in the humid and cold tropics during the working hours of the dry and rainy seasons in Cameroon. This was with the aim to study the effects that local and imported materials had on indoor air quality. To achieve this objective, the adaptive model approach has been selected. In accordance with the conditions of this model, all workers were kept in natural ventilation and, in accordance with the general procedure, a questionnaire was distributed to them, while variables, like air temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity were sampled. The results showed a clear agreement between expected behaviour, in accordance with the characteristics of building construction, and its real indoor ambience once they were statistically analysed. On the other hand, old buildings showed a higher percentage of relative humidity and a lower degree of indoor air temperature. Despite this, local thermal comfort indices and questionnaires showed adequate indoor ambience in each group of buildings, except when marble was used for external tiling. The effect of marble as an external coating helps to improve indoor ambience during the dry season. This is due to more indoor air and relative humidity being accumulated. At the same time, these ambiences are degraded when relative humidity is higher. Finally, these results should be taken cognisance of by architects and building designers in order to improve indoor environment, and overcome thermal discomfort in the Saharan area.

  5. A Materials Life Cycle Assessment of a Net-Zero Energy Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Schaefer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the environmental impacts of the materials phase of a net-zero energy building. The Center for Sustainable Landscapes (CSL is a three-story, 24,350 square foot educational, research, and administrative office in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. This net-zero energy building is designed to meet Living Building Challenge criteria. The largest environmental impacts from the production of building materials is from concrete, structural steel, photovoltaic (PV panels, inverters, and gravel. Comparing the LCA results of the CSL to standard commercial structures reveals a 10% larger global warming potential and a nearly equal embodied energy per square feet, largely due to the CSL’s PV system. As a net-zero energy building, the environmental impacts associated with the use phase are expected to be very low relative to standard structures. Future studies will incorporate the construction and use phases of the CSL for a more comprehensive life cycle perspective.

  6. Characterization of Finnish Building materials under salt frost artificial ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luodes, Nike M.; Torppa, Akseli; Pirinen, Heikki; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Under a national project co financed by the Confederation of Finnish Construction Industries RT (CFCI), the Finnish Natural Stone Association and the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), and thanks to the cooperation with the Polytechnic of Turin a comprehensive number of Finnish natural stones has been tested according to SFS EN standards for national CE marking and according to non standardized methods for research purposes. The aim was to evaluate the effects of combined salt and frost weathering caused by de-icing salts and to research a possible correlation between laboratory's accelerated decay and site weathering. The materials tested (60 stones in total) are mainly silicate rocks showing good resistance to the weathering. Results have been affected in some cases by uncertainties connected to the variation of material quality. Some materials have been from new quarries and variation of their properties has been higher than the effects of artificial weathering. Material sampled from crop presented higher weathering level and the additional artificial weathering has induced small variations. Results have shown that material weathering has been better represented by variation of flexural strength compared to uniaxial compressive strength. The most probable reason has been that small changes of planarity and perpendicularity had greater effects on the compressive strength than variations by weathering. Fifteen representative typologies of natural stones have been tested with non standardized methodologies to study the changes of the material and finding a possible correlation with methods used on site. Schmidt rebound test and Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV) have been used on site to assess the durability of stone on construction. Materials tested in laboratory have shown less variation between rebounds compared to site tests, this can be because of a more controlled environment and saw cut surface instead of rocky or chiselled ones. Laboratory tests showed an average

  7. EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF BIO-BASED POLYMER MATRIX BUILDING MATERIAL AND FISH BONE DIAGRAM FOR MATERIAL EFFECT ON QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmamaw Tegegne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available These days cost of building materials are continuously increasing and the conventional construction materials for this particular purpose become low and low. The weight of conventional construction materials particularly building block is heavy and costly due to particularly cement. Thus, the objective of this paper is to develop an alternative light weight, high strength and relatively cost effective building material that satisfy the quality standard used in the country. A bio-based polymer matrix composite material for residential construction was experimentally developed. Sugar cane bagasse, thermoplastics (polyethylene g roup sand and red ash were used as materials alternatively. Mixing of the additives,melting of the hermoplastics, molding and curing (dryingwere the common methods used on the forming process of the samples. Mechanical behavior evaluation (testing of the product was carried out. Totally 45 specimens were produced and three replicate tests were performed per each test type. Quality analysis was carried out for group B material using Ishikawa diagram. The tensile strength of group A specimen was approximately 3 times greater than that of group B specimens. The compression strength of group A specimens were nearly 2 times greater than group B. Comparing to the conventional building materials(concert block and agrostoneproduced in the country, which the compression strength is 7Mpa and 16Mpa respectively, the newly produced materials show much better results in which Group A is 25.66 Mpa and group B is 16.66 Mpa. energy absorption capacity of group A specimens was approximately 3 times better than that of group B. Water absorption test was carried out for both groups and both showed excellent resistivity. Group A composite material specimens, showed better results in all parameters.

  8. Potentially harmful secondary metabolites produced by indoor Chaetomium species on artificially and naturally contaminated building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosen, Ina; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Clausen, Geo;

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the fungal genus Chaetomium and its secondary metabolites in indoor environments is suspected to have a negative impact on human health and wellbeing. About 200 metabolites have been currently described from Chaetomium spp., but only the bioactive compound group, chaetoglobosins......, have been screened for, and thus detected in buildings. In this study, we used a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry approach to screen both artificially and naturally infected building materials for all the Chaetomium metabolites described in the literature. Pure agar cultures were...... also investigated in order to establish differences between metabolite production in vitro and on building materials as well as comparison to non-indoor reference strains. On building materials six different chaetoglobosins were detected in total concentrations of up to 950 mg/m2 from C. globosum along...

  9. A matrix in life cycle perspective for selecting sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysundara, U.G. Yasantha [Ministry of Education, Isurupaya, Battaramulla (Sri Lanka); Babel, Sandhya [Environmental Technology Program, School of Biochemical Engineering and Technology, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Gheewala, Shabbir [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents a matrix to select sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka, taking into consideration environmental, economic and social assessments of materials in a life cycle perspective. Five building elements, viz., foundations, roofs, ceilings, doors and windows, and floors are analyzed based on materials used for these elements. Environmental burdens associated with these elements are analyzed in terms of embodied energy and environmental impacts such as global warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment. Economic analysis is based on market prices and affordability of materials. Social factors that are taken into account are thermal comfort, interior (aesthetics), ability to construct quickly, strength and durability. By compiling the results of analyses, two building types with minimum and maximum impacts are identified. These two cases along with existing buildings are compared in a matrix of environmental, economic and social scores. Analysis of the results also indicates need for higher consideration of environmental parameters in decision-making over social and economic factors, as social and economic scores do not vary much between cases. Hence, this matrix helps decision-makers to select sustainable materials for buildings, meaningfully, and thus helps to move towards a more sustainable buildings and construction sector. (author)

  10. Use of Advanced Plastic Materials in Nigeria: Performance Assessment of Expanded Polystyrene Building Technology System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Nkem Ede (PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The provision of affordable residential houses for the masses in the developing nations has been a mirage over the years and the future does not portend good as the cost of adopting conventional concrete material technologies is escalating while so many environmental issues like climate change are being raised in the recent times.To circumvent this poor housing provision trend, some innovative construction materials and technologies are being introduced to facilitate unique modular designs, reduction of labour, decline in the depletion of exhaustible materials,savings of time and fund. One of such materials is the expanded polystyrene. The introduction of advanced plastic materials and in particular the expanded polystyrene building technologies in the Nigerian constructionindustry will be a very useful and brilliant initiative that will aid the reduction of cost of construction and facilitate access to affordable houses for the masses.This researchaims at studying the applications of this innovative plastic material in the Nigerian building industry with special regard to the performance perception by the clients and the end users. A building estate where expanded polystyrene building technology has been predominantly used in Abuja is considered as a case study. Questionnaires were distributed among clients and residents of the building estate and statistical tools were used to analyse the data collected. Great satisfaction verified among the clients and residents and the high ranking performance confirmed for recyclability, reliability, versatility and moisture resistance of EPS building products all herald a great future for the applications of this advanced building products in the Nigerian building industry.

  11. Nanocellulose as Material Building Block for Energy and Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangbing

    2014-03-01

    In this talk, I will discuss the fabrications, properties and device applications of functional nanostructured paper based on nanocellulose. Nanostructures with tunable optical, electrical, ionic and mechanical properties will be discussed. Lab-scale demonstration devices, including low-cost Na-ion batteries, microbial fuel cells, solar cells, transparent transistors, actuators and touch screens will be briefly mentioned. These studies show that nanocellulose is a promising green material for electronics and energy devices.

  12. Evaluation of desiccated and deformed diaspores from natural building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Henn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing sophistication of paleoethnobotanical methods, it is now possible to reconstruct new aspects of the day-to-day life of past peoples, and, ultimately, gain information about their cultivated plants, land-use practices, architecture, diet, and trade. Reliable identification of plant remains, however, remains essential to the study of paleoethnobotany, and there is still much to learn about precise identification. This paper describes and evaluates the most frequent types of deformed desiccated diaspores revealed from adobe bricks used in buildings in Southwestern Hungary that were built primarily between 1850 and 1950. A total of 24,634 diaspores were recovered from 333.05 kg adobe samples. These seeds and fruits belong to 303 taxa, and the majority were arable and ruderal weed species. A total of 98.97% of the diaspores were identified to species. In other cases, identification was possible only to genus or family (0.93% and 0.10% of diaspores, respectively. Difficulties in identification were caused mainly by morphological changes in the size, shape, color, and surface features of diaspores. Most diaspores were darker in color and significantly smaller than fresh or recently desiccated seeds and fruits. Surface features were often absent or fragmented. The most problematic seeds to identify were those of Centaurea cyanus, Consolida regalis, Scleranthus annuus and Daucus carota ssp. carota, which are discussed in detail. Our research aids archaeobotanists in the identification of desiccated and deformed diaspores.

  13. Estimation of building material moisture using non-invasive TDR sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorab, Zbigniew; Sobczuk, Henryk; Łagód, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The article presents the noninvasive attempt to measure moisture of building materials with the use of electric methods. Comparing to the other techniques of moisture detection like chemical or physical, the electric methods enable quick moisture estimation and they seem to be a suitable solution to monitor moisture changes. Most of electric moisture meters are the capacitance and resistance sensors. A perspective technique to determine moisture of building materials and barriers is Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) method. This method has been successfully applied for moisture determination of the soils and since a few years has been used to measure moisture of building materials. The attempts to measure moisture of building materials require modification of traditional TDR sensor construction and extra calibration procedures. Sensors applied for building materials, comparing to the traditional ones are noninvasive. The advantages of surface sensors proposed in this article are the following: no influence on material structure, easier sample preparation for laboratory measurements, good possibility to apply for in-situ measurements. Major disadvantage of the described sensors is the difficulty of outgoing sensor signal interpretation and thus the possibility of the increase of measurement uncertainty. Anyhow it must be underlined that proposed in the article sensor constructions seem to be a balanced alternative for quick moisture detection.

  14. Multivariate statistical analysis of radiological data of building materials used in Tiruvannamalai, Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravisankar, R; Vanasundari, K; Suganya, M; Raghu, Y; Rajalakshmi, A; Chandrasekaran, A; Sivakumar, S; Chandramohan, J; Vijayagopal, P; Venkatraman, B

    2014-02-01

    Using γ spectrometry, the concentration of the naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K has been measured in soil, sand, cement, clay and bricks, which are used as building materials in Tiruvannamalai, Tamilnadu, India. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the criterion formula (CF), indoor gamma absorbed dose rate (DR), annual effective dose (HR), activity utilization index (AUI), alpha index (Iα), gamma index (Iγ), external radiation hazard index (Hex), internal radiation hazard index (Hin), representative level index (RLI), excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) and annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in the building materials. From the analysis, it is found that these materials used for the construction of dwellings are safe for the inhabitants. The radiological data were processed using multivariate statistical methods to determine the similarities and correlation among the various samples. The frequency distributions for all radionuclides were analyzed. The data set consisted of 15 measured variables. The Pearson correlation coefficient reveals that the (226)Ra distribution in building materials is controlled by the variation of the (40)K concentration. Principal component analysis (PCA) yields a two-component representation of the acquired data from the building materials in Tiruvannamalai, wherein 94.9% of the total variance is explained. The resulting dendrogram of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) classified the 30 building materials into four major groups using 15 variables. PMID:24412972

  15. Radon diffusion studies through some building materials: Effect of grain size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following α-decay of 226Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure between the radon source and the surrounding air, and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. In the present study radon diffusion through some building materials, viz., soil, sand, fly ash, cement, etc. has been carried out using LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The radon diffusion coefficients and diffusion lengths through these building construction materials have been calculated. As the rate of radon inflow is dependent upon the porosity and grain size of the materials also, therefore, the effects of grain size on radon diffusion through some of these materials have also been studied. For these studies the materials with different grain sizes, viz. 50, 100, 200μm were used. The results indicate that the radon diffusion through these materials decreases with decrease in grain size

  16. 32 CFR 644.478 - Demolition of buildings and other improvements for utilization of salvage material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demolition of buildings and other improvements for utilization of salvage material. 644.478 Section 644.478 National Defense Department of Defense... improvements for utilization of salvage material. With respect to DA property, demolition may be undertaken...

  17. Electrokinetic salt removal from porous building materials using ion exchange membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamran, K.; Van Soestbergen, M.; Pel, L.

    The removal of salt from porous building materials under the influence of an applied voltage gradient normally results in high pH gradients due to the formation of protons and hydroxyl ions at the electrodes. The formed acidic and alkaline regions not only lead to disintegration of the porous materi

  18. Earth: as building material, as regulation of indoor envorinment, usable in maritime climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klamer, G.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. In nearly all hot-arid and temperate climates, earth has always been the most prevalent building material; not only in produced materials like clay brick, but also as raw earth, mud, sod and the principle of

  19. Nest-building males trade off material collection costs with territory value

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Ida E.; Morgan, Kate V.; Oschadleus, H. Dieter; DeRuiter, Stacy L; Meddle, Simone L.; Healy, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    This work was supported by the BBSRC (BB/I019502/1 to SDH and SLM) and Roslin Institute Strategic Grant funding from the BBSRC (SLM). Building a structurally robust nest is crucial for reproductive success in many birds. However, we know little about the criteria birds use to select material or where they go to collect it. Here we observed the material collection of male Cape Weavers (Ploceus capensis). Males typically selected long, strong material to build their nests and each male colle...

  20. Experimental study of dynamic effects in moisture transfer in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    of the moisture transfer processes involved. The available evidence primarily stems from imbibition and drainage experiments on soils however, and compared to many other porous media, these tests consider rather permeable materials with relatively dominant liquid transport at comparatively large (de...... building materials. Drying and ad-/desorption tests are executed on two building materials, in which moisture contents and moisture potentials are measured simultaneously. These are translated into dynamic retention relations and dynamic storage coefficients, which both distinctly demonstrate that moisture...... transfer in building materials, similar to moisture transfer in soils, is not free of dynamic effects. The findings imply that the widely accepted static theory for moisture storage in porous media is not generally valid and should be corrected for the occurrences of dynamic effects. Considering that such...

  1. Simple hydrazone building blocks for complicated functional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Luke A; Su, Xin; Aprahamian, Ivan

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: The ability to selectively and effectively control various molecular processes via specific stimuli is a hallmark of the complexity of biological systems. The development of synthetic structures that can mimic such processes, even on the fundamental level, is one of the main goals of supramolecular chemistry. Having this in mind, there has been a foray of research in the past two decades aimed at developing molecular architectures, whose properties can be modulated using external inputs. In most cases, reversible conformational, configurational, or translational motions, as well as bond formation or cleavage reactions have been used in such modulations, which are usually initiated using inputs including, irradiation, metalation, or changes in pH. This research activity has led to the development of a diverse array of impressive adaptive systems that have been used in showcasing the potential of molecular switches and machines. That being said, there are still numerous obstacles to be tackled in the field, ranging from difficulties in getting molecular switches to communicate and work together to complications in integrating and interfacing them with surfaces and bulk materials. Addressing these challenges will necessitate the development of creative new approaches in the field, the improvement of the currently available materials, and the discovery of new molecular switches. This Account will describe how our quest to design new molecular switches has led us to the development of structurally simple systems that can be used for complicated functions. Our focus on the modular and tunable hydrazone functional group was instigated by the desire to simplify the structure and design of molecular switches in order to circumvent multistep synthesis. We hypothesized that by avoiding this synthetic bottleneck, which is one of the factors that hinder fast progress in the field, we can expedite the development and deployment of our adaptive materials. It should be

  2. Aspects regarding the use of the industrial wastes as raw materials for the manufacture of building materials

    OpenAIRE

    R. G. Popa; L. G. Popescu; T. A. Abagiu; Popescu, C.; Cazalbasu, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this article are present the results of physical and chemical characterisation activities, of industrial wastes: ash and slag, drilling sludge, metallurgical slag. Also, were established the conditions in which these industrial waste types could be used as raw materials for manufacture some building materials. The ash can be assimilated with a lightweight aggregate similar to the natural sands, the oil-well drilling sludge presents an advanced similarity with the suspensions of fine partic...

  3. Polyhedral Boranes: A Versatile Building Block for Nanoporous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingerman, Daniel Jon

    The studies described in this dissertation examine several new concepts related to polyhedral boranes and their applications towards the synthesis of novel nanoporous materials. The unique thermal and chemical robustness, rigidity, quasi-spherical geometry, and high boron content of polyhedral boranes are explored to generate materials not possible with typical organic synthons. Aside from the fundamental synthetic work, this work was also aimed at solving larger global issues such as energy storage and new routes to therapeutics. Chapter 2 highlights the discovery of the first highly porous carborane-based metal-organic framework, where the spherical nature of the carborane increases volumetric surface area without reducing pore volume. Chapter 3 examines the first tritopic carborane-based ligand and the stabilizing effect the rigid, sterically bulky carboranyl groups have on highly porous topologies not stable with typical organic ligands. Chapters 4 and 5 describe the use of polyhedral borane-based ligands as a means to influence and generate unexpected topologies. Lastly, chapter 6 explores using a simple carborane-based ligand that harnesses the power of coordination-driven assembly to rapidly generate a high boron-containing supramolecular cuboctahedron.

  4. Research on phase-change material building mass applied in the air-conditioning field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANQuanying

    2003-01-01

    Phase-change material building mass contains phase-change matenals. It can decrease air-conditioning load and indoor temperature fluctuations, and improve comfort degree in summer because of thermal storage property of phase-change material. Thereby, the scale, initial investment and operational cost of air-conditioning system decrease effectively. The indoor surroundings improve. In this paper, suitable phase-change material used in architecture and combination mode between phase change material and architectural material were studied. By considering the properties of materials, such as phase-change temperature, phase-change latent heat, thermal conductivity and expansion coefficient, phase-change materials were selected and evaluated. Combination mode between phase-change material and architectural material were provided. The influence of phase-change material structure on thermal performance in room and energy-saving effect were analyzed and compared with traditional structure without phase-change material. It is proved that phase-change material structure is feasible in the practical engineenng. These provide the basis for developing phase-change material building mass.

  5. Application of Nanotechnology-Based Thermal Insulation Materials in Building Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Bozsaky David

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology-based materials have previously been used by space research, pharmaceuticals and electronics, but in the last decade several nanotechnology-based thermal insulation materials have appeared in building industry. Nowadays they only feature in a narrow range of practice, but they offer many potential applications. These options are unknown to most architects, who may simply be afraid of these materials owing to the incomplete and often contradictory special literature. Therefore, ...

  6. Monitoring moisture movements in building materials using x-ray attenuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pease, Bradley Justin; Scheffler, Gregor A.; Janssen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    X-ray attenuation measurements are commonly used as a non-destructive method to monitor internal concentration changes of moisture (i.e., moisture content) and other chemical compounds in porous building materials. The technique provides direct measurements of moisture content changes through ana...... autoclaved concrete, clay brick, cementitious materials, and wood. Results from the parametric investigation indicate the attenuation coefficient of water is dependent on the type and thickness of the porous material....

  7. Building methodology of virtual laboratory posts for materials science virtual laboratory purposes

    OpenAIRE

    R. Honysz; L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe the building methodology of virtual laboratory posts placed in Material Science Virtual Laboratory. Presented laboratory is an open scientific, investigative, simulating and didactic medium helpful in the realization of the didactic and educational tasks from the field of material engineering in Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials of the Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, Poland.Design/methodology/approach: The us...

  8. Effective density and mass attenuation coefficient for building material in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas, I. C. P.; Conti, C. C.; Lopes, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents values for density and mass attenuation coefficient of building materials commonly used in Brazil. Transmission measurements were performed to provide input information for simulations with MCNP4B code. The structure for the clay bricks was simulated as a mix of all material layers and an effective density determined. The mass attenuation coefficients were determined for the 50-3000 keV gamma-ray energy range. A comparison with results for similar materials found in the li...

  9. Thermal Performance of Typical Residential Building in Karachi with Different Materials for Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Shaheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work deals with a study of a residential building located in climatic context of Karachi with the objective of being the study of thermal performance based upon passive design techniques. The study helps in reducing the electricity consumption by improving indoor temperatures. The existing residential buildings in Karachi were studied with reference to their planning and design, analyzed and evaluated. Different construction?s compositions of buildings were identified, surveyed and analyzed in making of the effective building envelops. Autodesk® Ecotect, 2011 was used to determine indoor comfort conditions and HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Cooling loads. The result of the research depicted significant energy savings of 38.5% in HVAC loads with proposed building envelop of locally available materials and glazing.

  10. Estimation of the radon dose in buildings by measuring the exhalation rate from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the accumulator technique using active (CRM) and passive detectors (activated charcoal and electret). We describe the ERS2 detector, an electrostatic radon sampler followed by alpha spectrometry, with improved algorithm and adapted to measure the exhalation rate from walls. The technique produces accurate results over a broad range of materials: concrete, Pumice, ceramics, tiles, granite, etc. The measured exhalation rate is the same, within errors, as measured by the standard detectors

  11. Relation of historical quarrying, material utilization and performance on buildings in Eastern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luodes, Nike M.; Pirinen, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Finland might seem to have lower stone heritage compared to other southern European countries, but it has been the main exporter of dimension stone to the majestic buildings that made St.Petersburg a recognized cultural heritage. In Finland, though, the stone seems undervalued. The only dramatic and predominant stone buildings are those of agencies and administrations located in the towns, where the stone has been used to impress and symbolize value. Romantic style used massive bossy stone in building's full height and created fine traditional carvings. Otherwise the communities have mainly built settlements in contact with the nature, with materials easily available and of low cost, following architectonical trends of the periods and producing interesting stone details. During the past years, research has been conducted on historical buildings interconnecting scientific and artistic approach to evaluate material durability and cultural relevance of the artifacts. Generally until mid 20th century the stone has been traditionally used massive for basements and walls. The materials still present good mechanical characteristics and most often the weathering level after hundreds of years of exposure had reached only the first millimeters from the curst. Instead the old methodology for deposit exploitation has left visible signs on the buildings. Some examples are visible from Kuopio. The exploitation of small, easy-to-reach surface deposits, even if planned by local experts, has affected quality and appearance of historical buildings. As an example the excavation of shallow quarries where also weathered crop was kept as a product has characterized the basement of the Niirala school that presents change in colors due to original material more than to weathering on site. Fissuring is also visible on a couple of blocks while marks on the rocks depict the old excavation method. Most often the deposits had been in the vicinities, frequently hidden by further construction

  12. Determining the 222Rn exhalation rate of building materials using liquid scintillation counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, W; de Jong, P

    1991-10-01

    A new method for determining the free 222Rn exhalation rate from building materials is described. The sample is enclosed in a container from which the exhaled Rn is continuously purged by nitrogen gas. After 2-3 h, when the Rn level in the container has reached a steady-state concentration, the outflowing Rn is trapped on silica gel at about -190 degrees C. About 16 h after sampling, the silica gel is analyzed by liquid scintillation counting to determine the area exhalation rate. The method described has a good repeatability and reproducibility with coefficients of variation of 7.8% and 8.3%, respectively, at 5 Bq m-2 h-1. The low limit of detection of 11 mBq 222Rn offers the opportunity to quantify the exhalation rate of almost all kinds of building materials. It was found that the air humidity strongly influences the exhalation rates of building material and, therefore, should be controlled. Two typical building materials were investigated. For gypsum, an increase in the exhalation rate with increasing water vapor pressure was found, whereas for concrete, a linear decrease with increasing water vapor pressure was observed. The 222Rn area exhalation rates of 20 Dutch building materials, including some experimental ones, were determined at 50% RH, 20 degrees C, showing a range of less than 0.02-15.8 Bq m-2 h-1. The lowest values were found for natural gypsum board, the highest for phosphogypsum blocks. Building materials containing fly ash gave area exhalation rates comparable to those of similar materials without fly ash.

  13. Energy Saving Potentials of Phase Change Materials Applied to Lightweight Building Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Bok Seong; Jae-Han Lim

    2013-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) have been considered as an innovative technology that can reduce the peak loads and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) energy consumption in buildings. Basically they are substances capable of storing or releasing thermal energy as latent heat. Because the amount of latent heat absorbed or released is much larger than the sensible heat, the application of PCMs in buildings has significant potential to reduce energy consumption. However, because each...

  14. Review of international normatives for natural radioactivity determination in building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Mossini Eros; Macerata Elena; Giola Marco; Mariani Mario

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities, such as high-altitude flights and living in buildings, have enhanced the public exposure to natural radiation. In particular, 40K and radionuclides belonging to 232Th and 238U decay chains are present even in building materials, and they may be considered as partially responsible for the effective dose coming from natural radioactivity. Scientists and governments have devoted great attention to the evaluation of the effects produced on the public by naturally occurri...

  15. Infrared emissivity measurements of building and civil engineering materials: a new device for measuring emissivity

    OpenAIRE

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Marchetti, Mario; Ibos, Laurent; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings and civil engineering structures is useful for two specific approaches. First, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures by infrared thermography requires emissivity values in the spectral bandwidth of the camera used for measurements, in order to obtain accurate surface temperatures; for instance, emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors (such...

  16. Old materials and techniques to improve the durability of earth buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Camões, Aires; Eires, R.; Jalali, Said

    2012-01-01

    Quite a big part of the world’s heritage is still made by earth constructions. The durability of the existent heritage, as well as the new earth buildings is particularly conditioned by erosion caused by water action, especially in countries with high rainfall index. With this research one intends to value the ancient knowledge in order to allow higher durability. Analysing the old building techniques to protect the earth material from the water action it is possible to understand how ear...

  17. Building Techniques and Materials in Ancient and Medieval Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Greppi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of Milan preserve an amazing historical and architectural heritage, consisting of a high number of ancient churches, in most cases built to the origins of Christianity and transformed into new form during the Romanesque. In the article are synthetically presented the results of the research work of the writer about construction techniques of the most important churches in the city (S. Ambrogio, S. Simpliciano, S. Giovanni alle Fonti, S. Nazaro Maggiore, ..., trying to highlight the main changes between Late Antiquity and Romanesque. A large amount of stone material were used in Roman architecture of Milan and Lombardy, thanks to the geological variety of the territory. The Alps supplied granites, diorites, gneisses and marbles; the Prealps supplied limestones, dolomites, sandstones (Mesozoic and conglomerates (Quaternary; the Padània alluvial plain supplied pebbles, gravels, sands and clays (Quaternary. Each stone had a local use reaching the nearest towns (Como, Pavia, Milan, Bergamo, Brescia through waterways; the towns of the plain (Piacenza, Cremona, Mantua employed bricks made of local clay. Milano, the capital, employed also stones coming from abroad (limestones from Venetia and Friuli. White marbles of Apuanian Alps and coloured marbles of Eastern mediterranean were also diffused in Milan and other Lombard sites despite the laborious supplying. The stones quarried by the Romans were continuously used in the following centuries.

  18. Source strength of fungal spore aerosolization from moldy building material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorny, Rafa L.; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Willeke, Klaus [Cincinnati Univ., Dept. of Environmental Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The release of Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Penicillium melinii spores from agar and ceiling tile surfaces was tested under different controlled environmental conditions using a newly designed and constructed aerosolization chamber. This study revealed that all the investigated parameters, such as fungal species, air velocity above the surface, texture of the surface, and vibration of contaminated material, affected the fungal spore release. It was found that typical indoor air currents can release up to 200 spores cm {sup -2} from surface with fungal spores during 30-min experiments. The release of fungal spores from smooth agar surfaces was found to be inadequate for accurately predicting the emission from rough ceiling tile surfaces because the air turbulence increases the spore release from a rough surface. A vibration of a frequency of 1Hz at a power level of 14W resulted in a significant increase in the spore release rate. The release appears to depend on the morphology of the fungal colonies grown on ceiling tile surfaces including the thickness of conidiophores, the length of spore chains, and the shape of spores. The spores were found to be released continuously during each 30-min experiment. However, the release rate was usually highest during the first few minutes of exposure to air currents and mechanical vibration. About 71-88% of the spores released during a 30-min interval became airborne during the first 10min. (Author)

  19. Microstructure and microanalysis of some ancient building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the very long term of durability of modern Portland cements for encapsulating certain types of radioactive waste, the microstructure and microanalysis of concretes of various ages made from such cements are compared with those from similar materials of ancient origins with ages upto 2500 years used in early Greek, Roman and British Construction. Most of the historical 'concretes' examined were heavily carbonated and at best showed only traces of the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phase, the heart of modern Portland Cement concretes. The notable exception was the 1700 years old concrete from Hadrian's Wall - the mortar in this was rich in C-S-H. The modern concrete samples, from 10 to 140 years old, showed little carbonation and their compositions of the C-S-H phase were very similar to those found from Hadrian's Wall. From all the evidence examined, it is concluded that the C-S-H phase is capable of surviving intact for several thousands of years in the absence of external chemical attack. (author)

  20. Source strength of fungal spore aerosolization from moldy building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górny, Rafał L.; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Willeke, Klaus

    The release of Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Penicillium melinii spores from agar and ceiling tile surfaces was tested under different controlled environmental conditions using a newly designed and constructed aerosolization chamber. This study revealed that all the investigated parameters, such as fungal species, air velocity above the surface, texture of the surface, and vibration of contaminated material, affected the fungal spore release. It was found that typical indoor air currents can release up to 200 spores cm -2 from surfaces with fungal spores during 30-min experiments. The release of fungal spores from smooth agar surfaces was found to be inadequate for accurately predicting the emission from rough ceiling tile surfaces because the air turbulence increases the spore release from a rough surface. A vibration at a frequency of 1 Hz at a power level of 14 W resulted in a significant increase in the spore release rate. The release appears to depend on the morphology of the fungal colonies grown on ceiling tile surfaces including the thickness of conidiophores, the length of spore chains, and the shape of spores. The spores were found to be released continuously during each 30-min experiment. However, the release rate was usually highest during the first few minutes of exposure to air currents and mechanical vibration. About 71-88% of the spores released during a 30-min interval became airborne during the first 10 min.

  1. CONTRIBUTION TO THE POTENTIAL OF USING FRP MATERIALS IN THE REHABILITATION AND STABILIZATION OF TIMBERED BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Čejka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wooden log, timbered perimeter and interior walls ranked among the most common building constructions used from the Early Middle Ages. In most cases, the local natural resources, i.e. wood, clay, straw and stone, were used for building houses with wooden framing. This article outlines typical defects and failures of timbered houses, “classic” techniques for the rehabilitation of these defects and failures indicating the potential of using composite materials based on high- strength fibres and epoxy resin in the rehabilitation and strengthening of timbered buildings.

  2. Atmospheric methane removal by methane-oxidizing bacteria immobilized on porous building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganendra, Giovanni; De Muynck, Willem; Ho, Adrian; Hoefman, Sven; De Vos, Paul; Boeckx, Pascal; Boon, Nico

    2014-04-01

    Biological treatment using methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) immobilized on six porous carrier materials have been used to mitigate methane emission. Experiments were performed with different MOB inoculated in building materials at high (~20 % (v/v)) and low (~100 ppmv) methane mixing ratios. Methylocystis parvus in autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) exhibited the highest methane removal rate at high (28.5 ± 3.8 μg CH₄ g⁻¹ building material h⁻¹) and low (1.7 ± 0.4 μg CH₄ g⁻¹ building material h⁻¹) methane mixing ratio. Due to the higher volume of pores with diameter >5 μm compared to other materials tested, AAC was able to adsorb more bacteria which might explain for the higher methane removal observed. The total methane and carbon dioxide-carbon in the headspace was decreased for 65.2 ± 10.9 % when M. parvus in Ytong was incubated for 100 h. This study showed that immobilized MOB on building materials could be used to remove methane from the air and also act as carbon sink. PMID:24337222

  3. A Protocol for Lifetime Energy and Environmental Impact Assessment of Building Insulation Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors, and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist that provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines.

  4. Application of Nanotechnology-Based Thermal Insulation Materials in Building Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozsaky, David

    2016-03-01

    Nanotechnology-based materials have previously been used by space research, pharmaceuticals and electronics, but in the last decade several nanotechnology-based thermal insulation materials have appeared in building industry. Nowadays they only feature in a narrow range of practice, but they offer many potential applications. These options are unknown to most architects, who may simply be afraid of these materials owing to the incomplete and often contradictory special literature. Therefore, they are distrustful and prefer to apply the usual and conventional technologies. This article is intended to provide basic information about nanotechnology-based thermal insulation materials for designers. It describes their most important material properties, functional principles, applications, and potential usage options in building construction.

  5. Cleaner phosphogypsum, coal combustion ashes and waste incineration ashes for application in building materials: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Reijnders [University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-02-15

    Application of phosphogypsum, coal combustion ashes and waste incineration ashes in building materials has been limited by the presence of minor components that are hazardous, such as radioactive substances, chlorinated dioxins and heavy metals, or have a negative impact on product quality or production economics, such as phosphate, fluoride, carbon and chloride. Source reduction, destruction of persistent organics and separation techniques may reduce the concentrations of such components. With a few exceptions, separation techniques currently lead to significantly higher (private) costs. Higher waste disposal costs, tighter regulations and higher prices for competing virgin minerals could make the use of the purified phosphogypsum and ashes in building materials more attractive.

  6. Characterization of Environmental Impact of Building Materials for the Purpose of Ecodesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skele, Agnese; Repele, Mara; Bazbauers, Gatis

    2011-01-01

    -The building material manufacturing sector is one of the sectors with the highest consumption of fossil fuel resources. The "cradle-to-gate" study of the ceramic bricks made in the Āne plant of JSC Lode, Latvia, is performed according to ISO standards 14044:2006. Life cycle inventory data have been collected at the factory site. Three different perspectives of the "Eco-Indicator'99" method are used to conduct an environmental characterization of the building materials to obtain the total impact indicator.

  7. Thorium determination in intercomparison samples and in some Romanian building materials by gamma ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelica, A.; Georgesecu, I.I.; Murariu-Magureanu, M.D.; Margaritescu, I.; Cincu, E

    2001-07-01

    Thorium content in zircon sand, thorium ore and thorium liquid sample (EU Laboratories Network Intercomparison), as well as in some Romanian building materials: sand, wood, tufa, asbestos-cement, cement mill dust, coal fly ash, bricks, and tile (28 samples) were determined by gamma ray spectrometry. For the building materials, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs specific activities were also measured. The results were compared with the Romanian legal norms concerning the highest admissible levels for {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K radioactivity, and to Th, U, and K concentration values previously determined in our laboratory on similar types of samples. (author)

  8. Thorium determination in intercomparison samples and in some Romanian building materials by gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorium content in zircon sand, thorium ore and thorium liquid sample (EU Laboratories Network Intercomparison), as well as in some Romanian building materials: sand, wood, tufa, asbestos-cement, cement mill dust, coal fly ash, bricks, and tile (28 samples) were determined by gamma ray spectrometry. For the building materials, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs specific activities were also measured. The results were compared with the Romanian legal norms concerning the highest admissible levels for 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K radioactivity, and to Th, U, and K concentration values previously determined in our laboratory on similar types of samples. (author)

  9. Experimental study of passive cooling of building facade using phase change materials to increase thermal comfort in buildings in hot humid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Madhumathi, B. M.C. Sundarraja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of cooler night temperatures using Phase Change Material (PCM energy storage technique, for cooling of ambient air during hot day times can be an alternate of current cooling techniques in building sector. This work presents the results of an experimental set-up to test energy saving potential of phase change materials with typical construction materials in building facade in Hot-Humid Climatic Regions in real conditions. The main objective of this research is to demonstrate experimentally that it is possible to improve the thermal comfort and reduce the energy consumption of a building without substantial increase in the weight of the construction materials with the inclusion of PCM. This research was conducted to study and evaluate the performance of the existing materials integrated with Organic PCM Polyethylene glycol (PEG E600. This research suggested that the heat gain is significantly reduced when the PCM is incorporated into the brick (conventional building material.

  10. Impasses do desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Akyüz

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo fornece um panorama dos principais impasses que se impõem aos países em desenvolvimento no que diz respeito à industrialização e ao comércio internacional. O autor examina os matizes envolvidos nas estratégias de incremento da exportação de produtos manufaturados e argumenta que a retomada do crescimento regional requer apoio não apenas de políticas voltadas para esse setor, mas também de acordos monetários e de cooperação destinados a garantir a estabilidade dos mercados.This article focuses on the main aspects concerning trade, foreign direct investment and industrialization in developing countries. The author states that a return to stable and rapid regional growth needs to be underpinned not only by policies directed at the upgrading of production and exports, but also by accompanying regional monetary arrangements and cooperation designed to ensure the stability of financial markets.

