WorldWideScience

Sample records for building integrated pv

  1. Power of design - the future of building-integrated PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbate, Cinzia [ENEL, Rome (Italy). Officine di Architettura

    2001-04-01

    This paper discusses strategies to make building integrated photovoltaic (PV) systems more acceptable and to allow PV material to compete with conventional construction material. The history of developments in building integration and difficulties encountered by architects wishing to use PV products are explored, and the Dutch Amersfoot project in Utrecht involving a new suburb of 501 house covered with PV panels is described. Questions raised regarding architectural integration of PV systems, and PV systems and the construction market are discussed. The Italian PV programme, financial and political constraints, and the positioning of PV on existing structures are reported.

  2. Transparent building-integrated PV modules. Phase 1: Comprehensive report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-28

    This Comprehensive Report encompasses the activities that have been undertaken by Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with Energy Photovoltaics, Incorporated (EPV), to develop a flexible patterning system for thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules for building applications. There are two basic methods for increasing transparency/light transmission by means of patterning the PV film: widening existing scribe lines, or scribing a second series of lines perpendicular to the first. These methods can yield essentially any degree of light transmission, but both result in visible patterns of light and dark on the panel surface. A third proposed method is to burn a grid of dots through the films, independent of the normal cell scribing. This method has the potential to produce a light-transmitting panel with no visible pattern. Ornamental patterns at larger scales can be created using combinations of these techniques. Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with EPV are currently developing a complementary process for the large-scale lamination of thin-film PVs, which enables building integrated (BIPV) modules to be produced in sizes up to 48 in. x 96 in. Flexible laser patterning will be used for three main purposes, all intended to broaden the appeal of the product to the building sector: To create semitransparent thin-film modules for skylights, and in some applications, for vision glazing.; to create patterns for ornamental effects. This application is similar to fritted glass, which is used for shading, visual screening, graphics, and other purposes; and to allow BIPV modules to be fabricated in various sizes and shapes with maximum control over electrical characteristics.

  3. Optical characterisation of semi-transparent PV modules for building integration

    OpenAIRE

    Moralejo Vázquez, Francisco José; Martín Chivelet, Nuria; Olivieri, Lorenzo; Caamaño Martín, Estefanía

    2014-01-01

    A complete characterisation of PV modules for building integration is needed in order to know their influence on the building’s global energy balance. Specifically, certain characteristic parameters should be obtained for each different PV module suitable for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), some by direct or indirect measurements at the laboratory, and others by monitoring the element performance mounted in real operating conditions. In the...

  4. Integration of PV modules in existing Romanian buildings from rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fara, S.; Finta, D. [IPA SA Research Development, Engineering and Manufacturing for Automation Equipment and Systems, Bucharest (Romania); Fara, L.; Comaneci, D. [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest (Romania); Dabija, A.M. [Univ. of Architecture and Urbanism Ion Mincu, Bucharest (Romania); Tulcan-Paulescu, E. [West Univ. of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2010-07-01

    Romania has launched a national research project to promote the use of distributed solar architecture and the use of BIPV systems. These systems include solar tunnels and active solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on the roofs and facades of buildings in rural areas. In contrast to other EU states, Romania does not have a photovoltaic building construction branch. The number of isolated cases are insufficient to identify a starting point regarding the PV market in the building industry. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate the efficiency of integrating various PV elements in buildings from rural areas, to test them and to make them known so that they can be used on a large scale. This will be accomplished by installing new products on 2 buildings in Bucharest and in 1 building in Timisoara. The PV modules will be integrated with the architecture. One of the buildings will be a historical building while the other 2 will be new buildings with different typologies. The installed power for each building will be of about 1.000 Wp, including some technologies with PV modules.

  5. Design of fibre reinforced PV concepts for building integrated applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; de Wit, H.; de Boer, Andries; Ossenbrink Sinke, W.; Helm, P.

    2009-01-01

    Fibre reinforced polymers present an interesting encapsulation medium for PV-modules. Glass fibres can provide increased strength and stiffness to thin polymer layers overcoming the brittleness and limited deformability of glass-panes. Glass fibre reinforced polymers allows for transparency over a

  6. Design of fibre reinforced PV concepts for building integrated applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Wit, de H.; Boer, de A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibre reinforced polymers present an interesting encapsulation medium for PV-modules. Glass fibres can provide increased strength and stiffness to thin polymer layers overcoming the brittleness and limited deformability of glass-panes. Glass fibre reinforced polymers allows for transparency over a b

  7. PV cool-build

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, B.; Nuh, D.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project to develop a method for calculating the operating temperature of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) modules/laminates which are estimated to operate above ambient temperature. The aim of the study was to minimise the temperature of the BIPV in order to increase the production of clean electricity. Details are given of a series of indoor experiments, computer modelling, and outdoor measurements. The production of a readily available, user-friendly design guide for architects and building designers is discussed.

  8. PV shading device integrated system in a University Building in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    PV Enlargement project PV Enlargement" boldly demonstrates Europe’s commitment for improved energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness of PV systems, enhancing the development of large European PV markets. The project can be subdivided into three major fields of activities: Demonstration (1,218 kWp) of highly cost-effective or very innovative PV technologies in 10 European countries for increasing public awareness about and visibility of PV solar electricity Transfer of PV Technol...

  9. Investigation the Advantages of CPV for Building Integrated PV : 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, Piet; Craats, S. van der; Sparemberger, A.R.; Sahedi, J.V.; Catau, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this concept is a significant reduction of energy consumption in greenhouses and buildings with large facades and windows by using available solar energy. The scope of this investigation is to study the advantages of a building integrated CPV system. The basic idea is that a larger

  10. Feasibility Study of a Building-Integrated PV Manager to Power a Last-Mile Electric Vehicle Sharing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is one of the largest single sources of air pollution in urban areas. This paper analyzes a model of solar-powered vehicle sharing system using building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV, resulting in a zero-emission and zero-energy mobility system for last-mile employee transportation. As a case study, an electric bicycle sharing system between a public transportation hub and a work center is modeled mathematically and optimized in order to minimize the number of pickup trips to satisfy the demand, while minimizing the total energy consumption of the system. The whole mobility system is fully powered with BIPV-generated energy. Results show a positive energy balance in e-bike batteries and pickup vehicle batteries in the worst day of the year regarding solar radiation. Even in this worst-case scenario, we achieve reuse rates of 3.8 people per bike, using actual data. The proposed system manages PV energy using only the batteries from the electric vehicles, without requiring supportive energy storage devices. Energy requirements and PV generation have been analyzed in detail to ensure the feasibility of this approach.

  11. PV-PCM integration in glazed building. Co-simulation and genetic optimization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elarga, Hagar; Dal Monte, Andrea; Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    2017-01-01

    , thermal resistances technique and enthalpy method were applied to describe different façade solutions and transient thermal performance of PCM. The coupling between the PV-PCM façade code implemented in MATLAB and the TRNSYS software was developed to estimate the dynamic thermal energy profiles...

  12. Performance assessment and transient optimization of multi-stage solid desiccant air conditioning systems with building PV/T integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Mohamed; Saghafifar, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    One of the popular solar air conditioning technologies is desiccant air conditioning. Nonetheless, single stage desiccant air conditioning systems' coefficient of performance (COP) are relatively low. Therefore, multi-stage solid desiccant air conditioning systems are recommended. In this paper, an integrated double-stage desiccant air conditioning systems and PV/T collector is suggested for hot and humid climates such as the UAE. The results for the PV/T implementation in the double-stage desiccant cooling system are assessed against the PV/T results for a single-stage desiccant air conditioning system. In order to provide a valid comparative evaluation between the single and double stage desiccant air conditioning systems, an identical PV/T module, in terms of dimensions, is incorporated into these systems. The overall required auxiliary air heating is abated by 46.0% from 386.8 MWh to 209.0 MWh by replacing the single stage desiccant air conditioning system with the proposed double stage configuration during June to October. Moreover, the overall averaged solar share during the investigated months for the single and double stage systems are 36.5% and 43.3%.

  13. Grid integrated distributed PV (GridPV).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2013-08-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function in the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  14. Analysis and Monitoring Results of a Building Integrated Photovoltaic Façade Using PV Ceramic Tiles in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chieh Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal silicon-based solar cells laminated with tempered-glass and ceramic tiles for use in a building’s façade have been developed. The optical, thermal, and electrical properties of the proposed PV module are first evaluated, and then a wind-resistance test is carried out to evaluate the feasibility of installing it in Taiwan. The electrical and deflection characteristics of the proposed PV module did not change significantly after a 50 thermal cycling test and a 200-hour humidity-freeze test, based on IEC 61215 and a wind-resistance test. Finally, the electrical power generation ability of the proposed BIPV system with 1 kWp electrical power capacity was examined. Building information modeling software tools were used to simulate the BIPV system and carry out the energy analysis. The simulation results show a very consistent trend with regard to the actual monthly electricity production of the BIPV system designed in this work. The BIPV system was able to produce an accumulative electrical power of 185 kWh during the 6-month experimental period. In addition, the exterior temperature of the demonstration house was about 10°C lower than the surface of the BIPV system, which could reduce indoor temperature.

  15. Plug and Play Components for Building Integrated PV Systems, Phase II Final Report, 20 February 2003 - 31 May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, D.

    2008-04-01

    Progress by Schott Solar, Inc. under NREL's PV Manufacturing R&D Project. Details progress on meter-interconnect device; free-standing mounting system; dark I-V curves to unearth problems with PV module strings; new 34-V version of ASE-300 PV module; and updated source-circuit protectors.

  16. SunFlash -- An entirely new concept for building-integrated PV. Final technical report, October 1997--June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, M.A.

    1998-10-01

    This project team has investigated an innovative and entirely new building product concept, the SunFlash, incorporating a photovoltaic module with integral mounting and sealing for watertight building integration. It can be used as a roof-integrated shingle for slant roofs, for vertical curtain walls, or in other applications. Key features of the SunFlash include the following: an integrated module concept whereby the module, backskin, edge seal and mounting and sealing are all a single molded unit of the same material; an extension of this concept to include the possibility of molded-in electrical connections; a novel encapsulant material with better adhesion, sealing, thermal creep, and UV stability properties than EVA; a crystalline silicon, glass-front module incorporating the advanced string ribbon solar cells; and accessories and features, including a module-integrated inverter, laminated exit wiring, mounting, and raceway wiring, that provide high-performance consistent with building practice. The objective of the SunFlash is a standardized, cost-effective, long-lasting solution to integrating and water-sealing modules into residential and commercial buildings, both new and retrofit.

  17. Evaluating 5-Years Performance Monitoring of 1 MW Building Integrated PV Project in Nieuwland, Amersfoort, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; de Keizer, A.C.; ter Horst, E.; Molenbroek, E.C.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of about 400 decentralised PV systems has been evaluated for a period of five years (2001-2006). The systems are situated in the urban area Nieuwland in the town of Amersfoort in the Netherlands and are part of one of the largest decentralised PV projects in the world. The evaluated

  18. Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T Air and Water Based Solar Collectors Suitable for Building Integrated Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of mass flow rates on the electrical, thermal and combined of photovoltaic thermal efficiencies of the hybrid collectors. Approach: Two photovoltaic thermal solar collectors were designed and fabricated. The first collector, known as spiral flow absorber collector, designed to generate hot water and electricity. The second collector, known as single pass rectangular tunnel absorber collector designed to generate hot air and electricity. Both absorber collectors were fixed underneath the flat plate single glazing sheet of polycrystalline silicon PV module. Water was used as a heat transfer medium in spiral flow absorber collector and air for the Single pass rectangular tunnel absorber collector respectively. Results: The experiment results showed that the single flow absorber collector generates combined PV/T efficiency of 64%, electrical efficiency of 11% and power maximum achieved at 25.35 W. Moreover, Single pass rectangular tunnel absorber collector generated combined PV/T efficiency of 55%, electrical efficiency of 10% and maximum power of 22.45 W. Conclusion/Recommendations: The best mass flow rate achieved for spiral flow absorber collector is 0.011 kg sec-1 at surface temperature of 55% and 0.0754 kg sec-1 at surface temperature of 39°C for single pass rectangular collector absorber. It was recommended for PV/T system to further improve its efficiency by optimizing the contact surfaces between the solar panel (photovoltaic module and the tubes underneath and also recommended to use other type of photovoltaic cell such as amorphous silicon cell that posses the black mat surfaces property that will improve it thermal absorption.

  19. PV integration into a CSP plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Javier López; Barea, Jose M.; Barragan, Jose; Ortega, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes a preliminary techno-economic analysis of the integration of a PV plant into an optimized Parabolic Trough Plant in order to reduce the online consumptions and thus, increase the net electricity injected into the grid. The idea is to assess the feasibility of such project and see what configuration would be the optimal. An extra effort has been made in terms of modelling as the analysis has to be done to the integrated CSP + PV plant instead of analyzing them independently. Two different technologies have been considered for the PV plant, fix and one-axis tracking. Additionally three different scenarios have been considered for the CSP plant auxiliary consumptions as they are essential for determining the optimal PV plant (the higher the auxiliary consumption the higher the optimal PV plant). As could be expected, the results for all cases with PV show an improvement in terms of electricity generation and also in terms of LCOE with respect to the CSP plant. Such improvement is slightly higher with tracking technology for this specific study. Although this exercise has been done to an already designed CSP plant (so only the PV plant had to be optimized), the methodology could be applied for the optimization of an integrated CSP + PV plant during the design phase.

  20. Fire risk related to the use of PV systems in building facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazziotti Lamberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the use of photovoltaic (PV systems in buildings is not only related to the solar energy conversion into electrical one, but these PV modules or panels could also be used with aesthetic features or, even more, as thermal protection systems in building facades. Thanks to the technical development of the photovoltaic industry, PV system can easily be architectonically integrated into building construction elements such as roofs, vertical façade components, both with opaque or transparent surfaces. Furthermore, PV construction facades elements could also be provided by openings like doors or windows. Accident analysis show that the use of PV systems as construction elements could increase the risk of fire in buildings. In fact, international and National data report a growing number of fire caused by PV system applied or integrated in buildings. The Italian National Fire Service, that is the Authority having jurisdiction for fire safety in buildings (in Italy, in 2012 has released a Guideline in order to asses and mitigate the risk of fire when a PV system is put in place on a building as a façade or as a roof. The Guideline addresses not only the reduction of the PV fire ignitions causes and the aspects related to the fire spread due to the combustible parts that constitute PV modules or panels, but also take into account the safety of both the maintenance personnel and the rescue teams. This paper focuses on the fire safety aspects related to the use of fire PV panels and systems in building facades, showing some interesting experimental data related to the fire behaviour of these components and underlining the factors that promote the spread of fire, like the high operating temperature of the PV system itself.

  1. Optimal design and application for building-integrated PV station connecting with distribution network%建筑光伏接入配电网优化设计及工程案例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯炜; 夏玉印

    2012-01-01

    The building-integrated photovoltaic (PV) generation will become one of the main modes of China's solar PV generation with the development of new energy. In this paper, based on the characteristics of PV generation and distribution network, a corresponding optimal design scheme for the construction of the building-integrated PV power station is proposed by analyzing specific engineering cases in consideration of power station access planning, electric energy supply quality, relay protection, operation and maintenance. Through overall planning and design, the PV station got access to distribution network reliably, and worked safely and stably. Distribution network users should focus on quality of electric energy supply and relay protection configuration during the access assessment of PV power station. Some actual cases indicate that the scheme is applied to practical engineering and has achieved a good effect.%针对光伏发电以及配电网的特点,考虑电站接入规划设计、电能质量、继电保护、运行维护系统等方面的因素,提出了建筑光伏建设及其接入方案的优化设计方法.通过整体规划和设计,光伏电站能够可靠接入配电网,并安全稳定运行.提出对于配电网用户,在进行光伏电站接入评估时应重点关注电能质量及继电保护配置.通过具体的工程实例表明该方案在实际工程中得到了运用,效果较好.

  2. Large-Scale PV Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Diao, Ruisheng; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin; Hafen, Ryan P.; Jin, Chunlian; Kirkham, Harold; Shlatz, Eugene; Frantzis, Lisa; McClive, Timothy; Karlson, Gregory; Acharya, Dhruv; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford; Chadliev, Vladimir; Smart, Michael; Salgo, Richard; Sorensen, Rahn; Allen, Barbara; Idelchik, Boris

    2011-07-29

    This research effort evaluates the impact of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) and distributed generation (DG) output on NV Energy’s electric grid system in southern Nevada. It analyzes the ability of NV Energy’s generation to accommodate increasing amounts of utility-scale PV and DG, and the resulting cost of integrating variable renewable resources. The study was jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy and NV Energy, and conducted by a project team comprised of industry experts and research scientists from Navigant Consulting Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and NV Energy.

  3. PV-Optitag 2 - 1. phase: Development of CO{sub 2} neutral buildings; PV-Optitag 2 - 1. etape: Udvikling af CO{sub 2} neutrale boliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejsig Pedersen, P.

    2008-04-15

    An integrated PV cell-solar heating roof solution called PV Optitag was developed in close cooperation between architects and engineers to make new CO{sub 2} neutral solutions for urban development projects. A CO{sub 2} neutral rooftop apartment with PV cells in a solar-energy roof exploits an air-based PVT PV-cell solution in combination with a heat pump as well as PV cells integrated into windows. The idea behind the apartment is a zero-energy solution in new buildings or an urban development component, and the apartment has been exhibited in Orestaden, see www.soltag.net. The project gained practical experience in fluid-covered PV cells in combination with heat pumps in housing. (author)

  4. Photovoltaic (PV) building design guide. Collection of worldwide cases of photovoltaic power generation buildings; PV kenchiku design guide. Sekai no taiyoko hatsuden kenchiku jireishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-20

    This paper notices design possibility of PV buildings, and describes attempts to grasp the building integrated PV (BIPV) system in terms of total building design. The paper sets the principal object in providing photographs, specifications, and design data of the cases especially excellent in design sense, wherein, among the buildings adopting the photovoltaic power generation system, the handling of solar cell panels is integrated with the design of the building. Symbolic significance possessed by building patterns is great, and the symbolism and message expression over the environment are the important interests. Working on the BIPV from these viewpoints requires a number of hints in the design aspects, not to speak of the fundamental knowledge about photovoltaic power generation. This paper is intended to present the minimum necessary fundamental knowledge about PV systems, introduce excellent actual examples that can call for attention to photovoltaic power generation systems, and provide clues to proceeding to the next step toward the introduction thereof. The cases introduced in the paper include 36 PV cases in overseas countries, and 15 cases in Japan. (NEDO)

  5. Simulation of Power Produced by a Building Added PV System in Indonesia using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study a PV system will be simulated using virtual reality software for PV system simulations -called VR4PV - to show the effectiveness of the modelling of PV systems on buildings which are placed in the tropics. The PV system used for this study has been installed in Papua, Indonesia and inc

  6. Grid Integrated Distributed PV (GridPV) Version 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2014-12-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functio ns are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in th e OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function i n the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  7. Voltage rise mitigation for solar PV integration at LV grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guangya; Marra, Francesco; Juamperez Goñi, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy from photovoltaic (PV) is among the fastest developing renewable energy systems worldwide. Driven by governmental subsidies and technological development, Europe has seen a fast expansion of solar PV in the last few years. Among the installed PV plants, most of them are situated...... at the distribution systems and bring various operational challenges such as power quality and power flow management. The paper discusses the modelling requirements for PV system integration studies, as well as the possible techniques for voltage rise mitigation at low voltage (LV) grids for increasing PV penetration...

  8. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  9. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  10. BEopt-CA (Ex): A Tool for Optimal Integration of EE, DR and PV in Existing California Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Velasco, Paulo Tabrares [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Springer, David [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States); Coates, Peter [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States); Bell, Christy [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States); Price, Snuller [Energy & Environmental Economics, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sreedharan, Priya [Energy & Environmental Economics, San Francisco, CA (United States); Pickrell, Katie [Energy & Environmental Economics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This project targeted the development of a software tool, BEopt-CA (Ex) (Building Energy Optimization Tool for California Existing Homes), that aims to facilitate balanced integration of energy efficiency (EE), demand response (DR), and photovoltaics (PV) in the residential retrofit1 market. The intent is to provide utility program managers and contractors in the EE/DR/PV marketplace with a means of balancing the integration of EE, DR, and PV

  11. Performance Research on Photovoltaic/Thermovoltaic Solar System in Building-integrated Solar Systems%太阳能建筑光伏/热电系统(PV/TV)性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晨光; 邓晓颖; 刘正权; 包亦望; 李聪; 邱一富

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid photovoltaic/thermovoltaic solar system (PV/TV) was designed with PV cells, heat collector and thermoelectric generator. This PV/TV system can collect heat from solar panels so as to reduce its surface temperature, and then to generate electricity using the temperature difference technology and devices. Simulation experiments were conducted in Beijing. The performance of this system from April to October was analyzed, and the application of PV/TV system in photovoltaic building was discussed primarily. The results indicated that the generating efficiency per unit area of this PV/TV system was 5% ~ 15% higher than that of a pure PV system.%本文将太阳能电池板、集热器、热电发电片结合起来,设计并开发制成了一套光伏/热电系统(PV/TV),在利用太阳能电池发电的同时,可将热量收集并利用其发电.而后将这种系统在北京地区进行了室外模拟实验,测试并讨论了该系统在4 ~10月的发电性能,对PV/TV系统在光伏建筑中的应用进行了初步探讨.结果表明,相对于单纯的光伏发电系统,PV/TV系统单位面积发电效率有5% ~ 15%的提高.

  12. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  13. Optimal building-integrated photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, G.; Kinkead, J. [Kiss and Co. Architects, New York, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules are clean, safe and efficient devices that have long been considered a logical material for use in buildings. Recent technological advances have made PVs suitable for direct integration into building construction. PV module size, cost, appearance and reliability have advanced to the point where they can function within the architectural parameters of conventional building materials. A building essentially provides free land and structural support for a PV module, and the module in turn displaces standard building components. This report identifies the highest-value applications for PVs in buildings. These systems should be the first markets for BIPV products in the commercial buildings, and should remain an important high-end market for the foreseeable future.

  14. Evolution of integrated panel structural design and interfaces for PV power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, J. C.; Anderson, A. J.; Robertson, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of integrated photovoltaic (PV) panel design at ARCO Solar is discussed. Historically, framed PV modules of about 1 x 4-ft size were individually mounted in the field on fixed support structures and interconnected electrically with cables to build higher-power arrays. When ARCO Solar saw the opportunity in 1982 to marry its PV modules with state-of-the-art heliostat trackers developed by ARCO Power Systems, it became obvious that mounting individual modules was impractical. For this project, the framed modules were factory-assembled into panels and interconnected with cables before being mounted on the trackers. Since then, ARCO Solar made considerable progress and gained substantial experience in the design and fabrication of large PV panels. Constraints and criteria considered in these design activities included static and dynamic loads; assembly and transportation equipment and logistics, structural and electrical interfaces, and safety and grounding concerns.

  15. Evolution of integrated panel structural design and interfaces for PV power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, J. C.; Anderson, A. J.; Robertson, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of integrated photovoltaic (PV) panel design at ARCO Solar is discussed. Historically, framed PV modules of about 1 x 4-ft size were individually mounted in the field on fixed support structures and interconnected electrically with cables to build higher-power arrays. When ARCO Solar saw the opportunity in 1982 to marry its PV modules with state-of-the-art heliostat trackers developed by ARCO Power Systems, it became obvious that mounting individual modules was impractical. For this project, the framed modules were factory-assembled into panels and interconnected with cables before being mounted on the trackers. Since then, ARCO Solar made considerable progress and gained substantial experience in the design and fabrication of large PV panels. Constraints and criteria considered in these design activities included static and dynamic loads; assembly and transportation equipment and logistics, structural and electrical interfaces, and safety and grounding concerns.

  16. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hasper-Tuttle, J.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-01-01

    California regulators recently approved a plan proposed by Southern California Edison (SCE) to install 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy in its utility service territory over the next 5 years. The installations will include 250 MW of utility-owned solar and 250 MW of independently owned solar. SCE expects that the majority of these systems will be commercial-scale rooftop PV systems connected at various points in the distribution system. Each of the SCE rooftop PV systems will typically have a rating of 1-3 MW. To understand the impact of high-penetration PV on the distribution grid, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE brought together a team of experts in resource assessment, distribution modeling, and planning to help analyze the impacts of adding high penetration of PV into the distribution system. Through modeling and simulation, laboratory testing, and field demonstrations, the team will address the issues identified in the analysis by fully examining the challenges, developing solutions, and transitioning those solutions to the field for large-scale deployment. This paper gives an update on the project and discusses technical results of integrating a large number of distributed PV systems into the grid.

  17. When PV modules are becoming real building elements: White solar module, a revolution for BIPV (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Escarré, Jordi; Li, Heng-Yu; Sansonnens, Laurent; Galliano, Federico; Cattaneo, Gianluca; Heinstein, Patrick; Nicolay, Sylvain; Bailat, Julien; Eberhard, Sébastien; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    The use of photovoltaic (PV) is not anymore an option but a real need in the construction of nearly zero energy buildings. To date, the lack of PV products specifically designed for building integration, considering aesthetics and architectural aspects, is one important limiting factor allowing a massive deployment of PV in the built environment. Architects are continuously asking for new solutions to customize the colour of PV elements to better integrate them into the building skin. Among these colours, white is especially attractive as it is widely used in architecture for its elegance, versatility and fresh look. Until now, white solar modules were not considered to be an option and even never been though to be a technological possibility. Nonetheless, CSEM recently developed a new technology to make white solar modules a reality. Furthermore, the new Swiss company called Solaxess is now working on the industrialisation of this very innovative technology and the first products are expecting to be on the market at the end of 2015. The technology is based on the combination of two different elements: a solar cell able to convert solar infrared light into electricity and a selective filter which reflects and diffuse the whole visible spectrum. Any PV technology based on crystalline silicon can be used as they have a good response in the infrared. Approximately 55% of the current generated under standard test conditions comes from the infrared leading to conversion efficiencies above 11%. We will demonstrate, that thanks to this very innovative technology PV modules can become attractive and real active building elements and therefore meets the requirements of any future energy management through advanced building skins.

  18. Grid Integration of Large PV Power Systems Using HVDC Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Sowilam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the interconnection of large scale Photo-Voltaic (PV systems to the grid though a High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC link. HVDC link is recently utilized for transmission lines longer than 50 km. It is usually utilized to interconnect two asynchronous grids with the same or different frequencies while avoiding stability disturbances greatly. A suitable Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT techniques is employed to control the performance of the integrated PV system. The system of the HVDC link has two 12-pulse converter using thyristor-bridges. The delay and the extinction angles at the rectifier and the inverter units control the flow and the quantity of the transmitted power from the PV system into the grid. Fixed capacitors and filters are used to provide the AC side with the required reactive power and reduce the harmonic contents. For evaluation purposes, different simulation investigations are carried out with a detailed modeling using the MATLAB. These tests corroborate the efficacy of HVDC link for integrating large PV systems to electrical grids.

  19. Using CAD software to simulate PV energy yield - The case of product integrated photovoltaic operated under indoor solar irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C. [Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht (Netherlands); Sinke, W.C. [Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht (Netherlands); Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we show that photovoltaic (PV) energy yields can be simulated using standard rendering and ray-tracing features of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. To this end, three-dimensional (3-D) sceneries are ray-traced in CAD. The PV power output is then modeled by translating irradiance intensity data of rendered images back into numerical data. To ensure accurate results, the solar irradiation data used as input is compared to numerical data obtained from rendered images, showing excellent agreement. As expected, also ray-tracing precision in the CAD software proves to be very high. To demonstrate PV energy yield simulations using this innovative concept, solar radiation time course data of a few days was modeled in 3-D to simulate distributions of irradiance incident on flat, single- and double-bend shapes and a PV powered computer mouse located on a window sill. Comparisons of measured to simulated PV output of the mouse show that also in practice, simulation accuracies can be very high. Theoretically, this concept has great potential, as it can be adapted to suit a wide range of solar energy applications, such as sun-tracking and concentrator systems, Building Integrated PV (BIPV) or Product Integrated PV (PIPV). However, graphical user interfaces of 'CAD-PV' software tools are not yet available. (author)

  20. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Breakeven Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The commercial sector offers strong potential for solar photovoltaics (PV) owing to abundant available roof space suitable for PV and the opportunity to offset the sector's substantial retail electricity purchases. This report evaluated the breakeven price of PV for 15 different building types and various financing options by calculating electricity savings based on detailed rate structures for most U.S. utility territories (representing approximately two thirds of U.S. commercial customers). We find that at current capital costs, an estimated 1/3 of U.S. commercial customers break even in the cash scenario and approximately 2/3 break even in the loan scenario. Variation in retail rates is a stronger driver of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. At the building level, variation in the average breakeven price is largely driven by the ability for a PV system to reduce demand charges.

  1. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...

  2. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV): Analysis and US market potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzis, Lisa; Friedman, David; Hill, Sarah; Teagan, Peter; Strong, Steven; Strong, Marilyn

    1995-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., in conjunction with Solar Design Associates, conducted a study for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies (OBT) to determine the market potential for grid-connected, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study defines BIPV as two types of applications: (1) where the PV modules are an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering skin; and (2) the PV modules are mounted on the existing building exterior. Both of these systems are fully integrated with the energy usage of the building and have potential for significant market penetration in the US. Off-grid building applications also offer a near-term market for BIPV, but are not included in the scope of this study.

  3. Using electric vehicle charging strategies to maximize PV-integration in the low voltage grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niesse, Astrid; Troeschel, Martin; Scherfke, Stefan; Schuette, Steffen [OFFIS, Oldenburg (Germany). R and D Div. Energy; Sonnenschein, Michael [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Computing Science

    2011-07-01

    The role of electric vehicles (EV) in the low voltage grid has been discussed lately in many projects. An efficient energy management system for control of the charging processes while considering grid aspects is expected to raise high potential to build up Smart Grid functions. One focal point is to learn about the potential synergetic effects from EV and renewable energies regarding two main questions: (1) Is it possible to load EV batteries largely based on renewable sources - in particular PV - to guarantee positive carbon minimizing effects? (2) Can managed EV charging lead to an increased integration of fluctuating renewable energy resources in the grid? These questions can only be dealt with by keeping the status of the power infrastructure in perspective at any time -reliability of supply has to be ensured with high penetration of both EV and renewable energy resources. We used a simulative approach to follow up on these, studying the effects of charging processes for different shares of electric vehicles in the rural area of north-west Germany using characteristic grid types. Starting from these, we built up target scenarios that met our goals: Maximize PV integration, stabilize the grid and still guarantee the EV users' mobility. In this paper we present the results of scenarios with maximized PV integration and show the importance of managed charging processes to make best use of renewable feed-in for mobility purposes.

  4. Highlight of Grid-connected PV systems in administrative buildings in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy applications are becoming increasingly common in Egypt. The abundant sunshine in Egypt, as well as the increasing competitiveness of solar energy systems including- but not limited to photovoltaic (PV, – predicts that these technologies could be weighed to be raised in Egypt.PV systems are installed on roof tiles or other parts of building structures to supplement grid utility, reduce electric bills, and provide emergency back–up energy. Moreover, they simultaneously reduce significant amounts of CO2 emissions. It is foreseen, a number of residential and public buildings in Egypt are using solar power to cut electric utility bills significantly. The approximately payback period to recover the investment costs for PV systems is up to about 5 years.  In addition, it is more economical to use PV system than grid utility systems. The two components that determine the total initial price of a grid- connected PV system are the modules and the balance of systems (BOS. The BOS includes different components such as mounting frames, inverters and site- specific installation hardware.The Government of Egypt (GOE has endorsed the deployment of PV systems through three approaches. It started with a prime minister decree to install PV projects on one-thousand of the governmental buildings. This was followed by as an initiative called "Shamsk ya Masr", and finally the Feed-in Tariff (FiT projects.Following the prime minster decree the Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC and its affiliated companies took the lead to install PV systems at the top roof of their administrative buildings and interconnect these systems to the electricity network where the suitable locations have been selected for mounting them. About 90 PV systems have been already mounted with about a capacity of 9 MW. On the other hand, "Shamsk ya Masr" has considered energy efficiency (EE so as to complement the PV systems, which will be installed on administrative

  5. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California: Year 2 Project Update; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, B.; Neal, R.

    2012-08-01

    Southern California Edison (SCE) is well into a five-year project to install a total of 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy within its utility service territory. Typical installations to date are 1-3 MW peak rooftop PV systems that interconnect to medium-voltage urban distribution circuits or larger (5 MW peak) ground-mounted systems that connect to medium-voltage rural distribution circuits. Some of the PV system interconnections have resulted in distribution circuits that have a significant amount of PV generation compared to customer load, resulting in high-penetration PV integration scenarios. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE have assembled a team of distribution modeling, resource assessment, and PV inverter technology experts in order to investigate a few of the high-penetration PV distribution circuits. Currently, the distribution circuits being studied include an urban circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 46% and a rural circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 60%. In both cases, power flow on the circuit reverses direction, compared to traditional circuit operation, during periods of high PV power production and low circuit loading. Research efforts during year two of the five-year project were focused on modeling the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, the development and installation of distribution circuit data acquisition equipment appropriate for quantifying the impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, and investigating high-penetration PV impact mitigation strategies. This paper outlines these research efforts and discusses the following activities in more detail: the development of a quasi-static time-series test feeder for evaluating high-penetration PV integration modeling tools; the advanced inverter functions being investigated for deployment in the project's field demonstration and a power hardware-in-loop test of a 500-kW PV inverter implementing a

  6. Energy performance of semi-transparent PV modules for applications in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Yu Yan

    Owing to the increasing awareness on energy conservation and environmental protection, building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) has been developed rapidly in the past decade. A number of research studies have been conducted on the energy performance of BIPV systems. However, most of the previous studies focused on the systems that incorporated with opaque type PV modules, little attention has been devoted to semi-transparent type PV modules, which have been commonly integrated in modern architectures. This thesis aims at evaluating the energy performance of the semi-transparent BIPV modules, including heat gains to the indoor environment, power generation from the PV modules and daylight utilization. Solar radiation intensity on PV module's surfaces is an essential parameter for assessing energy performance of the PV modules. Different slope solar radiation models are analyzed and compared. The model that best suits Hong Kong situations is selected for the further development of the energy performance of the BIPV modules. The optimum orientation and tilted angle are determined in the analysis. In addition to the solar radiation models, a detailed investigation on the heat gain through the semi-transparent BIPV modules is carried out in this study. A one-dimensional transient heat transfer model, the SPVHG model, for evaluating the thermal performance of the semi-transparent BIPV modules is developed. The SPVHG model considers in detail the energy that is transmitted, absorbed and reflected in each element of the BIPV modules such as solar cells and glass layers. A computer program of the model is written accordingly. By applying the SPVHG model, the heat gain through the semi-transparent BIPV module of any thickness can be determined for any solar irradiance level. The annual performance can also be assessed by inputting annual weather data to the model. In order to verify the SPVHG model, laboratory tests have been carried out on semi-transparent BIPV modules. A

  7. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-01-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. This report helps to identify the key research and development (R&D) needs that will be required for BIST to make a substantial contribution toward that goal. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  8. Product integrated PV: the future is design and styling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; Reinders, Angèle

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore how PV powered products have been designed in the past. For this purpose we have drawn a historical time line of the design features of PV powered products in the context of main stream design and styling. Our time frame is 1970 till 2016, focusing in first instance on consu

  9. Overview of Recent Grid Codes for PV Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso;

    2012-01-01

    and Distribution System Operators (DSOs) had to keep the safety and reliability of the network under strict rules and regulations. The aim of the paper is to realize a survey of recent Grid Codes (GC) and regulations for grid connected PV systems. The focus is on grid interface requirements, power quality concerns...... and Anti-Islanding (AI) issues regarding PV systems connected to low voltage (LV) and medium voltage (MV) levels of the network.......The challenge to bring down the cost of produced photovoltaic (PV) power had a major impact on the PV market and in consequence the grid operators experienced higher and higher PV power penetration. The growing share of this decentralized generation plants started to affect the grid stability...

  10. Quantification, challenges and outlook of PV integration in the power system: a review by the European PV Technology Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Baccaro, Federica; De Felice, Matteo;

    2015-01-01

    Integration in the power system has become a limiting factor to the further development of photovoltaics. Proper quantification is needed to evaluate both issues and solutions; the share of annual electricity demand is widely used but we found that some of the metrics which are related to power...... rather than energy better reflect the impact on networks. Barriers to wider deployment of PV into power grids can be split between local technical issues (voltage levels, harmonics distortion, reverse power flows and transformer loading) and system-wide issues (intermittency, reduction of system...... networks. Forecasting, storage, and combination with other renewable sources are interdependent solutions to solve the intermittency issue. Finally, we found that PV is also an opportunity to reduce some investment required to upgrade existing power networks. Through integration with micro-grids and hybrid...

  11. Quantification, challenges and outlook of PV integration in the power system: a review by the European PV Technology Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Baccaro, Federica; De Felice, Matteo;

    2015-01-01

    rather than energy better reflect the impact on networks. Barriers to wider deployment of PV into power grids can be split between local technical issues (voltage levels, harmonics distortion, reverse power flows and transformer loading) and system-wide issues (intermittency, reduction of system......Integration in the power system has become a limiting factor to the further development of photovoltaics. Proper quantification is needed to evaluate both issues and solutions; the share of annual electricity demand is widely used but we found that some of the metrics which are related to power...... networks. Forecasting, storage, and combination with other renewable sources are interdependent solutions to solve the intermittency issue. Finally, we found that PV is also an opportunity to reduce some investment required to upgrade existing power networks. Through integration with micro-grids and hybrid...

  12. Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) PV integration study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham; Mousseau, Tom (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-08-01

    This report investigates the effects that increased distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation would have on the Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) system operating requirements. The study focused on determining reserve requirements needed to mitigate the impact of PV variability on system frequency, and the impact on operating costs. Scenarios of 5-MW, 10-MW, and 15-MW nameplate capacity of PV generation plants distributed across the Kauai Island were considered in this study. The analysis required synthesis of the PV solar resource data and modeling of the KIUC system inertia. Based on the results, some findings and conclusions could be drawn, including that the selection of units identified as marginal resources that are used for load following will change; PV penetration will displace energy generated by existing conventional units, thus reducing overall fuel consumption; PV penetration at any deployment level is not likely to reduce system peak load; and increasing PV penetration has little effect on load-following reserves. The study was performed by EnerNex under contract from Sandia National Laboratories with cooperation from KIUC.

  13. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go undetected...

  14. Multi-criteria assesment of building integrated photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Motuzienė; Kęstutis Valančius

    2015-01-01

    To make reasonable solutions concerning integration of PV into the façade, complex assessment must be performed at the design stage of the building, taking into account all benefits and losses. The paper presents multi-criteria analysis of semi-transparent BIPV. It is based on 4 criteria: energy, ecology, economy, comfort – 3e+c. Results show that because of twice lower solar heat gains, PV window enables to save almost half of cooling energy, it also significantly improves thermal comfort. T...

  15. Building opportunities for photovoltaics in the U.S. Final report [PV BONUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Nicklas

    1999-09-08

    The objective of the North Carolina's PV Bonus Team was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable, building-integrated, photovoltaic system that, in addition to providing electricity, would capture and effectively utilize the thermal energy produced by the photovoltaic array. This project objective was successfully achieved by designing, testing, constructing, and monitoring two roof integrated photovoltaic systems--one on a Applebee's Restaurant in Salisbury, North Carolina and the second on a Central Carolina Bank in Bessemer City, North Carolina. The goal of Innovative Design is to now use these successful demonstrations to facilitate entry of building integrated, pv/thermal systems into the marketplace. The strategy was to develop the two systems that could be utilized in future applications. Both systems were designed and then constructed at the North Carolina Solar Center at North Carolina State University. After extensive testing at the North Carolina Solar Center, the systems were moved to the actual construction sites and implemented. The Applebee's Restaurant system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of a low sloping, south-facing sunspace roof that typically incorporated clay tile. After monitoring the installed system for one year it was determined that the 1.2 kilowatt (peak) system produces an average peak reduction of 1 kilowatt (rated peak is 1.7 kiloWatts), saves 1,529 kilowatt-hours of electricity, and offsets 11,776 kilowatt-hours of thermal energy savings used to pre-heat water. A DC fan connected directly to eight of the thirty-two amorphous modules moves air through air passages mounted on the backside of the modules and into a closed loop duct system to a heat exchanger. This heat exchanger is, in turn, connected to a pre-heat hot water tank that is used to heat the water for the restaurant. The Central Carolina Bank system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of the drive-in window area of the

  16. Understanding innovation system build up. The rise and fall of the Dutch PV Innovation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, S.O.; Vasseur, V.; Hekkert, M.P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-03-15

    Renewable energy technologies have a hard time to break through in the existing energy regime. In this paper we focus on analysing the mechanisms behind this problematic technology diffusion. We take the theoretical perspective of innovation system dynamics and apply this to photovoltaic solar energy technology (PV) in the Netherlands. The reason for this is that there is a long history of policy efforts in The Netherlands to stimulate PV but results in terms of diffusion of PV panels is disappointingly low, which clearly constitutes a case of slow diffusion. The history of the development of the PV innovation system is analysed in terms of seven key processes that are essential for the build up of innovation systems. We show that the processes related to knowledge development are very stable but that large fluctuations are present in the processes related to 'guidance of the search' and 'market formation'. Surprisingly, entrepreneurial activities are not too much affected by fluctuating market formation activities. We relate this to market formation in neighbouring countries and discuss the theoretical implications for the technological innovation system framework.

  17. Multifunctional a-Si PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peippo, K.; Lund, P.; Vartiainen, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The optimal use of the various forms of solar energy (passive, active, daylighting, photovoltaics) in buildings calls for an optimal integration of the technologies. As energy conservation potential in space heating may soon be exhausted, electricity efficiency and on-site generation will play an increasing role in energy-conscious building design. There, dispersed PV systems integrated into buildings show a significant market potential, due to a number of benefits: no extra land area is required, PV-array may replace conventional cladding materials and become a building element. Moreover, the produced PV-electricity is more valuable for the building owner than for an electric utility

  18. Integrated Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    In the first half of the 20th century, HVAC systems and artificial lighting were developed to meet indoor comfort needs. Before the introduction of mechanical systems, climate - not building style or appearance - was the major determinant of building form. Comfort was achieved through passive means...... and architectural features built into the design. However, with the advent of new technologies, architects were no longer constrained by the need to ensure that buildings had ample daylighting, remained airy and cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Since HVAC systems and artificial lighting could satisfy...

  19. Implementing Solar PV Projects on Historic Buildings and in Historic Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Walker, A.; Buddenborg, J; Lindberg, J.

    2011-09-01

    Many municipalities, particularly in older communities of the United States, have a large amount of historic buildings and districts. In addition to preserving these historic assets, many municipalities have goals or legislative requirements to procure a certain amount of energy from renewable sources and to become more efficient in their energy use; often, these requirements do not exempt historic buildings. This paper details findings from a workshop held in Denver, Colorado, in June 2010 that brought together stakeholders from both the solar and historic preservation industries. Based on these findings, this paper identifies challenges and recommends solutions for developing solar photovoltaic (PV) projects on historic buildings and in historic districts in such a way as to not affect the characteristics that make a building eligible for historic status.

  20. Building integrated photovoltaic; Photovaltaique integre aux batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Durable, modular and flexible in use, as demonstrated by the different case studies in this publication, photovoltaic can replace diverse building elements, from glass facades to weather proof roofs. This leaflet towards architects describes aesthetic, technical, economic and environmental interest of building integrated photovoltaic. (author)

  1. Multi-criteria assesment of building integrated photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Motuzienė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To make reasonable solutions concerning integration of PV into the façade, complex assessment must be performed at the design stage of the building, taking into account all benefits and losses. The paper presents multi-criteria analysis of semi-transparent BIPV. It is based on 4 criteria: energy, ecology, economy, comfort – 3e+c. Results show that because of twice lower solar heat gains, PV window enables to save almost half of cooling energy, it also significantly improves thermal comfort. Total primary energy demand of the office after application of PV drops from 171 kWh/m2 to 96 kWh/m2. Multi-criteria analysis shows that office with BIPV is more sustainable than the one with transparent window.

  2. Energy Payback Time Calculation for a Building Integrated Semitransparent Thermal (BISPVT System with Air Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Mudgil

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the energy payback time (EPBT of building integrated photovoltaic thermal (BISPVT system for Srinagar, India. Three different photovoltaic (PV modules namely mono crystalline silicon (m-Si, poly crystalline silicon (p-Si, and amorphous silicon (a-Si have been considered for calculation of EPBT. It is found that, the EPBT is lowest in m-Si. Hence, integration of m-Si PV modules on the roof of a room is economical.

  3. Integrated Building Management System (IBMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anita Lewis

    2012-07-01

    This project provides a combination of software and services that more easily and cost-effectively help to achieve optimized building performance and energy efficiency. Featuring an open-platform, cloud- hosted application suite and an intuitive user experience, this solution simplifies a traditionally very complex process by collecting data from disparate building systems and creating a single, integrated view of building and system performance. The Fault Detection and Diagnostics algorithms developed within the IBMS have been designed and tested as an integrated component of the control algorithms running the equipment being monitored. The algorithms identify the normal control behaviors of the equipment without interfering with the equipment control sequences. The algorithms also work without interfering with any cooperative control sequences operating between different pieces of equipment or building systems. In this manner the FDD algorithms create an integrated building management system.

  4. High-Penetration PV Integration Handbook for Distribution Engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, Rich [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Woyak, Jeremy [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Costyk, David [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Hambrick, Josh [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Mather, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This handbook has been developed as part of a five-year research project which began in 2010. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed together to analyze the impacts of high-penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to leverage the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the significant installation of 500 MW of commercial scale PV systems (1-5 MW typically) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE’s service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC).

  5. Scalable Optimization Methods for Distribution Networks with High PV Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guggilam, Swaroop S.; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Chen, Yu Christine; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a suite of algorithms to determine the active- and reactive-power setpoints for photovoltaic (PV) inverters in distribution networks. The objective is to optimize the operation of the distribution feeder according to a variety of performance objectives and ensure voltage regulation. In general, these algorithms take a form of the widely studied ac optimal power flow (OPF) problem. For the envisioned application domain, nonlinear power-flow constraints render pertinent OPF problems nonconvex and computationally intensive for large systems. To address these concerns, we formulate a quadratic constrained quadratic program (QCQP) by leveraging a linear approximation of the algebraic power-flow equations. Furthermore, simplification from QCQP to a linearly constrained quadratic program is provided under certain conditions. The merits of the proposed approach are demonstrated with simulation results that utilize realistic PV-generation and load-profile data for illustrative distribution-system test feeders.

  6. Integration, Validation, and Application of a PV Snow Coverage Model in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Janine M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ryberg, David Severin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Due to the increasing deployment of PV systems in snowy climates, there is significant interest in a method capable of estimating PV losses resulting from snow coverage that has been verified for a variety of system designs and locations. Many independent snow coverage models have been developed over the last 15 years; however, there has been very little effort verifying these models beyond the system designs and locations on which they were based. Moreover, major PV modeling software products have not yet incorporated any of these models into their workflows. In response to this deficiency, we have integrated the methodology of the snow model developed in the paper by Marion et al. (2013) into the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) System Advisor Model (SAM). In this work, we describe how the snow model is implemented in SAM and we discuss our demonstration of the model's effectiveness at reducing error in annual estimations for three PV arrays. Next, we use this new functionality in conjunction with a long term historical data set to estimate average snow losses across the United States for two typical PV system designs. The open availability of the snow loss estimation capability in SAM to the PV modeling community, coupled with our results of the nationwide study, will better equip the industry to accurately estimate PV energy production in areas affected by snowfall.

  7. Integration, Validation, and Application of a PV Snow Coverage Model in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryberg, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Freeman, Janine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Due to the increasing deployment of PV systems in snowy climates, there is significant interest in a method capable of estimating PV losses resulting from snow coverage that has been verified for a wide variety of system designs and locations. A scattering of independent snow coverage models have been developed over the last 15 years; however, there has been very little effort spent on verifying these models beyond the system design and location on which they were based. Moreover, none of the major PV modeling software products have incorporated any of these models into their workflow. In response to this deficiency, we have integrated the methodology of the snow model developed in the paper by Marion et al. [1] into the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) System Advisor Model (SAM). In this work we describe how the snow model is implemented in SAM and discuss our demonstration of the model's effectiveness at reducing error in annual estimations for two PV arrays. Following this, we use this new functionality in conjunction with a long term historical dataset to estimate average snow losses across the United States for a typical PV system design. The open availability of the snow loss estimation capability in SAM to the PV modeling community, coupled with our results of the nation-wide study, will better equip the industry to accurately estimate PV energy production in areas affected by snowfall.

  8. Establishment of key grid-connected performance index system for integrated PV-ES system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Yuan, X. D.; Qi, Q.; Liu, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    In order to further promote integrated optimization operation of distributed new energy/ energy storage/ active load, this paper studies the integrated photovoltaic-energy storage (PV-ES) system which is connected with the distribution network, and analyzes typical structure and configuration selection for integrated PV-ES generation system. By combining practical grid- connected characteristics requirements and technology standard specification of photovoltaic generation system, this paper takes full account of energy storage system, and then proposes several new grid-connected performance indexes such as paralleled current sharing characteristic, parallel response consistency, adjusting characteristic, virtual moment of inertia characteristic, on- grid/off-grid switch characteristic, and so on. A comprehensive and feasible grid-connected performance index system is then established to support grid-connected performance testing on integrated PV-ES system.

