WorldWideScience

Sample records for building highly sensitive

  1. High order depletion sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, K.; Adib, M.; Morcos, H.N.

    2002-01-01

    A high order depletion sensitivity method was applied to calculate the sensitivities of build-up of actinides in the irradiated fuel due to cross-section uncertainties. An iteration method based on Taylor series expansion was applied to construct stationary principle, from which all orders of perturbations were calculated. The irradiated EK-10 and MTR-20 fuels at their maximum burn-up of 25% and 65% respectively were considered for sensitivity analysis. The results of calculation show that, in case of EK-10 fuel (low burn-up), the first order sensitivity was found to be enough to perform an accuracy of 1%. While in case of MTR-20 (high burn-up) the fifth order was found to provide 3% accuracy. A computer code SENS was developed to provide the required calculations

  2. High-Sensitivity Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Selected high-sensitivity spectrophotometric methods are examined, and comparisons are made of their relative strengths and weaknesses and the circumstances for which each can best be applied. Methods include long path cells, noise reduction, laser intracavity absorption, thermocouple calorimetry, photoacoustic methods, and thermo-optical methods.…

  3. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  4. Interactive Building Design Space Exploration Using Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    simulation inputs are most important and which have negligible influence on the model output. Popular sensitivity methods include the Morris method, variance-based methods (e.g. Sobol’s), and regression methods (e.g. SRC). However, all these methods only address one output at a time, which makes it difficult...... in combination with the interactive parallel coordinate plot (PCP). The latter is an effective tool to explore stochastic simulations and to find high-performing building designs. The proposed methods help decision makers to focus their attention to the most important design parameters when exploring......Monte Carlo simulations combined with regionalized sensitivity analysis provide the means to explore a vast, multivariate design space in building design. Typically, sensitivity analysis shows how the variability of model output relates to the uncertainties in models inputs. This reveals which...

  5. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  6. Application of Sensitivity Analysis in Design of Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    satisfies the design objectives and criteria. In the design of sustainable buildings, it is beneficial to identify the most important design parameters in order to more efficiently develop alternative design solutions or reach optimized design solutions. Sensitivity analyses make it possible to identify...... possible to influence the most important design parameters. A methodology of sensitivity analysis is presented and an application example is given for design of an office building in Denmark....

  7. Sensitivity Analysis Applied in Design of Low Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    satisfies the design requirements and objectives. In the design of sustainable Buildings it is beneficial to identify the most important design parameters in order to develop more efficiently alternative design solutions or reach optimized design solutions. A sensitivity analysis makes it possible...

  8. Application of Sensitivity Analysis in Design of Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Hesselholt, Allan Tind

    2007-01-01

    satisfies the design requirements and objectives. In the design of sustainable Buildings it is beneficial to identify the most important design parameters in order to develop more efficiently alternative design solutions or reach optimized design solutions. A sensitivity analysis makes it possible...

  9. Sensitivity analysis of water consumption in an office building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchacek, Tomas; Tuhovcak, Ladislav; Rucka, Jan

    2018-02-01

    This article deals with sensitivity analysis of real water consumption in an office building. During a long-term real study, reducing of pressure in its water connection was simulated. A sensitivity analysis of uneven water demand was conducted during working time at various provided pressures and at various time step duration. Correlations between maximal coefficients of water demand variation during working time and provided pressure were suggested. The influence of provided pressure in the water connection on mean coefficients of water demand variation was pointed out, altogether for working hours of all days and separately for days with identical working hours.

  10. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  11. 77 FR 2296 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee; Notification of Upcoming... teleconference meetings of the Green Building Advisory Committee (the Committee). The teleconference meetings are... Federal High Performance Green Buildings, Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration...

  12. Building Trust in High-Performing Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Soudunsaari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Facilitation of growth is more about good, trustworthy contacts than capital. Trust is a driving force for business creation, and to create a global business you need to build a team that is capable of meeting the challenge. Trust is a key factor in team building and a needed enabler for cooperation. In general, trust building is a slow process, but it can be accelerated with open interaction and good communication skills. The fast-growing and ever-changing nature of global business sets demands for cooperation and team building, especially for startup companies. Trust building needs personal knowledge and regular face-to-face interaction, but it also requires empathy, respect, and genuine listening. Trust increases communication, and rich and open communication is essential for the building of high-performing teams. Other building materials are a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, willingness for cooperation, and supporting and encouraging leadership. This study focuses on trust in high-performing teams. It asks whether it is possible to manage trust and which tools and operation models should be used to speed up the building of trust. In this article, preliminary results from the authors’ research are presented to highlight the importance of sharing critical information and having a high level of communication through constant interaction.

  13. See-Through Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photonic Reflectors for Tandem and Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Heiniger, Leo-Philipp

    2013-08-21

    See-through dye-sensitized solar cells with 1D photonic crystal Bragg reflector photoanodes show an increase in peak external quantum efficiency of 47% while still maintaining high fill factors, resulting in an almost 40% increase in power conversion efficiency. These photoanodes are ideally suited for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. FIRE EVACUATION FROM HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds the temperature of the ambient air acceptable for humans by far (70 °С. The experiments demonstrate that combustion products contain hundreds of toxic chemical compounds. The most hazardous of them include carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, chloride and cyanic hydrogen, aldehydes and acrolein. The author provides the pattern of their influence on the human body. The smoke consists of unburned particles of carbon and aerosols. The size of particles fluctuates within 0.05-50 MMK. Smoke produces a physiological and psychological impact on human beings. It has been proven that dangerous fire factors emerge within the first five to ten minutes of the emergency situation. Evacuation is the principal method of safety assurance. However, the velocity of propagation of smoke and heat is so high that even if the fire prevention system is in operation, people may be blocked both on the floors that are exposed to the fire and those that escape its propagation. New evacuation and rescue methods are recommended by the author. Various ways and methods of use of life-saving facilities are also provided. Safe evacuation is feasible from buildings where the number of stories does not exceed 10- 12. During evacuation, high density human streams are formed inside buildings, therefore, the period of stay in a burning building is increased. The calculations have proven that a two-minute delay of evacuation converts into a safe evacuation of only 13-15% of people. Low reliability of

  15. High sensitivity amplifier/discriminator for PWC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.

    1983-01-01

    The facility support group at Fermilab is designing and building a general purpose beam chamber for use in several locations at the laboratory. This pwc has 128 wires per plane spaced 1 mm apart. An initial production of 25 signal planes is anticipated. In proportional chambers, the size of the signal depends exponentially on the charge stored per unit of length along the anode wire. As the wire spacing decreases, the capacitance per unit length decreases, thereby requiring increased applied voltage to restore the necessary charge per unit length. In practical terms, this phenomenon is responsible for difficulties in constructing chambers with less than 2 mm wire spacing. 1 mm chambers, therefore, are frequently operated very near to their breakdown point and/or a high gain gas containing organic compounds such as magic gas is used. This argon/iso-butane mixture has three drawbacks: it is explosive when exposed to the air, it leaves a residue on the wires after extended use and is costly. An amplifier with higher sensitivity would reduce the problems associated with operating chambers with small wire spacings and allow them to be run a safe margin below their breakdown voltage even with an inorganic gas mixture such as argon/CO2, this eliminating the need to use magic gas. Described here is a low cost amplifier with a usable threshold of less than 0.5 μA. Data on the performance of this amplifier/discriminator in operation on a prototype beam chamber are given. This data shows the advantages of the high sensitivity of this design

  16. Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Anna [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Progress Towards Net-Zero and Net-Positive-Energy Commercial Buildings and Urban Districts Through Intelligent Building Envelope Strategies Previous research and development of intelligent facades systems has been limited in their contribution towards national goals for achieving on-site net zero buildings, because this R&D has failed to couple the many qualitative requirements of building envelopes such as the provision of daylighting, access to exterior views, satisfying aesthetic and cultural characteristics, with the quantitative metrics of energy harvesting, storage and redistribution. To achieve energy self-sufficiency from on-site solar resources, building envelopes can and must address this gamut of concerns simultaneously. With this project, we have undertaken a high-performance building integrated combined-heat and power concentrating photovoltaic system with high temperature thermal capture, storage and transport towards multiple applications (BICPV/T). The critical contribution we are offering with the Integrated Concentrating Solar Façade (ICSF) is conceived to improve daylighting quality for improved health of occupants and mitigate solar heat gain while maximally capturing and transferring onsite solar energy. The ICSF accomplishes this multi-functionality by intercepting only the direct-normal component of solar energy (which is responsible for elevated cooling loads) thereby transforming a previously problematic source of energy into a high quality resource that can be applied to building demands such as heating, cooling, dehumidification, domestic hot water, and possible further augmentation of electrical generation through organic Rankine cycles. With the ICSF technology, our team is addressing the global challenge in transitioning commercial and residential building stock towards on-site clean energy self-sufficiency, by fully integrating innovative environmental control systems strategies within an intelligent and responsively dynamic building

  17. Sensitivity analysis of the energy demand of existing buildings based on the Danish Building and Dwelling Register (BBR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    performance certificate. The Danish Building Research Institute has described a method that can be applied for estimating the energy demand of dwellings. This is based on the information in the Danish Building and Dwelling Register and requirements in the Danish Building Regulations from the year......The EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings requires that energy certification of buildings should be implemented in Denmark so that houses that are sold or let should have an energy performance certificate. The result is that only a small part of existing houses has an energy...... of construction of the house. The result is an estimate of the energy demand of each building with a variation. This makes it possible to make an automatic classification of all buildings. The paper discusses the uncertainties and makes a sensitivity analysis to find the important parameters. The variations...

  18. Sensitivity analysis of the energy demand of existing buildings based on the Danish Building and Dwelling Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    performance certificate. The Danish Building Research Institute has described a method that can be applied for estimating the energy demand of dwellings. This is based on the information in the Danish Building and Dwelling Register and requirements in the Danish Building Regulations from the year......The EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings requires that energy certification of buildings should be implemented in Denmark so that houses that are sold or let should have an energy performance certificate. The result is that only a small part of existing houses has an energy...... of construction of the house. The result is an estimate of the energy demand of each building with a variation. This makes it possible to make an automatic classification of all buildings. The paper discusses the uncertainties and makes a sensitivity analysis to find the important parameters. The variations...

  19. Integrating advanced facades into high performance buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2001-01-01

    Glass is a remarkable material but its functionality is significantly enhanced when it is processed or altered to provide added intrinsic capabilities. The overall performance of glass elements in a building can be further enhanced when they are designed to be part of a complete facade system. Finally the facade system delivers the greatest performance to the building owner and occupants when it becomes an essential element of a fully integrated building design. This presentation examines the growing interest in incorporating advanced glazing elements into more comprehensive facade and building systems in a manner that increases comfort, productivity and amenity for occupants, reduces operating costs for building owners, and contributes to improving the health of the planet by reducing overall energy use and negative environmental impacts. We explore the role of glazing systems in dynamic and responsive facades that provide the following functionality: Enhanced sun protection and cooling load control while improving thermal comfort and providing most of the light needed with daylighting; Enhanced air quality and reduced cooling loads using natural ventilation schemes employing the facade as an active air control element; Reduced operating costs by minimizing lighting, cooling and heating energy use by optimizing the daylighting-thermal tradeoffs; Net positive contributions to the energy balance of the building using integrated photovoltaic systems; Improved indoor environments leading to enhanced occupant health, comfort and performance. In addressing these issues facade system solutions must, of course, respect the constraints of latitude, location, solar orientation, acoustics, earthquake and fire safety, etc. Since climate and occupant needs are dynamic variables, in a high performance building the facade solution have the capacity to respond and adapt to these variable exterior conditions and to changing occupant needs. This responsive performance capability

  20. 78 FR 56703 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee; Notification of Upcoming... Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the Committee) and the schedule for a series of conference..., Designated Federal Officer, [[Page 56704

  1. 77 FR 43084 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act; Notification of... High- Performance Green Buildings, Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration... download from the Office of Federal High-Performance Green Building Web site Library at-- http://www.gsa...