  11. Microfungal contamination of damp buildings--examples of risk constructions and risk materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Iversen, R; Nielsen, K F

    1999-06-01

    To elucidate problems with microfungal infestation in indoor environments, a multidisciplinary collaborative pilot study, supported by a grant from the Danish Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, was performed on 72 mold-infected building materials from 23 buildings. Water leakage through roofs, rising damp, and defective plumbing installations were the main reasons for water damage with subsequent infestation of molds. From a score system assessing the bioavailability of the building materials, products most vulnerable to mold attacks were water damaged, aged organic materials containing cellulose, such as wooden materials, jute, wallpaper, and cardboard. The microfungal genera most frequently encountered were Penicillium (68%), Aspergillus (56%), Chaetomium (22%), Ulocladium, (21%), Stachybotrys (19%) and Cladosporium (15%). Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most frequently occurring species. Under field conditions, several trichothecenes were detected in each of three commonly used building materials, heavily contaminated with S. chartarum. Under experimental conditions, four out of five isolates of S. chartarum produced satratoxin H and G when growing on new and old, very humid gypsum boards. A. versicolor produced the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin under the same conditions. PMID:10347000

  12. Assessment of natural radioactivity in major building materials of Xiangyang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Tingting; Lu, Xinwei [Shaanxi Normal Univ., Xi' an (China). School of Tourism and Environment

    2014-10-01

    The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in the commonly used building materials collected from Xiangyang were measured using NaI (Tl) gamma spectrometer. The radioactivity values of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in the studied samples ranged from 130.5 to 1006.3, 8.4 to 164.0, and 8.7 to 145.6 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides have been compared with the typical published world values. Radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indexes, external and internal exposure indexes, indoor air absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate have been calculated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with natural radionuclides in the studied materials. The calculated values of all the assessed indices in the analyzed building materials except for fly ash are below the internationally accepted limits indicating that these building materials can be safely used in dwellings construction and do not lead to any significant radiation exposure to occupants. Nevertheless, the annual effective dose rate values of all fly ash samples, external and internal hazard indexes values in most fly ash samples exceed the recommended values. It is, therefore, desirable to regularly monitor the natural radioactivity level of the building materials products made from fly ash.

  13. Selecting Materials for Environmental-Friendly Buildings: The Need for Improved Environmental Impact Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachawit T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings of the future need to be more environmental-friendly. Selecting environmentally-benign materials in design stage would partly help achieving such goal. Examination of existing environmental impact data of building materials reveals that the data differ greatly from one source to another. Comparisons of environmental impact values of selected materials are presented. The sources that give rise to data variation are identified and discussed. The applicability of existing data is assessed from the designers’ perspective. Limitations of current practice in data acquisition and presentation are also discussed. It is concluded that existing environmental impact data of building materials are inconsistent and perplexing to designers. An alternative approach to data acquisition and presentation is to break the life cycle of building materials into several phases and to calculate the total impact value as the sum of the impacts of all phases. This would make the determination of the full life cycle value feasible and increase external validity of research results.

  14. Measurement of the natural radioactivity in building materials used in Ankara and assessment of external doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Baykan, U N; Sen, K

    2008-03-01

    A total of 183 samples of 20 different commonly used structural and covering building materials were collected from housing and other building construction sites and from suppliers in Ankara to measure the natural radioactivity due to the presence of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. The measurements were carried out using gamma-ray spectrometry with two HPGe detectors. The specific activities of the different building materials studied varied from 0.5 +/- 0.1 to 144.9 +/- 4.9 Bq kg(-1), 0.6 +/- 0.2 to 169.9 +/- 6.6 Bq kg(-1) and 2.0 +/- 0.1 to 1792.3 +/- 60.8 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The results show that the lowest mean values of the specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K are 0.8 +/- 0.5, 0.9 +/- 0.4 and 4.1 +/- 1.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, measured in travertine tile while the highest mean values of the specific activity of the same radionuclides are 78.5 +/- 18.1 (ceramic wall tile), 77.4 +/- 53.0 (granite tile) and 923.4 +/- 161.0 (white brick), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the gamma-index, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The mean values of the gamma-index and the estimated annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation inside the room for structural building materials ranged from 0.15 to 0.89 and 0.2 to 1.1 mSv, respectively. Applying criteria recently recommended for building materials in the literature, four materials meet the exemption annual dose criterion of 0.3 mSv, five materials meet the annual dose limit of 1 mSv and only one material slightly exceeds this limit. The mean values of the gamma-index for all building materials were lower than the upper limit of 1. PMID:18309197

  15. Measurement of the natural radioactivity in building materials used in Ankara and assessment of external doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhan, S [Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul Road 30 km, 06983 Saray, Ankara (Turkey); Baykan, U N [Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, General Directorate of Constructive Affairs, Cetin Emec Bulvari, No:5, 06460 Dikmen, Ankara (Turkey); Sen, K [TAEA, Eskisehir Road 9 km, 06800 Lodumlu, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: serefturhan63@gmail.com

    2008-03-01

    A total of 183 samples of 20 different commonly used structural and covering building materials were collected from housing and other building construction sites and from suppliers in Ankara to measure the natural radioactivity due to the presence of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The measurements were carried out using gamma-ray spectrometry with two HPGe detectors. The specific activities of the different building materials studied varied from 0.5 {+-} 0.1 to 144.9 {+-} 4.9 Bq kg{sup -1}, 0.6 {+-} 0.2 to 169.9 {+-} 6.6 Bq kg{sup -1} and 2.0 {+-} 0.1 to 1792.3 {+-} 60.8 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. The results show that the lowest mean values of the specific activity of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K are 0.8 {+-} 0.5, 0.9 {+-} 0.4 and 4.1 {+-} 1.4 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively, measured in travertine tile while the highest mean values of the specific activity of the same radionuclides are 78.5 {+-} 18.1 (ceramic wall tile), 77.4 {+-} 53.0 (granite tile) and 923.4 {+-} 161.0 (white brick), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), the gamma-index, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The mean values of the gamma-index and the estimated annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation inside the room for structural building materials ranged from 0.15 to 0.89 and 0.2 to 1.1 mSv, respectively. Applying criteria recently recommended for building materials in the literature, four materials meet the exemption annual dose criterion of 0.3 mSv, five materials meet the annual dose limit of 1 mSv and only one material slightly exceeds this limit. The mean values of the gamma-index for all building materials were lower than the upper limit of 1.

  16. Expanded polystyrene as the bearing building material of low energy construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaros, P.; Spisakova, M.; Kyjakova, L.; Mandicak, T.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability of buildings is a really important issue for the construction industry. Sustainable buildings are characterized by the lower construction costs for energy consumption and operations, they are environmentally friendly, able to save natural resources and they are comfortable and healthy for their users. The European Union supports this trend through its Strategy 2020, respectively with document Energy Roadmap 2020. The strategy 2020 sets greenhouse gas emissions 20% lower than 1990, 20% of energy from renewable and 20% increase in energy efficiency. It manifests itself in introduction of modern technologies of house building. One potential for the energy saving is construction of low-energy buildings using modern materials. This paper focuses on the analysis of the low-energy buildings made by expanded polystyrene as the bearing building material. The paper analyzes their design and describes the benefits of this modern but unusual type of construction technology for houses. The examples from abroad clearly indicate that this technology has potential in modern architecture. The success and exploration of this technology potential in the conditions of Slovak construction sector is closely related to interest of investors and users of further sustainable houses which are design according the Strategy 2020 conditions.

  17. Energy and economic analysis of a building enclosure outfitted with a phase change material board (PCMB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Phase change material boards (PCMBs) were simulated in building enclosures. • Energy and economic savings for these buildings were estimated. • The buildings were located in five cities with different climatic conditions. • The energy savings ratio was 100% when a cold energy source was used. • A mean electricity savings ratio of 13.1% was obtained. - Abstract: This paper presents energy and economic analyses related to the application of phase change materials boards (PCMBs) in building enclosures during the cooling season. A heat transfer model was developed, which was implemented via a computer program. Simulations were carried out using weather data files from five cities located in five different climate regions in China. Energy savings from using a natural cold source (e.g., outdoor air) and electricity savings from a reduction in electricity by air conditioning systems were evaluated. The energy savings ratio (ESR) and simple payback period (SPP) were used to assess the application of PCMBs in building enclosures. The selection of optimum phase transition temperatures for the PCMs for the various climates was made using indoor and outdoor air temperatures, as well as SPP. For space cooling purposes, it was suggested that phase transition temperatures should be at least 3 °C higher than the mean outdoor air temperature. Simple payback period suggested the possibility of the cost effective use of PCMBs in occupied buildings for moderate temperature climates

  18. Characterization of organophosphorus flame retardants' sorption on building materials and consumer products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Allen, Matthew R.; Roache, Nancy F.

    2016-09-01

    Better understanding the transport mechanisms of organophosphorus flame-retardants (OPFRs) in the residential environment is important to more accurately estimate their indoor exposure and develop risk management strategies that protect human health. This study describes an improved dual small chamber testing method to characterize the sorption of OPFRs on indoor building materials and consumer products. The OPFRs studied were tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). The test materials and products used as sinks include concrete, ceiling tile, vinyl flooring, carpet, latex painted gypsum wallboard, open cell polyurethane foam, mattress pad and liner, polyester clothing, cotton clothing, and uniform shirt. During the tests, the amount of OPFRs absorbed by the materials at different exposure times was determined simultaneously. OPFRs air concentrations at the inlet and inside the test chamber were monitored. The data were used to rank the sorption strength of the OPFRs on different materials. In general, building materials exhibited relatively stronger sorption strength than clothing textiles. The material-air partition and material phase diffusion coefficients were estimated by fitting a sink model to the sorption concentration data for twelve materials with three OPFRs. They are in the range of 2.72 × 105 to 3.99 × 108 (dimensionless) for the material-air partition coefficients and 1.13 × 10-14 to 5.83 × 10-9 (m2/h) for the material phase diffusion coefficients.

  19. Using Selected Transient Methods for Measurements of Thermophysical Parameters of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cviklovič Vladimír

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with thermophysical properties of red and white bricks. If we want to protect the high standard of quality building materials, we need to know the physical parameters which can evaluate the quality. The most important for building materials are mainly thermophysical, mechanical parameters and parameters which can determine the structure of materials. The article presents results of thermophysical parameters measurements of red and white bricks during the temperature stabilization for different values of moisture content. For our measurements, we have chosen a hot wire method and a dynamic plane source method. Both methods are classified as transient methods and they are very convenient for measurements of thermophysical parameters of materials with a compact structure. The results of measurements show that temperature and moisture content have a significant effect on thermophysical parameters of bricks.

  20. Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Material Selection of High Energy Performance Residential Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuláková, Monika; Vilčeková, Silvia; Katunská, Jana; Krídlová Burdová, Eva

    2013-11-01

    In world with limited amount of energy sources and with serious environmental pollution, interest in comparing the environmental embodied impacts of buildings using different structure systems and alternative building materials will be increased. This paper shows the significance of life cycle energy and carbon perspective and the material selection in reducing energy consumption and emissions production in the built environment. The study evaluates embodied environmental impacts of nearly zero energy residential structures. The environmental assessment uses framework of LCA within boundary: cradle to gate. Designed alternative scenarios of material compositions are also assessed in terms of energy effectiveness through selected thermal-physical parameters. This study uses multi-criteria decision analysis for making clearer selection between alternative scenarios. The results of MCDA show that alternative E from materials on nature plant base (wood, straw bales, massive wood panel) present possible way to sustainable perspective of nearly zero energy houses in Slovak republic

  1. Instruments to reduce the leaching of heavy metals from building materials in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breemen, A J H; Vermij, P H M

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands the leaching of heavy metals from metal building and constructing materials results in serious contamination problems in the water system. The most common sources of these heavy metals in construction materials are copper waterworks and roofs, zinc roofs, gutters and rain pipes, zinced steel, stainless steel, and lead sealing material. In urban waters the surface water and sediment standards are often exceeded. Although building and construction materials are certainly not the only source of heavy metals, they are an important part of the problem. This article focuses on six instruments that are in use in the Netherlands to try to reduce impact on the surface waters. In addition to this, national as well as international, a reconsideration of the risks and surface water standards for several heavy metals is considered. A balanced use of instruments can be considered as the application of a best practice.

  2. A quantitative approach to the assessment of the environmental impact of building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.J. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Dept. of Building Engineering and Surveying, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The materials from which a building is constructed make a significant contribution to its overall impact on the environment. This impact is felt in a number of ways; locally, through the effects of activities such as quarrying; globally, as a result of carbon dioxide released by using energy used to manufacture the materials; and internally, in the effects of health of the occupants of the building. Some of these effects are easier to measure than others, and comparisons between the seriousness of the different effects are difficult to make. It therefore seems unreasonable to attempt to advise a single figure of merit for the overall environmental impact of a building: what is needed is a profile which gathers together a range of indicators, but allows them to remain separate. This article describes the development of such an environmental profile which can be used as a design aid, and illustrates its use with a case study of a typical British house. (Author)

  3. Influence of Building Material Solution of Structures to Effectiveness of Real Estate Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorová, Viera

    2015-11-01

    Real estate development is in its essence the development process characterized by a considerable dynamics. The purpose of the development process is the creation of buildings which can be either rented by future unknown users or sold in the real estate market. A first part of the paper is dedicated to the analysis of the parameters of buildings solutions considering the future operating costs in a phase of designing. Material solution of external structures is a main factor not only in determining the future operating costs but also in achieving the subsequent economic effectiveness of the real estate development. To determine the relationship between economic efficiency criteria and determine the optimal material variant of building constructions for the specific example is the aim of the second part of paper.

  4. HYDROPHOBIC PROTECTION OF BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS WHILE USING ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Kruchkov; N. N. Debelova; N. P. Gorlenko; I. I. Podshivalov; E. N. Zavyalova

    2010-01-01

    The paper proposes a hydrophobic protection technology of capillary-porous building materials and products obtained on their basis while using electrochemical methods. The technology includes stages of preliminary moisture removal and water-repellency treatment of product volume while applying modified solution of potassium methyl-siliconate.

  5. A preliminary intercomparison of gamma-ray spectroscopy on building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anagnostakis, M.J.; Bolzan, C.; De Felice, P.; Fazio, A.; Grisanti, G.; Risica, S.; Turtiainen, T.; van der Graaf, E.R.

    2004-01-01

    A preliminary intercomparison on gamma-ray spectrometry determination of natural radionuclides in building materials was carried out in 1999-2002. Samples measured were fly ash, sand and tuff. Laboratories used different experimental equipment and procedures. Corrections for blank, spectral interfer

  6. Quality improvement of granular secondary raw building materials by separation and cleansing techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xing, W.

    2004-01-01

    Contaminated granular wastes are potentially reusable because they have similar physical and chemical properties as primary raw building materials. From environmental aspects, the reuse must not result in polluting the soil, groundwater and surface water. Therefore the leaching values of inorganic c

  7. Radon-222 exhalation from Danish building materials: H + H Industri A/S results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    1999-01-01

    rate measurements for 10 samples of Danish building materials are reported. Samples include ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete,autoclaved aerated concrete, bricks, and gypsum board. The maximum mass-specific exhalation rate is about 20 m Bq h"-"1 kg "-"1. Under consideration...

  8. Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings: A Guidance Document. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Robert N.; Spooner, Charles M.

    Part 2 of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance manuals consists of more detailed information on asbestos identification and control methods. Available information on sprayed asbestos-containing materials in buildings is summarized. Guidelines are presented for the detection and monitoring, removal or encapsulation, and disposal of…

  9. Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings: A Guidance Document. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked with the states to develop a program for accurate information and guidance to deal with the problem of school buildings constructed with asbestos-containing materials. This is the first of two guidance manuals that are a major part of this program and are being mailed to all public school…

  10. Wood would - Mass timber as a sustainable substitute for traditional building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struiksma, A.F.; Smilde, J.A.; Van Houten, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual explains why mass timber is the sustainable substitute for conventional materials and how it can be implemented in the design. It is intended for architects who usually always build in steel and

  11. The development of the first set of Brazilian reference materials for the petroleum sector; O desenvolvimento dos primeiros materiais de referencia nacionais para o setor de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchini, Ricardo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Agrupamento de Materiais de Referencia

    2004-07-01

    The petroleum sector uses a number of standardized tests to characterize raw materials and products. The development of in-company programs for assurance of measurement quality, the increasing need to demonstrate proficiency by means of certification schemes or by widely accepted metrological practices, have been promoting a more intensive use of certified reference materials, in calibration as well as in validation of measurement methods and also in order to show the qualification of the laboratories. In this paper it is presented the preparation, performed by IPT's Reference Materials Group, of the first set of reference materials specially developed considering the needs of the petroleum community. Briefly, are presented the identification of the demands from the users, selection of matrices, homogeneity tests and stability studies, and the certification of the new reference materials, which are four diesel fuel oils with certified sulfur contents and one material with flash point certified by TAG and Pensky-Martens methods. It is presented a summary of the certification process, performed by means of a combined effort of several professionals that are now working at laboratories of research institutions, refineries and other industries, universities, fuel monitoring facilities and in National Petroleum Agency. (author)

  12. Microbes on building materials — Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols as common basis for molecular analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of microbial life in building materials is an emerging topic concerning biodeterioration of materials as well as health risks in houses and at working places. Biodegradation and potential health implications associated with microbial growth in our residues claim for more precise methods for quantification and identification. To date, cultivation experiments are commonly used to gain insight into the microbial diversity. Nowadays, molecular techniques for the identification of microorganisms provide efficient methods that can be applied in this field. The efficiency of DNA extraction is decisive in order to perform a reliable and reproducible quantification of the microorganisms by qPCR or to characterize the structure of the microbial community. In this study we tested thirteen DNA extraction methods and evaluated their efficiency for identifying (1) the quantity of DNA, (2) the quality and purity of DNA and (3) the ability of the DNA to be amplified in a PCR reaction using three universal primer sets for the ITS region of fungi as well as one primer pair targeting the 16S rRNA of bacteria with three typical building materials — common plaster, red brick and gypsum cardboard. DNA concentration measurements showed strong variations among the tested methods and materials. Measurement of the DNA yield showed up to three orders of magnitude variation from the same samples, whereas A260/A280 ratios often prognosticated biases in the PCR amplifications. Visualization of the crude DNA extracts and the comparison of DGGE fingerprints showed additional drawbacks of some methods. The FastDNA Spin kit for soil showed to be the best DNA extraction method and could provide positive results for all tests with the three building materials. Therefore, we suggest this method as a gold standard for quantification of indoor fungi and bacteria in building materials. -- Highlights: ► Up to thirteen extraction methods were evaluated with three building materials.

  13. Aspects regarding the use of the industrial wastes as raw materials for the manufacture of building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Popa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article are present the results of physical and chemical characterisation activities, of industrial wastes: ash and slag, drilling sludge, metallurgical slag. Also, were established the conditions in which these industrial waste types could be used as raw materials for manufacture some building materials. The ash can be assimilated with a lightweight aggregate similar to the natural sands, the oil-well drilling sludge presents an advanced similarity with the suspensions of fine particles of sand clays, the steel melting slag in electric furnace has the characteristics of a dense granular aggregate and the secondary treatment steel slag is characterized by the high content of calcium oxide.

  14. Development of new ceramic materials from the waste of serpentinite and red clay; Desenvolvimento de novos materiais ceramicos a partir de residuo de serpentinito e argila vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presotto, P., E-mail: petula.presotto@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Mymrine, V. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UFTPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop new ceramic materials using serpentine and glass waste and clay red. The raw materials were characterized through morphological, granulometric, mineralogical and chemical analysis. Six formulations have been developed based on the serpentine and red clay, which three of the six compositions have been adjusted with the addition of residual glass. The ceramic bodies were formed by uniaxial pressing and subjected to burn in an electric oven at temperatures of 1100 ° C, 1200 ° C, 1250 ° C and 1300 ° C. The ceramic samples obtained this way were characterized according to their physical properties (specific mass and linear retraction) and the mechanical (three points bending strength). The final properties varied according to the proportions of raw materials and firing temperature. In general, the different formulations fit the standards for traditional ceramics such as tiles and ceramic blocks. (author)

  15. Technological characteristics of compressed earth blocks for its use as a building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Villalba, Luz Stella; Camacho-Perez, Nancy; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Becerra-Becerra, Javier; Esmeralda Corredor-Pulido, Dery; Fort, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    We present here an innovative building technique, which uses ecological, inexpensive and environmentally friendly materials. These compressed earth blocks seem to be very good for building purposes and that is why we have characterized three types of compressed earth blocks (CEB, named by their color as yellow, grey and red) mineralogically by means of X ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscopy SEM (both blocks and raw materials), petrographically by polarizing optical light microscopy POLM, and SEM, and, mainly, petrophysically: their hydric, physical and physico-mechanical properties by means of determining their capillary water absorption, porosity (open or accessible to water, pore size distribution and micro/macroporosity), and densities, color and ultrasound velocity (together with anisotropy). The particularities of these analyzed materials show that some varieties are more durable than others, and that all of them can be used as building materials with some restrictions related to their appropriate placing in the structures and the exposure to water. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the GEOMATERIALES (S2009/MAT-1629) and CONSOLIDER-TCP (CSD2007-0058) programmes. Thanks also to the UCM (Complutense University of Madrid) Research Group "Alteración y conservación de los materiales pétreos del patrimonio" / Alteration and conservation of heritage stone materials (ref. 921349).

  16. Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

    1988-01-01

    During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

  17. Study of building materials impregnation processes by quasi-real-time neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, T. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Rant, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Apih, V. [National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Glumac, B. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1999-11-03

    Neutron radiography (NR) is a useful non-destructive method for determination of hydrogen content in various building and technical materials. Monitoring of transport processes of moisture and hydrogenous liquids in porous building materials is enabled by fast, quasi-real-time NR methods based on novel imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-NDs). Hydrogen content in the samples is determined by quantitative analysis of measured profiles of neutron attenuation in the samples. Detailed description of quantitative NR method is presented by the authors in another accompanying contribution at this conference. Deterioration of building materials is originated by different processes that all require presence of water therefore it is essential to limit or prevent the transport of water through the porous material. In this presentation, results of a study of clay brick impregnation by silicone based hydrophobic agents will be presented. Quantitative results obtained by NR imaging successfully explained the processes that occur during the impregnation of porous materials. Efficiency of hydrophobic treatment was quantitatively evaluated.

  18. Natural Radioactivity and 222Rn Exhalation Rate from Brazilian Phosphogypsum Building Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum is classified as a NORM residue and one of the main environmental concerns of its use is the radon exhalation from this material. The aim of this study is to determine the activity concentration of natural radionuclides, radium equivalent activities, external and internal hazard index and the radon exhalation rate from bricks and plates made of phosphogypsum. The activity concentration and radon exhalation rate were in accordance with literature values. The results of radium equivalent, external and internal hazard index showed that plates and bricks from Ultrafertil and Fosfertil presented values above the recommended limits; indicating the necessity of using more realistic models for the safe application of phosphogypsum as building materials. The results of this study can contribute for the establishment of guidelines by the Brazilian regulatory agency, for the safe use of phosphogypsum as building material. (author)

  19. Comparative Thermal Analysis of Different Cool Roof Materials for Minimizing Building Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The roof and walls in the urban areas contribute to major share in the absorption of solar radiations and also retard the outflow of the absorbed radiation from the building envelope, thereby increasing the global warming by inducing the heat island effect. The impact of using cool roof technologies on the thermal comfort of the office buildings has been estimated. Cool roofs reduce electricity consumption for maintaining the temperature of the air-conditioned buildings in the comfort level and also increase comfort in buildings merely not relying completely on cooling equipment. The cool roofs and cool pavements, however, can mitigate summer urban heat islands by improving indoor air quality and comfort. The thermal analysis of different materials has been carried out to analyze the impact of the rate of heat transfer on the building envelope and the results obtained indicate that different cool roof techniques are beneficial in maintaining the comfort level of the building which purely depends on the ambient temperature conditions.

  20. Effective density and mass attenuation coefficient for building material in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents values for density and mass attenuation coefficient of building materials commonly used in Brazil. Transmission measurements were performed to provide input information for simulations with MCNP4B code. The structure for the clay bricks was simulated as a mix of all material layers and an effective density determined. The mass attenuation coefficients were determined for the 50-3000 keV gamma-ray energy range. A comparison with results for similar materials found in the literature showed good agreement

  1. Effective density and mass attenuation coefficient for building material in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, I C P; Conti, C C; Lopes, R T

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents values for density and mass attenuation coefficient of building materials commonly used in Brazil. Transmission measurements were performed to provide input information for simulations with MCNP4B code. The structure for the clay bricks was simulated as a mix of all material layers and an effective density determined. The mass attenuation coefficients were determined for the 50-3,000 keV gamma-ray energy range. A comparison with results for similar materials found in the literature showed good agreement. PMID:16257357

  2. Characterization of historic mortars and earthen building materials in Abu Dhabi Emirate, UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Benjamin L.

    2012-07-01

    The Abu Dhabi Authority for Culture and Heritage (ADACH) is responsible for the conservation and management of historic buildings and archaeological sites in the Emirate. Laboratory analysis has been critical for understanding the composition of historic materials and establishing appropriate conservation treatments across a wide variety of building types, ranging from Iron Age earthen archaeological sites to late-Islamic stone buildings. Analysis was carried out on historic sites in Al Ain, Delma Island and Liwa Oasis using techniques such as micro-x-ray fluorescence (MXRF), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), polarized light microscopy (PLM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Testing was conducted through consultant laboratories and in collaboration with local universities. The initial aim of the analysis was to understand historic earthen materials and to confirm the suitability of locally sourced clays for the production of mud bricks and plasters. Another important goal was to characterize materials used in historic stone buildings in order to develop repair mortars, renders and grouts.

  3. Radiation dose contribution from coal-slag from the Ajka region used as structural building material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somali, J.; Kanyar, B.; Lendvai, Z.; Nemeth, C.; Bodnar, R. [Veszpremi Egyetem, Veszprem (Hungary). Radiokemia Tanszek

    1997-10-01

    A significant dose contribution on the population could be derived from coal slags used as material in buildings. Extremely high natural activities are measured in the coal slag from the region of Ajka, Hungary. The main conclusions based on the results of the monitoring of the gamma-dose rate and the radon concentration in the air in nearly 240 houses are as follows: (1) for individuals, such as children, spending a long time at home (19.2 h/day) the external annual dose is 1.7-4.5 mSv; (2) in the majority of houses with local slag the estimated annual average value of indoor-radon concentration was above 400 Bq/m{sup 3}, and in several cases there were buildings with values over 1200 Bq/m{sup 3}. In these cases the internal annual dose of the dwellers can be estimated between 6-20 mSv; (3) due to the elevated gamma-exposure and the radon concentration in the dwellings the total annual dose was estimated as 8-24 mSv, more than 5-10 times the world average value; and (4) some of the houses were built after the 1960s, when the use of slags from the region of Ajka as building material was already banned by the authorities. In addition to the regulations an effective radiological control should be introduced and a practice for testing the use of slag as building material.

  4. Characterization of cement-based ancient building materials in support of repository seal materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancient mortars and plasters collected from Greek and Cypriot structures dating to about 5500 BC have been investigated because of their remarkable durability. The characteristics and performance of these and other ancient cementitious materials have been considered in the light of providing information on longevity of concrete materials for sealing nuclear waste geological repositories. The matrices of these composite materials have been characterized and classified into four categories: (1) gypsum cements; (2) hydraulic hydrated lime and hydrated-lime cements; (3) hydraulic aluminous and ferruginous hydrated-lime cements (+- siliceous components); and (4) pozzolana/hydrated-lime cements. Most of the materials investigated, including linings of ore-washing basins and cisterns used to hold water, are in categories (2) and (3). The aggregates used included carbonates, sandstones, shales, schists, volcanic and pyroclastic rocks, and ore minerals, many of which represent host rock types of stratigraphic components of a salt repository. Numerous methods were used to characterize the materials chemically, mineralogically, and microstructurally and to elucidate aspects of both the technology that produced them and their response to the environmental exposure throughout their centuries of existence. Their remarkable properties are the result of a combination of chemical (mineralogical) and microstructural factors. Durability was found to be affected by matrix mineralogy, particle size and porosity, and aggregate type, grading, and proportioning, as well as method of placement and exposure conditions. Similar factors govern the potential for durability of modern portland cement-containing materials, which are candidates for repository sealing. 29 references, 29 figures, 6 tables

  5. Times New Materials Company Enhancing the Technical Innovation of Building Shock Absorption and Shock Insulation Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Tian

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the technical innovation and market promotion of building shock absorption and shock insulation products, to promote institute-enterprise cooperation and realize complementary advantage, on March 27, Zhuzhou Times New Materials Technology Co., Ltd. concluded Framework Agreement on the Joint R&D Strategic Cooperation of Building Shock Absorption and Shock Insulation Products with Yunnan Earthquake Engineering Institute in Kunming. Both parties will fully exert their technology and resource advantages, and develop and promote shock absorption and shock insulation products jointly in the form of strategic partners.

  6. CAPITAL SOCIAL, DEMOCRACIA E DESENVOLVIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Dal Ri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma revisão critica da literatura sobre a relação entre Capital Social, Democracia e o Desenvolvimento. É relevante refletirmos sobre estes três temas, pois não se consegue ver um distanciamento entre ambos. Todavia, como meio para promover o capital social, o desenvolvimento e a democracia, é necessária que haja uma melhoria do bem-estar social, devendo ser associada com liberdades econômicas e abertura de mercado de modo a viabilizar o crescimento econômico e a melhoria na qualidade de vida da população.

  7. Comparison of different facades for high-rise buildings in hot and cold climates in terms of material usage

    OpenAIRE

    Sief, Salih Ben-Nail Abu

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Use of “facade” in tall buildings is mainly with materials like glass and aluminum. Other suitable materials are also being used in construction but are not feasible in all climate conditions. Thus, in this study, I am going to present a detailed comparative analysis of glass and aluminum, estimation of their fixing methods, construction and composition of facade materials in architectures‟ aspect. In this era, tall buildings constructed with facade materials having renewable energ...

  8. Metabolic activity of moulds as a factor of building materials biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutarowska, Beata

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the effect of building materials on the growth and metabolic activity of moulds. In cultures of Aspergillus and Penicillium moulds grown on a model medium with the addition of building materials, the biomass of mycelium, its cellular components--glucan, chitin, ergosterol and the spectrum of enzymes and organic acids produced in the medium were investigated. It was found that on the medium with wallpaper moulds produced more biomass and extracellular enzymes, mainly glycolytic ones. On medium with mortar the growth of mycelium was impeded, production of biomass was 60% smaller, the quantity of chitin, glucan and ergosterol decreased 13-41%, and the activity of most enzymes was reduced; however the moulds intensively produced organic acids: malic, succinic and oxalic acid. The largest acid production activity was found in medium with addition of mortar; moulds produced the greatest variety of acids and in greater quantities than in the control medium. Metabolic activity of the moulds depends on the type of building material, and may lead to biodeterioration of these materials.

  9. Radon-222 exhalation from Danish building materials: H + H Industri A/S results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.E

    1999-08-01

    This report describes a closed-chamber method for laboratory measurements of the rate at which radon-222 degasses (exhales) from small building material samples. The chamber is 55 L in volume and the main sample geometry is a slab of dimensions 5x30x30 cm{sup 3} . Numerical modelling is used to assess (and partly remove) the bias of the method relative to an ideal measurement of the free exhalation rate. Experimental results obtained with the method are found to be in agreement with the results of an open-chamber method (which is subject to different sources of error). Results of radon-222 exhalation rate measurements for 10 samples of Danish building materials are reported. Samples include ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete, autoclaved aerated concrete, bricks, and gypsum board. The maximum mass-specific exhalation rate is about 20 mBq h{sup -1} kg{sup -1}. Under consideration of the specific applications of the investigated building materials, the contribution to the indoor radon-222 concentration in a single-family reference house is calculated. Numerical modelling is used to help extrapolate the laboratory measurements on small samples to full scale walls. Application of typical materials will increase the indoor concentration by less than 10 Bq m{sup -3}. (au) 6 tabs., 15 ills., 29 refs.

  10. Ozone deposition velocities, reaction probabilities and product yields for green building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamble, S. P.; Corsi, R. L.; Morrison, G. C.

    2011-12-01

    Indoor surfaces can passively remove ozone that enters buildings, reducing occupant exposure without an energy penalty. However, reactions between ozone and building surfaces can generate and release aerosols and irritating and carcinogenic gases. To identify desirable indoor surfaces the deposition velocity, reaction probability and carbonyl product yields of building materials considered green (listed, recycled, sustainable, etc.) were quantified. Nineteen separate floor, wall or ceiling materials were tested in a 10 L, flow-through laboratory reaction chamber. Inlet ozone concentrations were maintained between 150 and 200 ppb (generally much lower in chamber air), relative humidity at 50%, temperature at 25 °C and exposure occurred over 24 h. Deposition velocities ranged from 0.25 m h -1 for a linoleum style flooring up to 8.2 m h -1 for a clay based paint; reaction probabilities ranged from 8.8 × 10 -7 to 6.9 × 10 -5 respectively. For all materials, product yields of C 1 thru C 12 saturated n-aldehydes, plus acetone ranged from undetectable to greater than 0.70 The most promising material was a clay wall plaster which exhibited a high deposition velocity (5.0 m h -1) and a low product yield (

  11. Raman scattering or fluorescence emission? Raman spectroscopy study on lime-based building and conservation materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszowska, Zofia; Malek, Kamilla; Staniszewska-Slezak, Emilia; Niedzielska, Karina

    2016-12-01

    This work presents an in-depth study on Raman spectra excited with 1064 and 532nm lasers of lime binders employed in the past as building materials and revealed today as valuable conservation materials. We focus our interest on the bands of strong intensity, which are present in the spectra of all binders acquired with laser excitation at 1064nm, but absent in the corresponding spectra acquired with laser excitation at 532nm. We suggest, that the first group of spectra represents fluorescence phenomena of unknown origin and the second true Raman scattering. In our studies, we also include two other phases of lime cycle, i.e. calcium carbonate (a few samples of calcite of various origins) and calcium oxide (quicklime) to assess how structural and chemical transformations of lime phases affect the NIR-Raman spectral profile. Furthermore, we analyse a set of carbonated limewashes and lime binders derived from old plasters to give an insight into their spectral characteristics after excitation with the 1064nm laser line. NIR-Raman micro-mapping results are also presented to reveal the spatial distribution of building materials and fluorescent species in the cross-section of plaster samples taken from a 15th century chapel. Our study shows that the Raman analysis can help identify lime-based building and conservation materials, however, a caution is advised in the interpretation of the spectra acquired using 1064nm excitation. PMID:27314909

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS IN GOVERNING RECYCLED MATERIAL STYROFOAM FOR BUILDING HUMAN HABITAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartini Aboo Talib Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Styrofoam is extensively used in food packaging businesses throughout the world. Its light weight makes it a favorite food package for entrepreneurs in food businesses. However, unlike its content, the food, which decomposed easily after some time, Styrofoam remains un-decomposed due to its oil-based structure. This study discusses the prospects of re-utilization of Styrofoam as environmentally friendly recycled material. This study uses the data from an exploratory survey on the usage of Styrofoam for food packaging-conducted in the district of Bangi, Malaysia-to highlight the magnitude of Styrofoam-waste generated in these activities. The study shows that Styrofoam can be used in combination of cement and concrete to produce a light weight, energy efficient and strong building can be built. Since there are a lot of supplies of waste Styrofoam, this material can be re-used in as part of construction material. In addition the use of Styrofoam in construction could be an innovative way for constructing termite’s free buildings. This study shows that recycling Styrofoam can assist in building environmentally friendly and cost efficient human habitat. Styrofoam can be channeled for a good cause and ways of governing the recycled materials. As such, the industrial waste generated by Styrofoam can be turned into other uses, thus reducing its environmental problems.

  13. Degradation of building materials over a lifespan of 30-100 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following preliminary visits to four Magnox Nuclear Power Stations, a study was made of existing Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) reports on the condition of buildings at eight Power Stations. Sampling of building materials, non-destructive testing and inspections were carried out at Transfynydd, Oldbury and Dungeness ''A'' Magnox Power Stations, and the samples were subsequently laboratory tested. From the results of this work it can be concluded that little major deterioration is likely to occur in the reactor buildings at Transfynydd and Oldbury over the next 50 years and at Dungeness ''A'' for at least 25 years, assuming reasonable maintenance and the continuation of suitable internal temperatures and relative humidities. Because of the limitations on taking samples from, and tests on, the reactor biological shields and prestressed concrete vessel, no sensible forecast can be made of their potential life in the 75-100 year range

  14. Building services cabinets as teaching material in a degree in architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gómez, César; Zapata, Omayra; Zuazua, Amaia; Villanueva, Sonia; Olaizola, Paula

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this innovative educational project is to encourage students' interest in one of the most underrated fields of architecture: building services. With this material students interact with real elements and thereby understand the relationship between facilities and the building. A set of three small technical cabinets is planned. They allow for comfortable use and movement inside the building, need minimum maintenance and are easily stored. The result is an alternative concept of a mobile laboratory called a 'technical cabinet', made up of three mobile units for fire safety, electricity and the heating/cooling system. The design, content and learning systems of the cabinets confirmed the validity of the initial concept during the first year of use. A protocol has also been developed for each of the technical cabinets so that the teaching experience may be of use in other Schools of Architecture.