  9. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation for grid-connected performance of integrated distributed PV-ES systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Z. H.; Li, Q.; Huang, R. W.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, D.

    2016-08-01

    Based on the discussion about topology structure of integrated distributed photovoltaic (PV) power generation system and energy storage (ES) in single or mixed type, this paper focuses on analyzing grid-connected performance of integrated distributed photovoltaic and energy storage (PV-ES) systems, and proposes a comprehensive evaluation index system. Then a multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method based on grey correlation degree is proposed, and the calculations for weight matrix and fuzzy matrix are presented step by step. Finally, a distributed integrated PV-ES power generation system connected to a 380 V low voltage distribution network is taken as the example, and some suggestions are made based on the evaluation results.

  10. NREL/SCE High-Penetration PV Integration Project: Report on Field Demonstration of Advanced Inverter Functionality in Fontana, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, B.

    2014-08-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Southern California Edison High-Penetration PV Integration Project is (1) researching the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration photovoltaic (PV) integration, (2) determining mitigation methods to reduce or eliminate those impacts, and (3) seeking to demonstrate these mitigation methods on actual high-penetration PV distribution circuits. This report describes a field demonstration completed during the fall of 2013 on the Fontana, California, study circuit, which includes a total of 4.5 MW of interconnected utility-scale rooftop PV systems. The demonstration included operating a 2-MW PV system at an off-unity power factor that had been determined during previously completed distribution system modeling and PV impact assessment analyses. Data on the distribution circuit and PV system operations were collected during the 2-week demonstration period. This demonstration reinforces the findings of previous laboratory testing that showed that utility-scale PV inverters are capable of operating at off-unity power factor to mitigate PV impacts; however, because of difficulties setting and retaining PV inverter power factor set points during the field demonstration, it was not possible to demonstrate the effectiveness of off-unity power factor operation to mitigate the voltage impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Lessons learned from this field demonstration are presented to inform future field demonstration efforts.

  11. Predictive Solar-Integrated Commercial Building Load Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasgow, Nathan [EdgePower Inc., Aspen, CO (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This report is the final technical report for the Department of Energy SunShot award number EE0007180 to EdgePower Inc., for the project entitled “Predictive Solar-Integrated Commercial Building Load Control.” The goal of this project was to successfully prove that the integration of solar forecasting and building load control can reduce demand charge costs for commercial building owners with solar PV. This proof of concept Tier 0 project demonstrated its value through a pilot project at a commercial building. This final report contains a summary of the work completed through he duration of the project. Clean Power Research was a sub-recipient on the award.

  12. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - A guide to capacity building requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.; Gunning, R. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom); Stapleton, G. [Global Sustainable Energy Solutions Pty Ltd, GSES, Ulladulla 2539 (Australia)

    2003-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the topic of 'capacity building' in rural electrification projects. Capacity building is defined here as the development of an organisation's or individual's core knowledge, skills and capabilities in order to build and enhance the organisation's effectiveness and sustainability. This document identifies capacity building measures that should be undertaken as an integral component of a PV-based rural electrification implementation programme. Capacity building is to be facilitated through the provision of technical support activities, training, specific technical assistance and resource networking. The assessment of existing knowledge and the identification of training needs are discussed and training needs and their implementation by governmental and commercial players is discussed. Eleven case studies complete the report.

  13. BEopt-CA (Ex): A Tool for Optimal Integration of EE, DR and PV in Existing California Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.; Maguire, J.; Tabares-Velasco, P.; Springer, D.; Coates, P.; Bell, C.; Price, S.; Sreedharan, P.; Pickrell, K.

    2014-04-01

    Opportunities for combining energy efficiency, demand response, and energy storage with PV are often missed, because the required knowledge and expertise for these different technologies exist in separate organizations or individuals. Furthermore, there is a lack of quantitative tools to optimize energy efficiency, demand response and energy storage with PV, especially for existing buildings. As technology costs evolve (e.g., the ongoing reduction in the cost of PV), design strategies need to be adjusted accordingly based on quantitative analysis.

  14. Operation of TUT Solar PV Power Station Research Plant under Partial Shading Caused by Snow and Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Torres Lobera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A grid connected solar photovoltaic (PV research facility equipped with comprehensive climatic and electric measuring systems has been designed and built in the Department of Electrical Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TUT. The climatic measuring system is composed of an accurate weather station, solar radiation measurements, and a mesh of irradiance and PV module temperature measurements located throughout the solar PV facility. Furthermore, electrical measurements can be taken from single PV modules and strings of modules synchronized with the climatic data. All measured parameters are sampled continuously at 10 Hz with a data-acquisition system based on swappable I/O card technology and stored in a database for later analysis. The used sampling frequency was defined by thorough analyses of the PV system time dependence. Climatic and electrical measurements of the first operation year of the research facility are analyzed in this paper. Moreover, operation of PV systems under partial shading conditions caused by snow and building structures is studied by means of the measured current and power characteristics of PV modules and strings.

  15. Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV): Analysis and US market potential. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frantzis, L.; Friedman, D.; Hill, S.; Teagan, P. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Strong, S.; Strong, M. [Solar Design Associates, Harvard, MA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., in conjunction with Solar Design Associates, conducted a study for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies (OBT) to determine the market potential for grid-connected, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study defines BIPV as two types of applications: (1) where the PV modules are an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering skin; and (2) the PV modules are mounted on the existing building exterior. Both of these systems are fully integrated with the energy usage of the building and have potential for significant market penetration in the US. Off-grid building applications also offer a near-term market for BIPV, but are not included in the scope of this study.

  16. Urban Scale Application of Solar PV to Improve Sustainability in the Building and the Energy Sectors of KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA is the largest country in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC region in terms of population, geographic area, economy, and construction and utility infrastructure. The rapid growth of the building sector in general and residential buildings in particular is creating huge energy and environmental challenges for the country. To address these problems and reduce its reliance on an oil-based energy infrastructure, the country aims to install 9.5 GW of renewable energy by 2030. Traditionally the emphasis has been on large-scale renewable projects. Globally, the recent success of solar energy has been significantly contributed by the application of photovoltaics (PV in buildings. This is an area that has been overlooked in KSA. This study investigates the prospects of application of PV in buildings to improve the sustainability standards in the building and energy sectors of the country by considering the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM as a case study. PVsyst and RetScreen software programs have been used to model the application of PV on building rooftops in KFUPM. The study also discusses the concerned policy. It is found that the rooftop application of PV can annually produce 37,746 MWh of electricity, meeting over 16% of the KFUPM’s total energy requirements.

  17. Economical, environmental and technical analysis of building integrated photovoltaic systems in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seng, Lim Yun [Department of Physical Science, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tunku Abdul Rahman University, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lalchand, G.; Sow Lin, Gladys Mak [Malaysia Energy Centre, Building Integrated Photovoltaic Project (Malaysia)

    2008-06-15

    Malaysia has identified photovoltaic systems as one of the most promising renewable sources. A great deal of efforts has been undertaken to promote the wide applications of PV systems. With the recent launch of a PV market induction programme known as SURIA 1000 in conjunction with other relevant activities undertaken under the national project of Malaysia Building Integrated Photovoltaic (MBIPV), the market of PV systems begins to be stimulated in the country. As a result, a wide range of technical, environmental and economic issues with regard to the connection of PV systems to local distribution networks becomes apparent. Numerous studies were therefore carried out in collaboration with Malaysian Energy Centre to address a number of those important issues. The findings of the studies are presented in the paper and can be served as supplementary information to parties who are directly and indirectly involved in the PV sector in Malaysia. (author)

  18. Building integration of photovoltaic systems in cold climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Candanedo, José A.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents some of the research activities on building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems developed by the Solar and Daylighting Laboratory at Concordia University. BIPV systems offer considerable advantages as compared to stand-alone PV installations. For example, BIPV systems can play a role as essential components of the building envelope. BIPV systems operate as distributed power generators using the most widely available renewable source. Since BIPV systems do not require additional space, they are especially appropriate for urban environments. BIPV/Thermal (BIPV/T) systems may use exterior air to extract useful heat from the PV panels, cooling them and thereby improving their electric performance. The recovered thermal energy can then be used for space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) heating, supporting the utilization of BIVP/T as an appropriate technology for cold climates. BIPV and BIPV/T systems are the subject of several ongoing research and demonstration projects (in both residential and commercial buildings) led by Concordia University. The concept of integrated building design and operation is at the centre of these efforts: BIPV and BIPV/T systems must be treated as part of a comprehensive strategy taking into account energy conservation measures, passive solar design, efficient lighting and HVAC systems, and integration of other renewable energy systems (solar thermal, heat pumps, etc.). Concordia Solar Laboratory performs fundamental research on heat transfer and modeling of BIPV/T systems, numerical and experimental investigations on BIPV and BIPV/T in building energy systems and non-conventional applications (building-attached greenhouses), and the design and optimization of buildings and communities.

  19. Solar Photovoltaic Economic Development: Building and Growing a Local PV Industry, August 2011 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry is forecast to grow, and it represents an opportunity for economic development and job creation in communities throughout the United States. This report helps U.S. cities evaluate economic opportunities in the PV industry. It serves as a guide for local economic development offices in evaluating their community?s competitiveness in the solar PV industry, assessing the viability of solar PV development goals, and developing strategies for recruiting and retaining PV companies to their areas.

  20. Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Andresen, Inger; Perino, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie...... with technologies that promote the integration of responsive building elements and building services in integrated building concepts. In order to address some of these issues an international research effort, IEA-ECBCS Annex 44 has been initiated. The paper especially presents the annex activities regarding...... development of Energy and Environmental Building concepts including discussion of the selected design strategy and technical solutions, the integrated design approach and design methods and tools....

  1. Research on the Comparison Analyses of Three-Phase Discrete and Integrated LC Filters in Three-Phase PV Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In three-phase photovoltaic (PV) system, three-phase filter inductors are important part for the output electrical power quality. The comparison analyses of three-phase discrete filter inductors and two kinds of three-phase integrated filter inductors in three-phase PV inverter are proposed. Firstly, the three-phase PV inverter operation with discrete filter inductors is analyzed, and the design of discrete filter inductors is given; then operation of the three-phase PV inverter with three-ph...

  2. Building scars for integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baldo, Marcello

    1995-01-01

    It is shown, by means of a simple specific example, that for integrable systems it is possible to build up approximate eigenfunctions, called {\\it asymptotic eigenfunctions}, which are concentrated as much as one wants to a classical trajectory and have a lifetime as long as one wants. These states are directly related to the presence of shell structures in the quantal spectrum of the system. It is argued that the result can be extended to classically chaotic system, at least in the asymptotic regime.

  3. How to Estimate Demand Charge Savings from PV on Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems are compensated through retail electricity tariffs - and for commercial and industrial customers, these are typically comprised of three components: a fixed monthly charge, energy charges, and demand charges. Of these, PV's ability to reduce demand charges has traditionally been the most difficult to estimate. In this fact sheet we explain the basics of demand charges, and provide a new method that a potential customer or PV developer can use to estimate a range of potential demand charge savings for a proposed PV system. These savings can then be added to other project cash flows, in assessing the project's financial performance.

  4. The new IEA research programme on PV systems in buildings; Das neue Forschungsprogramm der internationalen Energieagentur zu Photovoltaik an Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laukamp, H.; Erge, T. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Photovoltaische Systeme und Messtechnik

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Agency coordinates and supports the cooperation of OECD countries in energy politics and energy technologies by technology-oriented scientific programmes (`implementing agreements`). Under these agreements subject-oriented scientific projects (`tasks`) are carried out. Within the `Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme` the Task VII (Photovoltaics in the Built Environment) has just begun. The Fraunhofer ISE was contracted to coordinate the German contribution to Task VII and to organize information transfer to interested German institutions. So far Task VII focussed on a selection of architecturally outstanding PV buildings, on developing criteria to assess their quality and on a critical review of planned PV buildings. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Internationale Energieagentur foerdert die Zusammenarbeit der OECD Laender in der Energiepolitik und bei den Energietechnologien, durch gemeinsam vereinbarte technologiespezifische Programme (`Implementing Agreements`). Die Programme werden durch Projekte (`Tasks`) konkretisiert. Im Programm `Photovoltaic Power Systems` wird derzeit Task VII `Photovoltaics in the Built Environment` begonnen. Das Fraunhofer ISE wurde gebeten, die deutsche Beteiligung hieran zu koordinieren und den Informationstransfer zu interessierten deutschen Firmen und Instituten zu organisieren. Schwerpunkte bisheriger Arbeiten lagen bei der Auswahl architektonisch herausragender PV-Gebaeude, bei der Erarbeitung von Kriterien zu ihrer Beurteilung und bei der kritischen Diskussion geplanter PV-Gebaeude. (orig.)

  5. Development of a fully-integrated PV system for residential applications: Phase I annual technical report: February 27, 1998 -- August 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, R.; Mackamul, K.; Duran, G.

    2000-03-06

    This report describes Utility Power Group's (UPG's) technical progress for Phase 1 of a two-phase effort to focus on the design, assembly, and testing of a fully-integrated residential PV power system, including storage. In the PV Array Task, UPG significantly improved the conventional means and methods required to structurally interface PV modules to the roofs of single-family residential houses and to electrically interconnect these PV modules to a power conversion unit. UPG focused on the design and test of a PV array based on the highly efficient use of materials and labor. Design criteria included cost, structural integrity, electrical safety, reliability, conformance with applicable standards and building and seismic codes, and adaptability to a wide range of roof materials for both existing and retrofit roof applications. In the Power Unit Task, UPG designed and tested a high-efficiency, low-cost, high-reliability prototype power conversion unit that included all materials, components, equipment, and software required to perform all DC-AC/AC-DC power collection, conversion, and control functions between the output of the PV array and the interconnection to the electrical grid service of single-family residences. In the Energy Storage Unit Task, UPG designed and tested a low-cost, modular, self-contained, low-maintenance, all-weather, battery-based Energy Storage Unit designed to interface with the Power Unit to provide back-up electricity to supply critical household loads in the event of utility-grid failure. The Energy Storage Unit includes batteries and all structural, mechanical, and electrical equipment required to provide a source of stored DC energy for input of the Power Unit. UPG designed the storage unit as a ''plug and play'' option, where multiple units can be easily paralleled for additional energy storage capacity.

  6. Simulation Study on Solar PV/T System Performance of Building in Chongqing%重庆地区建筑太阳能PV/T系统性能模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋石海; 庄春龙; 张洪宇

    2013-01-01

    The two application forms of solar PV/T in roof sand walls in Chongqing are studied through simulation with TRNSYS for a year and photo-electric and photo-thermal features are analyzed. The results show that the power production and photo-thermal transfer amount of R-PV/T system are higher than those of W-PV/T, but W-PV/T laying is out of the limit of building, so it can be applied by building walls and it's feasible. It offers some ref-erences for the application of PV/T in parts of low solar radiation in Chongqing.%  利用TRNSYS软件对太阳能光电/热综合利用系统(PV/T)在重庆地区的屋顶及墙面两种应用形式进行了全年模拟研究,对其光电、光热特性进行了分析。得出R-PV/T系统的发电总量与系统的光热转换总量高于W-PV/T系统,而W-PV/T系统的敷设可以不受屋面场地的限制,使建筑墙体表面获得利用,因此仍然具有较大可行性。论文的研究为PV/T在重庆等太阳辐射强度较弱地区的应用提供了参考。

  7. Energetic contribution potential of building-integrated photovoltaics on airports in warm climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruether, Ricardo [LabEEE - Laboratorio de Eficiencia Energetica em Edificacoes, UFSC - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); LABSOLAR - Laboratorio de Energia Solar, UFSC - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Braun, Priscila [LabEEE - Laboratorio de Eficiencia Energetica em Edificacoes, UFSC - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    Especially in warm climates, a considerable fraction of the electricity demand in commercial buildings is due to the intensive use of air-conditioning systems. Airport buildings in sunny and warm regions present a perfect match between energy demand and solar resource availability. Airport buildings are also typically large and horizontal, isolated and free of shading, and have a great potential for the integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. In this work, we assess the potential impact in energy demand reduction at the Florianopolis International Airport in Brazil (27 S, 48 W) with the use of building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems. We analyse the building's hourly energy consumption and solar irradiation data, to assess the match between energy demand and potential generation, and we estimate the PV power necessary to supply both the total amount and fractions of the annual energy demand. Our results show that the integration of PV systems on airport buildings in warm climates can supply the entire electric power consumption of an airport complex, in line with the general concept of a zero-energy building (ZEB). (author)

  8. Research on the Comparison Analyses of Three-Phase Discrete and Integrated LC Filters in Three-Phase PV Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In three-phase photovoltaic (PV system, three-phase filter inductors are important part for the output electrical power quality. The comparison analyses of three-phase discrete filter inductors and two kinds of three-phase integrated filter inductors in three-phase PV inverter are proposed. Firstly, the three-phase PV inverter operation with discrete filter inductors is analyzed, and the design of discrete filter inductors is given; then operation of the three-phase PV inverter with three-phase integrated five-limb magnetic core filter inductors is analyzed, the design of integrated filter inductors with five-limb magnetic core is given, then the operation of three-phase PV inverter with three-phase integrated three-limb magnetic core filter inductors is analyzed, and the design of integrated filter inductors with three limbs magnetic core is given. The conclusion of comparison between three-phase discrete filter inductors and two kinds of three-phase integrated filter inductors is done; it means that the three-phase discrete filter inductors can achieve better output electrical power quality with lower power density and three-phase integrated filter inductors can achieve higher power density with lower output electrical power quality. Finally, the experiment results are given to compare the volume and filter effect of three kinds of filter inductors in three-phase PV inverter.

  9. MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Randall

    2014-07-03

    The initial goal of the MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Installation Project was for the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to gain experience using the integrated higher efficiency solar photovoltaic (PV) single-ply membrane product, as it differs from the conventional, low efficiency, thin-film PV products, to determine the feasibility of success of larger deployment. As several of CCSF’s municipal rooftops are constrained with respect to weight restrictions, staff of the Energy Generation Group of the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) proposed to install a solar PV system using single-ply membrane The installation of the 100 kW (DC-STC) lightweight photo voltaic (PV) system at the MUNI Ways and Structures Center (700 Pennsylvania Ave., San Francisco) is a continuation of the commitment of the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to increase the pace of municipal solar development, and serve its municipal facilities with clean renewable energy. The fourteen (14) solar photovoltaic systems that have already been installed at CCSF municipal facilities are assisting in the reduction of fossil-fuel use, and reduction of greenhouse gases from fossil combustion. The MUNI Ways & Structures Center roof has a relatively low weight-bearing capacity (3.25 pounds per square foot) and use of traditional crystalline panels was therefore rejected. Consequently it was decided to use the best available highest efficiency Building-Integrated PV (BIPV) technology, with consideration for reliability and experience of the manufacturer which can meet the low weight-bearing capacity criteria. The original goal of the project was to provide an opportunity to monitor the results of the BIPV technology and compare these results to other City and County of San Francisco installed PV systems. The MUNI Ways and Structures Center was acquired from the Cookson Doors Company, which had run the Center for many decades. The building was

  10. Grid Integration of Single Stage Solar PV System using Three-level Voltage Source Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ikhlaq; Kandpal, Maulik; Singh, Bhim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a single stage solar PV (photovoltaic) grid integrated power generating system using a three level voltage source converter (VSC) operating at low switching frequency of 900 Hz with robust synchronizing phase locked loop (RS-PLL) based control algorithm. To track the maximum power from solar PV array, an incremental conductance algorithm is used and this maximum power is fed to the grid via three-level VSC. The use of single stage system with three level VSC offers the advantage of low switching losses and the operation at high voltages and high power which results in enhancement of power quality in the proposed system. Simulated results validate the design and control algorithm under steady state and dynamic conditions.

  11. Building Technologies Research and Integration Center (BTRIC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Building Technologies Research and Integration Center (BTRIC), in the Energy and Transportation Science Division (ETSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL),...

  12. 太阳能光伏光热建筑一体化系统的研究进展%The Study of Building-Integrated Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方津; 刘永生; 杨晶晶; 房文健; 高湉; 杨正龙; 彭麟; 谷民安

    2012-01-01

    The system structure and application of building-integrated photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T) systems are introduced.It includes air-cooling PV/T systems,water-cooling PV/T systems,heat pipe PV/T systems and PV-SAHP(photovoltaic-solar assisted heat pump) systems.Their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed and their development trends of PV/T systems are predicted.Many researches show that building integrated photovoltaic/thermal can realize energy savings of buildings.%介绍了4种模式的太阳能光伏光热(PV/T)系统:空气冷却型PV/T系统、水冷PV/T系统、热管PV/T系统和光伏—太阳能辅助热泵(PV-SAHP)系统的构造及应用,分析了各自的优势与不足,并预测了PV/T系统的发展趋势。研究表明太阳能光伏光热建筑一体化,可以真正实现建筑的节能。

  13. Integration of Behind-the-Meter PV Fleet Forecasts into Utility Grid System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, Thomas Hoff [Clean Power Research, L.L.C., Napa, CA (United States); Kankiewicz, Adam [Clean Power Research, L.L.C., Napa, CA (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Four major research objectives were completed over the course of this study. Three of the objectives were to evaluate three, new, state-of-the-art solar irradiance forecasting models. The fourth objective was to improve the California Independent System Operator’s (ISO) load forecasts by integrating behind-the-meter (BTM) PV forecasts. The three, new, state-of-the-art solar irradiance forecasting models included: the infrared (IR) satellite-based cloud motion vector (CMV) model; the WRF-SolarCA model and variants; and the Optimized Deep Machine Learning (ODML)-training model. The first two forecasting models targeted known weaknesses in current operational solar forecasts. They were benchmarked against existing operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts, visible satellite CMV forecasts, and measured PV plant power production. IR CMV, WRF-SolarCA, and ODML-training forecasting models all improved the forecast to a significant degree. Improvements varied depending on time of day, cloudiness index, and geographic location. The fourth objective was to demonstrate that the California ISO’s load forecasts could be improved by integrating BTM PV forecasts. This objective represented the project’s most exciting and applicable gains. Operational BTM forecasts consisting of 200,000+ individual rooftop PV forecasts were delivered into the California ISO’s real-time automated load forecasting (ALFS) environment. They were then evaluated side-by-side with operational load forecasts with no BTM-treatment. Overall, ALFS-BTM day-ahead (DA) forecasts performed better than baseline ALFS forecasts when compared to actual load data. Specifically, ALFS-BTM DA forecasts were observed to have the largest reduction of error during the afternoon on cloudy days. Shorter term 30 minute-ahead ALFS-BTM forecasts were shown to have less error under all sky conditions, especially during the morning time periods when traditional load forecasts often experience their largest

  14. Studying the Impact of Distributed Solar PV on Power Systems using Integrated Transmission and Distribution Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Himanshu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krad, Ibrahim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnamurthy, Dheepak [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-24

    This paper presents the results of a distributed solar PV impact assessment study that was performed using a synthetic integrated transmission (T) and distribution (D) model. The primary objective of the study was to present a new approach for distributed solar PV impact assessment, where along with detailed models of transmission and distribution networks, consumer loads were modeled using the physics of end-use equipment, and distributed solar PV was geographically dispersed and connected to the secondary distribution networks. The highlights of the study results were (i) increase in the Area Control Error (ACE) at high penetration levels of distributed solar PV; and (ii) differences in distribution voltages profiles and voltage regulator operations between integrated T&D and distribution only simulations.

  15. Design of A Grid Integrated PV System with MPPT Control and Voltage Oriented Controller using MATLAB/PLECES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreng, Bineeta; Behera, Pradyumna; Pradhan, Raseswari

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents model of a grid-integrated photovoltaic array with Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) and voltage oriented controller. The MPPT of the PV array is usually an essential part of PV system as MPPT helps the operating point of the solar array to align its maximum power point. In this model, the MPPT along with a DC-DC converter lets a PV generator to produce continuous power, despite of the measurement conditions. The neutral-point-clamped converter (NPC) with a boost converter raises the voltage from the panels to the DC-link. An LCL-filter smoothens the current ripple caused by the PWM modulation of the grid-side inverter. In addition to the MPPT, the system has two more two controllers, such as voltage controller and a current controller. The voltage control has a PI controller to regulate the PV voltage to optimal level by controlling the amount of current injected into the boost stage. Here, the grid-side converter transfers the power from the DC-link into the grid and maintains the DC-link voltage. Three-phase PV inverters are used for off-grid or designed to create utility frequency AC. The PV system can be connected in series or parallel to get the desired output power. To justify the working of this model, the grid-integrated PV system has been designed in MATLAB/PLECS. The simulation shows the P-V curve of implemented PV Array consisting 4 X 20 modules, reactive, real power, grid voltage and current.

  16. BEopt-CA (Ex) -- A Tool for Optimal Integration of EE/DR/ES+PV in Existing California Homes. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-429

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Opportunities for combining energy efficiency, demand response, and energy storage with PV are often missed, because the required knowledge and expertise for these different technologies exist in separate organizations or individuals. Furthermore, there is a lack of quantitative tools to optimize energy efficiency, demand response and energy storage with PV, especially for existing buildings. Our goal is to develop a modeling tool, BEopt-CA (Ex), with capabilities to facilitate identification and implementation of a balanced integration of energy efficiency (EE), demand response (DR), and energy storage (ES) with photovoltaics (PV) within the residential retrofit market. To achieve this goal, we will adapt and extend an existing tool -- BEopt -- that is designed to identify optimal combinations of efficiency and PV in new home designs. In addition, we will develop multifamily residential modeling capabilities for use in California, to facilitate integration of distributed solar power into the grid in order to maximize its value to California ratepayers. The project is follow-on research that leverages previous California Solar Initiative RD&D investment in the BEopt software. BEopt facilitates finding the least cost combination of energy efficiency and renewables to support integrated DSM (iDSM) and Zero Net Energy (ZNE) in California residential buildings. However, BEopt is currently focused on modeling single-family houses and does not include satisfactory capabilities for modeling multifamily homes. The project brings BEopt's existing modeling and optimization capabilities to multifamily buildings, including duplexes, triplexes, townhouses, flats, and low-rise apartment buildings.

  17. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  18. Lighting and shading of PV systems in buildings: Visualisation, calculation of shading losses, optimisation; Licht und Schatten auf ``PV in Gebaeuden``: Visualisierung, Ertragsprognose, Optimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reise, C. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Photovoltaische Systeme und Messtechnik

    1998-02-01

    Integrating photovoltaic generators in buildings often requires a specific assessment of the local solar resource. In built-up areas, partial shading of the generator area sometimes cannot be avoided. A combination of the simulation tools RADIANCE and INSEL provides both a perfect visualization and an accurate estimation of shading losses, on the basis of the same numerical model of the building. Thus, simulation techniques help to meet both the aesthetical and the technical requirements of a building construction. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Integration von photovoltaischen Generatoren in Gebaeude erfordert oft eine besondere Bewertung der lokalen Einstrahlungsverhaeltnisse. In einer dicht bebauten Umgebung kann eine zeitweise Teilverschattung der Generatorflaechen oft nicht vermieden werden. Eine Kombination der Simulationsprogramme RADIANCE und INSEL ermoeglicht die architektonisch vollwertige Visualisierung und Durchfuehrung einer praezisen (Minder-)Ertragsprognose fuer gebaeudeintegrierte Photovoltaik auf der Basis desselben numerischen Gebaeudemodells. Die detaillierte Simulation traegt dazu bei, aesthetische und technische Anforderungen an die Gebaeudekonstruktion in Einklang zu bringen. (orig.)

  19. Integrated sustainable urban infrastructures in building projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Current strategies in urban planning and development merely promote standardized building solutions, while failing to prioritize innovative approaches of integration between building projects and sustainable urban infrastructures. As a result of this, urban infrastructures – the urban veins...... – are outdated from a sustainability perspective. This paper looks into more holistic ways of approaching building projects and discuss whether this provide a basis for an increased integration of urban infrastructures within building projects. In our study, we especially emphasise how conventional ways...... of approaching building projects are influenced by lock-in of existing infrastructural systems and compare this with two examples of more holistic ways of approaching building projects, developed by two architecture firms. The paper points out that such holistic perspective in building projects provide...

  20. Modelling the heat dynamics of building integrated and ventilated photovoltaic modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friling, N.; Jimenez, M.J.; Bloem, H.

    2009-01-01

    -up. To identify best set-up, grey-box models consisting of stochastic differential equations are applied. The models are first order stochastic state space models. Maximum likelihood estimation and the extended Kalman filter are applied in the parameter estimation phase. To validate the estimated models, plots......This paper deals with mathematical modelling of the heat transfer of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) modules. The efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) module and its temperature are negatively correlated. It is therefore of interest to lower the temperature of the PV module by increasing...... the heat transfer from the PV module. The experiment and data originate from a test reference module the EC-JRC Ispra. The set-up provides the opportunity of changing physical parameters, the ventilation speed and the type of air flow, and this makes it possible to determine the preferable set...

  1. Integrated Three-Port DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaic (PV) Battery Stand-alone Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Several power sources such as PV solar arrays and battery are often used to manage the power flow for a photovoltaic (PV) based stand-alone power system due to the fluctuation nature of solar energy resource, and deliver a continuous power to the users in an appropriate form. Traditionally, three...... for PV and battery stand-alone system....

  2. Large Scale Solar Power Integration in Distribution Grids: PV Modelling, Voltage Support and Aggregation Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samadi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Long term supporting schemes for photovoltaic (PV) system installation have led to accommodating large numbers of PV systems within load pockets in distribution grids. High penetrations of PV systems can cause new technical challenges, such as voltage rise due to reverse power flow during light load

  3. Feasibility Study of Grid Connected PV-Biomass Integrated Energy System in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Shimaa; Samy, M. M.; Eteiba, Magdy B.; Wahba, Wael Ismael

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a feasibility study of a grid connected photovoltaic (PV) and biomass Integrated renewable energy (IRE) system providing electricity to rural areas in the Beni Suef governorate, Egypt. The system load of the village is analyzed through the environmental and economic aspects. The model has been designed to provide an optimal system configuration based on daily data for energy availability and demands. A case study area, Monshaet Taher village (29° 1' 17.0718"N, 30° 52' 17.04"E) is identified for economic feasibility in this paper. HOMER optimization model plan imputed from total daily load demand, 2,340 kWh/day for current energy consuming of 223 households with Annual Average Insolation Incident on a Horizontal Surface of 5.79 (kWh/m2/day) and average biomass supplying 25 tons / day. It is found that a grid connected PV-biomass IRE system is an effective way of emissions reduction and it does not increase the investment of the energy system.

  4. Integration of solar energy in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peippo, K.; Lund, P.; Mennola, T.; Vartiainen, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.; Rasinkoski, A.; Spiers, D.; Eenilae, P. [Neste Advanced Power Systems (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    New photovoltaic building elements were developed and the uses of various solar technologies in buildings were optimised with computational design tools. The novel amorphous silicon photovoltaic elements allow for economic integration of photovoltaics in large facades. The cost of grid-connected systems may be reduced by approximately 20 % through the advanced design approaches developed. (orig.)

  5. Study on thermal performance of semi-transparent building-integrated photovoltaic glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Tady Y.Y.; Yang, H. [Renewable Energy Research Group, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom (China)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a one-dimensional transient heat transfer model, the Semi-transparent Photovoltaic module Heat Gain (SPVHG) model, for evaluating the heat gain of semi-transparent photovoltaic modules for building-integrated applications. The energy that is transmitted, absorbed and reflected in each element of the building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) modules such as solar cells and glass layers were considered in detail in the SPVHG model. Solar radiation model for inclined surface has been incorporated into the SPVHG model. The model is applicable to photovoltaic (PV) modules that have different orientations and inclinations. The annual total heat gain was evaluated by using the SPVHG model. The impacts of different parameters of the PV module were investigated. It was found that solar heat gain is the major component of the total heat gain. The area of solar cell in the PV module has significant effect on the total heat gain. However, the solar cell energy efficiency and the PV module's thickness have only a little influence on the total heat gain. The model was also validated by laboratory tests by using a calorimeter box apparatus and an adjustable solar simulator. The test results showed that the simulation model predicts the actual situation well. (author)

  6. Very Thin Flexible Coupled Inductors for PV Module Integrated GaN Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acanski, Milos; Ouyang, Ziwei; Popovic-Gerber, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    proposed with more granular power processing by means of distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT). This is achieved by adjoining a MPPT unit to each PV module in the PV array. This paper presents a step further in the distributed power tracking approach, with a concept of very low profile power......As the PV energy penetrates into the urban area, shortcomings of the conventional centralized PV system architectures become more pronounced under the influence of urban environment with shading, soiling and orientation mismatch issues. To overcome these limitations new PV system architectures were...

  7. Very Thin Flexible Coupled Inductors for PV Module Integrated GaN Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acanski, Milos; Ouyang, Ziwei; Popovic-Gerber, Jelena;

    2012-01-01

    As the PV energy penetrates into the urban area, shortcomings of the conventional centralized PV system architectures become more pronounced under the influence of urban environment with shading, soiling and orientation mismatch issues. To overcome these limitations new PV system architectures were...... proposed with more granular power processing by means of distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT). This is achieved by adjoining a MPPT unit to each PV module in the PV array. This paper presents a step further in the distributed power tracking approach, with a concept of very low profile power...

  8. Estimation of non-linear continuous time models for the heat exchange dynamics of building integrated photovoltaic modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, M.J.; Madsen, Henrik; Bloem, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    (MAP) estimation is presented along with a software implementation. As a case study, the modelling of the thermal characteristics of a building integrated PV component is considered. The EC-JRC Ispra has made experimental data available. Both linear and non-linear models are identified. It is shown...

  9. Results from measurements on the PV-VENT systems at Lundebjerg[DENMARK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.

    2001-05-01

    The objective of the PV-VENT project was research, development, and tests in the following areas: 1. Develop and illustrate different ways of architectural integration of solar energy systems with combined PV power production and pre-heating of ventilation air in buildings, 2. Investigate the potential in pre-heating fresh air to the building by cooling the PV-panels with the fresh air and further to determine how much this cooling will increase the electrical performance of the PV-panels, 3. Develop and test air to air heat exchangers with an efficiency of 80% or above, 4. Develop and test fans and ventilation systems with an overall fan power demand of about 35 W, 5. Develop and test a direct coupling of the PV-panels to the fans in order to avoid the losses in an inverter, 6. Develop and test different ventilation systems utilizing the abovementioned features. Three different ways of integrating PV-panels with pre-heating of fresh air to the building have been demonstrated in Lundebjerg: a large PV-gable with amorphous PV-panels, a PV-facade with polycrystalline (c-Si) PV-panels and solar ventilation chimneys with polycrystalline (c-Si) PV-panels. Especially the latter feature, the solar ventilation chimney is a new and interesting concept as it allows for increased PV areas although the orientation of the building is not optimal for utilization of solar energy, as was the case in Lundebjerg. It is believed that the PV-VENT project has added important information and experience to the field of combining PV and ventilation systems. Information and experience that future systems of this type may benefit from. Several of the components from the project are believed to be able to contribute to set the standards for future PV and ventilation systems. Several of the components from the project is today commercial available and are used in ordinary building projects. (BA)

  10. Simulation and performance analysis of 110 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic system for residential building in India: A comparative analysis of various PV technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar Shukla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available System simulation is necessary to investigate the feasibility of Solar PV system at a given location. This study is done to evaluate the feasibility of grid connected rooftop solar photovoltaic system for a residential Hostel building at MANIT, Bhopal, India (Latitude: 23° 16′ N, Longitude: 77° 36′ E. The study focuses on the use of Solargis PV Planner software as a tool to analyze the performance a 110 kWp solar photovoltaic rooftop plant and also compares the performances of different PV technologies based on simulated energy yield and performance ratio. Solargis proves to easy, fast, accurate and reliable software tool for the simulation of solar PV system.

  11. Integrating CFD and building simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartak, M.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.; Clarke, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Commission, which furthered the CFD modelling aspects of the ESP-r system. The paper summarises the form of the CFD model, describes the method used to integrate the thermal and 3ow domains and reports the outcome from an empirical validation exercise. © 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....

  12. Grid Integration of PV Power based on PHIL testing using different Interface Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso;

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power among all renewable energies had the most accelerated growth rate in terms of installed capacity in recent years. Transmission System Operators (TSOs) changed their perspective about PV power and started to include it into their planning and operation, imposing PV systems...... and supply of ancillary services, first the grid has to be simulated using PHIL, but in order to achieve it, different interface algorithms (IA) had to be evaluated in terms of system stability and signal accuracy....

  13. Large-scale integration of optimal combinations of PV, wind and wave power into the electricity supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of analyses of large-scale integration of wind power, photo voltaic (PV) and wave power into a Danish reference energy system. The possibility of integrating Renewable Energy Sources (RES) into the electricity supply is expressed in terms of the ability to avoid...... the total input is above 80% of demand, PV should cover 20% and wave power 30%. Meanwhile the combination of different sources is alone far from a solution to large-scale integration of fluctuating resources. This measure is to be seen in combination with other measures such as investment in flexible energy...... excess electricity production. The different sources are analysed in the range of an electricity production from 0 to 100% of the electricity demand. The excess production is found from detailed energy system analyses on the computer model EnergyPLAN. The analyses have taken into account that certain...

  14. Sizing and Costing Optimisation of a Typical Wind/PV Hybrid Electricity Generation System for a Typical Residential Building in Urban Armidale NSW, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data obser...

  15. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data obser...

  16. Integrated coastal policy via Building with Nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterman, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The thesis which appears here is excerpted from the book Integrated Coastal Zone Development via Building with Nature® (Waterman 2008a, 2008b). Although this approach was first applied in the Netherlands, it has gradually been recognized worldwide as a harmonious means of creating land areas for liv

  17. Integrated coastal policy via Building with Nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterman, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The thesis which appears here is excerpted from the book Integrated Coastal Zone Development via Building with Nature® (Waterman 2008a, 2008b). Although this approach was first applied in the Netherlands, it has gradually been recognized worldwide as a harmonious means of creating land areas for liv

  18. An Integrated Decision-Making Model for the Location of a PV Solar Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. I. Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing demand for electricity, the depletion of fossil fuels and the increase in environmental consciousness, generating power from renewable energy resources has become necessary. How to select the most appropriate site is a critical and foremost decision that must be made when setting up a renewable energy plant. This research proposes a two-stage framework for evaluating the suitability of renewable energy plant site alternatives. In the first stage, a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP is adopted to set the assurance region (AR of the quantitative factors, and the AR is incorporated into data envelopment analysis (DEA to assess the efficiencies of plant site candidates. A few sites are selected for further analysis. In the second stage, experts are invited to evaluate the qualitative characteristics of the selected sites, and FAHP is used to calculate the priorities of these sites. Solar energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources, because of its abundance, inexhaustibility, safety and cleanliness. Based on the proposed integrated decision-making model, a case study for selecting the most appropriate photovoltaic (PV solar plant site is examined.

  19. Comparative Study of on and off Grid Tied Integrated Diesel/Solar (PV) Battery Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Okedu, Kenneth; Uhunmwangho, Roland; Bassey, Ngang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a proposed hybrid system based on diesel generator and solar photovoltaic (PV) as an effective option to power a small remote community. The cost of running diesel generator speedily due to erratic power supply in a small remote community that is not grid connected is highly expensive and not environmentally friendly. A solar PV was used to reduce or augment the continuous diesel generator sets, resulting in reduced cost of operation and maintenance. A proper solar radiati...

  20. Control of a Multi-Functional Inverter for Grid Integration of PV and Battery Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousazadeh, Seyyed Yousef; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Beirami, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-functional control of a DC/AC inverter for Power Quality compensation of nonlinear and unequal local loads and grid integration of hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage systems. Multi-layer neural network estimator and a DC/DC converter are used for maximum...... and nonlinear local loads. The simulation results which implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK software verify the effectiveness of the system....

  1. Integrating advanced facades into high performance buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2001-05-01

    Glass is a remarkable material but its functionality is significantly enhanced when it is processed or altered to provide added intrinsic capabilities. The overall performance of glass elements in a building can be further enhanced when they are designed to be part of a complete facade system. Finally the facade system delivers the greatest performance to the building owner and occupants when it becomes an essential element of a fully integrated building design. This presentation examines the growing interest in incorporating advanced glazing elements into more comprehensive facade and building systems in a manner that increases comfort, productivity and amenity for occupants, reduces operating costs for building owners, and contributes to improving the health of the planet by reducing overall energy use and negative environmental impacts. We explore the role of glazing systems in dynamic and responsive facades that provide the following functionality: Enhanced sun protection and cooling load control while improving thermal comfort and providing most of the light needed with daylighting; Enhanced air quality and reduced cooling loads using natural ventilation schemes employing the facade as an active air control element; Reduced operating costs by minimizing lighting, cooling and heating energy use by optimizing the daylighting-thermal tradeoffs; Net positive contributions to the energy balance of the building using integrated photovoltaic systems; Improved indoor environments leading to enhanced occupant health, comfort and performance. In addressing these issues facade system solutions must, of course, respect the constraints of latitude, location, solar orientation, acoustics, earthquake and fire safety, etc. Since climate and occupant needs are dynamic variables, in a high performance building the facade solution have the capacity to respond and adapt to these variable exterior conditions and to changing occupant needs. This responsive performance capability

  2. Integrated Energy Design of the Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Vraa

    project analysed how the implementation of technical knowledge early in the building design process can quantify the effect of a building’s façades on its energy efficiency and indoor climate and thereby facilitate a more qualified design development. The project was structured in the following way: 1......This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research...... layout, window geometry and transparency, design of the window aperture, etc. Through the wide range of affiliated project involved in at the architectural firm over the course of this project, this approach resulted in building designs with an energy demand at least 25% below the minimum requirements...

  3. Whole-building systems integration laboratory survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawley, D.B. (American Consulting Engineers Council, Washington, DC (USA). Research and Management Foundation)

    1989-09-01

    This report was prepared for the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as a subcontracted activity by the Research Management Foundation of the American Consulting Engineers Council. The objective of the survey reported herein was to independently assess the need for a Building System Integration Laboratory from the viewpoint of academicians in the field of building science. The subcontractor-developed questionnaire was sent to 200 professors of architecture and engineering at US universities. In view of this diverse population, the 10% rate of return on the questionnaire was considered acceptable. Although the responses probably do not reflect an unbiased summary of the collective perceptions of the original population surveyed, they do provide a valid insight into the interests and concerns of the academic community with respect to building sciences issues.

  4. Approaches to Integrated Building Design Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Susanne C; Andersen, Tom

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses functional requirements and specification which needs to be defined and fulfilled to initiate development of an integrated building design environment. The purpose is to outline specifications for further discussion and development. The report documents the first phase...... in an ongoing project at the Technical University of Denmark. The overall project objective is to provide a theoretically well-founded prototype of an integrated IT-system which can serve as a device of feedback from practice and as a test-bed for the developed concept and architecture....

  5. Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). Review, potentials, barriers and myths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinstein, Patrick; Ballif, Christophe [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Neuchatel (Switzerland). Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Lab.; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle [CSEM, Neuchatel (Switzerland). PV-Center

    2013-07-01

    To date, none of the predictions that have been made about the emerging BIPV industry have really hit the target. The anticipated boom has so far stalled and despite developing and promoting a number of excellent systems and products, many producers around the world have been forced to quit on purely economic grounds. The authors believe that after this painful cleansing of the market, a massive counter trend will follow, enlivened and carried forward by more advanced PV technologies and ever-stricter climate policies designed to achieve energy neutrality in a cost-effective way. As a result, the need for BIPV products for use in construction will undergo first a gradual and then a massive increase. The planning of buildings with multifunctional, integrated roof and facade elements capable of fulfilling the technical and legal demands will become an essential, accepted part of the architectonic mainstream and will also contribute to an aesthetic valorisation. Until then, various barriers need to be overcome in order to facilitate and accelerate BIPV. Besides issues related to mere cost-efficiency ratio, psychological and social factors also play an evident role. The goal of energy change linked to greater use of renewables can be successfully achieved only when all aspects are taken into account and when visual appeal and energy efficiency thus no longer appear to be an oxymoron. (orig.)

  6. Benchmark Networks for grid integration impact studies of large PV plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2013-01-01

    The increased amount of Photovoltaic (PV) power installed into the power system every year places this renewable way of producing electricity on the third position in the renewable sources hierarchy after hydro and wind solutions. Having significant levels of renewable power penetration into the ......The increased amount of Photovoltaic (PV) power installed into the power system every year places this renewable way of producing electricity on the third position in the renewable sources hierarchy after hydro and wind solutions. Having significant levels of renewable power penetration...... the system stable and harmonize the operation of the renewable plants with the entire system. For this purpose valid grid benchmarks such as IEEE 12 bus system for High Voltage (HV) and Cigré benchmark cell model for Medium Voltage (MV) have to be developed, tested together and prove that in the future power...... system with large PV penetration levels on every level, the system continues to be reliable and redundant....

  7. Optimizing lighting, thermal performance, and energy production of building facades by using automated blinds and PV cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Hussain Hendi

    Energy consumption in buildings has recently become a major concern for environmental designers. Within this field, daylighting and solar energy design are attractive strategies for saving energy. This study seeks the integrity and the optimality of building envelopes' performance. It focuses on the transparent parts of building facades, specifically, the windows and their shading devices. It suggests a new automated method of utilizing solar energy while keeping optimal solutions for indoor daylighting. The method utilizes a statistical approach to produce mathematical equations based on physical experimentation. A full-scale mock-up representing an actual office was built. Heat gain and lighting levels were measured empirically and correlated with blind angles. Computational methods were used to estimate the power production from photovoltaic cells. Mathematical formulas were derived from the results of the experiments; these formulas were utilized to construct curves as well as mathematical equations for the purpose of optimization. The mathematical equations resulting from the optimization process were coded using Java programming language to enable future users to deal with generic locations of buildings with a broader context of various climatic conditions. For the purpose of optimization by automation under different climatic conditions, a blind control system was developed based on the findings of this study. This system calibrates the blind angles instantaneously based upon the sun position, the indoor daylight, and the power production from the photovoltaic cells. The functions of this system guarantee full control of the projected solar energy on buildings' facades for indoor lighting and heat gain. In winter, the system automatically blows heat into the space, whereas it expels heat from the space during the summer season. The study showed that the optimality of building facades' performance is achievable for integrated thermal, energy, and lighting

  8. Designing with solar power a source book for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV)

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Deo

    2014-01-01

    Designing with Solar Power is the result of international collaborative research and development work carried out within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) and performed within its Task 7 on 'Photovoltaic power systems in the built environment'.Each chapter of this precisely detailed and informative book has been prepared by an international expert in a specific area related to the development, use and application of building-integrated photovoltaics (BiPV). Chapters not only cover the basics of solar power and electrical concepts, bu

  9. Integrated energy design of the building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vraa Nielsen, M.

    2012-07-01

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research project analysed how the implementation of technical knowledge early in the building design process can quantify the effect of a building's facades on its energy efficiency and indoor climate and thereby facilitate a more qualified design development. The project was structured in the following way: 1) the importance of integrating knowledge in the early stages of design, and how it can be done; 2) understanding the facade's typology; and 3) the complex notion of comfort. The project touched not only on the technical capabilities and requirements governing facade design, but also the process by which it takes place. This was done by applying the methodology of Integrated Energy Design (IED) and analysing its applicability in the design of facades. A major part of the project was an actual engagement in the architectural process to test out incorporating a consciousness about energy and comfort as part of a more holistic performance evaluation. The research project illustrates the great potential in taking passive properties into account through a geometrical optimisation inherent in the development of the architectural concept. It demonstrates that integration of technical knowledge at the early stages of design not only can qualify the geometrical processing, but also facilitate the design development of the facade. Thereby a more holistic performance optimisation can be obtained through parameters such as overall facade geometry and orientation, functional organisation, room height and depth, facade layout, window geometry and transparency, design of the window aperture, etc. Through the wide range of affiliated project involved in at the architectural firm over

  10. A Low-disturbance Diagnostic Function Integrated in the PV Arrays’ MPPT Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo; Kerekes, Tamas;

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the estimation of series resistance changes for flat silicone PV panels or arrays during operation, without moving the operating point far away from the Maximum Power Point. The method is based on the measurement of the slope of the IV curve at a current level that differs...

  11. Experimental Study of Enhancing The Performance of PV Panel Integrated with Solar Thermal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Jaiganesh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The maximum electricity conversion efficiency of the Solar Photovoltaic panel is 8-18% under the Standard Test Condition (STC temperature of 25°C. The atmospheric temperature of Indian climatic condition is mostly above 30°C - 45°C, it incites 30°C-80°C heat over the panel since black body of the PV panel observe more heat, and this temperature majorly affect the electrical efficiency of thepanel. The newly designed Glass to Glass Photovoltaic Thermal System (G2G-PVTS is a combined Photovoltaic (PV and Flat Plate Solar Water Heating System (FPSWHS. In this technology, the water act as a coolant inside the Copper fins and it absorb the heat of the PV panel and stored in the insulated storage tank by way of natural flow of water. The test result shows that the G2G-PVT electrical efficiencywas 0.7% higher than conventional G2T- PV panel, and in addition that 44.37% of thermal efficiency was also stored. The simultaneous conversion of electrical and thermal energy was obtained by this system with effective space utilization. The overall efficiency of the G2G-PVTS panel was improved.