  2. High-performance commercial building systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical accomplishments resulting from the three year PIER-funded R&D program, ''High Performance Commercial Building Systems'' (HPCBS). The program targets the commercial building sector in California, an end-use sector that accounts for about one-third of all California electricity consumption and an even larger fraction of peak demand, at a cost of over $10B/year. Commercial buildings also have a major impact on occupant health, comfort and productivity. Building design and operations practices that influence energy use are deeply engrained in a fragmented, risk-averse industry that is slow to change. Although California's aggressive standards efforts have resulted in new buildings designed to use less energy than those constructed 20 years ago, the actual savings realized are still well below technical and economic potentials. The broad goal of this program is to develop and deploy a set of energy-saving technologies, strategies, and techniques, and improve processes for designing, commissioning, and operating commercial buildings, while improving health, comfort, and performance of occupants, all in a manner consistent with sound economic investment practices. Results are to be broadly applicable to the commercial sector for different building sizes and types, e.g. offices and schools, for different classes of ownership, both public and private, and for owner-occupied as well as speculative buildings. The program aims to facilitate significant electricity use savings in the California commercial sector by 2015, while assuring that these savings are affordable and promote high quality indoor environments. The five linked technical program elements contain 14 projects with 41 distinct R&D tasks. Collectively they form a comprehensive Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) program with the potential to capture large savings in the commercial building sector, providing significant economic benefits to

  3. 77 FR 24494 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee; Notification of Upcoming... agenda for the May 9, 2012, meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the Committee). The... Sandler, Designated Federal Officer, Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, Office of...

  4. Application of Sensitivity Analysis in Design of Integrated Building Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Hesselholt, Allan Tind

    2007-01-01

    analysis makes it possible to identify the most important parameters in relation to building performance and to focus design and optimization of integrated building concepts on these fewer, but most important parameters. The sensitivity analyses will typically be performed at a reasonably early stage...... the design requirements and objectives. In the design of integrated building concepts it is beneficial to identify the most important design parameters in order to more efficiently develop alternative design solutions or more efficiently perform an optimization of the building performance. The sensitivity...

  5. A conceptualisation framework for building consensus on environmental sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Del Campo, Ainhoa

    2017-09-15

    Examination of the intrinsic attributes of a system that render it more or less sensitive to potential stressors provides further insight into the baseline environment. In impact assessment, sensitivity of environmental receptors can be conceptualised on the basis of their: a) quality status according to statutory indicators and associated thresholds or targets; b) statutory protection; or c) inherent risk. Where none of these considerations are pertinent, subjective value judgments can be applied to determine sensitivity. This pragmatic conceptual framework formed the basis of a stakeholder consultation process for harmonising degrees of sensitivity of a number of environmental criteria. Harmonisation was sought to facilitate their comparative and combined analysis. Overall, full or wide agreement was reached on relative sensitivity values for the large majority of the reviewed criteria. Consensus was easier to reach on some themes (e.g. biodiversity, water and cultural heritage) than others (e.g. population and soils). As anticipated, existing statutory measures shaped the outcomes but, ultimately, knowledge-based values prevailed. The agreed relative sensitivities warrant extensive consultation but the conceptual framework provides a basis for increasing stakeholder consensus and objectivity of baseline assessments. This, in turn, can contribute to improving the evidence-base for characterising the significance of potential impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 77 FR 66616 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee; Notification of Upcoming... and agenda for the November 27, 2012, meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the... Green Buildings, Office of Government-wide Policy, General Services Administration, 1275 First Street NE...

  7. 78 FR 21368 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee; Notification of Upcoming... and agenda for the May 1, 2013, meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the... Green Buildings, Office of Government-wide Policy, General Services Administration, 1275 First Street NE...

  8. A method of the sensitivity analysis of build-up and decay of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Hiroshi; Koyama, Kinji; Kuroi, Hideo

    1977-07-01

    To make sensitivity analysis of build-up and decay of actinides, mathematical methods related to this problem have been investigated in detail. Application of time-dependent perturbation technique and Bateman method to sensitivity analysis is mainly studied. For the purpose, a basic equation and its adjoint equation for build-up and decay of actinides are systematically solved by introducing Laplace and modified Laplace transforms and their convolution theorems. Then, the mathematical method of sensitivity analyses is formulated by the above technique; its physical significance is also discussed. Finally, application of eigenvalue-method is investigated. Sensitivity coefficients can be directly calculated by this method. (auth.)

  9. Phase sensitive diffraction sensor for high sensitivity refractive index measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Nityanand; Varma, Manoj; Kumar, Sunil

    2018-02-01

    In this study a diffraction based sensor has been developed for bio molecular sensing applications and performing assays in real time. A diffraction grating fabricated on a glass substrate produced diffraction patterns both in transmission and reflection when illuminated by a laser diode. We used zeroth order I(0,0) as reference and first order I(0,1) as signal channel and conducted ratiometric measurements that reduced noise by more than 50 times. The ratiometric approach resulted in a very simple instrumentation with very high sensitivity. In the past, we have shown refractive index measurements both for bulk and surface adsorption using the diffractive self-referencing approach. In the current work we extend the same concept to higher diffraction orders. We have considered order I(0,1) and I(1,1) and performed ratiometric measurements I(0,1)/I(1,1) to eliminate the common mode fluctuations. Since orders I(0,1) and I(1,1) behaved opposite to each other, the resulting ratio signal amplitude increased more than twice compared to our previous results. As a proof of concept we used different salt concentrations in DI water. Increased signal amplitude and improved fluid injection system resulted in more than 4 times improvement in detection limit, giving limit of detection 1.3×10-7 refractive index unit (RIU) compared to our previous results. The improved refractive index sensitivity will help significantly for high sensitivity label free bio sensing application in a very cost-effective and simple experimental set-up.

  10. Novel Methods to Explore Building Energy Sensitivity to Climate and Heat Waves Using PNNL's BEND Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleyson, C. D.; Voisin, N.; Taylor, T.; Xie, Y.; Kraucunas, I.

    2017-12-01

    The DOE's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been developing the Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model to simulate energy usage in residential and commercial buildings responding to changes in weather, climate, population, and building technologies. At its core, BEND is a mechanism to aggregate EnergyPlus simulations of a large number of individual buildings with a diversity of characteristics over large spatial scales. We have completed a series of experiments to explore methods to calibrate the BEND model, measure its ability to capture interannual variability in energy demand due to weather using simulations of two distinct weather years, and understand the sensitivity to the number and location of weather stations used to force the model. The use of weather from "representative cities" reduces computational costs, but often fails to capture spatial heterogeneity that may be important for simulations aimed at understanding how building stocks respond to a changing climate (Fig. 1). We quantify the potential reduction in temperature and load biases from using an increasing number of weather stations across the western U.S., ranging from 8 to roughly 150. Using 8 stations results in an average absolute summertime temperature bias of 4.0°C. The mean absolute bias drops to 1.5°C using all available stations. Temperature biases of this magnitude translate to absolute summertime mean simulated load biases as high as 13.8%. Additionally, using only 8 representative weather stations can lead to a 20-40% bias of peak building loads under heat wave or cold snap conditions, a significant error for capacity expansion planners who may rely on these types of simulations. This analysis suggests that using 4 stations per climate zone may be sufficient for most purposes. Our novel approach, which requires no new EnergyPlus simulations, could be useful to other researchers designing or calibrating aggregate building model simulations - particularly those looking at

  11. High sensitivity optical molecular imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yu; Yuan, Gao; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Shixin; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Optical Molecular Imaging (OMI) has the advantages of high sensitivity, low cost and ease of use. By labeling the regions of interest with fluorescent or bioluminescence probes, OMI can noninvasively obtain the distribution of the probes in vivo, which play the key role in cancer research, pharmacokinetics and other biological studies. In preclinical and clinical application, the image depth, resolution and sensitivity are the key factors for researchers to use OMI. In this paper, we report a high sensitivity optical molecular imaging system developed by our group, which can improve the imaging depth in phantom to nearly 5cm, high resolution at 2cm depth, and high image sensitivity. To validate the performance of the system, special designed phantom experiments and weak light detection experiment were implemented. The results shows that cooperated with high performance electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, precision design of light path system and high efficient image techniques, our OMI system can simultaneously collect the light-emitted signals generated by fluorescence molecular imaging, bioluminescence imaging, Cherenkov luminance and other optical imaging modality, and observe the internal distribution of light-emitting agents fast and accurately.

  12. Heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jakob Lind

    This thesis present a highly sensitive silicon microreactor and examples of its use in studying catalysis. The experimental setup built for gas handling and temperature control for the microreactor is described. The implementation of LabVIEW interfacing for all the experimental parts makes...

  13. Aluminum nanocantilevers for high sensitivity mass sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Zachary James; Boisen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    We have fabricated Al nanocantilevers using a simple, one mask contact UV lithography technique with lateral and vertical dimensions under 500 and 100 nm, respectively. These devices are demonstrated as highly sensitive mass sensors by measuring their dynamic properties. Furthermore, it is shown ...

  14. Single photon detector with high polarization sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Li, Hao; You, LiXing; Zhang, WeiJun; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Zhen; Xie, XiaoMing; Qi, Ming

    2015-04-15

    Polarization is one of the key parameters of light. Most optical detectors are intensity detectors that are insensitive to the polarization of light. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) is naturally sensitive to polarization due to its nanowire structure. Previous studies focused on producing a polarization-insensitive SNSPD. In this study, by adjusting the width and pitch of the nanowire, we systematically investigate the preparation of an SNSPD with high polarization sensitivity. Subsequently, an SNSPD with a system detection efficiency of 12% and a polarization extinction ratio of 22 was successfully prepared.

  15. The Impact of Subsidies on the Prevalence of Climate-Sensitive Residential Buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Tan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on air-conditioning (AC for residential cooling and ventilation is a health and sustainability challenge. In hot temperatures, climate-sensitive buildings (CSB can complement and/or substitute for AC usage in achieving thermal comfort. Many countries facing such conditions—particularly in tropical climates—are developing quickly, with rising populations and income creating demand for new housing and AC. This presents a window for adoption of CSB but could also result in long term lock-in of AC-dependent buildings. Here, a simple system dynamics model is used to explore the potential and limitations of subsidies to affect futures of housing stock and night-time AC usage in Malaysia. The effectiveness of subsidies in achieving high uptake of CSB and resulting health benefits is highly dependent on homebuyer willingness to pay (WTP. A detailed understanding of WTP in the Malaysian context and factors that can shift WTP is necessary to determine if CSB subsidies can be a good policy mechanism for achieving CSB uptake.

  16. Highly sensitive microcalorimeters for radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avaev, V.N.; Demchuk, B.N.; Ioffe, L.A.; Efimov, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Calorimetry is used in research at various types of nuclear-physics installations to obtain information on the quantitative and qualitative composition of ionizing radiation in a reactor core and in the surrounding layers of the biological shield. In this paper, the authors examine the characteristics of highly sensitive microcalorimeters with modular semiconductor heat pickups designed for operation in reactor channels. The microcalorimeters have a thin-walled aluminum housing on whose inner surface modular heat pickups are placed radially as shown here. The results of measurements of the temperature dependence of the sensitivity of the microcalorimeters are shown. The results of measuring the sensitivity of a PMK-2 microcalorimeter assembly as a function of integrated neutron flux for three energy intervals and the adsorbed gamma energy are shown. In order to study specimens with different shapes and sizes, microcalorimeters with chambers in the form of cylinders and a parallelepiped were built and tested

  17. Sensitivity analysis for daily building operation from the energy and thermal comfort standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Marko G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy performance of buildings is one of the most important tasks for reaching sustainability. Assessing building energy consumption is performed more often with specialized simulation tools. Sensitivity analysis proved to be a valuable tool for creating more reliable and realistic building energy models and better buildings. This paper briefly describes the methodology for running global sensitivity analysis and tools that can be used, and presents the results of such an analysis conducted for winter period, daily, on input variables covering a real building's operation, control and occupant related parameters that affect both thermal comfort and heating energy consumption. Two sets of inputs were created. The only difference between these sets is an addition of clothing insulation and occupant heat gain as input variables. The reference building was simulated for three distinctive winter weeks. Two additional input variables have an effect especially on thermal comfort, but they do not disturb the relative order of other influential input variables. The common influential variables for both energy consumption and thermal comfort were identified and are: air handling unit sup-ply temperature and airflow rate and control system related parameters. This can help in future research into implementing the simulation-assisted optimized operation in real buildings. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  18. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  19. High Performance Building Mockup in FLEXLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kohler, Christian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Eleanor S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Genentech has ambitious energy and indoor environmental quality performance goals for Building 35 (B35) being constructed by Webcor at the South San Francisco campus. Genentech and Webcor contracted with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test building systems including lighting, lighting controls, shade fabric, and automated shading controls in LBNL’s new FLEXLAB facility. The goal of the testing is to ensure that the systems installed in the new office building will function in a way that reduces energy consumption and provides a comfortable work environment for employees.