  15. External exposure doses due to gamma emitting natural radionuclides in some Egyptian building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moharram, B.M. [Engineering Physics and Mathematics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Suliman, M.N. [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Zahran, N.F. [Center Laboratory for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); Shennawy, S.E. [Engineering Physics and Mathematics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); El Sayed, A.R., E-mail: aymanrabie2002@yahoo.co.in [Engineering Physics and Mathematics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    Using of building materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides as {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K and their progeny results in an external exposures of the housing of such buildings. In the present study, indoor dose rates for typical Egyptian rooms are calculated using the analytical method and activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in some building materials. Uniform chemical composition of the walls, floor and ceiling as well as uniform mass concentrations of the radionuclides in walls, floor and ceiling assumed. Different room models are assumed to discuss variation of indoor dose rates according to variation in room construction. Activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K content in eight samples representative Clay soil and different building materials used in most recent Egyptian building were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The specific activity for {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, from the selected samples, were in the range 14.15-60.64, 2.75-84.66 and 7.35-554.4 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The average indoor absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 0.005 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} to 0.071 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} and the corresponding population-weighted annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation varies from 0.025 to 0.345 mSv. An outdoor dose rate for typical building samples in addition to some radiological hazards has been introduced for comparison. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K content in different building materials measured using HR-ICPMS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical simulation technique has been employed to room models to evaluate indoor specific absorbed dose rates in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different room models are assumed to discuss variation of indoor dose rates according to variation in room construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparing the results

  16. Infrared Emissivity Measurements of Building and Civil Engineering Materials: A New Device for Measuring Emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Marchetti, Mario; Ibos, Laurent; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves

    2014-10-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings and civil engineering structures is useful for two specific approaches. First, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures by infrared thermography requires emissivity values in the spectral bandwidth of the camera used for measurements, in order to obtain accurate surface temperatures; for instance, emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors (such as micro-bolometer arrays). Second, setting up accurate thermal balances by numerical modeling requires the total emissivity value for a large wavelength domain; this is, for instance, the case for computing the road surface temperature to predict ice occurrence. Furthermore, periodical surveys of emissivity variations due to aging or soiling of surfaces could be useful in many situations such as thermal mapping of roads or building insulation diagnosis. The use of portable emissivity measurement devices is required for that purpose. A device using an indirect measurement method was previously developed in our lab; the method uses measurement of the reflectivity from a modulated IR source and requires calibration with a highly reflective surface. However, that device uses a low-frequency, thermal modulation well adapted to laboratory measurements but unfit for fast and in situ measurements. Therefore, a new, portable system which retains the principle of an indirect measurement but uses a faster-frequency, mechanical modulation more appropriate to outdoor measurements was developed. Both devices allow measurements in the broad m to m) and narrow m to m) bands. Experiments were performed on a large number of materials commonly used in buildings and civil engineering structures. The final objective of this work is to build a database of emissivity of these materials. A comparison of laboratory and on-site measurements of emissivity values obtained in both spectral bands will be

  17. Influence of temperature on formaldehyde emission parameters of dry building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinping; Luo, Xiaoxi; Wang, Xinke; Qian, Ke; Zhao, Rongyi

    The diffusion coefficient, D, partition coefficient, K, and the initial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in dry building materials, are the three key parameters used to predict the VOC emissions. D and K may be strongly affected by temperature. We have developed a new and simple method, the C-history method, to measure the diffusion coefficient, D and the partition coefficient, K of formaldehyde in dry building materials at temperatures of 18, 30, 40 and 50 °C. The measured variations of the diffusion coefficients and the partition coefficients with temperature for particle board, vinyl floor, medium- and high-density board are presented. A formula relating the partition coefficient and related factors is obtained through analysis. This formula can predict the partition coefficient in principle and provide an insight for fitting experimental data, and it agrees well with the experimental results.

  18. Modelling local hygrothermal interaction between airflow and porous materials for building applications

    OpenAIRE

    Steeman, Hendrik-Jan

    2009-01-01

    Moisture related damage in buildings is a phenomenon which is familiar to most people. Most of the time it is spontaneously associated with damage due to liquid moisture transport such as plumbing leaks, rising moisture in walls, . . . Yet some materials and objects are so sensitive to moisture that they can already be damaged by water vapour transport through the air. This is especially true for culturally or historically valuable artefacts: even a small amount of damage (like small cracks, ...

  19. Beyond the red queen syndrome: CRM technology and building material suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Love, PED; Edwards, DJ; Standing, C; Z Irani

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Many businesses operating in the construction and engineering sector have been trying to respond to the demands being imposed on them by utilising information technology applications such as CRM and ERP, but immediate benefits and improvements in business performance have not been forthcoming. This paper aims to provide building material suppliers with the underlying knowledge to improve their business performance and customer relationships. Design/methodology/approach – A struc...

  20. Building Materials Realized with Ultra-Fine Fly Ash and Silica Fume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Badea

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The author’s experimental researches presented in this paper were focused on the building materials obtained by using ultra-fine fly ash and silica fume (like heavy mortars or compacted lightweight concretes. From experimental determinations there have been studied the following characteristics: the water absorption in function of mass, apparent density, tensile and compression strength (at 7 and 28 days, technical efficiency at 28 days and shrinkage.

  1. Nanotechnology : advantages and drawbacks in the field of construction and building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Jalali, Said

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology seems to hold the key that allows construction and building materials to replicate the features of natural systems improved until perfection during millions of years. This paper reviews current knowledge about nanotechnology and nanomaterials used by the construction industry. It covers the nanoscale analysis of Portland cement hydration products, the use of nanoparticles to increase the strength and durability of cimentitious composites, the photocatalytic capacity of nanomate...

  2. The true value of materials:BRIDGE (Building Research and Innovation Deals for the Green Economy)

    OpenAIRE

    Farrer, Joan; Watt, Carolyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the value of materials, lifecycle and applications was central to the European Union INTERREG IV project BRIDGE (Building Research and Innovation Deals for the Green Economy) 2011–2014. Here, the complex philosophies of sustainability (protection of people, profit and planet) underpinned innovation, knowledge transfer, data visualization and design thinking, to develop green entrepreneurs, and market differentiation in Southern England and Northern France Channel regions. The model ...

  3. Investigation of photon attenuation coefficient of some building materials used in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, B.; Altinsoy, N.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, some building materials regularly used in Turkey, such as concrete, gas concrete, pumice and brick have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient at different gamma-ray energies. Measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry containing NaI(Tl) detector. Narrow beam gamma-ray transmission geometry was used for the attenuation measurements. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation of XCOM code.

  4. Aerophytic Cyanobacteria as a Factor in the Biodegradation of Technical Materials on External Building Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piontek Marlena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study conducted at the Institute of Environmental Engineering, University of Zielona Góra showed the presence of 4 species of aerophytic cyanobacteria in the biological material sampled from the external building wall with visible biocorrosion: Gloeocapsa montana Kützing, Phormidium calcareum Kützing, Aphanothece saxicola Nägeli, Gloeothece caldariorum (P. Richter Hollerbach. High levels of moisture were detected in the places of biofilm occurrence.

  5. Aerophytic Cyanobacteria as a Factor in the Biodegradation of Technical Materials on External Building Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, Marlena; Lechów, Hanna

    2014-12-01

    A study conducted at the Institute of Environmental Engineering, University of Zielona Góra showed the presence of 4 species of aerophytic cyanobacteria in the biological material sampled from the external building wall with visible biocorrosion: Gloeocapsa montana Kützing, Phormidium calcareum Kützing, Aphanothece saxicola Nägeli, Gloeothece caldariorum (P. Richter) Hollerbach. High levels of moisture were detected in the places of biofilm occurrence.

  6. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Brimblecombe; Grossi, Carlota M.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environm...

  7. Modeling Diffusion-Controlled Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Building Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Steven Scott

    2001-01-01

    The adverse effects of contaminated outdoor air have been recognized and subject to control for many years. More recently environmental engineers and health professionals have become cognizant of the hazards associated with contaminated indoor air. It is now understood that contaminated indoor air negatively impacts human health, worker productivity, and physical property. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a common class of indoor air pollutants. Building materials such as treated w...

  8. Fundamental mass transfer modeling of emission of volatile organic compounds from building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodalal, Awad Saad

    In this study, a mass transfer theory based model is presented for characterizing the VOC emissions from building materials. A 3-D diffusion model is developed to describe the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from individual sources. Then the formulation is extended to include the emissions from composite sources (system comprising an assemblage of individual sources). The key parameters for the model (The diffusion coefficient of the VOC in the source material D, and the equilibrium partition coefficient k e) were determined independently (model parameters are determined without the use of chamber emission data). This procedure eliminated to a large extent the need for emission testing using environmental chambers, which is costly, time consuming, and may be subject to confounding sink effects. An experimental method is developed and implemented to measure directly the internal diffusion (D) and partition coefficients ( ke). The use of the method is illustrated for three types of VOC's: (i) Aliphatic Hydrocarbons, (ii) Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ( iii) Aldehydes, through typical dry building materials (carpet, plywood, particleboard, vinyl floor tile, gypsum board, sub-floor tile and OSB). Then correlations for predicting D and ke based solely on commonly available properties such as molecular weight and vapour pressure were proposed for each product and type of VOC. These correlations can be used to estimate the D and ke when direct measurement data are not available, and thus facilitate the prediction of VOC emissions from the building materials using mass transfer theory. The VOC emissions from a sub-floor material (made of the recycled automobile tires), and a particleboard are measured and predicted. Finally, a mathematical model to predict the diffusion coefficient through complex sources (floor adhesive) as a function of time was developed. Then this model (for diffusion coefficient in complex sources) was used to predict the emission rate from

  9. Natural radioactivity level and radiological hazard assessment of commonly used building material in Xining, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radioactivity of the commonly used building materials in Xining of China was measured using gamma-ray spectrometer system comprising a NaI(Tl) detector. Radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the studied samples range from 11.6 to 120.6, 10.2 to 107.1 and 228.0 to 1,036.2 Bq kg-1, respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and the mean value for soil. Radium equivalent activity, indoor air absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate as well as external and internal hazard indices were calculated to assess radiological hazards for people living in dwelling made of the building materials. The radiological hazard assessment results show that the studied building materials, except for some aerated concrete block samples, are safe for use in construction of dwellings in the study area and do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard. (author)

  10. CASTOR OIL-BASED BUILDING MATERIALS REINFORCED WITH FLY ASH, CLAY, EXPANDED PERLITE AND PUMICE POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Balo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a study conducted to evaluate the influence of class C fly ash (FA, clay (C, expanded perlite (EP, pumice powder (PP and epoxidized castor oil (ECO on the density, thermal conductivity, compressive strength, tensile strength, abrasion loss and water absorption of building material. Density, thermal conductivity, compressive strength and tensile strength decreased with the increase of ECO and FA as replacement for building material. These properties also decreased with increasing process temperature. The addition of clay in the building material had an increasing effect on these properties. The addition of clay decreased abrasion loss and water absorption as a function of replacement percent. The minimum thermal conductivity and maximum water absorption observed for the sample made with minimum clay and maximum FA-ECO ratios processed at the highest process temperature. The maximum compression-tensile strengths and minimum abrasion loss observed for the sample with maximum clay and minimum FA-ECO ratios processed at the lowest process temperature.

  11. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations and associated radiological hazard indexes in building materials used in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nabil M; Mansour, N A; Fayez-Hassan, M

    2013-12-01

    Radionuclide concentrations of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in different types of building materials used in Egypt were measured using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The results showed relatively moderate radionuclide concentrations for all samples except granite, which showed extremely high concentrations of 78.75 ± 2.36, 2.82 ± 0.11 and 2.37 ± 0.07 kBq kg⁻¹ for ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K, respectively. The radiological hazard indexes of radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex) and internal hazard index (Hin), due to the presence of those radionuclides in the investigated building materials, were calculated. The released radon from the selected samples was measured using the AlphaGUARD radon monitor in order to use its value to calculate the radon emanation coefficient and the radon exhalation rate. The alpha equivalent dose (dose from indoor radon generated from building materials) was calculated using the measured values of the radium concentration and the radon emanation coefficient. PMID:23681840

  12. Radioactivity in Soil and Building Materials and Gamma Radiation Doses Committed to Alexandria Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural radionuclides (238 U, 232Th, and40 K) contents of soil samples at various locations in Alexandria, building materials, commonly used in Alexandria and road construction materials have been determined by low background spectroscopy using HPGeD of coaxial type. From the measured radionuclide contents, estimation have been made of the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation in indoor and outdoor air. Finally, calculations have been carried out of the annual effective dose equivalent for the Alexandria population. The estimated value is 0.56 m Sv from indoor and 0.06 m Sv from outdoor

  13. The Future Resources for Eco-building Materials: II.Fly Ash and Coal Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XU Delong

    2009-01-01

    To use fly ash and coal waste effectively,the current technologies for reprocessing and recycling these wastes into eco-building materials were reviewed,such as utilizing fly ash as the component of fly ash cement and low heat cement after the processes of separation,removal of carbon remains and fine comminution,calcining coal waste into kaolin and meta-kaolin with suspension technology,and preparing clinkerless alkali-activated geopolymer materials with fly ash and meta-kaolin.

  14. Preparation and characterization of phase change material for thermal energy storage in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Tommy Y.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the developing of novel form-stable composite phase change material (PCM) by incorporation of paraffin into lightweight aggregate through vacuum impregnation. The macro-encapsulated Paraffin-lightweight aggregate is a chemical compatible, thermal stable and thermal reliable PCM material for thermal energy storage applications in buildings. The 28 days compressive strength of NWAC using PCM-LWA is 33 - 53 MPa, which has an opportunity for structural purpose. Scanning electronic microscopic images indicated the paraffin can be held inside the porous structure of the aggregate. Thermal performance test showed that the cement paste panel with composite PCM can reduce the indoor temperature.

  15. Design and building of a new experimental setup for testing hydrogen storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreasen, Anders

    2005-09-01

    For hydrogen to become the future energy carrier a suitable way of storing hydrogen is needed, especially if hydrogen is to be used in mobile applications such as cars. To test potential hydrogen storage materials with respect to capacity, kinetics and thermodynamics the Materials Research Department has a high pressure balance. However, the drawback of this equipment is, that in order to load samples, exposure towards air is inevitable. This has prompted the design and building of a new experimental setup with a detachable reactor allowing samples to be loaded under protective atmosphere. The purpose of this report is to serve as documentation of the new setup. (au)

  16. RNA as a stable polymer to build controllable and defined nanostructures for material and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Lee, Taek; Dziubla, Thomas; Pi, Fengmei; Guo, Sijin; Xu, Jing; Li, Chan; Haque, Farzin; Liang, Xing-Jie; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-01-01

    Summary The value of polymers is manifested in their vital use as building blocks in material and life sciences. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polynucleic acid, but its polymeric nature in materials and technological applications is often overlooked due to an impression that RNA is seemingly unstable. Recent findings that certain modifications can make RNA resistant to RNase degradation while retaining its authentic folding property and biological function, and the discovery of ultra-thermostable RNA motifs have adequately addressed the concerns of RNA unstability. RNA can serve as a unique polymeric material to build varieties of nanostructures including nanoparticles, polygons, arrays, bundles, membrane, and microsponges that have potential applications in biomedical and material sciences. Since 2005, more than a thousand publications on RNA nanostructures have been published in diverse fields, indicating a remarkable increase of interest in the emerging field of RNA nanotechnology. In this review, we aim to: delineate the physical and chemical properties of polymers that can be applied to RNA; introduce the unique properties of RNA as a polymer; review the current methods for the construction of RNA nanostructures; describe its applications in material, biomedical and computer sciences; and, discuss the challenges and future prospects in this field. PMID:26770259

  17. Investigations of mass attenuation coefficients and exposure buildup factors of some low-Z building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Low cost materials show better shielding effectiveness than concrete for E > 1 MeV. ► Correlation between Zeff and EBF for shielding effectiveness. ► Buildup factors are necessary to study shielding properties of materials. - Abstract: To check the gamma ray shielding properties of selected low-Z building materials such as Soil-I, Soil-II, Dolomite, Gypsum, Igneous Rock and Lime Stone, some parameters of dosimetric interest have been investigated in the energy range 0.015–15 MeV. The photon interactions with the samples have been discussed mainly in terms of mass attenuation coefficient, equivalent atomic number and exposure buildup factor. From the present investigations, it has been concluded that the values of exposure buildup factors are very large in the medium energy region and Soil-I acts as best gamma ray shielding material among the selected samples.

  18. Investigation of natural radioactivity concentration in building materials and the impact to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Human health is burdened by the everyday exposure in natural radioactivity caused by materials used for the construction and decoration of their houses. This study focus on the determination of the natural radioactivity concentration of various building materials used for interior and exterior constructions located in Greece. Natural radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and K-40) concentration in specially prepared samples of these materials is measured utilizing the direct gamma-counting method. These values are presented as specific activities (Bq Kg-1) for each radionuclide in every constructing material while the overall results are tabulated, analyzed and compared with similar data from other studies. Additionally, the radiobiological impact to humans exposed to this specific radiation is investigated by estimating the probable radiation dose uptake (in mSv per year) and comparing it with the maximum permissible absorbed dose to humans as given by the world standards. (authors)

  19. The Use Potential of Traditional Building Materials for the Realization of Structures by Modern Methods of Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spišáková, Marcela; Mačková, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    The sustainable building has taken off in recent years with many investors looking for new and different methods of construction. The traditional building materials can be made out of natural materials, while others can help to lower energy costs of the occupant once built. Regardless of what the goal of the investor is, traditional building materials and their use is on the rise. The submitted paper provides an overview of natural building materials and possible modern building systems using these construction materials. Based on the questionnaire survey is defined the use potential of traditional building materials for the realization of the construction by methods of modern constructions and then are determined the drivers and barriers of traditional materials through using modern methods of construction. Considering the analysis of the achieved results, we can identify the gaps in the construction market in Slovakia and also to assess the perception of potential investors in the field of traditional building materials use, which is the purpose of submitted paper.

  20. Comparative study of mechanical properties of direct core build-up materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The strength greatly influences the selection of core material because core must withstand forces due to mastication and para-function for many years. This study was conducted to evaluate certain mechanical properties of commonly used materials for direct core build-up, including visible light cured composite, polyacid modified composite, resin modified glass ionomer, high copper amalgam, and silver cermet cement. Materials and Methods: All the materials were manipulated according to the manufacturer′s recommendations and standard test specimens were prepared. A universal testing machine at different cross-head speed was used to determine all the four mechanical properties. Mean compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, flexural strength, and elastic modulus with standard deviations were calculated. Multiple comparisons of the materials were also done. Results: Considerable differences in compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and flexural strength were observed. Visible light cured composite showed relatively high compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and flexural strength compared with the other tested materials. Amalgam showed the highest value for elastic modulus. Silver cermet showed less value for all the properties except for elastic modulus. Conclusions: Strength is one of the most important criteria for selection of a core material. Stronger materials better resist deformation and fracture provide more equitable stress distribution, greater stability, and greater probability of clinical success.

  1. Energy Saving Potentials of Phase Change Materials Applied to Lightweight Building Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Bok Seong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs have been considered as an innovative technology that can reduce the peak loads and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC energy consumption in buildings. Basically they are substances capable of storing or releasing thermal energy as latent heat. Because the amount of latent heat absorbed or released is much larger than the sensible heat, the application of PCMs in buildings has significant potential to reduce energy consumption. However, because each PCM has its own phase change temperature, which is the temperature at which latent heat is absorbed or released, it is important to use an appropriate PCM for the purpose of building envelope design. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the energy saving potentials in buildings when various PCMs with different phase change temperatures are applied to a lightweight building envelope by analyzing the thermal load characteristics. As results, the annual heating load increased at every phase change temperature, but the peak heating load decreased by 3.19% with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C, and the lowest indoor temperature increased by 0.86 °C with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C. The annual cooling load decreased by 1.05% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak cooling load decreased by 1.30% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.50 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C. When the night ventilation was applied to the building HVAC system for better passive cooling performance, the annual cooling load decreased by 9.28% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak load decreased by 11.33% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.85 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C.

  2. Build-up material requirements in clinical dosimetry during total body irradiation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butson, Martin; Pope, Dane; Haque, Mamoon; Chen, Tom; Song, Guangli; Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy/6 fraction bi-daily technique using 6MV X-rays at a large extended source to surface distance (SSD). This work investigates and quantifies the dose build-up characteristics and thus the requirements for bolus used for in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. Percentage dose build-up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSDs using ionization chambers and Gafchromic film. Open field measurements at different field sizes and with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point were made in an effort to determine the required bolus/build-up material required for accurate determination of applied dose. Percentage surface dose values measured for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20% up to 65.5% for fields 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm, respectively. With the introduction of 1 cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments, the surface dose values increased up to 83-90% (93-97% at 1 mm depth), depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 5 mm water equivalent bolus/scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 film for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Results also show that a small but measurable decrease in measured dose occurred with 5 mm water equivalent thick bolus material of areas '3 cm(2). As such, we recommend that 3 cm × 3 cm × 5 mm bolus build-up is the smallest size that should be placed over EBT3 Gafchromic film when used for accurate in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications.

  3. Build-up material requirements in clinical dosimetry during total body irradiation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butson, Martin; Pope, Dane; Haque, Mamoon; Chen, Tom; Song, Guangli; Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy/6 fraction bi-daily technique using 6MV X-rays at a large extended source to surface distance (SSD). This work investigates and quantifies the dose build-up characteristics and thus the requirements for bolus used for in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. Percentage dose build-up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSDs using ionization chambers and Gafchromic film. Open field measurements at different field sizes and with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point were made in an effort to determine the required bolus/build-up material required for accurate determination of applied dose. Percentage surface dose values measured for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20% up to 65.5% for fields 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm, respectively. With the introduction of 1 cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments, the surface dose values increased up to 83-90% (93-97% at 1 mm depth), depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 5 mm water equivalent bolus/scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 film for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Results also show that a small but measurable decrease in measured dose occurred with 5 mm water equivalent thick bolus material of areas '3 cm(2). As such, we recommend that 3 cm × 3 cm × 5 mm bolus build-up is the smallest size that should be placed over EBT3 Gafchromic film when used for accurate in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. PMID:27217628

  4. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from building materials and consumer products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Pellizzari, Edo; Leaderer, Brian; Zelon, Harvey; Sheldon, Linda

    EPA's TEAM Study of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air and drinking water of 650 residents of seven U.S. cities resulted in the identification of a number of possible sources encountered in peoples' normal daily activities and in their homes. A follow-up EPA study of publicaccess buildings implicated other potential sources of exposure. To learn more about these potential sources, 15 building materials and common consumer products were analyzed using a headspace technique to detect organic emissions and to compare relative amounts. About 10-100 organic compounds were detected offgassing from each material. Four mixtures of materials were then chosen for detailed study: paint on sheetrock; carpet and carpet glue; wallpaper and adhesives; cleansers and a spray pesticide. The materials were applied as normally used, allowed to age 1 week (except for the cleansers and pesticides, which were used normally during the monitoring period), and placed in an environmentally controlled chamber. Organic vapors were collected on Tenax-GC over a 4-h period and analyzed by GC-MS techniques. Emission rates and chamber concentrations were calculated for 17 target chemicals chosen for their toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic properties. Thirteen of the 17 chemicals were emitted by one or more of the materials. Elevated concentrations of chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, n-decane, n-undecane, p-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane and styrene were produced by the four mixtures of materials tested. For some chemicals, these amounts were sufficient to account for a significant fraction of the elevated concentrations observed in previous indoor air studies. We conclude that common materials found in nearly every home and place of business may cause elevated exposures to toxic chemicals.

  5. Natural activities of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, N. [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1999-05-01

    Seven kinds of building materials were analysed for {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K using a direct {gamma}-counting method. The activity concentrations measured for {sup 238}U (30-448 Bq kg{sup -1}) and {sup 40}K (328-7541 Bq kg{sup -1}) were greater than the world average activity for soil (25 and 370 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively) for all building materials analysed, while the activity concentrations of {sup 232}Th were found to exceed the average of 25 Bq kg{sup -1} (soil) for red-clay brick (51 Bq kg{sup -1}) and ceiling asbestos sheet materials (162 Bq kg{sup -1}). The calculated Ra equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}) for all materials are higher than the world average value for soil (89 Bq kg{sup -1}). For red-clay brick and ceiling asbestos, the Ra{sub eq} values are found to exceed the limit of 370 Bq kg{sup -1}, equivalent to a {gamma}-dose of 1.5 mSv yr{sup -1}. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Review of the use of phase change materials (PCMs in buildings with reinforced concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pons, O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials are capable of storing and releasing energy in the form of heat in determined temperature ranges, so to increase a building’s thermal inertia, stabilize its indoor temperatures and reduce its energetic demand. Therefore, if we used these materials we could have more energetically efficient buildings. Nevertheless, are these materials most appropriate to be used in buildings? Could the incorporation of phase change materials in buildings with concrete structures be generalized? This article aims to carry out a review of these phase change materials from construction professionals’ points of view, study their applications for buildings with reinforced concrete structures and the key points for these applications, draw conclusions and provide recommendations useful for all professionals within the sector who are considering the application of these materials.Los materiales de cambio de fase son capaces de almacenar y liberar energía en forma de calor en un determinando rango de temperaturas, y así aumentar la inercia térmica de un edificio, estabilizar las temperaturas en el interior y reducir la demanda energética. En consecuencia, si utilizáramos estos materiales podríamos tener un parque de edificios más eficientes energéticamente. No obstante, ¿estos materiales son apropiados para usarse en edificios? ¿Se podría generalizar la incorporación de materiales de cambio de fase en edificios con estructuras de hormigón? Este artículo tiene como objetivos hacer una revisión del estado del arte de estos materiales de cambio de fase desde el punto de vista de los profesionales de la construcción, estudiar las aplicaciones en edificios con estructuras de hormigón armado y los puntos clave para estas aplicaciones, extraer conclusiones y recomendaciones útiles para los profesionales del sector que se planteen la utilización de estos materiales.

  7. Amplitude-sensitive modulation thermography to measure moisture in building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Walter; Buescher, Konstantin A.; Wiggenhauser, Herbert

    1998-03-01

    There have been reports about moisture detection in building walls by reflective IR-thermography. Typically, only limited results could be obtained because of the emission coefficient variations, leaking radiation or inhomogeneous illumination of the object. In addition, the quantitative relation between remission spectra and the moisture has often been unclear. Reflectometry uses constant excitation illumination which is recorded by the IR camera. With the use of the 'lock-in-technology' a low frequency modulated signal of an IR radiation source is coupled with the thermo camera and a frequency and phase sensitive signal from the thermal images can be derived. The advantage is, that emission coefficient dependencies are eliminated and that leaking radiation does not have any influence on the measured signal. The selective water measurement is possible, because there is an interference filter mounted in front of the radiator which has its transmission maximum at the wavelength of an absorption band of water. The area investigated is therefore illuminated under well defined circumstances and quantitative moisture measurement on the surface of building materials becomes a possibility. The illumination modulation is done with a sine wave to facilitate the calculation of the temporal intensity behavior of the amplitude signal. Subsequently, the amplitude image is used to determine the distribution and the level of moisture quantitatively. Point measurements in the laboratory were carried out on several building materials with changing moisture levels. It could be shown that this method successfully eliminates disturbing contributions to the measured signal like surface effects or leaking radiation.

  8. Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil and Building Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Charley [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kamboj, Sunita [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Cheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This handbook is an update of the 1993 version of the Data Collection Handbook and the Radionuclide Transfer Factors Report to support modeling the impact of radioactive material in soil. Many new parameters have been added to the RESRAD Family of Codes, and new measurement methodologies are available. A detailed review of available parameter databases was conducted in preparation of this new handbook. This handbook is a companion document to the user manuals when using the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It can also be used for RESRAD-BUILD code because some of the building-related parameters are included in this handbook. The RESRAD (onsite) has been developed for implementing U.S. Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), crops and livestock, human intake, source characteristic, and building characteristic parameters are used in the RESRAD (onsite) code. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code and can also model the transport of radionuclides to locations outside the footprint of the primary contamination. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, and measurement methodologies. It also provides references for sources of additional information. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD Family of Codes, the discussions and values are valid for use of other pathway analysis models and codes.

  9. Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil and Building Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook is an update of the 1993 version of the Data Collection Handbook and the Radionuclide Transfer Factors Report to support modeling the impact of radioactive material in soil. Many new parameters have been added to the RESRAD Family of Codes, and new measurement methodologies are available. A detailed review of available parameter databases was conducted in preparation of this new handbook. This handbook is a companion document to the user manuals when using the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It can also be used for RESRAD-BUILD code because some of the building-related parameters are included in this handbook. The RESRAD (onsite) has been developed for implementing U.S. Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), crops and livestock, human intake, source characteristic, and building characteristic parameters are used in the RESRAD (onsite) code. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code and can also model the transport of radionuclides to locations outside the footprint of the primary contamination. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, and measurement methodologies. It also provides references for sources of additional information. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD Family of Codes, the discussions and values are valid for use of other pathway analysis models and codes.

  10. Green Sharing: The Proposed Criteria in Green Building Standards to Promote the Usage of Natural Handicrafts in Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasae-In Aracha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has been a great challenge to the building and construction industry for decades. There have been many initiatives and attempts to create sustainability for the industry through the concept of the Green Building certificate in order to reduce the impact to environment and society while promoting better living conditions of the people involved in the project. This paper aims to examine all three aspects of sustainability; economy, environment and society, in the building and construction industry by proposing new criteria for the green building certificate. This will create opportunities for the community based handicraft building products to be specified and purchased to be used in the modern building and construction industry and share the economic value to the community.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF RHEOLOGY OF ROAD-BUILDING MATERIALS FOR PERFECTION OF THEIR COMPACTION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vl. P. Podolskу

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. The main problems of improving the quality and effectiveness of compaction of soil subgrade and road asphalt mixtures are discussed. Technology of road-building materials compaction can be improved by developing and using the rheological approach in the describing and studying changes in physical and mechanical parameters of materials, when the rheological properties of compacted material is closely connected to the nature of a force action applied to it.Results. The principles of designing rheological models of soil subgrade and road asphalt mixtures are formulated, based on which a model is suggested of the creep process of road construction materials using the theory of hereditary creep of elastic-visco-plastic materials. The choice of exponential and power influence functions is explained, the application of which will improve the accuracy of the physical and mechanical properties of compacted materials. Conclusions. Development of rheology road soils and asphalt mixtures reveals significant new laws in the development of deformation of compacted layers of road construction materials in the way of improving the compaction technology.

  12. Interim recommendations concerning the risks to the Dutch population resulting from the use of radioactive wastes in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report, drawn up at the request of the former Minister of Public Health and Environmental Affairs, discusses the potential radiological consequences for the population of the Netherlands of using waste materials as building materials in housing construction. In his request the Minister points to the growing need to use various waste products as building materials. The highest increase of the effective dose equivalent for the foreseeable use of waste products in building construction implies that the annual exposure, averaged over the entire population, could eventually be increased by a maximum of 0.05 mSv per caput. (Auth.)

  13. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique...... and that the moisture storage characteristic is process dependent with varying significance for the numerical simulation. On the basis of different building materials, a comprehensive instantaneous profile measurement study has been accomplished. Profiles of water content and relative humidity were obtained during...... a series of adsorption and desorption processes. The data provides clear evidence that the water content – water potential relationship is not only dependent on the process history, but also on the process dynamics. The higher moisture potential gradients were induced, the larger was the deviation between...

  14. Characterization of magnetic material in the mound-building termite Macrotermes gilvus in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esa, Mohammad Faris Mohammad; Rahim, Faszly; Hassan, Ibrahim Haji; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic material such as magnetite are known as particles that respond to external magnetic field with their ferromagnetic properties as they are believed contribute to in responding to the geomagnetic field. These particles are used by terrestrial animals such as termites for navigation and orientation. Since our earth react as giant magnetic bar, the magnitude of this magnetic field present by intensity and direction (inclination and direction). The magnetic properties and presence of magnetite in termites Macrotermes gilvus, common mound-building termite were tested. M. gilvus termites was tested with a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer VSM to determine the magnetic properties of specimen. The crushed body sample was characterized with X-Ray Diffraction XRD to show the existent of magnetic material (magnetite) in the specimens. Results from VSM indicate that M. gilvus has diamagnetism properties. The characterization by XRD shows the existent of magnetic material in our specimen in low concentration.

  15. Monitoring of Water Content in Building Materials Using a Wireless Passive Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Stojanović

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an innovative design of a wireless, passive LC sensor and its application for monitoring of water content in building materials. The sensor was embedded in test material samples so that the internal water content of the samples could be measured with an antenna by tracking the changes in the sensor’s resonant frequency. Since the dielectric constant of water was much higher compared with that of the test samples, the presence of water in the samples increased the capacitance of the LC circuit, thus decreasing the sensor’s resonant frequency. The sensor is made up of a printed circuit board in one metal layer and water content has been determined for clay brick and autoclaved aerated concrete block, both widely used construction materials. Measurements were conducted at room temperature using a HP-4194A Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer instrument.

  16. Quality Improvement of Granular Wastes-The Effective Way to Recycle Secondary Raw Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Wei-hong; Charles Hendriks; Alex Fraaij; Peter Rem

    2004-01-01

    Granular wastes have negative effects on the environment due to contamination. On the other hand, stony components in granular wastes have a potential good perspectives for utilization in civil engineering works as secondary raw building materials. To reuse such materials without environmental risks, all contaminants must be removed or reduced to an acceptable level. Therefore liberation of materials is an important step in waste treatment. For this purpose, separation and cleansing techniques are suitable. Based on the analysis of contaminants in wastes, it is discussed how to select suitable techniques. The rules for technique selection and processes for quality improvement are set up. To evaluate the environmental quality and technical quality of output products, it is necessary to check leaching behaviours and physical properties.

  17. Characterization of magnetic material in the mound-building termite Macrotermes gilvus in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esa, Mohammad Faris Mohammad; Hassan, Ibrahim Haji [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahim, Faszly; Hanifah, Sharina Abu [School of Environmental Scieces and Natural Resources Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Magnetic material such as magnetite are known as particles that respond to external magnetic field with their ferromagnetic properties as they are believed contribute to in responding to the geomagnetic field. These particles are used by terrestrial animals such as termites for navigation and orientation. Since our earth react as giant magnetic bar, the magnitude of this magnetic field present by intensity and direction (inclination and direction). The magnetic properties and presence of magnetite in termites Macrotermes gilvus, common mound-building termite were tested. M. gilvus termites was tested with a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer VSM to determine the magnetic properties of specimen. The crushed body sample was characterized with X-Ray Diffraction XRD to show the existent of magnetic material (magnetite) in the specimens. Results from VSM indicate that M. gilvus has diamagnetism properties. The characterization by XRD shows the existent of magnetic material in our specimen in low concentration.

  18. Thorium determination in intercomparison samples and in some Romanian building materials by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorium content in zircon sand, thorium ore and a thorium liquid sample, as well as in some Romanian building materials: sand, wood, tufa, asbestos-cement, cement mill dust, fly coal ash, bricks and tile (28 samples) was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. For the building materials, 226 Ra, 40 K and 137 Cs specific activities were also measured. All samples were kept tightly closed in the pots for about one month, to allow that the radioactive equilibrium among the gaseous radionuclides 222 Rn (238 U series), 220 Rn (232 Th series) and their daughter products be reached. 232 Th activity concentration was calculated from its daughter products 228 Ac, 212 Pb, 212 Bi and 208 Tl, assuming radioactive equilibrium among all 232Th decay chain isotopes. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra was calculated by 214 Pb and 214 Bi daughter products, assuming radioactive equilibrium among all 226 Ra decay chain isotopes. Zircon sand, thorium ore and a thorium liquid sample were analyzed in the frame of the European Commission Project 'Thematic network on the analysis of thorium and its isotopes in workplace materials', coordinated by the Health and Safety Laboratory HSL, Sheffield, United Kingdom. Thorium nitrate solution containing 232 Th in equilibrium with its daughter products and the two thorium minerals (without any prior treatment) were prepared as test samples by the Centre for Ionizing Radiation Metrology at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, England. The obtained 232 Th results are in good agreement with those of NPL for the liquid and ore samples (analyst/NPL ratios of 0.97 and 1.05, respectively) and rather good agreement for zircon sand (analyst/NPL ratio of 1.20). Sand, wood, tufa, asbestos-cement, cement mill dust, fly coal ash, tile, red and autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC) bricks collected from building material factories in different zones of Romania were investigated for natural and artificial radioactivity. The results were compared

  19. Reduction of Ambient Radon Activity by the use of Advanced Building Materials at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial variation of radon concentration within the building of the preparatory year located in Riyadh was studied. Nuclear track detectors (CR-39) were used to measure radon concentration for two consecutive six month periods in more than 40 rooms of the surveyed building. Coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated as a measure of relative variation of radon concentration between floors and between rooms on the same floor. Floor mean ratios, with ground floor as a reference level, were calculated also in order to study the correlation between radon concentration and floor levels in case of using advanced Italian granite building material. All the results of this study were investigated and compared with usual Indian granite building material and it was found that the knowledgement buildingis a healthy work place which may be due to uses of advanced building materials.

  20. O desenvolvimento de marcas próprias: estudo comparativo entre o varejo e fornecedores da indústria alimentícia Building private label: comparative study between retail and suppliers in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Hideyuki Yokoyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A estratégia de marca própria é adotada por redes varejistas que procuram obter vantagem competitiva por meio da comercialização de produtos que recebem suas marcas. Inicialmente, os produtos de marcas próprias possuíam a imagem de produtos baratos e de baixa qualidade. Porém, com a evolução do seu conceito, algumas redes estão utilizando estratégias de segmentação de suas marcas, oferencendo produtos exclusivos, de qualidade superior, com preços mais elevados e com grau de inovação. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste artigo é descrever a dinâmica do processo de desenvolvimento de produtos para o caso das marcas próprias, comparando as práticas adotadas pelos agentes da cadeia produtiva e verificando como ocorre o processo de inovação desses produtos. O artigo baseia-se no estudo multicaso realizado em uma das três maiores redes de supermercados no Brasil e em três fornecedores de marcas próprias do setor alimentício. Como resultado, este artigo caracteriza o processo de desenvolvimento de produtos de marca própria e traz apontamentos sobre as estratégias atuais e perspectivas futuras para esse mercado.Private label strategy has been used by retailers seeking competitive advantage through the commercialization of products sold under their brand names. Private label products used to be seen as low-priced, low-quality products. Nonetheless, its concept has evolved and some retailers have been using brand segmentation strategies by offering exclusive products with superior quality, higher prices and some degree of innovation. The objective of this study is to describe the dynamics of product development process for the case of private labels by comparing the practices adopted by different production chain agents and by verifying how the innovation process occur to these products. The present article is based on a multiple case study conducted with one of the three largest supermarket chains in Brazil and three private

  1. The Feasibility of Wood and its Derivatives as a Bicycle Frame Building Material

    OpenAIRE

    BRENT TAYLOR, NICHOLAS

    2016-01-01

    [EN] ABSTRACT Nicholas Brent Taylor: The Feasibility of Wood and its Derivatives as a Bicycle Frame Building Material The bicycle is often considered as one of the most important inventions of all time. In addition, it is the most efficient form of human transport in the world. It is non pollutant, uses no fuel other than human power and its carbon footprint is neutralised in a short time. Today, faced with the threat of global warming brought about by fossil fuels, countries such as De...

  2. The introduction of teaching innovations into the traditional teaching of construction and building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Pozo, Encarnación; Gálvez Ruíz, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The traditional teaching methods used for training civil engineers are currently being called into question as a result of the new knowledge and skills now required by the labor market. In addition, the European Higher Education Area is requesting that students be given a greater say in their learning. In the subject called Construction and Building Materials at the Civil Engineering School of the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, a path was set three academic years ago to lead to an improve...