  12. Facades: PE building sites of the future?; Fassaden: PV-Bauplaetze der Zukunft?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippitsch, O. [KELAG-Kaerntner Elektrizitaets-AG, Klagenfurt (Austria); Friess, M. [Siemens AG Oesterreich, Wien (Austria)

    1996-12-01

    In order to limit the area used by the photo-electric use of solar energy, idle areas such as roofs and facades should be used. As backfitting is connected with high costs, solutions with integrated weather protection and energy obtention functions are favoured. Starting from an analysis of the stock of areas, the technical concept of the KELAG facade is described. (HW) [Deutsch] Um den Flaechenverbrauch bei der photovoltaischen Nutzung der Solarenergie einzuschraenken, sollten brachliegende Flaechen wie Daecher und Fassaden genutzt werden. Da die nachtraegliche Anbringung mit hohen Kosten verbunden ist, werden Loesungen mit integrierter Wetterschutz- und Energiegewinnungsfunktion favorisiert. Ausgehend von einer Flaechenbestandsanalyse wird die technische Konzeption der Kelag-Fassade dargestellt. (HW)

  13. Research on the integrated design strategy of green building

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yang; Zhang Ping Qing

    2016-01-01

    With the increasingly serious environmental problems, energy saving and environmental protection of the green building began to have people’s attention, and gradually become the development trend of future building, which came into being green building integrated design. How to apply the integrated design theory of green building to the concrete architectural design practice is a question that designers must seriously think about. This paper expounds the integrated design concept of green bui...

  14. 205 kW Photovoltaic (PV) System Installed on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Forrestal Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-09-11

    The Forrestal PV system will provide a clean, domestic, renewable source of energy for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and provide leadership in meeting Federal goals for increasing the use of renewable energy technologies.

  15. Asset Building: integrating Research, Education and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sherraden

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Asset building is an emerging concept in anti-poverty work in economically advanced nations. In the past, welfare states have defined poverty primarily in terms of income. While income is necessary to maintain consumption, saving and investment is also necessary if families and communities are to progress out of poverty over the long term. Asset building is a broad idea with many possible applications, including homeownership, microenterprise, and individual development accounts (IDAs. IDAs are matched saving accounts for low-wealth families. In this paper, the authors 1 describe asset building as a policy and practice innovation; 2 discuss results from two research projects, one on IDAs and a second on microenterprise; and 3 illustrate a strategy for education and advocacy. This work may serve as an example of simultaneous advances in research, education, and practice, wherein each aspect of the work is enriched by and contributes to the others. The strongest advances in social work proceed not by the separation of ideas, study, and application, but by their integration and mutual reinforcement.

  16. The impact of building-integrated photovoltaics on the energy demand of multi-family dwellings in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordenes, Martin; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Braun, Priscila; Ruther, Ricardo [Laboratorio de Eficiencia Energetica em Edificacoes (LabEEE), Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina/UFSC, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900, (Brazil); Laboratorio de Energia Solar (LABSOLAR), Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina/UFSC, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900, (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    Brazil faces a continuous increase of energy demand and a decrease of available resources to expand the generation system. Residential buildings are responsible for 23% of the national electricity demand. Thus, it is necessary to search for new energy sources to both diversify and complement the energy mix. Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) is building momentum worldwide and can be an interesting alternative for Brazil due its solar radiation characteristics. This work analyses the potential of seven BIPV technologies implemented in a residential prototype simulated in three different cities in Brazil (Natal, Brasilia and Florianopolis). Simulations were performed using the software tool EnergyPlus to integrate PV power supply with building energy demand (domestic equipment and HVAC systems). The building model is a typical low-cost residential building for middle-class families, as massively constructed all over the country. Architectural input and heat gain schedules are defined from statistical data (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica - Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and Sistema de Informacoes de Posses de Eletrodomesticos e Habitos de Consumo - Consumer Habits and Appliance Ownership Information System (SIMPHA)). BIPV is considered in all opaque surfaces of the envelope. Results present an interesting potential for decentralized PV power supply even for vertical surfaces at low-latitude sites. In each facade, BIPV power supply can be directly linked to local climatic conditions. In general, for 30% of the year photovoltaic systems generate more energy than building demand, i.e., during this period it could be supplying the energy excess to the public electricity grid. Contrary to the common belief that vertical integration of PV is only suitable for high latitude countries, we show that there is a considerable amount of energy to be harvested from vertical facades at the sites investigated. (Author)

  17. NREL/SCE High Penetration PV Integration Project: FY13 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, B. A.; Shah, S.; Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.; Yu, L.; Paradis, D.; Katiraei, F.; Seguin, R.; Costyk, D.; Woyak, J.; Jung, J.; Russell, K.; Broadwater, R.

    2014-06-01

    In 2010, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed to analyze the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to benefit from the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the installation of 500 megawatts (MW) of utility-scale PV systems (with 1-5 MW typical ratings) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE's service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC). This report provides the findings of the research completed under the project to date.

  18. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa

    2009-04-07

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research projectperformed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

  19. Integration of Hybrid PV/Wind Generation System Using Fuzzy MPPT in Grid Connected System for Remote Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soedibyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic and wind are renewable energy resources that widely used and grow rapidly in fulfilling electricity demand. Powers from both technologies depend on sunlight intensity and wind speed. For small scale power generation, DC voltage from both technologies is low and requires step-up converter to raise DC voltage ratio before converted into AC voltage. To optimize this system, step-up converter must have high ratio and efficiency to a distance of wide voltage input. This paper proposed an operation simulation and arrangement of DC-DC converter along with DC-AC from hybrid source PV-Wind which integrated to grid utilities without using storage device. High Gain Integrated Cascade Boost (HGICB is DC-DC converter that has quadratic voltage ratio and used in this research. Then DC link connected to Voltage Source Inverter (VSI which interconnected with utility grid and controlled by current control method. The total installed capacity of hybrid source is 4.4 kW. Wind turbine uses PMSG along with full bridge rectifier. To maximize and stabilize the generated power, MPPT fuzzy is used. Result from the simulation shows that converter capable to maintain maximum power whether from PV and wind turbine which canalized to utility grid in various irradiation condition, wind speed, and grid load alteration.

  20. Connecting the sun. Competing in the energy sector. On the road to large scale PV grid integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rekinger, Manoel; Theologitis Ioannis Thomas; Masson, Gaetan [European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), Brussels (Belgium). Bussiness Intelligence Unit; Kreutzkamp, Paul; Brabandere, Karel de; Croufer, Maximilien [3E nv/sa, Brussels (Belgium). Grids and Power Markets

    2012-07-01

    With a more diversified, variable and presumably electricity-intensive energy mix, the future European electricity system will have to be more interconnected, more flexible and more decentralised, The enhancements of the grids, both at distribution and transmission level, will accompany the complete transformation of the electricity sector. They should in particular integrate the rise of distributed generation, including photovoltaic (PV) electricity, which will play a key role in Europe's electricity mix given its competitiveness trajectory. The experience of the last decade has shown that underestimating the technological and implementation potential of PV leads to suboptimal situations both from a capacity planning and a network operation point of view. Navigating through the transition towards a more sustainable energy future therefore requires tangible scenario-based forecasts. This paper is based on the latest study ''Connecting the Sun'' (September 2012) prepared by the European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) and aims to provide a vision regarding the main challenges that the current electricity system might face and how available solutions could contribute in order for solar electricity to be integrated in the electricity system avoiding security of supply concerns. (orig.).

  1. Research on the integrated design strategy of green building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasingly serious environmental problems, energy saving and environmental protection of the green building began to have people’s attention, and gradually become the development trend of future building, which came into being green building integrated design. How to apply the integrated design theory of green building to the concrete architectural design practice is a question that designers must seriously think about. This paper expounds the integrated design concept of green building and integration methods from the connotation of green building design, and puts forward the integrated design strategy in the green building design concept in theory and practical application, in order to provide reference to the designers or managers.

  2. New roof for an old building. PV system on a historical single-family home; Altes Haus kraftvoll eingedeckt. PV-Anlage auf historischem Einfamilienhaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-03-15

    For hundreds of years, slated roofs and walls were the characteristic feature of the Thuringian-Franconian boundary region, where the ''Schieferstrasse'' - the road of historical houses with slated roofs and walls - is a major tourist attraction. Today, owners of buildings are interested in technologies orientated towards the future. After restoration of a single-family home at Lehestenbuilt in 1650, modern solar modules installed on the roof and combined with traditionally-looking aluminium roof tiles by Prefa make an aesthetically pleasing picture. (orig.)

  3. Design Process for Integrated Concepts with Responsive Building Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aa, Van der A.; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    is needed. The hard question is however: how to make the right choice of the combination of individual measures from building components and building services elements. Within the framework of IEA-ECBCS Annex 44 research has been conducted about the design process for integrated building concepts......An integrated building concept is a prerequisite to come to an energy efficient building with a good and healthy IAQ indoor comfort. A design process that defines the targets and boundary conditions in the very first stage of the design and guarantees them until the building is finished and used...... with responsive building elements. The (Dutch) Toolkit Sustainable Residential Buildings is one of the examples of tools for an integrated design process....

  4. A New Control Method to Mitigate Power Fluctuations for Grid Integrated PV/Wind Hybrid Power System Using Ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, N. S.; Gaonkar, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    The output power obtained from solar-wind hybrid system fluctuates with changes in weather conditions. These power fluctuations cause adverse effects on the voltage, frequency and transient stability of the utility grid. In this paper, a control method is presented for power smoothing of grid integrated PV/wind hybrid system using ultracapacitors in a DC coupled structure. The power fluctuations of hybrid system are mitigated and smoothed power is supplied to the utility grid. In this work both photovoltaic (PV) panels and the wind generator are controlled to operate at their maximum power point. The grid side inverter control strategy presented in this paper maintains DC link voltage constant while injecting power to the grid at unity power factor considering different operating conditions. Actual solar irradiation and wind speed data are used in this study to evaluate the performance of the developed system using MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that output power fluctuations of solar-wind hybrid system can be significantly mitigated using the ultracapacitor based storage system.

  5. The Integration and Control of Multifunctional Stationary PV-Battery Systems in Smart Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Mulder, Grietus; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    2013-01-01

    . The objective of this paper is to develop and detail the method of optimum sizing energy storage for grid connected distribution systems using newly devised BESS control protocol and investigate its sensitivity to factors which are known to influence energy system performance and hence storage requirements......The paper investigates the potential of using lumped stationary battery energy storage systems (BESS) in the public low-voltage distribution grid in order to defer upgrades needed in case of large penetration of electric vehicle (EV), electrified heat pump (HP) in presence of photovoltaic (PV......) panel on the view of techno economic optimal sizing taking the consideration of season-based diurnal dynamics. The BESS is primarily dimensioned for the peak shaving operation targeted for the counterbalance of overloading of transformer; BESS also participates in arbitrage (buy low, sell high...

  6. Building-Integrated Solar Energy Devices based on Wavelength Selective Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulavi, Tejas

    A potentially attractive option for building integrated solar is to employ hybrid solar collectors which serve dual purposes, combining solar thermal technology with either thin film photovoltaics or daylighting. In this study, two hybrid concepts, a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector and a hybrid 'solar window', are presented and analyzed to evaluate technical performance. In both concepts, a wavelength selective film is coupled with a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to reflect and concentrate the infrared portion of the solar spectrum onto a tubular absorber. The visible portion of the spectrum is transmitted through the concentrator to either a thin film Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) solar panel for electricity generation or into the interior space for daylighting. Special attention is given to the design of the hybrid devices for aesthetic building integration. An adaptive concentrator design based on asymmetrical truncation of CPCs is presented for the hybrid solar window concept. The energetic and spectral split between the solar thermal module and the PV or daylighting module are functions of the optical properties of the wavelength selective film and the concentrator geometry, and are determined using a Monte Carlo Ray-Tracing (MCRT) model. Results obtained from the MCRT can be used in conjugation with meteorological data for specific applications to study the impact of CPC design parameters including the half-acceptance angle thetac, absorber diameter D and truncation on the annual thermal and PV/daylighting efficiencies. The hybrid PV/T system is analyzed for a rooftop application in Phoenix, AZ. Compared to a system of the same area with independent solar thermal and PV modules, the hybrid PV/T provides 20% more energy, annually. However, the increase in total delivered energy is due solely to the addition of the thermal module and is achieved at an expense of a decrease in the annual electrical efficiency from 8.8% to 5.8% due to shading by

  7. Solar architecture and solar building construction. Conference proceedings; Solararchitektur and Solares Bauen. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This is the proceedings volume of the Energy Forum held in Brixen, South Tyrol, on 9/10 December 2008. The following subjects were discussed: 1. Photovoltaic systems integrated in buildings, an introduction; 2. Projecting and implementation of PV projects integrated in buildings; 3. Flexible PV thin film modules for roofs and walls; 4. Intelligent building shells: Integrated building construction with renewable energy sources; 5. Shading, sunshades, daylighting.

  8. Multifunctionality of PV shells; Multifunktionalitaet von PV-Fassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erban, C. [Saint-Gobain Glass Solar, Aachen (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    Integrated PV systems have come a long way since the construciton of the first solar building shell eight years ago. All technical problems have be solved, and a multitude of solar wall elements are now available that enable architects and planners to design their own customised solar building. [German] Der Einsatz von gebaeudeintegrierter Photovoltaik hat in den nunmehr acht Jahren seit dem Bau der ersten Solarfassade erhebliche Fortschritte gemacht. In technischer Hinsicht ist heute nahezu alles moeglich. Der Umsetzung der einstigen Vision 'Jedem Gebaeude seine Solaranlage' steht heute nichts mehr entgegen, zumal zahlreiche Foerdermoeglichkeiten existieren. Die Vielzahl der Einsatz- und Kombinationsmoeglichkeiten von Solar-Fassadenelementen versetzen Planer und Architekten in die Lage, ihrer individuellen Idee einer gebaeudeintegrierten Solaranlage Gestalt zu geben. (orig.)

  9. Angle Resolved Performance Measurements on PV Glass and Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juutilainen, Line Tollund; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    the concept of PV balconies as cost efficient and easy way of integrating PV into buildings. The experimental work consists of the fabrication of single cell mini modules with different glass covering, and characterizing their angular response in a custom made setup, where only the direct sunlight is used......The angular response of PV-modules has significant impact on the energy production. This is especially pronounced in BIPV where installation angles often are far from optimal. Nevertheless, a gain in energy yield may be obtained by choosing a proper glass as superstrate. In this work we present...... as a light source. As a special case we estimate the annual yield for each glass in the case of PV balconies for a specific geographical location and orientation of the module....

  10. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  11. Integrating Sustainable Construction Materials to Achieve Green Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmajeed H. Kasassbeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Green buildings integrate building materials and methods that promote environmental quality, economic vitality and social benefits through the design, construction and operation of the built environment. This study demonstrates potential actions including material selection that can be implemented to achieve green building. Also, we discuss the importance and environmental impact of sustainable material, the selection criteria of these materials and the different types of sustainable materials in the buildings construction in Jordan.

  12. Integrating Building Information Modeling and Green Building Certification: The BIM-LEED Application Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Building information modeling (BIM) and green building are currently two major trends in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. This research recognizes the market demand for better solutions to achieve green building certification such as LEED in the United States. It proposes a new strategy based on the integration of BIM…

  13. Integrating Building Information Modeling and Green Building Certification: The BIM-LEED Application Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Building information modeling (BIM) and green building are currently two major trends in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. This research recognizes the market demand for better solutions to achieve green building certification such as LEED in the United States. It proposes a new strategy based on the integration of BIM…

  14. SOL-IND. Photovoltaics integrated in an industrialised building process. Final report; SOL-IND. Solceller integreret i industrielt byggeri. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederiksen, K.H.B.; Vestersager Engdal, J. (EnergiMidt A/S, Silkeborg (Denmark))

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of the project, EFP06 - Photovoltaics integrated in an industrialised building process (SOLIND), has been to examine the possibilities for PV (photovoltaics) in an industrialized building process. The project is an information gathering and development project with basis in knowledge about the possibilities for PV in relation to specific housing projects in Skanska Bolig A/S, including BoKlok, developed in cooperation with IKEA. During the project a workshop with participating architectural students has been carried through resulting in detailed concepts. The concepts have in general terms been introduced nationally to the press and were invited to a poster presentation at the world's largest PV conference. In addition to this, a number of prototypes are produced together with other presentation material. The projects has been divided into three phases. The report is divided into these three phases. 1) Knowledge gathering and unravelling 2) Analysis, development and evaluation, workshop for students. 3) Promotion and demonstration of results The main results are: 4) The project has resulted in increased knowledge about the possibilities with photovoltaics in industrialized building processes. 5) A number of concepts have been developed to fit PV in the project phase of an industrialized building process. 6) The most promising concepts has been demonstrated as prototypes in different scale together with other presentation materials The project continues in SOL-IND2, with the purpose to prepare and carry out an integration of a PV system in an industrialized building process. A subsidy is granted in 2008 from the EFP to prepare the construction. (au)

  15. Techno-economical Analysis of Hybrid PV-WT-Hydrogen FC System for a Residential Building with Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a techno-economical analysis on performance indicators of hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power generation system which supply with electricity a low - energy building, located in Cluj-Napoca. The case study had the main objectives, as follows: cost estimation, evaluation of energy and environmental performance for a fuel cell integrated into a small-scale hybrid system power generation and estimation of electrolytic hydrogen production based on renewable energy resources available on the proposed site. The results presented in this paper illustrate a case study for location Cluj-Napoca. The wind and solar resource can play an important role in energy needs for periods with "peak load" or intermittent energy supply. However, hydrogen production is dependent directly proportional to the availability of renewable energy resources, but the hydrogen can be considered as a storage medium for these renewable resources. It can be said that this study is a small-scale model analysis, a starting point for a detailed analysis of Romania's potential electrolytic production of hydrogen from renewable resources and supply electricity using fuel cells integrated into hybrid energy systems.

  16. Integrated refurbishment planning for sustainable office buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbert, T.

    2012-01-01

    Europe's cities are full of office buildings which are technically and visually outdated. Research has demonstrated that more than 60% of German office stock is in acute need for refurbishment. Building planning needs intelligent approaches to façade refurbishment in order to tackle this enormous ma

  17. Development of a low cost integrated 15 kW A.C. solar tracking sub-array for grid connected PV power system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M.; West, R.; Fourer, G.; Whalen, W.; Van Loo, M.; Duran, G.

    1997-02-01

    Utility Power Group has achieved a significant reduction in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems. The two part technical approach focused on 1) The utilization of a large area factory assembled PV panel, and 2) The integration and packaging of all sub-array power conversion and control functions within a single factory produced enclosure. Eight engineering prototype 15kW ac single axis solar tracking sub-arrays were designed, fabricated, and installed at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's Hedge Substation site in 1996 and are being evaluated for performance and reliability. A number of design enhancements will be implemented in 1997 and demonstrated by the field deployment and operation of over twenty advanced sub-array PV power systems.

  18. Using CAD software to simulate PV energy yield - The case of product integrated photovoltaic operated under indoor solar irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Sinke, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that photovoltaic (PV) energy yields can be simulated using standard rendering and ray-tracing features of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. To this end, three-dimensional (3-D) sceneries are ray-traced in CAD. The PV power output is then modeled by translating irradiance

  19. Using CAD software to simulate PV energy yield - The case of product integrated photovoltaic operated under indoor solar irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Sinke, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that photovoltaic (PV) energy yields can be simulated using standard rendering and ray-tracing features of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. To this end, three-dimensional (3-D) sceneries are ray-traced in CAD. The PV power output is then modeled by translating irradiance

  20. The Green Electricity: The Potential of Using Solar Pv Panel for The Royal Malaysian Police (RMP Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Yasin Md Hafiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the year 2020 approaches, Malaysia aims to be self-sufficient and independence in finding resources to fuel its development, especially in energy sector. To achieve this aims, Malaysia need to strengthen its energy sustainability aspect and have a clear foresight in handling energy security issue. In coming decades, energy crisis due the existence of the significant energy threat may cause power interruptions and lead to many interrelated problems, especially safety and security issues. Issues such as unstable political and economic situation in Middle East country, Spratly issue, South China Sea territorial issue, war and terrorist may lead to unstable safety and security environment for Malaysia. The most significant organization to keep the safety and security of Malaysia is The Royal Malaysian Police (RMP. However, at the moment, this organization is fully-reliant on centralized electricity supply that may interrupt due to the future energy threat. Therefore, it is important for this organization to have an independence and self-sufficient electricity supply in order to remain their operation in any circumstances .The solar energy, through Photovoltaic (PV panel, has been identified as the significant resources to achieve this purposes. With constant solar irradiance, Malaysia has great potential in solar energy harvesting. The energy is clean, environmental-friendly, reliable and readily-accessible throughout the year. This paper will review the potential of green electricity through solar PV in being the power supply for RMP in order to maintain the security and safety of Malaysia

  1. Integrated urban water management in commercial buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowsdale, S; Gabe, J; Vale, R

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring results are presented as an annual water balance from the pioneering Landcare Research green building containing commercial laboratory and office space. The building makes use of harvested roof runoff to flush toilets and urinals and irrigate glasshouse experiments, reducing the demand for city-supplied water and stormwater runoff. Stormwater treatment devices also manage the runoff from the carpark, helping curb stream degradation. Composting toilets and low-flow tap fittings further reduce the water demand. Despite research activities requiring the use of large volumes of water, the demand for city-supplied water is less than has been measured in many other green buildings. In line with the principles of sustainability, the composting toilets produce a useable product from wastes and internalise the wastewater treatment process.

  2. Buildings' integral role in good health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As reported in last month's HEJ, the new Sustainable Development Strategy for the Health, Public Health and Social Care System for 2014-20 rightly emphasises the importance of the built environment to health and well-being. Chris Hall, the BRE's health sector lead, says this message 'stretches far beyond hospitals and healthcare buildings into the communities and homes that people live in'. Here he highlights some of the key elements relating to the current carbon efficiency of healthcare buildings, considers the impact of 'good' housing on health and preventing illness, and looks forward to a series of joint IHEEM and BRE 'Building Sustainable Development' mini-conference events planned in the run-up to October's Healthcare Estates 2014 event in response to the new Strategy, designed to share ideas and good practice on sustainable estates issues. The first takes place in London later this month (see panel below).

  3. PV on existing roofs. Experiences of sixty households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaan, H.F.; Van Dijk, A.L.; Van Leeuwen, M. [ECN Renewable Energy in the Built Environment DEGO, Petten (Netherlands)

    2001-05-01

    In order to stimulate the use of PV (photovoltaic energy) in the Netherlands, the Dutch government offers a subsidy of 3.40 Euro per Watt peak installed after January 2001. It is hoped that this will facilitate the market for PV systems. The newly to be build houses form a substantial potential as PV carriers, but the existing housing stock is much larger. PV on existing houses has been promoted for several years now in the Netherlands, amongst others by utilities, PV manufacturers and the environmental organization Greenpeace. The new subsidy scheme will undoubtedly have a large impact on the PV demand for existing houses. However, it is doubtful whether the technology is mature enough to meet a large scale demand. In order to learn from experiences with small scale PV systems on roofs of existing houses, the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) has set up a research project in which participating employees give access to the roofs of their houses to install PV systems. Fifty-nine ECN employees entered for participation in this project. This group provides a random selection of roofs, so that many different types of roof integration can be examined. Subjects included in the project investigations are: constructional aspects, yield and reliability of systems, institutional aspects such as getting building permits, aesthetics, behavioural aspects. The project was set up in 2000. In April 2001, the installation had been monitored and evaluated. Also the preparatory and initial findings and experiences of project participants have been registered through a questionnaire. The yield of the modules is registered by the participants.

  4. Final Technical Report: Integrated Distribution-Transmission Analysis for Very High Penetration Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmintier, Bryan [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Hale, Elaine [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Hansen, Timothy M. [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Jones, Wesley [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Biagioni, David [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Baker, Kyri [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Wu, Hongyu [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Giraldez, Julieta [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Sorensen, Harry [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Lunacek, Monte [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Merket, Noel [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Jorgenson, Jennie [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Hodge, Bri-Mathias [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States))

    2016-01-29

    Transmission and distribution simulations have historically been conducted separately, echoing their division in grid operations and planning while avoiding inherent computational challenges. Today, however, rapid growth in distributed energy resources (DERs)--including distributed generation from solar photovoltaics (DGPV)--requires understanding the unprecedented interactions between distribution and transmission. To capture these interactions, especially for high-penetration DGPV scenarios, this research project developed a first-of-its-kind, high performance computer (HPC) based, integrated transmission-distribution tool, the Integrated Grid Modeling System (IGMS). The tool was then used in initial explorations of system-wide operational interactions of high-penetration DGPV.

  5. Ten questions concerning integrating smart buildings into the smart grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Thomas M.; Boudreau, Marie-Claude; Helsen, Lieve; Henze, Gregor; Mohammadpour, Javad; Noonan, Doug; Patteeuw, Dieter; Pless, Shanti; Watson, Richard T.

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in information and communications technology (ICT) have initiated development of a smart electrical grid and smart buildings. Buildings consume a large portion of the total electricity production worldwide, and to fully develop a smart grid they must be integrated with that grid. Buildings can now be 'prosumers' on the grid (both producers and consumers), and the continued growth of distributed renewable energy generation is raising new challenges in terms of grid stability over various time scales. Buildings can contribute to grid stability by managing their overall electrical demand in response to current conditions. Facility managers must balance demand response requests by grid operators with energy needed to maintain smooth building operations. For example, maintaining thermal comfort within an occupied building requires energy and, thus an optimized solution balancing energy use with indoor environmental quality (adequate thermal comfort, lighting, etc.) is needed. Successful integration of buildings and their systems with the grid also requires interoperable data exchange. However, the adoption and integration of newer control and communication technologies into buildings can be problematic with older legacy HVAC and building control systems. Public policy and economic structures have not kept up with the technical developments that have given rise to the budding smart grid, and further developments are needed in both technical and non-technical areas.

  6. Development of a Dispatchable PV Peak Shainv System. PV: Bonus Program - Phase 1 Report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Delmarva Power and Light and its subcontractors in Phase 1 of the US Department of Energy's PV:BONUS Program. The purpose of the program is to develop products and systems for buildings which utilize photovoltaic (N) technology. Beginning with a cooperative research effort with the University of Delaware's Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Delmarva Power developed and demonstrated the concept of Dispatchable PV Peak Shaving. This concept and the system which resulted horn the development work are unique from other grid-connected PV systems because it combines a PV, battery energy storage, power conversion and control technologies into an integrated package. Phase 1 began in July 1993 with the installation of a test and demonstration system at Delmarva's Northern Division General Office building near Newark, Delaware. Following initial testing throughout the summer and fall of 1993, significant modifications were made under an amendment to the DOE contract. Work on Phase 1 concluded in the early spring of 1995. Significant progress towards the goal of commercializing the system was made during Phase 1, and is summarized. Based on progress in Phase 1, a proposal to continue the work in Phase 2 was submitted to the US DOE in May 1995. A contract amendment and providing funds for the Phase 2 work is expected in July 1995.

  7. Vortex dynamics of stratospheric sudden warmings: a reanalysis data study using PV contour integral diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Robin; Thuburn, John; Kwasniok, Frank

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of the polar vortex behind stratospheric sudden warming events is investigated in a data-based study. Potential vorticity contour integral diagnostics of mass and circulation are calculated from ERA-40 reanalysis data for the stratosphere. The edge of the vortex is easily identifiable in these diagnostics as a high gradient of potential vorticity, and the warming events are clearly visible. The amount of air stripped from the vortex as part of a preconditioning leading up to the warming events is determined using the balance equation of the mass integral. Significant persistent removal of mass from the vortex is found, with several such stripping events identifiable through the winter, especially in those during which a major sudden warming event occurred. These stripping episodes are visible in corresponding potential vorticity maps, where tongues of potential vorticity can be seen to be stripped from the vortex and mixed into the sorrounding surf zone of turbulent air.

  8. Development of flame retardant PV module encapsulants: Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galica, J.P.

    1998-06-01

    This Phase 1 final report covers the work performed by Springborn Testing and Research, Inc., for the period October 1, 1997 to June 30, 1998 under the Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC36-97GO10255, entitled Development of Flame Retardant PV Module Encapsulants. While use of roof-mounted arrays has always been an attractive means of deploying PV, only within recent years have such building integrated concepts (BIPV) found renewed interest among module makers and end-users. Prior to building integrated and rooftop applications, flammability requirements for modules have not been a great industry concern. However, with growing interest in BIPV and the requirement for building code requirements for commercial and industrial structures, flammability issues have become a barrier to entry for many module constructions into this potentially huge domestic market for PV. The overall goal of the 3 phase PV BONUS two project is to develop and commercialize a line of fire retardant encapsulation materials to serve the emerging building integrated and building mounted PV market. The objectives of the Phase 1 effort are limited to concept development and business planning activities.

  9. Long-term field test of solar PV power generation using one-axis 3-position sun tracker

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-09-01

    The 1 axis-3 position (1A-3P) sun tracking PV was built and tested to measure the daily and long-term power generation of the solar PV system. A comparative test using a fixed PV and a 1A-3P tracking PV was carried out with two identical stand-alone solar-powered LED lighting systems. The field test in the particular days shows that the 1A-3P tracking PV can generate 35.8% more electricity than the fixed PV in a partly-cloudy weather with daily-total solar irradiation HT=11.7MJ/m2day, or 35.6% in clear weather with HT=18.5MJ/m2day. This indicates that the present 1A-3P tracking PV can perform very close to a dual-axis continuous tracking PV (Kacira et al., 2004). The long-term outdoor test results have shown that the increase of daily power generation of 1A-3P tracking PV increases with increasing daily-total solar irradiation. The increase of monthly-total power generation for 1A-3P sun tracking PV is between 18.5-28.0%. The total power generation increase in the test period from March 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011, is 23.6% in Taipei (an area of low solar energy resource). The long-term performance of the present 1X-3P tracking PV is shown very close to the 1-axis continuous tracking PV in Taiwan (Chang, 2009). If the 1A-3P tracking PV is used in the area of high solar energy resource with yearly-average HT>17MJ/m2day, the increase of total long-term power generation with respect to fixed PV will be higher than 37.5%. This is very close to that of dual-axis continuous tracking PV. The 1A-3P tracker can be easily mounted on the wall of a building. The cost of the whole tracker is about the same as the regular mounting cost of a conventional rooftop PV system. This means that there is no extra cost for 1A-3P PV mounted on buildings. The 1A-3P PV is quite suitable for building-integrated applications. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. PV domestic field trial. Third annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crick, F.; Davies, N.; Munzinger, M.; Pearsall, N.; Martin, C.

    2004-07-01

    This report summaries the results of a field trials investigating the design, construction and operation of photovoltaic (PV) systems installed during 2003 to provide information for utilities, building developers and those involved in PV installations and operations. Topics examined include the appearance of the systems, their architectural integration, the different fixing methods, the cost effectiveness of the systems, problems encountered, and monitoring activities. Key issues discussed include communication and co-ordination between interested bodies, siting and location, and good practice. Details are given of monitoring inspection visits, and performance analysis.

  11. Integration of Real-Time Data Into Building Automation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark J. Stunder; Perry Sebastian; Brenda A. Chube; Michael D. Koontz

    2003-04-16

    The project goal was to investigate the possibility of using predictive real-time information from the Internet as an input to building management system algorithms. The objectives were to identify the types of information most valuable to commercial and residential building owners, managers, and system designers. To comprehensively investigate and document currently available electronic real-time information suitable for use in building management systems. Verify the reliability of the information and recommend accreditation methods for data and providers. Assess methodologies to automatically retrieve and utilize the information. Characterize equipment required to implement automated integration. Demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using the information in building management systems. Identify evolutionary control strategies.

  12. Integrated thermal simulation of buildings and regenerative evaporative coolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, P.G.; Mathews, E.H.; Grobler, L.J. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Centre for Experimental and Numerical Thermoflow)

    1994-01-01

    The thermal environment inside a building, fitted with a regenerative evaporative cooler, is influenced by the performance of the cooler. However, this performance is again influenced by the indoor air conditions. It means that the thermal performance of the building and the performance of the cooler cannot be separated. This paper proposes an innovative model for simulating the integrated thermal performance of buildings and regenerative evaporative coolers. The cooler model employs a standard single equation to characterize the performance of a cooler. Only the coefficients of this equation differs for different coolers. These coefficients are found from empirical performance data available from suppliers. The model was integrated with a comprehensive building thermal analysis program and verified successfully. This model now enables the designer to simulate any regenerative evaporative cooler connected to any building in any climatic region. The control strategy best suited for different off-design conditions can now also be investigated. (Author)

  13. The case for better PV forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Efthymiou, Venizelos; Graditi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Rising levels of PV penetration mean increasingly sophisticated forecasting technologies are needed to maintain grid stability and maximise the economic value of PV systems. The Grid Integration working group of the European Technology and Innovation Platform – Photovoltaics (ETIP PV) shares...... the results of its ongoing research into the advantages and limitations of current forecasting technologies....

  14. Co-simulation of innovative integrated HVAC systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trcka, Marija; Hensena, Jan L.M.; Wetter, Michael

    2010-06-21

    Integrated performance simulation of buildings HVAC systems can help in reducing energy consumption and increasing occupant comfort. However, no single building performance simulation (BPS) tool offers sufficient capabilities and flexibilities to analyze integrated building systems and to enable rapid prototyping of innovative building and system technologies. One way to alleviate this problem is to use co-simulation, as an integrated approach to simulation. This article elaborates on issues important for co-simulation realization and discusses multiple possibilities to justify the particular approach implemented in the here described co-simulation prototype. The prototype is validated with the results obtained from the traditional simulation approach. It is further used in a proof-of-concept case study to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight its benefits. Stability and accuracy of different coupling strategies are analyzed to give a guideline for the required coupling time step.

  15. Thermal performance of integration of solar collectors and building envelopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国清; 龚小辉; 曹双华

    2009-01-01

    The integration of building with solar collector was studied. The theoretical model of integration of building envelopes and flat plate solar collectors was set up and the thermal performance of integration was studied in winter and summer,and compared to envelopes without solar collectors. The results show that the solar collection efficiency is raised in the integration of building envelopes and solar collectors with the air layer doors closed. This is true whether in winter or summer. The increment is higher as the inlet water temperature increases or the ambient temperature is low. In winter,the heat loss is significantly reduced through integration of the building envelopes and solar collectors with the closed air layer doors. The integration with the open air layer door is worse than that without collectors. In summer,the heat gains of the integration of envelopes and solar collectors are more obviously reduced than envelopes without collectors,the integration with the open air layer door is a little better than the closed one,but the difference is very small.

  16. D Topological Indoor Building Modeling Integrated with Open Street Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, A.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Boguslawski, P.

    2016-09-01

    Considering various fields of applications for building surveying and various demands, geometry representation of a building is the most crucial aspect of a building survey. The interiors of the buildings need to be described along with the relative locations of the rooms, corridors, doors and exits in many kinds of emergency response, such as fire, bombs, smoke, and pollution. Topological representation is a challenging task within the Geography Information Science (GIS) environment, as the data structures required to express these relationships are particularly difficult to develop. Even within the Computer Aided Design (CAD) community, the structures for expressing the relationships between adjacent building parts are complex and often incomplete. In this paper, an integration of 3D topological indoor building modeling in Dual Half Edge (DHE) data structure and outdoor navigation network from Open Street Map (OSM) is presented.

  17. A GRID CONNECTED PV SYSTEM INTEGRATED THROUGH MULTILEVEL MODULAR CASCADED H-BRIDGE INVERTER BY USING FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a modular cascaded H-bridge multilevel photovoltaic (PV) inverter for three-phase grid-connected applications. The modular cascaded multilevel topology helps to improve the efficiency and flexibility of PV systems. The main abstruse is the harmonization of the DG to the utility grid. Generally current regulated PWM voltage-source inverters (VSI) are used for synchronizing the utility grid with DG source in order to meet the following objectives: 1) To ensure grid stability...

  18. Exploration of Team Integration in Spanish Multifamily Residential Building Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Sanz Benlloch, María Amalia; Esmaeili, B; MOLENAAR, KEITH ROBERT

    2016-01-01

    Project delivery team integration generally involves early involvement of general contractors and key specialty contractors in the design process. Team integration has been found to improve an owner’s probability of success. However, during difficult economic times, owners can forego early team involvement and move toward low bid procurement to take advantage of competitive markets. This study explores the performance of integrated teams in the Spanish multifamily building constructi...

  19. HyperKhaler Metrics Building and Integrable Models

    CERN Document Server

    Saidi, E H

    1994-01-01

    Methods developed for the analysis of integrable systems are used to study the problem of hyperK\\"ahler metrics building as formulated in D=2 N=4 supersymmetric harmonic superspace. We show, in particular, that the constraint equation $\\beta\\partial^{++2}\\omega -\\xi^{++2}\\exp 2\\beta\\omega =0$ and its Toda like generalizations are integrable. Explicit solutions together with the conserved currents generating the symmetry responsible of the integrability of these equations are given. Other features are also discussed

  20. Building-to-Grid Integration through Commercial Building Portfolios Participating in Energy and Frequency Regulation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlak, Gregory S.

    Building energy use is a significant contributing factor to growing worldwide energy demands. In pursuit of a sustainable energy future, commercial building operations must be intelligently integrated with the electric system to increase efficiency and enable renewable generation. Toward this end, a model-based methodology was developed to estimate the capability of commercial buildings to participate in frequency regulation ancillary service markets. This methodology was integrated into a supervisory model predictive controller to optimize building operation in consideration of energy prices, demand charges, and ancillary service revenue. The supervisory control problem was extended to building portfolios to evaluate opportunities for synergistic effect among multiple, centrally-optimized buildings. Simulation studies performed showed that the multi-market optimization was able to determine appropriate opportunities for buildings to provide frequency regulation. Total savings were increased by up to thirteen percentage points, depending on the simulation case. Furthermore, optimizing buildings as a portfolio achieved up to seven additional percentage points of savings, depending on the case. Enhanced energy and cost savings opportunities were observed by taking the novel perspective of optimizing building portfolios in multiple grid markets, motivating future pursuits of advanced control paradigms that enable a more intelligent electric grid.

  1. Monte Carlo Simulations of Luminescent Solar Concentrators with Front-Facing Photovoltaic Cells for Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Shin; Corrado, Carley; Osborn, Melissa; Carter, Sue

    2013-03-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) have the ability to receive light from a wide range of angles and concentrate the captured light on to small photo active areas. This enables LSCs to be integrated more extensively into buildings as windows and wall claddings on top of roof installations. LSCs with front facing PV cells collect both direct and concentrated light ensuring a gain factor greater than one. It also allows for flexibility in determining the placement and percentage coverage of PV cells when designing panels to balance reabsorption losses, power output and the level of concentration desired. A Monte-Carlo ray tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in LSC panels and aid in design optimization. The program imports measured absorption/emission spectra and transmission coefficients as simulation parameters. Interactions of photons with the LSC panel are determined by comparing calculated probabilities with random number generators. Simulation results reveal optimal panel dimensions and PV cell layouts to achieve maximum power output.

  2. Integrated collaborative building design using Internet technology

    OpenAIRE

    Roshani, D.M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Communication between the parties in a project of an integrated collaborative engineering system has been the subject of active research for many years. The construction industry has a long tradition of collaborative working between the members of the construction team. At the design stage, this has traditionally been based on physical meetings between representatives of the principal design team members. To aid these meetings, the information and communication technologies that are currently...

  3. METABOLIC INTEGRATION: BEYOND THE BUILDING BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D.V. Machado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The theme "metabolic Integration" discussed during Biochemistry classes is considered by many students a complex issue. It could be due to their difficulty in understanding that the metabolic pathways are not isolated reactions, but a completely interdependent system finely regulated. Given this reality, a didactic game was developed. The main objective was to challenge students to understand the metabolism integration, through a playful, interactive and dynamic way. The class was divided into groups and to each group was given a set of parts that represented an important pathway of energetic metabolism. The aim of each group was to complete the metabolic process assigned to them. However, during the assembly, they realized that was always lacking some part of the puzzle and that the game only succeeds if all the groups exchange parts with each other. After that, the pieces came together in order to assemble all the processes in an integrated way. The game was organized into two situations: metabolic reactions that occur in the fasted state and reactions of the fed state. When the groups realized they needed to join themselves to complete the processes, they also had to get into a consensus that the "body" in which the reactions were happening, was in a fasted state or not, because the pieces didn’t match each other if both metabolic states were being assembled at the same time. It is not suitable to the organism performs the reactions of antagonistic states at the same time/or at the same velocity. Along the schema assembly, key points were didactically marked in some pieces with colors and warnings. The proposal was to open a discussion after assembling of the parts.The game was applied to students at the first year of medicine school and had a great acceptance.Key words: metabolism, integration, game.

  4. PV window - Development and demonstrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugaard, P.

    2011-05-15

    Using the results from the EU project RenewTransnet, which focused on the development of a pane with integrated solar cells, the goal of this project is to develop these principles into a window solution. This window solution is targeted to Danish building tradition and architecture. It is expected that an elegant PV-window solution for both new and retrofit buildings is developed during this project, and which appearance can be customized to each building. Based on results from a related projects carried out by Gaia Solar, the window solution will have the potential of being approximately 30% cheaper than similar products on the market. In this project this price reduction is the objective of the development of a window solution. The project team has succeeded in developing a 2-layer PV-window with glass / glass lamination with EVA as foil, which is 35% cheaper than similar products on the market. Since the price for the frame-profile does not differ significantly at market level, the price comparison is made on the basis of the developed PV-pane. The objective of 30 % price reduction in relation to similar products on the market is met. A special production process to the making glass/glass lamination with EVA as foil has been developed, in which a frame is put around the module which intends both to remove the unwanted tension along the edges, and to prevent the significant spillage of EVA from the module under pressure and prevent the invasive bubbles along the edge of module. Since the developed production method for making glass/glass modules with EVA is simple, a further cost reduction will primarily be in a reduction of the price of the cell. The project process has resulted in the development of a product, which due to continuous restrictions in the building regulations, will be very attractive in future buildings. (LN)

  5. Model Predictive Controller for Active Demand Side Management with PV Self-consumption in an Intelligent Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Kullmann, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for electrical heaters’ predictive power consumption including maximizing the use of local generation (e.g. solar power) in an intelligent building. The MPC is based on dynamic power price and weather forecast, considering users’ comfort...

  6. Three integrated photovoltaic/sound barrier power plants. Construction and operational experience; Drei integrierte PV-Schallschutz Versuchsfelder. Bau und Erprobung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordmann, T.; Froelich, A.; Clavadetscher, L.

    2002-07-01

    After an international ideas competition by TNC Switzerland and Germany in 1996, six companies where given the opportunity to construct a prototype of their newly developed integrated PV-sound barrier concepts. The main goal was to develop highly integrated concepts, allowing the reduction of PV sound barrier systems costs, as well as the demonstration of specific concepts for different noise situations. This project is strongly correlated with a German project. Three of the concepts of the competition are demonstrated along a highway near Munich, constructed in 1997. The three Swiss installations had to be constructed at different locations, reflecting three typical situations for sound barriers. The first Swiss installation was the world first Bi-facial PV-sound barrier. It was built on a highway bridge at Wallisellen-Aubrugg in 1997. The operational experience of the installation is positive. But due to the different efficiencies of the two cell sides, its specific yield lies somewhat behind a conventional PV installation. The second Swiss plant was finished in autumn 1998. The 'zig-zag' construction is situated along the railway line at Wallisellen in a densely inhabited area with some local shadowing. Its performance and its specific yield is comparatively low due to a combination of several reasons (geometry of the concept, inverter, high module temperature, local shadows). The third installation was constructed along the motor way A1 at Bruettisellen in 1999. Its vertical panels are equipped with amorphous modules. The report show, that the performance of the system is reasonable, but the mechanical construction has to be improved. A small trial field with cells directly laminated onto the steel panel, also installed at Bruettisellen, could be the key development for this concept. This final report includes the evaluation and comparison of the monitored data in the past 24 months of operation. (author)

  7. Building Integrated Photovoltaics: A Concise Description of the Current State of the Art and Possible Research Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Petter Jelle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV offer an aesthetical, economical and technical solution to integrate solar cells harvesting solar radiation to produce electricity within the climate envelopes of buildings. Photovoltaic (PV cells may be mounted above or onto the existing or traditional roofing or wall systems. However, BIPV systems replace the outer building envelope skin, i.e., the climate screen, hence serving simultanously as both a climate screen and a power source generating electricity. Thus, BIPV may provide savings in materials and labor, in addition to reducing the electricity costs. Hence, for the BIPV products, in addition to specific requirements put on the solar cell technology, it is of major importance to have satisfactory or strict requirements of rain tightness and durability, where building physical issues like e.g., heat and moisture transport in the building envelope also have to be considered and accounted for. This work, from both a technological and scientific point of view, summarizes briefly the current state-of-the-art of BIPV, including both BIPV foil, tiles, modules and solar cell glazing products, and addresses possible research pathways for BIPV in the years to come.

  8. IPM: Integrated Pest Management Kit for Building Managers. How To Implement an Integrated Pest Management Program in Your Building(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brad

    This management kit introduces building managers to the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), and provides the knowledge and tools needed to implement an IPM program in their buildings. It discusses the barriers to implementing an IPM program, why such a program should be used, and the general guidelines for its implementation. Managerial…

  9. Integrating Building Information Modeling and Augmented Reality to Improve Investigation of Historical Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Chionna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental system to support investigation of historical buildings using Building Information Modeling (BIM and Augmented Reality (AR. The system requires the use of an off-line software to build the BIM representation and defines a method to integrate diagnostic data into BIM. The system offers access to such information during site investigation using AR glasses supported by marker and marker-less technologies. The main innovation is the possibility to contextualize through AR not only existing BIM properties but also results from non-invasive tools. User evaluations show how the use of the system may enhance the perception of engineers during the investigation process.

  10. Integrating Building Functions into Massive External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hisham Hafez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Well into the twentieth century, brick and stone were the materials used. Bricklaying and stonemasonry were the construction technologies employed for the exterior walls of virtually all major structures. However, with the rise in quality of life, the massive walls alone became incapable of fulfilling all the developed needs. Adjacent systems and layers had then to be attached to the massive layer. Nowadays, the external wall is usually composed of a layered construction. Each external wall function is usually represented by a separate layer or system. The massive layer of the wall is usually responsible for the load-bearing function.Traditional massive external walls vary in terms of their external appearance, their composition and attached layers. However, their design and construction process is usually a repeated process. It is a linear process where each discipline is concerned with a separate layer or system. These disciplines usually take their tasks away and bring them back to be re-integrated in a layered manner. New massive technologies with additional function have recently become available.Such technologies can provide the external wall with other functions in addition to its load-bearing function. The purpose of this research is to map the changes required to the traditional design and construction process when massive technologies with additional function are applied in external walls. Moreover, the research aims at assessing the performance of massive solutions with additional function when compared to traditional solutions in two different contexts, the Netherlands and Egypt.Through the analysis of different additional function technologies in external walls, a guidance scheme for different stakeholders is generated. It shows the expected process changes as related to the product level and customization level. Moreover, the research concludes that the performance of additional insulating technologies, and specifically Autoclaved

  11. Topology Optimization of Building Blocks for Photonic Integrated Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Photonic integrated circuits are likely candidates as high speed replacements for the standard electrical integrated circuits of today. However, in order to obtain a satisfactorily performance many design prob- lems that up until now have resulted in too high losses must be resolved. In this work...... we demonstrate how the method of topology optimization can be used to design a variety of high performance building blocks for the future circuits....

  12. Building-integrated renewable energy policy analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚春妮; 郝斌

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic development of renewable energy all over the world,and for purpose of adjusting energy structure,the Ministry of Construction of China plans to promote the large scale application of renewable energy in buildings. In order to ensure the validity of policy-making,this work firstly exerts a method to do cost-benefit analysis for three kinds of technologies such as building-integrated solar hot water (BISHW) system,building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) technology and ground water heat pump (GWHP). Through selecting a representative city of every climate region,the analysis comes into different results for different climate regions in China and respectively different suggestion for policy-making. On the analysis basis,the Ministry of Construction (MOC) and the Ministry of Finance of China (MOF) united to start-up Building-integrated Renewable Energy Demonstration Projects (BIREDP) in 2006. In the demonstration projects,renewable energy takes place of traditional energy to supply the domestic hot water,electricity,air-conditioning and heating. Through carrying out the demonstration projects,renewable energy related market has been expanded. More and more relative companies and local governments take the opportunity to promote the large scale application of renewable energy in buildings.

  13. Integral control concept of buildings; Integrales Steuerungskonzept von Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knabben, L.; Schmitz, H.J. [e2 energieberatung GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Each existing building is unique in its function, appearance, users and location regarding to local climatic conditions and in case of an existing building also in its history. Therefore a custom-made control-concept is to be prepared in form of requirement specifications compellingly necessarily for each building. The building simulation is a powerful tool for the optimization of a coordinated control processes for heating, cooling and ventilation including the control of solar shading and lighting. Basic conditions for the design of a successful control concept are realistic assumptions of the user behaviour and in the realisation the application of the found results of the simulation. This article shows by example of the reconstruction of the main building of the Dortmund energy and water supply GmbH (DEW21), how important a building and user-specific HVAC control concept is. Only by a consistent application of the integrated concept and the monitoring by the specialized consultants contradictory controls for users and environment can be avoided. The example shows that the successful integrated design process does not only achieve substantial energy conservation, but also substantially improved user comfort. (orig.)

  14. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.

  15. Capacity Building for Integrated Family-Centered Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine

    1998-01-01

    Highlights social work legacies and how they will impact 21st-century practice. Provides several examples to help inform integrative social and economic foundations for practice, policy, and human well-being. Importance of these and other income-support and capacity-building strategies is featured against the challenges associated with welfare…

  16. Safety design integrated in the Building Delivery System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    of safety in each process. The group of participants who created the description had a high experience in a combination of research, safety and health in general and especial in construction and knowledge of the lean construction processes both from the clients perspective as well as from the designers...... phases of the building delivery system by using the principle of the lean construction modelling. The method for the research was to go through the lean construction building delivery system step by step and create a normative description of what to do, when to do and how to do to fully integration......It is important to see safety and health in construction as an integrated part of the way in which designers, architects, constructors, engineers and others carry out their consulting services. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how safety and health can be integrated in the design...