  20. Low Cost, Low Power, High Sensitivity Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    which are used to measure the small magnetic signals from brain. Other types of vector magnetometers are fluxgate , coil based, and magnetoresistance...concentrator with the magnetometer currently used in Army multimodal sensor systems, the Brown fluxgate . One sees the MEMS fluxgate magnetometer is...Guedes, A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - LOW COST, LOW POWER, HIGH SENSITIVITY MAGNETOMETER A.S. Edelstein*, James E. Burnette, Greg A. Fischer, M.G

  1. Aging characteristics of containment building and sensitivity on ultimate pressure capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil; Ha, Jae Joo

    1998-03-01

    For the reliable safety assessment of the containment building, structural and material conditions can be investigated in detail and pertinent assessment technologies have to be established. Also, an understanding on the aging-related degradations for the construction materials is required to predict long-term structural safety of the containment building. For the development of reliable aging prediction models, an extensive data base system related to aging properties of the containment building has to be prepared. The objectives of this research are to develop aging models representing long-term degradation of materials and a structural performance assessment program for containment building considering aging-related degradation. According to the results of sensitivity analysis, as the mechanical properties of the constituent materials degrade, the ultimate pressure capacity of containment building may decrease and severe damage may occur around the mid-level of the containment wall. (author). 28 refs., 11 tabs., 36 figs

  2. High-performance commercial building facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor; Selkowitz, Stephen; Bazjanac, Vladimir; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Kohler, Christian

    2002-06-01

    This study focuses on advanced building facades that use daylighting, sun control, ventilation systems, and dynamic systems. A quick perusal of the leading architectural magazines, or a discussion in most architectural firms today will eventually lead to mention of some of the innovative new buildings that are being constructed with all-glass facades. Most of these buildings are appearing in Europe, although interestingly U.S. A/E firms often have a leading role in their design. This ''emerging technology'' of heavily glazed fagades is often associated with buildings whose design goals include energy efficiency, sustainability, and a ''green'' image. While there are a number of new books on the subject with impressive photos and drawings, there is little critical examination of the actual performance of such buildings, and a generally poor understanding as to whether they achieve their performance goals, or even what those goals might be. Even if the building ''works'' it is often dangerous to take a design solution from one climate and location and transport it to a new one without a good causal understanding of how the systems work. In addition, there is a wide range of existing and emerging glazing and fenestration technologies in use in these buildings, many of which break new ground with respect to innovative structural use of glass. It is unclear as to how well many of these designs would work as currently formulated in California locations dominated by intense sunlight and seismic events. Finally, the costs of these systems are higher than normal facades, but claims of energy and productivity savings are used to justify some of them. Once again these claims, while plausible, are largely unsupported. There have been major advances in glazing and facade technology over the past 30 years and we expect to see continued innovation and product development. It is critical in this process to be able to

  3. Progressive Collapse of High-Rise Buildings from Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pershakov Valerii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considers ensuring the stability of structures of high-rise buildings against progressive collapse due to fire, proposed measures to ensure the stability of high-rise buildings due to progressive collapse. The analysis of large fires in high-rise buildings with progressive collapse and review of the literature on the issue of progressive collapse. The analysis of the Ukrainian normative documents on progressive collapse resistance.

  4. Energy efficiency of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigulina, Anna Yu.; Ponomarenko, Alla M.

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to analysis of tendencies and advanced technologies in the field of energy supply and energy efficiency of tall buildings, to the history of the emergence of the concept of "efficiency" and its current interpretation. Also the article show the difference of evaluation criteria of the leading rating systems LEED and BREEAM. Authors reviewed the latest technologies applied in the construction of energy efficient buildings. Methodological approach to the design of tall buildings taking into account energy efficiency needs to include the primary energy saving; to seek the possibility of production and accumulation of alternative electric energy by converting energy from the sun and wind with the help of special technical devices; the application of regenerative technologies.

  5. Daylighting Strategies Promote Healthy High Performance Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Steve

    2010-01-01

    There are many reasons to incorporate daylighting into the building or renovation of K-16 learning facilities. Benefits include increased productivity for students and staff, improved health, a better connection to the outdoors, energy savings and better quality of light. Add the role daylighting can play in LEED certification and it's clear that…

  6. Review of high-sensitivity Radon studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G.; Simgen, H.

    2017-10-01

    A challenge in many present cutting-edge particle physics experiments is the stringent requirements in terms of radioactive background. In peculiar, the prevention of Radon, a radioactive noble gas, which occurs from ambient air and it is also released by emanation from the omnipresent progenitor Radium. In this paper we review various high-sensitivity Radon detection techniques and approaches, applied in the experiments looking for rare nuclear processes happening at low energies. They allow to identify, quantitatively measure and finally suppress the numerous sources of Radon in the detectors’ components and plants.

  7. High sensitivity troponin and valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Cian P; Donnellan, Eoin; Phelan, Dermot; Griffin, Brian P; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; McEvoy, John W

    2017-07-01

    Blood-based biomarkers have been extensively studied in a range of cardiovascular diseases and have established utility in routine clinical care, most notably in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (e.g., troponin) and the management of heart failure (e.g., brain-natriuretic peptide). The role of biomarkers is less well established in the management of valvular heart disease (VHD), in which the optimal timing of surgical intervention is often challenging. One promising biomarker that has been the subject of a number of recent VHD research studies is high sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn). Novel high-sensitivity assays can detect subclinical myocardial damage in asymptomatic individuals. Thus, hs-cTn may have utility in the assessment of asymptomatic patients with severe VHD who do not have a clear traditional indication for surgical intervention. In this state-of-the-art review, we examine the current evidence for hs-cTn as a potential biomarker in the most commonly encountered VHD conditions, aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation. This review provides a synopsis of early evidence indicating that hs-cTn has promise as a biomarker in VHD. However, the impact of its measurement on clinical practice and VHD outcomes needs to be further assessed in prospective studies before routine clinical use becomes a reality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Highly sensitive high resolution Raman spectroscopy using resonant ionization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owyoung, A.; Esherick, P.

    1984-05-01

    In recent years, the introduction of stimulated Raman methods has offered orders of magnitude improvement in spectral resolving power for gas phase Raman studies. Nevertheless, the inherent weakness of the Raman process suggests the need for significantly more sensitive techniques in Raman spectroscopy. In this we describe a new approach to this problem. Our new technique, which we call ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopy (IDSRS), combines high-resolution SRS with highly-sensitive resonant laser ionization to achieve an increase in sensitivity of over three orders of magnitude. The excitation/detection process involves three sequential steps: (1) population of a vibrationally excited state via stimulated Raman pumping; (2) selective ionization of the vibrationally excited molecule with a tunable uv source; and (3) collection of the ionized species at biased electrodes where they are detected as current in an external circuit

  9. High Performance Home Building Guide for Habitat for Humanity Affiliates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey Marburger

    2010-10-01

    This guide covers basic principles of high performance Habitat construction, steps to achieving high performance Habitat construction, resources to help improve building practices, materials, etc., and affiliate profiles and recommendations.

  10. Investigation of wind behaviour around high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Isa, Norasikin; Fitriah Nasir, Nurul; Sadikin, Azmahani; Ariff Hairul Bahara, Jamil

    2017-09-01

    A study on the investigation of wind behaviour around the high-rise buildings is done through an experiment using a wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamics. High-rise buildings refer to buildings or structures that have more than 12 floors. Wind is invisible to the naked eye; thus, it is hard to see and analyse its flow around and over buildings without the use of proper methods, such as the use of wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamics software.The study was conducted on buildings located in Presint 4, Putrajaya, Malaysia which is the Ministry of Rural and Regional Development, Ministry of Information Communications and Culture, Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Housing and Local Government and the Ministry of Women, Family, and Community by making scaled models of the buildings. The parameters in which this study is conducted on are, four different wind velocities used based on the seasonal monsoons, and wind direction. ANSYS Fluent workbench software is used to compute the simulations in order to achieve the objectives of this study. The data from the computational fluid dynamics are validated with the experiment done through the wind tunnel. From the results obtained through the use of the computation fluid dynamics, this study can identify the characteristics of wind around buildings, including boundary layer of the buildings, separation flow, wake region and etc. Then analyses is conducted on the occurance resulting from the wind that passes the buildings based on the velocity difference between before and after the wind passes the buildings.

  11. CALDER: High-sensitivity cryogenic light detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casali, N.; Bellini, F.; Cardani, L.

    2017-01-01

    The current bolometric experiments searching for rare processes such as neutrinoless double-beta decay or dark matter interaction demand for cryogenic light detectors with high sensitivity, large active area and excellent scalability and radio-purity in order to reduce their background budget. The CALDER project aims to develop such kind of light detectors implementing phonon-mediated Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs). The goal for this project is the realization of a 5 × 5 cm"2 light detector working between 10 and 100mK with a baseline resolution RMS below 20 eV. In this work the characteristics and the performances of the prototype detectors developed in the first project phase will be shown.

  12. High sensitive radiation detector for radiology dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, M.; Malano, F. [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Av. Luis Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Molina, W.; Vedelago, J., E-mail: valente@famac.unc.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Fricke solution has a wide range of applications as radiation detector and dosimetry. It is particularly appreciated in terms of relevant comparative advantages, like tissue equivalence when prepared in aqueous media like gel matrix, continuous mapping capability, dose rate recorded and incident direction independence as well as linear dose response. This work presents the development and characterization of a novel Fricke gel system, based on modified chemical compositions making possible its application in clinical radiology. Properties of standard Fricke gel dosimeter for high dose levels are used as starting point and suitable chemical modifications are introduced and carefully investigated in order to attain high resolution for low dose ranges, like those corresponding to radiology interventions. The developed Fricke gel radiation dosimeter system achieves the expected typical dose dependency, actually showing linear response in the dose range from 20 up to 4000 mGy. Systematic investigations including several chemical compositions are carried out in order to obtain a good enough dosimeter response for low dose levels. A suitable composition among those studied is selected as a good candidate for low dose level radiation dosimetry consisting on a modified Fricke solution fixed to a gel matrix containing benzoic acid along with sulfuric acid, ferrous sulfate, xylenol orange and ultra-pure reactive grade water. Dosimeter samples are prepared in standard vials for its in phantom irradiation and further characterization by spectrophotometry measuring visible light transmission and absorbance before and after irradiation. Samples are irradiated by typical kV X-ray tubes and calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber is used as reference to measure dose rates inside phantoms in at vials locations. Once sensitive material composition is already optimized, dose-response curves show significant improvement regarding overall sensitivity for low dose levels. According to

  13. High sensitive radiation detector for radiology dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, M.; Malano, F.; Molina, W.; Vedelago, J.

    2014-08-01

    Fricke solution has a wide range of applications as radiation detector and dosimetry. It is particularly appreciated in terms of relevant comparative advantages, like tissue equivalence when prepared in aqueous media like gel matrix, continuous mapping capability, dose rate recorded and incident direction independence as well as linear dose response. This work presents the development and characterization of a novel Fricke gel system, based on modified chemical compositions making possible its application in clinical radiology. Properties of standard Fricke gel dosimeter for high dose levels are used as starting point and suitable chemical modifications are introduced and carefully investigated in order to attain high resolution for low dose ranges, like those corresponding to radiology interventions. The developed Fricke gel radiation dosimeter system achieves the expected typical dose dependency, actually showing linear response in the dose range from 20 up to 4000 mGy. Systematic investigations including several chemical compositions are carried out in order to obtain a good enough dosimeter response for low dose levels. A suitable composition among those studied is selected as a good candidate for low dose level radiation dosimetry consisting on a modified Fricke solution fixed to a gel matrix containing benzoic acid along with sulfuric acid, ferrous sulfate, xylenol orange and ultra-pure reactive grade water. Dosimeter samples are prepared in standard vials for its in phantom irradiation and further characterization by spectrophotometry measuring visible light transmission and absorbance before and after irradiation. Samples are irradiated by typical kV X-ray tubes and calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber is used as reference to measure dose rates inside phantoms in at vials locations. Once sensitive material composition is already optimized, dose-response curves show significant improvement regarding overall sensitivity for low dose levels. According to

  14. High sensitivity thermal sensors on insulating diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Job, R. [Fernuniversitaet Hagen (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Electron. Devices; Denisenko, A.V. [Fernuniversitaet Hagen (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Electron. Devices; Zaitsev, A.M. [Fernuniversitaet Hagen (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Electron. Devices; Melnikov, A.A. [Belarussian State Univ., Minsk (Belarus). HEII and FD; Werner, M. [VDI/VDE-IT, Teltow (Germany); Fahrner, W.R. [Fernuniversitaet Hagen (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Electron. Devices

    1996-12-15

    Diamond is a promising material to develop sensors for applications in harsh environments. To increase the sensitivity of diamond temperature sensors the effect of thermionic hole emission (TE) over an energetic barrier formed in the interface between highly boron-doped p-type and intrinsic insulating diamond areas has been suggested. To study the TE of holes a p-i-p diode has been fabricated and analyzed by electrical measurements in the temperature range between 300 K and 700 K. The experimental results have been compared with numerical simulations of its electrical characteristics. Based on a model of the thermionic emission of carriers into an insulator it has been suggested that the temperature sensitivity of the p-i-p diode on diamond is strongly affected by the re-emission of holes from a group of donor-like traps located at a level of 0.7-1.0 eV above the valence band. The mechanism of thermal activation of the current includes a spatial redistribution of the potential, which results in the TE regime from a decrease of the immobilized charge of the ionized traps within the i-zone of the diode and the correspondent lowering of the forward biased barrier. The characteristics of the p-i-p diode were studied with regard to temperature sensor applications. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR=-0.05 K{sup -1}) for temperatures above 600 K is about four times larger than the maximal attainable TCR for conventional boron-doped diamond resistors. (orig.)