  3. Analysis of Phase Change Material in Glazing Systems in Future Zero-Energy-Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2016-01-01

    the thermal storage capacity of the glazed facade by using phase change material (PCM), in the glazing cavity, reduces the cooling demand. When wanting to use this technology under colder weather conditions, the pane can potentially reduce the heat loss of the pane thereby minimizing energy demand for heating.......When designing glazed constructions, this often results in thermally light constructions, with a low time constant. In order for these buildings to improve the redistribution of loads between night and day, solutions such as active slabs and exposed concrete cores are often used. However...

  4. Bulk moisture determination in building materials by fast neutron/gamma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast Neutron/Gamma Transmission technique has been improved to allow to measure moisture content in building materials. In order to improve fast neutron/gamma discrimination in the transmission system employing the NE-213 scintillation detector a pulse shape discrimination system was constructed at the CEADEN. A separate neutron/gamma detection approach was used with neutron transmission measurement using an Am-Be neutron source and a BF3 detector and gamma transmission measurement using a collimated 137Cs source and a NaI scintillator

  5. Measurements of radioactivity and dose assessments in some building materials in Bitlis, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayakökü, Halime; Karatepe, Şule; Doğru, Mahmut

    2016-09-01

    In this study, samples of perlite, pumice and Ahlat stones (Ignimbrite) extracted from mines in Bitlis and samples of other building materials produced in facilities in Bitlis were collected and analyzed. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in samples of building materials were measured using NaI detector (NaI(Tl)) with an efficiency of 24%. The radon measurements of building material samples were determined using CR-39 nuclear track detectors. (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K radioactivity concentrations ranged from (29.6±5.9 to 228.2±38.1Bq/kg), (10.8±5.4 to 95.5±26.1Bq/kg) and (249.3±124.7 to 2580.1±266.9Bq/kg), respectively. Radon concentration, radium equivalent activities, absorbed dose rate, excess lifetime cancer risk and the values of hazard indices were calculated for the measured samples to assess the radiation hazards arising from using those materials in the construction of dwellings. Radon concentration ranged between 89.2±12.0Bq/m(3) and 1141.0±225.0Bq/m(3). It was determined that Raeq values of samples conformed to world standards except for perlite and single samples of brick and Ahlat stone. Calculated values of absorbed dose rate ranged from 81.3±20.5 to 420.6±42.8nGy/h. ELCR values ranged from (1.8±0.3)×10(-3) to (9.0±1.0)×10(-3). All samples had ELCR values higher than the world average. The values of Hin and Hex varied from 0.35±0.11 to 1.78±0.18 and from 0.37±0.09 to 1.17±0.13, respectively. The results were compared with standard radioactivity values determined by international organizations and with similar studies. There would be a radiation risk for people living in buildings made of perlite, Ahlat-1 and Brick-3. PMID:27389882

  6. Future Resources for Eco-building Materials: I.Metallurgical Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Delong; LI Hui

    2009-01-01

    In order to make an effectivily recycle use of iron and steel slags that are main industrial wastes generated in Chinese metallurgical industry,the current technologies for reprocessing and recycling these wastes into eco-building materials were reviewed,such as preparing cement-steel slag blended cement with steel slag after metal recovery,using the fine powder of blast furnace slag (BFS)for manufacturing slag cement and high performance concrete.A further research on using these available resources more efficiently were discussed.

  7. Measurements of radioactivity and dose assessments in some building materials in Bitlis, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayakökü, Halime; Karatepe, Şule; Doğru, Mahmut

    2016-09-01

    In this study, samples of perlite, pumice and Ahlat stones (Ignimbrite) extracted from mines in Bitlis and samples of other building materials produced in facilities in Bitlis were collected and analyzed. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in samples of building materials were measured using NaI detector (NaI(Tl)) with an efficiency of 24%. The radon measurements of building material samples were determined using CR-39 nuclear track detectors. (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K radioactivity concentrations ranged from (29.6±5.9 to 228.2±38.1Bq/kg), (10.8±5.4 to 95.5±26.1Bq/kg) and (249.3±124.7 to 2580.1±266.9Bq/kg), respectively. Radon concentration, radium equivalent activities, absorbed dose rate, excess lifetime cancer risk and the values of hazard indices were calculated for the measured samples to assess the radiation hazards arising from using those materials in the construction of dwellings. Radon concentration ranged between 89.2±12.0Bq/m(3) and 1141.0±225.0Bq/m(3). It was determined that Raeq values of samples conformed to world standards except for perlite and single samples of brick and Ahlat stone. Calculated values of absorbed dose rate ranged from 81.3±20.5 to 420.6±42.8nGy/h. ELCR values ranged from (1.8±0.3)×10(-3) to (9.0±1.0)×10(-3). All samples had ELCR values higher than the world average. The values of Hin and Hex varied from 0.35±0.11 to 1.78±0.18 and from 0.37±0.09 to 1.17±0.13, respectively. The results were compared with standard radioactivity values determined by international organizations and with similar studies. There would be a radiation risk for people living in buildings made of perlite, Ahlat-1 and Brick-3.

  8. Generation of sub-micron particles and secondary pollutants from building materials by ozone reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Taisuke; Tanabe, Shin-ichi

    This study reports results from two different experiments examining reactions between ozone and common building materials that can lead to the formation of secondary products and particulate-phase materials. Monitored species include sub-micron particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the first set of experiments, various building materials were placed in a 20 L stainless-steel chamber and exposed to ozone. The materials included expanded polystyrene, a natural rubber adhesive, cedar board, Japanese Cyprus board and silver fir board, as well as d-limonene, which is a known constituent of certain woods and cleaning products. The combination of ozone and either d-limonene, cedar board or cypress board produced sub-micron particles, with most of the increase occurring in the size range of 0.01- 0.5μm diameter. This was not observed for the other materials. In the case of cedar board, the consequence of ozone exposure over an extended time interval was monitored. As the exposure time elapsed, the concentration of sub-micron particles moderately decreased. In the second set of experiments, unwaxed or waxed plastic tiles were placed in the 20 L chamber and exposed to ozone. Sub-micron particles and organic compounds were measured during the course of the experiments. In the case of the waxed tile, the number of 0.01- 1.0μm size particles grew about 50×108particlesm-3; particle growth was significantly less for the un-waxed tile. For both the waxed and un-waxed tiles, the emission rates of heptane, nonane, nonanal, and decanal increased after ozone was added to the supply air. (However, it is not clear if some or all of this production was due to ozone reacting with the sorbent used for sampling or with compounds captured by the sorbent.) This study provides further evidence that ozone-initiated reactions with building materials can be a significant source of both sub-micron particles and secondary organic compounds in indoor environments.

  9. Dataset of Atmospheric Environment Publication in 2016, Characterization of organophosphorus flame retardants’ sorption on building materials and consumer products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data presented in this data file is a product of a journal publication. The dataset contains OPFR sorption concentrations on building materials and consumer...

  10. Material and Social Construction: A Framework for the Adaptation of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M. Keenan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a formulation of a framework for understanding the nature of change, particularly climate change, as it applies to the scale of a building. Through an exploration of various scientific and social scientific literutre, the article positions the concept of adaptation as the appropriate mode for understanding and managing change. Through the classification of a duality of material and social construction in the ontological composition of a building, various lines of thought relating to adaptive capacity and adaptive cycling within systems theory are appropriated within an integrated framework for adaptation. Specifically, it is theorized that as buildings as objects are developing greater capacities for intergrated operations and management through artificial intelligence, they will possess an ex ante capacity to autonomously adapt in dynamic relation to and with the ex post adaptation of owners and operators. It is argued that this top-down and bottom-up confluence of multi-scalar dynamic change is consistent with the prevailing theory of Panarchy applied in social-ecological systems theory. The article concludes with normative perspectives on the limitations of systems theory in architecture, future directions for research and an alternative positioning of professional practices.

  11. Building the Material Flow Networks of Aluminum in the 2007 U.S. Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Graedel, T E; Nuss, Philip; Ohno, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    Based on the combination of the U.S. economic input-output table and the stocks and flows framework for characterizing anthropogenic metal cycles, this study presents a methodology for building material flow networks of bulk metals in the U.S. economy and applies it to aluminum. The results, which we term the Input-Output Material Flow Networks (IO-MFNs), achieve a complete picture of aluminum flow in the entire U.S. economy and for any chosen industrial sector (illustrated for the Automobile Manufacturing sector). The results are compared with information from our former study on U.S. aluminum stocks and flows to demonstrate the robustness and value of this new methodology. We find that the IO-MFN approach has the following advantages: (1) it helps to uncover the network of material flows in the manufacturing stage in the life cycle of metals; (2) it provides a method that may be less time-consuming but more complete and accurate in estimating new scrap generation, process loss, domestic final demand, and trade of final products of metals, than existing material flow analysis approaches; and, most importantly, (3) it enables the analysis of the material flows of metals in the U.S. economy from a network perspective, rather than merely that of a life cycle chain.

  12. Thermal properties of a new ecological building material / Granular cork embedded in white cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherki Abou-bakr

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cork, natural and renewable product, has thermal and acoustic properties very interesting because of its microstructure and porosity representing a significant portion of its apparent volume; it’s coming from Moroccan Maamora’s forest. This work is a contribution to understand the thermal behaviour of the composite material based on granular cork embedded in white cement. An experimental investigation of its thermal properties was mainly performed using the asymmetrical device of transient Hot Plate method. The effect of granular cork size on the thermal properties of the mixture was studied. The experimental study of this sustainable material aims to characterize its thermal properties and then compare them with those of white cement without cork for motivate the proposal that this composite material will be used as walls insulator. A comparison of the energy performances of the composite material and white cement was made; it allows deducing a very interesting energy gain. The findings of the experiments indicate that the composite is better than white cement in term of thermal insulation, energy storage capacity and lightness. So, it can be used to realize the internal walls insulation. Its utilization should contribute to the improvement of the energy efficiency in building especially that this is a mixture based on a sustainable and renewable material.

  13. Study on prevention of spread of vertical fire along finishing materials for external wall of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Yong Ho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although there are laws in the Korea Building Act relating to exterior finishing materials, fireproof structures and fire-stop of curtain wall structures, the standards relating to and test methods on securing detailed fire safety functions for exterior materials of all buildings including high-rise buildings have not been prepared. This is due to the fact that test methods and standards to quantitatively evaluate the vertical fire spread of the exterior material of buildings do not exist. In addition, while semi non-combustible materials or non-combustible materials are required to be used to prevent fire spread in buildings which exceed 30-stories, it is necessary to review the standards and regulations in cases where fire blocking systems, capable of preventing the vertical fire spread within the curtain wall, are installed to consider permitting the utilization of fire retardant material following an assessment of the construction characteristics of high-rise buildings. The functional evaluation standards and test methods on the vertical fire spread introduced in this study will be a more effective method for performing evaluations to prevent fire spread compared to the currently utilized method of performing small scale tests.

  14. Integrating Si nanoscale building blocks into micro-sized materials to enable practical applications in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ran; Gordin, Mikhail L; Wang, Donghai

    2016-01-28

    This article highlights recent advances in micro-sized silicon anode materials composed of silicon nanoscale building blocks for lithium-ion batteries. These materials show great potential in practical applications since they combine good cycling stability, high rate performance, and high volumetric capacity. Different preparation methods are introduced and the features and performance of the resulting materials are discussed. Key take-away points are interspersed through the discussion, including comments on the roles of the nanoscale building blocks. Finally, we discuss current challenges and provide an outlook for future development of micro-sized silicon-based anode materials.

  15. Potential damage to modern building materials from 21st century air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota Maria

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950-2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation. PMID:20098955

  16. Gamma Radiation Measurements and Dose Rates in Commonly Used Building Materials in Cyprus

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, F; Parpottas, Y

    2010-01-01

    A first comprehensive study is presented on radioactivity concentrations and dose rates in 87 commonly used materials, manufactured or imported in Cyprus, for building purposes. The natural radioactivity of K-40, Th-232, U-238 and Ra-226 is determined using high-resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. The respective dose rates and the associated radiological effect indices are also calculated. A comparison of the measured specific activity values with the corresponding world average values shows that most of them are below the world average activity values. The annual indoor effective dose rates received by an individual from three measured imported granites and four measured imported ceramics are found to be higher than the world upper limit value of 1 mSv y-1. Hence, these materials should have a restricted use according to their corresponding calculated activity concentration index values and the related EC 1999 guidelines.

  17. Simple process for building large homogeneous adaptable retarders made from polymeric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delplancke, F; Sendrowicz, H; Bernaerd, R; Ebbeni, J

    1995-06-01

    A process for building large, homogeneous, adaptable retarders easily and at low cost is proposed and analyzed. This method is based on the properties of high polymers to present variable birefringence as a function of applied stresses and on the possibility of freezing these stresses inside the material by a thermal process. Various geometries for the applied forces make obtaining a large range of birefringence profiles possible. In the process that we describe composed bending leads to a linear birefringence profile. The superimposition of two pieces with identical profiles with opposite directions gives homogeneous constant retardation. This retardation can be adjusted by a relative displacement between the pieces. A precision of better than 1% over large areas (more than 3 cm in diameter) for a quarter-wave value has been obtained. The correct choice of material makes many applications possible with a large range of wavelengths.

  18. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation.

  19. Materials development and field demonstration of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostowari, Ken; Nosson, Ali

    2000-09-30

    The project developed high-recycled-content concrete material with balanced structural and thermal attributes for use in energy-efficient building construction. Recycled plastics, tire, wool, steel and concrete were used as replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete and masonry production. With recycled materials the specific heat and thermal conductivity of concrete could be tailored to enhance the energy-efficiency of concrete buildings. A comprehensive field project was implemented which confirmed the benefits of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction.

  20. Characterization of Particle Size Distributions of Powdery Building Material Aerosol Generated by Fluidization and Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Prasauskas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify particle size distributions (PSD of aerosol of powdery building materials commonly used in construction work (cement, chalk, clay, wood sawdust, wood grinding dust, gypsum, hydrated lime, masonry grout, quartz sand, sand and structural lime by two aerosolization methods: fluidization and gravitation. Fluidization and gravitation methods represent industrial activities such as pneumotransportation and unloading. Both particle resuspension mechanisms have been modelled in laboratory conditions. The particle size distributions of resuspended particulate matter from powdery building materials were rather similar identified by both fluidization and gravitation methods, with an exception of wood sawdust and sand. The PM10 fraction ranged between 30% and 87%, PM2.5 from 7% to 28% and PM1.0 from 3% to 7% of the total mass of particulate matter. The highest PM10/PMtotal ratio was calculated for masonry grout - 0.87, and the lowest ratio for quartz sand - 0.30. The highest ratio of PM2.5/PMtotal was calculated for sand - 0.23, the lowest for quartz sand - 0.07. Substantial quantities of PM2.5 were found to be emitted implying a potential threat to human health.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.61.3.1519

  1. Impact of Water Chemistry, Pipe Material and Stagnation on the Building Plumbing Microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Ji

    Full Text Available A unique microbiome establishes in the portion of the potable water distribution system within homes and other buildings (i.e., building plumbing. To examine its composition and the factors that shape it, standardized cold water plumbing rigs were deployed at the treatment plant and in the distribution system of five water utilities across the U.S. Three pipe materials (copper with lead solder, CPVC with brass fittings or copper/lead combined pipe were compared, with 8 hour flush cycles of 10 minutes to simulate typical daily use patterns. High throughput Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was employed to profile and compare the resident bulk water bacteria and archaea. The utility, location of the pipe rig, pipe material and stagnation all had a significant influence on the plumbing microbiome composition, but the utility source water and treatment practices were dominant factors. Examination of 21 water chemistry parameters suggested that the total chlorine concentration, pH, P, SO42- and Mg were associated with the most of the variation in bulk water microbiome composition. Disinfectant type exerted a notably low-magnitude impact on microbiome composition. At two utilities using the same source water, slight differences in treatment approaches were associated with differences in rare taxa in samples. For genera containing opportunistic pathogens, Utility C samples (highest pH of 9-10 had the highest frequency of detection for Legionella spp. and lowest relative abundance of Mycobacterium spp. Data were examined across utilities to identify a true universal core, special core, and peripheral organisms to deepen insight into the physical and chemical factors that shape the building plumbing microbiome.

  2. New Porous Material Made from Industrial and Municipal Waste for Building Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find a new method for usage of the hazardous waste coming from recycling industry. Two hazardous wastes – aluminium recycling final dross or non-metallic product (NMP and lead – silica glass (LSG were investigated. It is generally considered that NMP is a process waste and subject to disposal after residual metal has been recovered from primary dross. NMP is impurities which are removed from the molten metal in dross recycling process and it could be defined as a hazardous waste product in aluminium recycling industry. LSG comes from fluorescence lamp recycling plant and could be classified as hazardous waste due to high amount of lead in the composition and re-melting problems. The new alkali activated material, which can be defined as porous building material, was created. Composition of this material consisted of aluminium recycling waste, recycled fluorescent lamp LSG, sintered kaolin clay as well as commercially available alkali flakes (NaOH and liquid glass (Na2SiO3 + nH2O. Physical and mechanical properties of the obtained material were tested. Density of the obtained material was from (460 – 550 kg/m3 and the total porosity was from 82 % – 83 %. The compressive strength of the material was in range from 1.1 MPa to 2.3 MPa. The thermal conductivity was determined. The pore microstructure was investigated and the mineralogical composition of porous material was determined. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4330

  3. Brief Discussion on China's Green Building Materials%浅谈我国绿色建筑材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐锋

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the deifnition of"green building material"and combining green materials in China, this paper elaborates what materials are "green materials"with whole lifecycle evaluation of building material as entry point, and finally it combines status quo of China's green building materials to proposes suggestion on development of China's green building. It hopes this paper would be beneficial for development of China's green building material market.%文章从“绿色建材”的定义出发,结合国内绿色建筑,以建筑材料的全寿命周期评价为切入点,详细阐述什么样的建筑材料是“绿色建材”,最后结合国内绿色建材的现状,对我国绿色建材的发展提出一点小小的建议,希望能对我国绿色建材市场的发展有所裨益。

  4. The Monastery of Uclés (Cuenca, Spain: characterization and deterioration of building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez De Buergo, M.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Building materials from the Monastery of Uclés façades, in Cuenca (16th-18 th centuries, have been characterised, as well as identified their deterioration forms. Characterization consisted of the determination o mineralogical and petrographical properties of building materials; petrophysical and petrochemical characterization of building stones were also carried out. Stony materials are basically of two types, dolostones and limestones. Ashlars joint mortars are of three classes, chronologically from the oldest to the newest: lime mortars with siliceous and dolomitic aggregates, gypsum/lime mortars with dolomitic aggregates, and gypsum/lime mortars with siliceous aggregates. The façades have been protected with artificial patinas of three kinds: lime, lime/gypsum and gypsum patinas, chronologically from the oldest to the newest, with a variable thickness from 500 µm. The dolomitic fades are better conserved than the calcareous ones, and the covering artificial patinas presence have preserved the materials on which they were applied.

    Se han caracterizado ¡os materiales de construcción de las fachadas del Monasterio de Uclés en Cuenca (s. XVI-XVIII así como sus formas de deterioro. La caracterización consistió en la determinación de sus características mineralógicas, petrográficas y petroquímicas, asi como la caracterización petrofisica de los materiales pétreos. Las piedras de construcción son, fundamentalmente, de dos tipos, dolomías y calizas. Los morteros de rejuntado de los sillares son de tres tipos, en orden cronológico, de más antiguos a más modernos: morteros de cal con áridos silíceos y dolomíticos, morteros de cal/yeso con áridos dolomílicos, y morteros de yeso/cal con áridos silíceos. Las fachadas han estado protegidas por pátinas artificiales de tres tipos: de cal, de cal/yeso y de yeso; en orden cronológico, de más antiguas a más modernas, con espesores variables desde < 100µm

  5. Da liberalização cega dos anos 90 à construção estratégica do desenvolvimento From the blind liberalization of the 90's to the strategic building of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Arbix

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Este texto foi apresentado na aula inaugural do curso de Ciências Sociais da USP, realizada no dia 6 de março de 2002. A economia global vem sendo sacudida por alterações profundas que vêm alterando os métodos, a estrutura produtiva de bens e serviços, a política e as instituições em todos os cantos do planeta. Essas mudanças estão sendo mais sentidas nos países que apresentam em sua história uma presença marcante do Estado sobre as economias e a vida social. Na América Latina, essas mudanças orientaram a implantação de um novo modelo de política econômica, como forma de superar a inflação crescente, os déficts comerciais, o fardo da dívida externa, a ineficiência e a falta de competitividade internacional que, supostamente, haviam se configurado como fruto das tradicionais políticas desenvolvimentistas. No entanto, esse novo modelo opera com uma interpretação tortuosa da história dos países em desenvolvimento, jogando no esquecimento ou tornando incompreensível que países como Brasil, Argentina e México, ao lado de outros asiáticos, cresceram após a II Guerra Mundial mais rapidamente que Estados Unidos, Inglaterra, Alemanha, França e Canadá. A elaboração de estratégias de desenvolvimento, incluindo a qualidade da industrialização desejada, da tecnologia, das instituições e da política, continua sendo o principal desafio a ser vencido pelos países atrasados.This paper was presented as the inaugural class for the Social Sciences Course at USP, on the 6th of March of 2002. Global economy has been undergoing a number of sweeping changes that have altered the methods, the organization of the production of goods and services, politics and institutions all over the world. These changes have been more marked in countries where State policies exert strict control over the economy and social life. In Latin America, these changes guided the implementation of a new economic policy model, as a means to overcome

  6. PRESENT-DAY AND FUTURE APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyskiy Anatoliy Ivanovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors have made an overview of the status of production of cement concrete using nanotechnologies. The authors also provide their analysis of domestic and foreign researches into the application of nanotechnologies in the field of building materials. The authors have picked out positive examples of introduction of nano-scale particles into the concrete mix. The process needs continuous monitoring for the composition and the mixing time to be adjustable. The findings have been solely made by local developers of nano-materials and technologies. The authors propose their method of cement consumption reduction through the introduction of nanoparticles and simultaneous grinding of cement. The authors provide a new procedure of treatment of materials that contemplates enhanced mixing processes accompanied by simultaneous grinding of materials and their exposure to the electromagnetic treatment. The experiments completed by the team of authors have proven the efficiency of a combination of two nanotechnologies within one process, including the treatment of wet cement at the final grinding stage of processing to ensure specific cement properties for a specific surface area of 8,000 cm2/g, and the introduction of nano-scale particles into the process of manufacturing of cement compositions. The use of carbon nanotubes in the process of manufacturing of cement concrete can improve its physical and mechanical properties and reduce the cement consumption rate while maintaining the design strength of concrete.

  7. Application and limitations of a mass transfer VOC emission model for a dry building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, S.; Lungu, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from building materials into air has been quantified, characterized and modeled. Internal diffusion of VOC through a material based on Fick's law of diffusion is the basis for mass transfer modeling of diffusive emission used to estimate VOC concentrations in air over time. Current mass transfer models have been shown to appropriately estimate air VOC concentrations at approximate room temperature, while other research has shown that temperature has a profound effect on the diffusion coefficient, D, of VOC in a material. Here, a mass transfer model is operated at 23 °C and 40 °C using input parameters applicable for each temperature. The model estimates are validated against environmental test chamber data for styrene emission from a vinyl ester resin thermoset composite material. The model correlates well with the 23 °C chamber data, but underestimates chamber data by as much as 10-4 at 264 h for the 40 °C modeling. This suggests that the model requires adjustment for predicting VOC air concentrations at temperatures other than 23 °C.

  8. Terrorismo vis à vis Desenvolvimento

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdeira, José

    2012-01-01

    O terrorismo é um fenómeno que representa uma ameaça à segurança internacional e que está frequentemente associada ao nível de desenvolvimento dos Estados, importando verificar a sua dinâmica com a frequência de atentados, vitimas e a motivação dos perpetradores de atos terroristas. Para tal desiderato, recorremos ao processo metodológico proposto por Quivy & Campenhoudt (2005), recorrendo à bibliografia de autores reconhecidos e à análise de dados disponibilizados por bases de dados credí...

  9. Determination of the natural radioactivity in Qatarian building materials using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda, E-mail: h.al-sulaiti@surrey.ac.uk [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Radiation Protection and Chemicals Department, Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box: 7634, Doha (Qatar); Alkhomashi, N. [King Abdulaziz University of Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Dahan, N. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Kerbala, Kerbala (Iraq); Al-Dosari, M. [Radiation Protection and Chemicals Department, Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box: 7634, Doha (Qatar); Bradley, D.A. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bukhari, S. [Information Systems Management Department, Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box: 7634, Doha (Qatar); Matthews, M. [Centre of Environmental Health Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Regan, P.H.; Santawamaitre, T. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    This study is aimed at the determination of the activity concentrations of naturally occurring and technically enhanced levels of radiation in building materials used across the State of Qatar. Samples from a range of common building materials, including Qatarian cement, Saudi cement, white cement, sand and washed sand, have been analyzed, in addition to other samples of cement's raw materials and additives collected from the main suppliers in Qatar. In order to establish the activity concentrations associated with the {sup 235,8}U and {sup 232}Th natural decay chains and {sup 40}K, the samples have been studied using a high-resolution, low-background gamma-ray spectrometry set-up. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented, together with the preliminary results of the activity concentrations associated with the naturally occurring radionuclide chains for the building materials collected across the Qatarian peninsula.

  10. Radiological qualification of the coal by-products used as building material in the region of the city of Ajka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somlai, J.; Kanyar, B.; Lendvai, Z.; Nemeth, C.; Bodnar, R. [Veszprem Egyetem Radiokemia Tanszek, Veszprem (Hungary)

    1997-02-01

    The natural radioactivity of coal slag and ash from the vicinity of Ajka (Transdanubian Middle Mountain) significantly exceeds the world average. The use of the slags and ashes as building material gives a high dose contribution due to elevated radon emanation and external gamma-radiation. From the gamma-spectrometric analysis of samples taken from houses around Ajka, it can be stated that for most of them they should not have been used as a building material. Despite the early national prohibition, which was vaguely known by the public and with inefficient control, the materials with elevated radioactivities were used mainly for private buildings. It is considered to be important that the immediate control and use of such materials, and an efficient way of informing the public should be implemented.

  11. Assessment of natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in some building materials used in Kilpenathur, Tiruvannamalai dist, Tamilnadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghu, Y. [Department of Physics, AarupadaiVeedu Institute of Technology, Paiyanoor, Chennai 603 104, Tamilnadu (India); Harikrishnan, N.; Ravisankar, R., E-mail: ravisankarphysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Tiruvannamalai 606603, Tamilnadu (India); Chandrasekaran, A. [Departement of physics, SSN College of Engineering, Chennai- 603110, Tamilnadu India (India)

    2015-08-28

    The present study aimed to measure the radioactivity concentration of naturally occuring radionuclides in the locally used building materials from Kilpenthaur, Tiruvannmalai Dist, Tamilnadu, India. This study will also evaluate the radiation hazard arising due to the use of these materials in the construction of dwellings. The concentrations of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in five types of building materials have been measured by gamma spectrometry using NaI (Tl) 3” x 3”detector. The estimated radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}), indoor absorbed gamma dose rate (D{sub R}), annual effective dose rate (H{sub R}) and the external hazard indexes(H{sub ex}) were lower than the recommended safe limit and are comparable with results from similar studies conducted in other countries. Therefore, the use of these building material samples under investigation in the construction of dwellings is considered to be safe for inhabitants.

  12. Measurement of color in different construction materials. The restoration in sandstone buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Pascua, N.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of construction materials and their subsequent repair purposes include a search of knowledge and preservation of their original appearance. For this reason, the main aim of this study is to determine a color range which does not change with the possible actions on a building, both when restoration works which imply the use and repair of "ancient" materials are carried out, and when construction is carried out with new materials. It is necessary to obtain the quantification of this property in order to check its variation over the passage of time. Each construction material must be taken into account as an isolated problem, since the color is different in each case.

    El empleo de materiales de construcción y la aplicación sobre ellos de productos de reparación requiere un detallado estudio sobre su forma de actuación y la importancia de la conservación del aspecto original de los mismos. Por este motivo, el objetivo principal de este estudio es el determinar un intervalo de color que se conserve a pesar de todas las posibles intervenciones que se acometan en el edificio, tanto cuando se realizan trabajos de restauración, que implican el uso y reparación de materiales "viejos", o bien cuando se llevan a cabo trabajos de construcción con materiales nuevos. Es necesario cuantificar dicha propiedad para poder controlar el paso del tiempo. Cada material de construcción debe ser considerado como un problema aislado, ya que el color es distinto en cada caso.

  13. Deposition velocities and impact of physical properties on ozone removal for building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Hsu, Shu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to estimate the ozone deposition velocities of eight commonly used building materials (BMs) which include calcium silicate board (CSB), green calcium silicate board (GCSB), mineral fiber ceiling (MFC), green mineral fiber ceiling (GMFC), gypsum board (GB), green gypsum board (GGB), wooden flooring (WF) and green wooden flooring (GWF). In addition, the impact of physical properties (specific surface area and total pore volume of BM) on ozone removal ability was also explored and discussed. Studies were conducted in a small-scale environmental stainless steel chamber. CSB and GCSB showed the highest ozone deposition velocities, while WF and GWF showed the lowest ozone deposition velocities among test BMs materials. All reaction probabilities were estimated to fall within the order of magnitude of 10-6. Green BMs showed lower reaction probabilities with ozone comparing with non-green BMs except for GGB. Consistent with the trends for deposition velocity, fleecy and porous materials exhibit higher reaction probabilities than smooth, non-porous surfaces. Specific surface area of BM is more closely related to ozone removal than total pore volume of BM with R2 of 0.93 vs. R2 of 0.84. Discussion of Thiele modulus for all test BMs indicates surface reactions are occurring quickly relative to internal diffusion and ozone removal is internal diffusion-limited.

  14. Integration of Agricultural Waste in Local Building Materials for their Exploitation: Application with Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sow

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Through experiments, we have determined the mechanical and thermal properties of samples. This allowed us to determine the most optimal formulations. Therefore, we have prepared samples constituted by two basic materials, clay and laterite, mixed with rice straw. Thus, agriculture is among the economic sectors that produce more waste. The latter are mainly the straw of the three most-produced cereals in the world: wheat, corn and rice. Concerning rice straw, its high content of cellulose makes it difficult to digest. So, few animals are able to use it as food. Most of the straws are lost, buried, burned or used as litter. Moreover, clay and laterite formations represent the most abundant materials resources in Africa. So, this study has allowed us to show that the integration of rice straw in lateritic and clay soils for its use as building materials will allow, in addition to its recycling, to greatly reduce the social habitat cost and to improve the thermal comfort.

  15. Potential application of coal-fuel oil ash for the manufacture of building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, R; Marroccoli, M; Sansone, L; Santoro, L

    2005-09-30

    In this paper coal-fuel oil ash has been characterized in terms of leaching behaviour and reactivity against lime and gypsum in hydratory systems for the manufacture of building materials. Its behaviour was also compared to that of coal ash. Metal release was measured in a dynamic leaching test with duration up to 16 days. The results have shown that coal-fuel oil ash behaves very similarly to coal ash. The reactivity of coal-fuel oil ash against lime and gypsum was measured in mixtures containing only lime and in mixtures containing both lime and gypsum. These systems were hydrated at 25 and 40 degrees C under 100% R.H. The results have shown that the main hydration products are the same as those that are usually formed in similar coal ash-based systems. That is, calcium silicate hydrate in coal-fuel oil ash/lime systems and calcium silicate hydrate plus calcium trisulphoaluminate hydrate in coal-fuel oil ash/lime/gypsum systems. From the quantitative point of view, hydration runs showed that the amounts of both chemically combined water and reacted lime measured in the case under investigation are very similar to those found in similar coal ash-based systems. Finally, the measurement of unconfined compressive strength proved that the systems have potentiality for the manufacture of pre-formed building blocks. PMID:15985327

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials for Use in Building Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Giro-Paloma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for preparing and characterizing microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM was developed. A comparison with a commercial MPCM is also presented. Both MPCM contained paraffin wax as PCM with acrylic shell. The melting temperature of the PCM was around 21 °C, suitable for building applications. The M-2 (our laboratory made sample and Micronal® DS 5008 X (BASF samples were characterized using SEM, DSC, nano-indentation technique, and Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Both samples presented a 6 μm average size and a spherical shape. Thermal energy storage (TES capacities were 111.73 J·g−1 and 99.3 J·g−1 for M-2 and Micronal® DS 5008 X, respectively. Mechanical characterization of the samples was performed by nano-indentation technique in order to determine the elastic modulus (E, load at maximum displacement (Pm, and displacement at maximum load (hm, concluding that M-2 presented slightly better mechanical properties. Finally, an important parameter for considering use in buildings is the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC’s. This characteristic was studied at 65 °C by CG-MS. Both samples showed VOC’s emission after 10 min of heating, however peaks intensity of VOC’s generated from M-2 microcapsules showed a lower concentration than Micronal® DS 5008 X.

  17. Detrimental effect of Air pollution, Corrosion on Building Materials and Historical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Venkat Rao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The economy of any country would be drastically changed if there were no corrosion. The annual cost of corrosion world wise is over 3 % of the worlds GDP. As pet the sources available, India losses $ 45 billion every year on account of corrosion of infrastructure, Industrial machinery and other historical heritage. Keeping this critical and alarming situation in view, this paper focuses on how all these forms of corrosion affect building materials and historical structures. It also tries to bring awareness among the stakeholders of the environment and national heritage. The process of corrosion may be initiated in the form of chemical corrosion and electrochemical corrosion. The chemical may be witnessed in the form of direct oxidation, corrosion by liquid metals, fused halides and non aqueous solutions. Electrochemical corrosion may be seen in the form of immersion corrosion, underground corrosion and atmospheric corrosion.

  18. Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer Model for Convective Drying of Building Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ashwani; Chandramohan, V. P.

    2016-06-01

    A mathematical model of simultaneous heat and moisture transfer is developed for convective drying of building material. A rectangular brick is considered for sample object. Finite-difference method with semi-implicit scheme is used for solving the transient governing heat and mass transfer equation. Convective boundary condition is used, as the product is exposed in hot air. The heat and mass transfer equations are coupled through diffusion coefficient which is assumed as the function of temperature of the product. Set of algebraic equations are generated through space and time discretization. The discretized algebraic equations are solved by Gauss-Siedel method via iteration. Grid and time independent studies are performed for finding the optimum number of nodal points and time steps respectively. A MATLAB computer code is developed to solve the heat and mass transfer equations simultaneously. Transient heat and mass transfer simulations are performed to find the temperature and moisture distribution inside the brick.

  19. Natural radioactivity in geological and processed materials used for construction and radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to determine natural radioactivity in geological and processed materials used for construction and radon in buildings within the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. This involved the measurement of 238U, 232Th, 40K, 222Rn, hazards indices, absorbed doses rate, effective doses, excess lifetime cancer risk estimated and correlation between NORMs and engineering properties. The building materials considered for this study were gravels, beach sand, rocks, soil, sand, tiles, clay bricks, sandcrete and concrete blocks. A brief description of the methods and instrumentation used is presented. Radiation hazards associated with building materials were found to be in the range; 238U (3.60 – 47.00 Bq/kg), 232Th (3.61 - 43.00 Bq/kg) and 40K (62.75 - 1222.21 Bq/kg), radium equivalent (15.72.66 Bq/kg to 174.32 Bq/kg), internal hazard index (0.05-0.52), external hazard index (0.02-0.23), activity concentration index (0.06 to 0.64 mSv/y) absorbed dose rate (9.46 to 77.81 nGy/h), outdoor effective doses (7.20 μSv/y to 95.49 μSv/y), indoor effective doses (7.20 μSv/y to 95.49 μSv/y) and excess lifetime cancer risk (0.03× 10-3 to 0.33× 10-3). The radon concentrations range from offices (11.152-537.050 Bq/m3), Laboratories (11.696 - 212 Bq/m3), conference rooms (110.623 - 229.363 Bq/m3), Bedroom (13.391- 41.989 Bq/m3), Hall (10.087 - 38.197 Bq/m3) and kitchen (11.878 - 36.00 Bq/m3). The experimental radon exhalation varied from (3.54 × 10-5 to 11.43 × 10-5 Bq/m2h) and theoretical values (4.56 × 10-5 to 13.9×10-5 Bq/m2 h). The engineering properties associated with rock aggregates were also found to vary in the following range from bulk density (2207 - 3006 g/cm3), apparent density (2001 – 3040 g/cm3), Los Angeles Abrasion Test (45.67- 79.89 %) and water absorption content (0.33-1.98 %). The correlation between NORMs and engineering properties are R2 (0.57-0.88) negative and R2 (0.18-0.81) positive. The highest exhalation rate was observed

  20. Dynamic thermal behavior of building using phase change materials for latent heat storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selka Ghouti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a two-dimensional model with a real size home composed of two-storey (ground and first floor spaces separated by a slab, enveloped by a wall with rectangular section containing phase change material (PCM in order to minimize energy consumption in the buildings. The main objective of the PCM-wall system is to decrease the temperature change from outdoor space before it reaches the indoor space during the daytime. The numerical approach uses effective heat capacity Ceff model with realistic outdoor climatic conditions of Tlemcen city, Algeria. The numerical results showed that by using PCM in wall as energy storage components may reduce the room temperature by about 6 to 7°C of temperature depending on the floor level (first floor spaces or ground floor spaces.