  17. Safety design integrated in the building delivery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    . The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how safety and health can be integrated in the design phases integrated in the management delivery systems within construction, The method for the research was to go through the building delivery system step by step and create a normative description of what, when......In construction, it is important to view safety and health as an integrated part of the way that “designers” are working. The designers cowers architects, constructors, engineers and others who carry out their consulting services in the design phase of a construction project. The philosophy...... is simple, if the demands for safety and health are incorporated early on in the solving of a building assignment, then it becomes much easier to organise the executing phase in a responsible manner safety-wise. But, the problem is that very few of the designers have knowledge or experience of how to do so...

  18. Campus and community micro grids integration of building integrated photovoltaic renewable energy sources: Case study of Split 3 area, Croatia - part A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašparović Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro grids interconnect loads and distributed energy resources as a single controllable entity. New installations of renewable energy sources (RES in urban areas, such as Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV, provide opportunities to increase energy independence and diversify energy sources in the energy system. This paper explores the integration of RES into two case study communities in an urban agglomeration to provide optimal conditions to meet a share of the electrical loads. Energy planning case studies for decentralized generation of renewable energy are conducted in H2RES energy planning software for hourly energy balances. The results indicate that BIPV and PV in the case study communities can cover about 17% of the recorded electrical demand of both areas. On a yearly basis, there will be a 0.025 GWh surplus of PV production with a maximum value of 1.25 MWh in one hour of operation unless grid storage is used. This amounts to a total investment cost of 13.36 million EUR. The results are useful for proposing future directions for the various case study communities targeting sustainable development.

  19. Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeMar, P.

    2002-10-29

    Integrated Energy Systems (IES) combine on-site power or distributed generation technologies with thermally activated technologies to provide cooling, heating, humidity control, energy storage and/or other process functions using thermal energy normally wasted in the production of electricity/power. IES produce electricity and byproduct thermal energy onsite, with the potential of converting 80 percent or more of the fuel into useable energy. IES have the potential to offer the nation the benefits of unprecedented energy efficiency gains, consumer choice and energy security. It may also dramatically reduce industrial and commercial building sector carbon and air pollutant emissions and increase source energy efficiency. Applications of distributed energy and Combined heat and power (CHP) in ''Commercial and Institutional Buildings'' have, however, been historically limited due to insufficient use of byproduct thermal energy, particularly during summer months when heating is at a minimum. In recent years, custom engineered systems have evolved incorporating potentially high-value services from Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) like cooling and humidity control. Such TAT equipment can be integrated into a CHP system to utilize the byproduct heat output effectively to provide absorption cooling or desiccant humidity control for the building during these summer months. IES can therefore expand the potential thermal energy services and thereby extend the conventional CHP market into building sector applications that could not be economically served by CHP alone. Now more than ever, these combined cooling, heating and humidity control systems (IES) can potentially decrease carbon and air pollutant emissions, while improving source energy efficiency in the buildings sector. Even with these improvements over conventional CHP systems, IES face significant technological and economic hurdles. Of crucial importance to the success of IES is the ability

  20. Experience with building integrated solar collectors; Erfaring med bygningsintegrerte solfangere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonsen, Ingeborg; Time, Berit; Andresen, Inger

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of the research 'Zero Emission Buildings' ZEB is to develop products and solutions that provide buildings with zero greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production, operation and disposal. Can we make this happen must the building produce more energy than it needs to compensate for greenhouse gas emissions from the production of materials and the actual construction.To build up knowledge on experience with building integrated solar collectors in Norway, we have in this study made interviews with suppliers and manufacturers of solar collectors and some building owners. Since the focus is on climate shell, we have limited the study to include solar collectors to replace a part of the cladding or roofing. Construction upstairs roofing, outside facade or freestanding rack is not considered as building integrated in this context. The providers we have been in contact with appeals to slightly different parts of the market. This is reflected in the product's development, assembly and approach to the calculation of energy delivery. Overall, providers may offer a range of products suitable for both the professional and skilled carpenter, the interested 'man in the street' . The feedback we have received shows generally good experiences with the product and the installation. Because of the preliminary short operating periods of the investigated plants we have little data on energy supply from these plants. In summary, we can say that the knowledge and the products are available and it is up to use to use them.(Author)

  1. Integration of inaccurate data into model building and uncertainty assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleou, Thierry

    1998-12-31

    Model building can be seen as integrating numerous measurements and mapping through data points considered as exact. As the exact data set is usually sparse, using additional non-exact data improves the modelling and reduces the uncertainties. Several examples of non-exact data are discussed and a methodology to honor them in a single pass, along with the exact data is presented. This automatic procedure is valid for both ``base case`` model building and stochastic simulations for uncertainty analysis. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Building Integrated Ontological Knowledge Structures with Efficient Approximation Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of ontologies builds knowledge structures which brings new understanding on existing terminologies and their associations. With the steady increase in the number of ontologies, automatic integration of ontologies is preferable over manual solutions in many applications. However, available works on ontology integration are largely heuristic without guarantees on the quality of the integration results. In this work, we focus on the integration of ontologies with hierarchical structures. We identified optimal structures in this problem and proposed optimal and efficient approximation algorithms for integrating a pair of ontologies. Furthermore, we extend the basic problem to address the integration of a large number of ontologies, and correspondingly we proposed an efficient approximation algorithm for integrating multiple ontologies. The empirical study on both real ontologies and synthetic data demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed approaches. In addition, the results of integration between gene ontology and National Drug File Reference Terminology suggest that our method provides a novel way to perform association studies between biomedical terms.

  3. Information delivery manuals to integrate building product information into design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berard, Ole Bengt; Karlshøj, Jan

    2011-01-01

    . Traditional business process modeling languages often fail to completely cover all four perspectives. BuildingSMART has proposed Information Delivery Manuals (IDMs) to model and re-engineer processes that address the four perspectives through a collaborative methodology in order to standardize and implement......Despite continuing BIM progress, professionals in the AEC industry often lack the information they need to perform their work. Although this problem could be alleviated by information systems similar to those in other industries, companies struggle to model processes and information needs......, and (3) to ascertain whether IDM’s business rules can support the development of information and logic-bearing BIM objects. The research is based on a case study of re-engineering the bidding process for a design-build project to integrate building product manufacturers, subcontractors...

  4. Information delivery manuals to integrate building product information into design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berard, Ole Bengt; Karlshøj, Jan

    2013-01-01

    . Traditional business process modeling languages often fail to completely cover all four perspectives. BuildingSMART has proposed Information Delivery Manuals (IDMs) to model and re-engineer processes that address the four perspectives through a collaborative methodology in order to standardize and implement......Despite continuing BIM progress, professionals in the AEC industry often lack the information they need to perform their work. Although this problem could be alleviated by information systems similar to those in other industries, companies struggle to model processes and information needs......, and (3) to ascertain whether IDM's business rules can support the development of information and logic-bearing BIM objects. The research is based on a case study of reengineering the bidding process for a design-build project to integrate building product manufacturers, subcontractors and their knowledge...

  5. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  6. Integration Host Factor (IHF binds to the promoter region of the phtD operon involved in phaseolotoxin synthesis in P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Morales Ariel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, the causal agent of halo blight disease in beans, produces a toxin known as phaseolotoxin, in whose synthesis participate a group of genes organized within the genome in a region known as the "Pht cluster". This region, which is thought to have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer, includes 5 transcriptional units, two monocistronic (argK, phtL and three polycistronic (phtA, phtD, phtM, whose expression is temperature dependent. So far, the regulatory mechanisms involved in phaseolotoxin synthesis have not been elucidated and the only well-established fact is the requirement of low temperatures for its synthesis. In this work, we searched for regulatory proteins that could be involved in phaseolotoxin synthesis, focusing on the regulation of the phtD operon. Results In this study we identified the global regulator IHF (Integration Host Factor, which binds to the promoter region of the phtD operon, exerting a negative effect on the expression of this operon. This is the first regulatory protein identified as part of the phaseolotoxin synthesis system. Our findings suggest that the Pht cluster was similarly regulated in the ancestral cluster by IHF or similar protein, and integrated into the global regulatory mechanism of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola, after the horizontal gene transfer event by using the host IHF protein. Conclusion This study identifies the IHF protein as one element involved in the regulation of phaseolotoxin synthesis in P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 and provides new insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in phaseolotoxin production.

  7. Integrated envelope and lighting systems for commercial buildings: a retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1998-06-01

    Daylighting systems in use world-wide rarely capture the energy-savings predicted by simulation tools and that we believe are achievable in real buildings. One of the primary reasons for this is that window and lighting systems are not designed and operated as an integrated system. Our efforts over the last five years have been targeted toward (1) development and testing of new prototype systems that involve a higher degree of systems integration than has been typical in the past, and (2) addressing current design and technological barriers that are often missed with component-oriented research. We summarize the results from this body of cross-disciplinary research and discuss its effects on the existing and future practice of daylighting in commercial buildings.

  8. Integrating Renewable Energy Requirements Into Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, John R.; Hand, James R.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2011-07-01

    This report evaluates how and when to best integrate renewable energy requirements into building energy codes. The basic goals were to: (1) provide a rough guide of where we’re going and how to get there; (2) identify key issues that need to be considered, including a discussion of various options with pros and cons, to help inform code deliberations; and (3) to help foster alignment among energy code-development organizations. The authors researched current approaches nationally and internationally, conducted a survey of key stakeholders to solicit input on various approaches, and evaluated the key issues related to integration of renewable energy requirements and various options to address those issues. The report concludes with recommendations and a plan to engage stakeholders. This report does not evaluate whether the use of renewable energy should be required on buildings; that question involves a political decision that is beyond the scope of this report.

  9. Integration of Safety in the Building Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Sander, Dag; Staghøj, Aage

    2010-01-01

    It is important to see safety and health in construction as an integrated part of the way in which designers, architects, constructors, engineers and others carry out their consulting services. The philosophy is simple – if the demands for safety and health are incorporated early in the solving of a building assignment, then it becomes much easier to organise the construction site in a safety wise responsible way. In Denmark a report has been drawn up which illustrates how this could be done....

  10. Investigation of indirect benefits of PV rooftop in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumkrong, T.; Chuangchote, S.; Chenvidhya, D.; Kirtikara, K.

    2017-05-01

    Other than electricity generation, which is the direct benefit of PV rooftop, cooling load reduction due to PV shading is a benefit impact in the uses of PV rooftop. This report is a study of those indirect benefits of PV rooftop. Relation of shading of PV modules and reduction of cooling load was studied in a real testing cite at the office building of CES Solar Cell Testing Center (CSSC). Several data, i.e. solar radiation, rooftop temperatures before/after PV-panel installation, and electricity consumed by equipment, were monitored and collected. This data could be further estimated for cooling load via transient heat conduction approach.

  11. Newcomer Integration in Online Knowledge Building Communities: Automated Dialogue Analysis in Integrative vs. Non-Integrative Blogger Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Nistor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Online knowledge building communities (OKBC reunite participants engaged in collaborative discourse. OKBCs can be made „smart“ by adding tools that predict how likely an OKBC is to integrate newcomers in existing dialogues and socio-cognitive structures. Starting from Bakhtin’s dialogical approach and polyphony theory, and building on the concept of inter- animation of voices, this study explores the relationship between newcomer integration and dialogue quality in OKBCs. The automated analysis tool “Important Moments” was employed to compare two dialogues, from an integrative and from a non-integrative blog-based OKBC. In the former, the concepts, lexical chains and inter-animation moments occurred more frequently than in the latter. Also, newcomer comments were linked to less lexical chains in the integrative community than in the non-integrative OKBC. These findings suggest close relationships between dialogue quality and newcomer integration, which can be used for designing smart OKBCs.

  12. Energy balance of photovoltaic elements integrated in buildings; Energiebilanz gebaeudeintegrierter Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    A planning tool for the thermal characteristics of integrated PV modules was to be developed and validated by measurements which provides U and g values as well as heating and cooling loads of such external wall or roof elements. In a cooperative project with medium-sized producers of PV wall systems, two different wall systems (i.e. insulating glass and ventilated warm external walls) were analyzed. [German] In dem Forschungsvorhaben sollte ein messtechnisch validiertes Planungswerkzeug fuer die thermischen Kennwerte von gebaeudeintegrierten Photovoltaikmodulen entwickelt werden, welches Bauteilkennwerte (U- und g-Werte) sowie moegliche Heiz- und Kuehllasten solcher Fassaden- oder Dachsysteme liefert. Durch die Zusammenarbeit mit mittelstaendischen PV-Fassadenherstellern sollten zwei Fassadensysteme - Isolierglasverbund und hinterlueftete Warmfassade - an konkreten Projekten messtechnisch erfasst und analysiert werden. (orig.)

  13. Building integrated business environments: analysing open-source ESB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carreras, M. A.; García Jimenez, F. J.; Gómez Skarmeta, A. F.

    2015-05-01

    Integration and interoperability are two concepts that have gained significant prominence in the business field, providing tools which enable enterprise application integration (EAI). In this sense, enterprise service bus (ESB) has played a crucial role as the underpinning technology for creating integrated environments in which companies may connect all their legacy-applications. However, the potential of these technologies remains unknown and some important features are not used to develop suitable business environments. The aim of this paper is to describe and detail the elements for building the next generation of integrated business environments (IBE) and to analyse the features of ESBs as the core of this infrastructure. For this purpose, we evaluate how well-known open-source ESB products fulfil these needs. Moreover, we introduce a scenario in which the collaborative system 'Alfresco' is integrated in the business infrastructure. Finally, we provide a comparison of the different open-source ESBs available for IBE requirements. According to this study, Fuse ESB provides the best results, considering features such as support for a wide variety of standards and specifications, documentation and implementation, security, advanced business trends, ease of integration and performance.

  14. Exploring the Client–AEC Interface in Building Lifecycle Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Kamara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The creation and management of buildings over their lifecycle involves the cooperation of many organizations, which broadly fall into a client domain and AEC (architecture, engineering, construction domain. While this mix of expertise is essential, the ineffective management of the boundaries between these organizations can undermine building lifecycle performance. This paper explores client–AEC interactions at the project development and handover stages, with a view to discovering insights into client–AEC interface management for effective building lifecycle integration (BLI. The concept of boundary objects provided the theoretical framework to discuss findings from two case studies on the project development phase of a private finance initiative project, and the asset development process in a repeat client organization. The findings suggest that there are different emphases in boundary crossing activities at different stages, with boundary roles that relate to decision-making and authority to commit resources being more relevant at the project development stage, whereas the need to explain meanings appear to be more relevant at the handover stage. AEC professionals in client organizations play a crucial role in bridging knowledge boundaries about buildings, but this professional/functional strand to BLI needs to be effectively managed alongside the organizational boundaries, since the authority to resource BLI efforts resides within organizations.

  15. A new integrated design tool for naturally ventilated buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, P.G. [Centre for Experimental and Numerical Thermoflow (CENT), Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Univ. of Pretoria (South Africa); Mathews, E.H. [Centre for Experimental and Numerical Thermoflow (CENT), Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Univ. of Pretoria (South Africa)

    1996-03-01

    In many cases natural ventilation may be sufficient to ensure acceptable comfort levels in occupied buildings. In these cases, installation of energy-intensive active environmental control systems will not be necessary. This will result in considerable energy and cost savings and also indirectly in a reduced burden on the environment, since the use of energy is always associated with the production of waste materials. This paper decribes the development of a new model to predict natural ventilation flow rates in buildings. The model is based on the concept of a flow network where openings are represented by non-linear flow resistances. It takes into account the effect of both wind-induced pressures and pressures due to thermal forces. The model draws on a healthy balance between purely theoretical equations and empirical data. The new flow model was linked to an existing thermal model to produce a new integrated design tool for naturally ventilated buildings. It takes into account the important interaction between the flow model and the thermal model and can therefore be used to predict the natural ventilation flow rates as well as the resulting indoor air temperatures. The applicability of the new tool is illustrated through a case study. From this it is clear that the tool can be used successfully to optimize passive building design. The optimized design illustrated here not only resulted in minimum initial cost, but also in improved passive thermal comfort in summertime and a reduction in winter heating energy consumption. (orig.)

  16. 基于全生命周期的太阳能光伏建筑能耗评价%Energy Consumption Evaluation of Solar PV Building based on Life Cycle Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊; 赵敬德; 刘成波

    2012-01-01

    建筑物的全生命周期评价(LifeCycleAssessment)是对建筑物从原料采集、运输,到建筑的建造、使用、维护和回收处理的整个生命周期有关的评价过程。运用全生命周期评价的思想分析了太阳能建筑在应用过程中的优势,着重从能量回收周期(EPBT)和“碳交易”额度等方面对太阳能建筑的合理性做出评价,从而更加明确了对太阳能建筑优化设计时的重点。%Life Cycle Assessment (LCC) is an evaluation process that including whole life cycle from the raw material collection, transportation, to the construction, building use, maintenance and recycling. This paper gives advantages in solar PV building application by using life cycle assessment, makes evaluation on solar PV buildings emphatically with Energy Pay-Back Time (EPBT) factor, thus we can find the pivotal design point of building energy.

  17. Supporting Building Portfolio Investment and Policy Decision Making through an Integrated Building Utility Data Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Azizan [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lasternas, Bertrand [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Alschuler, Elena [US DOE; View Inc; Loftness, Vivian [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Haopeng [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mo, Yunjeong [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Ting [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Zhang, Chenlu [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sharma, Shilpi [Carnegie Mellon; Stevens, Ivana [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-03-18

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act stimulus funding of 2009 for smart grid projects resulted in the tripling of smart meters deployment. In 2012, the Green Button initiative provided utility customers with access to their real-time1 energy usage. The availability of finely granular data provides an enormous potential for energy data analytics and energy benchmarking. The sheer volume of time-series utility data from a large number of buildings also poses challenges in data collection, quality control, and database management for rigorous and meaningful analyses. In this paper, we will describe a building portfolio-level data analytics tool for operational optimization, business investment and policy assessment using 15-minute to monthly intervals utility data. The analytics tool is developed on top of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Standard Energy Efficiency Data (SEED) platform, an open source software application that manages energy performance data of large groups of buildings. To support the significantly large volume of granular interval data, we integrated a parallel time-series database to the existing relational database. The time-series database improves on the current utility data input, focusing on real-time data collection, storage, analytics and data quality control. The fully integrated data platform supports APIs for utility apps development by third party software developers. These apps will provide actionable intelligence for building owners and facilities managers. Unlike a commercial system, this platform is an open source platform funded by the U.S. Government, accessible to the public, researchers and other developers, to support initiatives in reducing building energy consumption.

  18. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, J. [KCI Technologies, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  19. A key review of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Biyik

    2017-06-01

    The two fundamental research areas in the BIPV and BIPVT systems are observed to be i improvements on system efficiency by ventilation, hence obtaining a higher yield with lowering the panel temperature ii new thin film technologies that are well suited for building integration. Several approaches to achieve these objectives are reported in the literature as presented in this paper. It is expected that this comprehensive review will be beneficial to researchers and practitioners involved or interested in the design, analysis, simulation, and performance evaluation, financial development and incentives, new methods and trends of BIPV systems.

  20. Rooftop PV system. Final technical progress report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Under this four-year PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar are developing and demonstrating two new lightweight flexible building integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) modules specifically designed as exact replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and address the even larger roofing replacement market. The modules are designed to be installed by roofing contractors without special training which minimizes the installation and balance of system costs. The modules will be fabricated from high-efficiency, multiple-junction a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. Under the Phase I Program, which ended in March 1994, we developed two different concept designs for rooftop PV modules: (1) the United Solar overlapping (asphalt shingle replacement) shingle-type modules and (2) the ECD metal roof-type modules. We also developed a plan for fabricating, testing and demonstrating these modules. Candidate demonstration sites for our rooftop PV modules were identified and preliminary engineering designs for these demonstrations were developed; a marketing study plan was also developed. The major objectives of the Phase II Program, which started in June 1994 was (1) to develop, test, and qualify these new rooftop modules; (2) to develop mechanical and electrical engineering specifications for the demonstration projects; and (3) to develop a marketing/commercialization plan.

  1. Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations of luminescent solar concentrators for building integrated photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Shin Woei; Corrado, Carley; Osborn, Melissa; Carter, Sue A.

    2013-09-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) have the ability to receive light from a wide range of angles, concentrating the captured light onto small photo active areas. This enables greater incorporation of LSCs into building designs as windows, skylights and wall claddings in addition to rooftop installations of current solar panels. Using relatively cheap luminescent dyes and acrylic waveguides to effect light concentration onto lesser photovoltaic (PV) cells, there is potential for this technology to approach grid price parity. We employ a panel design in which the front facing PV cells collect both direct and concentrated light ensuring a gain factor greater than one. This also allows for flexibility in determining the placement and percentage coverage of PV cells during the design process to balance reabsorption losses against the power output and level of light concentration desired. To aid in design optimization, a Monte-Carlo ray tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in LSC panels. The program imports measured absorption/emission spectra and transmission coefficients as simulation parameters with interactions of photons in the panel determined by comparing calculated probabilities with random number generators. LSC panels with multiple dyes or layers can also be simulated. Analysis of the results reveals optimal panel dimensions and PV cell layouts for maximum power output for a given dye concentration, absorbtion/emission spectrum and quantum efficiency.

  2. Energy saving potential of semi-transparent photovoltaic elements for building integration

    OpenAIRE

    Olivieri, Lorenzo; Caamaño Martín, Estefanía; Moralejo Vázquez, Francisco José; Martín Chivelet, Nuria; Olivieri, Francesca; Neila Gonzalez, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Within the building energy saving strategies, BIPV (building integrated photovoltaic systems) present a promising potential based on the close relationship existing between these multifunctional systems and the overall building energy balance. Building integration of STPV (semi-transparent photovoltaic) elements affects deeply the building energy demand since it influences the heating, cooling and lighting loads as well as the local electricity generation. This work analyses over different wi...

  3. Measuring integrated pest management programs for public buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Albert; Breisch, Nancy L

    2002-02-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) tends to be perceived by different stakeholder groups either as a methodology for effective pest control or as an ideology of responsible environmental stewardship. The IPM process has never been subjected to a rigorous empirical test as a control methodology in buildings; published studies have either tested isolated program components or have presented uncontrolled, sequential descriptions of IPM replacing traditional pest control service procedures. Because ideological measurement is simpler, cheaper, and more relevant than methodological testing to evaluate structural IPM performance in the public sector, data on pesticide use/risk and customer satisfaction, rather than control efficacy, are used by the General Services Administration (GSA) IPM program to demonstrate success compatible with Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) guidelines. Implementation of IPM in 1989 resulted in significant decreases both in quantities of insecticide applied indoors and requests for pest control service by building occupants throughout the first decade of the program. Although these results do not provide an empirical test of structural IPM methodological superiority as a means of reducing pest populations, they indicate that replacing sprayed insecticide formulations with baits and using client reporting as the primary pest surveillance method can successfully achieve the policy goals of a large-scale IPM program for public buildings.

  4. Electrochemical treatment of tannery effluent using a battery integrated DC-DC converter and solar PV power supply--an approach towards environment and energy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyappan, K; Basha, C Ahmed; Saravanathamizhan, R; Vedaraman, N; Tahiyah Nou Shene, C A; Begum, S Nathira

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of tannery effluent was carried out in batch, batch recirculation and continuous reactor configurations under different conditions using a battery-integrated DC-DC converter and solar PV power supply. The effect of current density, electrolysis time and fluid flow rate on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and energy consumption has been evaluated. The results of batch reactor show that a COD reduction of 80.85% to 96.67% could be obtained. The results showed that after 7 h of operation at a current density of 2.5 A dm(-2) and flow rate of 100 L h(-1) in batch recirculation reactor, the removal of COD is 82.14% and the specific energy consumption was found to be 5.871 kWh (kg COD)(-1) for tannery effluent. In addition, the performance of single pass flow reactors (single and multiple reactors) system of various configurations are analyzed.

  5. DIVA: an iterative method for building modular integrated models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, J.

    2005-08-01

    Integrated modelling of global environmental change impacts faces the challenge that knowledge from the domains of Natural and Social Science must be integrated. This is complicated by often incompatible terminology and the fact that the interactions between subsystems are usually not fully understood at the start of the project. While a modular modelling approach is necessary to address these challenges, it is not sufficient. The remaining question is how the modelled system shall be cut down into modules. While no generic answer can be given to this question, communication tools can be provided to support the process of modularisation and integration. Along those lines of thought a method for building modular integrated models was developed within the EU project DINAS-COAST and applied to construct a first model, which assesses the vulnerability of the world's coasts to climate change and sea-level-rise. The method focuses on the development of a common language and offers domain experts an intuitive interface to code their knowledge in form of modules. However, instead of rigorously defining interfaces between the subsystems at the project's beginning, an iterative model development process is defined and tools to facilitate communication and collaboration are provided. This flexible approach has the advantage that increased understanding about subsystem interactions, gained during the project's lifetime, can immediately be reflected in the model.

  6. The sunstone – an intelligent platform for pv led lighting in the urban environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Harboe, Rene Kirstein

    . - The irradiance is unpredictable due to buildings, vegetation, smog and other shadowing factors. - Very few high quality high-end PV LED products are available for this marked - For applications far from the Equator the amount of dark hours to daylight hours is in a large mismatch especially in the winter....... The poster describes a project aimed at developing an intelligent solar powered LED light platform for exploiting the energy from the sun in an urban environmental PV integrated lamp installation in an intelligent, efficient and esthetical way....

  7. Smart multifunction diffractive lens experimental validation for future PV cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarazanchi, Abbas; Gérard, Philippe; Ambs, Pierre; Meyrueis, Patrick; Nguyen, Giang-Nam; Heggarty, Kevin

    2016-01-25

    Recently, diffractive optical elements (DOE's) have attracted more attention for applications to third generation PV cells. Some DOE types can provide multiple functions such as spectrum splitting and beam concentration (SSBC) simultaneously. An off-axis diffractive lens has been designed and its ability to achieve the SSBC proved experimentally. This lens can be used to separate the solar spectrum in the Vis-NIR range into two bands with a low concentration factor, and about 70% optical efficiency. It is expected that this kind of lens can be integrated with the lateral multijunction PV cells to build an effective compact solar system.

  8. Assessing the need for better forecasting and observability of pv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Efthymiou, Venizelos; Graditi, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    In its review of the challenges and opportunities associated with massive deployment of solar PV generation, the Grid integration working group of the ETIP PV identified forecasting and observability as critical technologies for the planning and operation of the power system with large PV penetra...

  9. Intelligence, integration & industrialisation for the building services technologies of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that the construction sector's industrial transformation needs to focus on integrating building services technologies in the buildings of the future. This can be achieved by analysing developments in intelligent building services, exploring design strategies...... for effectively integrating building services, and by developing new industrialised solutions for building services technologies. This paper is based on current Danish research and practice, and it is based on linking research knowledge on building services to knowledge on user needs, building design and new...

  10. State-of-the-art Review : Vol. 2B. Integrated Building Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aa, Ad; Andresen, Inger; Asada, Hideo;

    The purpose of this report is to give examples of integrated building concepts and related available performance data and information. The report does not aspire to give a complete overview of all possible integrated building concepts and processes. The buildings included in the report have been ...

  11. Tropical Zero Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter; Kristensen, Poul Erik

    2006-01-01

    The new headquarter for Pusat Tenaga Malaysia is designed to be a Zero Emission Office Building (ZEO). A full range of passive and active energy efficiency measures are implemented such that the building will need no more electricity than what can be produced via its own Building Integrated PV...... by daylight, supplemented by electric lighting during very dark and overcast periods. Extensive active energy efficiency measures are implemented in the building in order to reduce the need for electricity to an absolute minimum, without compromising the request for comfortable temperatures and adequate...... lighting. These measures include the use of high efficient lighting controlled according to demand, high efficiency pumps and fans, a high efficiency chiller, and use of energy efficient office equipment. The buildings PV system is connected to the grid. Solar electricity is exported to the grid during...

  12. Tropical Zero Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter; Kristensen, Poul Erik

    2006-01-01

    The new headquarter for Pusat Tenaga Malaysia is designed to be a Zero Emission Office Building (ZEO). A full range of passive and active energy efficiency measures are implemented such that the building will need no more electricity than what can be produced via its own Building Integrated PV...... by daylight, supplemented by electric lighting during very dark and overcast periods. Extensive active energy efficiency measures are implemented in the building in order to reduce the need for electricity to an absolute minimum, without compromising the request for comfortable temperatures and adequate...... lighting. These measures include the use of high efficient lighting controlled according to demand, high efficiency pumps and fans, a high efficiency chiller, and use of energy efficient office equipment. The buildings PV system is connected to the grid. Solar electricity is exported to the grid during...

  13. Integration of Safety in the Building Delivery System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Sander, Dag; Staghøj, Aage

    2010-01-01

    of a building assignment, then it becomes much easier to organise the construction site in a safety wise responsible way. In Denmark a report has been drawn up which illustrates how this could be done. The method for implementing this illustration is based on the lean construction model, which is the method......It is important to see safety and health in construction as an integrated part of the way in which designers, architects, constructors, engineers and others carry out their consulting services. The philosophy is simple – if the demands for safety and health are incorporated early in the solving...... recommended as the most suitable for a construction process, since it ensures that considerations for health and safety at work do not conflict with considerations for economical, efficiency wise, quality wise and architectural objectives. The goal is to have the considerations for health and safety at work...

  14. Time series Analysis of Integrateds Building System Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Tz.; Jonkov, T.; Yonchev, E.

    2010-10-01

    This article deals with time series analysis of indoor and outdoor variables of the integrated building system. The kernel of these systems is heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) problems. Important outdoor and indoor variables are: air temperature, global and diffuse radiations, wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature, and so on. The aim of this article is TO select the structure and investigation of a linear auto—regressive (AR) and auto—regressive with external inputs (ARX) models. The investigation of obtained models is based on real—live data. All researches are derived in MATLAB environment. The further research will focus on synthesis of robust energy saving control algorithms.

  15. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  16. Technologies for building integrated energy supply; Teknologier for bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katic, I.

    2011-07-15

    The current report is part of the deliverables from the project ''Building Integrated Energy Supply'' supported by the Danish Energy Authority R and D program. It describes a range of technologies for individual supply of heat and/or electricity to dwellings with respect to their stage of development and possible application in the near future. Energy supply of buildings is becoming more and more complex, partly as a result of increasing demands for comfort, efficiency and reduced emissions, partly as a result of rising oil prices and improved competitiveness of alternative energy sources. The days where ordinary boilers were the dominant source of individual supply of dwellings are becoming past these years. The challenge of the new range of technologies lies to a high extent in the fluctuating nature of their energy conversion and their interaction with the supply grids for heat and electricity. There is thus an increasing demand to understand the nature of the different supply technologies, besides a regular update of their economical key figures. The technologies briefly described in this study are: Solar heating, passive solar energy, biofuel boilers, heat pumps, micro CHP, solar photovoltaic and energy storage systems. The selected technologies are all assessed to play an important role in future's mix of supply technologies in Denmark, especially heat pumps and solar. (Author)

  17. Autonomous cascaded PV system

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes multi-level PV system; three PV generators each coupled to a buck cell. Each PV-generator-buckconverter channel is controlled such that maximum power is captured independently under different irradiation and temperature levels. The system operation under normal/abnormal conditions is investigated by thoroughly mathematical and simulation work. Peer Reviewed

  18. Building knowledge integration systems for evidence-informed decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Allan; Terpstra, Jennifer L; Moor, Gregg; Riley, Barbara; Norman, Cameron D; Glasgow, Russell E

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to describe methods and models designed to build a comprehensive, integrative framework to guide the research to policy and practice cycle in health care. Current models of science are summarised, identifying specific challenges they create for knowledge to action (KTA). Alternative models for KTA are outlined to illustrate how researchers and decision makers can work together to fit the KTA model to specific problems and contexts. The Canadian experience with the evolving paradigm shift is described, along with recent initiatives to develop platforms and tools that support the new thinking. Recent projects to develop and refine methods for embedded research are described. The paper concludes with a summary of lessons learned and recommendations that will move the KTA field towards an integrated science. Conceptual models for KTA are advancing, benefiting from advances in team science, development of logic models that address the realities of complex adaptive systems, and new methods to more rapidly deliver knowledge syntheses more useful to decision and policy makers. KTA is more likely when co-produced by researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. Closer collaboration requires shifts in thinking about the ways we work, capacity development, and greater learning from practice. More powerful ways of thinking about the complexities of knowledge to action are provided, along with examples of tools and priorities drawn from systems thinking.

  19. Integrated management of information inside maintenance processes. From the building registry to BIM systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Talamo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents objec- tives, methods and results of two researches dealing with the improvement of integrated information management within maintenance processes. Focusing on information needs regarding the last phases of the building process, the two researches draft approaches characterizing a path of progressive improve- ment of strategies for integration: from a building registry, unique for the whole construction process, to an integrated management of the building process with the support of BIM systems.

  20. A New Building-Integrated Wind Turbine System Utilizing the Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongsu Park

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an innovative building-integrated wind turbine (BIWT system by directly utilizing the building skin, which is an unused and unavailable area in all conventional BIWT systems. The proposed system has been developed by combining a guide vane that is able to effectively collect the incoming wind and increase its speed and a rotor with an appropriate shape for specific conditions. To this end, several important design issues for the guide vane as well as the rotor were thoroughly investigated and accordingly addressed in this paper. A series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD analyses was performed to determine the optimal configuration of the proposed system. Finally, it is demonstrated from performance evaluation tests that the prototype with the specially designed guide vane and rotor for the proposed BIWT system accelerates the wind speed to a sufficient level and consequently increases the power coefficient significantly. Thus, it was confirmed that the proposed system is a promising environment-friendly energy production system for urban areas.

  1. Building a federated data infrastructure for integrating the European Supersites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freda, Carmela; Cocco, Massimo; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Borgstrom, Sven; Vogfjord, Kristin; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Ergintav, Semih; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Consortium, Epos

    2017-04-01

    The integration of satellite and in-situ Earth observations fostered by the GEO Geohazards Supersites and National Laboratories (GSNL) initiative is aimed at providing access to spaceborne and in-situ geoscience data for selected sites prone to earthquake, volcanic eruptions and/or other environmental hazards. The initiative was launched with the "Frascati declaration" at the conclusion of the 3rd International Geohazards workshop of the Group of Earth Observation (GEO) held in November 2007 in Frascati, Italy. The development of the GSNL and the integration of in-situ and space Earth observations require the implementation of in-situ e-infrastructures and services for scientific users and other stakeholders. The European Commission has funded three projects to support the development of the European supersites: FUTUREVOLC for the Icelandic volcanoes, MED-SUV for Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius (Italy), and MARSITE for the Marmara Sea near fault observatory (Turkey). Because the establishment of a network of supersites in Europe will, among other advantages, facilitate the link with the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), EPOS (the European Plate Observing System) has supported these initiatives by integrating the observing systems and infrastructures developed in these three projects in its implementation plan aimed at integrating existing and new research infrastructures for solid Earth sciences. In this contribution we will present the EPOS federated approach and the key actions needed to: i) develop sustainable long-term Earth observation strategies preceding and following earthquakes and volcanic eruptions; ii) develop an innovative integrated e-infrastructure component necessary to create an effective service for users; iii) promote the strategic and outreach actions to meet the specific user needs; iv) develop expertise in the use and interpretation of Supersites data in order to promote capacity building and timely transfer of scientific

  2. A Study of Incentive Policies for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Technology in Hong Kong

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, Aotian; Lu, Lin; Liu, Zhizhao; Wong, Man

    2016-01-01

    .... Through a review of the PV development history of five leading PV countries, Germany, Japan, Italy, Mainland China, and the USA, this paper serves as a useful policy toolbox to aid PV development...

  3. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  4. USING OF NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) TO TEST THE INTEGRATED MODEL IN BUILDING MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Mohammad; Abdullah, Khairul

    2017-01-01

    The integrated model is a new model that is recently developed in order to build the management information systems (MIS's) by using the classical approach system development methodology. The integrated model aims to address the drawbacks of the classical approach in consumption additional time and cost while building the MIS's. The integrated model was subjected to two tests by using the mathematical probability theories in order to ensure the validity of the integrated model in it...

  5. Integration of solar modules in buildings. Die Integration von Solarmodulen in Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laukamp, H.; Bopp, G.; Schmid, J.; Sick, F. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Leithold, W.; Schneider, G.P. (Solare Systemtechnik GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Buildings have a big potential of surfaces which can be used for the installation of solar heating systems. If this potential would be fully used 30% of the electric power demand could be covered. From the aesthetic point of view one should prefer plant concepts where the solar generator is integrated in the building's cover. Non-optimal orientation and high temperature of the solar generator lead to losses of the energy gain which are in the range of less than 10%. For framed and unframed solar modules exist a lot of installation systems. Two of them are presented in the paper. Constructive measures for the sealing of the solar generator are explained ensuring the tightness of the roof by the principle of controlled drainage. (orig.).

  6. Integration between electric heat pump and PV system to increase self-consumption of an office application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselli Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a solar electric driven heat pump serving an office building located in southern Italy. To satisfy space heating and cooling demand a heat pump activated by electric energy available from solar photovoltaic plant is here considered. In order to improve the self-consumption of electricity available from photovoltaic system different configurations were considered introducing an electric storage and an electric vehicle. Dynamic simulations to evaluate energy performance of the system varying photovoltaic peak power (4.5–7.5 kW have been carried out. The proposed system achieves a fossil fuel primary energy saving up to about 96% in comparison to the reference conventional system based on a natural gas fired boiler, an electric chiller and the national electric grid. The results show that fossil fuel primary energy saving is higher when there are no storage battery and electric vehicle.

  7. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report: FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, M.

    2013-05-01

    This document is the Building America FY2012 Annual Report, which includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  8. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report. FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This Building America FY2012 Annual Report includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  9. Recombineering and stable integration of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61 hrp/hrc cluster into the genome of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, William J; Thireault, Caitlin A; Kimbrel, Jeffrey A; Chang, Jeff H

    2009-12-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to establish associations with their hosts. The T3SS is a conduit for direct injection of type-III effector proteins into host cells, where they manipulate the host for the benefit of the infecting bacterium. For plant-associated pathogens, the variations in number and amino acid sequences of type-III effectors, as well as their functional redundancy, make studying type-III effectors challenging. To mitigate this challenge, we developed a stable delivery system for individual or defined sets of type-III effectors into plant cells. We used recombineering and Tn5-mediated transposition to clone and stably integrate, respectively, the complete hrp/hrc region from Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61 into the genome of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1. We describe our development of Effector-to-Host Analyzer (EtHAn), and demonstrate its utility for studying effectors for their in planta functions.

  10. Method for integrated design of low energy buildings with high quality indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Energy performance and indoor environment have due to new increased regulatory demands become decisive design parameters in the building design process. In order to comply with the increased regulatory demands, we present an integrated design method which argues that the design of buildings must ...... to become the preferred method for integrated design of low energy buildings with high quality indoor environment.......Energy performance and indoor environment have due to new increased regulatory demands become decisive design parameters in the building design process. In order to comply with the increased regulatory demands, we present an integrated design method which argues that the design of buildings must...... start on room level rather than total building level. The proposed method starts with the establishment of design goals, including goals regarding energy performance and indoor environment, followed by a building physical analysis of performance-decisive parameters. This analysis is used to establish...

  11. Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Joao [Centre of Mechatronics Engineering - CEM/Institut of Mechanical Engineering - IDMEC, University of Evora, R. Romao Ramalho, 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal); Martins, Joao [Centre of Technology and Systems/Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-06-15

    Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the ''heart and soul'' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems. (author)

  12. Feasibility Study of a Building-Integrated PV Manager to Power a Last-Mile Electric Vehicle Sharing System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manuel Fuentes; Jesús Fraile-Ardanuy; Jose L. Risco-Martín; Jose M. Moya

    2017-01-01

    .... As a case study, an electric bicycle sharing system between a public transportation hub and a work center is modeled mathematically and optimized in order to minimize the number of pickup trips...

  13. The possibility of developing hybrid PV/T solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Zivkovic, P.; Babic, V.

    2017-05-01

    An alternative and cost-effective solution to developing integrated PV system is to use hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system. The temperature of PV modules increases due to the absorbed solar radiation that is not converted into electricity, causing a decrease in their efficiency. In hybrid PV/T solar systems the reduction of PV module temperature can be combined with a useful fluid heating. In this paper we present the possibility of developing a new hybrid PV/T solar system. Hybrid PV/T system can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We developed PV/T prototype consisted of commercial PV module and thermal panel with our original solution of aluminium absorber with special geometric shapes. The main advantages of our combined PV/T system are: removing of heat from the PV panel; extending the lifetime of photovoltaic cells; excess of the removing heat from PV part is used to heat the fluid in the thermal part of the panel; the possibility of using on the roof and facade constructions because less weight.

  14. Treatment Conditions of Building Wastes in China and Its Integrated Management Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dan; Zha Kun; Li Qibin

    2006-01-01

    The status of utilization and disposal of the building wastes are introduced on the basis of analysis of its compositions, generation and effects on urban environment. The basic framework of the integrated building waste management, including control of the sources, reduction of the integrated process and final disposal, are proposed in view of the problems existing in recovery of the building wastes and the experiences from the developed countries.

  15. A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-04-01

    China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13% - 22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement.

  16. Integration and evaluation of a power system for remote application based on PV panels and PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isorna Llerena, F.; Anchuelo Hebrero, C.; Argumosa, P.; Gonzalez, A.; Gonzalez, C. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Departamento de Aerodinamica y Propulsion Carretera de Ajalvir, Madrid (Spain)

    2003-09-01

    The 'Fuel Cell Innovative Remote Systems for Telecom' is a Research, Development and Demonstration project co-funded by the European Commission. Seven institutions from four different European countries are partners of the project and carry out the technical work of the project, there are four research centres and three private companies. In addition a 'Board of Interest', integrated by companies dealing with remote telecom systems and uninterrupted power systems, has been established and takes the responsibilities for the exploitation plan of the whole developed system. INTA is the coordinator of the project and this paper will be focused in the showcase 1, installed at INTA facilities. The total budget of the project is 3.400.000 Euro. The project will finish on March 2004. (authors)

  17. Integration and evaluation of a power system for remote application based on PV panels and PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llerena, F.I.; Hebrero, C.A.; Argumosa, P.; Gonzalez, A.; Gonzalez, C. [Departamento de Aerodinamica y Propulsion. Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Madrid (Spain)

    2003-09-01

    The 'Fuel Cell Innovative Remote Systems for Telecom' is a Research, Development and Demonstration project co-funded by the European Commission. Seven institutions from four different European countries are partners of the project and carry out the technical work of the project, there are four research centres and three private companies. In addition a 'Board of Interest', integrated by companies dealing with remote telecom systems and uninterrupted power systems, has been established and takes the responsibilities for the exploitation plan of the whole developed system. INTA is the coordinator of the project and this paper will be focused in the showcase 1, installed at INTA facilities. The total budget of the project is 3.400.000 Euro. The project will finish on March 2004. (authors)

  18. Development of a dispatchable PV peak shaving system. Final report on PV:BONUS Phase 2 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, W.D. [Conectiv, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States); Nigro, R.M. [Applied Energy Group, Inc., Hauppauge, NY (United States)

    1999-01-20

    In July 1993, the Delmarva Power and Light Company (now Conectiv, Inc.) was awarded a contract for the development of a Dispatchable Photovoltaic Peak Shaving System under the US Department of Energy PV:BONUS Program. The rationale for the dispatchable PV peak shaving system is based on the coincidence between the solar resource and the electrical load in question. Where poor coincidence exists, a PV array by itself does little to offset peak demands. However, with the addition of a relatively small amount of energy storage, the energy from the PV array can be managed and the value of the PV system increases substantially. In Phase 2, Delmarva Power continued the refinement of the system deployed in Phase 1. Four additional dispatchable PV peak shaving systems were installed for extended testing and evaluation at sites in Delaware, Maryland, Wisconsin and North Carolina. A second type of system that can be used to provide back-up power as well as peak shaving was also developed in Phase 2. This PV-UPS system used a packaging approach nearly identical to the PV peak shaving system, although there were significant differences in the design of the power electronics and control systems. Conceptually, the PV-UPS system builds upon the idea of adding value to PV systems by increasing functionality. A prototype of the PV-UPS system was installed in Delaware for evaluation near the end of the contract period.

  19. Solar PV Energy Conversion System and its Configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Ahteshamul Haque

    2016-01-01

    Solar PV based energy conversion system is now used in commercial and residential buildings. Advancements in Power electronics leads the researchers to enhance the use of solar application in various configurations. These configurations may be used to utilize the energy optimally. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the various configurations of solar PV energy conversion system

  20. Photovoltaic Design Integration at Battery Park City, New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Medio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of the photovoltaic (PV systems in the buildings’ design of the Battery Park City (BPC residential development, in New York. The BPC development is the first in the US to mandate, through the 2000 Battery Park City Authority (BPCA guidelines, the use of PV as a renewable energy generation system in its individual buildings. The scope of this study is to show how PV is integrated in the BPC buildings’ design process, and what can be learned for future PV applications. The study draws directly from the design decision making sources, investigating on the concerns and suggestions of the BPCA director of sustainability and the BPC architects and PV installers. It attempts to contrast a theoretical approach that sees PV as a technology to domesticate in architecture and bring, through grounded research, PV industry closer to the architectural design process. The findings of the study suggest that while stringent environmental mandates help, in the short term, to kick-start the use of PV systems in buildings, it is the recognition of the PV’s primary role as energy provider, its assimilation in the building industry, and its use in a less confining building program that allows for its evolution in architecture.

  1. Building system integration research: recommendations for a US Department of Energy multiyear program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This plan describes the scope, technical content, and resources required to conduct the Building System Integration (BSI) research program during FY 1987 through 1991. System integration research is defined, the need for the research is discussed, its benefits are outlined, and the history of building system integration research is summarized. The program scope, the general approach taken in developing this program plan, and the plan's contents are also described.

  2. Building system integration research: recommendations for a US Department of Energy multiyear program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This plan describes the scope, technical content, and resources required to conduct the Building System Integration (BSI) research program during FY 1987 through 1991. System integration research is defined, the need for the research is discussed, its benefits are outlined, and the history of building system integration research is summarized. The program scope, the general approach taken in developing this program plan, and the plan's contents are also described.

  3. Discrete-Time Integral Sliding Mode Control with Disturbances Compensation and Reduced Chattering for Pv Grid-Connected Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Santolo; Sorrentino, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    In the paper a new discrete-time integral sliding mode control (DISMC) with disturbances compensation and reduced chattering for grid-connected inverter is proposed for active and reactive power regulation. Differently by many SMC proposed in literature that have a time-continuous formulation in spite have been implemented with digital processor, the proposed DISMC is fully formulated in discrete-time, taking into account the effects introduced by a microprocessor-based implementation. As will be demonstrated such approach consents to reduce the chattering about the sliding manifold within a boundary layer of O(T2) thickness instead of O(T) (being T the sampling period of the control algorithm). Moreover it introduces a correction of the control vector which eliminates the influence of modeling error and external disturbances improving stability and robustness of the controlled system. Constant converter switching frequency is achieved by using space vector modulation, which eases the design of the ac harmonic filter. In the paper, after a detailed formalization of the proposed control algorithm, several numerical and experimental results on a three-phase grid-connected inverter prototype are shown, proving the effectiveness of the control strategy.

  4. Simulation-based support for integrated design of new low-energy office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen

    design disciplines (structural, fire, architecture etc.) to the integrated building design process. The research therefore revolves around the hypothesis that parametric analyses on the energy performance, indoor environment and total economy of rooms with respect to geometry and characteristics...... of building elements and services can be used to generate a useful input to the early stage of an integrated building design process. To pursue a corroboration of this hypothesis, a method for making informed decisions when establishing the input to the overall building design process is proposed. The method...... relies on the use of building simulation to illustrate how design parameters will affect the energy performance and the quality of the indoor environment prior to any actual design decision. The method is made operational in a simple building simulation tool capable of performing integrated performance...

  5. Large-scale building integrated photovoltaics field trial. First technical report - installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of the first eighteen months of the Large-Scale Building Integrated Photovoltaic Field Trial focussing on technical aspects. The project aims included increasing awareness and application of the technology, raising the UK capabilities in application of the technology, and assessing the potential for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). Details are given of technology choices; project organisation, cost, and status; and the evaluation criteria. Installations of BIPV described include University buildings, commercial centres, and a sports stadium, wildlife park, church hall, and district council building. Lessons learnt are discussed, and a further report covering monitoring aspects is planned.

  6. An integrated approach to structural design of buildings using genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, M.Y.; Mathews, J.D. [Univ. of Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents an evolutionary approach to the integration of design activities, in the area of structural design of buildings, using Genetic Algorithms (GA). Integration process is viewed in two contexts: (i) Integration across the design activities within a particular discipline, and (ii) Integration across of the disciplines involved in the design. Particular advantages of the integration of design activities during the conceptual stage of the design process are highlighted.

  7. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  8. Results. Building integrated energy supply; Resultater. Bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Rasmus L.; Noergaard, J.; Daniels, O.; Justesen, R.O.