  15. Transportable high sensitivity small sample radiometric calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, J.R.; Biddle, R.S.; Cordova, B.S.; Sampson, T.E.; Dye, H.R.; McDow, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    A new small-sample, high-sensitivity transportable radiometric calorimeter, which can be operated in different modes, contains an electrical calibration method, and can be used to develop secondary standards, will be described in this presentation. The data taken from preliminary tests will be presented to indicate the precision and accuracy of the instrument. The calorimeter and temperature-controlled bath, at present, require only a 30-in. by 20-in. tabletop area. The calorimeter is operated from a laptop computer system using unique measurement module capable of monitoring all necessary calorimeter signals. The calorimeter can be operated in the normal calorimeter equilibration mode, as a comparison instrument, using twin chambers and an external electrical calibration method. The sample chamber is 0.75 in (1.9 cm) in diameter by 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) long. This size will accommodate most 238 Pu heat standards manufactured in the past. The power range runs from 0.001 W to <20 W. The high end is only limited by sample size

  16. 76 FR 35894 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Establishment of the Green Building Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Establishment of the Green Building Advisory Committee AGENCY... announces the establishment of the Green Building Advisory Committee (the Committee), pursuant to Section... strategic plans, products and activities of the Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings and...

  17. Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Anna [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings: Previous research and development of intelligent facades systems has been limited in their contribution towards national goals for achieving on-site net zero buildings, because this R&D has failed to couple the many qualitative requirements of building envelopes such as the provision of daylighting, access to exterior views, satisfying aesthetic and cultural characteristics, with the quantitative metrics of energy harvesting, storage and redistribution. To achieve energy self-sufficiency from on-site solar resources, building envelopes can and must address this gamut of concerns simultaneously. With this project, we have undertaken a high-performance building- integrated combined-heat and power concentrating photovoltaic system with high temperature thermal capture, storage and transport towards multiple applications (BICPV/T). The critical contribution we are offering with the Integrated Concentrating Solar Façade (ICSF) is conceived to improve daylighting quality for improved health of occupants and mitigate solar heat gain while maximally capturing and transferring on- site solar energy. The ICSF accomplishes this multi-functionality by intercepting only the direct-normal component of solar energy (which is responsible for elevated cooling loads) thereby transforming a previously problematic source of energy into a high- quality resource that can be applied to building demands such as heating, cooling, dehumidification, domestic hot water, and possible further augmentation of electrical generation through organic Rankine cycles. With the ICSF technology, our team is addressing the global challenge in transitioning commercial and residential building stock towards on-site clean energy self-sufficiency, by fully integrating innovative environmental control systems strategies within an intelligent and responsively dynamic building envelope. The advantage of being able to use the entire solar spectrum for

  18. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  19. Highly sensitive detection of a current ripple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takashi; Gushiken, Tutomu; Nishikigouri, Kazutaka; Kumada, Masayuki.

    1996-01-01

    In the HIMAC, there are six thyristor-controlled power sources for driving two synchrotrons. These power sources are the three-output terminal power sources which are equipped with positive output, negative output and neutral point for the common mode countermeasures. As electromagnet circuits are connected to the three-output terminal power sources, those are three-line type. In the inside of the power source circuits controlled by thyristors, there is the oscillation peculiar to the power sources, and the variation of voltage induces current spikes. This time, in order to assess the results of the common mode countermeasures in the power source and electromagnet circuits, as one method of cross-check, it is considered that since electromagnet current flows being divided to the bridging resistance and the coil, if attention is paid to the current on bridging resistance side, the ripple components of common mode and normal mode can be detected with high sensitivity, and this was verified. The present state of heightening the performance of synchrotron power sources is explained. The cross-check of the method of assessing the performance of electromagnet power sources is reported. The method of measuring ripple current and the results of the measurement are reported. (K.I.)

  20. Development of high sensitivity radon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Y; Kajita, T; Tasaka, S; Hori, H; Nemoto, M; Okazawa, H

    1999-01-01

    High sensitivity detectors for radon in air and in water have been developed. We use electrostatic collection and a PIN photodiode for these detectors. Calibration systems have been also constructed to obtain collection factors. As a result of the calibration study, the absolute humidity dependence of the radon detector for air is clearly observed in the region less than about 1.6 g/m sup 3. The calibration factors of the radon detector for air are 2.2+-0.2 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3) at 0.08 g/m sup 3 and 0.86+-0.06 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3) at 11 g/m sup 3. The calibration factor of the radon detector for water is 3.6+-0.5 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3). The background level of the radon detector for air is 2.4+-1.3 counts/day. As a result, one standard deviation excess of the signal above the background of the radon detector for air should be possible for 1.4 mBq/m sup 3 in a one-day measurement at 0.08 g/m sup 3.

  1. Object-based Morphological Building Index for Building Extraction from High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Xiangguo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Building extraction from high resolution remote sensing images is a hot research topic in the field of photogrammetry and remote sensing. In this article, an object-based morphological building index (OBMBI is constructed based on both image segmentation and graph-based top-hat reconstruction, and OBMBI is used for building extraction from high resolution remote sensing images. First, bidirectional mapping relationship between pixels, objects and graph-nodes are constructed. Second, the OBMBI image is built based on both graph-based top-hat reconstruction and the above mapping relationship. Third, a binary thresholding is performed on the OBMBI image, and the binary image is converted into vector format to derive the building polygons. Finally, the post-processing is made to optimize the extracted building polygons. Two images, including an aerial image and a panchromatic satellite image, are used to test both the proposed method and classic PanTex method. The experimental results suggest that our proposed method has a higher accuracy in building extraction than the classic PanTex method. On average, the correctness, the completeness and the quality of our method are respectively 9.49%, 11.26% and 14.11% better than those of the PanTex.

  2. Building the UPPA high capacity tensiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Joao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High capacity tensiometers (HCTs are sensors capable of directly measuring tensile pore water pressure (suction in soils. HCTs are typically composed of a casing that encapsulates a high air entry value ceramic filter, a water reservoir and a pressure sensing element. Since the creation of the first HCT by Ridley and Burland in 1993 at Imperial College London, HCTs have been almost exclusively built and used in academic research. The limited use in industrial applications can be explained by a lack of unsaturated soil mechanics knowledge among engineering practitioners but also by the technical difficulties associated to the direct measurement of tensile water pressures beyond the cavitation limit of -100kPa. In this paper, we present the recent design and manufacture of a new HCT at the Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour (UPPA in France. Different prototypes were tried by changing the main components of the device including the type of ceramic filter, pressure transducer and geometry of the external casing. In particular, two ceramic filters of distinct porosity, three pressure transducers with distinct materials/geometries and four casing designs were tested.

  3. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF BUILDING STRUCTURES WITHIN THE SCOPE OF ENERGY, ENVIRONMENT AND INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Kulhánek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to prove the feasibility of sensitivity analysis with dominant weight method for structure parts of envelope of buildings inclusive of energy; ecological and financial assessments, and determination of different designs for same structural part via multi-criteria assessment with theoretical example designs ancillary. Multi-criteria assessment (MCA of different structural designs or in other word alternatives aims to find the best available alternative. The application of sensitivity analysis technique in this paper bases on dominant weighting method. In this research, to choose the best thermal insulation design in the case of that more than one projection, simultaneously, criteria of total thickness (T; heat transfer coefficient (U through the cross section; global warming potential (GWP; acid produce (AP; primary energy content (PEI non renewable and cost per m2 (C are investigated for all designs via sensitivity analysis. Three different designs for external wall (over soil which are convenient with regard to globally suggested energy features for passive house design are investigated through the mentioned six projections. By creating a given set of scenarios; depending upon the importance of each criterion, sensitivity analysis is distributed. As conclusion, uncertainty in the output of model is attributed to different sources in the model input. In this manner, determination of the best available design is achieved. The original outlook and the outlook afterwards the sensitivity analysis are visualized, that enables easily to choose the optimum design within the scope of verified components.

  4. See-Through Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photonic Reflectors for Tandem and Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Heiniger, Leo-Philipp; O'Brien, Paul G.; Soheilnia, Navid; Yang, Yang; Kherani, Nazir P.; Grä tzel, Michael; Ozin, Geoffrey A.; Té treault, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    See-through dye-sensitized solar cells with 1D photonic crystal Bragg reflector photoanodes show an increase in peak external quantum efficiency of 47% while still maintaining high fill factors, resulting in an almost 40% increase in power

  5. High sensitivity MOSFET-based neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragopoulou, M.; Konstantakos, V.; Zamani, M.; Siskos, S.; Laopoulos, T.; Sarrabayrouse, G.

    2010-01-01

    A new dosemeter based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor sensitive to both neutrons and gamma radiation was manufactured at LAAS-CNRS Laboratory, Toulouse, France. In order to be used for neutron dosimetry, a thin film of lithium fluoride was deposited on the surface of the gate of the device. The characteristics of the dosemeter, such as the dependence of its response to neutron dose and dose rate, were investigated. The studied dosemeter was very sensitive to gamma rays compared to other dosemeters proposed in the literature. Its response in thermal neutrons was found to be much higher than in fast neutrons and gamma rays.

  6. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  7. Measures to reduce construction time of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolchedantsev, Leonid; Adamtsevich, Aleksey; Stupakova, Olga; Drozdov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The organizational and technological solutions for high-rise buildings construction efficiency increase are considered, primarily - decrease of typical floor construction time and improvement of bearing structures concrete quality. The essence of offered technology is: a concrete mixing station and a polygon mainly for load-bearing wall panels with starter bars casting are located on the building site; for reinforced concrete components manufacturing and butt joints grouting the warmed-up concrete mixtures are used. The results of researches and elaborations carried out by the SPSUACE in area of a preliminary warming-up of concrete mixtures are presented. The possibility and feasibility of their usage in high-rise buildings and of excess height buildings construction including cast-in-place and precast execution are shown. The essence of heat-vibro treating of concrete mixture is revealed as a kind of prior electroresistive curing, and the achieved results are: accelerated concrete strength gain, power inputs decrease, concrete quality improvement. It is shown that the location of a concrete mixing station on the building site enables to broaden possibilities of the "thermos" method use and to avoid concrete mixtures warming up in medium-mass structures erection (columns, girders) during the high-rise buildings construction. It is experimentally proved that the splice between precast elements encased with warmed-up concrete mixture is equal with conjugated elements in strength.