  1. Determination of Mass Attenuation Coefficients of Some Gas Concrete Samples Used As Building Materials in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work was to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of some gas concrete samples used as building materials in Turkey. The mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of six different gas concrete samples were determined for the twelve energies. The samples were irradiated by photons emitted from 109Cd, 57Co, 133Ba, 54Mn, 137Cs, 60Co and 22Na radioactive sources in the energy range of 88 and 1332.5 keV. The measurements were performed by using gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector of 55% relative efficiency and resolution of 1.9 keV at 1332 keV gamma of 60Co

  2. Assessment of alpha activity of building materials commonly used in West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper, reports for the first time, an extensive study of alpha activity of all widely used building materials (plaster of Paris, stone chips, marble, white cement, mosaic stone, limestone, sand, granite, cement brick, asbestos, red brick, cement tile, ceramic tile and ceramics) in West Bengal, India. The alpha activities have been measured using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The samples were collected from local markets of Kolkata. The measured average alpha activities ranged from 22.7 ± 2.5 to 590.6 ± 16.8 Bq kg-1. The alpha activity of ceramic tiles was highest and provides additional data to estimate the effect of environmental radiation exposure on human health

  3. Experimental and Simulation of Gamma Radiation Dose Rate for High Exposure Building Material

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Natural radioactivity concentrations in high exposure building materials are commonly used in Iran, which is measured a direct exposure by using {\\gamma}-ray spectrometry. The values for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were in the ranges 3.8 - 94.2, 6.5 - 172.2 and 556.9 - 1539.2 Bqkg-1, respectively. The absorbed dose rates in the standard dwelling room due to 238U, 232Th series and 40K were calculated with MCNPX code. The simulation and experimental results were between 7.95 - 41.74 and 8.36 - 39.99 nGy h-1, respectively. These results were compared with experimental outing and there was overlap closely. The simulation results are able to develop for any kind of dwelling places.

  4. Fungal accumulation of metals from building materials during brown rot wood decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Jellison, Jody

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation. Metal transport into the fungal inoculated wood was found to be dependent on the individual strain/species. The S. lacrymans strain caused a significant increase in total iron whereas the concentration of copper ions in the wood appeared decreased after 10 weeks of decay. Wood inoculated with the M. incrassata isolate showed the contrary tendency with high copper accumulation and low iron increase despite similar weight losses for the two strains. However, significantly lower oxalic acid accumulation was recorded in M. incrassata degraded wood. The addition of a building material resulted in increased weight loss in wood degraded by C. puteana in the soil-block test; however, this could not be directly linked specifically to the accumulation of any of the four metals recorded. The accumulation of oxalic acid seemed to influence the iron uptake. The study assessing the influence of the presence of soil and glass in the soil-block test revealed that soil contributed the majority of the metals for uptake by the fungi and contributed to increased weight loss. The varying uptake observed among the three brown rot fungi strains toward the four metals analyzed may be related to the specific non-enzymatic and enzymatic properties including bio-chelators employed by each of the species during wood

  5. Elaboration of building materials from industrial waste from solid granular diatomaceous earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the initial characterization of granular solid industrial waste from diatomaceous earth was carried out using techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. In a second stage leaching of the material was undertaken to the US Patent Number 5, 376,000 and 5, 356,601 obtaining the samples M1-S ph 2, M1-L ph, M1-S ph 10 and M1-L ph 10. In the third stage a new characterization of the samples obtained with the techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was performed, the latter in order to determine the efficiency percentage of the leaching process. In the fourth stage the specimens for performing mechanical, physical and chemical tests were manufactured, using molds as PVC pipes of 1 inch in diameter and 2 inches in length, with a composition of 50% of diatomaceous earth and 50% of cement produced in each. Finally, in the fifth stage mechanical testing (compression resistance), physical (moisture absorption rate) and chemical (composition and structure of the material) are performed. In the last stage, when conducting mechanical testing with the test specimens, the presence of bubbles enclosed in each obtaining erroneous results noted, so it was necessary to develop the specimens again, obtaining in this occasion concentrations of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 of diatomaceous earth with the cement. These results were analyzed to determine if the used material is suitable for the production of building materials such as bricks or partitions, being demonstrated by the tests carried out if they are eligible. (Author)

  6. Using Enviro-Pod low altitude imagery to inventory building surface materials for an acid rain study - A Baltimore example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Richard; Coffland, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Low altitude, oblique and vertical color photography taken from EPA's Enviro-Pod Ka 85 camera system has provided the data for taking an inventory of building surface materials in a test area of downtown Baltimore. Photography was acquired from a gridded flight plan to provide views of all sides of buildings. Color, texture, and linear detail are employed in the photo interpretation aided by contextual reference to a classification of building construction type developed in an earlier study. The work could potentially support a materials inventory initiated by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) by scientists from EPA, Geological Survey, and the Department of Energy. Initial results show the method to be viable. Discrete surface materials such as brick, both bare and painted, stone, and metal are identified.

  7. Effect of common building materials in narrow shaped X-ray fields transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachos, I.; Tsantilas, X.; Fountos, G.; Delis, H.; Kandarakis, I.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2015-09-01

    Diagnostic and interventional radiology, are an essential part of present day medical practice. Advances in X-ray imaging technology, together with developments in digital imaging have had a significant impact on the practice of radiology. This includes improvement in image quality, reduction in dose and a broader range of available applications resulting to better patient diagnosis and treatment. X-rays have the potential for damaging healthy cells and tissues, therefore all medical procedures employing X-ray equipment must be carefully managed. In all facilities and for all equipment types, procedures must be in place in order to ensure that exposures to patients, staff and the public are kept as low as reasonably achievable. Commonly used construction materials such as, ceramic tiles and plasterboards can provide a certain degree of protection against X-radiation. In this study, the secondary radiation transmission through common building materials is investigated, in the case of narrow shaped X-ray fields. Double plasterboard and double reinforced in thickness ceramic tile provided better radiation protection results.

  8. Development of a methodology for doss assessment viewing the use of NORM on building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for estimating the radiological impact on man of the residues of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) that potentially can be used for the construction of homes and roads. Residues of this type, which are being produced in great quantities by the Brazilian mining industry, are typically deposited in non-appropriated conditions such that they may have a long-time adverse impact on the environment, and hence on man. A mathematical model was developed to calculate the doses resulting from the use of NORM residues, thus allowing a preliminary analysis of the possibility to recycle the residues. The model was used to evaluate the external dose due gamma radiation, the dose to skin caused by beta radiation, and the internal dose due to inhalation of radon and its decay products. The model was verified by comparisons with results of other studies about doses due to gamma and beta radiation from finite and infinite radioactive sources, with relatively good agreement. In order to validate the proposed methodology, a comparison was made against experimental results for a house constructed in accordance with CNEN regulations using building materials containing NORM residues. Comparisons were made of the dose due to gamma radiation and the radon concentration in the internal environment. Finally, the methodology was used also to estimate the dose caused by gamma radiation from a road constructed in the state of Rondonia, Brazil, which made use of another NORM residue. (author)

  9. Application of Bayer red mud for iron recovery and building material production from alumosilicate residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red mud is a solid waste produced in the process of alumina extraction from bauxite. In this paper, recovery iron from Bayer red mud was studied with direct reduction roasting process followed by magnetic separation, and then building materials were prepared from alumosilicate residues. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery efficiency of iron were carried out. The optimum reaction parameters were proposed as the following: ratio of carbon powder: red mud at 18:100, ratio of additives: red mud at 6:100, roasting at 1300 deg. C for 110 min. With these optimum parameters, total content of iron in concentrated materials was 88.77%, metallization ratio of 97.69% and recovery ratio of 81.40%. Then brick specimens were prepared with alumosilicate residues and hydrated lime. Mean compressive strength of specimens was 24.10 MPa. It was indicated that main mineral phase transformed from nepheline (NaAlSiO4) in alumosilicate residues to gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) in brick specimens through X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. The feasibility of this transformation under the experimental conditions was proved by thermodynamics calculation analysis. Combined the recovery of iron with the reuse of alumosilicate residues, it can realize zero-discharge of red mud from Bayer process

  10. Application of Bayer red mud for iron recovery and building material production from alumosilicate residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanchao; Yang, Jiakuan; Xiao, Bo

    2009-01-15

    Red mud is a solid waste produced in the process of alumina extraction from bauxite. In this paper, recovery iron from Bayer red mud was studied with direct reduction roasting process followed by magnetic separation, and then building materials were prepared from alumosilicate residues. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery efficiency of iron were carried out. The optimum reaction parameters were proposed as the following: ratio of carbon powder: red mud at 18:100, ratio of additives: red mud at 6:100, roasting at 1300 degrees C for 110min. With these optimum parameters, total content of iron in concentrated materials was 88.77%, metallization ratio of 97.69% and recovery ratio of 81.40%. Then brick specimens were prepared with alumosilicate residues and hydrated lime. Mean compressive strength of specimens was 24.10MPa. It was indicated that main mineral phase transformed from nepheline (NaAlSiO4) in alumosilicate residues to gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) in brick specimens through X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. The feasibility of this transformation under the experimental conditions was proved by thermodynamics calculation analysis. Combined the recovery of iron with the reuse of alumosilicate residues, it can realize zero-discharge of red mud from Bayer process. PMID:18457916

  11. Plasma technology for creation of protective and decorative coatings for building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokitin, Oleg; Volokitin, Gennady; Skripnikova, Nelli; Shekhovtsov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    An experimental setup is developed to create a protective and decorative coating on the surface of building materials. Experimental study is conducted to create a protective coating using low-temperature plasma. The properties of the surface before and after the plasma treatment are investigated. At the increase of the plasma generator power (56-75 kW) the rate of the vitreous coating formation is significantly reduced, and the destruction of hydrous calcium silicates occurs at a lower depth (0.5-2.0 mm). In this case, the adhesive strength increases up to 2.34 MPa. At the increase of the exposure time at 56 kW (0.045 m/s melting rate) plasma generation power, the melt formation is observed not only at the surface but at depth of 0.7 mm and deeper. Also, a deep degradation of the material occurs and the adhesive strength decreases. The optimal heat flux density of plasma generator was established at 1.8-2.6 . 106 W/m2, which allows the achievement of the uniform layer formation on the wood surface that preserves its natural pattern visible.

  12. Effect of water-ice phase change on thermal performance of building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Černý, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The effect of water ice-phase change on thermal performance of integrated building material is investigated in this paper. As a characteristic construction, simple external wall made of aerated autoclaved concrete was assumed which was exposed to dynamic climatic condition of Šerák, Czech Republic. The computational modelling of hygrothermal performance was carried out using computer codes HEMOT and SIFEL that work on the basis of finite element method. The effect of phase change was taken into account by fixed-domain method, when experimentally determined effective specific heat capacity was used as a material parameter. It comprises also the effect of heat consumption and heat release that accompany the water-ice phase change. Comparing to the results with specific heat capacity, the effect of phase change on thermal performance could be quantified. The results showed that temperature fields can differ more than 6 °C. Additionally, the amount energy transported through the wall may be higher up to 4 %. This confirmed, that the effect water-ice phase change should be included in all the relevant energy calculations.

  13. Evaluation of three common green building materials for ozone removal, and primary and secondary emissions of aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Elliott; Darling, Erin; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Morrison, Glenn C.; Corsi, Richard L.

    2013-10-01

    Ozone reactions that occur on material surfaces can lead to elevated concentrations of oxidized products in the occupied space of buildings. However, there is little information on the impact of materials at full scale, especially for green building materials. Experiments were completed in a 68 m3 climate-controlled test chamber with three certified green building materials that can cover large areas in buildings: (1) recycled carpet, (2) perlite-based ceiling tile and (3) low-VOC paint and primer on recycled drywall. Ozone deposition velocity and primary and secondary emission rates of C1 to C10 saturated carbonyls were determined for two chamber mixing conditions and three values of relative humidity. A direct comparison was made between ozone deposition velocities and carbonyl yields observed for the same materials analyzed in small (10 L) chambers. Total primary carbonyl emission rates from carpet, ceiling tile and painted drywall ranged from 27 to 120 μg m-2 h-1, 13 to 40 μg m-2 h-1, 3.9 to 42 μg m-2 h-1, respectively. Ozone deposition velocity to these three materials averaged 6.1 m h-1, 2.3 m h-1 and 0.32 m h-1, respectively. Total secondary carbonyl emissions from these materials ranged from 70 to 276 μg m-2 h-1, 0 to 12 μg m-2 h-1, and 0 to 30 μg m-2 h-1, respectively. Carbonyl emissions were determined with a transient approximation, and were found to be in general agreement with those found in the literature. These results suggest that care should be taken when selecting green building materials due to potentially large differences in primary and secondary emissions.

  14. Study of radon concentrations in relation with the radioactivity content of building materials in Aizawl District, Mizoram, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, substantial attention has been paid to the problems of exposure due to radon and its progeny in dwellings. Measurement of indoor radon concentrations has been carried out in Aizawl District, Mizoram, India. Solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) have been used to obtain the time integrated concentration levels of indoor radon. Spot measurement of background gamma radiation level was done indoor and outdoor at a height of 1 metre from the ground and at the ground level using Survey Meter. Most building materials contain some amounts of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM). The radioisotopic content of building materials viz., brick, asbestos, wood and rock, collected has been analyzed using gamma spectrometer. From the measured gamma ray spectra, activity concentrations are determined for 232Th, 238U and 40K. Results obtained from the selected 63 houses reflected that concrete building has the average maximum concentration of radon, 50.36 Bq/m3 while contribution due to buildings with asbestos walls was found to be lowest, 45.13 Bq/m3. The analysis of radioisotopic content found in collected building materials indicate that asbestos has the maximum uranium concentration, 319.79 Bq/kg while wood has the maximum thorium concentration. Measured background gamma radiation level ranges from 10-24 R/hr. (author)

  15. Válvula mecânica em carbono, de disco basculante, com revestimento de material biológico: princípios e desenvolvimento Pivoting disc carbon mechanical valve covered with biological material: principles and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Pereira de Magalhães

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: após estudo experimental de implante de material biológico e carbono em átrio esquerdo e aorta, foi desenvolvida uma nova prótese, primeira válvula de carbono feita inteiramente no País. A finalidade foi conseguir uma válvula de sistema mecânico durável, de boa aceitação orgânica para facilitar a cicatrização a partir do anel e isolar o máximo de material sintético da corrente sangüínea; o objetivo é conseguir menores índices de morbidade e mortalidade, alterando a história natural da prótese mecânica em relação a trombose, tromboembolismo, reoperações e menor uso de anticoagulante. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: a válvula é do tipo disco basculante perfurado, fabricada em Carbolite (carbono polimérico endurecido. O anel apresenta haste com pino central para guiar e reter a movimentação do disco, batente e dois pinos para limitação do grau de abertura. O anel tem perfurações para fixação do material biológico (pericárdio e veia. O conjunto é colocado entre dois anéis lisos acoplados revestidos de Poliéster com aba de sutura externa. O batente tem aspecto denteado, formando plataformas onde se apoia o disco e entre os dentes existe continuidade do revestimento biológico. A prótese é toda revestida, exceto o pino, o disco, as plataformas do batente e a face interna do orifício menor. A prótese foi testada em duplicador de pulso em teste equivalente a dez anos, sem desgaste aparente com disco de carbono e poliacetal. Cada prótese, antes do implante, é testada individualmente durante cinco dias a 1.000 pulsações por minuto com pressão média de 12 cmHg. Então, é feita limpeza, esterilização, revestimento de material biológico processado em glicerina, montagem e esterilização final em formol ou gás ETO (conservação em glicerina. Existem 7 pacientes mitrais em observação com tempo médio de 7,8 meses (mínimo de 4 meses e máximo de 13 meses, sendo mantidos com anticoagulação oral

  16. Performance demonstration and evaluation of the synergetic application of vanadium dioxide glazing and phase change material in passive buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • VO2 and PCM were combined in passive building application for the first time. • Synergetic performance of them is demonstrated in a full size room. • Synergetic application has a better performance than the solo ones. • The materials interact with each other in synergetic application. • ESI can be used to evaluate the performance of the synergetic application. - Abstract: One of the key methods to improve the energy saving performance of a building is to apply advanced materials or components to the building envelope. However, the two parts of a building’s envelope, the transparent one and the non-transparent one, are usually investigated individually by existing literature. In this study, vanadium dioxide (VO2) glazing, an advanced energy-efficient element applied to the transparent parts of the building envelope, and phase change material (PCM), a typical thermal storage material used to improve the non-transparent parts of the building envelope, were adopted simultaneously for the first time. The synergetic performance of VO2 glazing and PCM, demonstrated in a full-scale, lightweight, passive room, resulted in a significant improvement in the thermal comfort degree. The Energy Saving Index (ESI) is a simple and effective indicator that can be used to evaluate the passive application performance of a single energy-efficient material or component on a common standpoint. In this work, the index was broadened to evaluate the performance of more than one material, showing that ESI is feasible and favorable to analyze the coefficient application of several building materials and/or components. Using the ESI, the performance of the synergetic application was also compared with those of the sole materials, indicating that the synergetic application has a better performance during the cooling period. Furthermore the synergetic application involves an interplay rather than a simple combination of the energy-efficient materials. The application to

  17. Development of a polymeric matrix for composite material produced by the filament winding technique; Desenvolvimento de matriz polimerica visando a producao de material composito atraves da tecnica de enrolamento filamentar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, Ledjane Lima; Ferreira, Marisilvia; Bastian, Fernando Luiz [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2005-07-01

    The study of the resin for composite materials to be produced by the filament winding technique is very important, since the good applicability of the technique is in part function of the characteristics of the resin. The objective of this work is the development of a polymeric matrix using vinyl ester resin for composite to be produced by the filament winding technique. Therefore, vinyl ester resin systems developed from Derakane 411-350 by varying the percentage of cure agent and activator. The system which presented the best behavior in tension (Yong's modulus 2,42 GPa, tensile strength = 47,67 MPa, elongation = 7,31 % and fracture toughness 2,67 J), adequate gel time and exothermic peak for the manufacture process was submitted to hygrothermal aging by immersion in water at 60 deg C for a maximum period of 64 days. (author)

  18. [Evaluation of the migration of contaminants from building materials produced on the base of blast-furnace slags].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugin, K G; Vaysman, Ya I

    2014-01-01

    There is experimentally established the change of the migratory activity of pollutants from building materials produced from blast furnace slag throughout their life cycle in the form of a nonlinear wave-like nature as there are appeared newly opened surfaces of a contact with aggressive waters in the process of gradual crushing of materials as a result of destructive mechanical effects on him and corrosive waters with varying pH values. There are established regularities of the migration activity ofpollutants (on the example of heavy metals) as directly dependent on the newly opening surface of the contact of the material with water having a various pH value. There is shown an expediency of introduction of alterations in the procedure for sanitary hygienic assessment of building materials with the addition of industrial waste (Methodical Instructions 2.1.674-97), allowing to take into account the migration of contaminants from them throughout the life cycle. PMID:25842493

  19. Composite UHPC-AAC/CLC facade elements with modified interior plaster for new buildings and refurbishment. Materials and production technology

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Miccoli; Patrick Fontana; Nelson Silva; Andrea Klinge; Christer Cederqvist; Oliver Kreft; Dirk Qvaeschning; Christer Sjostrom

    2015-01-01

    The awareness of the environmental impact of the building sector is increasing. Steel reinforced concrete is the most commonly used construction material, though with a high-embodied energy and carbon footprint. Large environmental gains may arise if an alternative to steel reinforced concrete is developed. In this context, ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) materials are shown to be promising alternatives with advantages such as lower embodied energy and reduced environmental impact. Pre...

  20. Studies on use of Copper Slag as Replacement Material for River Sand in Building Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madheswaran, C. K.; Ambily, P. S.; Dattatreya, J. K.; Rajamane, N. P.

    2014-09-01

    This work focuses on the use of copper slag, as a partial replacement of sand for use in cement concrete and building construction. Cement mortar mixtures prepared with fine aggregate made up of different proportions of copper slag and sand were tested for use as masonry mortars and plastering. Three masonry wall panels of dimensions 1 × 1 m were plastered. The studies showed that although copper slag based mortar is suitable for plastering, with the increase in copper slag content, the wastage due to material rebounding from the plastered surfaces increases. It is therefore suggested that the copper slag can be used for plastering of floorings and horizontal up to 50 % by mass of the fine aggregate, and for vertical surfaces, such as, brick/block walls it can be used up to 25 %. In this study on concrete mixtures were prepared with two water cement ratios and different proportions of copper slag ranging from 0 % (for the control mix) to 100 % of fine aggregate. The Concrete mixes were evaluated for workability, density, and compressive strength.

  1. Contaminated biomass fly ashes--Characterization and treatment optimization for reuse as building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudart de la Grée, G C H; Florea, M V A; Keulen, A; Brouwers, H J H

    2016-03-01

    The incineration of treated waste wood generates more contaminated fly ashes than when forestry or agricultural waste is used as fuel. The characteristics of these biomass fly ashes depend on the type of waste wood and incineration process parameters, and their reuse is restricted by their physical, chemical and environmental properties. In this study, four different fly ash types produced by two different incineration plants were analysed and compared to Dutch and European standards on building materials. A combined treatment was designed for lowering the leaching of contaminants and the effect of each treatment step was quantified. A pilot test was performed in order to scale up the treatment. It was found that chlorides (which are the main contaminant in all studied cases) are partly related to the amount of unburnt carbon and can be successfully removed. Other contaminants (such as sulphates and chromium) could be lowered to non-hazardous levels. Other properties (such as particle size, LOI, oxide and mineralogical compositions) are also quantified before and after treatment. PMID:26786402

  2. Research on the additives to reduce radioactive pollutants in the building materials containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several kinds of functional additives such as barite, zeolite, ferric oxide, gypsum, and high alumina cement were introduced to prepare a low-radiation cement-based composite to reduce radioactive pollutants contained in fly ash. The effect of content and granularity of the functional additives on the release of radioactive pollutants were investigated. Composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scan electron microscopy. The results indicate that the radioactive pollutants contained in the fly ash can be reduced by adding a proper amount of zeolite, ferric oxide, gypsum, and high alumina cement. The release of radon from fly ash decreases with a decrease in the granularity of additives. Compared with traditional cement-based composite containing fly ash, the release of radon can be reduced 64.8% in these composites, and the release of γ-ray is decreased 45%. Based on the microstructure and phase analysis, we think that by added functional additives, there are favorable to form self-absorption of radioactivity in the interior composites. This cement-based composite will conducive to fly ash are large-scale applied in the field of building materials.

  3. Increasing energy efficiency of HVAC systems of buildings using phase change material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chusak, Jared Daiber, Ramesh Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, four different cooling systems used in contemporary office environments are modeled to compare energy consumption and thermal comfort levels. Incorporating convection and radiation technologies, full-scale models of an office room compare energy efficiency of (a an all-air overhead system, (b a combined all-air overhead and hydronic radiant system (chilled ceiling, (c an all-air raised floor system (displacement ventilation, and (d a combined displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling. The computational domain for each model consists of one temperature varying wall (simulating the temperature of the exterior wall of the building during a 24-hour period and adiabatic conditions for the remaining walls, floor, and ceiling (simulating interior walls of the room. Two sets of computations are conducted. The first set considers a glass window and plastic shade configuration for the exterior wall. The second set of computations includes a phase change material layer between the glass window and the plastic shade. Results show substantial energy savings can be accrued using the displacement ventilation and especially the displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling over the conventional overhead mixing ventilation system. The results also show that the addition of a PCM layer to the exterior wall can significantly decrease the cooling energy requirements.

  4. Increasing energy efficiency of HVAC systems of buildings using phase change material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chusak, Lee; Daiber, Jared; Agarwal, Ramesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), four different cooling systems used in contemporary office environments are modeled to compare energy consumption and thermal comfort levels. Incorporating convection and radiation technologies, full-scale models of an office room compare energy efficiency of (a) an all-air overhead system, (b) a combined all-air overhead and hydronic radiant system (chilled ceiling), (c) an all-air raised floor system (displacement ventilation), and (d) a combined displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling. The computational domain for each model consists of one temperature varying wall (simulating the temperature of the exterior wall of the building during a 24-hour period) and adiabatic conditions for the remaining walls, floor, and ceiling (simulating interior walls of the room). Two sets of computations are conducted. The first set considers a glass window and plastic shade configuration for the exterior wall. The second set of computations includes a phase change material layer between the glass window and the plastic shade. Results show substantial energy savings can be accrued using the displacement ventilation and especially the displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling over the conventional overhead mixing ventilation system. The results also show that the addition of a PCM layer to the exterior wall can significantly decrease the cooling energy requirements.

  5. Calculation of radiation attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities for some building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some building materials, regularly used in Turkey, such as sand, cement, gas concrete (lightweight, aerated concrete), tile and brick, have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic, numbers (Zeff), effective electron densities (Ne) and photon interaction cross section (σa) at 14 different energies from 81- to 1332-keV gamma-ray energies. The gamma rays were detected by using gamma-ray spectroscopy, a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The elemental compositions of samples were analysed using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Mass attenuation coefficients of these samples have been compared with tabulations based upon the results of WinXcom. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using the mixture rule and the experimental values of investigated parameters were compared with the calculated values. The agreement of measured values of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic numbers, effective electron densities and photon interaction cross section with the theory has been found to be quite satisfactory. (authors)

  6. Calculation of radiation attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities for some building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damla, N; Baltas, H; Celik, A; Kiris, E; Cevik, U

    2012-07-01

    Some building materials, regularly used in Turkey, such as sand, cement, gas concrete (lightweight, aerated concrete), tile and brick, have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic, numbers (Z(eff)), effective electron densities (N(e)) and photon interaction cross section (σ(a)) at 14 different energies from 81- to 1332-keV gamma-ray energies. The gamma rays were detected by using gamma-ray spectroscopy, a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The elemental compositions of samples were analysed using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Mass attenuation coefficients of these samples have been compared with tabulations based upon the results of WinXcom. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using the mixture rule and the experimental values of investigated parameters were compared with the calculated values. The agreement of measured values of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic numbers, effective electron densities and photon interaction cross section with the theory has been found to be quite satisfactory. PMID:22128356

  7. Stepwise transformation of the molecular building blocks in a porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic material

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2013-04-24

    When immersed in solutions containing Cu(II) cations, the microporous metal-organic material P11 ([Cd4(BPT)4]·[Cd(C 44H36N8)(S)]·[S], BPT = biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylate) undergoes a transformation of its [Cd 2(COO)6]2- molecular building blocks (MBBs) into novel tetranuclear [Cu4X2(COO)6(S) 2] MBBs to form P11-Cu. The transformation occurs in single-crystal to single-crystal fashion, and its stepwise mechanism was studied by varying the Cd2+/Cu2+ ratio of the solution in which crystals of P11 were immersed. P11-16/1 (Cd in framework retained, Cd in encapsulated porphyrins exchanged) and other intermediate phases were thereby isolated and structurally characterized. P11-16/1 and P11-Cu retain the microporosity of P11, and the relatively larger MBBs in P11-Cu permit a 20% unit cell expansion and afford a higher surface area and a larger pore size. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. The Use of Building Materials in Landscape%建筑材料在园林中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天予

    2011-01-01

    Using of materials in modern gardens still has some problems, such as the short life of materials, being difficult in maintenance, unrecyclable, not enough ecological and environmental protection, etc., while using new materials is an important means to solve these problems. Many building materials can be used as new materials of landscape, including native materials, new high-tech materials, recycle and reuse of construction waste, etc. The current use of landscape materials is analyzed in this paper, and how to use a variety of building materials in landscape is discussed and learned through studies of actual cases.%现代园林材料在使用中存在一些问题,如材料寿命短、不易养护、不能回收、不够生态环保等.使用新材料是解决这些问题的重要手段,而很多建筑材料在园林中能作为新材料被利用,包括乡土材料、新型高科技材料、建筑废弃物的回收再利用等.分析当前的园林材料使用情况,通过实际的案例分析,讨论并学习如何在园林中使用各种建筑材料.

  9. Effect of ventilation on perceived quality of air polluted by building materials. A summary of reported data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Vondruskova, J. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-02-15

    This paper summarizes existing data on how varying ventilation rates affect the perceived quality of air polluted by building materials. This is done by reviewing literature dealing with exposure-response relationships, i.e. the log-linear relationships between the concentration of pollutants (exposure) and the perceived air quality (response). The reviewed data originate from studies with single building materials performed in small-scale ventilated chambers and from studies carried out in a full-scale setting resembling normal offices. Perceived air quality expressed in terms of acceptability as assessed by untrained panels was included. The results show that the exposure-response relationships vary for different building materials as regards the impact of changing ventilation rate on perceived air quality and the level of perceived air quality at a constant ventilation rate. This applies both for the data collected in small-scale and in full-scale experiments. The differences may be caused by the experimental conditions, psychological factors, physiological factors, and chemical/physical factors. A well controlled study taking these factors into account with several different building materials, is thus recommended to further study whether the observed results have practical significance. These experiments should be carried out under realistic fullscale conditions. (au)

  10. Nano-coatings Used in Building Materials%建筑纳米涂料崭露头角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠敏

    2012-01-01

    To introduce the definition,application,status quo,properties,and market prospect of nano-coatings used in building materials.%介绍建筑纳米涂料定义,应用现状,性能优势和市场前景。

  11. The Building Blocks of Digital Media Literacy: Socio-Material Participation and the Production of Media Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezuanni, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the knowledge and skills students develop when they engage in digital media production and analysis in school settings. The metaphor of "digital building blocks" is used to describe the material practices, conceptual understandings and production of knowledge that lead to the development of digital media literacy.…

  12. National survey on the natural radioactivity and Rn-222 exhalation rate of building materials in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.; van Dijk, W.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Groot, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports on results of a nationwide survey on the natural radioactivity concentrations and Rn-222 exhalation rates of the prevailing building materials in the Netherlands. In total 100 samples were taken and analyzed for the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, and K-4

  13. Assessment of Extent and Degree of Thermal Damage to Polymeric Materials in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal damage to susceptible materials in accessible regions of the TMI-2 reactor building shows damage-distribution patterns that indicate non-uniform intensity of exposure. No clear explanation for non-uniformity is found in existing evidence; e.g., in some regions a lack of thermally susceptible materials frustrates analysis. Elsewhere, burned materials are present next to materials that seem similar but appear unscathed-leading to conjecture that the latter materials preferentially absorb water vapor during periods of high local steam concentration. Most of the polar crane pendant shows heavy burns on one half of its circumferential surface. This evidence suggests that the polar crane pendant side that experienced heaviest burn damage was exposed to intense radiant energy from a transient fire plume in the reactor containment volume. Tests and simple heat-transfer calculations based on pressure and temperature records from the accident show that the atmosphere inside the reactor building was probably 8% hydrogen in air, a value not inconsistent with the extent of burn damage. Burn-pattern geography indicates uniform thermal exposure in the dome volume to the 406-ft level (about 6 ft below the polar crane girder), partial thermal exposure in the volume between the 406- and 347-ft levels as indicated by the polar crane cable, and lack of damage to most thermally susceptible materials in the west quadrant of the reactor building; some evidence of thermal exposure Is seen in the free volume between the 305- and 347-ft levels. (author)

  14. Self: um conceito em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Suzana Rocha de Macedo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversas definições de self coexistem nas teorias e práticas psicológicas. Essa variedade é resultante de bases epistemológicas a partir das quais se adotam estratégias diferentes para abordar e demarcar os limites do objeto em questão e descrevê-lo. Este estudo teve como objetivo oferecer uma revisão dos conceitos de self e uma reflexão sobre como esse conceito se articula nas diferentes abordagens teóricas da psicologia. Destaca-se que dilemas centrais à psicologia do desenvolvimento atravessam o conceito de self. Por essa razão, apresenta-se a tese de que, ao analisar cada definição de self, deve-se buscar responder como cada teoria colocou-se diante das dicotomias estabilidade versus transformação, específico versus universal e mundo interno versus mundo externo.

  15. A comparison of the Nordtest and Japanese test methods for the moisture buffering performance of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roels, Staf; Janssen, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Two test methods, one worked out in a Nordtest project and the other available as a Japanese Industrial Standard, both developed to characterize building materials with respect to moisture buffering performance, are analyzed in detail by a numerical study on four different materials. Both test...... methods are based on a similar kind of dynamic loading, but the specifications of each test protocol vary. Therefore, the sensitivity of the test protocols is investigated by varying different protocol parameters. Subsequently, the practical applicability of the obtained values is investigated...... by confronting the values obtained for the four materials with the dynamic response of a small room with each of the materials used in turns as finishing material. Finally, the results determined according to the dynamic test protocol are compared with values calculated from steady-state material data....

  16. Data on comparison between FLEC and CLIMPAQ methods used for fast sorption measurements of VOCs on building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Rizk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A test emission chamber called CLIMPAQ has been coupled to a chromatography analyzer GC to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC concentration during a sorption experiments (Fast sorption measurements of VOCs on building materials: Part 2 – Comparison between FLEC and CLIMPAQ methods, (Rizk et al., In press [1]. The equations used to calculate the mass transfer coefficient and the thickness of the boundary layer developed on the surface of a material are presented. In addition, the experimental profiles obtained using the CLIMPAQ chamber is also presented in the presence and the absence of a building material. Finally, the impact of chamber size on the obtained concentration profile using different chambers is shown using 3 types of chambers having different volumes, 1 m3, 30 m3 and a micro chamber of 40 mL.

  17. An application of luminiscence dating to building archaeology: The study of ceramic building materials in early medieval churches in north-western France and south-eastern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blain, Sophie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this thesis concerns the re-evaluation of an archaeological assumption surrounding the origin of Ceramic Building Materials (CBM used from the 9th to the 11th century in religious buildings of north-western France and south-eastern England. Are the bricks used in the masonry structures Roman spolia or a novo productions? Amongst the dating methods that can contribute to building archaeology, it is the technique of stimulated luminescence applied to CBM that is the focus of this study. Results from thermoluminescence (TL and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating performed on 52 CBM samples from 11 churches showed that the practice of reusing Roman brick was commonplace in small parish churches, but also that brick-making was not a totally unknown skill of the early medieval craftsmen as it has long been supposed. Most importantly, by identifying that the building material is contemporary to the church, a defined chronology emerges resulting in a new and extremely useful reference point in the history of early medieval architecture.La investigación presentada en esta tesis se ocupa de la reevaluación de un supuesto arqueológico entorno al origen del material cerámico constructivo (CBM empleado entre los siglos IX y XI en los edificios religiosos del Noroeste de Francia y el Sudeste de Inglaterra. ¿Son los ladrillos empleados en las estructuras de fábrica spolia romana o producciones a novo? Entre los métodos de datación que pueden contribuir a la arqueología del edificio, la técnica de luminiscencia estimulada aplicada al CBM es el centro de este estudio. Los resultados de la termoluminiscencia (TL y de la luminiscencia estimulada ópticamente (OSL, aplicadas en 52 muestras de CBM tomadas en 11 iglesias, evidencian que la práctica de reutilizar ladrillos romanos era común en pequeñas iglesias parroquiales, pero que también la técnica de elaboración de ladrillos no era totalmente desconocida para los

  18. Integration of Phase Change Material in Furniture for Improvement of Building Energy Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johra, Hicham; Heiselberg, Per

    This report aims to review the different scientific publications and technical documentations which investigated the influence of furniture parts on indoor environment and the use of PCM for building energy applications.......This report aims to review the different scientific publications and technical documentations which investigated the influence of furniture parts on indoor environment and the use of PCM for building energy applications....

  19. Exhalation velocity of radon-222 of Dutch building materials and the influence of paint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to achieve a better insight concerning the source terms of radon in the Dutch dwelling in the framework of the RENA-programme an investigation has been performed into the exhalation velocity of radon-222 from building materials. From this investigation it turned out that the ventilation factor does not have any influence upon the exhalation velocity, neither an influence of alteration of air pressure could be demonstrated. The influence of air humidity upon the exhalation velocity showed a twofold picture; for gypsum a linear increase of the exhalation velocity with vapour pressure was found, while for concrete a linear decrease with vapour pressure was observed. Further it has been investigated in how far paint systems diminish the exhalation velocity of the Rn-222 from gypsum and concrete. Acryl paints, mostly used in the Dutch dwelling, did not show a decrease of the exhalation velocity and structure paints did even cause an increase of the exhalation velocity. Other types of paint based on chlorous rubber, epoxy resins and poly-urethane, in contrast, showed a clear reduction. From these those based on poly-urethane showed the largest reduction (60-75%) at a double sided treatment of the wall. With the help of a mathematical modelling of the exhalation estimations have been made of the exhalation velocity of Rn-222 at single sided treatment of a wall and for the exhalation velocity of Rn-220. For the fore mentioned poly-urethane-paints this yelds, at an estimate, a reduction of respectively 90-95% and 100%. (author). 40 refs.; 15 figs.; 8 tabs

  20. Sample collection, treatment and measurements of soil, bedrock and building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental radionuclides can be divided into three groups according to origin (a) Primordial origin, (b) Continuously produced by natural processes other than the decay of primordial radionuclides and (c) Those generated by man's activities. The natural radionuclides of the first group are of interest for indoor exposure and related to ''U-238'', ''Th-232'' series plus K-40 respectively, present in soil, bedrock and building materials. An extensive literature exists on the U and Th concentrations in rocks. Most of the data refer to the radon decay products with NaI detectors assuming a perfect equilibrium all along the U and Th. However, an equilibrium down to the Ra-226 or Ra-228 may exist in igneous rocks and old sediments. But in recent sediments and soils an equilibrium is hardly found. There is also the problem of the radon escape from the sample due to the inert nature of the radon and the large concentration gradient. Even a small crack or gap in the sample container may lead to an important radon loss. The concentrations of natural radionuclides may be measured by using a co-axial germanium detector for the determination of the high energy gamma-rays emitted by Ra-226, Ra-228, and K-40. For lower energy gamma-rays i.e. in the range from tens to hundreds of Kev (of interest for the measurement of 185.7 Kev from U-235 and 63.3 plus 92.6 Kev from Th-234) an x-gamma co-axial detector is needed. For a better resolution in the lowest energy range a Ge(HP) planar detector would be more appropriate. 10 refs, 4 figs

  1. The leaning Tower of Pisa, Structure, building materials and reinforcement interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniale, F.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available An exhaustive diagnosis of "anatomy, physiology and pathology" of the masonry body of the leaning Tower of Pisa has been carried out with the aim of integrate the knowledge of the structure features, mechanical conditions and decay processes of the building materials, necessary for correctly managing the therapy, temporary and definitive interventions. The interventions already or being implemented consist of (i outer circular slightly stressed steel tendons, (ii inner stressed and/or passive strainless bars, and (iii grouting by a specially devised cement admixture. The paper will not be dealing with "materic" restoration works, and geotechnical interventions for reducing the progressive tilting and stabilizing the foundation/subsoil system of the Tower.