    2011-08-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The analysis was conducted by making a large number of simulations of which the best combinations were selected. The final result takes form of a single top-50 list with the best combinations of energy systems according to CO{sub 2} emission, energy consumption and economics. The present report contains the conclusions of and comments on the project's results. (ln)

  9. Energy and exergy analysis of PV/T air collectors connected in series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Swapnil; Solanki, S.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Tiwari, Arvind [Department of Design, Production and Management, University of Twente (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    In this paper an attempt has been made to derive the analytical expressions for N hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) air collectors connected in series. The performance of collectors is evaluated by considering the two different cases, namely, Case I (air collector is fully covered by PV module (glass to glass) and air flows above the absorber plate) and Case II (air collector is fully covered by PV module (glass to glass) and air flows below the absorber plate). This paper shows the detailed analysis of energy, exergy and electrical energy by varying the number of collectors and air velocity considering four weather conditions (a, b, c and d type) and five different cities (New Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai, Srinagar, and Jodhpur) of India. It is found that the collectors fully covered by PV module and air flows below the absorber plate gives better results in terms of thermal energy, electrical energy and exergy gain. Physical implementation of BIPV system has also been evaluated. If this type of system is installed on roof of building or integrated with building envelope will simultaneously fulfill the electricity generation for lighting purpose and hot air can be used for space heating or drying. (author)

  10. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building

  11. Interconnection Assessment Methodology and Cost Benefit Analysis for High-Penetration PV Deployment in the Arizona Public Service System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggu, Murali; Giraldez, Julieta; Harris, Tom; Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Lisell, Lars; Narang, David

    2015-06-14

    In an effort to better understand the impacts of high penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) generators on distribution systems, Arizona Public Service and its partners completed a multi-year project to develop the tools and knowledge base needed to safely and reliably integrate high penetrations of utility- and residential-scale PV. Building upon the APS Community Power Project-Flagstaff Pilot, this project investigates the impact of PV on a representative feeder in northeast Flagstaff. To quantify and catalog the effects of the estimated 1.3 MW of PV that will be installed on the feeder (both smaller units at homes and large, centrally located systems), high-speed weather and electrical data acquisition systems and digital 'smart' meters were designed and installed to facilitate monitoring and to build and validate comprehensive, high-resolution models of the distribution system. These models are being developed to analyze the impacts of PV on distribution circuit protection systems (including coordination and anti-islanding), predict voltage regulation and phase balance issues, and develop volt/VAr control schemes. This paper continues from a paper presented at the 2014 IEEE PVSC conference that described feeder model evaluation and high penetration advanced scenario analysis, specifically feeder reconfiguration. This paper presents results from Phase 5 of the project. Specifically, the paper discusses tool automation; interconnection assessment methodology and cost benefit analysis.

  12. Building a cognitive map by assembling multiple path integration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranxiao Frances

    2016-06-01

    Path integration and cognitive mapping are two of the most important mechanisms for navigation. Path integration is a primitive navigation system which computes a homing vector based on an animal's self-motion estimation, while cognitive map is an advanced spatial representation containing richer spatial information about the environment that is persistent and can be used to guide flexible navigation to multiple locations. Most theories of navigation conceptualize them as two distinctive, independent mechanisms, although the path integration system may provide useful information for the integration of cognitive maps. This paper demonstrates a fundamentally different scenario, where a cognitive map is constructed in three simple steps by assembling multiple path integrators and extending their basic features. The fact that a collection of path integration systems can be turned into a cognitive map suggests the possibility that cognitive maps may have evolved directly from the path integration system.

  13. Application of Sensitivity Analysis in Design of Integrated Building Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Hesselholt, Allan Tind

    2007-01-01

    Building performance can be expressed by different indicators as primary energy use, environmental load and/or the indoor environmental quality and a building performance simulation can provide the decision maker with a quantitative measure of the extent to which a design solution satisfies...... the design requirements and objectives. In the design of integrated building concepts it is beneficial to identify the most important design parameters in order to more efficiently develop alternative design solutions or more efficiently perform an optimization of the building performance. The sensitivity...... analysis makes it possible to identify the most important parameters in relation to building performance and to focus design and optimization of integrated building concepts on these fewer, but most important parameters. The sensitivity analyses will typically be performed at a reasonably early stage...

  14. Integrated Urban System and Energy Consumption Model: Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a segment of research conducted within the project PON 04a2_E Smart Energy Master for the energetic government of the territory conducted by the Department of Civil, Architectural and Environment Engineering, University of Naples "Federico II".  In particular, this article is part of the study carried out for the definition of the comprehension/interpretation model that correlates buildings, city’s activities and users’ behaviour in order to promote energy savings. In detail, this segment of the research wants to define the residential variables to be used in the model. For this purpose a knowledge framework at international level has been defined, to estimate the energy requirements of residential buildings and the identification of a set of parameters, whose variation has a significant influence on the energy consumption of residential buildings.

  15. Maximized integration of photovoltaics into distribution grids using smart charging strategies for electric vehicles; Maximierte PV-Integration in Niederspannungsnetzen durch intelligente Nutzung von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troeschel, Martin; Scherfke, Stefan; Schuette, Steffen; Appelrath, H. Juergen; Sonnenschein, Michael [OFFIS - Institut fuer Informatik, Oldenburg (Germany). Bereich Energie

    2011-07-01

    An ICT-based integration of electric vehicles (EV) offers a promising potential on the distribution grid level, especially regarding synergies with renewable and distributed energy systems. Of special interest are (a) the charging of EV with electric power from renewable energy sources and (b) a preferentially local usage of feed-in from distributed energy systems. Regarding a systemic analysis of electromobility, a stable and reliable operation of the electric power grid is a major constraint for the integration of EV and maximized usage of renewable energy. In the model project GridSurfer, we conducted simulation-based analyses on the integration of EV. In this contribution, we present results from an analysis of future Smart-Grid-scenarios with special regard to rural areas and distribution grids in north-western Germany. (orig.)

  16. Cooley building opens in Houston. Demonstrates value of fully integrated marketing communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke's Episcopal HospiTal in Houston dedicated its new 10-story Denton A. Cooley Building in January. The structure opened with a fanfare, thanks to a well-integrated marketing communications program.

  17. Andean Mountain Building: An Integrated Topographic, GPS, Seismological and Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mian; Stein, Seth

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this project was to better understand the geodynamics controlling the mountain building and topographic evolution in the central Andes using an integrated approach that combines GPS, seismological, and numerical studies.

  18. Features of Functioning the Integrated Building Thermal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Maxim N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of the building heating system, consisting of energy source, a distributed automatic control system, elements of individual heating unit and heating system is designed. Application Simulink of mathematical package Matlab is selected as a platform for the model. There are the specialized application Simscape libraries in aggregate with a wide range of Matlab mathematical tools allow to apply the “acausal” modeling concept. Implementation the “physical” representation of the object model gave improving the accuracy of the models. Principle of operation and features of the functioning of the thermal model is described. The investigations of building cooling dynamics were carried out.

  19. Integrated smart control of heating, cooling, ventilation, daylighting and electrical lighting in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.G.; Brouwer, A.H.M.; Babuska, R.

    1998-01-01

    The present energy consumption of European Buildings is higher than necessary, given the developments in control engineering. Optimization and integration of smart control into building systems can save substantial quantities of energy on a European scale while improving the standards for indoor

  20. Advanced low-energy building at Innsbruck. Integral concept; Niedrigenergie-Neubau in Innsbruck. Integrales Konzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldhoff, C.; Lenzen, B.; Schrag, T.; Raedler, J. [Dezentral - Energiekonzepte und Gebaeudesimulationen Waldhoff Raedler Lenzen Schrag GbR, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    The new administrative building of the Tyrol state government integrates architecture, utilisation and technical facilities into an optimized overall system. Thermal simulations were used in the project in order to achieve optimum energy efficiency and thermal comfort. The building has a surface of about 11,000 m{sup 2}; the total cost was about 21 million Euros. (orig.)

  1. Thermal Energy Optimization of Building Integrated Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Thermal Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ekoe A Akata Aloys Martial; Donatien Njomo; Basant Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) : The concept where the photovoltaic element assumes the function of power generation and the role of the covering component element has the potential to become one of the principal sources of renewable energy for domestic purpose. In this paper, a Building integrated semitransparent photovoltaic thermal system (BISPVT) system having fins at the back sheet of the photovoltaic module has been simulated. It has been observed that this system produces high...

  2. INTEGRATION OF SERVICE LIFE IN THE PROCESS OF MANAGEMENT AND DESIGN OF BUILDINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Silverio HERNÁNDEZ-MORENO

    2010-01-01

    This article approaches the regulatory framework on the service life of constructed assets and its integration into the management and design process of sustainable buildings. The importance of this study is to be found on the fact that currently, most of the building designers do not apply the integration and planning of service life into the process of management and design of constructions. Because of this, ISO (International Standard Organization) regulations are approached; said regulati...

  3. 50 kWp并网光伏实验电站的综合设计、搭建与运行%Integrated design and construction and operation of 50 kW p grid-connected PV station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永庆; 陈来军; 司杨; 黄少伟; 陈晓弢; 梅生伟

    2016-01-01

    To confirm actual performance of new photovoltaic devices and key factors affecting the ef-ficiency of PV system, 50 kWp grid-connected PV power station that integrated a variety of photo-voltaic devices and installation methods was designed and built. Based on actual operating data, the power generation of PV arrays that installed different PV modules, inverters and smart optimizer un-der different meteorological conditions was compared. Furthermore, the influence of radiation on the power generation was analyzed. The results show that the bifacial PV module has the best output performance and its power generation is higher than other PV modules. Smart optimizer has less effect on PV system with no shadows, while small capacity inverter can reduce the influence of dif-ferent PV modules and increase the total power generation. Moreover the actual output of polycrystal-line silicon solar cell is most stable in various types of photovoltaic module under the influence of so-lar irradiance variations. Comprehensive research results show that polycrystalline silicon solar cell and bifacial PV module have a great advantage in the application of grid connected photovoltaic pow-er generation system.%为深入研究新型光伏器件的实际性能及影响光伏电站发电效率的关键性因素,设计并建成一座多种光伏设备组合交叉安装的50 kWp并网光伏实验电站。根据电站实际运行数据,对比了不同气象条件下光伏阵列选用不同类型组件、智能优化器以及不同容量逆变器的发电状况,分析了辐射量变化对光伏电站发电量的影响。结果表明:各类型光伏组件中双面电池输出特性表现最佳,其发电量高于其他类型组件;对于无阴影遮挡的光伏发电系统,智能优化器的作用得不到有效发挥;采用较小容量逆变器可减少太阳能电池组串模块间的差异性带来的影响,增大光伏阵列总发电量;受太阳辐照度变化影响

  4. Building thematic and integrated services for solid Earth sciences: the EPOS integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Massimo; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    EPOS has been designed with the vision of creating a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. In accordance with this scientific vision, the EPOS mission is to integrate the diverse and advanced European Research Infrastructures for solid Earth science relying on new e-science opportunities to monitor and unravel the dynamic and complex Earth System. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. To accomplish its mission, EPOS is engaging different stakeholders, not limited to scientists, to allow the Earth sciences to open new horizons in our understanding of the planet. EPOS also aims at contributing to prepare society for geo-hazards and to responsibly manage the exploitation of geo-resources. Through integration of data, models and facilities, EPOS will allow the Earth science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and human welfare. A long-term integration plan is necessary to accomplish the EPOS mission. EPOS is presently in its implementation phase further extending its pan-European dimension. The EPOS Implementation Phase builds on the achievements of the successful EPOS Preparatory Phase project and consists of two key activities: the legal establishment of the EPOS-ERIC and the EPOS IP project. The EPOS implementation phase will last from 2015 to 2019. Key objectives of the project are: implementing Thematic Core Services (TCS), the domain-specific service hubs for coordinating and harmonizing national resources/plans with the European dimension of EPOS; building the Integrated Core

  5. Integrated Strip Foundation Systems for Small Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2010-01-01

    A prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was used on site as the bases of two small residential buildings, in this case single-family houses; one was built with a double-brick exterior wall separated by mineral fiber insulation and the other was built with a wood...

  6. MEMS CHIP CO2 SENSOR FOR BUILDING SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton Carl Greenwald

    2005-09-14

    The objective of this research was to develop an affordable, reliable sensor to enable demand controlled ventilation (DCV). A significant portion of total energy consumption in the United States is used for heating or air conditioning (HVAC) buildings. To assure occupant safety and fresh air levels in large buildings, and especially those with sealed windows, HVAC systems are frequently run in excess of true requirements as automated systems cannot now tell the occupancy level of interior spaces. If such a sensor (e.g. thermostat sized device) were available, it would reduce energy use between 10 and 20% in such buildings. A quantitative measure of ''fresh air'' is the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) present. An inert gas, CO{sub 2} is not easily detected by chemical sensors and is usually measured by infrared spectroscopy. Ion Optics research developed a complete infrared sensor package on a single MEMS chip. It contains the infrared (IR) source, IR detector and IR filter. The device resulting from this DOE sponsored research has sufficient sensitivity, lifetime, and drift rate to meet the specifications of commercial instrument manufacturers who are now testing the device for use in their building systems.

  7. Integrating Branding Strategy Across Markets, Building International Brand Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, S.P.; Craig, S.; Nijssen, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    Brands play a critical role in establishing a firm’s visibility and position in international markets. Building a coherent international brand architecture is a key component of the firm’s overall international marketing strategy, because it provides a structure to leverage strong brands into other

  8. Calculation steps. Building integrated energy supply; Beregningsgang. Bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Rasmus L.; Noergaard, J.; Daniels, O.; Justesen, R.O.

    2011-08-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The analysis was conducted by making a large number of simulations. The present report describes the applied simulation models, and explains the results and computer codes. The parameter variations are described for each house as well as the common calculation steps for each house. The results are presented in case sheets, as performance graphs, and top-50 lists for the best cases regarding CO{sub 2} emission, energy consumption and economics. (ln)

  9. PV power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  10. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  11. Ventilation and Heat Dissipation of Construction Integration PV Modules%建筑一体化太阳能光伏组件的通风散热分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬振武

    2012-01-01

    More and more attention has been paid to the development and utilization of green solar energy,especially the utilization of integrative solar architecture technology.These types of PV modules are conventionally installed fixedly,but due to various conditional limitations in installation and design,fixed PV modules leads to the problem in ventilation and heat dissipation,especially the underside of PV modules.In combination with the PV module layout of Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station,the computational fluid dynamics(CFD) software was used to simulate the heat dissipation of various module layouts,and some optimization suggestions are proposed,with a view to providing some reference for solving this problem.%作为绿色能源,太阳能的开发利用日益受到人们的重视,而与建筑一体化的太阳能开发利用型式,更是得到了大力发展。该型式的光伏组件大多数采用固定式的安装方式,由于在安装和设计时受到种种条件限制,固定式光伏组件通风散热问题不易解决,尤其是下侧板面,问题更为严峻。结合上海虹桥高铁火车站屋面光伏组件的布置,利用CFD(计算流体力学)模拟软件对不同组件布置型式进行散热模拟,并给出优化建议,以期为解决组件的散热问题提供参考。

  12. Improving Building Performance through Integrating Constructability in the Design Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzat Othman, Ayman Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The traditional procurment approaches commonly adopted in construction projects and the involvement of multitude of various project participants with diverse objectives, skills and interests tended to separate design from construction.This separation obstructs contractors from providing designers with construction feedback and suggestions for design improvement, which ultimately hampers the improvement of building performance. Because of the importance of the design phase and the vit...

  13. Consequence Based Design. An approach for integrating computational collaborative models (Integrated Dynamic Models) in the building design phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer

    affect the design process and collaboration between building designers and simulationists. Within the limits of applying the approach of Consequence based design to five case studies, followed by documentation based on interviews, surveys and project related documentations derived from internal reports...... that secures validity and quality assurance with a simulationist while sustaining autonomous control of building design with the building designer. Consequence based design is defined by the specific use of integrated dynamic models. These models include the parametric capabilities of a visual programming tool...... relies on various advancements in the area of integrated dynamic models. It also relies on the application and test of the approach in practice to evaluate the Consequence based design and the use of integrated dynamic models. As a result, the Consequence based design approach has been applied in five...

  14. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  15. Building an Integrative Model for Managing Exploratory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarmeen, Parisha; Turri, Vanessa Gina; Sanchez, Ron

    2014-01-01

    central problems” organizations face when trying to manage innovation processes (Van de Ven, 1986). We develop an enhanced version of O’Connor’s (2008) Discovery, Incubation and Acceleration (DIA) model by integrating elements of Sanchez’ (2012) theory of architectural isomorphism as well as Markides......Purpose: In this paper we develop an integrated model identifying the key factors involved in managing exploratory innovation processes while also maintaining current business models and processes. Methodology/approach: We first characterize the problem of innovation as consisting of “the four......’ (2008) framework for strategically assessing the benefits of segregation versus integration of innovation processes. We develop and apply our model working with managers in two company contexts to assure the ability of our Integrated Model to identify key organizational and strategic variables that need...

  16. The technical and economic feasibility of establishing a building system integration laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawley, D.B.; Drost, M.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1989-09-01

    On December 22, 1987, the US Congress provided funding to the US Department of Energy (DOE) to study the feasibility and conceptual design of a whole building system integration laboratory'' (Title II of Pub. L. 100--202). A whole-building system integration laboratory would be a full-scale experimental facility in which the energy performance interactions of two or more building components, e.g., walls, windows, lighting, could be tested under actual operating conditions. At DOE's request, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted the study with the assistance of a technical review and representing other federal agencies and the academic and private sectors, including professional societies, building component manufacturers, and building research organizations. The results of the feasibility study are presented in this report.

  17. Beyond the buildingcentric approach: A vision for an integrated evaluation of sustainable buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, Emilia, E-mail: conte@poliba.it [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Monno, Valeria, E-mail: vmonno@poliba.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria delle Acque e Chimica, Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    The available sustainable building evaluation systems have produced a new environmental design paradigm. However, there is an increasing need to overcome the buildingcentric approach of these systems, in order to further exploit their innovate potential for sustainable building practices. The paper takes this challenge by developing a cross-scale evaluation approach focusing on the reliability of sustainable building design solutions for the context in which the building is situated. An integrated building-urban evaluation model is proposed based on the urban matrix, which is a conceptualisation of the built environment as a social-ecological system. The model aims at evaluating the sustainability of a building considering it as an active entity contributing to the resilience of the urban matrix. Few holistic performance indicators are used for evaluating such contribution, so expressing the building reliability. The discussion on the efficacy of the model shows that it works as a heuristic tool, supporting the acquisition of a better insight into the complexity which characterises the relationships between the building and the built environment sustainability. Shading new lights on the meaning of sustainable buildings, the model can play a positive role in innovating sustainable building design practices, thus complementing current evaluation systems. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model an integrated building-urban evaluation approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The urban matrix represents the social-ecological functioning of the urban context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We introduce the concept of reliability to evaluate sustainable buildings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Holistic indicators express the building reliability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The evaluation model works as heuristic tool and complements other tools.

  18. Integration and Implementation Sciences: Building a New Specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Bammer

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing a new specialization—Integration and Implementation Sciences—may be an effective way to draw together and significantly strengthen the theory and methods necessary to tackle complex societal issues and problems. This paper presents an argument for such a specialization, beginning with a brief review of calls for new research approaches that combine disciplines and interact more closely with policy and practice. It posits that the core elements of Integration and Implementation Sciences already exist, but that the field is currently characterized by fragmentation and marginalization. The paper then outlines three sets of characteristics that will delineate Integration and Implementation Sciences. First is that the specialization will aim to find better ways to deal with the defining elements of many current societal issues and problems: namely complexity, uncertainty, change, and imperfection. Second is that there will be three theoretical and methodological pillars for doing this: 1 systems thinking and complexity science, 2 participatory methods, and 3 knowledge management, exchange, and implementation. Third, operationally, Integration and Implementation Sciences will be grounded in practical application, and generally involve large-scale collaboration. The paper concludes by examining where Integration and Implementation Sciences would sit in universities, and outlines a program for further development of the field. An appendix provides examples of Integration and Implementation Sciences in action.

  19. Integrating Smartphone Images and Airborne LIDAR Data for Complete Urban Building Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shenman; Shan, Jie; Zhang, Zhichao; Yan, Jixing; Hou, Yaolin

    2016-06-01

    A complete building model reconstruction needs data collected from both air and ground. The former often has sparse coverage on building façades, while the latter usually is unable to observe the building rooftops. Attempting to solve the missing data issues in building reconstruction from single data source, we describe an approach for complete building reconstruction that integrates airborne LiDAR data and ground smartphone imagery. First, by taking advantages of GPS and digital compass information embedded in the image metadata of smartphones, we are able to find airborne LiDAR point clouds for the corresponding buildings in the images. In the next step, Structure-from-Motion and dense multi-view stereo algorithms are applied to generate building point cloud from multiple ground images. The third step extracts building outlines respectively from the LiDAR point cloud and the ground image point cloud. An automated correspondence between these two sets of building outlines allows us to achieve a precise registration and combination of the two point clouds, which ultimately results in a complete and full resolution building model. The developed approach overcomes the problem of sparse points on building façades in airborne LiDAR and the deficiency of rooftops in ground images such that the merits of both datasets are utilized.

  20. INTEGRATING SMARTPHONE IMAGES AND AIRBORNE LIDAR DATA FOR COMPLETE URBAN BUILDING MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A complete building model reconstruction needs data collected from both air and ground. The former often has sparse coverage on building façades, while the latter usually is unable to observe the building rooftops. Attempting to solve the missing data issues in building reconstruction from single data source, we describe an approach for complete building reconstruction that integrates airborne LiDAR data and ground smartphone imagery. First, by taking advantages of GPS and digital compass information embedded in the image metadata of smartphones, we are able to find airborne LiDAR point clouds for the corresponding buildings in the images. In the next step, Structure-from-Motion and dense multi-view stereo algorithms are applied to generate building point cloud from multiple ground images. The third step extracts building outlines respectively from the LiDAR point cloud and the ground image point cloud. An automated correspondence between these two sets of building outlines allows us to achieve a precise registration and combination of the two point clouds, which ultimately results in a complete and full resolution building model. The developed approach overcomes the problem of sparse points on building façades in airborne LiDAR and the deficiency of rooftops in ground images such that the merits of both datasets are utilized.

  1. Testing to Support Improvements to PV Components and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THOMAS,H.; KROPOSKI,B.; WITT,C.; BOWER,WARD I.; BONN,RUSSELL H.; GINN,JERRY W.; GONZALEZ,SIGIFREDO

    2000-07-15

    The National Photovoltaic (PV) Program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy and includes a PV Manufacturing Research and Development (R and D) project conducted with industry. This project includes advancements in PV components to improve reliability, reduce costs, and develop integrated PV systems. Participants submit prototypes, pre-production hardware products, and examples of the resulting final products for a range of tests conducted at several national laboratories, independent testing laboratories, and recognized listing agencies. The purpose of this testing is to use the results to assist industry in determining a product's performance and reliability, and to identify areas for potential improvement. This paper briefly describes the PV Manufacturing R and D project, participants in the area of PV systems, balance of systems, and components, and several examples of the different types of product and performance testing used to support and confirm product performance.

  2. Systemic Thinking on the Building of Enterprises' "Three Cycle" Integration Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BaoshanLi; MinghuiQian

    2004-01-01

    Taking into consideration the characteristics of nowadays society, this paper has advanced the systemic thinking on the building of Enterprises' "Three Cycle" Integration Structure. After pointing out, the principles of optimization between theoretic structure and executive structure, this paper has brought forward the Enterprises' "Three Cycle" Integration Structure and its inherent relationship among each cycle.

  3. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. 3D TOPOLOGICAL INDOOR BUILDING MODELING INTEGRATED WITH OPEN STREET MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering various fields of applications for building surveying and various demands, geometry representation of a building is the most crucial aspect of a building survey. The interiors of the buildings need to be described along with the relative locations of the rooms, corridors, doors and exits in many kinds of emergency response, such as fire, bombs, smoke, and pollution. Topological representation is a challenging task within the Geography Information Science (GIS environment, as the data structures required to express these relationships are particularly difficult to develop. Even within the Computer Aided Design (CAD community, the structures for expressing the relationships between adjacent building parts are complex and often incomplete. In this paper, an integration of 3D topological indoor building modeling in Dual Half Edge (DHE data structure and outdoor navigation network from Open Street Map (OSM is presented.

  5. Photovoltaic roofs in the city centre of Unterseen: photovoltaic roof integration in a protected old-city environment; PV Daecher Altstadt Unterseen: Photovoltaik Dachintegration in geschuetzter Altstadtumgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigler, F.

    2001-07-01

    Unterseen, Switzerland, a part of the city of Interlaken, located on the river Aare between the two lakes of Thun and Brienz, has a historical centre, which is marked by an old town house and other historical monuments. The integration of photovoltaic modules into the roof of a newly designed building in an old town, taking historical aspects into account, represented a special challenge in terms of a combination of modern technology and a traditional townscape. A clever module design and lot of convincing was necessary in order to have the photovoltaic project approved by the local townscape authority, the cantonal as well as the national preservation of historical monuments. The installed power is 6 kWp and the energy production so far meets the expected output. (author)

  6. Photovoltaic roofs in the city centre of Unterseen: photovoltaic roof integration in a protected old-city environment; PV Daecher Altstadt Unterseen: Photovoltaik Dachintegration in geschuetzter Altstadtumgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigler, F.

    2001-07-01

    Unterseen, Switzerland, a part of the city of Interlaken, located on the river Aare between the two lakes of Thun and Brienz, has a historical centre, which is marked by an old town house and other historical monuments. The integration of photovoltaic modules into the roof of a newly designed building in an old town, taking historical aspects into account, represented a special challenge in terms of a combination of modern technology and a traditional townscape. A clever module design and lot of convincing was necessary in order to have the photovoltaic project approved by the local townscape authority, the cantonal as well as the national preservation of historical monuments. The installed power is 6 kWp and the energy production so far meets the expected output. (author)

  7. Multicriteria aided design of integrated heating-cooling energy systems in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Tomasz M

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possible application of integrated heating-cooling systems in buildings. The general algorithm of integrated heating-cooling system design aid was formulated. The evaluation criteria of technically acceptable variants were defined. Fossil fuel energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission, investment, and total exploitation cost were identified as the most important factors describing the considered decision problem. The multicriteria decision aid method ELECTRE III was proposed as the decision tool for the choice of the most compromised variant. The proposed method was used for a case study calculation-the choice of an integrated heating-cooling system for an office building.

  8. Semantic Bim and GIS Modelling for Energy-Efficient Buildings Integrated in a Healthcare District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, R.; Böhms, H. M.; Bonsma, P.; van den Helm, P. W.

    2013-09-01

    The subject of energy-efficient buildings (EeB) is among the most urgent research priorities in the European Union (EU). In order to achieve the broadest impact, innovative approaches to EeB need to resolve challenges at the neighbourhood level, instead of only focusing on improvements of individual buildings. For this purpose, the design phase of new building projects as well as building retrofitting projects is the crucial moment for integrating multi-scale EeB solutions. In EeB design process, clients, architects, technical designers, contractors, and end-users altogether need new methods and tools for designing energy-efficiency buildings integrated in their neighbourhoods. Since the scope of designing covers multiple dimensions, the new design methodology relies on the inter-operability between Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Geospatial Information Systems (GIS). Design for EeB optimisation needs to put attention on the inter-connections between the architectural systems and the MEP/HVAC systems, as well as on the relation of Product Lifecycle Modelling (PLM), Building Management Systems (BMS), BIM and GIS. This paper is descriptive and it presents an actual EU FP7 large-scale collaborative research project titled STREAMER. The research on the inter-operability between BIM and GIS for holistic design of energy-efficient buildings in neighbourhood scale is supported by real case studies of mixed-use healthcare districts. The new design methodology encompasses all scales and all lifecycle phases of the built environment, as well as the whole lifecycle of the information models that comprises: Building Information Model (BIM), Building Assembly Model (BAM), Building Energy Model (BEM), and Building Operation Optimisation Model (BOOM).

  9. PV-WEB: internet-based PV information tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, P.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives details of a project to create a web-based information system on photovoltaic (PV) systems for the British PV Association (PV-UK) for use by decision makers in government, the utilities, and the housing and construction sectors. The project, which aims to provide an easily accessible tool for UK companies, promote PV technology, increase competitiveness, and identify market opportunities, is described. The design of the web site and its implementation and the evolution are discussed, along with the maintenance of the site by PV-UK and the opportunities offered to PV-UK Members.

  10. Calculation Method and Analysis for the Annual Power Generation of PV Façades in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Xu; ZhongMing Hu; Jian Kang; Wei Liao; Jing Huang

    2014-01-01

    The application of PV façades emerges greatly in recent years and however its calculation methods and analysis remains insufficient under the weather conditions of China. In such demand, this paper investigates PV façade in terms of PV electricity generation in different arrangements and weather conditions of four major cities in China. The calculation models for PV façade are developed and validated by comparing the results with the measured data from the field experiments. A parametric study is carried out to provide a reference for the optimal design of the PV façades. The results show that with various cities, building orientations, building forms, materials and arrangements of PV modules, there is a distinct difference in the electrical output energy of PV façades. Weather conditions play a very important role in terms of PV generation performance of PV façades.

  11. Solar integrated energy system for a green building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, X.Q.; Wang, R.Z.; Dai, Y.J.; Wu, J.Y.; Xu, Y.X.; Ma, Q. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2007-08-15

    Shanghai is characteristic of subtropical monsoonal climate with the mean annual temperature of 17.6 {sup o}C, and receives annual total solar irradiation above 4470 MJ/m{sup 2} with approximately 2000 h of sunshine. A solar energy system capable of heating, cooling, natural ventilation and hot water supply has been built in Shanghai Research Institute of Building Science. The system mainly contains 150 m{sup 2} solar collector arrays, two adsorption chillers, floor radiation heating pipes, finned tube heat exchangers and a hot water storage tank of 2.5 m{sup 3} in volume. It is used for heating in winter, cooling in summer, natural ventilation in spring and autumn, hot water supply all the year round, for 460 m{sup 2} building area. The whole system is controlled by an industrial control computer and operates automatically. Under typical Shanghai weather condition, it is found that the average heating capacity is up to 25.04 kW in winter, the average refrigerating output reaches 15.31 kW in summer and the solar-enhanced natural ventilation air flow rate doubles in transitional seasons. The experimental investigation validated the practical effective operation of the adsorption cooling-based air-conditioning system. After 1-year operation, it is confirmed that the solar system contributes 70% total energy of the involved space for the weather conditions of Shanghai. (author)

  12. Building an integrative framework for national systems of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Zhou, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    development of functional view of national systems of innovation, and the effective approach. Design/methodology/approach – As a theoretical research paper, the paper reviews and analyses intensive literature on national system of innovation from the perspectives of functional, structural, and effectiveness......, Function, Effectiveness, Framework, Policymaking, Innovation, Integration Paper type - Literature review...

  13. Integration of Safety in the Building Delivery System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Sander, Dag; Staghøj, Aage

    2010-01-01

    It is important to see safety and health in construction as an integrated part of the way in which designers, architects, constructors, engineers and others carry out their consulting services. The philosophy is simple – if the demands for safety and health are incorporated early in the solving...

  14. Projecting of PV facades in consideration of PV-specific operating conditions; Besonderheiten bei der Projektierung von Photovoltaik-Fassadenanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, B.; Grimmig, B.; Mencke, D. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH Hameln/Emmerthal (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany). Gruppe Photovoltaik-Systeme; Stellbogen, D. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany). Fachgebiet Photovoltaische Anlagentechnik

    1998-02-01

    PV facades can provide several additional functions such as weather protection, thermal insulation, daylighting or sun protection. On the other hand, specific operating conditions for PV facades must be taken into account when selecting components and designing the system. Depending on ventilation conditions, there is a large range of maximum module temperatures. South-oriented PV facades receive about 30% less yearly irradiation than an optimally inclined PV generator, hence reflection losses are approximately 4% higher. The maximum of yearly irradiation lies only in the 400-600 W/m{sup 2} range. Surrounding buildings and/or vegetation can impair performance of the PV-facades. For a south-oriented PV facade an annual yield in the range of 470-560 kwh/kW{sub p}.a has been prodicted which was verified by operating results of eight PV facades. (orig.) [Deutsch] Photovoltaik (PV) Fassaden ermoeglichen neben der Stromerzeugung zusaetzliche Funktionen wie Wetterschutz bzw. Waermedaemmung des Gebaeudes oder Tageslichtnutzung bzw. Sonnenschutz der Innenraeume. Allerdings muessen fassadenspezifische Betriebsbedingungen, bei der Komponentenauswahl und Systemauslegung beruecksichtigt werden. Unterschiedliche Hinterlueftungsbedingungen fuehren zu einer grossen Bandbreite der maximalen Modultemperatur. PV-Suedfassaden empfangen etwa 30% weniger Jahreseinstrahlung als ein optimal geneigter PV-Generator. Die Haelfte der jaehrlichen Einstrahlung trifft mit Einfallswinkeln groesser 50 auf die vertikal angeordneten Module wodurch die Reflexionsverluste um ca. 4% hoeher sind. Das Maximum der Jahreseinstrahlung liegt nur um 400-600 W/m{sup 2} und erreicht selten Werte ueber 800 W/m{sup 2}. Umliegende Gebaeude oder Vegetation koennen zu Teilabschattungen des Generators fuehren. Fuer eine vertikale PV-Suedfassade wird ein Jahresenergieertrag in Hoehe von 470-560 kWh/kW{sub p}.a prognostiziert, der anhand der Betriebsergebnisse von acht PV-Fassadenanlagen verifiziert werden konnte

  15. Building Safer Communities: The Integrated Community Safety Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Kerr, Thomas A; Jordan, Steven Albert

    2001-03-01

    This paper discusses an integrated community safety approach to creating safer communities. It defines community broadly to include two categories of community members: “industry” and “neighbors.” Potential community members within the “industry” category include facilities, government/regulators, customers, stockholders, and suppliers. Within the “neighbors” category are towns, cities, counties, states; people/commodity flow systems; news media and special interest groups; environment; and families of employees. Each of these potential community members and its characteristics are discussed. The integrated community safety approach consists of three major activities: (1) define the boundaries of the community; (2) facilitate the sense of community; and (3) address the needs of the community. Defining the boundaries of the community includes determining the geographical and social boundaries; this is accomplished through conducting a hazard analysis and community involvement to identify all of the community members. Facilitating the sense of community includes conducting a capability/needs assessment and continuing community involvement to identify the issues and concerns of community members. Addressing the needs of the community involves master planning to consider safety issues in all community development actions and continuing community education and involvement. The integrated community safety approach is a workable approach for existing industries and their neighbors as well as new projects that industries and their neighbors might be considering. By using this socio-technical approach to integrating industry and all of its neighbors into a safer community, the integrated community safety approach will better assure the viability and safety of industry and its neighbors while maintaining or improving the overall quality of life.

  16. A Study of Incentive Policies for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Technology in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aotian Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Installing sustainable and renewable energy systems is a promising way of relieving Hong Kong’s dependence on imported fossil fuels. Solar photovoltaic (PV technology is a perfect solution for Hong Kong as it fits the economic and geographic situation. Through a review of the PV development history of five leading PV countries, Germany, Japan, Italy, Mainland China, and the USA, this paper serves as a useful policy toolbox to aid PV development. Based on the forerunners’ successful PV industry experiences and Hong Kong’s unique local situations, a series of incentive strategies were proposed for Hong Kong to help promote the utilization of solar PV systems by reducing the initial investment and providing reasonable subsidies at the initial stages and during the operation period of the PV systems. These results could be a practical reference for promoting renewable energy applications for local policy-makers.

  17. 光伏建筑一体化中光伏/热系统性能%Performance of Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar System in Building Integrated Photovoltaic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晨光; 包亦望; 邓晓颖; 刘正权; 吴晓莉

    2013-01-01

    将太阳能电池板、集热器、热水箱结合起来,设计并开发制成了一套光伏光热(PV/T)系统,在利用太阳能电池发电的同时,将热量收集并存储利用.将这种能量发电系统在北京地区进行了室外模拟实验,测试并讨论了该系统在4月份至10月份的发电及热水性能,对PV/T系统在光伏建筑中的应用进行了探讨.结果表明:PV/T系统相对于单纯的光伏发电系统,单位面积的能量利用率会有200%~300%的提升,而且与建筑的结合具有较高的可行性.%A novel hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar system (PV/T) was designed with PV cells combined with heat collector. This PV/TV model can collect heat from (he solar panels so that to reduce its surface temperature, and then to use in hot water. Simulation experiments were conducted in outdoor of Beijing. The performance of this system between April to October was analyzed. The application of PV/T system in photovoltaic building was discussed primarily. The overall efficiency of this PV/T system is higher than that of a pure PV system, and about 200%-300% efficiency increase.

  18. Analysis of Photovoltaic Applications in Zero Energy Building Cases of IEA SHC/EBC Task 40/Annex 52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hee Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB considerably reduces the building energy load through high efficiency equipment and passive elements such as building orientation, high insulation, natural daylighting, and ventilation in order to achieve zero energy balance with on-site energy production from renewable energy systems applied to the building. For a Zero Energy Building (ZEB, the heating energy demand can be significantly reduced with high insulation and air tightness, while the cooling energy demand can be curtailed by applying shading device, cross ventilation, etc. As such, the electrical energy demand for a ZEB is relatively higher than its heat energy demand. Therefore, the application of a Renewable Energy System (RES to produce electricity is necessary for a ZEB. In particular, Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV systems that generate electricity can play an important role for achieving zero energy balance in buildings; BIPVs are multi-functional and there are many ways to apply them into buildings. This study comprehensively analyzes photovoltaic (PV applications in ZEB cases through the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (IEA SHC/Energy in Buildings and Communities Programme (EBC Task 40/Annex 52 activities, which include PV installation methods, PV cell type, and electricity generation. The most widely applied RES is the PV system, corresponding to 29 out of a total of 30 cases. Among the roof type PV systems, 71% were non-integrated. In addition, 14 of the 27 cases in which PV systems were applied, satisfied over 100% of the electricity energy demand from the PV system and were found to generate surplus electrical power.

  19. ATLAS barrel toroid integration and test area in building 180

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS barrel toroid system consists of eight coils, each of axial length 25.3 m, assembled radially and symmetrically around the beam axis. The coils are of a flat racetrack type with two 'double-pancake' windings made of 20.5 kA aluminium-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductor. The barrel toroid is being assembled in building 180 on the Meyrin site. In the first phase of assembly, the coils are packed into their aluminium-alloy casing. These photos show the double-pancake coils from ANSALDO and the coil casings from ALSTOM. In the foreground is the tooling from COSMI used to turn over the coil casings during this first phase. In the right background is the yellow lifting gantry manufactured at JINR-Dubna, Russia which will transport the coil casings to a heating table for prestressing. Two test benches with magnetic mirror are also visible.

  20. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Christian Birk [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  1. Building Excellence in Project Execution: Integrated Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    the final moves of our personnel. This planning ensures no surprises and a smooth transition . Finally, we must close the books on the project...maybe regression test? These all must be considered when developing an integrated project schedule. We can deduce that sequencing is an important first...system or Information Assurance (third functional area) must be accounted for, as well as the logistics aspects, which include deployment

  2. Solar shading how to integrate solar shading in sustainable buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Dolmans, Dick; Dutoo, Gonzague; Hall, Anders; Seppänen, Olli

    2010-01-01

    Solar Shading Guidebook gives a solid background on the physics of solar radiation and its behaviour in window with solar shading systems. Major focus of the Guidebook is on the effect of solar shading in the use of energy for cooling, heating and lighting. The book gives also practical guidance for selection, installation and operation of solar shading as well as future trends in integration of HVAC-systems with solar control.

  3. Energy efficiency design strategies for buildings with grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimprayoon, Chanikarn

    The building sector in the United States represents more than 40% of the nation's energy consumption. Energy efficiency design strategies and renewable energy are keys to reduce building energy demand. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on buildings have been the fastest growing market in the PV industry. This growth poses challenges for buildings qualified to serve in this market sector. Electricity produced from solar energy is intermittent. Matching building electricity demand with PV output can increase PV system efficiency. Through experimental methods and case studies, computer simulations were used to investigate the priorities of energy efficiency design strategies that decreased electricity demand while producing load profiles matching with unique output profiles from PV. Three building types (residential, commercial, and industrial) of varying sizes and use patterns located in 16 climate zones were modeled according to ASHRAE 90.1 requirements. Buildings were analyzed individually and as a group. Complying with ASHRAE energy standards can reduce annual electricity consumption at least 13%. With energy efficiency design strategies, the reduction could reach up to 65%, making it possible for PV systems to meet reduced demands in residential and industrial buildings. The peak electricity demand reduction could be up to 71% with integration of strategies and PV. Reducing lighting power density was the best single strategy with high overall performances. Combined strategies such as zero energy building are also recommended. Electricity consumption reductions are the sum of the reductions from strategies and PV output. However, peak electricity reductions were less than their sum because they reduced peak at different times. The potential of grid stress reduction is significant. Investment incentives from government and utilities are necessary. The PV system sizes on net metering interconnection should not be limited by legislation existing in

  4. Building relationships and facilitating immigrant community integration: An evaluation of a Cultural Navigator Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rebecca L; Chiarelli-Helminiak, Christina M; Ferraj, Brunilda; Barrette, Kyle

    2016-04-01

    Despite the long history of immigration in the United States, communities around the country struggle to integrate newcomers into the economic, cultural, and political spheres of society. Utilizing results from the program evaluation of one public library's Cultural Navigator Program, the authors illustrate how communities and public institutions can promote integration and relationship-building between newly arrived immigrants and long-time residents. Existing social networks within receiving communities, conceptualized in this article as social capital, were leveraged to build capacity among newly arrived immigrants and foster inclusivity and integration at the community level. As a place of intervention, public libraries are suggested as a safe and shared space where community integration can be fostered. Insights derived from the evaluation inform a discussion on engaging approaches to immigrant integration. Lessons learned and recommendations for program evaluators and administrators are provided.

  5. Integrity Analysis of Turbine Building for the MSLB Using GOTHIC code for Wolsong NPP Unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Bong-Jin; Jin, Dong-Sik; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Han, Sang-Koo [ACT, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon; Kho, Dong-Wook [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A break in the piping between the steam generators and the turbine can lead to rapid loss of secondary circuit inventory. A break inside the turbine building leads to pressure differentials between different areas of the turbine building. In order to improve the environmental protection of various components within the turbine building, a wall has been erected which effectively separates the area in which these components are housed from the rest of the turbine building. Relief panels installed in the turbine building ensure that the pressure differential across the wall would be less than that required to jeopardize the wall integrity. The turbine building service wing is excluded from the scope of this analysis. It is further assumed that any doors in the heavy wall are as strong as the wall itself, with no gaps or leakage around the doors. For the full scope safety analysis of turbine building for Wolsong NPP unit 2, input decks for the various objectives, which can be read by GOTHIC 7.2a, are developed and tested for the steady state simulation. The input data files provide simplified representations of the geometric layout of the turbine building (volumes, dimensions, flow paths, doors, panels, etc.) and the performance characteristics of the various turbine building subsystems.

  6. Promotion of Sustainable Buildings in China- Integration of Bamboo and Renewable Energy Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    WWF China and the International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INB AR) jointly launched the project "Promotion of Energy Efficient Buildings: Integration of Bamboo and Renewable Energy Technologies" together with the Urban & Rural Planning & Design Institute of Yunnan and BEAR Architecten Gouda (Holland) in March 2002. The objective of the project is to design model houses, hotels and school buildings for rural people in Yuanan Province to provide 'comfortable' living conditions with a minimum and meani...

  7. The Possibilities Of Spatial Data Integration For Building Construction In GIS Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitka, Bartosz; Pluta, Magda

    2015-12-01

    This paper shows possibilities of using GIS packages for creating complete information system about buildings. The building of Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Geodesy was used as an example possibilities of integration data from Department of Geodesy and Cartography with data from architectural stocktaking expanded about attributes and descriptive information. The aim of the work is analysis of possibilities of using this kind of system and available functions for end user.

  8. A simulation-based optimization method for the integrative design of the building envelope

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    An effective design of green buildings requires a process of optimization to meet all the sustainability goals through an integrative design approach. The research focuses on the development of a replicable methodology for the optimization of the building features that affects specifically the energy demand and indoor comfort conditions. Optimal design solutions are found following two steps: minimization of the total energy demand for heating, cooling and lighting coupling TRNSYS®, a dynamic...

  9. PV power forecast using a nonparametric PV model

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Marcelo Pinho; Perpiñan Lamigueiro, Oscar; Narvarte Fernández, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Forecasting the AC power output of a PV plant accurately is important both for plant owners and electric system operators. Two main categories of PV modeling are available: the parametric and the nonparametric. In this paper, a methodology using a nonparametric PV model is proposed, using as inputs several forecasts of meteorological variables from a Numerical Weather Forecast model, and actual AC power measurements of PV plants. The methodology was built upon the R environment and uses Quant...

  10. INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF BUILDINGS QUALITY IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Kozlovská

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyse the assumptions for integrated assessment of buildings quality in the context of sustainable development principles. The sustainable (or “green” buildings are cost effective, environmentally friendly and conserving natural resources. The buildings are comfortable for the users, are also healthy and optimally integrated into socio-cultural environment; thereby have long maintained their high added value – for investors, owners as well as users.Design methodology/approach: The methodology of the paper consists in analyses of certification systems that assess buildings sustainability within wider environmental, economic and social relations. An effort to increase the quality of construction and to provide objectified assessment with measurable and comparable results has evoked the origin and development of the tools for buildings sustainability assessment. In the case study, there are analysed the approaches into assessment of one from few certified sustainable projects in Slovakia “EcoPoint Office Center Kosice”. The results are destined for potential investors perhaps even for present owners that have ambitions and responsibility for building sustainability principles performance when designing and using their properties.Findings: The results of the research imply identification of the key characteristics expressing the comprehensive quality of the building and are leading to specification of practical and social implications that are provided by the sustainability philosophy.Originality/value: The force of the paper is to mention the approaches into integrated assessment of construction quality in the context of sustainability principles and the importance of their more extensive implementation in Slovakia. The approaches into the sustainability principles performance as well as the real benefits of the sustainable building are declared through case study of the building EcoPoint Office

  11. Building an Open Source Framework for Integrated Catchment Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagers, B.; Meijers, E.; Villars, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop effective strategies and associated policies for environmental management, we need to understand the dynamics of the natural system as a whole and the human role therein. This understanding is gained by comparing our mental model of the world with observations from the field. However, to properly understand the system we should look at dynamics of water, sediments, water quality, and ecology throughout the whole system from catchment to coast both at the surface and in the subsurface. Numerical models are indispensable in helping us understand the interactions of the overall system, but we need to be able to update and adjust them to improve our understanding and test our hypotheses. To support researchers around the world with this challenging task we started a few years ago with the development of a new open source modeling environment DeltaShell that integrates distributed hydrological models with 1D, 2D, and 3D hydraulic models including generic components for the tracking of sediment, water quality, and ecological quantities throughout the hydrological cycle composed of the aforementioned components. The open source approach combined with a modular approach based on open standards, which allow for easy adjustment and expansion as demands and knowledge grow, provides an ideal starting point for addressing challenging integrated environmental questions.

  12. Integrated thermal simulation of buildings and installations; Integreret termisk simulering af bygninger og installasjoner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittchen, Kim B.; Grau, Karl; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2003-07-01

    Danish Building and Urban Research (Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut) has developed one of the world's most advanced program packages for simulation of energy- and indoor climate issues in buildings, the BSim2002. This package also includes modules for the calculation of daylight, moisture transport in constructions, contribution from integrated solar cells, visual presentation of sun and shadows and the possibility of importing CAD drawings for geometric model building. All the program modules are based on the same data model and are presented in an easily accessible Windows user interface.

  13. Benefits of a translucent building envelope made of DSC-integrated glass blocks

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the benefits deriving from the replacement of the glazed façades of an office building located in Palermo (Sicily) with a new translucent BIPV envelope made of multifunctional glass block panels integrated with Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs). The analysed 11-storey building is cladded by a curtain wall determining high management costs, especially during summer, in order to maintain indoor comfort. After the design of the building envelope and of the com...

  14. Information on Resources Available on the Land Lot for Integrated Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Martinaitis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The most progress in the area of the sustainable building policy and its implementation has been achieved in certain regions by the Building Certification System regulations such as Passivhaus (Germany and LEED (U.S. These solutions are similar to the more widely discussed and already applied concepts: the Integrated Whole Building Design (IWBD and Building Information Modeling (BIM. Although it may sound trivial, it is vital to acknowledge and understand that a building is an integral component of the land lot. In the stage of development of a building concept, it usually lacks a versatile and professional assessment of available resources, especially those of renewable energy. It is suggested at the beginning of the IWBD concept to conduct such assessment on the resources available and more specifically focusing on renewable energy. The assessment should also meet the expectations of the building’s owner to use effectively the potential of all possible solutions. Thus a certificate is drawn up, defining all the resources available for the particular lot. The structure of the certificate data is orientated towards the possibility of designing modern renewable energy technologies, according to their performance under changing weather conditions during the year. Such assessment certificates contribute to shaping the concept of the building and allow achieving the highest level of its sustainability.Article in Lithuanian

  15. The sunstone – an intelligent platform for pv led lighting in the urban environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Harboe, Rene Kirstein

    The need for lighting in the urban environment in the dark hours is fundamental in the modern world. For lamp units for decorative purpose and guide lights the price of the power consumption during the lifetime of the product is nearly negligible compared to the cost of establishment and maintena....... The poster describes a project aimed at developing an intelligent solar powered LED light platform for exploiting the energy from the sun in an urban environmental PV integrated lamp installation in an intelligent, efficient and esthetical way........ - The irradiance is unpredictable due to buildings, vegetation, smog and other shadowing factors. - Very few high quality high-end PV LED products are available for this marked - For applications far from the Equator the amount of dark hours to daylight hours is in a large mismatch especially in the winter...