  8. Environmental Sensitivity in Children: Development of the Highly Sensitive Child Scale and Identification of Sensitivity Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Assary, Elham; Lionetti, Francesca; Lester, Kathryn J.; Krapohl, Eva; Aron, Elaine N.; Aron, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    A large number of studies document that children differ in the degree they are shaped by their developmental context with some being more sensitive to environmental influences than others. Multiple theories suggest that "Environmental Sensitivity" is a common trait predicting the response to negative as well as positive exposures.…

  9. High sensitivity optical measurement of skin gloss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezerskaia, A.; Ras, Arno; Bloemen, Pascal; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, Paul; Varghese, Babu

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a low-cost optical method for measuring the gloss properties with improved sensitivity in the low gloss regime, relevant for skin gloss properties. The gloss estimation method is based on, on the one hand, the slope of the intensity gradient in the transition regime between

  10. Creating high performance buildings: Lower energy, better comfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brager, Gail; Arens, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Buildings play a critical role in the challenge of mitigating and adapting to climate change. It is estimated that buildings contribute 39% of the total U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions [1] primarily due to their operational energy use, and about 80% of this building energy use is for heating, cooling, ventilating, and lighting. An important premise of this paper is about the connection between energy and comfort. They are inseparable when one talks about high performance buildings. Worldwide data suggests that we are significantly overcooling buildings in the summer, resulting in increased energy use and problems with thermal comfort. In contrast, in naturally ventilated buildings without mechanical cooling, people are comfortable in much warmer temperatures due to shifting expectations and preferences as a result of occupants having a greater degree of personal control over their thermal environment; they have also become more accustomed to variable conditions that closely reflect the natural rhythms of outdoor climate patterns. This has resulted in an adaptive comfort zone that offers significant potential for encouraging naturally ventilated buildings to improve both energy use and comfort. Research on other forms for providing individualized control through low-energy personal comfort systems (desktop fans, foot warmed, and heated and cooled chairs) have also demonstrated enormous potential for improving both energy and comfort performance. Studies have demonstrated high levels of comfort with these systems while ambient temperatures ranged from 64–84°F. Energy and indoor environmental quality are inextricably linked, and must both be important goals of a high performance building

  11. Specific features of modern multifunctional high-rise building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukhina, Lyubov; Samosudova, Natal'ja

    2018-03-01

    The article analyzes the main reasons for the development of high-rise building construction the most important of which-is a limitation of the urban areas and, consequently, the high price of land reserved for construction. New engineering and compositional solutions for the creation of new types of buildings are considered - complex technical designs of a large number of storeys completely meet the new requirements for safety and comfort. Some peculiarities of designing high-rise buildings and searching for optimal architectural and planning solutions are revealed since, with external architectural simplicity, high-rise buildings have complex structural and technological and space-planning solutions. We consider the specific features of a high-rise housing in various countries around the world, including Russia, such as the layout of the multi-storey residential buildings, depending on the climatic characteristics of the regions, assessment of the geological risk of the construction site, the choice of parameters and functional purpose of the sections of the territory of high-rise construction, location of the town-planning object for substantiating the overall dimensions of the building, assessment of changes aeration and engineering and hydrological conditions of the site. A special place in the article on the problems of improvement of the territory, the device of courtyards, landscaping, the device of playing and sports grounds. The main conclusion in the article is the following problem - when developing high-rise housing construction, the development of high-rise housing, and an increase in the population density in the territory of large cities of Russia, necessary to create a comfortable and safe level of residents living and not a decrease, but an improvement in the quality of the urban environment.

  12. Study on rapid evacuation in high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available More and more high rising buildings emerged in modern cities, but emergency evacuation of tall buildings has been a worldwide difficult problem. In this paper, a new evacuation device for high rising buildings in fire accident was proposed and studied. This device mainly consisted of special spiral slideway and shunt valve. People in this device could fast slide down to the first floor under gravity without any electric power and physical strength, which is suitable for various emergency evacuation including mobility-impaired persons. The plane simulation test has shown that human being in alternative clockwise and counterclockwise movement will not become dizzy. The evacuated people should wear protection pad, which can prevent slider from being injured by surface friction with the slide, and eliminate the friction coefficient difference caused by different clothes and slide surface. The calculation results show that the evacuation speed of the new device is much faster than traditional staircases. Moreover, such new evacuation device can also be used as a means of vertical transportation in high-rise buildings partly. People can take it from any floor to ground floor directly, which not only save time for waiting for the lifts but also save the power. The new evacuation system is of simple structure, easy to use, and suitable for evacuation and partly used as vertical downwards traffic, which shows light on solving world-wide difficulties on fast evacuation in high-rise buildings.

  13. High sensitivity optical measurement of skin gloss

    OpenAIRE

    Ezerskaia, Anna; Ras, Arno; Bloemen, Pascal; Pereira, Silvania F.; Urbach, H. Paul; Varghese, Babu

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a low-cost optical method for measuring the gloss properties with improved sensitivity in the low gloss regime, relevant for skin gloss properties. The gloss estimation method is based on, on the one hand, the slope of the intensity gradient in the transition regime between specular and diffuse reflection and on the other on the sum over the intensities of pixels above threshold, derived from a camera image obtained using unpolarized white light illumination. We demonstrate the...

  14. Building Quakes: Detection of Weld Fractures in Buildings using High-Frequency Seismic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, V.; Kohler, M. D.; Heaton, T. H.

    2009-12-01

    Catastrophic fracture of welded beam-column connections in buildings was observed in the Northridge and Kobe earthquakes. Despite the structural importance of such connections, it can be difficult to locate damage in structural members underneath superficial building features. We have developed a novel technique to locate fracturing welds in buildings in real time using high-frequency information from seismograms. Numerical and experimental methods were used to investigate an approach for detecting the brittle fracture of welds of beam-column connections in instrumented steel moment-frame buildings through the use of time-reversed Green’s functions and wave propagation reciprocity. The approach makes use of a prerecorded catalogue of Green’s functions for an instrumented building to detect high-frequency failure events in the building during a later earthquake by screening continuous data for the presence of one or more of the events. This was explored experimentally by comparing structural responses of a small-scale laboratory structure under a variety of loading conditions. Experimentation was conducted on a polyvinyl chloride frame model structure with data recorded at a sample rate of 2000 Hz using piezoelectric accelerometers and a 24-bit digitizer. Green’s functions were obtained by applying impulsive force loads at various locations along the structure with a rubber-tipped force transducer hammer. We performed a blind test using cross-correlation techniques to determine if it was possible to use the catalogue of Green’s functions to pinpoint the absolute times and locations of subsequent, induced failure events in the structure. A finite-element method was used to simulate the response of the model structure to various source mechanisms in order to determine the types of elastic waves that were produced as well as to obtain a general understanding of the structural response to localized loading and fracture.

  15. Development of damage functions for high-rise building components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustu, O.; Miller, D.D.; Brokken, S.T.

    1982-10-01

    The component approach for predicting the effects that ground motion from underground nuclear explosions will have on structures involves predicting the damage to each structural and nonstructural component of a building on the basis of the expected local deformation that most affects the damage to the component. This study was conducted to provide the basic data necessary to evaluate the component approach. Available published laboratory test data for various high-rise building components were collected. These data were analyzed statistically to determine damage threshold values and their variabilities, which in turn were used to derive component damage functions. The portion of construction costs attributable to various building components was determined statistically. This information was needed because component damage functions define damage as a percentage of the replacement values of the component, and, in order to calculate the overall building damage factor, the relative cost of each component must be estimated. The feasibility of the component approach to damage prediction is demonstrated. It is recommended that further experimental research directed towards developing an adequate data base of component damage thresholds for all significant building components should be encouraged. Parallel to this effort, detailed damage data from specific buildings damaged in earthquakes should be collected to verify the theoretical procedure

  16. High sensitivity optical measurement of skin gloss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezerskaia, Anna; Ras, Arno; Bloemen, Pascal; Pereira, Silvania F; Urbach, H Paul; Varghese, Babu

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate a low-cost optical method for measuring the gloss properties with improved sensitivity in the low gloss regime, relevant for skin gloss properties. The gloss estimation method is based on, on the one hand, the slope of the intensity gradient in the transition regime between specular and diffuse reflection and on the other on the sum over the intensities of pixels above threshold, derived from a camera image obtained using unpolarized white light illumination. We demonstrate the improved sensitivity of the two proposed methods using Monte Carlo simulations and experiments performed on ISO gloss calibration standards with an optical prototype. The performance and linearity of the method was compared with different professional gloss measurement devices based on the ratio of specular to diffuse intensity. We demonstrate the feasibility for in-vivo skin gloss measurements by quantifying the temporal evolution of skin gloss after application of standard paraffin cream bases on skin. The presented method opens new possibilities in the fields of cosmetology and dermatopharmacology for measuring the skin gloss and resorption kinetics and the pharmacodynamics of various external agents.

  17. The selectively bred high alcohol sensitivity (HAS) and low alcohol sensitivity (LAS) rats differ in sensitivity to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, NancyEllen C; Dawson, Ralph; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2002-06-01

    Studies in rodents selectively bred to differ in alcohol sensitivity have suggested that nicotine and ethanol sensitivities may cosegregate during selective breeding. This suggests that ethanol and nicotine sensitivities may in part be genetically correlated. Male and female high alcohol sensitivity (HAS), control alcohol sensitivity, and low alcohol sensitivity (LAS) rats were tested for nicotine-induced alterations in locomotor activity, body temperature, and seizure activity. Plasma and brain levels of nicotine and its primary metabolite, cotinine, were measured in these animals, as was the binding of [3H]cytisine, [3H]epibatidine, and [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin in eight brain regions. Both replicate HAS lines were more sensitive to nicotine-induced locomotor activity depression than the replicate LAS lines. No consistent HAS/LAS differences were seen on other measures of nicotine sensitivity; however, females were more susceptible to nicotine-induced seizures than males. No HAS/LAS differences in nicotine or cotinine levels were seen, nor were differences seen in the binding of nicotinic ligands. Females had higher levels of plasma cotinine and brain nicotine than males but had lower brain cotinine levels than males. Sensitivity to a specific action of nicotine cosegregates during selective breeding for differential sensitivity to a specific action of ethanol. The differential sensitivity of the HAS/LAS rats is due to differences in central nervous system sensitivity and not to pharmacokinetic differences. The differential central nervous system sensitivity cannot be explained by differences in the numbers of nicotinic receptors labeled in ligand-binding experiments. The apparent genetic correlation between ethanol and nicotine sensitivities suggests that common genes modulate, in part, the actions of both ethanol and nicotine and may explain the frequent coabuse of these agents.

  18. Intel Legend and CERN would build up high speed Internet

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Intel, Legend and China Education and Research Network jointly announced on the 25th of April that they will be cooperating with each other to build up the new generation high speed internet, over the next three years (1/2 page).

  19. Structural response of steel high rise buildings to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Due to the significant vertical elevation and complexity of the structural system, high rise buildings may suffer from the effects of fire more than other structures. For this reason, in addition to evacuation strategies and active fire protection, a careful consideration of structural response t...

  20. High-Sensitivity GaN Microchemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Yang, Baohua; Liao, Anna; Moon, Jeongsun; Prokopuk, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Systematic studies have been performed on the sensitivity of GaN HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) sensors using various gate electrode designs and operational parameters. The results here show that a higher sensitivity can be achieved with a larger W/L ratio (W = gate width, L = gate length) at a given D (D = source-drain distance), and multi-finger gate electrodes offer a higher sensitivity than a one-finger gate electrode. In terms of operating conditions, sensor sensitivity is strongly dependent on transconductance of the sensor. The highest sensitivity can be achieved at the gate voltage where the slope of the transconductance curve is the largest. This work provides critical information about how the gate electrode of a GaN HEMT, which has been identified as the most sensitive among GaN microsensors, needs to be designed, and what operation parameters should be used for high sensitivity detection.

  1. The Temporal Sensitivity of Enforced Accelerated Work Pace: A grounded theory building approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham John James Kenealy, BA (Hons, Ph.D. Candidate

    Full Text Available This research explores how a large national UK government organisation copes with radical structural change over time and provides an insight into the temporal effects of ‘Enforced Accelerated Work Pace’ on behaviour and receptivity within an organisational context. The stages of ‘Acceptance’, ‘Reaction’ and‘Withdrawal’ capture the essence of the ‘Coping Reflex Actions relating to Enforced Accelerated Work Pace’, all sensitive to the effects of time. ‘Temporal Sensitivity’; the duration of the changes to work patterns played a large part in the behavioural responses. The underlying logic of this research is grounded theory building, a general method that works well with qualitative data collection approaches and involves inducting insights from field based, case data (Glaser, 1998. A methodology discovered and developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967, negating all others.

  2. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS as a methodical approach to the development of design strategies for environmentally sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring

    . The research methodology applied in the project combines a literature study of descriptions of methodical approaches and built examples with a sensitivity analysis and a qualitative interview with two designers from a best practice example of a practice that has achieved environmentally sustainable...... architecture, such as: ecological, green, bio-climatic, sustainable, passive, low-energy and environmental architecture. This PhD project sets out to gain a better understanding of environmentally sustainable architecture and the methodical approaches applied in the development of this type of architecture...... an increase in scientific and political awareness, which has lead to an escalation in the number of research publications in the field, as well as, legislative demands for the energy consumption of buildings. The publications in the field refer to many different approaches to environmentally sustainable...