    Se ha realizado un exhaustivo estudio de diagnosis de la Torre inclinada de Pisa, con el fin de completar todo el conocimiento existente en torno a la estructura, condiciones mecánicas y procesos de alteración de los materiales de construcción, para proponer la terapia más correcta de intervención, ya sean éstas temporales o definitivas. Las intervenciones ya realizadas o en fase de ejecución consisten en: (i cables de acero ligeramente tensados rodeando la Torre, (ii barras interiores tensadas y/o pasivadas, y (iii relleno con una lechada de cemento con aditivo, especialmente preparado para tal fin. El presente trabajo no se centrará en las restauraciones ni en las intervenciones geotécnicas realizadas para reducir la progresiva inclinación y estabilizar el sistema de cimentación de la Torre.

  2. Nuclear industry practice for clearance of materials, facilities and buildings as well as land. Tutorial; Kaerntekniska industrins praxis foer friklassning av material, lokaler och byggnader samt mark. Handledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-12-15

    This handbook comprises the common practices of the Swedish nuclear industry for the clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil in order to be exempted from the Swedish Nuclear Activities Act and the Swedish Radiation Protection Act. After clearance the management/usage of material, rooms, buildings and soil is permitted without any control from the radiation protection point of view. Clearance is practiced to reduce the amount radioactive waste. Cleared material can be reused according to its original form, recycled or, if these two possibilities are not available, disposed as conventional waste. The working procedures described in this handbook are mainly based on the regulation SSMFS 2011:2 from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority: 'Regulations concerning clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil from activities with ionising radiation'. The purpose of this handbook is to serve as a tool and guidance for generating specific routines and instructions for clearance. It describes the principles, processes and routines that should be followed under a clearance procedure. The intention is to accomplish the current regulation by following the routines and principles described in this manual. This handbook spans over a large number of conditions towards clearance, such as facility specific conditions and different types of objects. Because not all the conceivable conditions and objects can be included here, the purpose has been to cover the most common types of clearance practices. The practices comprise: - Description of regulations and recommendations, Swedish and international, that represent the basis of the requirements in this handbook. - Presentation of the processes for clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil. Those which cannot be cleared are considered as radioactive waste. A proposal for the decision-making process is presented. - Illustration for radiological surveys to systems and components, buildings and soil in regard

  3. Composite UHPC-AAC/CLC facade elements with modified interior plaster for new buildings and refurbishment. Materials and production technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Miccoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of the environmental impact of the building sector is increasing. Steel reinforced concrete is the most commonly used construction material, though with a high-embodied energy and carbon footprint. Large environmental gains may arise if an alternative to steel reinforced concrete is developed. In this context, ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC materials are shown to be promising alternatives with advantages such as lower embodied energy and reduced environmental impact. Predictions suggest that UHPC composite elements for building envelopes could have other benefits such as an increased service life, optimised use of building area due to thinner elements and minimised maintenance due to the absence of reinforcement or use of non-corrosive reinforcing materials such as carbon fibres. In the framework of the H-HOUSE project funded by the European Commission, composite elements are developed. The aim is to create facade panels combining an autoclaved aerated concrete or cellular lightweight concrete insulation layer with an external UHPC supporting layer. To enhance occupant comfort and health, hygroscopic materials that are capable to buffer indoor air humidity shall be applied to the inside of such elements. Indoor air humidity levels are expected to be more stable, which shall subsequently improve the indoor climate and minimise potential decay to the construction.  

  4. A teoria do “desenvolvimento fragmentador”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Scholz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O pensamento desenvolvimentista do passado era dominado pela ideia de que o subdesenvolvimento do Terceiro Mundo poderia ser superado mediante ajuda técnica, financeira e pessoal dos países do Norte. A meta era alcançar o nível de desenvolvimento dos países ocidentais industrializados por meio de um desenvolvimento retardatário. Na base dessa ideia estava, por um lado, o consenso de valores ocidental-humanitários, que, o mais tardar desde a época do Esclarecimento, determinou o pensar e o devir social. Por outro lado, a ideia baseou-se na responsabilidade histórica (surgida das condições da Guerra Fria, aceita política e socialmente do "Ocidente" para com os chamados países em desenvolvimento, na sua maioria ex-colônias. Argumenta-se, neste artigo, que a ideia de um desenvolvimento retardatário deve, na era da globalização, ser substituída pelo fato de um desenvolvimento fragmentador.

  5. Validation Methodology to Allow Simulated Peak Reduction and Energy Performance Analysis of Residential Building Envelope with Phase Change Materials: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.

    2012-08-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) represent a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in residential buildings. This paper summarizes NREL efforts to obtain accurate energy simulations when PCMs are modeled in residential buildings: the overall methodology to verify and validate Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) and PCM algorithms in EnergyPlus is presented in this study. It also shows preliminary results of three residential building enclosure technologies containing PCM: PCM-enhanced insulation, PCM impregnated drywall and thin PCM layers. The results are compared based on predicted peak reduction and energy savings using two algorithms in EnergyPlus: the PCM and Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) algorithms.

  6. Job/Task Analysis: Enhancing the Commercial Building Workforce Through the Development of Foundational Materials; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, D.; Kemkar, S.

    2012-09-01

    For many commercial building operation job categories, industry consensus has not been reached on the knowledge, skills, and abilities that practitioners should possess. The goal of this guidance is to help streamline the minimum competencies taught or tested by organizations catering to building operations and maintenance personnel while providing a basis for developing and comparing new and existing training programs in the commercial building sector. The developed JTAs will help individuals identify opportunities to enhance their professional skills, enable industry to identify an appropriately skilled workforce, and allow training providers to ensure that they are providing the highest quality product possible.

  7. Single-layer model to predict the source/sink behavior of diffusion-controlled building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deept; Little, John C

    2003-09-01

    Building materials may act as both sources of and sinks forvolatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air. A strategy to characterize the rate of absorption and desorption of VOCs by diffusion-controlled building materials is validated. A previously developed model that predicts mass transfer between a flat slab of material and the well-mixed air within a chamber or room is extended. The generalized model allows a nonuniform initial material-phase concentration and a transient influent gas-phase concentration to be simultaneously considered. An analytical solution to the more general model is developed. Experimental data are obtained by placing samples of vinyl flooring inside a small stainless steel chamber and exposing them to absorption/desorption cycles of n-dodecane and phenol. Measured values for the material-air partition coefficient and the material-phase diffusion coefficient were obtained previously in a series of completely independent experiments. The a priori model predictions are in close agreement with the observed experimental data. PMID:12967101

  8. Embodied Energy Assessment and Comparisons for a Residential Building Using Conventional and Alternative Materials in Indian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen Kishore, K.; Chouhan, J. S.

    2014-06-01

    Building sector is responsible for 40 % of the primary energy use and 24 % of carbon dioxide emissions in India. The main source of green house gas emissions from buildings is due to energy consumption. This paper aims to assess the embodied energy index and environmental impact of a two storied residential building. The study proposes various alternative materials which can be used in day to day construction in order to mitigate the environmental impact and climate change due to construction activity in India. Two types of construction techniques have been considered for the study, namely load bearing and reinforced concrete framed construction. Embodied energy and carbon dioxide emissions of walling and roofing components using conventional and alternative materials has also been analyzed and compared. The comparison is done based on two parameters namely, embodied energy/m2 and CO2 emissions per unit of floor area. The study shows that bricks, cement and steel are the three major contributors to the energy cost of constructing a building by conventional methods. A conventional two storied load bearing structure is 22 % more energy efficient when compared to a reinforced concrete structure. It has also been observed from the study that use of alternative material in the building envelope gives embodied energy savings between 50 and 60 % for a two storey load bearing structure and 30-42 % for a two storey reinforced concrete structure. Hence a load bearing construction is certainly a better alternative to RC framed construction for up to two storied structures in terms of embodied energy and environmental impacts.

  9. The built heritage in the Southern Italy: problems of decay and significant properties of the building materials with relation to their durability and conservationDECAY AND SIGNIFICANT PROPERTIES OF THE BUILDING MATERIALS WITH RELATION TO THEIR DURABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, M.; Calia, A.

    2012-04-01

    This paper deals with the use of building materials within the built heritage of the Southern Italy, their decay problems and the research of stone parameters material to their durability. The study documents the most common and widespread stone building materials and their forms of decay within the historical-architectural heritage, as well as in the archaeological artifacts. The heavy presence of the decay forms related to granular disgregation and loss of powder material from the surface suggest an high susceptibility of such materials to the disruptive processes induced by water penetration and salt crystallisation. The study of the stone properties and artificial ageing tests in laboratory, carried out by comparing several lithologies, are aimed to understand their response to the decay with relation to the petrophisical and compositional features, with the final purpose to identify durability parameters, usefull for choosing the appropriate conservation measures. In order to this final purpose, further elements of evaluation are drawn by the activity in progress, concerning the monitoring of the conservation treatments carried out on the Baroque heritage of Lecce town (Southern Italy) during the last decades.

  10. Standard linear solid model for dynamic and time dependent behaviour of building materials

    OpenAIRE

    De Haan, Y.M.; Sluimers, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Vibrations in building structures are almost always undesirable. Whether in the form of low frequency oscillations, or droning of the structure, or as audible noise, they may effect the comfort of the user. They may even effect the safety and the integrity of (parts of) the structure. Damping of mechanical vibrations has always been a point of consideration for the engineer. Presently, it is of increasing interest and importance for the building industry. There are several reasons for this: (...

  11. Estimating the Additional Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Korea: Focused on Demolition of Asbestos Containing Materials in Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Won-Hwa; Zhang, Yuan-Long; Son, Byeung-Hun; Seo, Youn-Kyu; Choi, Jun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    When asbestos containing materials (ACM) must be removed from the building before demolition, additional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are generated. However, precedent studies have not considered the removal of ACM from the building. The present study aimed to develop a model for estimating GHG emissions created by the ACM removal processes, specifically the removal of asbestos cement slates (ACS). The second objective was to use the new model to predict the total GHG emission produced by ACM removal in the entire country of Korea. First, an input-equipment inventory was established for each step of the ACS removal process. Second, an energy consumption database for each equipment type was established. Third, the total GHG emission contributed by each step of the process was calculated. The GHG emissions generated from the 1,142,688 ACS-containing buildings in Korea was estimated to total 23,778 tonCO₂eq to 132,141 tonCO₂eq. This study was meaningful in that the emissions generated by ACS removal have not been studied before. Furthermore, the study deals with additional problems that can be triggered by the presence of asbestos in building materials. The method provided in this study is expected to contribute greatly to the calculation of GHG emissions caused by ACM worldwide. PMID:27626433

  12. Low-Cost Bio-Based Phase Change Materials as an Energy Storage Medium in Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Abhari, Mr. Ramin [Renewable Energy Group, Inc.; Shukla, Dr. Nitin [Fraunhofer USA, Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston; Kosny, Dr. Jan [Fraunhofer USA, Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston

    2015-01-01

    A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of phase change material (PCM) in building envelope systems. Several studies have reported the energy saving potential of PCM in building envelopes. However, wide application of PCMs in building applications has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel paraffin product made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application, with the ultimate goal of commercializing a low-cost PCM platform. The low-cost PCM pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation, installed in external walls and field-tested under natural weatherization conditions for a period of several months. In addition, several PCM samples and PCM-cellulose samples were prepared under controlled conditions for laboratory-scale testing. The laboratory tests were performed to determine the phase change properties of PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation both at microscopic and macroscopic levels. This article presents the data and analysis from the exterior test wall and the laboratory-scale test data. PCM behavior is influenced by the weather and interior conditions, PCM phase change temperature and PCM distribution within the wall cavity, among other factors. Under optimal conditions, the field data showed up to 20% reduction in weekly heat transfer through an external wall due to the PCM compared to cellulose-only insulation.

  13. Geolithology and provenance of materials of some historical buildings and monuments in the centre of Florence (Italy)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PiergiorgioMalesani; ElenaPecchioni; EmmaCantisani; FabioFratini

    2003-01-01

    Two very important historical areas have been consid-ered in this work. Piazza della Signoria with the Palazzo Vecchio and many other outstanding buildings, is a typi-cal example of the use of sandstone materials character-istic of the Florentine area; Piazza del Duomo with the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore standing in the mid-dle is, on the other hand, an example of other equally typical lithotypes such as the "white" marble and the"red" and "green marbles" that decorate the Cathe-dral. A detailed study as well as the relief and the map-ping of the historical buildings in Piazza della Signoria and of the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, have ledto the description of the materials that make them up as well as to the establishment of their quarry provenance.

  14. Determination of concentration of natural radioisotopes in some raw and building materials - description and comparison of used methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses two most popular methods for determining the natural radioisotopes (K-40, Ra-226, Th-232) content in raw- and building materials, and in other solid samples. The two methods were 3-channel gamma spectroscopy using a scintillation counter, and the multichannel gamma spectroscopy using a semiconductor detector. Results for K-40, Ra-226, Th-232 determination obtained with the help of both methods were compared for several hundred samples of raw- and building materials. A good consistency of the results obtained with two methods has been observed in the framework of precision that is required for this kind of analyses (environmental studies). The maximum relative discrepancy between the results of two methods lies under 15% and its average value is about 4%. It has been demonstrated that for routine analyses the use of the 3-channel gamma spectrometer gives entirely satisfactory results. (author)

  15. Use of the microcrystalline limestone as building material: the "GrisPulpis"case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García del Cura, M. A.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Gris Pulpis is a Jurassic microcrystalline limestone found in the Maestrazgo Area of the Iberian Mountain Range (province of Castellón, Spain. This paper reports the results of a detailed study of the mineralogical, pelrographic and chromatic characteristics, as well as the durability, of this stone, classified as a commercial marble for its polish ability. The study determined the relationship between the structural characteristics of the stone, with a proliferation of stylolites and veins, and its physical properties. Its flexura I strength was found to be greater than would normally be expected in a structure with such a dense web of stylolites and veins. This is due to the structural and mineralogical properties of these stylolites, characterised by an extremely wavy design, scant mineral infillings and, occasionally, subsequent cementation. The characteristics of the porous media of homogeneous microcrystalline limestones such as Gris Pulpis largely explain the durability of this stone when exposed to freeze-thaw cycles and salt crystallisation. These arc the properties that make Gris Pulpis limestone, quarried in the Spanish Region of Valencia, a valuable building material for both architectural and civil engineering applications

    En este trabajo se analizan las propiedades físicas y la durabilidad de una caliza microcristalina.El Gris Pulpis es una caliza microcristalina del Jurásico de la Cordillera Ibérica (Maestrazgo, cuyas características mineralógicas, petrográficas, cromáticas y alterabilidad se determinan detalladamente. Su aptitud para el pulido hace que sea un mármol comercial. Se establece la influencia de sus características estructurales (estilolitos, vénulas... en sus propiedades físicas. Su resistencia a flexión supera los valores que cabría esperar en función de la estructura de esta roca que, a veces, presenta abundantes estilolitos y vénulas. Esto es debido a las características estructurales y

  16. MFR (Multi-purpose Field Robot) Based on Human-Robot Cooperative Manipulation for Handling Building Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, SeungYeol

    2010-01-01

    The prototype of MFR for handling building materials presented in this study combines a manipulator and a mobile platform standardized in modular form to compose its basic system. Also, the hardware and software necessary for each area of application were composed of additional modules and combined with the robot's basic system. The suggested MFR can execute particular operations in various areas such as construction, national defense and rescue by changing these additional modules. One of th...

  17. Detection of Indigenous Halobacillus Populations in Damaged Ancient Wall Paintings and Building Materials: Molecular Monitoring and Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Ramos, Cayo; Rölleke, Sabine; Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Vybiral, Dietmar; Lubitz, Werner; Denner, Ewald B M

    2001-01-01

    Several moderately halophilic gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria have been isolated by conventional enrichment cultures from damaged medieval wall paintings and building materials. Enrichment and isolation were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescent in situ hybridization. 16S ribosomal DNA analysis showed that the bacteria are most closely related to Halobacillus litoralis. DNA-DNA reassociation experiments identified the isolates as a population of hitherto u...

  18. The OENORM S 5200 'Radioactivity in building materials' as a tool for radiation protection of the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report comprises two papers, one which is announced in the title, i.e. B. Kunsch, F. Steger, E. Tschirf: The OENORM S 5200 'Radioactivity in building materials' as a tool for radiation protection of the general population; and in addition a paper by F. Steger, H. Stadtmann, P. Kindl, L. Breitenhuber: Radon in dwellings: investigations and measurements. The two papers are treated separately. (qui)

  19. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part III. Determining which practices are most effective and installing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The training program is designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. A teacher guide and student workbook are available to supplement the basic manual. Subjects covered in Part III are: determining which practices are most efficient and economical; installing energy-saving materials; and improving efficiency of equipment.

  20. The use of the bottom ashes and of the steelmaking slags in the manufacturing technologies of the building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Popescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The energetic and metallurgy industries of Romania represent the main waste sources significant from the point of quantitative view: the bottom ashes and the blast furnace and secondary metallurgical slags. Starting from the knowledge of the main chemical-physical properties of these two types of industrial wastes, there were inquired the exploitation possibilities in the technological practice, by using in the manufacturing of some building materials, for which these wastes represent the exclusive raw material source. The experiments considered the granular aggregate properties of the bottom ash and of the blast furnace slag, completed by the hydraulic binder of the secondary metallurgical slag, after the fine crushing.

  1. Sobre a natureza multidimensional do desenvolvimento

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Sandrina Berthault

    2009-01-01

    Comunicação apresentada no X Congresso Luso-Afro-Brasileiro de Ciências Sociais: Sociedades Desiguais e Paradigmas em Confronto - 2009, Braga Desde muito cedo se observam esforços na pesquisa de novos conceitos de desenvolvimento que se afastassem da sua identificação com o crescimento económico saída do pós-guerra. Os contributos críticos e de busca de um novo conceito de desenvolvimento surgem, especialmente, a partir da década de 70, vindo a estabilizar nos conceitos de desenvolvi...

  2. Natural radioactivity in building materials in the European Union: a database and an estimate of radiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, R; Risica, S; D'Alessandro, M; Paradiso, D; Nuccetelli, C

    2012-02-01

    The authors set up a database of activity concentration measurements of natural radionuclides (²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K) in building material. It contains about 10,000 samples of both bulk material (bricks, concrete, cement, natural- and phosphogypsum, sedimentary and igneous bulk stones) and superficial material (igneous and metamorphic stones) used in the construction industry in most European Union Member States. The database allowed the authors to calculate the activity concentration index I--suggested by a European technical guidance document and recently used as a basis for elaborating the draft Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive--for bricks, concrete and phosphogypsum used in the European Union. Moreover, the percentage could be assessed of materials possibly subject to restrictions, if either of the two dose criteria proposed by the technical guidance were to be adopted.

  3. Natural radioactive level in coal and ash and building material products from coal-fired power plants in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the methods and results of survey on content of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in samples of coal, ash from 5 coal-fired power plants in Beijing and ash bricks, air-added concrete from Beijing air-added concrete plant from February to December, 1993. 55 coal Samples, 26 ash Samples, 8 ash brick samples and 8 air-added concrete samples were collected. These samples were analysed by type FH-1936 low background γ-spectrometer. The average value of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K of coal is 28.9, 35.9 and 80.4 Bq/kg, respectively; 101, 110 and 347 Bq/kg, for ash; 47.6, 72.9 and 288 Bq/kg, for ash brick and 47.8, 70.1 and 216 Bq/kg for air-added concrete, respectively. In addition, γ radiation dose rate inside buildings of workers, dwelling houses of the Beijing air-added concrete plant made of ash building materials were investigated and analysed. The range and the average value of 8 measurement values is (67.4-84.7) nGy/h and 78.2 nGy/h, respectively. It approaches to the average value inside bungalow of bricks and a building of two or more storeys made of bricks and concrete in Beijing and within normal range. The results show that it might not cause obviously increase of γ radiation dose rate inside building when the ash were rationally used as the raw materials of building

  4. Use of Secondary Building Materials in EU - Different National Strategies; Anvaendning av restprodukter inom EU - Olika nationella strategier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Gunilla; Wilhelmsson, Anna (Ramboell Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this report is to show how use of waste/secondary building materials/aggregates for construction purposes is managed in 8 different countries within the European Union. A short review is done how national legislations and guidelines support, and restrict, reuse in an environmentally responsible way, and experiences from and control of some construction purposes. Different national strategies are used in the studied countries, depending on their previous experiences of reuse of secondary building materials, natural conditions and energy systems, and administrative traditions. In general the actual regulations are built on high demands on protection of water and soil resources and protection of health and environment, with the pronounced aim of supporting waste reuse for construction purposes. In most countries regulations of environmentally controlled use of secondary building materials contains these elements as a basis: - Inert waste are often free for construction use; - Specific waste fractions are allowed; - Specified use is defined; - Different material categories might be used/prescribed for different purposes; - Ashes of different origin is an important source for secondary aggregates; - Quality control of materials and construction is essential; - Specified precaution or remediation are prescribed, according to the purpose; - Reporting or simplified permit processes are prescribed. There is generally a specific regulation concerning use of secondary materials. If used in other circumstances than prescribed/listed, it will normally need a regular environmental permit process. Important experiences are that proper design and control of the construction is essential, based on know-how, research and feed-back from experience. It exists a broad base of knowledge in the studied European countries, including material properties, leaching behaviour and testing methods for a wide range of materials. Many successful ways of promoting cooperation between

  5. Molecular Building Blocks for Nanotechnology From Diamondoids to Nanoscale Materials and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mansoori, G. Ali; Assoufid, Lahsen; Zhang, Guoping

    2007-01-01

    This book is a result of the research and educational activities of a group of outstanding scientists worldwide who have authored the chapters of this book dealing with the behavior of nanoscale building blocks. It contains a variety of subjects covering computational, dry and wet nanotechnology. The state-of-the-art subject matters presented here provide the reader with the latest developments on ongoing nanoscience and nanotechnology research from the bottom-up approach, which starts with with atoms and molecules as molecular building blocks.

  6. Traditional Building Materials and Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites. A Sustainability Approach in Construction Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Maxineasa, Sebastian-George; Ţăranu, Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that the construction industry is among the largest consumers of material, energy and a significant polluter. From the extraction of raw materials to disposal and recycling, the entire life cycle of a construction has a significant environmental impact. The manufacturing/ processing of materials represents an important phase in the life cycle of constructions which has a negative effect on the environment. Accordingly, the construction materials industry has made tremendous p...

  7. Digital learning material for experimental design and model building in molecular biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Designing experimental approaches is a major cognitive skill in molecular biology research, and building models, including quantitative ones, is a cognitive skill which is rapidly gaining importance. Since molecular biology education at university level is aimed at educating future researchers, we c

  8. Standard linear solid model for dynamic and time dependent behaviour of building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, Y.M.; Sluimers, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Vibrations in building structures are almost always undesirable. Whether in the form of low frequency oscillations, or droning of the structure, or as audible noise, they may effect the comfort of the user. They may even effect the safety and the integrity of (parts of) the structure. Damping of mec

  9. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Prioritize and Select Phase Change Materials for Comfort Application in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socaciu Lavinia Gabriela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs selection and prioritization for comfort application in buildings have a significant contribution to the improvement of latent heat storage systems. PCMs have a relatively large thermal energy storage capacity in a temperature range close to their switch point. PCMs absorb energy during the heating process as phase change takes place and release energy to the environment in the phase change range during a reverse cooling process. Thermal energy storage systems using PCMs as storage medium offer advantages such as: high heat storage capacity and store/release thermal energy at a nearly constant temperature, relative low weight, small unit size and isothermal behaviour during charging and discharging when compared to the sensible thermal energy storage. PCMs are valuable only in the range of temperature close to their phase change point, since their main thermal energy storage capacity depend on their mass and on their latent heat of fusion. Selection of the proper PCMs is a challenging task because there are lots of different materials with different characteristics. In this research paper the principles and techniques of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP are presented, discussed and applied in order to prioritize and select the proper PCMs for comfort application in buildings. The AHP method is used for solving complex decisional problems and allows the decision maker to take the most suitable decisions for the problem studied. The results obtained reveal that the AHP method can be successfully applied when we want to choose a PCM for comfort application in buildings.

  10. Some potential material supply constraints in solar systems for heating and cooling of buildings and process heat. (A preliminary screening to identify critical materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Gurwell, W.E.; Nelson, T.A.; Smith, S.A.

    1979-06-01

    Nine Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (SHACOB) designs and three Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat (AIPH) designs have been studied to identify potential future material constraints to their large scale installation and use. The nine SHACOB and three AIPH systems were screened and found to be free of serious future material constraints. The screening was carried out for each individual system design assuming 500 million m/sup 2/ of collector area installed by the year 2000. Also, two mixed design scenarios, containing equal portions of each system design, were screened. To keep these scenarios in perspective, note that a billion m/sup 2/ containing a mixture of the nine SHACOB designs will yield an annual solar contribution of about 1.3 Quads or will displace about 4.2 Quads of fossil fuel used to generate electricity. For AIPH a billion square meters of the mixed designs will yield about 2.8 Quads/year. Three materials were identified that could possibly restrain the deployment of solar systems in the specific scenarios investigated. They are iron and steel, soda lime glass and polyvinyl fluoride. All three of these materials are bulk materials. No raw material supply constraints were found.

  11. Internal exposure from building materials exhaling {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn as compared to external exposure due to their natural radioactivity content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujic, Predrag [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Celikovic, Igor [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)], E-mail: icelikovic@vinca.rs; Kandic, Aleksandar; Vukanac, Ivana; Durasevic, Mirjana; Dragosavac, Dusan; Zunic, Zora S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-01-15

    The main scope of this paper is to point out the importance of introducing radon and thoron exhalation measurements from building materials in the regulating frame. Currently (2009), such a regulation of this kind of exposure is not explicitly included in the Serbian regulating network. To this end, this work reports concentration measurements of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K and radon and thoron exhalation rates from building materials used in Serbia. Following detailed analysis, it was noticed that both internal exposures to radon and/or thoron exhaling from building materials may exceed external exposures to their precursors contained therein.

  12. Simulation and experimental study of thermal performance of a building roof with a phase change material (PCM)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Mannivannan; M T Jaffarsathiq Ali

    2015-12-01

    Latent heat storage in a phase change material (PCM) is very attractive because of its high-energy storage density and its isothermal behaviour during the phase change process. Low thermal conductivity of the walls and roof reduces the heat gain at a steady state condition. Chloride hexahydrate (CaCl26H2O) as a phase change material (PCM) for a room was proposed in this paper to control the indoor air temperature for a better thermal comfort for human beings. Building concrete roof with vertical cylindrical hole of 0.5 $\\times$ 0.5 m and array of 3 $\\times$ 3 filled with phase change material (PCM) was considered for analysis. A detailed thermal analysis was carried by both simulation and experimental study. Results showed that this type of PCM room can decrease the indoor air temperature fluctuation by a maximum of 4°C.

  13. Detection of moisture behavior in building materials in isothermal state by neutron radiography and numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research focused on the water absorption behavior in water retentive materials and water permeable materials, by using the neutron radiography technique. The moisture characteristic curve, which is hydraulic diffusivity as a function of volumetric moisture content, was calculated with pore size distribution of the both materials, and an unsteady water diffusion analysis was conducted. The experimentally observed water behaviors by the absorption test were well captured by the diffusion analysis. And also the results showed that the gravity effect for calculation of water movement in the water retentive and permeable materials was considerable in comparably rapid water movement. (author)

  14. Reduced energy use for ventilation of buildings through selection of low-polluting building materials and furniture. Final Report; Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger hvori der systematisk er valgt lav-forurenende materialer og inventar. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-11-15

    The main objective of the research project was to study the potential of reducing energy used for ventilating buildings by using low-polluting building materials and thereby ensuring that indoor air quality will not be compromised. To quantify this potential, the exposure-response relationships, i.e. the relationships between ventilation rate and the perceived indoor air quality (indoor air quality perceived by humans as opposed to indoor air quality evaluated by chemical measurements), were established for rooms furnished with different more or less polluting materials. Based on these results simulations of energy used for ventilation were carried out for selected building scenarios. The exposure-response relationships were established by summarizing existing data reported in the literature and by a series of new experiments. The data summarized by reviewing the literature included data for building materials and furnishing tested in a laboratory setting in small-scale ventilated glass chambers, and in full-scale in ventilated climate chambers, test rooms or normal offices. Relevant low-polluting building materials were selected based on the literature review and a series of new experiments performed in ventilated small-scale glass chambers. Then the final experiments in which the effects of using low-polluting materials on perceived air quality were carried out in ventilated small-scale glass chambers and in full-scale test rooms ventilated with different outdoor air supply rates. Simulations of energy used for ventilation were carried out using BSim software. During simulations the ventilation rate was varied to obtain different levels of air quality when low-polluting building materials had been used, and it was examined how these changes influence the energy use. The results show that the exposure-response relationships vary between different building materials and thus the ventilation requirement to achieve a certain level of perceived indoor air quality vary

  15. Proposal for the use of new materials in the TOKAMAK building cover; Contrato de ingenieria/arquitectura para el proyecto ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiva, L.

    2011-07-01

    It was considered relevant and innovative to apply new structural materials to the construction of the roof of the building that lodged the TOKAMAK reactor, with the aim of achieving a severe reduction of the weight of the roof structure that result in greater ease of mounting, minor charges on the walls and foundations of the building and a reduced impact on the distribution of masses of the building scheme.

  16. Investigations of some building materials for γ-rays shielding effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Kulwinder Singh; Kaur, Baljit; Sidhu, Gurdeep Singh; Kumar, Ajay

    2013-06-01

    For construction of residential and non-residential buildings bricks are used as building blocks. Bricks are made from mixtures of sand, clay, cement, fly ash, gypsum, red mud and lime. Shielding effectiveness of five soil samples and two fly ash samples have been investigated using some energy absorption parameters (Mass attenuation coefficients, mass energy absorption coefficients, KERMA (kinetic energy released per unit mass), HVL, equivalent atomic number and electron densities) firstly at 14 different energies from 81-1332 keV then extended to wide energy range 0.015-15 MeV. The soil sample with maximum shielding effectiveness has been used for making eight fly ash bricks [(Lime)0.15 (Gypsum)0.05 (Fly Ash)x (Soil)0.8-x, where values of x are from 0.4-0.7]. High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been used for gamma-ray spectroscopy. The elemental compositions of samples were analysed using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. The agreements of theoretical and experimental values of mass attenuation coefficient have been found to be quite satisfactory. It has been verified that common brick possess the maximum shielding effectiveness for wide energy range 0.015-15 MeV. The results have been shown graphically with some useful conclusions for making radiation safe buildings.

  17. A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend Materials with CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Arthur; Domszy, Roman; Yang, Jeff

    2016-03-30

    Advanced thermal insulation is among the most effective technologies in transforming our nation’s energy system and contributing to DOE’s stated goal of 50% less building energy consumption by 2030. The installation of an advanced thermal insulation would prevent energy waste without the need for any maintenance, and ISTN conservatively estimates that the commercialization of such a new technology would contribute to annual U.S. energy savings of 0.361 Quads and $8 billion in annual economic savings. The key challenge to improving building insulation is to maintain and surpass the industry standard of R-5 per inch insulation value in a cost-competitive manner. Improvements in R-value without cost-efficiency are not likely to impact the market given the cost-sensitive nature of the construction industry (insulation is already the lowest-cost component of the building envelope). However, significantly higher insulating value at competitive costs is extremely appealing to the market given the greater potential to save on energy consumption and costs over the long-term. Thus, our goal is to develop a super-thermal insulation with 50% greater insulation value (R-9 to R-10 per inch) and manufacturing costs that are equal on a per-R-value basis (< $0.70/ft2).

  18. On the Application of Building Fire Protection Materials%探讨建筑防火材料的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙远光

    2014-01-01

    建筑防火在建筑施工中占据着非常重要的地位,为了保证它的安全性和可靠性,防火材料的质量非常重要。如今大量新型防火材料不仅保证了建筑安全,还健康环保,无污染。本文主要介绍几种新型的建筑防火材料的特点及应用。%The building fire occupies a very important posit-ion in the construction, in order to ensure the safety and reli-ability, its quality of fire-proof material is very important. Now a lot of new fireproof material not only guarantee the cons-truction safety, but also are healthy, environmental protection and no polution. This paper mainly introduces the charact-eristics and application of several new building fireproof ma-terials.

  19. Natural radioactivity in some building materials in Cuba and their contribution to the indoor gamma dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barreras Caballero, Aldo A.; Montalvan Estrada, Alberto; Queipo Garcia, Maite [Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Camaguey (Cuba). Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear. Lab. de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Zerquera, Juan Tomas [Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, La Habana (Cuba). Agencia de Energia Nuclear. Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones

    2001-07-01

    The natural radioactivity of some building materials commonly used in Cuba was measured by gamma spectrometry. Typical concentrations, so far encountered, are in the ranges: 47 to 2511 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 40} K; 9 to 71 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226} Ra; and 2 to 38 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 232} Th. The external gamma ray absorbed doses in indoor air, and the corresponding effective dose equivalents in a typical dwelling are presented in this work. (author)

  20. Evaluation of radiation dose due to the use of fly ash from Thermal Power Plants as building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fly ash from coal fired thermal power plants has cementitious properties. Use of the same in construction is growing recently. It also is well known that the fly ash contains elevated levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. The use of fly ash in building material thus exposes the occupants to radiation doses from these radionuclides. An attempt was made to evaluate the radiation doses arising from a dwelling built using fly ash as one of the components of the concrete at different proportions. The radioactivity concentrations were determined gamma spectrometrically. The doses were calculated assuming different scenarios of construction. (author)

  1. 新兴建材——煤矸石的回收利用%New building materials - recycling gangue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常改珍

    2012-01-01

      Discussion describes the use of coal gangue manufacture of new building materials, not only can reduce the environmental costs of pro-cessing coal gangue, vegetation and farmland protection, source reduction, and is an important measure of social transformation and development.%  通过论述说明,利用煤矸石制造新型建材,不仅可以降低处理煤矸石的环保费用,保护植被与耕地,减少污染源,而且是社会转型发展的重要举措。

  2. Development of Ultra-Light Composite Material to Build the Platform of a Shaking Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botero-Jaramillo Eduardo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the developments of the last decades in the area of ultra-light materials, their application in the construction of the platform of the new one direction hydrau- lic shaking table was proposed, with capacity of one ton and frequency range from 0.4 Hz to 4.0 Hz for the Geotechnical Laboratory of the Institute of Engineering, UNAM. The aim was to replace the heavy conventional steel platforms, used in shaking tables, by a composite material based on wood and Kevlar, hence reducing its weight and optimizing the hydraulic equipment capacity available in the labora- tory. Accordingly, an experimental investigation was conducted to characterize the stress-strain behavior of composite materials under monotonically increasing load. This research involved the determination of the adequate proportions of the different constituent materials and manufacturing techniques that best suit the needs and available resources.

  3. Effect of airflow velocity on moisture exchange at surfaces of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2006-01-01

    The moisture transfer between air and construction are affected of the boundary layer conditions close to the surface, which is influenced by the airflow patterns in the room. Therefore an investigation of the relation be-tween the surface resistance and the airflow velocity above a material sample...... resistances decrease for increasing airflow velocity above the boundary layer of the material surface. The measured resistances are somewhat smaller than the ones esti-mated by use of the Lewis relation....

  4. Influence of precision of emission characteristic parameters on model prediction error of VOCs/formaldehyde from dry building material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Wei

    Full Text Available Mass transfer models are useful in predicting the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and formaldehyde from building materials in indoor environments. They are also useful for human exposure evaluation and in sustainable building design. The measurement errors in the emission characteristic parameters in these mass transfer models, i.e., the initial emittable concentration (C 0, the diffusion coefficient (D, and the partition coefficient (K, can result in errors in predicting indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentrations. These errors have not yet been quantitatively well analyzed in the literature. This paper addresses this by using modelling to assess these errors for some typical building conditions. The error in C 0, as measured in environmental chambers and applied to a reference living room in Beijing, has the largest influence on the model prediction error in indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentration, while the error in K has the least effect. A correlation between the errors in D, K, and C 0 and the error in the indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentration prediction is then derived for engineering applications. In addition, the influence of temperature on the model prediction of emissions is investigated. It shows the impact of temperature fluctuations on the prediction errors in indoor VOC and formaldehyde concentrations to be less than 7% at 23±0.5°C and less than 30% at 23±2°C.

  5. Attenuation coefficients of soils and some building materials of Bangladesh in the energy range 276-1332 keV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M N; Miah, M M; Chowdhury, M I; Kamal, M; Ghose, S; Rahman, R

    2001-06-01

    The linear and mass attenuation coefficients of different types of soil, sand, building materials and heavy beach mineral samples from the Chittagong and Cox's Bazar area of Bangladesh were measured using a high-resolution HPGe detector and the gamma-ray energies 276.1, 302.8, 356.0, 383.8, 661.6 and 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV emitted from point sources of 133Ba, 137Cs and 60Co, respectively. The linear attenuation coefficients show a linear relationship with the corresponding densities of the samples studied. The variations of the mass attenuation coefficient with gamma-ray energy were exponential in nature. The measured mass attenuation coefficient values were compared with measurements made in other countries for similar kinds of materials. The values are in good agreement with each other in most cases. PMID:11300413

  6. Chemistry of Dry Deposition on Building Materials at an Urban Site on Indo Gangetic Plain in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Srivastava, S. S.; Kumari, K. M.

    2008-05-01

    Dry deposition is an important pathway for removal of pollutants from the atmosphere to earth surfaces. Agra is famous for historical monuments and cultural heritage worldwide. Increase in atmospheric contamination has caused extinction threats to building materials. The main pollutants of concern are S and N species. This paper deals with deposition of F-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, SO2, HNO3, NH3, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ on marbles and red stones at Agra a site in Indo-Gangetic Plain. Dry deposition was higher on white marble than red stone. X-ray study reveals that higher deposition on marble is probably due to chemical characteristics of surfaces. Direct measurements study are cumbersome and tedious so an alternate method of parameterization based on meteorological parameters for calculation of dry deposition of S and N compounds to building materials are simulated and computer programme was developed to make it more convenient, fast and useful. The deposition velocity of SO2, HNO3, SO42- and NO3- obtained by current parameterization method are in the reported range. Dry deposition fluxes obtained by the current parameterization method and direct measurements are in the range.