  16. PV/T slates - Production atlas; PV/T-Schiefer. Ertragsatlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. This report first deals with the dynamic building simulation system IDA and goes on to present an appendix that lists the results for the three climatic locations Zurich, Lugano and Davos in detail. The results are calculated for various seasons, orientations, mounting angles, air-flow rates and temperature differences.

  17. PV investment in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueser, Pius [Nova Energy GmbH, (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation is mainly about how the PV market in Europe has been growing, and which elements are going to determine if this market succeed or failed not only in Europe but also in the rest of the world. In the first part of this presentation, it is mentioned how in 2005 the development of some PV technologies triggered the PV market growth without any marketing control. Then, there are explained the aspects that changed such situation out of control, therefore, it emerged the beginning of the consolidation of this market. There are briefly explained those factors that are going to determine if this market succeed or failed in the future. Finally, there are given examples of some the PV investments. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente de la manera en como ha crecido el Mercado de sistemas fotovoltaicos en Europa, asi tambien se mencionan los elementos fundamentales que determinaran el exito o fracaso de este mercado, no solamente en Europa sino tambien en el resto del mundo, en un futuro. En la primera parte de esta presentacion, se describe como en el 2005, debido al desarrollo de algunas tecnologias fotovoltaicas se desencadeno el crecimiento desenfrenado del mercado fotovoltaico. Despues, se explican los aspectos que hicieron que dicho crecimiento tomara su curso, teniendo como resultado el inicio de un mercado mas consolidado. Se explican brevemente los factores que determinaran si este mercado encuentra el exito o el fracaso en un futuro. Finalmente, se dan ejemplos de algunas adquisiciones fotovoltaicas.

  18. A comprehensive approach to integrated envelope and lighting systems for new commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Klems, J.H.; Beltran, L.O.; DiBartolomeo, D.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Building Technologies Program

    1994-05-01

    The authors define a comprehensive approach to integrated envelope and lighting systems design as one that balances energy efficiency with an equal regard to the resultant environmental quality. By integrating envelope components (glazing, shading, and daylighting), lighting components (fixtures and controls) and building HVAC/energy management control systems, they create building systems that have the potential to achieve significant decreases in electricity consumption and peak demand while satisfying occupant physiological and psychological concerns. This paper presents results on the development, implementation, and demonstration of two specific integrated envelope and lighting systems: (1) a system emphasizing dynamic envelope components and responsive electric lighting systems, that offer the potential to achieve energy efficiency goals and a near optimum comfort environment throughout the year by adapting to meteorological conditions and occupant preferences in real time, and (2) perimeter daylighting systems that increase the depth of daylight penetration from sidelight windows and improves visual comfort with the use of a small inlet aperture. The energy performance of the systems was estimated using the DOE-2 building energy simulation program. Field tests with reduced scale models were conducted to determine daylighting and thermal performance in real time under actual weather conditions. Demonstrations of these integrated systems are being planned or are in progress in collaboration with utility programs to resolve real-world implementation issues under complex site, building, and cost constraints. Results indicate that integrated systems offer solutions that not only achieve significant peak demand reductions but also realize consistent energy savings with added occupant comfort and satisfaction.

  19. A District Approach to Building Renovation for the Integral Energy Redevelopment of Existing Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Conci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Building energy renovation quotas are not currently being met due to unfavorable conditions such as complex building regulations, limited investment incentives, historical preservation priorities, and technical limitations. The traditional strategy has been to incrementally lower the energy consumption of the building stock, instead of raising the efficiency of the energy supply through a broader use of renewable sources. This strategy requires an integral redefinition of the approach to energy building renovations. The joint project SWIVT elaborates on a district redevelopment strategy that combines a reduction in the energy demand of existing buildings and their physical interconnection within a local micro-grid and heating network. The district is equipped with energy generation and distribution technologies as well as hybrid thermal and electrical energy storage systems, steered by an optimizing energy management controller. This strategy is explored through three scenarios designed for an existing residential area in Darmstadt, Germany, and benchmarked against measured data. Presented findings show that a total primary energy balance at least 30% lower than that of a standard building renovation can be achieved by a cluster of buildings with different thermal qualities and connected energy generation, conversion, and storage systems, with only minimal physical intervention to existing buildings.

  20. Testing for PV Reliability (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.; Bansal, S.

    2014-09-01

    The DOE SUNSHOT workshop is seeking input from the community about PV reliability and how the DOE might address gaps in understanding. This presentation describes the types of testing that are needed for PV reliability and introduces a discussion to identify gaps in our understanding of PV reliability testing.

  1. Firefighter Safety for PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu

    2015-01-01

    An important and highly discussed safety issue for photovoltaic (PV) systems is that as long as the PV panels are illuminated, a high voltage is present at the PV string terminals and cables between the string and inverters that is independent of the state of the inverter's dc disconnection switc...

  2. Solar PV Energy Conversion System and its Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahteshamul Haque

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar PV based energy conversion system is now used in commercial and residential buildings. Advancements in Power electronics leads the researchers to enhance the use of solar application in various configurations. These configurations may be used to utilize the energy optimally. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the various configurations of solar PV energy conversion system

  3. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  4. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  5. Engineering Integration: Building a Quick and Effective Faculty Seminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Peterson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2010, the Science & Engineering Library of the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities partnered with the Information Literacy Librarian and offered a faculty seminar to the College of Science and Engineering. The seminar’s goals included 1. refreshing and expanding faculty’s knowledge of information and 21st century literacies and 2. creating a community of faculty committed to developing student skills in finding, evaluating and synthesizing information in their academic coursework and into their professional careers. Overall, the seminar increased faculty understanding of services and expertise of the libraries, and 21st century literacies. It also developed and strengthened ties between individual faculty members and their subject librarians, leading to a mix of outcomes from a faculty member partnering on a grant the Libraries applied for to course integrated instruction sessions to faculty participating in an e-textbook pilot. This seminar provides a strong model for re-framing information literacy in the context of teaching and learning in science and engineering, giving librarians an opportunity to strengthen relationships and increase liaison effectiveness.

  6. Involving stakeholders in building integrated fisheries models using Bayesian methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasaari, Päivi; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Kuikka, Sakari

    2013-06-01

    A participatory Bayesian approach was used to investigate how the views of stakeholders could be utilized to develop models to help understand the Central Baltic herring fishery. In task one, we applied the Bayesian belief network methodology to elicit the causal assumptions of six stakeholders on factors that influence natural mortality, growth, and egg survival of the herring stock in probabilistic terms. We also integrated the expressed views into a meta-model using the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method. In task two, we used influence diagrams to study qualitatively how the stakeholders frame the management problem of the herring fishery and elucidate what kind of causalities the different views involve. The paper combines these two tasks to assess the suitability of the methodological choices to participatory modeling in terms of both a modeling tool and participation mode. The paper also assesses the potential of the study to contribute to the development of participatory modeling practices. It is concluded that the subjective perspective to knowledge, that is fundamental in Bayesian theory, suits participatory modeling better than a positivist paradigm that seeks the objective truth. The methodology provides a flexible tool that can be adapted to different kinds of needs and challenges of participatory modeling. The ability of the approach to deal with small data sets makes it cost-effective in participatory contexts. However, the BMA methodology used in modeling the biological uncertainties is so complex that it needs further development before it can be introduced to wider use in participatory contexts.

  7. Involving Stakeholders in Building Integrated Fisheries Models Using Bayesian Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasaari, Päivi; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Kuikka, Sakari

    2013-06-01

    A participatory Bayesian approach was used to investigate how the views of stakeholders could be utilized to develop models to help understand the Central Baltic herring fishery. In task one, we applied the Bayesian belief network methodology to elicit the causal assumptions of six stakeholders on factors that influence natural mortality, growth, and egg survival of the herring stock in probabilistic terms. We also integrated the expressed views into a meta-model using the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method. In task two, we used influence diagrams to study qualitatively how the stakeholders frame the management problem of the herring fishery and elucidate what kind of causalities the different views involve. The paper combines these two tasks to assess the suitability of the methodological choices to participatory modeling in terms of both a modeling tool and participation mode. The paper also assesses the potential of the study to contribute to the development of participatory modeling practices. It is concluded that the subjective perspective to knowledge, that is fundamental in Bayesian theory, suits participatory modeling better than a positivist paradigm that seeks the objective truth. The methodology provides a flexible tool that can be adapted to different kinds of needs and challenges of participatory modeling. The ability of the approach to deal with small data sets makes it cost-effective in participatory contexts. However, the BMA methodology used in modeling the biological uncertainties is so complex that it needs further development before it can be introduced to wider use in participatory contexts.

  8. Plant integration of MITICA and SPIDER experiments with auxiliary plants and buildings on PRIMA site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellin, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.fellin@igi.cnr.it; Boldrin, Marco; Zaccaria, Pierluigi; Agostinetti, Piero; Battistella, Manuela; Bigi, Marco; Palma, Samuele Dal Bello Mauro Dalla; Fiorentin, Aldo; Luchetta, Adriano; Maistrello, Alberto; Marcuzzi, Diego; Ocello, Edoardo; Pasqualotto, Roberto; Pavei, Mauro; Pomaro, Nicola; Rizzolo, Andrea; Toigo, Vanni; Valente, Matteo; Zanotto, Loris; Calore, Luca; and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Focus on plant integration work supporting the realization of SPIDER and MITICA fusion experiments hosted in PRIMA buildings complex in Padova, Italy. • Huge effort of coordination and integration among many stakeholders, taking into account several constrains coming from experiments requirements (on-going) and precise time schedule and budget on buildings construction. • The paper also deals of interfaces management, coordination and integration of many competences, problems solving to find best solution also considering other aspects like safety and maintenance. - Abstract: This paper presents a description of the PRIMA (Padova Research on ITER Megavolt Accelerator) Plant Integration work, aimed at the construction of PRIMA Buildings, which will host two nuclear fusion test facilities named SPIDER and MITICA, finalized to test and optimize the neutral beam injectors for ITER experiment. These activities are very complex: inputs coming from the experiments design are changing time to time, while the buildings construction shall fulfill precise time schedule and budget. Moreover the decision process is often very long due to the high number of stakeholders (RFX, IO, third parties, suppliers, domestic agencies from different countries). The huge effort includes: forecasting what will be necessary for the integration of many experimental plants; collecting requirements and translating into inputs; interfaces management; coordination meetings with hundreds of people with various and different competences in construction and operation of fusion facilities, thermomechanics, electrical and control, buildings design and construction (civil plants plus architectural and structural aspects), safety, maintenance and management. The paper describes these activities and also the tools created to check and to validate the building design, to manage the interfaces and the organization put in place to achieve the required targets.

  9. Capacity Building Through Integration and Transformational Leadership – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Stöcklin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that educational managers can have an influence through leadership by establishing certain moderators that integrate and shape the faculty into a solid team working towards a high performing organisation. The study looks at a case in China and draws suggestions that could be used in other similar settings. The conclusion is to make integration a crucial part of capacity building.

  10. PV/T slates - Energy-efficiency optimisation for buildings using simulation and measurement - Back-ventilated photovoltaics as an example; PV/T-Schiefer. Optimierung der Energieeffizienz von Gebaeuden durch gegenseitige Ergaenzung von Simulation und Messung am Beispiel der Hinterlueftung gebaeudeintegrierter Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is the introductory report to a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. This introductory report summarises the findings of the project. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. A mathematical model for the calculation of the dynamic gain is described. Reports 1 and 2 deal with an experimental outdoor set-up and in-situ measurements made on the prototype of a ventilated PV-tile system (PV/T-Slates). In report 3 the simulation model for the dynamic calculation of the heat gain from the PV/T-Slates using climatic data available is described in detail. Measured data from reports 1 and 2 are compared with the simulation results. In the yield atlas (report 4) the heat gain expected is subdivided into classes of temperature and presented for three locations in different Swiss climatic regions. In report 5 it is shown with the help of the yield-atlas how the degree of utilisation can be estimated. Two promising applications (domestic hot water preheating for a hotel in Lugano and seasonal ground heat storage for a Minergie low energy consumption house in Davos) are selected for detailed investigation using the new numerical model.

  11. Integral Morphological C-K Design Approach for Multidisciplinary Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Zeiler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical approach to collaborative design management. The goal is to integrate design and engineering knowledge in the conceptual phase of building design. Based on an integral design process model, morphological overviews are used as a tool to implement C-K (concept-knowledge theory, to increase knowledge creation and to stimulate knowledge exchange within the building design team. The project was carried out in close cooperation with professional societies within the building design field. The set-ups of the workshops used to implement and to test the theoretical approach are presented as well as the experiences of the participants. More than 100 experienced professionals participated in the workshops and the workshops now have become part of the permanent professional training programme of one of the professional societies. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2008.0099 Published in the Journal AEDM - Volume 5, Number 4, 2009 , pp. 193-214(22

  12. A Novel Evaluation Method for Building Construction Project Based on Integrated Information Entropy with Reliability Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiao-ping; Zhang, Xi-wei

    2013-01-01

    Selecting construction schemes of the building engineering project is a complex multiobjective optimization decision process, in which many indexes need to be selected to find the optimum scheme. Aiming at this problem, this paper selects cost, progress, quality, and safety as the four first-order evaluation indexes, uses the quantitative method for the cost index, uses integrated qualitative and quantitative methodologies for progress, quality, and safety indexes, and integrates engineering economics, reliability theories, and information entropy theory to present a new evaluation method for building construction project. Combined with a practical case, this paper also presents detailed computing processes and steps, including selecting all order indexes, establishing the index matrix, computing score values of all order indexes, computing the synthesis score, sorting all selected schemes, and making analysis and decision. Presented method can offer valuable references for risk computing of building construction projects. PMID:23533352

  13. See-through dye-sensitized solar cells: photonic reflectors for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiniger, Leo-Philipp; O'Brien, Paul G; Soheilnia, Navid; Yang, Yang; Kherani, Nazir P; Grätzel, Michael; Ozin, Geoffrey A; Tétreault, Nicolas

    2013-10-25

    See-through dye-sensitized solar cells with 1D photonic crystal Bragg reflector photoanodes show an increase in peak external quantum efficiency of 47% while still maintaining high fill factors, resulting in an almost 40% increase in power conversion efficiency. These photoanodes are ideally suited for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics.

  14. Sustainability and productivity of southern pine ecosystems: A thematic framework for integrating research and building partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. McMahon; James P. Barnett

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station (SRS) published a Strategic Plan that formed a framework for addressing the Sustainability of Southern Forest Ecosystems. Six crosscutting themes were identified to facilitate research integration and partnership building among the widely dispersed SRS research work units. The Sustainability and Productivity of...

  15. Analysis of building envelope insulation performance utilizing integrated temperature and humidity sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, San-Shan; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Hsu, Cheng-Jui; Chen, Shih-Wei

    2012-01-01

    A major cause of high energy consumption for air conditioning in indoor spaces is the thermal storage characteristics of a building's envelope concrete material; therefore, the physiological signals (temperature and humidity) within concrete structures are an important reference for building energy management. The current approach to measuring temperature and humidity within concrete structures (i.e., thermocouples and fiber optics) is limited by problems of wiring requirements, discontinuous monitoring, and high costs. This study uses radio frequency integrated circuits (RFIC) combined with temperature and humidity sensors (T/H sensors) for the design of a smart temperature and humidity information material (STHIM) that automatically, regularly, and continuously converts temperature and humidity signals within concrete and transmits them by radio frequency (RF) to the Building Physiology Information System (BPIS). This provides a new approach to measurement that incorporates direct measurement, wireless communication, and real-time continuous monitoring to assist building designers and users in making energy management decisions and judgments.

  16. Integrating Virtual Reality and BIM for End-user Involvement in Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrova, Ekaterina Aleksandrova; Rasmussen, Mai; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2017-01-01

    . However, traditional practices place the responsibility of decision-making mostly in the architects’ hands. Virtual Reality technologies coupled with Building Information Modelling have the potential to improve the collaboration and data visualization in the building design. This paper presents...... the findings from a case study on the integration of Building Information Modelling and Virtual Reality for user-centred participatory interior furnishing of a new university building. Besides a significant reduction in the time for generation of alternative proposals, the end results show an increased...... attachment of the employees to their future workplace and a high level of acceptance towards the technology. Finally, the authors present suggestions for further work, which could improve future design processes utilizing the Virtual Reality technology....

  17. European conferences. Integration of renewable energies in buildings; Conferences europeennes. Integration des energies renouvelables dans le batiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, J.L. [ADEME, Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France); Letz, T. [Asder, 73 - Saint Alban Leysse (France); Tuille, F. [Observ' er, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This document comprises 2 parts. First part is a detailed program of the exhibition with a press dossier which presents the different topics discussed during conferences and round tables, the market of renewable energies, and a list of agencies and companies involved in renewable energies development and products. The second part is the abstracts of the lectures presented during the European conferences on the integration of renewable energies in buildings (solar-thermal and photovoltaic systems, wood fuel and biomass). (J.S.)

  18. Overview of the ITER Tokamak complex building and integration of plant systems toward construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, Jean-Jacques, E-mail: jean-jacques.cordier@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Bak, Joo-Shik [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Baudry, Alain [Engage Consortium, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Benchikhoune, Magali [Fusion For Energy (F4E), c/ Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Carafa, Leontin; Chiocchio, Stefano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Darbour, Romaric [Fusion For Energy (F4E), c/ Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Elbez, Joelle; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Jeannoutot, Thomas; Kotamaki, Miikka; Kuehn, Ingo; Lee, Andreas; Levesy, Bruno; Orlandi, Sergio [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Packer, Rachel [Engage Consortium, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Patisson, Laurent; Reich, Jens; Rigoni, Giuliano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2015-10-15

    The ITER Tokamak complex consists of Tokamak, diagnostic and tritium buildings. The Tokamak machine is located in the bioshield pit of the Tokamak building. Plant systems are implemented in the three buildings and are strongly interfacing with the Tokamak. The reference baseline (3D) configuration is a set of over 1000 models that today defines in an exhaustive way the overall layout of Tokamak and plant systems, needed for fixing the interfaces and to complete the construction design of the buildings. During the last two years, one of the main ITER challenges was to improve the maturity of the plant systems layout in order to confirm their integration in the building final design and freeze the interface definitions in-between the systems and to the buildings. The propagation of safety requirements in the design of the nuclear building like confinement, fire zoning and radiation shielding is of first priority. A major effort was placed by ITER Organization together with the European Domestic Agency (F4E) and the Architect Engineer as a joint team to fix the interfaces and the loading conditions to buildings. The most demanding systems in terms of interface definition are water cooling, cryogenic, detritiation, vacuum, cable trays and building services. All penetrations through the walls for piping, cables and other equipment have been defined, as well as all temporary openings needed for the installation phase. Project change requests (PCR) impacting the Tokamak complex buildings have been implemented in a tight allocated time schedule. The most demanding change was to implement a new design of the Tokamak basic machine supporting system. The 18 supporting columns of the cryostat (2001 baseline) were replaced at the end of 2012 by a concrete crown and radial concrete ribs linked to the basemat and to the bioshield surrounding the Tokamak. The change was implemented successfully in the building construction design to allow basemat construction phase being performed

  19. Integrated design and engineering using Building Information Modelling: A pilot project of small-scale housing development in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebastian, R.

    2010-01-01

    During the design phase, decisions aremade that affect, on average, 70% of the life-cycle cost of a building. Therefore, collaborative design relying on multidisciplinary knowledge of the building life cycle is essential. Building information modelling (BIM) makes it possible to integrate knowledge

  20. Structural Health Monitoring of Tall Buildings with Numerical Integrator and Convex-Concave Hull Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Thenozhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An important objective of health monitoring systems for tall buildings is to diagnose the state of the building and to evaluate its possible damage. In this paper, we use our prototype to evaluate our data-mining approach for the fault monitoring. The offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques are combined effectively to solve common problems in numerical integration of acceleration signals in real-time applications. The integration accuracy is improved compared with other numerical integrators. Then we introduce a novel method for support vector machine (SVM classification, called convex-concave hull. We use the Jarvis march method to decide the concave (nonconvex hull for the inseparable points. Finally the vertices of the convex-concave hull are applied for SVM training.

  1. APOLLON. Multi-APprOach for high efficiency integrated and inteLLigent cONcentrating PV modules (Systems). Deliverable 7.10. Publication of environmental LCI dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.L. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    This deliverable makes available the life-cycle inventory used to calculate the energy payback time and the carbon footprint of the Apollon final concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) design developed.. The data below relates to one Apollon module. The results are to be published in Environmental Science and Technology, in a paper, 'Sustainability of Materials and Costs of Materials in a Mirror-based Concentrating Photovoltaic System'. Reference is made to the results for the Spectrolab triple junction solar cell in the following two studies: (1) 'Life cycle assessment of high-concentration photovoltaic systems' (Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl., vol. 21, pp. 379-388, 2013), and (2) 'Life Cycle Analysis of Two New Concentrator PV Systems', in 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 2008.

  2. Development and evaluation of a building energy model integrated in the TEB scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bueno

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of air-conditioning systems is expected to increase as a consequence of global-scale and urban-scale climate warming. In order to represent future scenarios of urban climate and building energy consumption, the Town Energy Budget (TEB scheme must be improved. This paper presents a new building energy model (BEM that has been integrated in the TEB scheme. BEM-TEB makes it possible to represent the energy effects of buildings and building systems on the urban climate and to estimate the building energy consumption at city scale (~10 km with a resolution of a neighbourhood (~100 m. The physical and geometric definition of buildings in BEM has been intentionally kept as simple as possible, while maintaining the required features of a comprehensive building energy model. The model considers a single thermal zone, where the thermal inertia of building materials associated with multiple levels is represented by a generic thermal mass. The model accounts for heat gains due to transmitted solar radiation, heat conduction through the enclosure, infiltration, ventilation, and internal heat gains. As a difference with respect to other building parameterizations used in urban climate, BEM includes specific models for real air-conditioning systems. It accounts for the dependence of the system capacity and efficiency on indoor and outdoor air temperatures and solves the dehumidification of the air passing through the system. Furthermore, BEM includes specific models for passive systems, such as window shadowing devices and natural ventilation. BEM has satisfactorily passed different evaluation processes, including testing its modelling assumptions, verifying that the chosen equations are solved correctly, and validating the model with field data.

  3. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  4. Rooftop PV system. PV:BONUS Phase 3B, final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Under the PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar developed, demonstrated and commercialized two new lightweight, flexible BIPV modules specifically designed as replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and can be used to address the even larger roofing-replacement market. An important design feature of these modules, which minimizes the installation and balance-of-system costs, is their ability to be installed by conventional roofing contractors without special training. The modules are fabricated from high-efficiency, triple-junction spectrum-splitting a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. These cells are produced on thin, flexible stainless steel substrates and encapsulated with polymer materials. The Phase 3 program began in August 1995. The principal tasks and goals of this program, which have all been successfully completed by ECD and United Solar, are described in the body and appendices of this report.

  5. An Adaptive Intelligent Integrated Lighting Control Approach for High-Performance Office Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karizi, Nasim

    An acute and crucial societal problem is the energy consumed in existing commercial buildings. There are 1.5 million commercial buildings in the U.S. with only about 3% being built each year. Hence, existing buildings need to be properly operated and maintained for several decades. Application of integrated centralized control systems in buildings could lead to more than 50% energy savings. This research work demonstrates an innovative adaptive integrated lighting control approach which could achieve significant energy savings and increase indoor comfort in high performance office buildings. In the first phase of the study, a predictive algorithm was developed and validated through experiments in an actual test room. The objective was to regulate daylight on a specified work plane by controlling the blind slat angles. Furthermore, a sensor-based integrated adaptive lighting controller was designed in Simulink which included an innovative sensor optimization approach based on genetic algorithm to minimize the number of sensors and efficiently place them in the office. The controller was designed based on simple integral controllers. The objective of developed control algorithm was to improve the illuminance situation in the office through controlling the daylight and electrical lighting. To evaluate the performance of the system, the controller was applied on experimental office model in Lee et al.'s research study in 1998. The result of the developed control approach indicate a significantly improvement in lighting situation and 1-23% and 50-78% monthly electrical energy savings in the office model, compared to two static strategies when the blinds were left open and closed during the whole year respectively.

  6. Building trust and diversity in patient-centered oncology clinical trials: An integrated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Thelma C; Kaplan, Charles D; Cook, Elise D; Chilton, Janice A; Lytton, Jay S; Hawk, Ernest T; Jones, Lovell A

    2017-04-01

    Trust is the cornerstone of clinical trial recruitment and retention. Efforts to decrease barriers and increase clinical trial participation among diverse populations have yielded modest results. There is an urgent need to better understand the complex interactions between trust and clinical trial participation. The process of trust-building has been a focus of intense research in the business community. Yet, little has been published about trust in oncology clinical trials or the process of building trust in clinical trials. Both clinical trials and business share common dimensions. Business strategies for building trust may be transferable to the clinical trial setting. This study was conducted to understand and utilize contemporary thinking about building trust to develop an Integrated Model of Trust that incorporates both clinical and business perspectives. A key word-directed literature search of the PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, and Google Search databases for entries dated between 1 January 1985 and 1 September 2015 was conducted to obtain information from which to develop an Integrated Model of Trust. Successful trial participation requires both participants and clinical trial team members to build distinctly different types of interpersonal trust to effect recruitment and retention. They are built under conditions of significant emotional stress and time constraints among people who do not know each other and have never worked together before. Swift Trust and Traditional Trust are sequentially built during the clinical trial process. Swift trust operates during the recruitment and very early active treatment phases of the clinical trial process. Traditional trust is built over time and operates during the active treatment and surveillance stages of clinical trials. The Psychological Contract frames the participants' and clinical trial team members' interpersonal trust relationship. The "terms" of interpersonal trust are negotiated through the psychological

  7. Transient Performance Simulation on Building Integrated Photovoltaic/thermal Solar Energy System%建筑太阳能光电热一体化系统的瞬态性能模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小凤; 庄春龙; 成镭; 张洪宇

    2013-01-01

    The software TRNSYS is used to simulate and analyze transient working situations of the building roof integrated photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T)solar energy system which is designed to provide power and hot water simultaneously. Thought series of tests in summer,instantaneous power output,cumulative capacity,transient in/out water temperature of PV/T module and flat plate solar collector,cumulative effective heat gain of PV/T module and flat plate solar energy collector in a given period,efficiency of photovoltaic and photothermal transfer and comprehensive solar energy utilization efficiency of system are recorded. Consequences manifest solar energy PV/T integrated system on the roof is an appropriate type for solar energy use of buildings in summer in Chongqing area where is usually thought no valuable possibility to use solar.%  利用TRNSYS软件对重庆夏季建筑屋顶太阳能光电热一体化系统进行瞬态模拟分析计算,得到系统瞬时发电量与一段时间内累计发电量,光电热模块瞬时进出水温度与太阳能平板集热器瞬时进出水温度,系统一段时间内光电热模块累计有效得热量与一段时间内太阳能平板集热器累计有效得热量,系统的光电转换效率、光热转换效率以及太阳能综合利用效率。结果表明,建筑屋顶太阳能光电热一体化系统是重庆地区建筑太阳能光电热一体化系统适宜的型式。

  8. Nobody wants a dumb building. Integrated building automation for Energy Class A; Niemand wil meer een dom gebouw. Alleen integrale gebouwautomatisering geeft gebouw Energieklasse A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoumpolis-Verbraeken, A.

    2011-09-15

    Utility buildings can only be optimally energy efficient when the installations collaborate through building automation. Practical research shows that fully integrated control systems can realize an energy saving of up to 50%. The European standard EN 15232 determines that the highest efficiency class - building label A - can only be realized by integral control of lighting, sun shading and climate installations. [Dutch] Utiliteitsgebouwen zijn alleen optimaal energiezuinig wanneer installaties met elkaar samenwerken via gebouwautomatisering. Praktijkonderzoek toont aan dat volledig geintegreerde besturingsystemen tot 50% energiebesparing opleveren. De Europese norm EN 15232 bepaalt dat de hoogste efficiencyklasse - gebouwlabel A - alleen haalbaar is door verlichting, zonwering en klimaatinstallaties integraal te besturen.

  9. Assessment of building integrated energy supply and energy saving schemes on a national level in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenster, M.; Morthorst, P.E.; Birkl, C.

    2011-06-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The results of these analyses were integrated in five scenarios to examine the consequences at national level of implementing insulation together with solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps in single-family houses. The simulations focused on the building period between 1961 and 1972 characterised by high building activity and low energy performance. The five scenarios - a baseline scenario, a maximum savings scenario, a maximum production scenario, and a combination scenario - showed that regardless of scenario, a consequent use of individual heat pumps leads to the greatest energy savings and CO{sub 2} reductions. (ln)

  10. 计及风能/光能混合发电系统的配电系统可靠性分析%Reliability Analysis on the Integration of Wind/PV Hybrid Distributed Generation in Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立克; 王成山

    2005-01-01

    The exploitation of solar and wind resources is a rapidly growing area on electricity market due to the fact that they are being increasingly recognized as cost effective generation sources. Integrating these energy sources on to a distribution system can either positively or negatively affect the system reliability. In this paper the impact of wind/PV (photovoltaic) hybrid generation, when integrated as alternative supply, on the existing rural distribution system is investigated. Furthermore, the results obtained from this investigation are then compared with those from the integration of a single wind farm to demonstrate the benefits derived from the integration of the hybrid generation system.%在电力市场条件下,由于太阳能和风能发电成本逐渐降低,其开发正日益加速.当这些电源连接到配电系统时,有可能提高或者降低系统的可靠性.文中研究了风能/光能混合发电系统作为电源连接到现有农村配电网后对配电网可靠性的影响,把研究结果与单纯风力发电系统连接到配电系统的结果相比较,从而证明了混合发电系统联网的优点.

  11. Recorded earthquake responses from the integrated seismic monitoring network of the Atwood Building, Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated seismic monitoring system with a total of 53 channels of accelerometers is now operating in and at the nearby free-field site of the 20-story steel-framed Atwood Building in highly seismic Anchorage, Alaska. The building has a single-story basement and a reinforced concrete foundation without piles. The monitoring system comprises a 32-channel structural array and a 21-channel site array. Accelerometers are deployed on 10 levels of the building to assess translational, torsional, and rocking motions, interstory drift (displacement) between selected pairs of adjacent floors, and average drift between floors. The site array, located approximately a city block from the building, comprises seven triaxial accelerometers, one at the surface and six in boreholes ranging in depths from 15 to 200 feet (???5-60 meters). The arrays have already recorded low-amplitude shaking responses of the building and the site caused by numerous earthquakes at distances ranging from tens to a couple of hundred kilometers. Data from an earthquake that occurred 186 km away traces the propagation of waves from the deepest borehole to the roof of the building in approximately 0.5 seconds. Fundamental structural frequencies [0.58 Hz (NS) and 0.47 Hz (EW)], low damping percentages (2-4%), mode coupling, and beating effects are identified. The fundamental site frequency at approximately 1.5 Hz is close to the second modal frequencies (1.83 Hz NS and 1.43 EW) of the building, which may cause resonance of the building. Additional earthquakes prove repeatability of these characteristics; however, stronger shaking may alter these conclusions. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  12. Development and evaluation of a building energy model integrated in the TEB scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, B.; Pigeon, G.; Norford, L. K.; Zibouche, K.; Marchadier, C.

    2012-03-01

    The use of air-conditioning systems is expected to increase as a consequence of global-scale and urban-scale climate warming. In order to represent future scenarios of urban climate and building energy consumption, the Town Energy Balance (TEB) scheme must be improved. This paper presents a new building energy model (BEM) that has been integrated in the TEB scheme. BEM-TEB makes it possible to represent the energy effects of buildings and building systems on the urban climate and to estimate the building energy consumption at city scale (~10 km) with a resolution of a neighbourhood (~100 m). The physical and geometric definition of buildings in BEM has been intentionally kept as simple as possible, while maintaining the required features of a comprehensive building energy model. The model considers a single thermal zone, where the thermal inertia of building materials associated with multiple levels is represented by a generic thermal mass. The model accounts for heat gains due to transmitted solar radiation, heat conduction through the enclosure, infiltration, ventilation, and internal heat gains. BEM allows for previously unavailable sophistication in the modelling of air-conditioning systems. It accounts for the dependence of the system capacity and efficiency on indoor and outdoor air temperatures and solves the dehumidification of the air passing through the system. Furthermore, BEM includes specific models for passive systems, such as window shadowing devices and natural ventilation. BEM has satisfactorily passed different evaluation processes, including testing its modelling assumptions, verifying that the chosen equations are solved correctly, and validating the model with field data.

  13. Development and evaluation of a building energy model integrated in the TEB scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bueno

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of air-conditioning systems is expected to increase as a consequence of global-scale and urban-scale climate warming. In order to represent future scenarios of urban climate and building energy consumption, the Town Energy Balance (TEB scheme must be improved. This paper presents a new building energy model (BEM that has been integrated in the TEB scheme. BEM-TEB makes it possible to represent the energy effects of buildings and building systems on the urban climate and to estimate the building energy consumption at city scale (~10 km with a resolution of a neighbourhood (~100 m. The physical and geometric definition of buildings in BEM has been intentionally kept as simple as possible, while maintaining the required features of a comprehensive building energy model. The model considers a single thermal zone, where the thermal inertia of building materials associated with multiple levels is represented by a generic thermal mass. The model accounts for heat gains due to transmitted solar radiation, heat conduction through the enclosure, infiltration, ventilation, and internal heat gains. BEM allows for previously unavailable sophistication in the modelling of air-conditioning systems. It accounts for the dependence of the system capacity and efficiency on indoor and outdoor air temperatures and solves the dehumidification of the air passing through the system. Furthermore, BEM includes specific models for passive systems, such as window shadowing devices and natural ventilation. BEM has satisfactorily passed different evaluation processes, including testing its modelling assumptions, verifying that the chosen equations are solved correctly, and validating the model with field data.

  14. Heritage plaza parking lots improvement project- Solar PV installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooks, Todd [Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, Palm Springs, CA (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI or the “Tribe”) installed a 79.95 kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system to offset the energy usage costs of the Tribal Education and Family Services offices located at the Tribe's Heritage Plaza office building, 90I Tahquitz Way, Palm Springs, CA, 92262 (the "Project"). The installation of the Solar PV system was part of the larger Heritage Plaza Parking Lot Improvements Project and mounted on the two southern carport shade structures. The solar PV system will offset 99% of the approximately 115,000 kWh in electricity delivered annually by Southern California Edison (SCE) to the Tribal Education and Family Services offices at Heritage Plaza, reducing their annual energy costs from approximately $22,000 annually to approximately $200. The total cost of the proposed solar PV system is $240,000.

  15. Development of solar collector to integration in buildings; Udvikling af solfanger til integrering i bygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holck, O.; Svendsen, S.

    2000-07-01

    A solar collector has been developed in the project. The development of the collector is based on knowledge from previous projects and the idea of combining existing exterior insulation systems with a solar collector part for renovation purpose. This solar collector especially focuses on the market, which is dedicated to concrete buildings. South heading gable/facade walls in concrete buildings have a potential for utilization of solar energy. With regards to commercial utilization of the results the project has building parts manufacturers and solar collector manufacturers in mind. Besides the housing stock the industry sector is an area where gable solar collectors can be used. To get the right link between the manufactured part and the building, an existing building is referred to in the project. A prefabricated insulation system from Paroc and a liquid heating absorber from Batec have been chosen as the basis of the project. 50 mm wide aluminium profiles from H.S. Hansen have been used, accomplishing a sliding joint to the adjacent building systems. A range of flashing, is available on the market, fits to the 50 mm profile. Based on these choices the concept of utilizing solar energy can be transferred without difficulties to be valid for other exterior insulation systems, absorber types and consumer systems. Technical details concerning profiles and assembling of solar collectors have been analysed in the project and can be seen from the technical drawings. The mounting of the solar collector will be done by crane so that the work can be done fast and efficiently. This is particularly important in narrow streets, as here is no need to establish building sites for a long period. Crane assembling is suitable when the walls have big areas without needs for many cuttings and projections. If there are windows in the gable a vertical assembling of the elements can be the solution as the windows are often placed in a straight line above each other. In the project

  16. Integration of active thermography into the assessment of cultural heritage buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maierhofer, Christiane; Röllig, Mathias; Krankenhagen, Rainer

    2010-10-01

    Applications of infrared thermography in civil engineering are not limited to the identification of heat losses in building envelopes. Active infrared thermography methods enable structural investigations of building elements with one-sided access up to a depth of about 10 cm. Masonry and especially historical masonry has a very heterogeneous structure containing several different materials (brick, stone, mortar, plaster, wood, metal, etc.) with various thermal properties. As many classes of damage originate from defects that are close to the surface, active thermography is in general very well suited to assessing different test problems in cultural heritage buildings. In this paper, the physical background, equipment, environmental influences and material properties are discussed. Several application results are presented. It is shown how active thermography can be integrated into a holistic approach for the assessment of historical structures.

  17. A Solar Atlas for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Electricity Resource Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Nielsen, Steffen; Sperling, Karl

    While photovoltaic energy gathers momentum as power costs increase and panel costs decrease, the total technical and economic potentials for building integrated solar energy in Denmark remain largely unidentified. The current net metering feed-in scheme is restricted to 6kW plant size, limiting...... large scale application. This paper presents a solar atlas based on a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of all 2.9 million buildings in the country, combined with a building register. The 1.6 m resolution DEM has been processed into global radiation input, solar energy output and production....... The continuous assessment of solar electricity generation potentials by marginal costs, ownership and plant type presented in the paper may be used for defining long term policies for the development of photovoltaic energy, as well as political instruments such as a multi-tier feed-in tariff....

  18. Smart partition system – A room level support system for integrating smart technologies into existing buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Fen Chien

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a support system called the “Smart Partition System” for infill elements that integrate smart technologies according to the Open Building principles. The design requirements were collected from design practitioners. These design requirements consisted of both architectural and information subsystems. The Smart Partition System was composed of the following multiple levels of smartness: the foundation/core level with an embedded design knowledge in the support system and the utility level with a modular infill that integrate smart technologies. We constructed functional prototypes to demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed support system and some of the possibilities of the smart infill elements. Furthermore, the prototypes were evaluated by design practitioners. We compared our approach with current practices of smart building developments, and we also discussed some future prospects.

  19. PV water pumping: NEOS Corporation recent PV water pumping activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, C.

    1995-11-01

    NEOS Corporation has been very active in PV-powered water pumping, particularly with respect to electric utilities. Most of the recent activity has been through the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN). The PSN is an independent, not-for-profit organization comprised of all types of electric utilities: rural electric coops, public power districts, investor-owned utilities, and power marketing agencies. The PSN`s mission is to work pro-actively to promote utility involvement in PV through education and training. PV information is distributed by the PSN in three primary forms: (1) consultation with PSN technical service representatives: (2) literature generated by the PSN; and (3) literature published by other organizations. The PSN can also provide assistance to members in developing PV customer service programs. The PSN`s product support activities include consolidation of information on existing packaged PV systems and facilitation of the development of new PV product packages that meet utility-defined specifications for cost performance, and reliability. The PSN`s initial product support efforts will be focused on commercially available packaged PV systems for a variety of off-grid applications. In parallel with this effort, if no products exist that meet the PSN`s functional specifications, the PSN will initiate the second phase of product development support process by encouraging the development of new packaged systems. Through these services and product support activities, the PSN anticipates engaging all segments for the PV industry, thus providing benefits to PV systems suppliers as well as local PV service contractors.This paper describes field testing of pv power systems for water pumping.

  20. Increased use of solar energy in commercial buildings by integrating energy storage.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Nina

    2016-01-01

    From a comparison of available thermal energy storage (TES) technologies it can be concluded that the most mature and suitable storage methods for modern commercial buildings in Sweden are storage tanks, either for heat or cold energy, and underground storage solutions such as borehole thermal energy storage (BTES), aquifer storage and energy piles. In this study an integrated solar energy storage system for heating purpose has been designed with BTES, hot water storage tank(s) and solar ther...

  1. INTEGRATING COUNTRY-SPECIFIC CULTURE IN THE BRANDING STRATEGY FOR BUILDING GLOBAL SUCCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra IOANID; Petruta MIHAI; Gheorghe MILITARU

    2014-01-01

    A strong brand is the one that integrates its cultural origins and values with the cultural values of the countries where it operates, building relationships based on trust with the local consumers. The chances for a company to gain share market when starting operations in a new country grows a lot if the management allows enough regional flexibility on how the brands are marketed, according to the cultural characteristics of the potential local customers. In the actual globalized business e...

  2. See-Through Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photonic Reflectors for Tandem and Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Heiniger, Leo-Philipp

    2013-08-21

    See-through dye-sensitized solar cells with 1D photonic crystal Bragg reflector photoanodes show an increase in peak external quantum efficiency of 47% while still maintaining high fill factors, resulting in an almost 40% increase in power conversion efficiency. These photoanodes are ideally suited for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy—Enabling Innovative Solutions for Buildings of the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [Energy and Transportation Science Division,Oak Ridge National Laboratory,One Bethel Valley Road,Building 3147,P.O. Box 2008, M.S.—6070,Oak Ridge, TN 37831e-mail: biswask@ornl.gov; Rose, James [College of Architecture and Design,The University of Tennessee,Knoxville, TN 37996e-mail: jrose18@utk.edu; Eikevik, Leif [Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP,Chicago, IL 60604e-mail: leif.eikevik@som.com; Guerguis, Maged [Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP,Chicago, IL 60604e-mail: maged.guerguis@som.com; Enquist, Philip [Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP,Chicago, IL 60604,Governor' s Chair for Energy and Urbanism at theUniversity of Tennessee,Knoxville, TN 37996e-mail: Philip.Enquist@som.com; Lee, Brian [Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP,Chicago, IL 60604e-mail: Brian.Lee@som.com; Love, Lonnie [Energy and Transportation Science Division, Oak RidgeNational Laboratory,Oak Ridge, TN 37831e-mail: lovelj@ornl.gov; Green, Johney [Associate Laboratory Director at the National RenewableEnergy Laboratory,Golden, CO 80401e-mail: Johney.Green@nrel.gov; Jackson, Roderick [Energy and Transportation Science Division,Oak Ridge National Laboratory,Oak Ridge, TN 37831e-mail: jacksonrk@ornl.gov

    2016-11-10

    The additive manufacturing integrated energy (AMIE) demonstration utilized three-dimensional (3D) printing as an enabling technology in the pursuit of construction methods that use less material, create less waste, and require less energy to build and operate. Developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with the Governor's Chair for Energy and Urbanism, a research partnership of the University of Tennessee (UT) and ORNL led by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM), AMIE embodies a suite of innovations demonstrating a transformative future for designing, constructing, and operating buildings. Subsequent, independent UT College of Architecture and Design studios taught in collaboration with SOM professionals also explored forms and shapes based on biological systems that naturally integrate structure and enclosure. AMIE, a compact microdwelling developed by ORNL research scientists and SOM designers, incorporates next-generation modified atmosphere insulation (MAI), self-shading windows, and the ability to produce, store, and share solar power with a paired hybrid vehicle. It establishes for the first time, a platform for investigating solutions integrating the energy systems in buildings, vehicles, and the power grid. The project was built with broad-based support from local industry and national material suppliers. Designed and constructed in a span of only 9 months, AMIE 1.0 serves as an example of the rapid innovation that can be accomplished when research, design, academic, and industrial partners work in collaboration toward the common goal of a more sustainable and resilient built environment.

  4. Integrating Building Energy Efficiency with Land Use and Transportation Planning in Jinan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Duduta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth occurring in the urban regions of China, it is critical to address issues of sustainability through practices that engender holistic energy efficient solutions. In this paper, we present results from a collaborative design project carried out with planning officials from the city of Jinan (population 3.4 million, for the Luokou district, a 3.1 km2 (1.2 mi2 area to the north of the CBD that is expected to house 100,000–130,000 people by 2020. By integrating sustainable building design, land use, urban design, and transportation, our proposal identified opportunities for improving energy efficiency that might have been overlooked by considering buildings and transportation separately. Mixed land uses and walkable neighborhoods were proposed along with highly differentiated street designs, intended to carry different traffic loads and prioritize diverse travel modes. Street widths and building heights were adjusted to maximize the potential for passive solar heating and daylight use within buildings. The district’s environmental performance, analyzed using building energy evaluation and traffic micro simulation models, showed that the design would reduce energy loads by over 25% compared to business as usual. While the proposal complied with national and local policies, and had far better energy performance than conventional designs, the proposal ultimately was not accepted by local officials because initial costs to the developers were higher than for conventional designs.

  5. Three approaches to integrating building performance simulations tools in architecture and engineering undergraduate education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, P.P. [Roger Williams Univ., Bristol, RI (United States). School of Architecture, Art and Historic Preservation; Thomas, C.R. [Roger Williams Univ., Bristol, RI (United States). School of Engineering, Computing and Construction Management

    2008-07-01

    This paper described past and on-going teaching experiences at Roger Williams University in Bristol, Rhode Island. In particular, the university has offered several new architecture courses where building simulation tools have played a key role in explaining hard-to-grasp physical phenomena at play in a building. The university also offers a new course to both undergraduate architecture and engineering students to promote collaboration between these two disciplines. The course focuses on the elements of simulation tools that are adapted to sustainable building design. The paper concluded with the advantages and limitations of these teaching methods and provided perspectives to future improvement of some of the pedagogical models. It was concluded that in general, the integration of building simulation tools in the architecture studios and courses have provided students with valuable insight into the dynamic nature of the building environment and about comfort, particularly when the software have transient simulation capabilities. The simulation tools expand the realm of the design beyond the mere visual. Multiple simulation runs of design options help reinforce in the student the basic notion of the iterative nature of the design process. 17 refs.

  6. Sensorless PV Array Diagnostic Method for Residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu; Mathe, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a temperature and irradiance sensorless diagnostic method suitable for small residential PV installations, focusing on detection of partial shadows. The method works by detection of failures in crystalline silicone PV arrays by concomitant monitoring of some of their key parame...

  7. Net Present Value and Payback Period for Building Integrated Photovoltaic Projects in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Hau Thum

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic systems (PV offer a clean, alternative energy source that is very suitable in the Malaysian climate, and consistent with the peak production and high demand in power in Malaysia. However, the application of PV systems in Malaysia is still low. The objective of this research is to determine the total cost, price/kWp system, net present value (NPV, and payback period for PV project in Malaysia. All seven projects were selected and used for the analysis and named as Project 1 to 7. The findings from this research indicate that all seven projects show a negative NPV value and payback period is more than thirty eight years. Four projects even get payback period of more than fifty years. However, an interesting projection on the price reduction shows that a positive NPV is achievable if the price/kWp system reduced to RM11,000 and RM4,000 for government subsidized and non- subsidized projects respectively. The estimation on payback period is between four to eight years with the price reduction of 85% to 50% respectively from the current market price.Global warming, climate change, environment pollution and demand for energy represent critically issues with a wide array of potential environmental disasters affecting people health and safety. These issues are opening up new opportunities for utilization of renewable energy resources like solar photovoltaic system (PV. PV system has been widely applied in many countries such as German, Spain, Japan, US, UK and Australia but interestingly the application is rather low in Malaysia. Al though Malaysia is a tropical country and located in the equator with sunlight all year round, the development of PV is still in small scale and at the beginning stage. This study is designed to find out the capital costs needed to install a PV system in Malaysia, and serve as a guideline for public when considering a PV system.

  8. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  9. Solar Eclipse: The rise and "dusk" of the Dutch PV Innovation System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negro, S.O.; Vasseur, V.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Hekkert, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we take the theoretical perspective of innovation system dynamics and apply this to Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy technology in the Netherlands. The history of the development of the PV innovation system is analysed in terms of seven key processes that are essential for the build-up

  10. Research Status and Solution for Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) Solar System%光伏/热(PV/T)太阳能系统的研究现状及解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何永泰; 肖丽仙; 刘晋豪; 李雷

    2014-01-01

    The research status of the photovoltaic/thermal ( PV/T) solar system is introduced in the paper. The cause of poor practicability for the PV/T solar system is analyzed. In order to improver the practicability of the PV/T solar system, the solutions ( integrated condenser in PV/T solar system, opti-mized the structure of PV/T collector, balance of the conversion efficiency and the operation temperature, perfection evaluation method) are proposed based on the structure and theory of the PV/T collector.%本文介绍了PV/T太阳能系统的研究现状,分析了导致PV/T太阳能系统实用性差的原因。根据PV/T太阳能系统的结构特点及其相关理论,提出聚光技术与PV/T太阳能系统集成、 PV/T集热器结构优化、 PV/T太阳能系统转换效率与工作温度之间的平衡及完善PV/T太阳能特性评价体系的解决方案。实验证明方案有利于提高PV/T太阳能系统的实用性。

  11. Uncertainty and Evaluation of Impacts Modeling at Regional Scales in Integrated Assessment: the Case of Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L.; Zhou, Y.; Eom, J.; Kyle, P.; Daly, D.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated assessment (IA) models have traditionally focused on the evaluation of climate mitigation strategies. However, in recent years, efforts to consider both impacts and mitigation simultaneously have expanded dramatically. Because climate impacts are inherently regional in scale, the incorporation of impacts into IA modeling - which is inherently global in character - raises a range of challenges beyond the already substantial challenges associated with modeling impacts. In particular, it raises questions about how to best evaluate and diagnose the resulting representations of impacts, and how to characterize the uncertainty surrounding associated projections. This presentation will provide an overview of the challenges and uncertainties surrounding modeling climate impacts on building heating and cooling demands in an integrated assessment modeling framework - the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The presentation will first discuss the issues associated with modeling building heating and cooling degree days in IA models. It will review research using spatially explicit climate and population information to inform a standard version of GCAM with fourteen geopolitical regions. It will discuss a new subregional version of GCAM in which building energy consumption is resolved at a fifty-state level. The presentation will also characterize efforts to link GCAM to more technologically resolved buildings models to gain insights about demands at higher temporal resolution. The second portion of the presentation will discuss the uncertainties associated with projections of building heating and cooling demands at various scales. A range of key uncertainties are important. This includes a range of uncertainties surrounding the nature of changes to global and regional climates, with particular emphasis on the uncertainty surrounding temperature projections. In addition, the linkage in this research between human and Earth systems means that the projections are

  12. Building the Capacity for Climate Services: Thoughts on Training Next Generation Climate Science Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G. M.; Brugger, J.; Gordon, E. S.; Barsugli, J. J.; Rangwala, I.; Travis, W.