  3. Development of a highly sensitive lithium fluoride thermoluminescence dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes da Silva, Teresinha de; Campos, Leticia Lucente

    1995-01-01

    In recent times, LiF: Mg, Cu, P thermoluminescent phosphor has been increasingly in use for radiation monitoring due its high sensitivity and ease of preparation. The Dosimetric Materials Production Laboratory of IPEN, (Nuclear Energy Institute) has developed a simple method to obtain high sensitivity LiF. The preparation method is described. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Triggers for a high sensitivity charm experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, D.C.

    1994-07-01

    Any future charm experiment clearly should implement an E T trigger and a μ trigger. In order to reach the 10 8 reconstructed charm level for hadronic final states, a high quality vertex trigger will almost certainly also be necessary. The best hope for the development of an offline quality vertex trigger lies in further development of the ideas of data-driven processing pioneered by the Nevis/U. Mass. group

  5. Best Practices Guide for High-Performance Indian Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Reshma [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sartor, Dale [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This document provides best practice guidance and energy- efficiency recommendations for the design, construction, and operation of high-­performance office buildings in India. Through a discussion of learnings from exemplary projects and inputs from experts, it provides recommendations that can potentially help achieve (1) enhanced working environments, (2) economic construction/faster payback, (3) reduced operating costs, and (4) reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It also provides ambitious (but achievable) energy performance benchmarks, both as adopted targets during building modeling (design phase) and during measurement and verification (operations phase). These benchmarks have been derived from a set of representative best-in-class office buildings in India. The best practices strategies presented in this guide would ideally help in delivering high-­performance in terms of a triad—of energy efficiency, cost efficiency, and occupant comfort and well-­being. These best practices strategies and metrics should be normalized—that is, corrected to account for building characteristics, diversity of operations, weather, and materials and construction methods.

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF AFFECT TO BUILD CONSUMER TRUST IN HIGH-CONSEQUENCES EXCHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellina da Silva Terres

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article investigates the importance of affect displayed by service provider to build consumer trust in high consequence exchanges. High-consequence exchanges are difficult situations in which the choices present a dilemma that can cause stress and severe emotional reactions (KAHN; LUCE, 2003. In this specific case, trust based on affect seems to become important; mainly because consumers may not have ability to evaluate the cognitive aspects of the situation, and moreover, a medical services failure can be highly problematic or even fatal (LEISEN; HYMAN, 2004. On the other hand, in low-consequence choices, we are predicting that cognition will be more important than affect in building trust. In this kind of situation, patients are more self-confident, less sensitive, and don’t perceive a high probability of loss (KUNREUTHER et al., 2002, and therefore focuses more on the rational outcomes.

  7. Methods of erection of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherednichenko Nadezhda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the factors determining the choice of methods for organizing the construction and production of construction and installation work for the construction of high-rise buildings. There are also indicated specific features of their underground parts, characterized by powerful slab-pile foundations, large volumes of earthworks, reinforced bases and foundations for assembly cranes. The work cycle is considered when using reinforced concrete, steel and combined skeletons of high-rise buildings; the areas of application of flow, separate and complex methods are being disclosed. The main conditions for the erection of high-rise buildings and their components are singled out: the choice of formwork systems, delivery and lifting of concrete mixes, installation of reinforcement, the formation of lifting and transporting and auxiliary equipment. The article prescribes the reserves of reduction in the duration of construction due to the creation of: complex mechanized technologies for the efficient construction of foundations in various soil conditions, including in the heaving, swelling, hindered, subsidence, bulk, water-saturated forms; complex mechanized technologies for the erection of monolithic reinforced concrete structures, taking into account the winter conditions of production and the use of mobile concrete-laying complexes and new generation machines; modular formwork systems, distinguished by their versatility, ease, simplicity in operation suitable for complex high-rise construction; more perfect methodology and the development of a set of progressive organizational and technological solutions that ensure a rational relationship between the processes of production and their maximum overlap in time and space.

  8. High-rise Buildings versus Outdoor Thermal Environment in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-sha Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief description of the over quick urbanization sinceChongqing, one of the biggest cities in China, has been a municipality directly under theCentral Government in 1997, excessive development and exceeding increase of high-risebuildings because of its special geographical position which finally leads to the worseningof the urban outdoor thermal environment. Then, this paper makes a bright balance to thefield measurement and simulated results of the wind speed field, temperature field of onemultifunctional high-rise building in Chongqing university located in the city center, andthe contrasted results validate the correctness of CFD in the outdoor thermal environmentalsimulation, expose the disadvantages of high-rise buildings on the aspects of blocking thewind field, decreasing wind speed which results in accumulation of the air-conditioningheat revolving around and periscian region where sunshine can not rip into. Finally, inorder to improve the urban outdoor thermal environment near the high-rise buildingsespecially for the angle of natural ventilation, this paper simulates the wind environment indifferent architectural compositions and architectural layouts by CFD, and the simulatedresults show that freestyle and tower buildings which can guarantee the wind speed andtake the air-conditioning heat away are much suitable and reasonable for the specialChongqing geography. These conclusions can also be used as a reference in othermountain cities, especially for the one with a great number of populations.

  9. Methods of erection of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, Nadezhda; Oleinik, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    The article contains the factors determining the choice of methods for organizing the construction and production of construction and installation work for the construction of high-rise buildings. There are also indicated specific features of their underground parts, characterized by powerful slab-pile foundations, large volumes of earthworks, reinforced bases and foundations for assembly cranes. The work cycle is considered when using reinforced concrete, steel and combined skeletons of high-rise buildings; the areas of application of flow, separate and complex methods are being disclosed. The main conditions for the erection of high-rise buildings and their components are singled out: the choice of formwork systems, delivery and lifting of concrete mixes, installation of reinforcement, the formation of lifting and transporting and auxiliary equipment. The article prescribes the reserves of reduction in the duration of construction due to the creation of: complex mechanized technologies for the efficient construction of foundations in various soil conditions, including in the heaving, swelling, hindered, subsidence, bulk, water-saturated forms; complex mechanized technologies for the erection of monolithic reinforced concrete structures, taking into account the winter conditions of production and the use of mobile concrete-laying complexes and new generation machines; modular formwork systems, distinguished by their versatility, ease, simplicity in operation suitable for complex high-rise construction; more perfect methodology and the development of a set of progressive organizational and technological solutions that ensure a rational relationship between the processes of production and their maximum overlap in time and space.

  10. Low Power and High Sensitivity MOSFET-Based Pressure Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhao-Hua; Ren Tian-Ling; Zhang Yan-Hong; Han Rui-Rui; Liu Li-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Based on the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) stress sensitive phenomenon, a low power MOSFET pressure sensor is proposed. Compared with the traditional piezoresistive pressure sensor, the present pressure sensor displays high performances on sensitivity and power consumption. The sensitivity of the MOSFET sensor is raised by 87%, meanwhile the power consumption is decreased by 20%. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  11. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in building performance simulation for decision support and design optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopfe, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Building performance simulation (BPS) uses computer-based models that cover performance aspects such as energy consumption and thermal comfort in buildings. The uptake of BPS in current building design projects is limited. Although there is a large number of building simulation tools available, the

  12. Humidity Distributions in Multilayered Walls of High-rise Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunova, Olga; Musorina, Tatiana; Ishkov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The limitation of free territories in large cities is the main reason for the active development of high-rise construction. Given the large-scale projects of high-rise buildings in recent years in Russia and abroad and their huge energy consumption, one of the fundamental principles in the design and reconstruction is the use of energy-efficient technologies. The main heat loss in buildings occurs through enclosing structures. However, not always the heat-resistant wall will be energy-efficient and dry at the same time (perhaps waterlogging). Temperature and humidity distributions in multilayer walls were studied in the paper, and the interrelation of other thermophysical characteristics was analyzed.

  13. Realizing High-Performance Buildings; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-02

    High-performance buildings (HPBs) are exceptional examples of both design and practice. Their energy footprints are small, and these are buildings that people want to work in because of their intelligent structure, operations, and coincident comfort. However, the operation of most buildings, even ones that are properly constructed and commissioned at the start, can deviate significantly from the original design intent over time, particularly due to control system overrides and growing plug and data center loads. With early planning for systems such as submetering and occupant engagement tools, operators can identify and remedy the problems. This guide is a primer for owners and owners’ representatives who are pursuing HPBs. It describes processes that have been successful in the planning, procurement, and operation of HPBs with exceptional energy efficiency. Much of the guidance offered results from a series of semi-structured conference calls with a technical advisory group of 15 owners and operators of prominent HPBs in the United States. The guide provides a prescription for planning, achieving, and maintaining an HPB. Although the guide focuses on the operations stage of buildings, many of the operations practices are specified during the planning stage.

  14. Fire Risk Analysis and Optimization of Fire Prevention Management for Green Building Design and High Rise Buildings: Hong Kong Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Albert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many iconic high rise buildings in Hong Kong, for example, International Commercial Centre, International Financial Centre, etc. Fire safety issue in high rise buildings has been raised by local fire professionals in terms of occupant evacuation, means of fire-fighting by fire fighters, sprinkler systems to automatically put off fires in buildings, etc. Fire risk becomes an important issue in building fire safety because it relates to life safety of building occupants where they live and work in high rise buildings in Hong Kong. The aim of this research is to identify the fire risk for different types of high rise buildings in Hong Kong and to optimise the fire prevention management for those high rise buildings with higher level of fire risk and to validate the model and also to carry out the study of the conflict between the current fire safety building code and the current trend of green building design. Survey via the 7-point scale questionnaire was conducted through 50 participants and their responses were received and analysed via the statistical tool SPSS software computer program. A number of statistical methods of testing for significantly difference in samples were adopted to carry out the analysis of the data received. When the statistical analysis was completed, the results of the data analysis were validated by two Fire Safety Experts in this area of specialisation and also by quantitative fire risk analysis.

  15. Evaluation of high-pressure containment buildings for LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted on the use of High Pressure LMFBR Containment Buildings for 1000 MW(e) LMFBRs. Two principal aspects were investigated: accident consequence mitigation and cost. Two types of hypothetical accidents were analyzed to establish consequence mitigation: melt-through and energetic expulsion. Three Containment Building (CB) design pressures were investigated: 69 kPa (10 psig), 207 kPa (30 psig), and 414 kPa (60 psig). Four types of design structures were analyzed to establish cost: steel, steel with confinement building, reinforced concrete, and prestressed/post-tensioned concrete. Results show that: it is within reason that a high pressure containment for a 1000 MW(e) reactor can be fabricated that will retain its integrity during postulated severe hypothetical accidents, if available measures are taken to reduce or prevent hydrogen production and the cost differential between basic high (414 kPa) and low (69 kPa) pressure containments is $10 x 10 6 or less

  16. 'Experience the future of building technologies'. High tech, low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    These proceedings cover the contributions presented at the CLIMA 2005 conference held in Lausanne, Switzerland. This four-day conference was sponsored by a large number of companies and organisations active in the Swiss building technologies area. Several keynote lectures were presented as were awards to students active in the building technical services area. The proceedings document the papers presented at the conference. These covered nine main topics. The first, 'Air-conditioning and ventilation' comprised 43 papers on the indoor environment, 15 on room air distribution, 4 on hygiene, 11 on alternative cooling methods, 8 on air-flow, 2 on air-cleaning and filters, 6 on refurbishment and even one concerning air-flow predictions in Egyptian tombs. The second topic, 'Heating', comprised 13 contributions on low-temperature heating and heat pumps, 7 on distributed energy systems, 4 on district heating, 7 on solar heating systems and 3 miscellaneous items. 'Design methods' were examined as a third topic with 11 contributions on building-simulation tools and 26 on computer-based methods for design, construction and operation. In the fourth section, 'Refrigeration', papers were presented on new working fluids (3 contributions), modernisation (5) along with 4 miscellaneous papers. 'Policies, standards and building-codes' were examined in four categories: Implementation of the European Energy Performance Directive with 8 contributions, life-cycle costs with 2 papers, energy conservation with 15 contributions and 2 contributions in the miscellaneous category. 'Domestic water systems and sanitary technology', the sixth section, includes 3 contributions on water conservation. Section 7, 'Building automation, security and control' includes a section on information and communication systems (3 contributions) and 6 various papers. Section 8, 'Building physics and HVAC' includes 8 contributions on double-skin and high-tech building envelopes, 7 on moisture control, and one on

  17. Studies on high performance Timeslice building on the CBM FLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Helvi [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    In contrast to already existing high energy physics experiments the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment collects all data untriggered. The First-level Event Selector (FLES), which denotes a high performance computer cluster, processes the very high incoming data rate of 1 TByte/s and performs a full online event reconstruction. For this task it needs to access the raw detector data in time intervals referred to as Timeslices. In order to construct the Timeslices, the FLES Timeslice building has to combine data from all input links and distribute them via a high-performance network to the compute nodes. For fast data transfer the Infiniband network has proven to be appropriate. One option to address the network is using Infiniband (RDMA) Verbs directly and potentially making best use of Infiniband. However, it is a very low-level implementation relying on the hardware and neglecting other possible network technologies in the future. Another approach is to apply a high-level API like MPI which is independent of the underlying hardware and suitable for less error prone software development. I present the given possibilities and show the results of benchmarks ran on high-performance computing clusters. The solutions are evaluated regarding the Timeslice building in CBM.