  7. Phosphogypsum as an alternative building material: preliminary modeling and simulation of radon-222 exhalation from blocks and indoor accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product from the phosphate fertilizer industry and its large-scale utilization as an alternative construction material copes with radiological issues related to radon-222. Zero-order models for radon-222 exhalation from phosphogypsum building blocks and its time-varying accumulation in closed domains (e.g. indoor accumulation) presume homogeneous distribution of radon-222 throughout the enclosure. Having in mind radiological protection design, exhalation characterization of a block sample is a valuable parameter for the corresponding building performance simulation and it can be accomplished by placing a test block inside a test chamber together with a suitable nuclear detector (their relative positioning depends on the chamber geometry). As breakdown of the uniform concentration hypothesis is likely to occur, this preliminary work numerically investigates such model oversimplification. Along with emanation and decay processes, the present mathematical model assumes time-dependent two-dimensional diffusion-dominant mass transfer in a domain containing a sample of porous material, namely the phosphogypsum block of finite thickness. Conversely, as the test chamber is quite small and air-tight closed, convective mass transfer is neglected. Numerically simulated results have confirmed that a non-uniform radon-222 distribution takes place, which can obviously influence the position of the nuclear detector (or its primary element), thus affecting its readings. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the dependence of radiation hazard indices on the physical characteristics of phosphogypsum-based building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduar, M.F.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Nisti, M.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Phosphogypsum, a waste by-product derived from the production of phosphoric acid, is being worldwide stockpiled, posing concerns about the environmental problems originating from this practice. Considerations about the viability of the safe reuse of this material have been raised, among them its potential use in civil construction. However, as phosphogypsum can contain natural radionuclides in significant concentrations, using it as a building material has radiological implications, which presently prevent such application. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using phosphogypsum in the manufacturing of building elements such as bricks and plates, a comprehensive research is underway at IPEN, Brazil, following a multiple approach. This research includes studies related to: a) phosphogypsum characterization; b) experimental determination of radon exhalation rates; c) application of theoretical models to forecast both radon exhalation and external doses. In this paper, a case study is performed, using the physical parameters of Brazilian phosphogypsum from different origins, already characterized in previous works, including radionuclides concentration, apparent density and radon exhalation rates. The data are applied to well established methodologies for evaluating the radiation hazard indices and the influence of each physical parameter is also studied. This work will contribute to the national regulatory authority in the definition of constraints for using phosphogypsum in civil construction. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  9. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of archaeologicam building materials from Seyitomer Hoyuk Kutahya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgen, Nejat; Olgun, Asim

    This paper focuses on the spectroscopic and thermal analysis of the archaeological samples of mortar and plaster from middle Bronze Age and Achaemenid period in Seyitömer Höyük. The composition of the samples was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The results showed that human used different types of raw materials in the preperation of the mortar and plaster in the Middle Bronze Age and Achaemenid period. The material used in middle Bronze Age contains muscovite whereas the material in Achaemenid period contains albite. Although, the chemical composition of the mortar and plaster used in the period were similar, the calcium content of the plaster is relatively higher than the one of the mortar indicating people's awareness of the binding properties of calcite.

  10. Proportion and Building Material, or Theory versus Practice in the Determination of the Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lex Bosman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Architectural theorists have advocated the use of a module in the design process since the time of Vitruvius, but the responsibility for the creation of the module has remained largely unclear. The module has always been described as related or equal to the column shaft diameter. Since antiquity columns, for example, were mostly delivered in standard measures; the architect in charge was very limited in his selection of a module. In the 15th and 16th centuries, only gradually did theoreticians understand that here theory and practice were not in line. Things began to change with Vignola, who described a method for how to calculate the proper module for each individual design and building project.

  11. Determination of Mass Attenuation Coefficients for Some Cement Types Used As Building Materials in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents experimental and theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values of six cement types used in building construction in Turkey. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients were measured at 14 different gamma ray energies from 81 to 1332.5 keV by using 109Cd, 57Co, 133Ba, 54Mn, 137Cs, 60Co and 22Na radioactive sources. Measurements were carried out by using gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector with a resolution of 1.9 keV at the 1332.5 keV. The chemical compositions of cement types were analyzed using EDXRF system. Taking into account the elemental compositions of cement types, theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were calculated using XCOM programme

  12. Integration of terrestrial laser scanner, ultrasonic and petrographical data in the diagnostic process on stone building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casula, Giuseppe; Fais, Silvana; Giovanna Bianchi, Maria; Cuccuru, Francesco; Ligas, Paola

    2015-04-01

    The Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) is a modern contactless non-destructive technique (NDT) useful to 3D-model complex-shaped objects with a few hours' field survey. A TLS survey produces very dense point clouds made up of coordinates of point and radiometric information given by the reflectivity parameter i.e. the ratio between the amount of energy emitted by the sensor and the energy reflected by the target object. Modern TLSs used in architecture are phase instruments where the phase difference obtained by comparing the emitted laser pulse with the reflected one is proportional to the sensor-target distance expressed as an integer multiple of the half laser wavelength. TLS data are processed by registering point clouds i.e. by referring them to the same reference frame and by aggregation after a fine registration procedure. The resulting aggregate point cloud can be compared with graphic primitives as single or multiple planes, cylinders or spheres, and the resulting residuals give a morphological map that affords information about the state of conservation of the building materials used in historical or modern buildings, in particular when compared with other NDT techniques. In spite of its great productivity, the TLS technique is limited in that it is unable to penetrate the investigated materials. For this reason both the 3D residuals map and the reflectivity map need to be correlated with the results of other NDT techniques such as the ultrasonic method, and a complex study of the composition of building materials is also necessary. The application of a methodology useful to evaluate the quality of stone building materials and locate altered or damaged zones is presented in this study based on the integrated application of three independent techniques, two non destructive such as the TLS and the ultrasonic techniques in the 24-54 kHz range, and a third to analyze the petrographical characteristics of the stone materials, mainly the texture, with optical and

  13. The role of absorbent building materials in moderating changes of relative humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Tim

    The problem studied in this work is, how porous, absorbent materials surroundning or placed in a room influence the relative humidity of the room. This is of interest in designing precautions and machinery to monitor the indoor climate in museums and dwelling rooms. - A novel technique for the...

  14. A Place for Materials Science: Laboratory Buildings and Interdisciplinary Research at the University of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungsub; Shields, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter (LRSM), University of Pennsylvania, was built in 1965 as part of the Advanced Research Projects Agency's (ARPA) Interdisciplinary Laboratories (IDL) program intended to foster interdisciplinary research and training in materials science. The process that led to the construction of the…

  15. Chemical surety material decontamination and decommissioning of Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemical Surety Material Laboratory area TA-3, building SM-29, room 4009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1982 through 1987, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performed surety laboratory operations for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (MRDC). Room 4009 in building SM-29, TA-3, was used as the laboratory for work with the following chemical surety material (CSM) agents: sarin (GB), soman (GD), lewisite (L), and distilled mustard (HD) radio-labelled with H3 or C14. The work was confined to three CSM-certified fume hoods, located in room 4009 (see diagram in Appendix C). The laboratory ceased all active operations during the late 1986 and early 1987 period. From 1987 until 1993 the laboratory was secured and the ventilation system continued to operate. During late 1992, the decision was made to utilize this laboratory space for other operations, thus a decision was made to dismantle and reconfigure this room. LANL sub-contracted Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) to draw upon the CSM experience of the technical staff from the Hazardous Materials Research Facility (HMRF) to assist in developing a decontamination and decommissioning plan. BMI was subcontracted to devise a CSM safety training course, and a sampling and air monitoring plan for CSM material to ensure personnel safety during all disassembly operations. LANL subcontracted Johnson Controls personnel to perform all disassembly operations. Beginning in early 1993 BMI personnel from the HMRF visited the laboratory to develop both the safety plan and the sample and air monitoring plan. Execution of that plan began in September 1993 and was completed in January 1994

  16. Modelling critical degrees of saturation of porous building materials subjected to freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    1996-01-01

    Frost resistance of porous materials can be characterized by the critical degree of saturation, SCR, and the actual degree of saturation, SACT. An experimental determination of SCR is very laborious and therefore only seldom used when testing frost resistance. A theoretical model for prediction.......The model has been tested on various concretes without air-entrainment and on brick tiles with different porosities. Results agree qualitatively with values of the critical degree of saturation determined by measuring resonance frequencies and length change of sealed specimens during freezing...... to describe the development of stresses and the pore structure, because a mathematical description of the physical theories explaining the process of freezing of water in porous materials is lacking.Calculations are based on porosity, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength, and parameters characterizing...

  17. Testing a model for the critical degree of saturation at freezing of porous building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    1996-01-01

    Frost resistance of porous materials can be characterized by the critical degree of saturation, SCR. An experimental determination of SCR is very laborious and therefore only seldom used when testing frost resistance. A theoretical model for prediction of SCR based on fracture mechanics and phase......-thaw without de-icing salts. The model has been tested on various concretes without air-entrainment and on brick tiles with different porosities. Results agree qualitatively with values of the critical degree of saturation determined by measuring resonance frequencies and length change of sealed specimens...... of elasticity, tensile strength, amount of freezable water, thermal expansion coefficients and parameters characterizing the pore structure and its effect on strength, modulus of elasticity and volumetric expansion. For the present, the model assumes non air-entrained homogeneous materials subjected to freeze...

  18. Hidrofobna zaščita poroznih gradbenih materilov: Hydrophobic protection of porous building materials:

    OpenAIRE

    Apih, Vera; Nemec, Tomaž; Polšak, Gorazd

    2000-01-01

    A hydrofobic treatment with silane agents is used for the surface protection of concrete in road construction. The hydrofobic (water repellent) protective coating prevents the penetration of water into the material while allowing the penetration of vapour. Two standard methods are employed for determining the hydrofobic efficiency of various silane agents: measurement of capillary water adsorption in impregnated concrete samples and the OSMO test (measurement of frost resistance of impregnate...

  19. Metal-containing polymers: building blocks for functional (nano)materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaosong; McHale, Ronan

    2010-02-16

    The incorporation of metallic units into polymer chains has emerged as a promising route towards functional metal-containing (nano)materials. The resulting polymers possess rich functions derived from their metallic elements, such as redox, optical, catalytic and magnetic properties. In addition, the directional and dynamic nature of metal coordination interactions provides further variables for the exploration of novel materials with designed nanostructures. These types of polymers can be synthesized through direct metal-ligand coordination or chain polymerization of metal containing monomers. Depending on the polymerization techniques and starting components, the resulting polymers, akin to their organic counterparts, can be produced in the form of insoluble networks, processible chain structures, gels or colloids. Research into this rising multidisciplinary subject has benefited from recent progress in several related areas such as supramolecular chemistry, colloidal chemistry etc., with the combination of the relative merits of each ensuring further developments in each individual discipline. For example, as a result of studies into organometallic block copolymers self-assembly behavior, living supramolecular polymerization has been unprecedentedly realized for the architectural design of micelles (see image on the right). Nevertheless, the field is still in a developmental stage and offers ample opportunities for fundamental research, as well as material exploration. In this Feature Article, we intend to overview the field with a brief survey of recent literature. PMID:21590911

  20. Clearance of materials, buildings and land with low content of radioactive materials. Methodology and documentation; Frigivelse af materialer og omraeder med lavt aktivitetsindhold. Metodebeskrivelse og dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Warming, L

    2003-06-01

    The concepts and methods of clearance of materials originating from the decommissioning af the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory are described as well as procedures for clearance of buildings and land. The recommendations from international organisations as well as national regulation on clearance are presented. Methods for characterisation and separation of waste being candidate for clearance are presented.Di .erent methodologies for determining the content of radionuclides in candidate waste for clearance are discussed,and the need for and construction of a low-level laboratory for activity analyses in both bulky and less bulky subjects is described. Laboratory analyses, documentation of results and education of health physics personnel is presented. (au)

  1. A study of radon emitted from building materials using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat M. Amin

    2015-10-01

    For this purpose, in this study the Can Technique using CR-39 plastic track detectors was used to measure radium content and exhalation rates of radon in building samples collected from Jizan districts-a province in southern Saudi Arabia. The values of effective radium content are found to vary from 0.21 to 2.2 Bq kg−1 with a mean value of 0.92 Bq kg−1 and a standard deviation of 0.81. All the values of radium content in all samples under test were found to be quite lower than the permissible value of 370 Bq kg−1 recommended by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The values of mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.6 to 16.7 mBq kg−1 h−1 with a mean value of 6.9 mBq kg−1 h−1, while the surface exhalation rates vary from 29.7 to 998.9 mBq m−2 h−1 with a mean value of 219.6 mBq m−2 h−1. Alpha index and annual effective doses have also been estimated.

  2. The effect of nesting material on the nest-building and maternal behavior of domestic sows and piglet production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupková, H; Illmann, G; Neuhauserová, K; Simecková, M; Kratinová, P

    2011-02-01

    Nest building is an important part of maternal behavior in domestic pigs. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of nesting material sawdust vs. straw on sow behavior 24 h before and after birth of the first piglet (BFP) and piglet production. Sows, housed in farrowing crates, were randomly divided into 2 treatments: sawdust (n = 12) and straw (n = 13). Sawdust and straw were provided during the pre- and parturient period; after parturition, straw was given to both experimental groups. The prepartum nesting period (the time interval between the first and last nest-building records, including all other activity and resting before BFP), the nesting records (number of nesting records), nesting duration (duration of all nesting records), the start and termination of nesting, and the frequency of prepartum postural changes were collected 24 h before BFP. After BFP, number of nesting records and time to first sucking of the litter were collected. Frequency of postural changes and duration of udder access were collected 24 h after BFP during 3 time periods (during parturition, from the end of parturition to 12 h after BFP, and 12 to 24 h after BFP) and the frequency of nursing during 2 time periods (from the end of parturition to 12 h after BFP, and 12 to 24 h after BFP). Piglet BW gain and mortality were estimated 24 h after BFP. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED and the probability of the piglet mortality using PROC GENMOD in SAS. Nesting material did not affect (P > 0.10) most of sow prepartum nesting behavior and had no effect (P > 0.10) on the prepartum frequency of postural changes. Sows from the sawdust treatment had a longer nesting period (P 0.10) of the nesting material on piglet BW gain and mortality was found. The results suggest that sawdust compared with straw as nesting material provided to sows before and through parturition does not negatively affect maternal behavior during the 24 h before and after parturition or piglet production. Therefore

  3. Preliminary Research Concerning Optimal Percentage of Hemp Hurds for Lining Panels and Filler Materials in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria - Adriana GHERGHISAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials for liningst and wall fillermade of hemp hurds and mineral binders represent again in recovery of mineral binders and use ofrepresent lignocellulosic fiber resulted afterprocessing.This paper aims to establish the optimumpercentual range of hemp hurds that can beembedded in ceramic mass, which is able to supportin various stages, the physical and dimensionalintegrity, manipulation, transport and during sandingresistance, the remaining viable recipes being theones that successfully pass this preliminary test. It isexpected for these samples to have comparablethermal and acoustic properties with similar industrialproducts, currently manufactured, which givesthepractical applicability of these composites.

  4. New Materials for the Undergraduate Classroom to Build Pre-Service Teachers' NGSS Skills and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, A. E.; Awad, A. A.; Baldwin, K. A.; Birnbaum, S. J.; Bruckner, M. Z.; DeBari, S. M.; Dechaine, J.; Ebert, J. R.; Gray, K. R.; Hauge, R.; Linneman, S. R.; Monet, J.; Thomas, J.; Varrella, G.

    2014-12-01

    As part of InTeGrate, teams of 3 instructors at 3 different institutions developed modules that help prepare pre-service teachers to teach Earth science aligned with the NGSS. Modules were evaluated against a rubric, which addresses InTeGrate's five guiding principles, learning objectives and outcomes, assessment and measurement, resources and materials, instructional strategies and alignment. As all modules must address one or more Earth-related grand challenge facing society, develop student ability to address interdisciplinary problems, improve student understanding of the methods of geoscience, use authentic geoscience data, and incorporate systems thinking, they align well with the NGSS. Once modules passed the rubric, they were tested by the authors in their classrooms. Testing included pre- and post-assessment of geoscience literacy and assessment of student learning towards the module goal; materials were revised based on the results of testing. In "Exploring Geoscience Methods with Secondary Education Students," pre-service science teachers compare geoscientific thinking with the classic (experimental) scientific method, investigate global climate change and its impacts on human systems, and prepare an interdisciplinary lesson plan that addresses geoscience methods in context of a socioscientific issue. In "Soils and Society," pre-service elementary teachers explore societal issues where soil is important, develop skills to describe and test soil properties, and create a standards-based Soils and Society Kit that consists of lessons and supporting materials to teach K-8 students about a soil-and-society issue. In "Interactions between Water, Earth's Surface, and Human Activity," students explore the effects of running water on shaping Earth's surface both over geologic time and through short-term flooding events, and produce a brochure to inform citizens of the impact of living near a river. The modules are freely available at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/teaching_materials

  5. Solar driven nitrous acid formation on building material surfaces containing titanium dioxide: A concern for air quality in urban areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, Justin M.; Gustafsson, R. Joel; Griffiths, Paul T.; Cox, R. Anthony; Lambert, Richard M.; Jones, Roderic L.

    The photoenhanced uptake of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) to the surface of commercially available self-cleaning window glass has been studied under controlled laboratory conditions. This material is one of an array of modern building products which incorporate titanium dioxide (TiO 2) nanoparticles and are finding increasing use in populated urban areas. Amongst the principal drivers for the use of these materials is that they are thought to facilitate the irreversible removal of pollutants such as NO 2 and organic molecules from the atmosphere and thus act to remediate air quality. While it appears that TiO 2 materials do indeed remove organic molecules from built environments, in this study we show that the photoenhanced uptake of NO 2 to one example material, self-cleaning window glass, is in fact accompanied by the substantial formation (50-70%) of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO). This finding has direct and serious implications for the use of these materials in urban areas. Not only is HONO a harmful respiratory irritant, it is also readily photolysed by solar radiation leading to the formation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) together with the re-release of NO x as NO. The net effect of subsequent OH initiated chemistry can then be the further degradation of air quality through the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and VOC oxidation products. In summary, we suggest that a scientifically conceived technical strategy for air quality remediation based on this technology, while widely perceived as universally beneficial, could in fact have effects precisely opposite to those intended.

  6. Elaboration of building materials from industrial waste from solid granular diatomaceous earth; Elaboracion de material de construccion a partir de residuos industriales solidos granulares procedentes de tierras diatomaceas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Angel S, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work the initial characterization of granular solid industrial waste from diatomaceous earth was carried out using techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. In a second stage leaching of the material was undertaken to the US Patent Number 5, 376,000 and 5, 356,601 obtaining the samples M1-S ph 2, M1-L ph, M1-S ph 10 and M1-L ph 10. In the third stage a new characterization of the samples obtained with the techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was performed, the latter in order to determine the efficiency percentage of the leaching process. In the fourth stage the specimens for performing mechanical, physical and chemical tests were manufactured, using molds as PVC pipes of 1 inch in diameter and 2 inches in length, with a composition of 50% of diatomaceous earth and 50% of cement produced in each. Finally, in the fifth stage mechanical testing (compression resistance), physical (moisture absorption rate) and chemical (composition and structure of the material) are performed. In the last stage, when conducting mechanical testing with the test specimens, the presence of bubbles enclosed in each obtaining erroneous results noted, so it was necessary to develop the specimens again, obtaining in this occasion concentrations of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 of diatomaceous earth with the cement. These results were analyzed to determine if the used material is suitable for the production of building materials such as bricks or partitions, being demonstrated by the tests carried out if they are eligible. (Author)

  7. Analysis of degradation phenomena in ancient, traditional and improved building materials of historical monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Veiga, J. P.

    2008-07-01

    A review is presented on constructive techniques plus materials and the processes involved in degradation phenomena observed in two historical monuments: the Zambujeiro dolmen (Portugal) and the Roman Aqueduct of Carthage (Tunisia). Dolmens are particularly impressive megalithic constructions for the dimensions of granite blocks. At Zambujeiro, the upright stones have undergone a catastrophic evolution after the archaeological exploitation due to accelerated weathering through a process apparently distinct from natural granite decay in nearby outcrops. The biological attack of granite minerals by lichen exudates has emphasized the hazardous character of bromine and more has been learnt about construction techniques, namely, the insertion in the mound of an impermeable clay stratum that hinders water penetration into the dolmen chamber. The characterization of original Roman ashlar blocks, including masonry and the diagnosis of Byzantine and medieval reconstruction testimonies in the Aqueduct of Carthage were the object of a detailed study by X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence. Traditional constructive techniques and local construction materials were studied and successive historical, modern and recent rehabilitations were reappraised.

  8. Energy and economic analysis of a building air-conditioner with a phase change material (PCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Phase change material of Rubitherm20 was applied with the air-conditioner under the climate of Thailand. • PCM was used to reduce cooling load and electrical power of the air-conditioner. • Mathematical model of the packed ball bed of PCM was presented to predict the thermal performance. - Abstract: In this study, a concept of using phase change material (PCM) for improving cooling efficiency of an air-conditioner had been presented under Thailand climate. Rubitherm20 (RT-20) was selected to evaluate the thermal performance by reducing the air temperature entering the evaporating coil. The model of PCM celluloid balls had been performed with the air-conditioner. For the experiment, 2 TR of R-134a air-conditioner was chosen to test a pack bed of PCM balls with thickness 40 cm. The pressure drops of the air flowing through the bed were considered with and without a set of by-pass tubes along the height of the storage bed. The mathematical model of the air-conditioner with the PCM storage was developed and verified with the testing results. From the study results, it could be seen that pressure drops of the bed with and without bypass tubes were nearly the same results. Thus, PCM ball pack bed using RT-20 without bypass tubes was used to improve the cooling efficiency of the air-conditioner. The experimental result of the modified unit was compared and verified with the mathematical model, which agreed quite well with the simulation result. Finally, the model was used to analyze the economic result, which found that the electrical consumption of the modified air-conditioner could be decreased around 3.09 kW h/d. The saving cost from the PCM bed could be 9.10% of 170.03 USD/y and the payback period was around 4.15 y

  9. A Phase-Conjugate-Mirror Inspired Approach for Building Cloaking Structures with Left-handed Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guoan; Heng, Xin; Yang, Changhuei

    2009-01-01

    A phase conjugate mirror (PCM) has a remarkable property of cancellation the back-scattering wave of the lossless scatterers. The similarity of a phase conjugate mirror to the interface of a matched RHM (right-handed material) and a LHM (left-handed material) prompts us to explore the potentials of using the RHM-LHM structure to achieve the anti-scattering property of the PCM. In this paper, we present two such structures. The first one is a RHM-LHM cloaking structure with a lossless arbitrary-shape scatterer imbedded in the RHM and its left-handed duplicate imbedded in the matched LHM. It is shown that such a structure is transparent to the incident electromagnetic (EM) field. As a special case of this structure, we proposed an EM tunnel that allows EM waves to spatially transport to another location in space without significant distortion and reflection. The second one is an RHM-PEC (perfect electric conductor)-LHM cloaking structure, which is composed of a symmetric conducting shell embedded in the interface junction of an RHM and the matched LHM layer. Such a structure presents an anomalously small scattering cross-section to an incident propagating EM field, and the interior of the shell can be used to shield small objects (size comparable to the wavelength) from interrogation. We report the results of 2D finite-element-method (FEM) simulations that were performed to verify our idea, and discuss the unique properties of the proposed structures as well as their limitations.

  10. Multianalytical approach to diagnosis and conservation of building materials: the case of Punta Troia Castle in Marettimo (Aegadian Islands—Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Fabrizio; Savalli, Angela; Cantisani, Emma; Fratini, Fabio; Giamello, Marco; Lezzerini, Marco; Pecchioni, Elena; Tesser, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the results of a multianalytical study carried out through laboratory investigations on building materials of "Punta Troia Castle" in Marettimo Island (Sicily). The main aims of the work were to characterize the petrographic nature and to determine the geological provenance of the stone materials used to build the castle as well as to define the causes and mechanisms at the origin of their decay, in order to support and ensure greater durability to the restoration interventions. Based on the collected data, the local dolomitic limestone may be stated as the main stone for reconstruction purposes. In fact, this building stone shows low porosity, high compactness and a very good durability with respect to any other lithotypes identified in the building structure of the castle.

  11. Modelling the effects of phase change materials on the energy use in buildings. Results of Experiments and System Dynamics Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prins, J.

    2012-02-15

    The current era is in need for more and more sustainable energy solutions. Phase Change Materials (PCM's) are a solution for a more sustainable build environment because they can help to reduce the energy use of buildings during heating and cooling of the indoor air. This paper presents the results of recent experiments that have been executed with test boxes. In addition a System Dynamics model has been developed to find out how PCM's can be used efficiently without testing in reality. The first experiment, in which PCM's were applied in a concrete floor, shows a reduction of peak temperatures with 4C {+-} 0.7C on maximum temperatures and over 1.5C {+-} 0.7C on minimum temperatures during warm periods. The model confirmed these findings, although the predicted reductions were slightly. During the second experiment more PCM's were applied by mounting them into the walls using gypsum plasterboard to increase the latent heat capacity. Remarkably, both the experimental set-up as the model showed that the increase of PCM's (of almost 98%) causes hardly any difference compared to the first situation. Adapting the exterior in a way to absorb more solar energy, increases the average indoor temperature but decreases the reduction of peak temperatures. Again the model confirmed these findings of the experiment. These results show that the effect of PCM's varies on different climatological contexts and with different construction components physics. This means no straight forward advice on the use of PCM's for a building design can be given. The solution for this problem is provided by the model, showing that the effects of PCM's can be modelled in order to use PCM's in an effective way in different climatological contexts and with different characteristics of construction components. The research shows that a simple model is already capable of predicting PCM performance in test boxes with reasonable accuracy. Therefore it can be

  12. Researches, development and characterization of dosimetric materials for monitoring in irradiation processes with high doses; Pesquisa, desenvolvimento e caracterizacao de materiais dosimetricos para monitoramento em processos de irradiacao com doses altas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galante, Ana Maria Sisti

    2003-07-01

    Dosimetric materials that can be produced in Brazil with material acquired in the national market to replace the imported dosimeters used in radiation processing were developed in this work. Mixtures of potassium nitrate and sensitizers compounds as manganese dioxide, barium nitrate and potassium bromide were prepared in the pellet form. Dosimetric characteristics such as dose-response useful range, sensitivity, environmental conditions and dose rate influences were evaluated in {sup 60}Co gamma radiation fields. Dyed polymethylmethacrylate detectors were also produced and its dosimetric characteristics were evaluated. The main characteristics evaluated in this case were: dose response useful range sensitivity, environmental conditions, dose rate influences and radiation energy dependence in gamma radiation fields and accelerated electrons beam of 0.8 to 1.5 MeV. The applied analytic technique was spectrophotometry. The calibration was performed in the irradiation facilities belonging to IPEN and certified by the International Atomic Energy Agency by means of the program IDAS (International Dose Assurance Service ) using the Fricke dosimeter. The mixture of potassium nitrate and manganese dioxide presented the best results and a wide dose range between 200 and 600 kGy. The response of the developed polymethylmethacrylate detectors are similar to the imported detectors and the dose range is characteristic to each detector and depends on the dye added in its formulation. (author)

  13. Desenvolvimento Textil. Malha artesanal e sustentabilidade

    OpenAIRE

    Cacho, Filipa Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Tese de Mestrado em Design de Moda Este projecto, de carácter experimental, visa o desenvolvimento de um novo têxtil que responda às necessidades e preocupações levantadas pelo estilo de vida actual. Ao mesmo tempo, procura inovar o design de malhas artesanal tradicional que tem vindo a viver um revivalismo dentro da moda contemporânea de vanguarda. Uma das maiores preocupações actuais da indústria têxtil, bem como de outras indústrias, é a sustentabilidade, o que se traduz no desenvolvime...

  14. CAPITAL SOCIAL COMO FATOR DE DESENVOLVIMENTO LOCAL

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonca, Kamila Vieira; Pinheiro, Jose Cesar

    2008-01-01

    O presente estudo verificou e avaliou o grau de acumulação de capital social como fator de desenvolvimento local, do assentamento Che Guevara, localizado no município de Ocara, no Estado do Ceará. O índice de capital social (ICS) foi calculado com base nas respostas de um questionário elaborado com variáveis mensuráveis e que refletem o estoque de capital social. A comunidade dispõe de um grau mediano de capital social.-------------This study verified and evaluated the degree of accumulation ...

  15. DESENVOLVIMENTO MORAL E INDISCIPLINA NA ESCOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Melissa Lepre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo configura-se como uma reflexão acerca da indisciplina e suas possíveis causas. Para debater sobre o assunto apresentamos a teoria do desenvolvimento moral de Jean Piaget e articulamos suas descobertas com a questão da indisciplina na escola. São feitas, ainda, reflexões sobre o ambiente em que nossas crianças encontram-se inseridas por, pelo menos, cinco horas diárias.

  16. Air-stable, nanostructured electronic and plasmonic materials from solution-processable, silver nanocrystal building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafarman, Aaron T; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Oh, Soong Ju; Caglayan, Humeyra; Ye, Xingchen; Diroll, Benjamin T; Engheta, Nader; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2014-03-25

    Herein we describe a room-temperature, chemical process to transform silver nanocrystal solids, deposited from colloidal solutions, into highly conductive, corrosion-resistant, optical and electronic materials with nanometer-scale architectures. After assembling the nanocrystal solids, we treated them with a set of simple, compact, organic and inorganic reagents: ammonium thiocyanate, ammonium chloride, potassium hydrogen sulfide, and ethanedithiol. We find that each reagent induces unique changes in the structure and composition of the resulting solid, giving rise to films that vary from insulating to, in the case of thiocyanate, conducting with a remarkably low resistivity of 8.8×10(-6) Ω·cm, only 6 times that of bulk silver. We show that thiocyanate mediates the spontaneous sintering of nanocrystals into structures with a roughness of less than 1/10th of the wavelength of visible light. We demonstrate that these solution-processed, low-resistivity, optically smooth films can be patterned, using imprint lithography, into conductive electrodes and plasmonic mesostructures with programmable resonances. We observe that thiocyanate-treated solids exhibit significantly retarded atmospheric corrosion, a feature that dramatically increases the feasibility of employing silver for electrical and plasmonic applications. PMID:24484271

  17. How safe is fly ash as building construction material in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fly ash generated from conventional coal based power plants is disposed off in ash ponds in the form of wet- slurries and is being used as stowing material for underground coal mines, for manufacturing bricks, asbestos sheets, Portland Pozzolona ct-Hlent, land filling etc. In the recent past, there has been increasing interest in making fly ash brick houses due to light wt. of the bricks particularly in hilly areas and earth quake prone areas. It was lesser known hitherto until recently that the fly ash is a potential radioactive air pollutant and it modifies radiation exposure. As the fly ash is burnt coal ash and contains concentrated amount of radionuclides, tracking radon concentration in it is thus fundamental for radiation protection, health and hygiene point of view. Measurement of indoor radon and its progeny levels was carried out in dwellings made up of fly ash bricks using LR-115, Type II plastic track detectors. The measurements indicate moderate to high levels of radon concentration in fly ash samples in itself and fly ash brick houses. For comparison the radon concentration in some typical dwellings made up of Baked Mud Bricks, concrete blocks and mud houses was also carried out. (author)

  18. Chemical surety material decontamination and decommissioning of Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemical Surety Material Laboratory area TA-3, building SM-29, room 4009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T.E.; Smith, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    From 1982 through 1987, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performed surety laboratory operations for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (MRDC). Room 4009 in building SM-29, TA-3, was used as the laboratory for work with the following chemical surety material (CSM) agents: sarin (GB), soman (GD), lewisite (L), and distilled mustard (HD) radio-labelled with H{sup 3} or C{sup 14}. The work was confined to three CSM-certified fume hoods, located in room 4009 (see diagram in Appendix C). The laboratory ceased all active operations during the late 1986 and early 1987 period. From 1987 until 1993 the laboratory was secured and the ventilation system continued to operate. During late 1992, the decision was made to utilize this laboratory space for other operations, thus a decision was made to dismantle and reconfigure this room. LANL sub-contracted Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) to draw upon the CSM experience of the technical staff from the Hazardous Materials Research Facility (HMRF) to assist in developing a decontamination and decommissioning plan. BMI was subcontracted to devise a CSM safety training course, and a sampling and air monitoring plan for CSM material to ensure personnel safety during all disassembly operations. LANL subcontracted Johnson Controls personnel to perform all disassembly operations. Beginning in early 1993 BMI personnel from the HMRF visited the laboratory to develop both the safety plan and the sample and air monitoring plan. Execution of that plan began in September 1993 and was completed in January 1994.

  19. Adhesives in Building--Lamination of Structural Timber Beams, Bonding of Cementitious Materials, Bonding of Gypsum Drywall Construction. Proceedings of a Conference of the Building Research Institute, Division of Engineering and Industrial Research (Spring 1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    The role of adhesives in building design is discussed. Three major areas are as follows--(1) lamination of structural timber beams, (2) bonding of cementitious materials, and (3) bonding of gypsum drywall construction. Topical coverage includes--(1) structural lamination today, (2) adhesives in use today, (3) new adhesives needed, (4) production…

  20. Application of phase-changing materials in future buildings. Improvement of energy efficiency and indoor climate; Anvendelse af faseskiftende materialer i fremtidens bygninger. Forbedring af energieffektivitet og indeklima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, J. (Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, Hoersholm (Denmark)); Lund Jensen, R.; Heiselberg, P. (Aalborg Univ. (Denmark)); Hansen, M.; Kjeldsen, A.M.; Dous, C. le (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Uhre Christensen, N. (Ingenioerhoejskolen i AArhus (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the project was to establish the basis for using phase changing materials (PCM) to improve the temperature conditions during summer in future new buildings. With the implementation of the planned new building codes requiring very low energy consumption (passive houses), it will be necessary for buildings to be comfortable during summer without using extra power for ventilation and mechanical cooling. The project has developed a numerical method to calculate latent heat storage in constructions containing phase changing materials. The calculation method has been implemented in the BSim program. A functionality to include the effect PCMs has also been added to the Be10 calculation program. The project has shown that good energy savings can be achieved for cooling and heating, but the price of the materials means long pay-back periods. (LN)

  1. A novel method for measuring the diffusion, partition and convective mass transfer coefficients of formaldehyde and VOC in building materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyin Xiong

    Full Text Available The diffusion coefficient (D(m and material/air partition coefficient (K are two key parameters characterizing the formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOC sorption behavior in building materials. By virtue of the sorption process in airtight chamber, this paper proposes a novel method to measure the two key parameters, as well as the convective mass transfer coefficient (h(m. Compared to traditional methods, it has the following merits: (1 the K, D(m and h(m can be simultaneously obtained, thus is convenient to use; (2 it is time-saving, just one sorption process in airtight chamber is required; (3 the determination of h(m is based on the formaldehyde and VOC concentration data in the test chamber rather than the generally used empirical correlations obtained from the heat and mass transfer analogy, thus is more accurate and can be regarded as a significant improvement. The present method is applied to measure the three parameters by treating the experimental data in the literature, and good results are obtained, which validates the effectiveness of the method. Our new method also provides a potential pathway for measuring h(m of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC by using that of VOC.

  2. Development and implementation of a new pneumatic transfer system for materials irradiation at IEA-R1 reactor; Desenvolvimento e implementacao de um novo sistema pneumatico de transferencia para irradiacao de materiais no reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, Alberto de Jesus

    2011-07-01

    Pneumatic Transfer Systems (PTS) are classified as mechanical equipment largely operated all over the world for transport of a huge sort of objects, samples and materials located at nearly terminals or even at separated ones. System applicability is often recognized in many activities, such as medicine (hospital settings, clinical analysis labs), industry (steel, automobiles, mining, chemical, food, construction), trading (gas station, movies, supermarkets, banks, e-commerce) and federal agencies (post services, federal courts, public enterprises). In the nuclear settings, PTS shows also a vast array of applications, being a part of radioisotope production, as well as short-lived radiopharmaceuticals, including 67 Ga, 201 Tl, 18 F and 123 I-ultra pure. Besides, PTS are also used at radioactive waste management plants and research institutes that apply neutron activation analysis (NAA). This work was directed toward the design and operation of a new PTS for the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor settled at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) for NAA application. With this aim, it was calculated the charge of reactor core grid plate and sample transport testing. Neutron flux at irradiating position was determined as 3,70 {+-} 0,26 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. (author)

  3. Desenvolvimento puberal em meninas tratadas de LLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro I.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento puberal após o tratamento de leucemia linfóide aguda (LLA na infância, foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo, em meninas tratadas de janeiro de 1980 a janeiro de 1991, no Centro de Investigações Hematológicas "Dr. Domingos A. Boldrini", em Campinas-SP. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas 42 meninas, tratadas antes da puberdade com quimioterapia sistêmica e intratecal e radioterapia cranial, utilizando doses de 18 ou 24 Grays (Gy. RESULTADOS: As idades médias da telarca, pubarca e menarca foram inferiores às do grupo-controle, embora com significância estatística apenas para a idade da telarca. Não houve diferenças entre os grupos tratados com 18 ou 24Gy. As meninas tratadas antes dos cinco anos de idade apresentaram idade média da menarca estatisticamente inferior àquelas tratadas após cinco anos e em relação ao grupo-controle. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram que o desenvolvimento puberal em meninas tratadas de LLA na infância foi mais precoce que o de meninas saudáveis.

  4. Charles Darwin: um observador do desenvolvimento humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Helena Rubello Valler Celeri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores traduzem, pela primeira vez para o português, o artigo de Charles Darwin "A Biographical Sketch of an Infant", publicado no periódico Mind em julho de 1877. Utilizando anotações de observações do desenvolvimento de seus filhos, especialmente de seu filho mais velho William Erasmus (Doddy, Darwin descreve e estuda, a partir de seu enfoque naturalista, o filhote humano, narrando os primeiros indicativos comportamentais de emoções tais como raiva e medo, curiosidade e senso moral, o brincar e o prazer envolvido nesta atividade, a capacidade de imitação e os primeiros indícios daquilo que hoje conhecemos como "teoria da mente". Colocando-se questões sobre as capacidades do bebê, como eles aprendem e como se comunicam e levantando hipóteses sobre possíveis significados de certos comportamentos, questões ainda hoje fundamentais para o estudo do desenvolvimento humano, Darwin mostra-se também um pioneiro no estudo do bebê e da criança pequena, numa época na qual as capacidades dos bebês eram extremamente subestimadas e desconsideradas.