    2015-12-01

    For more than a decade, stakeholder needs assessments and reports, including the recent National Climate Assessment, have pointed out the need for climate "science translators" or "science integrators" who can help bridge the gap between the cultures and contexts of researchers and decision-makers. Integration is important for exchanging and enhancing knowledge, building capacity to use climate information in decision making, and fostering more robust planning for decision-making in the context of climate change. This talk will report on the characteristics of successful climate science integrators, and a variety of models for training the upcoming generation of climate science integrators. Science integration characteristics identified by an experienced vanguard in the U.S. include maintaining credibility in both the scientific and stakeholder communities, a basic respect for stakeholders demonstrated through active listening, and a deep understanding of the decision-making context. Drawing upon the lessons of training programs for Cooperative Extension, public health professionals, and natural resource managers, we offer ideas about training next generation climate science integrators. Our model combines training and development of skills in interpersonal relations, communication of science, project implementation, education techniques and practices - integrated with a strong foundation in disciplinary knowledge.

  13. Design, production and materials of PV-powered consumer products - The case of mass production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Akkerman, R.

    2005-01-01

    Though many options exist, the application of integrated PV systems in mass produced consumer products is still unusual and rare [1]. Therefore, to date, design and manufacturing aspects of product-integrated PV systems have been explored only to a very limited extent. The requirements for the desig

  14. Integrated energy renovation of multi-sterey buildings. Pre-design; Integreret energirenovering af etagebolig. Skitseprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    In the present project a predesign for an energy efficient renovation of a multi storey housing in the city of Vejle has been developed. The project is based on the experiences from IEA Task 20 'Solar Energy in Building Renovation' and has been coordinated with the ongoing work of Task 20 regarding the development of new and improved concepts for the use of solar energy in building renovation. The key goals of the energy conscious design, which was developed through an integrated design process, are: Implementation of newly developed flexible facade concept, improved thermal comfort and air quality conditions, substantial energy savings, facade integration of solar energy components and design development through an integrated process. The main energy elements are: Usage optimised energy efficient glazed balconies, unventilated solar mass wall with transparent insulation, ventilated solar walls, convector integrated fresh air in-lets and demand controlled moisture regulated ventilation. Besides the energy related aspects, the project has focussed on logistical aspects of ecology and modular mass production. Therefore, also Life Cycle Cost analyses have been an important tool in the design phase. The energy demand for heating and ventilation is expected to be reduced by 50% compared to a standard renovation. The renovation has been implemented during 2000 and it is expected to be finished in the middle of 2002. (BA)

  15. Development of an integrated system of budgeting machine-building enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Polischuk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is reasonably argued the complex of theoretical and methodological principles for creating an integrated budgeting system designed to create flexible and efficient management system. As part of this goal the problems of investigation of links between budgeting and strategic management of the machine-building enterprises and conditions for integration of budgeting and strategic planning are solved. Definition of the notion of integrated budgeting and implementation stages are given. The result of the comprehensive study of the principles of creating the integrated budgeting system in the machine-building enterprises is a possibility of implementation of strategic initiatives while saving company’s resources, as well as mutually coordination and link of the budgets at all levels for both strategic management and budgeting levels, and for the company as a whole implementing strategic objectives. It is argued that for evaluation of company results in implementation of strategic goals it is necessary to transform strategy into developed action plans with defined key performance indicators reflected in budgets in quantitative and quality figures that can measure depth of the achievement of strategic and tactical goals.

  16. "Watts per person" paradigm to design net zero energy buildings: Examining technology interventions and integrating occupant feedback to reduce plug loads in a commercial building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi Kim, Mika

    As building envelopes have improved due to more restrictive energy codes, internal loads have increased largely due to the proliferation of computers, electronics, appliances, imaging and audio visual equipment that continues to grow in commercial buildings. As the dependency on the internet for information and data transfer increases, the electricity demand will pose a challenge to design and operate Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Plug Loads (PLs) as a proportion of the building load has become the largest non-regulated building energy load and represents the third highest electricity end-use in California's commercial office buildings, accounting for 23% of the total building electricity consumption (Ecova 2011,2). In the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO2008), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that presents long-term projections of energy supply and demand through 2030 states that office equipment and personal computers are the "fastest growing electrical end uses" in the commercial sector. This thesis entitled "Watts Per Person" Paradigm to Design Net Zero Energy Buildings, measures the implementation of advanced controls and behavioral interventions to study the reduction of PL energy use in the commercial sector. By integrating real world data extracted from an energy efficient commercial building of its energy use, the results produce a new methodology on estimating PL energy use by calculating based on "Watts Per Person" and analyzes computational simulation methods to design NZEBs.

  17. A microsystem integration platform dedicated to build multi-chip-neural interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Amer E; Gosselin, Benoit; Sawan, Mohamad

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present an electrical discharge machining (EDM) technique associated with electrochemical steps to construct an appropriate biological interface to neural tissues. The presented microprobe design permits to short the time of production compared to available techniques, while improving the integrity of the electrodes. In addition, we are using a 3D approach to create compact and independent microsystem integration platefrom incorporating array of electrodes and signal processing chips. System-in-package and die-stacking are used to connect the integrated circuits and the array of electrodes on the platform. This approach enables to build a device that will fit in a volume smaller than 1.7 x 1.7 x 3.0 mm(3). This demonstrates the possibility of creating small devices that are suitable to fit in restricted areas for interfacing the brain.

  18. Structural Integrity Evaluation of Cold Neutron Laboratory Building by Design Change of Guide Shielding Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sangik; Kim, Youngki; Kim, Harkrho

    2007-06-15

    This report summarizes the results of the structural integrity evaluation for the cold neutron laboratory building by design change of guide shielding room. The design of the guide shielding room was changed by making its structure members in normal concrete (2.3 g/cc) instead of heavy concrete (3.5 g/cc) because the heavy concrete could be not supplied to meet its design specification. Therefore, it was decided that the guide shielding room is made of the normal concrete. And, the shielding performance of the normal concrete was recalculated to confirm satisfying its design specification, which is of a 9000 zone according to HANARO radiation region classification. The change makes the shielding wall thicker than existing design, and then it is caused to qualify the structural integrity evaluation of the CNLB. Finally, the structural integrity of the CNLB was re-evaluated by considering the design change of the guide shielding room.

  19. Energy-Efficient and Comfortable Buildings through Multivariate Integrated Control (ECoMIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birru, Dagnachew [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Wen, Yao-Jung [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Rubinstein, Francis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, Robert D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-10-28

    This project aims to develop an integrated control solution for enhanced energy efficiency and user comfort in commercial buildings. The developed technology is a zone-based control framework that minimizes energy usage while maintaining occupants’ visual and thermal comfort through control of electric lights, motorized venetian blinds and thermostats. The control framework is designed following a modular, scalable and flexible architecture to facilitate easy integration with exiting building management systems. The control framework contains two key algorithms: 1) the lighting load balancing algorithm and 2) the thermostat control algorithm. The lighting load balancing algorithm adopts a model-based closed-loop control approach to determine the optimal electric light and venetian blind settings. It is formulated into an optimization problem with minimizing lighting-related energy consumptions as the objective and delivering adequate task light and preventing daylight glare as the constraints. The thermostat control algorithm is based on a well-established thermal comfort model and formulated as a root-finding problem to dynamically determine the optimal thermostat setpoint for both energy savings and improved thermal comfort. To address building-wide scalability, a system architecture was developed for the zone-based control technology. Three levels of services are defined in the architecture: external services, facility level services and zone level services. The zone-level service includes the control algorithms described above as well as the corresponding interfaces, profiles, sensors and actuators to realize the zone controller. The facility level services connect to the zones through a backbone network, handle supervisory level information and controls, and thus facilitate building-wide scalability. The external services provide communication capability to entities outside of the building for grid interaction and remote access. Various aspects of the

  20. Sensitivity Analysis and Uncertainty Characterization of Subnational Building Energy Demand in an Integrated Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M. J.; Daly, D.; McJeon, H.; Zhou, Y.; Clarke, L.; Rice, J.; Whitney, P.; Kim, S.

    2012-12-01

    Residential and commercial buildings are a major source of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the United States, accounting for 41% of energy consumption and 40% of carbon emissions in 2011. Integrated assessment models (IAMs) historically have been used to estimate the impact of energy consumption on greenhouse gas emissions at the national and international level. Increasingly they are being asked to evaluate mitigation and adaptation policies that have a subnational dimension. In the United States, for example, building energy codes are adopted and enforced at the state and local level. Adoption of more efficient appliances and building equipment is sometimes directed or actively promoted by subnational governmental entities for mitigation or adaptation to climate change. The presentation reports on new example results from the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) IAM, one of a flexibly-coupled suite of models of human and earth system interactions known as the integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM) system. iRESM can evaluate subnational climate policy in the context of the important uncertainties represented by national policy and the earth system. We have added a 50-state detailed U.S. building energy demand capability to GCAM that is sensitive to national climate policy, technology, regional population and economic growth, and climate. We are currently using GCAM in a prototype stakeholder-driven uncertainty characterization process to evaluate regional climate mitigation and adaptation options in a 14-state pilot region in the U.S. upper Midwest. The stakeholder-driven decision process involves several steps, beginning with identifying policy alternatives and decision criteria based on stakeholder outreach, identifying relevant potential uncertainties, then performing sensitivity analysis, characterizing the key uncertainties from the sensitivity analysis, and propagating and quantifying their impact on the relevant decisions. In the

  1. An implementation of co-simulation for performance prediction of innovative integrated HVAC systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trcka, Marija; Wetter, Michael; Hensen, Jan L.M.

    2010-07-01

    Integrated performance simulation of buildings and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can help reducing energy consumption and increasing level of occupant comfort. However, no singe building performance simulation (BPS) tool offers sufficient capabilities and flexibilities to accommodate the ever-increasing complexity and rapid innovations in building and system technologies. One way to alleviate this problem is to use co-simulation. The co-simulation approach represents a particular case of simulation scenario where at least two simulators solve coupled differential-algebraic systems of equations and exchange data that couples these equations during the time integration. This paper elaborates on issues important for co-simulation realization and discusses multiple possibilities to justify the particular approach implemented in a co-simulation prototype. The prototype is verified and validated against the results obtained from the traditional simulation approach. It is further used in a case study for the proof-of-concept, to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight its benefits. Stability and accuracy of different coupling strategies are analyzed to give a guideline for the required coupling frequency. The paper concludes by defining requirements and recommendations for generic cosimulation implementations.

  2. Building integration of thin-film photovoltaics. New architectural possibilities and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawietz, Silke [University of Catania, Roma (Italy). Faculty of Architecture

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of the paper is the advanced research in photovoltaics and their integration into buildings, in particular the thin-film photovoltaics into bioclimatic architectural projects. Buildings are responsible for 50% of the world's generation of CO2.The urgent task is to forge an environmentally responsible modern architecture, to use technology to achieve beneficial ends. The further development of the photovoltaics technology, in combination with the development of the area of Building integration of photovoltaics (BIPV), are the basis of this paper. The results of the research, undertaken for the thin-film BIPV are presented. Key features of this technology are lower cost and higher aesthetical values, making this an important new area of research. The research consists in an exploration of the architectural possibilities of the thin-film Photovoltaic technology with high-profile architects and engineers. The results of the project underline the importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration between architects, industry and engineers. (orig.)

  3. Identification of shear buildings using an instrumental variable method and linear integral filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Antonio; Garrido, Rubén; Alvarez-Icaza, Luis

    2016-12-01

    This paper develops a method for estimating the parameters of a seismically excited building. Acceleration measurements of the ground and of the building floors, containing offsets and noise, are used for identification purposes. The proposed scheme estimates the complete model of the building if all the floors are equipped with accelerometers. Moreover, it also estimates a reduced model of the structure if only some floors are instrumented. The methodology is based on the combined use of the Instrumental Variable method and Linear Integral Filters. The Instrumental Variable method employs as instrument an auxiliary model of the structure, and it is able to directly identify the continuous-time structure model using discrete-time data without resorting on model transformations from continuous-time to discrete-time, and vice-versa. Using Linear Integral Filters allows obtaining a linear in the parameters expression that depends only on acceleration measurements suitable for parameter identification purposes. These filters eliminate measurement offsets and attenuate high-frequency measurement noise. The above features together with the use of the Instrumental variable method reduce the likelihood of biased parameter estimates. Experiments on a testbed employing a reduced-scale five-story structure allow comparing the results obtained using the Instrumental Variable method and those produced by the standard Least Squares method.

  4. Towards Integrated Team Practice: A Case of Malaysian Industrialised Building System (IBS Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nawi Mohd Nasrun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems associated with fragmentation in the traditional construction process, such as isolation of professionals, lack of co-ordination between design and construction, and the sequential manner of its processes, has impacted on construction performance leading to a lack of integration, wastage, low productivity and efficiency. Integrated team practice is perceived as paramount. Unfortunately, there has a limitation of study focus on the dimension of fully integrated team especially for Malaysian Industrialised Building System (IBS projects. Accordingly, this research paper explores and identifies the dimension of fully integrated team from the traditional approach and conduct a validation process for implementing it in Malaysian IBS projects. The research presented uses interviews case study to obtain qualitative data. It was found that the dimension of fully integrated team from the traditional construction process could apply to the Malaysian IBS projects. Suggestions on how an integrated team practice in IBS design and construction process in order to minimise the fragmentation gaps will be concluded.

  5. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-06-16

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them.

  6. Integrated canopy, building energy and radiosity model for 3D urban design

    CERN Document Server

    Burdet, Etienne; Morand, Denis; Diab, Youssef

    2014-01-01

    We present an integrated, three dimensional, model of urban canopy, building energy and radiosity, for early stage urban designs and test it on four urban morphologies. All sub-models share a common descriptions of the urban morphology, similar to 3D urban design master plans and have simple parameters. The canopy model is a multilayer model, with a new discrete layer approach that does not rely on simplified geometry such as canyon or regular arrays. The building energy model is a simplified RC equivalent model, with no hypotheses on internal zoning or wall composition. We use the CitySim software for the radiosity model. We study the effects of convexity, the number of buildings and building height, at constant density and thermal characteristics. Our results suggest that careful three dimensional morphology design can reduce heat demand by a factor of 2, especially by improving insolation of lower levels. The most energy efficient morphology in our simulations has both the highest surface/volume ratio and ...

  7. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Querner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species, the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum, the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne, different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp., moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella, Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina and booklice (Psocoptera can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them.

  8. A CSCW SYSTEM FOR BUILDING REVIEWING BY INTEGRATING GIS WITH OA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The process of urban building reviewing is a collaborative work by a group of urban planning staffs and land managers who are working with different departments of a or ganization. There are three ingredients for improving the work efficiency, i. e., agile commu nication and interactive mechanisms, good information, effective processing and visualizing tools. In order to build a computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) system in Urban Planning and Land Administration Bureau in Changzhou Municipality, GIS was integrated with office automation (OA). The workflow and organizational structure had been re-engi neered to meet the requirement of application of the new technology. Federated databases were constructed by assembling disparate sources of heterogeneous spatial and attribute data. Easy access to the data by contents was developed for promoting information sharing within the organization. Specific desktop spatial data handling tools were provided for delineating land lots or building layouts on large-scale digital maps. Office automation functions, includ ing applications registering, reasonableness checking, opinions giving and exchanging, were developed and they permit printing and documents filing. The work efficiency in the organi zation has been improved by introducing the computer-based collaborative building reviewing system.

  9. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented....... The main elements of the PV control structure are: - a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) algorithm using the incremental conductance method; - a synchronization method using the phase-locked-loop (PLL), based on delay; - the input power control using the dc voltage controller and power feed......-forward; - and the grid current controller implemented in two different ways, using the classical proportional integral (PI) and the novel proportional resonant (PR) controllers. The control strategy was tested experimentally on 1.5 kW PV inverter....

  10. Development of a low-cost integrated 20-kW ac solar tracking sub- array for grid-connected PV power system applications. Phase 1, Annual technical report, 11 July 1995--31 July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.; West, R.; Fourer, G.; Whalen, W.; Van Loo, M.; Duran, G. [Utility Power Group, Chatsworth, CA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The overall goal of this effort is to reduce the installed cost of utility scale grid connected photovoltaic power systems. The focus of the effort is on ``BOS`` (Balance-Of-System) component manufacturing technology, which essentially involves all PV power system engineering, manufacturing, assembly and construction tasks from the receipt of a PV module to the deliver of grid connected electricity.

  11. Architecturally sensitive retrofitting of PV to a residential block in Greece to reduce its carbon footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panopoulou, Ismini

    Photovoltaic power is a unique energy source, with wide distribution potential, which can be integrated within the fabric of individual buildings, transforming the power generation in a less large-scale and regionally located issue. As a result, photovoltaic power is a free, clean and silent electrical supply that can be introduced into cities and residential areas. Over the past years, grid-connected, distributed photovoltaic power systems have become an explosively growing sector worldwide. This trend is expected to be continued in the future and solar systems may become a common building element of building construction. In Greece, where the main focus of the project is concentrated, the extended sunshine and the incentives of the new Renewable Energy Sources law of 2006, give a different perspective in photovoltaic investments. In the case study of Vera Water Residence complex in Athens, the viability of an architecturally sensitive retrofitting of PV was examined, from both financial and environmental aspects. The project was concentrated in one of the complex's buildings which was modelled in TAS simulator in order for the annual heating and cooling loads to be estimated. A closer to the reality estimation of electricity demand was made through the annual electricity bills of the building. The proposed building integrated photovoltaic system was designed in terms of following and respecting the aesthetics of the existing architecture of the complex while being as efficient as possible. The annual energy output and C02 emissions reductions were then calculated through RETScreen software analysis according to the location of the project and the characteristics of the PV system. Finally, an economic analysis has been included to the study, considering the installation cost, the annual savings and the embodied energy of the system, in order for the payback period of the investment to be determined. Finally, a small sensitivity analysis concerning the effect of

  12. Integration between GBC Historic Building® and BIM: the methodological innovation for conservation project workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Ferrari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of design with the support of BIM software represents ideas and forms that result from interdisciplinary integration. The combination of different instrumentation allows the architectural surfaces modeling to develop a 3D model similar to the real architectural characteristics. Through this you can create a database of information collected in situ. The complexity of the data, discretized into a single shared database, sets a level of attention to the conservative project according to the GBC Historic Building® rating system.The use of BIM software in relation to the assessment system allows designers to formulate measurable innovations in the project phase, in the construction phase, and in the entire building life cycle.

  13. A new simulation model building process for use in dynamic systems integration research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Buttrill, Carey S.; Zeiler, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    A framework to build simulation models for aircraft dynamic systems integration is described. The objective of the framework is increased simulation model fidelity and reduced time required to develop and modify these models. The equations of motion for an elastic aircraft and their impact on the framework are discussed in broad terms. A software tool which automatically generates FORTRAN routines for tabular data lookups, the language used to develop a simulation model, and the structures for passing information into a simulation are discussed. A simulation variable nomenclature is presented. The framework has been applied to build an open-loop F/A-18 simulation model. This example model is used to illustrate model reduction issues. Current deficiencies in the framework are identified as areas for future research.

  14. A methodology to quantify and optimize time complementarity between hydropower and solar PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Ioannis; Szabó, Sándor; Monforti-Ferrario, Fabio; Huld, Thomas; Bódis, Katalin

    2016-04-01

    Hydropower and solar energy are expected to play a major role in achieving renewable energy sources' (RES) penetration targets. However, the integration of RES in the energy mix needs to overcome the technical challenges that are related to grid's operation. Therefore, there is an increasing need to explore approaches where different RES will operate under a synergetic approach. Ideally, hydropower and solar PV systems can be jointly developed in such systems where their electricity output profiles complement each other as much as possible and minimize the need for reserve capacities and storage costs. A straightforward way to achieve that is by optimizing the complementarity among RES systems both over time and spatially. The present research developed a methodology that quantifies the degree of time complementarity between small-scale hydropower stations and solar PV systems and examines ways to increase it. The methodology analyses high-resolution spatial and temporal data for solar radiation obtained from the existing PVGIS model (available online at: http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis/) and associates it with hydrological information of water inflows to a hydropower station. It builds on an exhaustive optimization algorithm that tests possible alterations of the PV system installation (azimuth, tilt) aiming to increase the complementarity, with minor compromises in the total solar energy output. The methodology has been tested in several case studies and the results indicated variations among regions and different hydraulic regimes. In some cases a small compromise in the solar energy output showed significant increases of the complementarity, while in other cases the effect is not that strong. Our contribution aims to present these findings in detail and initiate a discussion on the role and gains of increased complementarity between solar and hydropower energies. Reference: Kougias I, Szabó S, Monforti-Ferrario F, Huld T, Bódis K (2016). A methodology for

  15. Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtezion, S.

    2015-12-01

    Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building Senay Habtezion (shabtezion@start.org) / Hassan Virji (hvirji@start.org)Global Change SySTem for Analysis, Training and Research (START) (www.start.org) 2000 Florida Avenue NW, Suite 200 Washington, DC 20009 USA As part of the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) project partnership effort to promote use of earth observations in advancing scientific knowledge, START works to bridge capacity needs related to earth observations (EOs) and their applications in the developing world. GOFC-GOLD regional networks, fostered through the support of regional and thematic workshops, have been successful in (1) enabling participation of scientists for developing countries and from the US to collaborate on key GOFC-GOLD and Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC) issues, including NASA Global Data Set validation and (2) training young developing country scientists to gain key skills in EOs data management and analysis. Members of the regional networks are also engaged and reengaged in other EOs programs (e.g. visiting scientists program; data initiative fellowship programs at the USGS EROS Center and Boston University), which has helped strengthen these networks. The presentation draws from these experiences in advocating for integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building through the lens of the GOFC-GOLD partnership effort. Specifically, this presentation describes the role of the GODC-GOLD partnership in nurturing organic networks of scientists and EOs practitioners in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America.

  16. Integrity assessment of grouted posttensioning cables and reinforced concrete of a nuclear containment building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenton B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Containment Buildings of CANDU Nuclear Generating Stations were designed to house nuclear reactors and process equipment and also to provide confinement of releases from a potential nuclear accident such as a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA. To meet this design requirement, a post-tensioning system was designed to induce compressive stresses in the structure to counteract the internal design pressure. The CANDU reactor building at Gentilly-1 (G-1, Quebec, Canada (250 MWe was built in the early 1970s and is currently in a decommissioned state. The structure at present is under surveillance and monitoring. In the year 2000, a field investigation was conducted as part of a condition assessment and corrosion was detected in some of the grouted post-tension cable strands. However, no further work was done at that time to determine the cause, nature, impact and extent of the corrosion. An investigation of the Gentilly-1 containment building is currently underway to assess the condition of grouted post-tensioning cables and reinforced concrete. At two selected locations, concrete and steel reinforcements were removed from the containment building wall to expose horizontal cables. Individual cable strands and reinforcement bars were instrumented and measurements were taken in-situ before removing them for forensic examination and destructive testing to determine the impact of ageing and corrosion. Concrete samples were also removed and tested in a laboratory. The purpose of the field investigation and laboratory testing, using this structure as a test bed, was also to collect material ageing data and to develop potential Nondestructive Examination (NDE methods to monitor Containment Building Integrity. The paper describes the field work conducted and the test results obtained for concrete, reinforcement and post-tensioning cables.

  17. Spray coated silver nanowires as transparent electrodes in OPVs for Building Integrated Photovoltaics applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Ziqian; Stoichkov, Vasil; Horie, Masaki; Brousseau, Emmanuel Bruno Jean-Paul; Kettle, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The application of spray coated silver nanowires (AgNWs) onto OPVs for building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPVs) is demonstrated. By using AgNWs with PEDOT:PSS, a transparent conductive layer was demonstrated on top of an P3HT:PCBM active layer with a sheet resistance of 30 Ω/⎕ for 90% transparency. This has been applied to two separate configurations; semi-transparent OPVs for solar glazing applications and OPVs onto an opaque substrate, namely steel. For the latter, a novel technique to pla...

  18. Integrated building design system%集成化建筑设计系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江亿; 洪天真

    1995-01-01

    集成化建筑设计系统(Integrated Building Design System,IBDS)是当今计算机辅助建筑设计领域的一个十分活跃的课题.近年来,IBDS有较大发展,并逐渐引起学术界和工业界的重视.本文分析IBDS的背景,介绍IBDS的概念,讨论IBDS的相关技术,最后综述IBDS的发展状况.

  19. INTEGRATED PURIFICATION OF VENTILATED AIR IN AIR LAYERS OF DAMP BUILDING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shitov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Intensive wear of the structure bearing elements in premises with high moisture content in ventilated air is associated with cyclic changes in temperature and humidity indicators of steam-air environment; hence, the problem of ventilated air treatment in such premises is topical.Results. The design of device for integrated purification of atmospheric ventilated air from fine-dispersed pollutants in premise with high moisture content in indoor air is developed.Conclusions. The proposed device provides reliable and long-term operation of bearing building elements.

  20. Efficacy of integrated green design strategies in meeting green building criteria: A South Africa Study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available of a green building using the Green Star SA Office Design v1 (GBCSA 2008) rating tool. Green-based design in the context of this study means designing “the human habitat with a sensitivity to ecological principles” (Wines 2008a:14); “a more socially... responsible and environmentally integrated approach” (Wines 2008b:14); design that mirrors “nature’s deep interconnections in our own epistemology of design” (Van der Ryn and Cowan 1996a:x); “any form of design that minimises environmentally destructive...

  1. Speedometers for PV generators; Drehzahlmesser fuer PV-Generatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritze, Peter; Weinreich, Bernhard [Solarschmiede GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Engineering-Abt.

    2011-05-31

    To measure the generator power of an installed PV system, it is not enough to look into the specifications of hte module producers. Fast and independent data can be provided by characteristic curve meters.

  2. PV in a sports arena; PV im Hexenkessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeche, B.

    2008-05-19

    The German soccer club Werder Bremen is reconstructing its stadium. Apart from higher spectator comfort and a better atmosphere, there will also be PV systems on the roof and external walls of the arena. (orig.)

  3. Working Together: Building Successful Policy and Program Partnerships for Immigrant Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els de Graauw

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Supporting and investing in the integration of immigrants and their children is critically important to US society. Successful integration contributes to the nation’s economic vitality, its civic and political health, and its cultural diversity. But although the United States has a good track record on immigrant integration, outcomes could be better. A national, coherent immigrant integration policy infrastructure is needed. This infrastructure can build on long-standing partnerships between civil society and US public institutions. Such partnerships, advanced under Republican- and Democratic-led administrations, were initially established to facilitate European immigrants’ integration in large American cities, and later extended to help refugees fleeing religious persecution and war. In the twenty-first century, we must expand this foundation by drawing on the growing activism by cities and states, new civil society initiatives, and public-private partnerships that span the country. A robust national integration policy infrastructure must be vertically integrated to include different levels of government and horizontally applied across public and private sector actors and different types of immigrant destinations. The resultant policy should leverage public-private partnerships, drawing on the energy, ideas, and work of community-based nonprofit organizations as well as the leadership and support of philanthropy, business, education, faith-based, and other institutions. A new coordinating office to facilitate interagency cooperation is needed in the executive branch; the mandate and programs of the Office of Refugee Resettlement need to be secured and where possible expanded; the outreach and coordinating role of the Office of Citizenship needs to be extended, including through a more robust grant program to community-based organizations; and Congress needs to develop legislation and appropriate funding for a comprehensive integration

  4. Measurement of the Level of Vertical Integration of PV Enterprises and Its Impact on Business Performance%光伏企业纵向一体化的水平测度及对经营绩效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祥; 王经亚; 周敏

    2016-01-01

    文章从光伏制造产业链的特征出发设计科学测度方法,得出2008-2014年间20家光伏企业纵向一体化程度的面板数据。在此基础上运用变系数面板数据模型分析了纵向一体化对企业经营绩效影响,研究表明:大多数光伏企业通过实施纵向一体化能有效提升盈利能力,下游企业往往比上游企业能从新增投资中获得更多回报,光伏行业总体价格指数与大多数企业的主营收入呈正相关,但对上游企业的盈利能力影响更大。%From the perspective of characteristics of photovoltaic manufacturing industry chain,this paper designs a scientific measurement method,and draws the panel data of the vertical integration level of 20 PV enterprises from 2008 to 2014. On this basis,the impact of vertical integration on enterprise business performance is analyzed by using variable coefficient panel data model. The research shows that the majority of photovoltaic enterprises can effectively improve profitability through the implementation of vertical integration. The downstream enterprises are often better than the upstream companies to get a better return. The overall price index of photovoltaic industry is positively related to the main business income of most enterprises , but the impact on the profitability of upstream enterprises is greater.

  5. Engineering Assessment and Certification of Integrity of the Building 943 Tank System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abri Environmental Engineering Inc.

    2015-01-01

    This Engineering Assessment and Certification of Integrity of Building 943 (B943) Tank System has been prepared using the guidelines of 40 CFR 265.192(a) and 22 CCR 66265.192(a) for tank systems* that manage hazardous waste and have secondary containment. The regulations require that this assessment be completed and certified by an independent, qualified, California-registered professional engineer. This technical assessment has been reviewed by an independent, qualified, California-registered professional engineer, who has certified the tank system for the following: • sufficient structural integrity, • acceptability for storing of hazardous waste, • compatibility with the waste, and • suitability of tank and containment system design to achieve the requirements of the applicable regulations so they will not collapse, rupture, or fail.

  6. A Multi-Agent Based Energy Management Solution for Integrated Buildings and Microgrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan; Mirian, Maryam S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an ontology-driven multi-agent based energy management system (EMS) is proposed for monitoring and optimal control of an integrated homes/buildings and microgrid system with various renewable energy resources (RESs) and controllable loads. Different agents ranging from simple......-reflex to complex learning agents are designed and implemented to cooperate with each other to reach an optimal operating strategy for the mentioned integrated energy system (IES) while meeting the system’s objectives and related constraints. The optimization process for the EMS is defined as a coordinated...... distributed generation (DG) and demand response (DR) management problem within the studied environment and is solved by the proposed agent-based approach utilizing cooperation and communication among decision agents. To verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed multi-agent based EMS, several...

  7. [China is poised to build a better healthcare delivery system using the integrative health paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ka Kit; Zhang, Wei-jun

    2011-01-01

    China and the United States share similar goals regarding their health care reform: expanding coverage, bending the curve of healthcare expenditure, and ensuring quality improvement and effectiveness of healthcare. Though many differences in the two health care systems exist, there are still many innovative strategies both countries can learn from each other. This paper first discusses two major problems in the America's health care system: an increasing aging population coupled with ineffective chronic disease management; and a failing primary care system. Next it discusses the role of integrative medicine in the United States health care reform. We also review some key strategies in China's health care reform, which we believe if these policies are implemented fully and effectively, China is poised to build a better healthcare delivery system using the integrative health paradigm.

  8. Simulation of temperature in office with building integrated heating and cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter

    2002-01-01

    by raising the temperature of the concrete to slightly above the desired room temperature. Another way of solving the problem of cooling is by using building integrated cooling in floors. This technique utilizes the thermal mass of concrete in the floors, by integrating PEX pipes in the floor. By maintaining...... and thermal comfort parameters. The model is based on a numerical Finite Control Volume (FCV) method for the heat transfer in walls, ceiling, windows and floor. The model uses both convective and radiative heat transfer to the room air and between the room surfaces. The simulation model can be used...... for calculating situations with both cooling and heating demands. Using the model it is therefore possible to assess the thermal environment, and furthermore to calculate the energy consumption required for both heating and cooling. In the paper different construction types of the floor are examined, as well...

  9. Integral energy concepts for office and residential buildings; Integrale Energiekonzepte fuer Buero- und Wohngebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velten, W.

    1998-06-01

    It has been confirmed by practical project experience that integral energy concepts are an excellent basis for the construction of energy-efficient buildings. In the extreme case buildings can even be self-sufficient in their energy supply. Uniting the responsibility for the overall energy and technology concept in the hands of a single contractor can help reduce frictional losses between those involved in the planning as well costs. A good example of this is the use of a simulation calculation for the prescribed demonstration of proper heat insulation. The presented projects show that it is possible to construct ecologically answerable buildings at attractively low costs. The presented concepts appear particularly convincing from the viewpoint of long-term maintenance of value and user-specific advantages such as agreeable working conditions. [Deutsch] Die konkreten Projekterfahrungen bestaetigen, dass durch integrale Energiekonzepte sowohl im Verwaltungs- als auch im Wohnungsbau hervorragende Voraussetzungen fuer energiesparende Gebaeude geschaffen werden koennen. Im Extremfall kann sogar eine autarke Energieversorgung erreicht werden. Durch Zusammenfassung der Gesamtverantwortung fuer das Energie- und Technikkonzept in einer Hand koennen Reibungsverluste zwischen den Planungsbeteiligten reduziert und Kosten gesenkt werden. Ein Beispiel hierfuer ist die Verbindung des vorgeschriebenen Waermeschutznachweises mit einer fuer alle Beteiligten wesentlich aussagekraeftigeren Simulationsrechnung. Die vorgestellten Projekte zeigen, dass oekologisch sinnvolle Gebaeude auch zu oekonomisch attraktiven Kosten erstellt werden koennen, wobei insbesondere der Aspekt des langfristigen Werterhalts und die nutzerspezifischen Vorteile, z.B. durch angenehmere Arbeitsbedingungen, fuer die vorgestellten Konzepte spricht. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of Building Envelope Insulation Performance Utilizing Integrated Temperature and Humidity Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wei Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of high energy consumption for air conditioning in indoor spaces is the thermal storage characteristics of a building’s envelope concrete material; therefore, the physiological signals (temperature and humidity within concrete structures are an important reference for building energy management. The current approach to measuring temperature and humidity within concrete structures (i.e., thermocouples and fiber optics is limited by problems of wiring requirements, discontinuous monitoring, and high costs. This study uses radio frequency integrated circuits (RFIC combined with temperature and humidity sensors (T/H sensors for the design of a smart temperature and humidity information material (STHIM that automatically, regularly, and continuously converts temperature and humidity signals within concrete and transmits them by radio frequency (RF to the Building Physiology Information System (BPIS. This provides a new approach to measurement that incorporates direct measurement, wireless communication, and real-time continuous monitoring to assist building designers and users in making energy management decisions and judgments.

  11. Integrated Thermal-Energy Analysis of Innovative Translucent White Marble for Building Envelope Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Rosso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Marble is a natural material, used in the construction field since antiquity. It has always been used to communicate monumentality and solidity. Nowadays new technologies permit marble to express new languages: particularly, translucent marble technology overturns the concept of solidity. The main issue to address is the lack of thermal-energy performance of such a thin stone layer as the only facade component. Conversely, Bianco Carrara and Statuario marbles, for instance, have intrinsic benefits as natural cool materials, due to their high solar reflectance and thermal emissivity. Thus, this paper analyzes the thermal-energy and environmental behavior of marble facade for a new designed building in New York City. An integrated analysis of the energy performance of the marble skin is performed through a preliminary experimental characterization, carried out for two different types of naturally white marble, for comparative purposes. Then, a dynamic simulation model of the building is developed to evaluate year-round benefits and drawbacks of the translucent marble envelope in terms of indoor thermal comfort and air-conditioning requirement. The analysis showed how the proposed marble facade is able to decrease the energy requirement for cooling up to 6%, demonstrating possible relevant perspectives for marble-based facades, even in energy-efficient buildings.

  12. Residential Solar PV Systems in the Carolinas: Opportunities and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Bandar Jubran; Holt, Kyra Moore; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Pratson, Lincoln

    2016-02-16

    This paper presents a first-order analysis of the feasibility and technical, environmental, and economic effects of large levels of solar photovoltaic (PV) penetration within the services areas of the Duke Energy Carolinas (DEC) and Duke Energy Progress (DEP). A PV production model based on household density and a gridded hourly global horizontal irradiance data set simulates hourly PV power output from roof-top installations, while a unit commitment and real-time economic dispatch (UC-ED) model simulates hourly system operations. We find that the large generating capacity of base-load nuclear power plants (NPPs) without ramping capability in the region limits PV integration levels to 5.3% (6510 MW) of 2015 generation. Enabling ramping capability for NPPs would raise the limit of PV penetration to near 9% of electricity generated. If the planned retirement of coal-fired power plants together with new installations and upgrades of natural gas and nuclear plants materialize in 2025, and if NPPs operate flexibly, then the share of coal-fired electricity will be reduced from 37% to 22%. A 9% penetration of electricity from PV would further reduce the share of coal-fired electricity by 4-6% resulting in a system-wide CO2 emissions rate of 0.33 to 0.40 tons/MWh and associated abatement costs of 225-415 (2015$ per ton).

  13. Exergy analysis of building integrated semitransparent photovoltaic thermal (BiSPVT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an exergy analysis of building integrated semitransparent photovoltaic thermal (BiSPVT system has been carried out. In the proposed system, the room below building integrated semitransparent photovoltaic thermal system has been considered as an air-conditioned (constant room temperature. Energy balance equation for each components namely semitransparent photovoltaic roof, floor and room air have been given. Based on energy balance, an analytical expression for room air, solar cell and room floor temperatures have been derived along with solar cell electrical efficiency. Further by considering the day lighting parameters, an overall exergy of the proposed system has been derived for different number of air change between the room and ambient air. It has been observed that there is reduction in room air and solar cell temperatures with an increase of number of air changes. However, solar cell electrical efficiency increases with decrease in temperature of solar cell. Further, it is found that an electrical power and illumination inside the room are more dominating in comparison with thermal exergy. An increase of 1.15% in an overall exergy is observed for the number of air changes varies from 0 to 4. Experimental validation of theoretical model has also been carried out.

  14. Experiment for Integrating Dutch 3d Spatial Planning and Bim for Checking Building Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berlo, L.; Dijkmans, T.; Stoter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a research project in The Netherlands in which several SMEs collaborated to create a 3D model of the National spatial planning information. This 2D information system described in the IMRO data standard holds implicit 3D information that can be used to generate an explicit 3D model. The project realized a proof of concept to generate a 3D spatial planning model. The team used the model to integrate it with several 3D Building Information Models (BIMs) described in the open data standard Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). Goal of the project was (1) to generate a 3D BIM model from spatial planning information to be used by the architect during the early design phase, and (2) allow 3D checking of building permits. The team used several technologies like CityGML, BIM clash detection and GeoBIM to explore the potential of this innovation. Within the project a showcase was created with a part of the spatial plan from the city of The Hague. Several BIM models were integrated in the 3D spatial plan of this area. A workflow has been described that demonstrates the benefits of collaboration between the spatial domain and the AEC industry in 3D. The research results in a showcase with conclusions and considerations for both national and international practice.

  15. Forms and Levels of Integration: Evaluation of an Interdisciplinary Team-Building Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Armstrong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Team science models are frequently promoted as the best way to study complex societal and environmental problems. Despite increasing popularity, there is relatively little research on the processes and mechanisms that facilitate the emergence of integration of interdisciplinary teams. This article evaluates a suite of recent team-building and grant-writing activities designed to address water management in the Western U.S. We use qualitative methods to document the emergence of integrative capacity at the individual, group, and institutional levels, with particular attention to the role of graduate students and non-academic practitioners in a team science planning project. Our findings highlight the importance of social integration as a basis for conceptual integration and an ability to relate these concepts to real-world problems. The findings also demonstrate the value of qualitative evaluation measures of team readiness, capacity, and intellectual outputs to complement conventional evaluation indicators that rely on quantitative scientific outputs, particularly for team science projects still in the planning stages.

  16. Energy-Efficient and Comfortable Buildings through Multivariate Integrated Control (ECoMIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birru, Dagnachew [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Wen, Yao-Jung [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Rubinstein, Francis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, Robert D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-10-28

    This project aims to develop an integrated control solution for enhanced energy efficiency and user comfort in commercial buildings. The developed technology is a zone-based control framework that minimizes energy usage while maintaining occupants’ visual and thermal comfort through control of electric lights, motorized venetian blinds and thermostats. The control framework is designed following a modular, scalable and flexible architecture to facilitate easy integration with exiting building management systems. The control framework contains two key algorithms: 1) the lighting load balancing algorithm and 2) the thermostat control algorithm. The lighting load balancing algorithm adopts a model-based closed-loop control approach to determine the optimal electric light and venetian blind settings. It is formulated into an optimization problem with minimizing lighting-related energy consumptions as the objective and delivering adequate task light and preventing daylight glare as the constraints. The thermostat control algorithm is based on a well-established thermal comfort model and formulated as a root-finding problem to dynamically determine the optimal thermostat setpoint for both energy savings and improved thermal comfort. To address building-wide scalability, a system architecture was developed for the zone-based control technology. Three levels of services are defined in the architecture: external services, facility level services and zone level services. The zone-level service includes the control algorithms described above as well as the corresponding interfaces, profiles, sensors and actuators to realize the zone controller. The facility level services connect to the zones through a backbone network, handle supervisory level information and controls, and thus facilitate building-wide scalability. The external services provide communication capability to entities outside of the building for grid interaction and remote access. Various aspects of the

  17. The implication of the architects in photovoltaic integration; La implicacion de los arquitectos en la integracion fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, N.

    2008-07-01

    There is no doubt that Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) has an enormous potential, but in order to achieve the expected success the implication of architects is necessary. A good understanding between them and PV engineers is more than desirable in order to develop good building integrated examples. This will redound on the social reliance of this technology in urban and industrial areas. Photovoltaic should be included from the beginning of the building design and, to achieve this, architects must know about the characteristics, possibilities and limits of this technology and, at the same time, about the design criteria related to PV generation. On the other side PV modules designs should be adapted to the architectonic requirements. (Author)

  18. Photothermal performance of an amorphous silicon photovoltaic panel integrated in a membrane structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Hu, Jianhui; Chen, Wujun; Qiu, Zhenyu; Zhou, Jinyu; Qu, Yegao; Ge, Binbin

    2016-10-01

    The amorphous silicon photovoltaic (a-Si PV) cells are widely used for electricity generation from solar energy. When the a-Si PV cells are integrated into building roofs, such as ETFE (ethylene-tetrafouoroethylene) cushions, the temperature characteristics are indispensible for evaluating the thermal performances of a-Si PV and its constructions. This temperature value is directly dependent on the solar irradiance, wind velocity, ambient temperature and installation form. This paper concerns the field experiments and numerical modeling on the temperature characteristics and temperature value of the a-Si PV integrated in a double-layer ETFE cushion structure. To this end, an experimental model composed of two a-Si PV cells and a double-layer ETFE cushion was developed, and the corresponding experiments were carried out under two typical weather conditions (summer sunny and summer cloudy). The theoretical thermal model was developed based on an energy balance equation taking the short wave radiation, long wave radiation, convection and generated power into account. The measured solar irradiance and air temperature were used as real weather conditions for the thermal model. The corresponding differential equation of the a-Si PV temperature varying with the solar irradiance and air temperature was solved by a newly developed program based on the numerical method. The measured results show that the influence of solar irradiance on the temperature is much more significant than the other parameters, and the maximum temperature variation under sunny conditions is greater than that under cloudy conditions. The comparative study between the experimental and numerical results shows the correct predictions of the a-Si PV temperature under the sunny and cloudy conditions. The maximum difference is 3.9 °C with the acceptable reasons of the solar irradiance fluctuation and the PV thermal response time. These findings will provide useful observations and explanations for

  19. Large scale PV plants - also in Denmark. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahm, P. (PA Energy, Malling (Denmark)); Vedde, J. (SiCon. Silicon and PV consulting, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2011-04-15

    Large scale PV (LPV) plants, plants with a capacity of more than 200 kW, has since 2007 constituted an increasing share of the global PV installations. In 2009 large scale PV plants with cumulative power more that 1,3 GWp were connected to the grid. The necessary design data for LPV plants in Denmark are available or can be found, although irradiance data could be improved. There seems to be very few institutional barriers for LPV projects, but as so far no real LPV projects have been processed, these findings have to be regarded as preliminary. The fast growing number of very large scale solar thermal plants for district heating applications supports these findings. It has further been investigated, how to optimize the lay-out of LPV plants. Under the Danish irradiance conditions with several winter months with very low solar height PV installations on flat surfaces will have to balance the requirements of physical space - and cost, and the loss of electricity production due to shadowing effects. The potential for LPV plants in Denmark are found in three main categories: PV installations on flat roof of large commercial buildings, PV installations on other large scale infrastructure such as noise barriers and ground mounted PV installations. The technical potential for all three categories is found to be significant and in the range of 50 - 250 km2. In terms of energy harvest PV plants will under Danish conditions exhibit an overall efficiency of about 10 % in conversion of the energy content of the light compared to about 0,3 % for biomass. The theoretical ground area needed to produce the present annual electricity consumption of Denmark at 33-35 TWh is about 300 km2 The Danish grid codes and the electricity safety regulations mention very little about PV and nothing about LPV plants. It is expected that LPV plants will be treated similarly to big wind turbines. A number of LPV plant scenarios have been investigated in detail based on real commercial offers and

  20. Determinants of Social Capital Building and Integration in the Turkish Diaspora in Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Imani Giglou, Roya; d'Haenens, Leen; Van Gorp, Baldwin

    2017-01-01

    This study constructs and tests the building of social capital and integration among Turkish and Kurdish ethnic minorities (N=976) residing in three countries with different integration policy realities according to the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX): Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany. Through online and offline surveys our study examines the extent to which bridging and bonding social capital, the dominant language of media use as well as the socio-demographic characteristics o...

  1. The EPOS Implementation Phase: building thematic and integrated services for solid Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Massimo; Epos Consortium, the

    2015-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) has a scientific vision and approach aimed at creating a pan-European infrastructure for Earth sciences to support a safe and sustainable society. To follow this vision, the EPOS mission is integrating a suite of diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures (RIs) in Europe relying on new e-science opportunities to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system. To this goal, the EPOS Preparatory Phase has designed a long-term plan to facilitate integrated use of data and products as well as access to facilities from mainly distributed existing and new research infrastructures for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. Since its conception EPOS has been built as "a single, Pan-European, sustainable and distributed infrastructure". EPOS is, indeed, the sole infrastructure for solid Earth Science in ESFRI and its pan-European dimension is demonstrated by the participation of 23 countries in its preparatory phase. EPOS is presently moving into its implementation phase further extending its pan-European dimension. The EPOS Implementation Phase project (EPOS IP) builds on the achievements of the successful EPOS preparatory phase project. The EPOS IP objectives are synergetic and coherent with the establishment of the new legal subject (the EPOS-ERIC in Italy). EPOS coordinates the existing and new solid Earth RIs within Europe and builds the

  2. INTEGRATING COUNTRY-SPECIFIC CULTURE IN THE BRANDING STRATEGY FOR BUILDING GLOBAL SUCCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra IOANID

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A strong brand is the one that integrates its cultural origins and values with the cultural values of the countries where it operates, building relationships based on trust with the local consumers. The chances for a company to gain share market when starting operations in a new country grows a lot if the management allows enough regional flexibility on how the brands are marketed, according to the cultural characteristics of the potential local customers. In the actual globalized business environment, the brand marketer has the choice to adopt a global or a local approach in the marketing strategy, that most of the times determines the success or the failure of the business in a specific country. An important challenge for any marketer is the integration of the brand-culture with the country-culture and in this context, the paper analyses different cultures and offers some branding strategies valid for both products and services. This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of the country-specific culture integration in the marketing strategy of a company for growing the effectiveness of all its operations. The ideas mentioned in this paper are based on literature research and also on authors’ experience with multicultural environments.

  3. Faculty reflections on the process of building an integrated preclerkship curriculum: a new school perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    This is a reflective essay based on the experience of developing a structure and function module within a new integrated medical curriculum. Our hope is that the insights we gained during a 4-yr journey in a new medical school will be transferable to others engaged with curriculum development. Here, we present an interpretive analysis of our personal experiences together with some original research data and a synthesis of the literature. We will argue that a focus on teaching faculty is the key to successful curriculum integration and suggest an agenda for faculty development. Our essay begins by exploring what curriculum integration really means and what its purpose might be. Our case study explores the challenges of building a shared understanding among stakeholders and of negotiating learning outcomes and methods of teaching as well as the process of developing content and assessment. We feel that many of our experiences in the new medical school are applicable in other settings, such as curriculum reform in established schools and for developers of competency-based premedical curricula. We conclude with recommendations to assist other curriculum planners and teachers by offering some benefits of hindsight. PMID:25179608

  4. INTEGRATING COUNTRY-SPECIFIC CULTURE IN THE BRANDING STRATEGY FOR BUILDING GLOBAL SUCCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra IOANID

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A strong brand is the one that integrates its cultural origins and values with the cultural values of the countries where it operates, building relationships based on trust with the local consumers. The chances for a company to gain share market when starting operations in a new country grows a lot if the management allows enough regional flexibility on how the brands are marketed, according to the cultural characteristics of the potential local customers. In the actual globalized business environment, the brand marketer has the choice to adopt a global or a local approach in the marketing strategy, that most of the times determines the success or the failure of the business in a specific country. An important challenge for any marketer is the integration of the brand-culture with the country-culture and in this context, the paper analyses different cultures and offers some branding strategies valid for both products and services. This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of the country-specific culture integration in the marketing strategy of a company for growing the effectiveness of all its operations. The ideas mentioned in this paper are based on literature research and also on authors’ experience with multicultural environments.