  18. Seismic damage assessment for high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Roger E.

    1980-01-01

    The problem considered in this project, conducted by URS/John A. Blume & Associates, Engineers (URS/Blume), for the U.S. Geological Survey, is the identification, evaluation, and correlation of ground-motion and structural parameters in order to improve procedures for predicting dollar losses for high-rise structures damaged by earthquakes. Ground-motion data bases, analytical techniques, and known motion-damage relationships already developed for high-rise buildings and for other classes of structures will be refined and extended so that reliable quantitative seismic risk evaluations can be made.

  19. Novel charge sensitive preamplifier without high-value feedback resistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1992-01-01

    A novel charge sensitive preamplifier is introduced. The method of removing the high value feedback resistor, the circuit design and analysis are described. A practical circuit and its measured performances are provided

  20. High Performance Homes That Use 50% Less Energy Than the DOE Building America Benchmark Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes lessons learned from designing, building, and monitoring five affordable, energy-efficient test houses in a single development in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) service area. This work was done through a collaboration of Habitat for Humanity Loudon County, the US Department of Energy (DOE), TVA, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The houses were designed by a team led by ORNL and were constructed by Habitat's volunteers in Lenoir City, Tennessee. ZEH5, a two-story house and the last of the five test houses to be built, provided an excellent model for conducting research on affordable high-performance houses. The impressively low energy bills for this house have generated considerable interest from builders and homeowners around the country who wanted a similar home design that could be adapted to different climates. Because a design developed without the project constraints of ZEH5 would have more appeal for the mass market, plans for two houses were developed from ZEH5: a one-story design (ZEH6) and a two-story design (ZEH7). This report focuses on ZEH6, identical to ZEH5 except that the geothermal heat pump is replaced with a SEER 16 air source unit (like that used in ZEH4). The report also contains plans for the ZEH6 house. ZEH5 and ZEH6 both use 50% less energy than the DOE Building America protocol for energyefficient buildings. ZEH5 is a 4 bedroom, 2.5 bath, 2632 ft2 house with a home energy rating system (HERS) index of 43, which qualifies it for federal energy-efficiency incentives (a HERS rating of 0 is a zero-energy house, and a conventional new house would have a HERS rating of 100). This report is intended to help builders and homeowners build similar high-performance houses. Detailed specifications for the envelope and the equipment used in ZEH5 are compared with the Building America Benchmark building, and detailed drawings, specifications, and lessons learned in the construction and analysis of data gleaned

  1. Building Momentum: National Trends and Prospects for High-Performance Green Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    This report is an outgrowth of the Green Building Roundtable of the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works held in conjunction with the U.S. Green Building Council on April 24, 2002. The roundtable brought together diverse interests to educate members of Congress on green building trends and generated discussion about the economic…

  2. A high-sensitivity neutron counter and waste-drum counting with the high-sensitivity neutron instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.E.; Thorngate, J.H.

    1993-04-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a highly sensitive neutron counter was developed that can detect and accurately measure the neutrons from small quantities of plutonium or from other low-level neutron sources. This neutron counter was originally designed to survey waste containers leaving the Plutonium Facility. However, it has proven to be useful in other research applications requiring a high-sensitivity neutron instrument

  3. Daylighting in linear atrium buildings at high latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matusiak, Barbara

    1998-12-31

    This thesis proposes new criteria for visual comfort based on knowledge of visual perception and a method for estimating the modelling ability of light by using inter-reflection calculations. Simplified calculations are presented for the daylight factor in linear building structures, using the projected solid angle principle, for uniform sky and for CIE overcast sky conditions. The calculations are compared with experimental results. Simple diagrams are created based on calculations of the mean daylight factor in rooms adjacent to a narrow street. These diagrams and presented formulas and tables can be used as a simple design tool. Daylighting strategies for linear atrium buildings at high latitudes are developed and examined. These strategies are divided into three groups: (1) the atrium space and facades as light conductor/reflector, (2) the glass roof as a light conductor, and (3) light reflectors on the neighbouring roof. The atrium space and facade strategies are subdivided into passive and active. The strategies connected to the glazed roof includes different configurations of glazing: horizontal, single pitched, double pitched, and the use of laser cut panels and prismatic panels in the glazed roof. The shapes of reflectors on the neighbouring roof are a flat reflector, a parabolic reflector and a parabolic concentrator. Strategies from all three groups are examined on a physical model of scale 1:20 in the artificial sky of mirror box type. Simulations with artificial sun have also been done. The results from model studies are compared with computer simulations. All the active daylighting systems designed for use in the atrium space or on the atrium facades have a huge potential for use in atrium buildings. From the strategies connected with the glazed roof the negatively sloped glass is found to be the best alternative for glazed roofs at high latitudes. Among the roof reflectors, the flat one performs best. 82 refs., 122 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. Integrated energy system for a high performance building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaczko, Kristen

    Integrated energy systems have the potential to reduce of the energy consumption of residential buildings in Canada. These systems incorporate components to meet the building heating, cooling and domestic hot water load into a single system in order to reduce energy losses. An integrated energy system, consisting of a variable speed heat pump, cold and hot thermal storage tanks, a photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector array and a battery bank, was designed for the Queen's Solar Design Team's (QSDT) test house. The system uses a radiant floor to provide space- heating and sensible cooling and a dedicated outdoor air system provides ventilation and dehumidifies the incoming fresh air. The test house, the Queen's Solar Education Centre (QSEC), and the integrated energy system were both modelled in TRNSYS. Additionally, a new TRNSYS Type was developed to model the PV/T collectors, enabling the modeling of the collection of energy from the ambient air. A parametric study was carried out in TRNSYS to investigate the effect of various parameters on the overall energy performance of the system. These parameters included the PV/T array size and the slope of the collectors, the heat pump source and load-side inlet temperature setpoints, the compressor speed control and the size of the thermal storage tanks and the battery bank. The controls of the heat pump were found to have a large impact on the performance of the integrated energy system. For example, a low evaporator setpoint improved the overall free energy ratio (FER) of the system but the heat pump performance was lowered. Reducing the heat loss of the PV/T panels was not found to have a large effect on the system performance however, as the heat pump is able to lower the inlet collector fluid temperature, thus reducing thermal losses. From the results of the sensitivity study, a recommended system model was created and this system had a predicted FER of 77.9% in Kingston, Ontario, neglecting the energy consumption of

  5. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, R. P. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Lynch, K. M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [EP Department, CERN, ISOLDE (Switzerland); Wilkins, S. G. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the CRIS collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  6. Sensitivity of calcification to thermal stress varies among genera of massive reef-building corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Carricart-Ganivet

    Full Text Available Reductions in calcification in reef-building corals occur when thermal conditions are suboptimal, but it is unclear how they vary between genera in response to the same thermal stress event. Using densitometry techniques, we investigate reductions in the calcification rate of massive Porites spp. from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR, and P. astreoides, Montastraea faveolata, and M. franksi from the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (MBR, and correlate them to thermal stress associated with ocean warming. Results show that Porites spp. are more sensitive to increasing temperature than Montastraea, with calcification rates decreasing by 0.40 g cm(-2 year(-1 in Porites spp. and 0.12 g cm(-2 year(-1 in Montastraea spp. for each 1°C increase. Under similar warming trends, the predicted calcification rates at 2100 are close to zero in Porites spp. and reduced by 40% in Montastraea spp. However, these predictions do not account for ocean acidification. Although yearly mean aragonite saturation (Ω(ar at MBR sites has recently decreased, only P. astreoides at Chinchorro showed a reduction in calcification. In corals at the other sites calcification did not change, indicating there was no widespread effect of Ω(ar changes on coral calcification rate in the MBR. Even in the absence of ocean acidification, differential reductions in calcification between Porites spp. and Montastraea spp. associated with warming might be expected to have significant ecological repercussions. For instance, Porites spp. invest increased calcification in extension, and under warming scenarios it may reduce their ability to compete for space. As a consequence, shifts in taxonomic composition would be expected in Indo-Pacific reefs with uncertain repercussions for biodiversity. By contrast, Montastraea spp. use their increased calcification resources to construct denser skeletons. Reductions in calcification would therefore make them more susceptible to both physical and biological

  7. Building and measuring a high performance network architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, William T.C.; Toole, Timothy; Fisher, Chuck; Dugan, Jon; Wheeler, David; Wing, William R; Nickless, William; Goddard, Gregory; Corbato, Steven; Love, E. Paul; Daspit, Paul; Edwards, Hal; Mercer, Linden; Koester, David; Decina, Basil; Dart, Eli; Paul Reisinger, Paul; Kurihara, Riki; Zekauskas, Matthew J; Plesset, Eric; Wulf, Julie; Luce, Douglas; Rogers, James; Duncan, Rex; Mauth, Jeffery

    2001-04-20

    Once a year, the SC conferences present a unique opportunity to create and build one of the most complex and highest performance networks in the world. At SC2000, large-scale and complex local and wide area networking connections were demonstrated, including large-scale distributed applications running on different architectures. This project was designed to use the unique opportunity presented at SC2000 to create a testbed network environment and then use that network to demonstrate and evaluate high performance computational and communication applications. This testbed was designed to incorporate many interoperable systems and services and was designed for measurement from the very beginning. The end results were key insights into how to use novel, high performance networking technologies and to accumulate measurements that will give insights into the networks of the future.

  8. Design of solar systems in high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Alexander; Chudinov, Dmitry; Yaremenko, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, the renovation program is being implemented in the megapolises of Russia. Innovative high-rise buildings are built instead of morally and physically obsolete houses, where non-traditional renewable energy sources are used to the fullest extent, under the effect of which they are located. The possibility to use solar systems with variation of their design parameters is considered. It is established that solar systems have high technical potential. The share of heat load, that is provided by using solar energy, varies from 4 to 84% depending on the time of the year. Economic indicators restrain the use of such panels. The payback period is about 8 years at the current cost for thermal energy.

  9. Seismic strengthening of the ILL High Flux Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germane, Lionel; Plewinski, Francois; Thiry, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    The Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin is an international research organisation and world leader in neutron science and technology. Since 1971 it has been operating the ILL HFR (High-Flux Reactor), the most intense continuous neutron source in the world. The ILL is governed by an international cooperation agreement between France, Germany and the United Kingdom; the fourth ten-year extension to the agreement was signed at the end of 2002, thus ensuring that the Institute will continue to operate until at least the end of 2013. In 2002 the facility underwent a general safety review, including an assessment of the impact of a safe shutdown earthquake. A broader programme for upgrading the installations and improving safety levels is now under way. As this has been treated in another paper, we will focus here on the seismic study carried out on the reactor building. The paper has the following contents: 1. Context; 1.1. Presentation of the ILL; 1.2. Description of the installations; 1.3. Safety objectives in the event of an earthquake; 1.4. Safety functions to be guaranteed in the event of an earthquake; 1.5. Safety functions required of the building; 2. Description of the building; 3. Organisation of the project; 3.1. Background; 3.2. Organisation; 4. General Methodology of the studies; 5. Progress of the studies; 5.1. Definition of the strengthening measures; 5.2. Validation of the strengthening option; 6. Seismic strengthening of the building; 6.1. Description of the strengthening measures; 6.2. Implementation of the strengthening measures; 6.2.1. Pilot operation; 6.2.2. Main operation; 7. Conclusion. To summarize, the presence of specialists in the ILL team, and the fact that the initial studies were performed by the project team itself, improved our general understanding of the issues and facilitated dialogue and exchange between all those involved (operators, technicians, outside experts, technical contractors and the French safety authorities). Everyone was

  10. Reduced spore germination explains sensitivity of reef-building algae to climate change stressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ordoñez

    Full Text Available Reduced seawater pH and changes in carbonate chemistry associated with ocean acidification (OA decrease the recruitment of crustose coralline algae (CCAcf., an important coral-reef builder. However, it is unclear whether the observed decline in recruitment is driven by impairment of spore germination, or post-settlement processes (e.g. space competition. To address this, we conducted an experiment using a dominant CCA, Porolithon cf. onkodes to test the independent and combined effects of OA, warming, and irradiance on its germination success and early development. Elevated CO2 negatively affected several processes of spore germination, including formation of the germination disc, initial growth, and germling survival. The magnitude of these effects varied depending on the levels of temperature and irradiance. For example, the combination of high CO2 and high temperature reduced formation of the germination disc, but this effect was independent of irradiance levels, while spore abnormalities increased under high CO2 and high temperature particularly in combination with low irradiance intensity. This study demonstrates that spore germination of CCA is impacted by the independent and interactive effects of OA, increasing seawater temperature and irradiance intensity. For the first time, this provides a mechanism for how the sensitivity of critical early life history processes to global change may drive declines of adult populations of key marine calcifiers.