  5. Torroja Institute, the historic building: conservation and characteristics of the materials of its façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxán, M. P.

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The "Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción" building is one of the most singular engineering design done by Eduardo Torroja: it was started in 1951. This study focused on the Institute façade-building materials has been carried out in the 100th anniversary of his birth. The analysis has revealed that the design of the original project has been of a great importance for the good conservation of the external walls. The pointing mortar characterization of its brick walls by instrumental techniques (infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with EDS reveals that calcite is its main component, with gypsum presence in polluted external zones and silica compounds from the sand. The obtained results indicate a good compatibility between mortars and façade bricks.

    El edificio del "Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción", construido en 1951, constituye una de las obras singulares del ingeniero Eduardo Torroja. En el centenario de su nacimiento se ha elaborado este estudio, que se centra en los materiales de construcción de las fachadas del Instituto. De su análisis se desprende la importancia del diseño del proyecto original en la buena conservación de los paramentos exteriores. La caracterización de los morteros de junta de las fábricas de ladrillo de los paramentos, mediante técnicas instrumentales (espectroscopia infrarroja, difracción de rayos X, microscopía electrónica de barrido con energías dispersivas de rayos X revela que la calcita es el compuesto principal, con presencia de yeso -especialmente en zonas externas contaminadas- y compuestos silíceos procedentes de la arena. Los resultados sobre las fachadas reflejan una buena compatibilidad entre los morteros de cal y los ladrillos.

  6. Development Trend of Wooden Building Materials in Contemporary Architecture%木质建材在当代建筑中的发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅超; 周庆

    2016-01-01

    Wooden building materials have become one of the most promising materials due to the characteristics of energy conservation, environmental protection, renewability and recyclability. However, in modern times the development of the wooden building materials still face the problems of resources and environment and the thinking patterns of application. In order to solve these problems this paper analyzes wooden building material resources and technical conditions, expresses the view that a change of thinking is required in the application of wooden building materials, that it is important to relieve peo-ple's misunderstanding of wooden building materials, and that people should reconsider the value of this material. Through the introduction of the characteristics of the wooden building materials based on contemporary architecture thoughts and technologies, this paper briefly analyzes the application status and development trend of wooden building materials in con-temporary architecture.%木质建材以其节能环保、可再生、可循环利用的材料特征成为当代最具发展前景的建材之一,然而其在当代的发展依然面临着资源环境和应用思维上的问题。本文针对这些问题,对木质建材资源和技术上的情况进行了简要分析,表述了当代木质建材的应用需要思维上的转变,解除人们对它的误解,建立对其再认识的观点。通过介绍基于当代建筑思想和技术下木质建材的特性,本文对木质建材在当代建筑中的应用现状和发展前景做出了分析和展望。

  7. Basalt as a solid source of calcium and alkalinity for the sequestration of carbon dioxide in building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N. C.; Westfield, I.; Lu, P.; Bourcier, W. L.; Kendall, T.; Constantz, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    Motivated by the idea of converting waste carbon dioxide into usable building products, Calera Corporation has developed a multi-step process that sequesters CO2 as carbonate minerals in cementitious materials. Process inputs include dissolved divalent cations and alkalinity, both of which can be extracted from basalt. In one mode of the Calera process, the electrochemical production of alkalinity generates large volumes of hydrochloric acid as a by-product, which has been shown to effectively leach divalent cations from basalt while being neutralized by the basalt dissolution reaction. Using a 10:1 1M HCl solution to rock ratio, 3500 ppm Ca was extracted while the initial solution was neutralized to a pH of 2.60 in two weeks at a temperature of 80oC in an anoxic batch reactor. In this scenario, mineral carbonation occurs via three steps: electrochemical production of alkalinity, CO2 absorption by the alkaline stream, then precipitation by mixing the basalt-derived divalent cation stream and the CO2-containing alkaline stream. In a second scenario, alkalinity is extracted from basalt using an alkalinity capacitor, a weak acid. This solution may contain a proton source, such as ammonium chloride, or a hydroxyl acceptor, such as boric acid, but the main design constraint is that the pKa of the capacitor be high enough to deprontonate carbonic acid. The weak acid solution is mixed with basalt in an anoxic batch reactor and the dissolving rock consumes protons from the weak acid, generating the conjugate base. The solution rich in conjugate base then absorbs CO2 and the carbonate-rich solution is mixed with a calcium-rich stream to precipitate carbonate minerals. We have extracted up to 1100 mmol alkalinity per kg rock using an alkalinity capacitor, versus no more than 50 mmol alkalinity per kg rock using DI water as a solvent. Again, carbon sequestration occurs via three steps: alkalinity extraction from basalt, CO2 absorption, and finally carbonate precipitation

  8. The MaSe decision support system: Development of an integrated information system for the selection of environmentally preferable materials and products in the building process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Sigrid Melby

    2003-07-01

    New building regulations and increased focus on building related environmental burdens have created a need for guidance to design more sustainable buildings. The main objective in this thesis is to develop a decision support system, to guide decision-makers to a better selection of building materials and products, based on environmental prioritisation. The system is focused on building materials and products, but the structure of the system can be adapted to other types of decision problems. No tool is found that satisfy the identified needs for a material selection system. By studying existing methods, however important information and possible solutions are gathered, that partly could be used in a new tool. Key decision makers with respect to material and product selection are the client, the architects, the technical consultants, and the contractors when they decide on specific brands. The user of the MaSe system first identifies the materials acceptable in the specific project, based on the technical requirements. These pre-selected materials are then scored and ranked through the procedures in the MaSe system. The alternative ranking is then the basis for the selection of construction elements, materials or products. Seeing the building and real estate industry as a part of our society, it is clear that the use of material resources and pollution are areas that need improvement. The MaSe system includes environmental aspects under the headlines Resources, Ecology and Human health. When selecting building materials, factors like recycling and reuse needs to be considered. Renewability, energy and waste are other aspects included in the Resource area. Toxic substances are clearly important when it comes to building materials. Factors to be included under the headline Ecology are global warming, acidification, and photochemical oxidant formation. The emissions of toxics to air, water and soil will have effect on human health. Aspects that should be included in

  9. 浅析秸秆在建筑材料中的应用%Brief Analysis on the Application of Straw in Building Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾艺; 陈健

    2015-01-01

    this paper introduced the development history of the straw being used as building material in foreign countries, analyzed the features of the straw material, expounded the advantages of straw material, including natural, renewable, zero-emission, low-energy, highly heat-insulated features. Providing people with sustainable living environment and meeting their psychological need of being close to nature is the new developing direction for future building materials.%追溯国外秸秆建材的发展历史,分析了秸秆材料的特性,揭示出秸秆材料的天然可再生、零排放、低能耗、高隔热的优点,满足人们生存环境可持续发展要求以及亲近自然的心理需求,是未来建筑材料的新方向。

  10. PHYSIC AND CHEMICAL BASIS FOR THE INVOLVEMENT OF D-ELEMENTS OF THE FOURTH GROUP (TITANIUM, ZIRCONIUM, HAFNIUM IN THE SYNTHESIS OF BUILDING AND SILICATE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Bolshakov

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the studies of physico-chemical grounds of involving the fourth group elements (titanium, zirconium, hafnium for syntheses of construction silicate materials are presented. The physico-chemical approach proposed allows involving the great group of technogenic titanium-containing semi-products, concentrates, slags and slimes for production of construction silicate materials and manufacture the products and building structures.

  11. Thermal behavior of building materials based in woody fibers; Comportamiento termico de materiales constructivos a base de fibras lenosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Murrieta, Fernando E; Bojorquez Baez, Inocente; Llovera Esteban, Arturo; Hernandez Rodriguez, Jose [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Chetumal, Quintana Roo (Mexico); Perez Sanchez, Maria M [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Merida (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A Test development to obtain the thermal conductivity and the study of thermal performance of building materials by a device of the Guarded Hot Plate (25 x 24.8 cm) according to standards ASTM C 518-91 and C 717-97, in a range of low temperatures (23-50 Celsius degrees) are presented in this work. The device consist of a structure whit: heat source system; heat dissipator system; plates and specimens fastener, and assembly of thermocouples and insulated plates. Subsequently in the experiments, will be necessary to reach a steady state to different temperatures for monitoring the thermal gradient. Another side, considering the electric power of the overall system and the modified Fouriers equation for two specimens, we can obtain the thermal conductivity, for instance: Plaster; woods and new materials based on woody fibers. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el estudio del comportamiento termico y desarrollo de prueba de conductividad termica tanto en materiales de construccion como aquellos basado en fibras lenosas en un rango de bajas temperaturas (23-50 grados Celsius). De acuerdo con las normas ASTM C-518-91 y C-177-97, se utiliza un dispositivo de placa caliente guardada de 25 x 24.8 cm. que requiere de dos muestras identicas de especimenes diferentes colocadas entre una fuente de calor y una fuente fria aisladas termicamente. Se presenta el desarrollo experimental para determinar la conductividad termica en estado estacionario a varias temperaturas de operacion en materiales constructivos tales como: yeso, madera de pino y a base de fibra lenosa. Los dos primeros materiales se han utilizado como referencia en la comparacion de las propiedades termofisicas que aparecen en la bibliografia tecnica. Lo cual nos permite tener un buen grado de confiabilidad en el dispositivo utilizado en la determinacion de dichas propiedades.

  12. Building Self-Healing Alloy Architecture for Stable Sodium-Ion Battery Anodes: A Case Study of Tin Anode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jianfeng; Fan, Xiulin; Luo, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-03-23

    The rational design of anode materials is a challenge in developing sodium ion batteries. Alloy anodes provide high gravimetric and volumetric capacities but suffer the short cycle life as a result of the continuous and accumulated pulverization, resulting from a large volume change during the cycling process. Herein, using pure Sn, an irreversible conversion reaction combined with an alloy reaction (SnO), and a reversible conversion reaction combined with an alloy reaction (Sn4P3) as samples, we demonstrate that the pulverization and aggregation of the alloy anode can be partially recovered and the accumulation of pulverization and aggregation during charge/discharge cycles can be terminated using a reversible conversion reaction combined with an alloy reaction. The cycling stability of three Sn-based anodes increases in order of Sn4P3 > SnO > Sn. The enhancement in Sn4P3 can be attributed to a reversible reaction of Sn4P3 + 9Na ↔ 4Sn + 3Na3P, which repairs the cracks, damage, and aggregation of Sn particles that occurred in the alloy process of 4Sn + 15Na ↔ Na15Sn4 during cycling and, hence, terminates the pulverization. The repair mechanism looks like the self-healing feature in nature, where the damage can be healed by itself. Therefore, the suggested mechanism can be called self-healing, while the repaired anode can be termed as the self-healing anode. The use of self-healing strategies to build an electrode architecture is new and highly desirable because it can increase the cycle life and provide a general approach toward stable electrode materials. PMID:26937998

  13. Influence of humidity on the initial emittable concentration of formaldehyde and hexaldehyde in building materials: experimental observation and correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaodan; Xiong, Jianyin; Cai, Chaorui; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yinping

    2016-03-01

    Humidity is one of the main environmental factors affecting the emission rate and key parameters of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from building materials. Meanwhile, the initial emittable concentration (Cm,0) is proved to be the most sensitive key parameter to the emission behaviours. However, there is no report on the relationship between humidity and Cm,0. In this paper, Cm,0 of formaldehyde and hexaldehyde from a type of medium density fiberboard in absolute humidity (AH) range of 4.6–19.6 g/m3 at 25 °C were tested by virtue of a C-history method. Experimental results indicate that Cm,0 is dramatically dependent on AH, increased by 10 and 2 times for formaldehyde and hexaldehyde when AH rising from 4.6 g/m3 to 19.6 g/m3. A linear relationship between the logarithm of Cm,0 and AH is obtained based on the measured results. In addition, a correlation characterizing the association of emission rate and AH is derived. The effectiveness of the correlation is verified with our experimental results as well as data from literature. With the correlations, the Cm,0 or emission rate different from the test AH conditions can be conveniently obtained. This study should be useful for predicting the emission characteristics of humidity changing scenarios and for source control.

  14. Research and Development Data to Define the Thermal Performance of Reflective Materials Used to Conserve Energy in Building Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-04-09

    A comprehensive experimental laboratory study has been conducted on the thermal performance of reflective insulation systems. The goal of this study was to develop test and evaluation protocols and to obtain thermal performance data on a selected number of idealized and commercial systems containing reflective airspaces for use in analytical models. Steady-state thermal resistance has been measured on 17 different test panels using two guarded hot boxes. Additional instrumentation was installed to measure the temperature of critical locations inside the test panels. The test parameters which have been studied are heat flow direction (horizontal, up, and down), number of airspaces comprising the cavity, airspace effective emittance, airspace aspect ratio, airspace mean temperature and temperature difference, and the thermal resistance of the stud material. Tests have also been performed on similar constructions with mass insulation. Two one-dimensional calculation techniques (ASHRAE and proposed ASTM) have been employed to determine the cavity thermal resistance from the measured test panel results. The measured cavity thermal resistance is compared with literature data which is commonly employed to calculate the thermal resistance of reflective airspace assemblies. A consumer-oriented handbook pertaining to reflective insulation for building and commercial applications has also been prepared as part of this study.

  15. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rates in man-made tiles used as building materials in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, K; Hosoda, M; Suwankot, N; Omori, Y; Ishikawa, T; Yonehara, H; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    Man-made tiles frequently used in Japan were collected, and activity concentrations and radon ((222)Rn) exhalation rates in these tiles were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built using these tiles were also carried out. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K in the man-made tiles were 31-170, 35-110 and 260-980 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The (222)Rn exhalation rates in the tiles were 8.8-21 μBq m(-2) s(-1). The ranges of experimental activity concentrations and (222)Rn exhalation rates were almost identical to those of natural rocks used as typical building materials in Japan. The maximum value of effective dose to inhabitants living in houses built with the man-made tiles was 0.14 mSv y(-1), which is lower than the reference level range (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for abnormally high levels of natural background radiation published in the ICRP Publication 103.

  16. The Baroque monuments of Modica (Eastern Sicily): assessment of causes of chromatic alteration of stone building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfiore, Cristina M.; La Russa, Mauro F.; Pezzino, Antonino; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella

    2010-09-01

    The Baroque monuments of several cities in eastern Sicily, built of local calcarenitic stone, are often subjected to conservation treatments, since they undergo many forms of alteration and degradation which can cause significant damage. However, a recent study of these building materials (Barone et al. in Environ. Geol. 54:1501, 2008) has demonstrated that some protective products, once applied, cause irreversible chromatic alterations. The façades of the monuments of the historic city centre of Modica are typically creamy yellow in colour, sometimes varying slightly due to the use of various pigments, such as clayey and gypseous earths (La Russa et al. in Appl. Phys. A 92:185, 2008). However, in some cases, these nuances are lost due to the application of protective products. This work provides a petrographic and colorimetric characterisation of the calcarenitic stone used to create the façades of the churches of S. Pietro, S. Maria del Soccorso and S. Maria dell’Annunziata in Modica, also by comparisons with locally quarried samples. In addition, it aims to identify protective substances which may have been used during previous restoration work. Analytical techniques included polarising optical microscopy, spectrophotometric colorimetric tests, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

  17. A review of vacuum insulation research and development in the Building Materials Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollie, T.G.; McElroy, D.L.; Fine, H.A.; Childs, K.W.; Graves, R.S.; Weaver, F.J.

    1991-09-01

    This report is a summary of the development work on flat-vacuum insulation performed by the Building Materials Group (BMG) in the Metals and Ceramics Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the last two years. A historical review of the technology of vacuum insulation is presented, and the role that ORNL played in this development is documented. The ORNL work in vacuum insulation has been concentrated in Powder-filled Evacuated Panels (PEPs) that have a thermal resistivity over 2.5 times that of insulating foams and seven times that of many batt-type insulations, such as fiberglass. Experimental results of substituting PEPs for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) foal insulation in Igloo Corporation ice coolers are summarized. This work demonstrated that one-dimensional (1D) heat flow models overestimated the increase in thermal insulation of a foam/PEP-composite insulation, but three-dimensional (3D) models provided by a finite-difference, heat-transfer code (HEATING-7) accurately predicted the resistance of the composites. Edges and corners of the ice coolers were shown to cause the errors in the 1D models as well as shunting of the heat through the foam and around the PEPs. The area of coverage of a PEP in a foam/PEP composite is established as an important parameter in maximizing the resistance of such composites. 50 refs., 27 figs,. 22 tabs.

  18. W{sub n}S{sub m}-clusters: Possible building blocks for new nano-materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westhaeuser, Wilko; Mangler, Tobias; Fischer, Tim; Gantefoer, Gerd [University of Konstanz (Germany); Gemming, Sibylle; Seifert, Gotthard [University of Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Since bulk WS{sub 2} forms layered structures similar to bulk graphite, this material might also built up stable cage-like fullerene structures. Large graphite-like structures (multiwall fullerenes, nanotubes) have been found in TEM experiments, but so far no anorganic fullerenes have been detected in the size regime of C{sub 60}. Thus, we started a search for WS{sub 2} fullerenes by combining gas phase and deposition experiments. In the gas phase, we identified a variety of different structures (nanowires, nanoplatelets) in the size regime up to 30 metal atoms. To investigate the suitability as building blocks, in a first attempt small size-selected W{sub n}S{sub m}-clusters were soft-landed on Ag- and Si-substrates at ultrahigh vacuum conditions. These samples were analysed via HREELS and XPS. The HREELS spectra are different for the different cluster sizes indicating that these clusters survived the soft-landing on the substrate and do not coalesce to bulk-like structures.

  19. GROWING ALTERNATIVE SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS: BIO-COMPOSITE PRODUCTS FROM NATURAL FIBER, BIODEGRADABLE AND RECYCLABLE POLYMER MATERIALS FOR LOAD-BEARING CONSTRUCTION COMPONENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The project is an integrative educational and research project that will revolutionize design and construction methods towards more sustainable buildings. The project will develop and test new product design concepts using bio-composite materials in load-bearing and fa&cced...

  20. Ensaios em instituições e desenvolvimento

    OpenAIRE

    Costantini, Jaime Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Esta tese se divide em três ensaios, os quais investigam: (a) As relações que existem entre democracia e desenvolvimento econômico na base do pensamento de Roberto Campos; (b) Os efeitos da instabilidade política no nível do investimento; e (c) Como a volatilidade e tendência dos termos de troca influenciam na acumulação de capital humano em um país em desenvolvimento que exporta matérias primas. De acordo com o pensamento de R. Campos, um país em desenvolvimento como o Brasil deve ac...

  1. Salt-enhanced chemical weathering of building materials and bacterial mineralization of calcium carbonate as a treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, M.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Jroundi, F.; Gonzalez-Muñoz, M. T.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2012-04-01

    Salt weathering is an important mechanism contributing to the degradation and loss of stone building materials. In addition to the physical weathering resulting from crystallization pressure, the presence of salts in solution greatly enhances the chemical weathering potential of pore waters. Flow through experiments quantify the dissolution rates of calcite and quartz grains (63-125 micrometer diameter) when subjected to 1.0 ionic strength solutions of MgSO4, MgCl, Na2SO4 or NaCl. Results indicate that the identity of the cation is the primary control over the dissolution rate of both calcite and quartz substrates, with salt-enhanced dissolution occurring most rapidly in Mg2+ bearing solutions. It has been observed that weathering rates of rocks in nature, as well as building stones, are slowed down by naturally occurring or artificially produced patinas. These tend to be bacterially produced, durable mineralized coatings that lend some degree of protection to the underlying stone surface [1]. Our research shows that bacterially produced carbonate coatings can be quite effective at reducing chemical weathering of stone by soluble salts. The calcite-producing-bacteria used in this study were isolated from stone monuments in Granada, Spain [2] and cultivated in an organic-rich culture medium on a variety of artificial and natural substrates (including limestone, marble, sandstone, quartz, calcite single crystals, glass cover-slips, and sintered porous glass). Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to image bacterial calcite growth and biofilm formation. In-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) enabled calculation of dissolution rates of untreated and bacterially treated surfaces. 2D-XRD showed the mineralogy and crystallographic orientation of bacterial calcium carbonate. Results indicate that bacterially produced calcite crystals form a coherent, mechanically resistant surface layer in perfect crystallographic continuity with the calcite substrate (self

  2. Apresentação da Linha de Investigação: Desenvolvimento e Risco no Desenvolvimento

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Maria Raúl Lobo; Pimentel, Eduarda; Teles, Rita

    2004-01-01

    p. 35-38 A investigação sobre o desenvolvimento, nomeadamente na psicologia do desenvolvimento, preocupa-se hoje com a descrição sistemática e a exploração das mudanças que ocorrem nos indivíduos ao longo do ciclo vital. Com esta amplitude temporal e interesses de pesquisa necessariamente diversificados, os membros desta Linha recorrem a perspectivas e metodologias adequadas que permitem o estudo do desenvolvimento. No entanto, consideramos alguns princípios básicos...

  3. 酚醛建筑保温阻燃材料的研制%The Development of Phenolic Building Insulation Flame Retardant Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Along with the progress of people’s environmental protection consciousness and awareness of fire, insulation and flame retardant properties of building materials has been paid more and more at ention. But now a lot of building thermal insulation material has many problems in the flame retardant. This paper introduces to everybody a kind of excel ent flame retardant insulation building material——the phenolic building insulation flame retardant materials.%  随着人们环保意识和消防意识的进步,建筑材料的保温和阻燃性能越来越受到重视。但现在很多建筑保温材料在阻燃性上存在不少问题。本文向大家介绍一类具有优秀阻燃性的建筑保温材料——酚醛建筑保温阻燃材料。

  4. Research building demolition and reuse of materials technology%建筑拆解及材料再利用技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆可歆

    2016-01-01

    随着我国城市化进程的加速,建筑不断被拆解和重建,但是旧的建筑材料的利用率比较低下,造成了相关的资源能源的浪费以及环境的污染。本文的研究从建筑拆解和材料再利用的相关概述出发,研究了循环经济以及循环经济思想的实践。并在基础上研究了建筑拆解及材料再利用技术的环境意义和社会意义。并着重研究了国内建筑拆解及材料再利用的现状和技术策略,废旧材料利用的经济效益,建筑材料拆除和再利用的环境影响评价等。%With the acceleration of urbanization process in China,building continue to be disassembled and rebuilt,but the utilization rate of the old building materials is relatively low,resulting in a pollution-related waste of resources and energy and the environment.This study outlines the construction dismantling and related materials recycling paper studies the practice of recycling economy and the cycle of economic thought.And on the basis of study of the building dismantling and material recycling technology,environmental and social significance.And focuses on the domestic construction dismantling and material recycling situation and technology strategy,the economic benefits of the use of waste materials, building materials removal and recycling of environmental impact assessment.

  5. Build/Couple/Pair and Multifunctional Catalysis Strategies for the Synthesis of Heterocycles from Simple Starting Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ascic, Erhad

    Chapter 1. Build/Couple/Pair Strategy Combining the Petasis 3-Component Reaction with Ru-Catalyzed Ring-Closing Metathesis A “build/couple/pair” strategy for the efficient and concise (2-5 step) synthesis of structurally distinct skeletons is described. A Petasis 3-component reaction is used...

  6. Metabolomic and high-throughput sequencing analysis – modern approach for the assessment of biodeterioration of materials from historic buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata eGutarowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of cultural heritage is of paramount importance worldwide. Microbial colonization of construction materials, such as wood, brick, mortar and stone in historic buildings can lead to severe deterioration. The aim of the present study was to give modern insight into the phylogenetic diversity and activated metabolic pathways of microbial communities colonized historic objects located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Oświęcim, Poland. For this purpose we combined molecular, microscopic and chemical methods. Selected specimens were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM, metabolomic analysis and high-throughput Illumina sequencing. FESEM imaging revealed the presence of complex microbial communities comprising diatoms, fungi and bacteria, mainly cyanobacteria and actinobacteria, on sample surfaces. Microbial diversity of brick specimens appeared higher than that of the wood and was dominated by algae and cyanobacteria, while wood was mainly colonized by fungi. DNA sequences documented the presence of 15 bacterial phyla representing 99 genera including Halomonas, Halorhodospira, Salinisphaera, Salinibacterium, Rubrobacter, Streptomyces, Arthrobacter and 9 fungal classes represented by 113 genera including Cladosporium, Acremonium, Alternaria, Engyodontium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Aureobasidium. Most of the identified sequences were characteristic of organisms implicated in deterioration of wood and brick. Metabolomic data indicated the activation of numerous metabolic pathways, including those regulating the production of primary and secondary metabolites, for example, metabolites associated with the production of antibiotics, organic acids and deterioration of organic compounds. The study demonstrated that a combination of electron microscopy imaging with metabolomic and genomic techniques allows to link the phylogenetic information and metabolic profiles of

  7. Metabolomic and high-throughput sequencing analysis-modern approach for the assessment of biodeterioration of materials from historic buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutarowska, Beata; Celikkol-Aydin, Sukriye; Bonifay, Vincent; Otlewska, Anna; Aydin, Egemen; Oldham, Athenia L; Brauer, Jonathan I; Duncan, Kathleen E; Adamiak, Justyna; Sunner, Jan A; Beech, Iwona B

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of cultural heritage is of paramount importance worldwide. Microbial colonization of construction materials, such as wood, brick, mortar, and stone in historic buildings can lead to severe deterioration. The aim of the present study was to give modern insight into the phylogenetic diversity and activated metabolic pathways of microbial communities colonized historic objects located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Oświecim, Poland. For this purpose we combined molecular, microscopic and chemical methods. Selected specimens were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), metabolomic analysis and high-throughput Illumina sequencing. FESEM imaging revealed the presence of complex microbial communities comprising diatoms, fungi and bacteria, mainly cyanobacteria and actinobacteria, on sample surfaces. Microbial diversity of brick specimens appeared higher than that of the wood and was dominated by algae and cyanobacteria, while wood was mainly colonized by fungi. DNA sequences documented the presence of 15 bacterial phyla representing 99 genera including Halomonas, Halorhodospira, Salinisphaera, Salinibacterium, Rubrobacter, Streptomyces, Arthrobacter and nine fungal classes represented by 113 genera including Cladosporium, Acremonium, Alternaria, Engyodontium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Aureobasidium. Most of the identified sequences were characteristic of organisms implicated in deterioration of wood and brick. Metabolomic data indicated the activation of numerous metabolic pathways, including those regulating the production of primary and secondary metabolites, for example, metabolites associated with the production of antibiotics, organic acids and deterioration of organic compounds. The study demonstrated that a combination of electron microscopy imaging with metabolomic and genomic techniques allows to link the phylogenetic information and metabolic profiles of microbial communities

  8. Health assessment of natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in granites used as building materials in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissi, M A; El-Samad, O; Rachidi, I

    2013-03-01

    Measurements of specific activities (Bq kg(-1)) of gamma-emissions from radioactive nuclides, (238)U, (226)Ra, (214)Bi, (232)Th, (212)Pb and (40)K, contained in 28 granite types, used as building materials in indoors in Lebanon, were performed on the powdered granites. The concentration of the nuclides, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, in the granites varied from below detection level (BDL) to 494 Bq kg(-1), BDL to 157.2 Bq kg(-1) and BDL to 1776 Bq kg(-1), respectively. (226)Ra concentration equivalents, C(Raeq), were obtained and ranged between 37 and 591 Bq kg(-1), with certain values above the allowed limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). Calculated annual gamma-absorbed dose in air, D(aR), varied from 17.7 to 274.5 (nGy h(-1)). Annual effective dose, E (mSv y(-1)), of gamma radiations related to the studied granites and absorbed by the inhabitants was evaluated. E (mSv y(-1)) ranged from 0.09 to 1.35 mSv y(-1). Some granite types produced E above the allowed limit of 1 mSv y(-1) set by ICRP. Values of (222)Rn mass exhalation rate, E(M) (mBq kg(-1)h(-1))(,) in granite powder were obtained using the CR-39 detector technique. Diffusion factors, f, in 23 granite types were calculated with f ranging between (0.1 ± 0.02)×10(-2) and (6.6 ± 1.01)×10(-2).

  9. Rede de Protagonismo Local para o Desenvolvimento Global

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ángela; Hermann, Roberto Rivas

    Este artigo pretende fazer uma reflexão sobre metodologia a ser desenvolvida e utilizada num projeto de desenvolvimento local, através das ações protagonizadas pela própria comunidade. Para isso parte de uma discussão sobre o conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável, e a seguir propõe a busca de f...

  10. Biotecnologia aplicada ao desenvolvimento de vacinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Oliveira Diniz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As vacinas representam a estratégia de intervenção com a melhor relação custo-benefício até hoje aplicada em saúde pública. Avanços biotecnológicos em diversas áreas de pesquisa têm contribuído para o desenvolvimento de formulações mais seguras e eficazes. Além disso, a aplicação de ferramentas biotecnológicas no desenvolvimento de vacinas tem provocado mudanças na maneira como pensamos e produzimos esses reagentes tanto para uso em humanos como em animais. Essas tecnologias trazem perspectivas de que, em futuro próximo, vacinas para o controle de doenças infecciosas e degenerativas ainda não passíveis de prevenção possam estar disponíveis. Em particular, vacinas com efeitos terapêuticos, embora representem um enorme desafio a ser vencido, tornam-se cada vez próximas da realidade e, certamente, terão um impacto enorme no tratamento de diversas doenças, como em algumas formas de câncer.Vaccines represent the intervention strategy with the best cost-benefit ratio so far applied in public health. Biotechnological advances in various areas of vaccine research have contributed to the development of safer and more effective formulations. Moreover, application of biotechnology tools to vaccine development has caused changes in the way we think and produce these reagents both for use in humans and animals. Such technologies bring renewed perspectives that, in the near future, vaccines for the control of several non-preventable infectious and degenerative diseases will be available. In particular, the development of vaccines with therapeutic effects, although representing a huge challenge, are getting closer to reality and will have a tremendous impact in the treatment of several diseases such as some cancer forms.

  11. 既有建筑拆除物再生利用研究综述%Recycling Research of Exiting Building Demolition Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童滋捷; 宗兰; 张士萍

    2012-01-01

    Through analysis and research on a large number of domestic literature about the exiting building demolition material recycling, this article analyzes the background of the development of domestic exiting building demolition material recycling and basic characteristics of the removal material recychng. Side by side, contrarily the analysis of treatment and utilization of the current situation, it points out comprehensive utiliza- tion of possibilities and feasibility of exiting building demolition material.%文章通过对国内大量既有建筑拆除物再生利用文献的分析与研究,分析了我国既有建筑拆除物再生利用发展的背景以及拆除剩余物再生利用的基本特点。并针对目前处理利用的现状进行了分析,提出了对既有建筑拆除物综合利用的可能性和可行性。

  12. Perception of Educational Materials on Bio climatic Buildings: An Exploratory Study in the School Community; Percepcion de las Unidades Didacticas sobre Edificacion Bioclimatica en el Contexto Educativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri, S.; Sala, R.; Cornejo, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    In the framework of the ARFRISOL project on bio climatic architecture, a set of educational materials were developed to disseminate the technology in the school community. This report presents the results of an exploratory study on the effects of those educational materials in the classroom, analyzing areas such as satisfaction, level of interest, and knowledge in relation to bio climatic building. The sample consists of two groups: teachers (N = 27) and students (N 313). Two questionnaires were developed ad hoc in order to properly understand the experience with the educational materials by the students and the teachers. The results suggest that the educational materials are a good tool to spread zero emissions buildings advances in educational contexts. Both groups emphasize the need and usefulness of the topic, and the applicability of these innovations to everyday life. However, issues such as the difficulty in understanding some concepts, time dedicated or opportunity to conduct visits to project buildings appears as aspects to be adjusted and/or incorporated into the future versions. This work aims at improving communication strategies and scientific outreach of the project by raising awareness and promoting a better understanding of this topic. (Author)

  13. Cost Analysis of Simple Phase Change Material-Enhanced Building Envelopes in Southern U.S. Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, Jan [Fraunhofer CSE, Cambridge, MA (United States); Shukla, Nitin [Fraunhofer CSE, Cambridge, MA (United States); Fallahi, Ali [Fraunhofer CSE, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Traditional thermal designs of building envelope assemblies are based on static energy flows, yet building envelopes are subject to varying environmental conditions. This mismatch between the steady-state principles and their dynamic operation can decrease thermal efficiency. Design work supporting the development of low-energy houses showed that conventional insulations may not always be the most cost effective solution to improvement envelope thermal performance. PCM-enhanced building envelopes that simultaneously reduce the total cooling loads and shift the peak-hour loads are the focus of this report.

  14. Knowledge platform for calculating climate impact from construction and building materials. Literature study; Kunnskapsplattform for beregning av klimabelastning fra bygg og byggematerialer. Litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenning, Anne; Lyng, Kari-Anne; Vold, Mie

    2011-07-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from building linked today to a large extent to the energy consumption during the operating period. Through increasingly stringent energy requirements and other changes, the energy consumption for the operation could go down over time. This means in this case that the energy required to produce, transport and set up the building, to a greater extent can be relatively more important in a life-cycle analysis. KRD in that regard ha given Oestfoldforskning the commission to conduct a literature study that will provide an overview and assessment of the literature / research papers describing various building materials climate impact and how this translates into a lifetime (LCA - Life Cycle Assessment), and thus describe the knowledge platform these analyzes are based in. It also means a description of the factors that affect the climate and the environment, including the stages of life that are important. Literature study is conducted by searching scientific databases (Springer Link, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Norwegian EPD database of declarations). The literature search is limited to studies that are based on LCA as a methodology for calculating the climate impacts associated with the construction and building materials. Based on the review of literature is also undertaken an analysis focusing on explaining the methodological platform between the studies are based on, in order to explain why the results differ and / or may not be comparable.(eb)

  15. Discussion on Fire Safety of Energy Conservation Material in Building%建筑节能材料防火安全探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽红; 刘晓涛

    2012-01-01

    Analyzes the wide range application of building energy conservation and thermal insulation material about the aspect of building energy conservation and thermal insulation.Through comparing those with foreign current situation indicate that EPS and XPS exit serious problems in fire safety.Puts forward Suggestions to improve the energy conservation system of the building and building energy conservation and thermal insulation material flame retardant property specifications,puts forward the research objective of new PU composite insulation wall.%对国内应用较为广泛的建筑节能保温材料,在节能保温以及防火安全方面进行了分析,与国外建筑保温材料应用现状进行了比较,指出了EPS及XPS在防火安全方面存在的问题,提出了建筑节能体系的建立和建筑节能保温材料阻燃性能规范制定的建议,提出新型PU复合保温墙体的研究目标。

  16. Several realizations of English translation of science and technology for building materials%对建材科技英语翻译的几点体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩薇

    2015-01-01

    This paper from free translation, literal translation,part of speech, long sentences into short sentences,and combining with the professional translation of the five aspects such as building materials science and technology English translation means,and on this basis puts forward some requirement for the translator to translate for the actual building materials work provide the feasible theoretical reference.%本文从意译、直译、词性、长句转换成短句以及结合专业翻译等五个方面阐述建材科技英语的翻译方式,并在此基础之上提出了几点对翻译工作者的要求,旨在为实际的建材翻译工作提供切实可行的理论参考。

  17. Creation of Polyurethane Injection Materials, Their Pilot-industrial Production, Development and Industrial Introduction of the Technology of Strengthening and Restoring the Operability of Damaged Constructions and Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marukha, V.І.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane and foam polyurethane fluid injection materials not conceding foreign analogues and technology technology of restoration and strengthening the operability of concrete and reinforced concrete structures and buildings damaged by cracks were developed. Normative and technical documentation on the injection materials and technological processes was created. The diagnosticrestoring complex for implementing the above technologies was designed, installed and utilized at the construction sites. The equipment is designed and manufactured; the technology of the research and industrial production of «A» and «B» components of injecting polyurethane materials is designed and developed. The pilot-scale batch is manufactured. Technological processes of preparation and application of the «A» and «B» componentsof the injecting materials in industrial conditions are worked out and implemented.

  18. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically supp

  19. Ancient Cultural Center Building and Materials Research Numismatic Collection Museum--Ancient COINS by Tibetan cultural center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠利

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the Chinese cultural center is located in the ancient COINS hidden city, the city center in Jinan, convenient transportation, beautiful scenery, poured enough, the surrounding environment culture atmosphere, be helpful for cultural centers in the long run. The building area is about 3500 square meters, the whole building is divided into two layer, a layer of main distribution the exhibition hall, second floor mainly by the studio to form. The designer of the coin reference model, through the deepening, evolution techniques such as the characteristics of Chinese coin will, connotation unity emerges into design, show to buildings. Very good carry the historical culture, also captures the pulse of the times lived.

  20. Gerenciamento de Projetos em Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Maia Laruccia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo estudar o gerenciamento de projetos na área de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, em um cenário onde os avanços da tecnologia têm influenciado nas mais diversas áreas do conhecimento humano e passaram a exigir abordagens diferenciadas na forma de planejar, executar e controlar os projetos, para assegurar os resultados almejados pelas organizações. Avaliar as formas de conhecimento aplicadas ao gerenciamento de projetos e as interações de suas disciplinas apresenta-se como uma condição oportuna para compreensão e melhoria do processo de gerenciamento de projetos. Considerando que a interdisciplinaridade destaca-se na crítica e na busca de respostas aos limites do conhecimento e que rompe com o paradigma disciplinar de produção do conhecimento particionado, a análise da forma de conhecimento do gerenciamento de projetos pode contribuir para desvelar oportunidades e engendrar melhorias neste processo. Verifica-se que o gerenciamento de projeto tem evoluído continuamente e congrega diversas disciplinas do conhecimento nos modelos praticados. Atualmente, um dos modelos mais consagrados de gerenciamento de projetos é o Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, publicado pelo Project Management Institute (PMI, que é utilizado em mais de 185 países. Vale ressaltar, que a simples comunicação entre as disciplinas do gerenciamento de projetos não significa que estejamos aplicando necessariamente uma abordagem interdisciplinar. Analisar o gerenciamento de projetos na ótica da interdisciplinaridade pode contribuir para o aperfeiçoamento dos modelos de gerenciamento de projetos e consequentemente para a geração de melhores resultados para as organizações.DOI:10.5585/gep.v3i3.82