  5. Building Integrated Active Flow Control: Improving the Aerodynamic Performance of Tall Buildings Using Fluid-Based Aerodynamic Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicovich, David

    By 2050 an estimated 9 billion people will inhabit planet earth and almost all the growth in the next 40 years will be in urban areas putting tremendous pressure on creating sustainable cities. The rapid increase in population, rise in land value and decrease in plot sizes in cities around the world positions tall or more importantly slender buildings as the best suited building typology to address the increasingly critical demand for space in this pressing urbanization trend. However, the majority of new tall building urban developments have not followed principles of environmental and/or sustainable design and incentives to innovate, both technological and economic, are urgently required. The biggest climatic challenge to the design, construction and performance of tall buildings is wind sensitivity. This challenge is further emphasized seeing two market driven trends: on one hand as urban population grows, land value rises while plot sizes decrease; on the other, more cost effective modular construction techniques are introducing much lighter tall building structures. The combination of the two suggests a potential increase in the slenderness ratio of tall buildings (typically less than 6:1 but stretching to 20:1 in the near future) where not-so-tall but much lighter buildings will be the bulk of new construction in densely populated cities, providing affordable housing in the face of fast urbanization but also introducing wind sensitivity which was previously the problem of a very limited number of super tall buildings to a much larger number of buildings and communities. The proposed research aims to investigate a novel approach to the interaction between tall buildings and their environment. Through this approach the research proposes a new relationship between buildings and the flows around, through and inside them, where buildings could adapt to better control and manage the air flow around them, and consequently produce significant opportunities to reduce

  6. Locational Sensitivity Investigation on PV Hosting Capacity and Fast Track PV Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Ainsworth, Nathan; Gotseff, Peter; Baker, Kyri

    2016-05-05

    A 15% PV penetration threshold is commonly used by utilities to define photovoltaic (PV) screening methods where PV penetration is defined as the ratio of total solar PV capacity on a line section to peak load. However, this method doesn't take into account PV locational impact or feeder characteristics that could strongly change the feeder's capability to host PVs. This paper investigates the impact of PV location and phase connection type on PV hosting capacity, and then proposes a fast-track PV screening approach that leverages various PV hosting capacity metric responding to different PV locations and types. The proposed study could help utilities to evaluate PV interconnection requests and also help increase the PV hosting capacity of distribution feeders without adverse impacts on system voltages.

  7. An investigation of the maximum penetration level of a photovoltaic (PV) system into a traditional distribution grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalise, Santosh

    Although solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have remained the fastest growing renewable power generating technology, variability as well as uncertainty in the output of PV plants is a significant issue. This rapid increase in PV grid-connected generation presents not only progress in clean energy but also challenges in integration with traditional electric power grids which were designed for transmission and distribution of power from central stations. Unlike conventional electric generators, PV panels do not have rotating parts and thus have no inertia. This potentially causes a problem when the solar irradiance incident upon a PV plant changes suddenly, for example, when scattered clouds pass quickly overhead. The output power of the PV plant may fluctuate nearly as rapidly as the incident irradiance. These rapid power output fluctuations may then cause voltage fluctuations, frequency fluctuations, and power quality issues. These power quality issues are more severe with increasing PV plant power output. This limits the maximum power output allowed from interconnected PV plants. Voltage regulation of a distribution system, a focus of this research, is a prime limiting factor in PV penetration levels. The IEEE 13-node test feeder, modeled and tested in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, was used as an example distribution feeder to analyze the maximum acceptable penetration of a PV plant. The effect of the PV plant's location was investigated, along with the addition of a VAR compensating device (a D-STATCOM in this case). The results were used to develop simple guidelines for determining an initial estimate of the maximum PV penetration level on a distribution feeder. For example, when no compensating devices are added to the system, a higher level of PV penetration is generally achieved by installing the PV plant close to the substation. The opposite is true when a VAR compensator is installed with the PV plant. In these cases, PV penetration levels over 50% may be

  8. Integration of Building energy and energy supply simulations for low-energy district heating supply to energy-efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    of the human behaviour regarding the building and link the results to the simulation program for DH networks. The results show that human behaviour can lead to 50% higher heating demand and 60% higher peak loads than expected according to reference values in standardized calculation of energy demand....... The analysis also shows that the connection of low-energy buildings to DH networks is potentially a good solution in Denmark for reaching the climatic goals, but a high degree of connection must be reached, especially for detached houses, where most of the buildings in a typical community must be connected......The future will demand implementation of C02 neutral communities, the consequences being a far more complex design of the whole energy system, since the future energy infrastructures will be dynamic and climate responsive systems. Software able to work with such level of complexity is at present...

  9. An interactive integrative approach to translating knowledge and building a "learning organization" in health services management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunharas, Somsak

    2006-08-01

    This paper proposes a basic approach to ensuring that knowledge from research studies is translated for use in health services management with a view towards building a "learning organization". (A learning organization is one in which the environment is structured in such a way as to facilitate learning as well as the sharing of knowledge among members or employees.) This paper highlights various dimensions that determine the complexity of knowledge translation, using the problem-solving cycle as the backbone for gaining a better understanding of how different types of knowledge interact in health services management. It is essential to use an integrated and interactive approach to ensure that knowledge from research is translated in a way that allows a learning organization to be built and that knowledge is not used merely to influence a single decision in isolation from the overall services and management of an organization.

  10. Building Space Heating with a Solar-Assisted Heat Pump Using Roof-Integrated Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Yang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A solar assisted heat pump (SAHP system was designed by using a roof-integrated solar collector as the evaporator, and then it was demonstrated to provide space heating for a villa in Tianjin, China. A building energy simulation tool was used to predict the space heating load and a three dimensional theoretical model was established to analyze the heat collection performance of the solar roof collector. A floor radiant heating unit was used to decrease the energy demand. The measurement results during the winter test period show that the system can provide a comfortable living space in winter, when the room temperature averaged 18.9 °C. The average COP of the heat pump system is 2.97 and with a maximum around 4.16.

  11. Model Based Predictive Control of Thermal Comfort for Integrated Building System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Tz.; Jonkov, T.; Yonchev, E.; Tsankov, D.

    2011-12-01

    This article deals with the indoor thermal control problem in HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems. Important outdoor and indoor variables in these systems are: air temperature, global and diffuse radiations, wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature, and so on. The aim of this article is to obtain the thermal comfort optimisation by model based predictive control algorithms (MBPC) of an integrated building system. The control law is given by a quadratic programming problem and the obtained control action is applied to the process. The derived models and model based predictive control algorithms are investigated based on real—live data. All researches are derived in MATLAB environment. The further research will focus on synthesis of robust energy saving control algorithms.

  12. Information System Analysis and Building for Integrated Real Estate Business Management in Real Estate Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M.M. Elmetwaly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study discusses the problem of registration and following-up the real estate rental procedures of all kinds, always what we need is integrated information systems to meet our daily needs in the area of our business. Approach: Proposed information systems includes all of these processes necessary to manage and follow up real estate rental procedures of all different sizes and spaced locations. Results: It is taken into account when building real estate information systems that to be easy to use, quick in performance, serve all interests, serve all officials and help in having and supporting decisions. Such real estate information systems can be used in producing numerous daily, monthly and annual reports, which describes and shows the movement and workflow. Conclusion/Recommendations: The proposed real estate system is built by using oracle databases, it has been taken into account when building these systems the need to be linked to the international information network “the internet” due to what is offered of the unlimited number of electronic services, which facilitate the movement of transferring and exchanging real estate information for all users of these systems.

  13. Building Damage Estimation by Integration of Seismic Intensity Information and Satellite L-band SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuoto Nojima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For a quick and stable estimation of earthquake damaged buildings worldwide, using Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR loaded on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS satellite, a model combining the usage of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA-scale seismic intensity is proposed. In order to expand the existing C-band SAR based damage estimation model into L-band SAR, this paper rebuilds a likelihood function for severe damage ratio, on the basis of dataset from Japanese Earth Resource Satellite-1 (JERS-1/SAR (L-band SAR images observed during the 1995 Kobe earthquake and its detailed ground truth data. The model which integrates the fragility functions of building damage in terms of seismic intensity and the proposed likelihood function is then applied to PALSAR images taken over the areas affected by the 2007 earthquake in Pisco, Peru. The accuracy of the proposed damage estimation model is examined by comparing the results of the analyses with field investigations and/or interpretation of high-resolution satellite images.

  14. Energy and Cost Saving of a Photovoltaic-Phase Change Materials (PV-PCM System through Temperature Regulation and Performance Enhancement of Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research seeks to maintain high photovoltaic (PV efficiency and increased operating PV life by maintaining them at a lower temperature. Solid-liquid phase change materials (PCM are integrated into PV panels to absorb excess heat by latent heat absorption mechanism and regulate PV temperature. Electrical and thermal energy efficiency analysis of PV-PCM systems is conducted to evaluate their effectiveness in two different climates. Finally costs incurred due to inclusion of PCM into PV system and the resulting benefits are discussed in this paper. The results show that such systems are financially viable in higher temperature and higher solar radiation environment.

  15. Capacity building and policy development in Belize marine protected areas, an example for Caribbean integrated coastal management

    OpenAIRE

    Crabbe, M James C

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability science can, through capacity building, allow for integrated stakeholder management of the vital Caribbean marine ecosystems. We did a capacity building exercise in two major coral reef areas in Southern Belize. The key outcome was a six-month personal/professional action plan developed by each participant about tactics for leading, educating and supporting issues regarding sustainable development and tactics for collaboration to influence policy decisions. Our results can be a...

  16. Nationwide Buildings Energy Research enabled through an integrated Data Intensive Scientific Workflow and Advanced Analysis Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lansing, Carina S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elsethagen, Todd O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hathaway, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guillen, Zoe C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dirks, James A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skorski, Daniel C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gorrissen, Willy J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gorton, Ian [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Liu, Yan [Concordia Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-01-28

    Modern workflow systems enable scientists to run ensemble simulations at unprecedented scales and levels of complexity, allowing them to study system sizes previously impossible to achieve, due to the inherent resource requirements needed for the modeling work. However as a result of these new capabilities the science teams suddenly also face unprecedented data volumes that they are unable to analyze with their existing tools and methodologies in a timely fashion. In this paper we will describe the ongoing development work to create an integrated data intensive scientific workflow and analysis environment that offers researchers the ability to easily create and execute complex simulation studies and provides them with different scalable methods to analyze the resulting data volumes. The integration of simulation and analysis environments is hereby not only a question of ease of use, but supports fundamental functions in the correlated analysis of simulation input, execution details and derived results for multi-variant, complex studies. To this end the team extended and integrated the existing capabilities of the Velo data management and analysis infrastructure, the MeDICi data intensive workflow system and RHIPE the R for Hadoop version of the well-known statistics package, as well as developing a new visual analytics interface for the result exploitation by multi-domain users. The capabilities of the new environment are demonstrated on a use case that focusses on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) building energy team, showing how they were able to take their previously local scale simulations to a nationwide level by utilizing data intensive computing techniques not only for their modeling work, but also for the subsequent analysis of their modeling results. As part of the PNNL research initiative PRIMA (Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis) the team performed an initial 3 year study of building energy demands for the US Eastern

  17. PV system testing and standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlasio, Richard

    1999-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) PV Program System Performance and Engineering Project is being conducted by The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), and Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). It provides PV system, subsystem, and component-level technology-performance characterization testing; test-method development and validation; national and international consensus standards and codes development, test-facility product certification, and laboratory-accreditation program implementation; and information exchange and technical assistance to the PV community. Emphasis is placed on reducing technical and infrastructural barriers to system acceptance, reducing life-cycle cost of systems, providing systems-engineering best practices and guidelines, and leading the national effort in performance and reliability testing, and consensus standards, codes, and certification program development and implementation—thereby ensuring that PV systems meet customers' needs and expectations. A summary of project activities, accomplishments, and future plans is provided and highlighted by an overview of PV system test-procedure and standards development.

  18. Low concentrator PV optics optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Leonard; Chang, Ben

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Cost reduction is a major focus of the solar industry. Thin film technologies and concentration systems are viable ways to reducing cost, with unique strengths and weakness for both. Most of the concentrating PV work focuses on high concentration systems for reducing energy cost. Meanwhile, many believe that low concentrators provide significant cost reduction potential while addressing the mainstream PV market with a product that acts as a flat panel replacement. This paper analyzes the relative benefit of asymmetric vs. symmetric optics for low-concentrators in light of specific PV applications. Approach: Symmetric and asymmetric concentrating PV module performance is evaluated using computer simulation to determine potential value across various geographic locations and applications. The selected optic design is modeled against standard cSi flat panels and thin film to determine application fit, system level energy density and economic value. Results: While symmetric designs may seem ideal, asymmetric designs have an advantage in energy density. Both designs are assessed for aperture, optimum concentration ratio, and ideal system array configuration. Analysis of performance across climate specific effects (diffuse, direct and circumsolar) and location specific effects (sunpath) are also presented. The energy density and energy production of low concentrators provide a compelling value proposition. More significantly, the choice of optics for a low concentrating design can affect real world performance. With the goal of maximizing energy density and return on investment, this paper presents the advantages of asymmetric optic concentration and illustrates the value of this design within specific PV applications.

  19. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  20. PV market stimulation by training and creativity workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsall, N.

    2001-07-01

    Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems are expected to be a major route for the utilisation of solar energy in Europe. In order for BIPV to realise its full potential, it is necessary to increase the market size and this requires the development of appropriate market segments as they become financially viable. There may be accompanying market stimulation methods such as financing packages, tax reductions or other incentives. Thus it is important for the PV system designer and/or supplier to be aware of developing market segments and of methods to address these. The realisation of a BIPV project requires the interaction of several key players and consideration of many issues, including technical design, architectural acceptability, planning constraints, interfacing with existing electricity supply systems and financing. The aims of this project were: to promote consideration of the marketing aspect of BIPV when developing projects; to introduce a range of players in the sector to marketing techniques; and to initiate new project ideas to address market needs. These aims were addressed by the organisation of creativity workshops in which marketing issues could be discussed and participants could utilise marketing approaches in the development of project ideas. (author)

  1. 光伏建筑一体化(BIPV)在绿色建筑中的应用%APPLICATION OF BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC (BIPV) IN GREEN BUILDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳伟

    2011-01-01

    There are two methods to integrate photovoltaic and building together, one of which is to integrate building with photovoltaic system and the other is to integrate building with photovoltaic devices. The main structure of a foreign embassy in China adopts steel roof truss dome, and great difficulties are encountered during construction and installation of the dome. Arch photovoltaic curtain wall dome is finally completed after repeated test, scheme discussion and field installation of small model.%光伏与建筑的结合有两种方式,一种是建筑与光伏系统相结合,另一种是建筑与光伏器件相结合.某驻华使馆主体结构为钢屋架穹顶,施工和安装都有很大难度,经过反复试验、方案讨论和现场安装小模型等准备工作,最终建成了弧形光伏幕墙穹顶.

  2. Design of Building Intelligent System in Newspaper Integrated Business Building%报业综合业务楼建筑智能化系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪亮; 臧胜; 李骥

    2011-01-01

    以某报业综合业务楼的建筑智能化系统设计为例,对该建筑智能化系统的需求作了分析,阐述了建筑智能化系统的组成。针对该工程的特点,重点介绍了几个智能化子系统的设计要点,以期对类似建筑智能化系统设计提供参考。%Combining with the design of building intelligent system in a certain newspaper integrated business building,the demand of the building intelligent system was analyzed at first.The components of the building intelligent system were expoun ded.Then aiming at the characteristics of the project,design keypoint of sever al intelligent subsystem were mainly introduced.It could provide references for similar building intelligent system design.

  3. SEíS: A semantic-based system for integrating building energy data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madrazo, L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Access to reliable energy related data is a fundamental factor when taking decisions that help to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. The increase in the amount of data we have available has led to the need to develop information systems that facilitate the analysis of such data to the agents which are present throughout the building life cycle, from the design phase to maintenance. Semantic web technologies provide a solution to interlink distributed data sources. This requires the construction of shared vocabularies (i.e. ontologies which capture the meaning that users give to the data and facilitate access to them. As yet there are no consolidated methods to build these vocabularies. This article presents the methodology developed to create SEíS, an energy information system that uses semantic technologies to integrate energy related data and to facilitate services to the different agents involved throughout the stages of the building life cycle.El acceso a los datos relacionados con la energía es un factor fundamental para tomar decisiones que ayuden a mejorar la eficiencia energética de los edificios. El incremento de la cantidad de datos disponibles ha llevado a la necesidad de desarrollar sistemas de información que faciliten el análisis de los mismos a los agentes que participan a lo largo del ciclo de vida del edificio, desde el diseño hasta el mantenimiento. Las tecnologías de la web semántica proporcionan una solución para interconectar fuentes de datos distribuidas. Esto requiere la construcción de vocabularios compartidos (i.e. ontologías que capten el significado que le dan los usuarios a la información y faciliten el acceso a los datos. No existen aún métodos consolidados para construir estos vocabularios. En este artículo se presenta la metodología desarrollada para crear SEíS, un sistema de información energética que utiliza tecnologías semánticas para integrar datos energéticos y facilitar

  4. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  5. Spatio-temporal analysis of regional PV generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño Martinez, Edgar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power is growing in importance worldwide and hence needs to be represented in operation and planning of power system. As opposed to traditional generation technologies, it is characterized by exhibiting both a high variability and a significant spatial dependence. This paper...... presents a fundamental analysis of regional solar generation time series, aiming to potentially facilitate large-scale solar integration. It will focus on characterizing the underlying dependence structure at the system level as well as describing both statistical and temporal properties of regional PV...

  6. Multivariate Statistics and Supervised Learning for Predictive Detection of Unintentional Islanding in Grid-Tied Solar PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Vyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of solar photovoltaic (PV generation with power distribution networks leads to many operational challenges and complexities. Unintentional islanding is one of them which is of rising concern given the steady increase in grid-connected PV power. This paper builds up on an exploratory study of unintentional islanding on a modeled radial feeder having large PV penetration. Dynamic simulations, also run in real time, resulted in exploration of unique potential causes of creation of accidental islands. The resulting voltage and current data underwent dimensionality reduction using principal component analysis (PCA which formed the basis for the application of Q statistic control charts for detecting the anomalous currents that could island the system. For reducing the false alarm rate of anomaly detection, Kullback-Leibler (K-L divergence was applied on the principal component projections which concluded that Q statistic based approach alone is not reliable for detection of the symptoms liable to cause unintentional islanding. The obtained data was labeled and a K-nearest neighbor (K-NN binomial classifier was then trained for identification and classification of potential islanding precursors from other power system transients. The three-phase short-circuit fault case was successfully identified as statistically different from islanding symptoms.

  7. True Concurrent Thermal Engineering Integrating CAD Model Building with Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczak, Tim; Ring, Steve; Welch, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Thermal engineering has long been left out of the concurrent engineering environment dominated by CAD (computer aided design) and FEM (finite element method) software. Current tools attempt to force the thermal design process into an environment primarily created to support structural analysis, which results in inappropriate thermal models. As a result, many thermal engineers either build models "by hand" or use geometric user interfaces that are separate from and have little useful connection, if any, to CAD and FEM systems. This paper describes the development of a new thermal design environment called the Thermal Desktop. This system, while fully integrated into a neutral, low cost CAD system, and which utilizes both FEM and FD methods, does not compromise the needs of the thermal engineer. Rather, the features needed for concurrent thermal analysis are specifically addressed by combining traditional parametric surface based radiation and FD based conduction modeling with CAD and FEM methods. The use of flexible and familiar temperature solvers such as SINDA/FLUINT (Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer/Fluid Integrator) is retained.

  8. Comparison of Pyranometers vs. PV Reference Cells for Evaluation of PV Array Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, L.; Gostein, M.; Emery, K.

    2012-09-01

    As the photovoltaics (PV) industry has grown, the need for accurately monitoring the solar resource of PV power plants has increased. Historically, the PV industry has relied on thermopile pyranometers for irradiance measurements, and a large body of historical irradiance data taken with pyranometers exists. However, interest in PV reference devices is increasing. In this paper, we discuss why PV reference devices are better suited for PV applications, and estimate the typical uncertainties in irradiance measurements made with both pyranometers and PV reference devices. We assert that the quantity of interest in monitoring a PV power plant is the equivalent irradiance under the IEC 60904-3 reference solar spectrum that would produce the same electrical response in the PV array as the incident solar radiation. For PV-plant monitoring applications, we find the uncertainties in irradiance measurements of this type to be on the order of +/-5% for thermopile pyranometers and +/-2.4% for PV reference devices.

  9. Solar PV. Innovators talking; Zon PV. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on solar PV [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar zon PV.

  10. Van lPv4 naar lPv6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Organisaties die het Internet Protocol(IP) gebruiken voor beveiligingsdoeleinden en aanbieders van beveiligingsproducten ontkomen de komende jaren niet aan de overgang naar het nieuwe protocol lPv6. Enerzijds is het gelukkig dat die overgang niet op één dag wereldwijd zal plaatsvinden, er is geen 'I

  11. Design, production and materials of PV powered consumer products - the case of mass production (cd-rom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Akkerman, Remko; Palz, W.; Ossenbrink, H.; Helm, P.

    2005-01-01

    Though many options exist, the application of integrated PV systems in mass produced consumer products is still unusual and rare [1]. Therefore, to date, design and manufacturing aspects of product-integrated PV systems have been explored only to a very limited extent. The requirements for the desig

  12. Design, production and materials of PV powered consumer products - the case of mass production (cd-rom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Akkerman, Remko; Palz, W.; Ossenbrink, H.; Helm, P.

    2005-01-01

    Though many options exist, the application of integrated PV systems in mass produced consumer products is still unusual and rare [1]. Therefore, to date, design and manufacturing aspects of product-integrated PV systems have been explored only to a very limited extent. The requirements for the

  13. Integrating Brazilian health information systems in order to support the building of data warehouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Miranda Freire

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionThis paper's aim is to develop a data warehouse from the integration of the files of three Brazilian health information systems concerned with the production of ambulatory and hospital procedures for cancer care, and cancer mortality. These systems do not have a unique patient identification, which makes their integration difficult even within a single system.MethodsData from the Brazilian Public Hospital Information System (SIH-SUS, the Oncology Module for the Outpatient Information System (APAC-ONCO and the Mortality Information System (SIM for the State of Rio de Janeiro, in the period from January 2000 to December 2004 were used. Each of the systems has the monthly data production compiled in dbase files (dbf. All the files pertaining to the same system were then read into a corresponding table in a MySQL Server 5.1. The SIH-SUS and APAC-ONCO tables were linked internally and with one another through record linkage methods. The APAC-ONCO table was linked to the SIM table. Afterwards a data warehouse was built using Pentaho and the MySQL database management system.ResultsThe sensitivities and specificities of the linkage processes were above 95% and close to 100% respectively. The data warehouse provided several analytical views that are accessed through the Pentaho Schema Workbench.ConclusionThis study presented a proposal for the integration of Brazilian Health Systems to support the building of data warehouses and provide information beyond those currently available with the individual systems.

  14. Demosite - Demonstration of the integration of photovoltaic elements in buildings; DEMOSITE. Site de demonstration d'elements de construction photovoltaiques integres au batiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roecker, C.; Affolter, P.; Muller, A.N.; Ould-Yenia, A.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy summarises Phase 4 of the DEMOSITE project and concludes 10 years of DEMOSITE activities. The DEMOSITE project, started in 1992, demonstrates various ways of integrating photovoltaic elements in buildings by providing stands, pavilions and monitoring facilities at its site in Lausanne, Switzerland. Here, at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, roof-mounted installations can be found as well as mock-ups of buildings and roofing systems that also serve as covered parking facilities. The DEMOSITE web site and graphical presentations are also reviewed. Furthermore, the six newest pavilions are presented in detail. The report also presents several sets of data from measurements made on the installations and discusses the dissemination of information and results obtained from the project. A comprehensive annex provides illustrations of examples of building-integrated photovoltaics from around the world.

  15. Performative Microforests: Investigating the potential benefits of integrating spatial vegetation environments into buildings, in regards to the performance of buildings, their occupants + local ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Mangone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The design of office buildings can substantially improve the building, social, and ecological performance of office building projects. However, existing research on improving the performance of work environments has primarily focused on identifying and evaluating methods to make work environments less bad, rather than focusing on how to develop work environments that are positively performing. Moreover, the potential of building projects to perform positively, in terms of economic, social, and ecological performance, remains relatively unexplored in existing research and building projects. To this end, this PhD research project is focused on exploring the positive economic, social, and ecological performance potential of buildings. Specifically, this research project identifies and evaluates the potential economic, social, and ecological performance benefits of integrating microforests into office buildings. Microforests are defined in this book as dynamic, stimulating, cohesive spatial environments that are composed of vegetation and soil layers that mimic the structural, perceptual, and ecological composition of a forest ecosystem, yet are not large enough to reliably provide the myriad of functions of a robust, mature forest ecosystem. This design research focus is based on findings from existing literature that suggest that natural environments and stimuli can provide a diverse range of economic, social, and ecological performance benefits. The Design Research Methodology [DRM], an established research methodology that facilitates the use of diverse research methods in a rigorous, effective manner, is used in this research project to explore and evaluate the performance potential of microforests, by investigating the following sub research questions:How can microforests improve the performance of office buildings?How can microforests improve employee performance + comfort?How can microforests improve the ecological performance of office

  16. PV-HYBRID and MINI-GRID. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Within the 3rd European Conference at the Centre de Congres in Aix en Provence (France) between 11th and 12th May, 2006, the following lessons were held: (1) Small electric networks: European drivers and projects for the integration of RES and DG into the electricity grids of the future (Manuel Sanchez-Jimenez); (2) PV hybrid system within mini grids - IEA PVPS programme (Meuch Konraf); (3) Renewables for the developing world (Alvaro Ponce Plaza); (4) Rural electicity supply using photovoltaic / - Diesel hybrid systems: Attractive for investors in the renewable energy sector? (Andreas Hahn); (5) Economic analysis of stand-alone and grid-connected photovoltaic systems under current tariff structure of Taiwan (Yaw-Juen Wang); (6) Using wind-PV-diesel hybrid system for electrification of remote village in Western Libya (N.M. Kreama); (7) Venezuela's renewable energy program for small towns and rural areas ''Sembrando Luz'' (Jorge Torres); (8) AeroSmart5, the professional, sysem-compatible small-scale wind energy converter will be tested in field tests (Fabian Jochem); (9) Lifetime, test procedures and recommendations for optimal operating strategies for lead-acid-batteries in renewable energy systems - A survey on results from European projects from the 5th framework programme (Rudi Kaiser); (10) Prototype of a reversible fuel cell system for autonomous power supplies (Tom Smolinska); (11) Interconnection management in microgrids (Michel Vandenbergh); (12) Control strategy for a small-scale stand-alone power system based on renewable energy and hydrogen (Harald Miland); (13) Standard renewable electricity supply for people in rural areas - mini-grids in western provinces of China (Michael Wollny); (14) The Brava island a ''100% renewable energy'' project (Jean-Christian Marcel); (15) Breakthrough to a new era of PV-hybrid systems with the help of standardised components communication? (Michael Mueller); (16) Standardized

  17. PV modules without bypass diodes; PV-Module ohne Bypass-Dioden? - Untersuchungen an einer PV-Fassade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laukamp, H.; Kresse, A.; Leithold, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)]|[Ingenieurbuero A. Kresse, Karlsruhe (Germany)]|[Solare Systemtechnik GmbH, Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    In order to protect solar modules against high output losses with non-homogeneous irradiation, bypass diodes which are mostly accommodated in the module connection socket are used. One would often gladly dispense with these connection sockets for integration of customer-specific large modules in facades. The question: ``Where will the diodes go?`` must then be satisfactorily answered. Both laminating the diodes in the module and their external accommodation cause extra expense elsewhere. It would be ideal if one could dispense with the bypass diodes altogether. This article tries to answer the question, in what conditions this is possible. Starting from the PV facade `Freiburg solar centre`, where one dispensed with the protective diodes, investigations are carried out experimentally and by means of simulation calculations. [Deutsch] Um Solarmodule bei inhomogener Bestrahlung vor hohen Verlustleistungen zu schuetzen, werden ueblicherweise Bypass-Dioden eingesetzt, die zumeist in der Modulanschlussdose untergebracht sind. Zur Fassadenintegration von kundenspezifischen Grossmodulen wuerde man manchmal gerne auf die Anschlussdosen verzichten. Hierfuer muesste zunaechst die Frage `wohin mit den Dioden?` befriedigend beantwortet werden. Sowohl die Einlaminierung der Dioden in das Modul, als auch deren externe Unterbringung versursachen an anderer Stelle einen erhoehten Aufwand. Ideal waere es, wenn man auf die Bypass-Dioden ganz verzichten koennte. Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht die Frage zu beantworten, unter welchen Bedingungen dies moeglich ist. Ausgehend von der PV-Fassade `Solarzentrum Freiburg` - hier wurde auf den Einsatz von Schutzdioden verzichtet - werden experimentell und mittels Simulationsrechnungen Untersuchungen durchgefuehrt. (orig./RHM)

  18. SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-cost PV Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-12

    In this report we summarize the implications, impacts, and deployment potential of reaching the SunShot 2030 targets for the electricity system in the contiguous United States. We model 25 scenarios of the U.S. power sector using the Regional Energy Deployment Systems (ReEDS) and Distributed Generation (dGen) capacity expansion models. The scenarios cover a wide range of sensitivities to capture future uncertainties relating to fuel prices, retirements, renewable energy capital costs, and load growth. We give special attention to the potential for storage costs to also rapidly decline due to its large synergies with low-cost solar. The ReEDS and dGen models project utility- and distributed-scale power sector evolution, respectively, for the United States. Both models have been designed with special emphasis on capturing the unique traits of renewable energy, including variability and grid integration requirements. Across the suite of scenarios modeled, we find that reaching the SunShot 2030 target has the potential to lead to significant capacity additions of PV in the United States. By 2050, PV penetration levels are projected to reach 28-46 percent of total generation. If storage also sees significant reductions in cost, then the 2050 solar penetration levels could reach 41-64 percent. PV deployment is projected to occur in all of the lower 48 states, though the specific deployment level is scenario dependent. The growth in PV is projected to be dominated by utility-scale systems, but the actual mix between utility and distributed systems could ultimately vary depending on how policies, system costs, and rate structures evolve.

  19. Progress & Frontiers in PV Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, Chris; DiOrio, Nick; Jordan, Dirk; Toor, Fatima

    2016-09-12

    PowerPoint slides for a presentation given at Solar Power International 2016. Presentation includes System Advisor Model (SAM) introduction and battery modeling, bifacial PV modules and modeling, shade modeling and module level power electronics (MLPE), degradation rates, and PVWatts updates and validation.

  20. PV gold rush in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Daniela

    2011-07-01

    As a result of the Green Energy Act, the installed PV capacity in the Canadian province of Ontario has tripled in the year 2010. A generous feed-in tariff, aiming at maximum local added value, has attracted numerous international manufacturers. However, the rigorous rules committing the companies to 60 % inland production have provoked harsh criticism. (orig.)

  1. Background information to the installers guide for small scale mains connected PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report contains background information used by BRE, EA Technology, Halcrows and Sundog when compiling guidance for the UK's New and Renewable Energy Programme on the installation of small-scale photovoltaics (PV) in buildings. The report considers: relevant standards; general safety issues; fire and safety issues, including the fire resistance of PV modules; PV module ratings such as maximum voltage and maximum current; DC cabling; the DC disconnect; the DC junction box; fault analysis; general and AC side earthing; DC earthing; lightning and surge suppression; inverters; AC modules; AC systems; getting connection; mounting options; and installation issues.

  2. Considerations on modelling grid-integrated PV

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Carter-Brown, Clinton

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ), and • The customers Notified Maximum Demand (NMD): The NMD in many cases is determined by the LV service connection circuit breaker rating. 24 Shared LV feeders • The maximum individual generation limit in a shared LV feeder is 25% of the customer’s NMD, up to a....8 3.68kVA 3 60A 41.4 13.8kVA (4.6 kVA per phase) 25 Example of shared LV feeder • A LV customer with a 100kVA NMD supplied via a shared LV feeder could connect up to 100 x 25% = 25kVA of generation. As 25kVA is greater than the 20kVA limit for a...

  3. State-of-the-art Review : Vol. 2B. Methods and Tools for Designing Integrated Building Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aa, Ad; Andresen, Inger; Asada, Hideo;

    The purpose of this report is to give examples of methods and tools that are used in the design of integrated building. The report does not aspire to give a complete overview of all possible design methods and tool. The report will serve as a common basis for the research and development work tha...

  4. Status and Outlook for Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in Relation to Educational needs in the BIPV Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabakovic, Momir; Fechner, Hubert; Van Sark, Wilfried; Louwen, Atse; Georghiou, George; Makrides, George; Loucaidou, Eliza; Ioannidou, Monica; Weiss, Ingrid; Arancon, Sofia; Betz, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the present status and outlook of the building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) market on a global and European scale. In particular, it provides a comprehensive review of the market situation and the future trends for Austria, Cyprus, France, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands

  5. Miniature plug connectors for photovoltaics integrated into the building; Miniatur-Steckverbinder fuer Bauwerk-integrierte Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamber, Andreas [Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG, Blomberg (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    In the photovaltics integrated into the building, the plug connector should not only transmit the electric power safely and reliably over its lifetime. Plug connectors should also be easily tailored and fit well especially in the cable channel. Sunclix miniature plug connectors are one solution.

  6. Advancing Integrated STEM Learning through Engineering Design: Sixth-Grade Students' Design and Construction of Earthquake Resistant Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna; Smeed, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    As part of a 3-year longitudinal study, 136 sixth-grade students completed an engineering-based problem on earthquakes involving integrated STEM learning. Students employed engineering design processes and STEM disciplinary knowledge to plan, sketch, then construct a building designed to withstand earthquake damage, taking into account a number of…

  7. Energy Use Intensity and its Influence on the Integrated Daylighting Design of a Large Net Zero Energy Building: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmetti , R.; Scheib, J.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini , P.; Petro, R.

    2011-03-01

    Net-zero energy buildings generate as much energy as they consume and are significant in the sustainable future of building design and construction. The role of daylighting (and its simulation) in the design process becomes critical. In this paper we present the process the National Renewable Energy Laboratory embarked on in the procurement, design, and construction of its newest building, the Research Support Facility (RSF) - particularly the roles of daylighting, electric lighting, and simulation. With a rapid construction schedule, the procurement, design, and construction had to be tightly integrated; with low energy use. We outline the process and measures required to manage a building design that could expect to operate at an efficiency previously unheard of for a building of this type, size, and density. Rigorous simulation of the daylighting and the electric lighting control response was a given, but the oft-ignored disconnect between lighting simulation and whole-building energy use simulation had to be addressed. The RSF project will be thoroughly evaluated for its performance for one year; preliminary data from the postoccupancy monitoring efforts will also be presented with an eye toward the current efficacy of building energy and lighting simulation.

  8. A highly efficient PV system using a series connection of DC-DC converter output with a photovoltaic panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho-sung [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea); New and Renewable Energy System Research Center, Korea Electro-technology Research Institute, 28-1, Sungju-dong Changwon-si, Kyungsannam-do, 641-120 (Korea); Kim, Jong-Hyun; Min, Byung-Duk; Yoo, Dong-Wook [New and Renewable Energy System Research Center, Korea Electro-technology Research Institute, 28-1, Sungju-dong Changwon-si, Kyungsannam-do, 641-120 (Korea); Kim, Hee-Je [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-11-15

    A photovoltaic (PV) power conditioning system (PCS) must have high conversion efficiency and low cost. Generally, a PV PCS uses either a single string converter or a multilevel module integrated converter (MIC). Each of these approaches has both advantages and disadvantages. For a high conversion efficiency and low cost PV module, a series connection of a module integrated DC-DC converter output with a photovoltaic panel was proposed. The output voltage of the PV panel is connected to the output capacitor of the fly-back converter. Thus, the converter output voltage is added to the output voltage of the PV panel. The isolated DC-DC converter generates only the difference voltage between the PV panel voltage and the required total output voltage. This method reduces the power level of the DC-DC converter and enhances energy conversion efficiency compared with a conventional DC-DC converter. (author)

  9. Integration of Photovoltaics in Buildings—Support Policies Addressing Technical and Formal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schuetze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The integration of photovoltaic (PV generators in the envelope of a building by means of building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV offers an immense potential, both in market development and the production of renewable electric energy that is close to the point of electricity consumption. In Germany, for example, by integrating photovoltaics in buildings up to 50% of the electricity demand can be covered. The political support of BIPV would contribute to the development and installation of BIPV components and therefore also promote the development of new business areas for industries dealing with components used in building envelopes and photovoltaic generators. BIPV can be separated into three different integration types: “technical”, “formal” and “technical & formal”. Political instruments for the support of PV-installations, particularly BIPV are discussed in this paper using Germany and France as examples. Due to successful financial support policies, PV became the most powerful electricity production technology in Germany. In France, the unique financial support of BIPV is resulting in an exemplary development and growth of certified BIPV components available on the market and, from a technical, aesthetic architectural and legal certainty point of view, facilitating the easy and widespread integration of photovoltaic generators in buildings.

  10. Building performance simulation in the early design stage: An introduction to integrated dynamic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Designing with building performance simulation feedback in the early design stage has existed since the early days of computational modeling. However, as a consequence of a fragmented building industry building performance simulations (BPSs) in the early design stage are closely related to who is...

  11. The Use of Feature Parameters to Asses Barrier Properties of ALD coatings for Flexible PV Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, Liam; Robbins, David; Fleming, Leigh; Elrawemi, Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the recent work carried out as part of the EU funded NanoMend project. The project seeks to develop integrated process inspection, cleaning, repair and control systems for nano-scale thin films on large area substrates. In the present study flexible photovoltaic films have been the substrate of interest. Flexible PV films are the subject of significant development at present and the latest films have efficiencies at or beyond the level of Si based rigid PV modules. These flexible devices are fabricated on polymer film by the repeated deposition, and patterning, of thin layer materials using roll-to-roll processes, where the whole film is approximately 3um thick prior to encapsulation. Whilst flexible films offer significant advantages in terms of mass and the possibility of building integration (BIPV) they are at present susceptible to long term environmental degradation as a result of water vapor transmission through the barrier layers to the CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Selenide CuInxGa(1-x)Se2) PV cells thus causing electrical shorts and efficiency drops. Environmental protection of the GIGS cell is provided by a thin (40nm) barrier coating of Al2O3. The highly conformal aluminium oxide barrier layer is produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD) where, the ultra-thin Al2O3 layer is deposited onto polymer thin films before these films encapsulate the PV cell. The surface of the starting polymer film must be of very high quality in order to avoid creating defects in the device layers. Since these defects reduce manufacturing yield, in order to prevent them, a further thin polymer coating (planarization layer) is generally applied to the polymer film prior to deposition. The presence of surface irregularities on the uncoated film can create defects within the nanometre-scale, aluminium oxide, barrier layer and these are measured and characterised. This paper begins by reporting the results of early stage measurements conducted to characterise

  12. Proposing the new Algorithm and Technique Development for Integrating Web Table Extraction and Building a Mashup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy A.G. Gultom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nowadays, various types of data in web table can be easily extracted from the Internet, although not all of web tables are relevant to the users. As we may know, most web pages are in unstructured HTML format, making web table extraction process very time consuming and costly. HTML format only focuses on the presentation, not based on the database system. Therefore, users need a tool in dealing with that process. Approach: This research proposed an approach for implementing web table extraction and making a Mashup from HTML web pages using Xtractorz application. It is also discussed on how to collaborate and integrate a web table extraction process in the stage of building a Mashup, i.e., Data Retrieval, Data Source Modeling, Data Cleaning/ Filtering, Data Integration and Data Visualization. The main issue lies in stage of data modeling creation, in which Xtractorz must be able to automatically render Document Object Model (DOM tree in accordance to HTML tag or code of the web page from which the table is extracted. To overcome that, the Xtractorz is equipped with algorithm and rules so it can enable to specifically analyze the HTML tags and to extract the data into a new table format. The algorithm is created by using recursive technique within a user-friendly GUI of Xtractorz. Results: The approach was evaluated by conducting experiment using Xtractorz and other similar applications, such as RoboMaker and Karma. The result of experiment showed that Xtractorz is more efficient in completing the experiment tasks, since Xtractorz has fewer steps to complete the whole tasks. Conclusion: Xtractorz can give a positive contribution in terms of algorithm technique and a new approach method to web table extraction process and making a Mashup, where the core algorithm can extracts web data tables using recursive technique while rendering the DOM tree model automatically.

  13. Physicians' perceptions of capacity building for managing chronic disease in seniors using integrated interprofessional care models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda; Heckman, George; McKelvie, Robert; Jong, Philip; D'Elia, Teresa; Hillier, Loretta M

    2015-03-01

    To explore the barriers to and facilitators of adapting and expanding a primary care memory clinic model to integrate care of additional complex chronic geriatric conditions (heart failure, falls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and frailty) into care processes with the goal of improving outcomes for seniors. Mixed-methods study using quantitative (questionnaires) and qualitative (interviews) methods. Ontario. Family physicians currently working in primary care memory clinic teams and supporting geriatric specialists. Family physicians currently working in memory clinic teams (n = 29) and supporting geriatric specialists(n = 9) were recruited as survey participants. Interviews were conducted with memory clinic lead physicians (n = 16).Statistical analysis was done to assess differences between family physician ratings and geriatric specialist ratings related to the capacity for managing complex chronic geriatric conditions, the role of interprofessional collaboration within primary care, and funding and staffing to support geriatric care. Results from both study methods were compared to identify common findings. Results indicate overall support for expanding the memory clinic model to integrate care for other complex conditions. However, the current primary care structure is challenged to support optimal management of patients with multiple comorbidities, particularly as related to limited funding and staffing resources. Structured training, interprofessional teams, and an active role of geriatric specialists within primary care were identified as important facilitators. The memory clinic model, as applied to other complex chronic geriatric conditions, has the potential to build capacity for high-quality primary care, improve health outcomes,promote efficient use of health care resources, and reduce healthcare costs.

  14. Integration of liquid-cooled solar collectors into building walls; Gebaeudeintegration von Sonnenkollektoren mit Fluessigkeitskuehlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, S.; Rockendorf, G.; Bartelsen, B. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH Hameln/Emmerthal (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    Three different methods are presented how to integrate active solar thermal components into building facades. The solar thermal absorber acts as overheating protection and the heat produced can be utilized further. The lower annual yield in comparison to roof-mounted installations is counterbalanced by a more uniform solar gain and an improved wall insulation. The new concept of elastomer-metal-absorbers can be realized in different configurations and material combinations and offers attractive options for collector installation. The methods discussed hold the promise of significant cost reductions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es werden drei Methoden vorgestellt, aktive solarthermische Komponenten mit Fluessigkeit als Waermetraeger in die Gebaeudehuelle zu integrieren. Dabei dient der solarthermische Absorber als Ueberhitzungsschutz und die abgefuehrte Waerme kann einer Nutzung zugefuehrt werden. Der geringere jaehrliche Waermeertrag im Vergleich zur Dachmontage wird durch ein gleichmaesssiges Ertragsprofil und eine verbesserte Waermedaemmung weitgehend ausgeglichen. Das neu entwickelte Elastomer-Metall-Absorber-Konzept (EMA-Konzept) ist in unterschiedliche Konfigurationen und Materialkombinationen umsetzbar und eroeffnet attraktive Moeglichkeiten der Kollektorinstallation. Die diskutierten Methoden lassen eine deutliche Kostenersparnis erwarten. (orig.)

  15. Integration of micro-filtration into osmotic membrane bioreactors to prevent salinity build-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Yuan, Bo; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2014-09-01

    The high salinity remains as one of major obstacles of the osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR). In this study, a new pathway was explored to prevent the salinity build-up by integrating the micro-filtration (MF) membrane to the OMBR (MF-OMBR). The results indicated that the salinity characterized by conductivity in the MF-OMBR was effectively alleviated and controlled at a lower value of about 5 mS/cm, and the stable flux of forward osmosis (FO) membrane correspondingly increased to approximately 5.5L/(m(2)h). Besides, the addition of MF membrane in the OMBR could increase the total organic carbon (TOC) and ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N) removals due to the activated sludge by improving the microbial activity. The membrane fouling especially the reversible fouling in the MF-OMBR was severer compared to that in the conventional OMBR, which resulted in a lower water flux than the expectation due to the increase of filtration resistance and external concentration polarization.

  16. Bayesian Method for Building Frequent Landsat-Like NDVI Datasets by Integrating MODIS and Landsat NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Liao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to vegetation dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes often require Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI datasets with both high spatial resolution and frequent coverage, which cannot be satisfied by a single sensor due to technical limitations. In this study, we propose a new method called NDVI-Bayesian Spatiotemporal Fusion Model (NDVI-BSFM for accurately and effectively building frequent high spatial resolution Landsat-like NDVI datasets by integrating Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Landsat NDVI. Experimental comparisons with the results obtained using other popular methods (i.e., the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM, the Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM, and the Flexible Spatiotemporal DAta Fusion (FSDAF method showed that our proposed method has the following advantages: (1 it can obtain more accurate estimates; (2 it can retain more spatial detail; (3 its prediction accuracy is less dependent on the quality of the MODIS NDVI on the specific prediction date; and (4 it produces smoother NDVI time series profiles. All of these advantages demonstrate the strengths and the robustness of the proposed NDVI-BSFM in providing reliable high spatial and temporal resolution NDVI datasets to support other land surface process studies.

  17. Integration of Agricultural Waste in Local Building Materials for their Exploitation: Application with Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sow

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Through experiments, we have determined the mechanical and thermal properties of samples. This allowed us to determine the most optimal formulations. Therefore, we have prepared samples constituted by two basic materials, clay and laterite, mixed with rice straw. Thus, agriculture is among the economic sectors that produce more waste. The latter are mainly the straw of the three most-produced cereals in the world: wheat, corn and rice. Concerning rice straw, its high content of cellulose makes it difficult to digest. So, few animals are able to use it as food. Most of the straws are lost, buried, burned or used as litter. Moreover, clay and laterite formations represent the most abundant materials resources in Africa. So, this study has allowed us to show that the integration of rice straw in lateritic and clay soils for its use as building materials will allow, in addition to its recycling, to greatly reduce the social habitat cost and to improve the thermal comfort.

  18. Energy Simulation of a Holographic PVT Concentrating System for Building Integration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Marín-Sáez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A building integrated holographic concentrating photovoltaic-thermal system has been optically and energetically simulated. The system has been designed to be superimposed into a solar shading louvre; in this way the concentrating unit takes profit of the solar altitude tracking, which the shading blinds already have, to increase system performance. A dynamic energy simulation has been conducted in two different locations—Sde Boker (Israel and Avignon (France—both with adequate annual irradiances for solar applications, but with different weather and energy demand characteristics. The simulation engine utilized has been TRNSYS, coupled with MATLAB (where the ray-tracing algorithm to simulate the holographic optical performance has been implemented. The concentrator achieves annual mean optical efficiencies of 30.3% for Sde Boker and 43.0% for the case of Avignon. Regarding the energy production, in both locations the thermal energy produced meets almost 100% of the domestic hot water demand as this has been considered a priority in the system control. On the other hand, the space heating demands are covered by a percentage ranging from 15% (Avignon to 20% (Sde Boker. Finally, the electricity produced in both places covers 7.4% of the electrical demand profile for Sde Boker and 9.1% for Avignon.

  19. A State-of-the-Art Review on the Integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM and Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM and Geographic Information System (GIS has been identified as a promising but challenging topic to transform information towards the generation of knowledge and intelligence. Achievement of integrating these two concepts and enabling technologies will have a significant impact on solving problems in the civil, building and infrastructure sectors. However, since GIS and BIM were originally developed for different purposes, numerous challenges are being encountered for the integration. To better understand these two different domains, this paper reviews the development and dissimilarities of GIS and BIM, the existing integration methods, and investigates their potential in various applications. This study shows that the integration methods are developed for various reasons and aim to solve different problems. The parameters influencing the choice can be summarized and named as “EEEF” criteria: effectiveness, extensibility, effort, and flexibility. Compared with other methods, semantic web technologies provide a promising and generalized integration solution. However, the biggest challenges of this method are the large efforts required at early stage and the isolated development of ontologies within one particular domain. The isolation problem also applies to other methods. Therefore, openness is the key of the success of BIM and GIS integration.

  20. Model-based automatic 3d building model generation by integrating LiDAR and aerial images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, A.; Kwak, E.; Al-Durgham, M.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate, detailed, and up-to-date 3D building models are important for several applications such as telecommunication network planning, urban planning, and military simulation. Existing building reconstruction approaches can be classified according to the data sources they use (i.e., single versus multi-sensor approaches), the processing strategy (i.e., data-driven, model-driven, or hybrid), or the amount of user interaction (i.e., manual, semiautomatic, or fully automated). While it is obvious that 3D building models are important components for many applications, they still lack the economical and automatic techniques for their generation while taking advantage of the available multi-sensory data and combining processing strategies. In this research, an automatic methodology for building modelling by integrating multiple images and LiDAR data is proposed. The objective of this research work is to establish a framework for automatic building generation by integrating data driven and model-driven approaches while combining the advantages of image and LiDAR datasets.