  11. Energy-Performance-Based Design-Build Process: Strategies for Procuring High-Performance Buildings on Typical Construction Budgets: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.

  12. Energy-Efficient Office Buildings at High Latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerum, V.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis describes a method for energy efficient office building design at high latitudes and cold climates. The method combines daylighting, passive solar heating, solar protection, and ventilative cooling. The thesis focuses on optimal design of an equatorial-facing fenestration system. A spreadsheet framework linking existing simplified methods is used. The daylight analysis uses location specific data on frequency distribution of diffuse daylight on vertical surfaces to estimate energy savings from optimal window and room configurations in combination with a daylight-responsive electric lighting system. The passive solar heating analysis is a generalization of a solar load ratio method adapted to cold climates by combining it with the Norwegian standard NS3031 for winter months when the solar savings fraction is negative. The emphasis is on very high computational efficiency to permit rapid and comprehensive examination of a large number of options early in design. The procedure is illustrated for a location in Trondheim, Norway, testing the relative significance of various design improvement options relative to a base case. The method is also tested for two other locations in Norway, at latitudes 58 and 70 degrees North. The band of latitudes between these limits covers cities in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, Finland, Russia, and Northern Japan. A comprehensive study of the ``whole building approach`` shows the impact of integrated daylighting and low-energy design strategies. In general, consumption of lighting electricity may be reduced by 50-80%, even at extremely high latitudes. The reduced internal heat from electric lights is replaced by passive solar heating. 113 refs., 85 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Retinal sensitivity and choroidal thickness in high myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaben, Ahmad; Zapata, Miguel Á; Garcia-Arumi, Jose

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the association between choroidal thickness in the macular area and retinal sensitivity in eyes with high myopia. This investigation was a transversal study of patients with high myopia, all of whom had their retinal sensitivity measured with macular integrity assessment microperimetry. The choroidal thicknesses in the macular area were then measured by optical coherence tomography, and statistical correlations between their functionality and the anatomical structuralism, as assessed by both types of measurements, were analyzed. Ninety-six eyes from 77 patients with high myopia were studied. The patients had a mean age ± standard deviation of 38.9 ± 13.2 years, with spherical equivalent values ranging from -6.00 diopter to -20.00 diopter (8.74 ± 2.73 diopter). The mean central choroidal thickness was 159.00 ± 50.57. The mean choroidal thickness was directly correlated with sensitivity (r = 0.306; P = 0.004) and visual acuity but indirectly correlated with the spherical equivalent values and patient age. The mean sensitivity was not significantly correlated with the macular foveal thickness (r = -0.174; P = 0.101) or with the overall macular thickness (r = 0.103; P = 0.334); furthermore, the mean sensitivity was significantly correlated with visual acuity (r = 0.431; P < 0.001) and the spherical equivalent values (r = -0.306; P = 0.003). Retinal sensitivity in highly myopic eyes is directly correlated with choroidal thickness and does not seem to be associated with retinal thickness. Thus, in patients with high myopia, accurate measurements of choroidal thickness may provide more accurate information about this pathologic condition because choroidal thickness correlates to a greater degree with the functional parameters, patient age, and spherical equivalent values.

  14. High speed USB data logger for position sensitive detector data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poudel, S.K.; Kulkarni, V.B.; Kumar, Santosh; Chandak, R.M.; Krishna, P.S.R.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    2010-01-01

    Ratio ADC (RDC) module used in neutron Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) data acquisition, gives digital code signifying the position of neutron event. A High Speed USB based RDC Data Logger card has been made for logging data from multiple RDCs to PC. A CPLD on the card continuously polls the RDCs for data, and fills it in the FIFO memory of a high speed USB microcontroller. A VC++ program for neutron scattering experiments reads event codes from FIFO of microcontroller and builds spectrum on PC. This program sweeps physical parameters of sample and collects PSD data for pre-determined monitor counts. (author)

  15. BH3105 type neutron dose equivalent meter of high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Enshan; Yang Jianfeng; Zhang Hong; Huang Jiling

    1995-10-01

    It is noted that to design a neutron dose meter of high sensitivity is almost impossible in the frame of traditional designing principle--'absorption net principle'. Based on a newly proposed principle of obtaining neutron dose equi-biological effect adjustment--' absorption stick principle', a brand-new neutron dose-equivalent meter with high neutron sensitivity BH3105 has been developed. Its sensitivity reaches 10 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), which is 18∼40 times higher than one of foreign products of the same kind and is 10 4 times higher than that of domestic FJ342 neutron rem-meter. BH3105 has a measurement range from 0.1μSv/h to 1 Sv/h which is 1 or 2 orders wider than that of the other's. It has the advanced properties of gamma-resistance, energy response, orientation, etc. (6 tabs., 5 figs.)

  16. A high sensitivity nanomaterial based SAW humidity sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, T-T; Chou, T-H [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y-Y [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: wutt@ndt.iam.ntu.edu.tw

    2008-04-21

    In this paper, a highly sensitive humidity sensor is reported. The humidity sensor is configured by a 128{sup 0}YX-LiNbO{sub 3} based surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator whose operating frequency is at 145 MHz. A dual delay line configuration is realized to eliminate external temperature fluctuations. Moreover, for nanostructured materials possessing high surface-to-volume ratio, large penetration depth and fast charge diffusion rate, camphor sulfonic acid doped polyaniline (PANI) nanofibres are synthesized by the interfacial polymerization method and further deposited on the SAW resonator as selective coating to enhance sensitivity. The humidity sensor is used to measure various relative humidities in the range 5-90% at room temperature. Results show that the PANI nanofibre based SAW humidity sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity and short-term repeatability.

  17. Performance of terahertz metamaterials as high-sensitivity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanan; Zhang, Bo; Shen, Jingling

    2017-09-01

    A high-sensitivity sensor based on the resonant transmission characteristics of terahertz (THz) metamaterials was investigated, with the proposal and fabrication of rectangular bar arrays of THz metamaterials exhibiting a period of 180 μm on a 25 μm thick flexible polyimide. Varying the size of the metamaterial structure revealed that the length of the rectangular unit modulated the resonant frequency, which was verified by both experiment and simulation. The sensing characteristics upon varying the surrounding media in the sample were tested by simulation and experiment. Changing the surrounding medium from that of air to that of alcohol or oil produced resonant frequency redshifts of 80 GHz or 150 GHz, respectively, which indicates that the sensor possessed a high sensitivity of 667 GHz per unit of refractive index. Finally, the influence of the sample substrate thickness on the sensor sensitivity was investigated by simulation. It may be a reference for future sensor design.

  18. Synthesis strategy: building a culturally sensitive mid-range theory of risk perception using literary, quantitative, and qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaki, Leilani A; Loescher, Lois J; Trego, Lori L

    2013-03-01

    This article presents a discussion of development of a mid-range theory of risk perception. Unhealthy behaviours contribute to the development of health inequalities worldwide. The link between perceived risk and successful health behaviour change is inconclusive, particularly in vulnerable populations. This may be attributed to inattention to culture. The synthesis strategy of theory building guided the process using three methods: (1) a systematic review of literature published between 2000-2011 targeting perceived risk in vulnerable populations; (2) qualitative and (3) quantitative data from a study of Samoan Pacific Islanders at high risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Main concepts of this theory include risk attention, appraisal processes, cognition, and affect. Overarching these concepts is health-world view: cultural ways of knowing, beliefs, values, images, and ideas. This theory proposes the following: (1) risk attention varies based on knowledge of the health risk in the context of health-world views; (2) risk appraisals are influenced by affect, health-world views, cultural customs, and protocols that intersect with the health risk; (3) strength of cultural beliefs, values, and images (cultural identity) mediate risk attention and risk appraisal influencing the likelihood that persons will engage in health-promoting behaviours that may contradict cultural customs/protocols. Interventions guided by a culturally sensitive mid-range theory may improve behaviour-related health inequalities in vulnerable populations. The synthesis strategy is an intensive process for developing a culturally sensitive mid-range theory. Testing of the theory will ascertain its usefulness for reducing health inequalities in vulnerable groups. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new simple, sensitive, cost-effective and reproducible high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of proguanil (PG) and its metabolites, cycloguanil (CG) and 4-chlorophenylbiguanide (4-CPB) in urine and plasma is described. The extraction procedure is a simple three-step process ...

  20. Methylation-Sensitive High Resolution Melting (MS-HRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussmann, Dianna; Hansen, Lise Lotte

    2018-01-01

    Methylation-Sensitive High Resolution Melting (MS-HRM) is an in-tube, PCR-based method to detect methylation levels at specific loci of interest. A unique primer design facilitates a high sensitivity of the assays enabling detection of down to 0.1-1% methylated alleles in an unmethylated background.Primers for MS-HRM assays are designed to be complementary to the methylated allele, and a specific annealing temperature enables these primers to anneal both to the methylated and the unmethylated alleles thereby increasing the sensitivity of the assays. Bisulfite treatment of the DNA prior to performing MS-HRM ensures a different base composition between methylated and unmethylated DNA, which is used to separate the resulting amplicons by high resolution melting.The high sensitivity of MS-HRM has proven useful for detecting cancer biomarkers in a noninvasive manner in urine from bladder cancer patients, in stool from colorectal cancer patients, and in buccal mucosa from breast cancer patients. MS-HRM is a fast method to diagnose imprinted diseases and to clinically validate results from whole-epigenome studies. The ability to detect few copies of methylated DNA makes MS-HRM a key player in the quest for establishing links between environmental exposure, epigenetic changes, and disease.

  1. Aluminum nano-cantilevers for high sensitivity mass sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Zachary James; Boisen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    We have fabricated Al nano-cantilevers using a very simple one mask contact UV lithography technique with lateral dimensions under 500 nm and vertical dimensions of approximately 100 nm. These devices are demonstrated as highly sensitive mass sensors by measuring their dynamic properties. Further...

  2. High sensitivity probe absorption technique for time-of-flight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report on a phase-sensitive probe absorption technique with high sen- sitivity, capable of detecting a few hundred ultra-cold atoms in flight in an observation time of a few milliseconds. The large signal-to-noise ratio achieved is sufficient for reliable measurements on low intensity beams of cold atoms.

  3. Highly sensitive detection using microring resonator and nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougot-Robin, K.; Hoste, J. W.; Le Thomas, N.; Bienstman, P.; Edel, J. B.

    2016-04-01

    One of the most significant challenges facing physical and biological scientists is the accurate detection and identification of single molecules in free-solution environments. The ability to perform such sensitive and selective measurements opens new avenues for a large number of applications in biological, medical and chemical analysis, where small sample volumes and low analyte concentrations are the norm. Access to information at the single or few molecules scale is rendered possible by a fine combination of recent advances in technologies. We propose a novel detection method that combines highly sensitive label-free resonant sensing obtained with high-Q microcavities and position control in nanoscale pores (nanopores). In addition to be label-free and highly sensitive, our technique is immobilization free and does not rely on surface biochemistry to bind probes on a chip. This is a significant advantage, both in term of biology uncertainties and fewer biological preparation steps. Through combination of high-Q photonic structures with translocation through nanopore at the end of a pipette, or through a solid-state membrane, we believe significant advances can be achieved in the field of biosensing. Silicon microrings are highly advantageous in term of sensitivity, multiplexing, and microfabrication and are chosen for this study. In term of nanopores, we both consider nanopore at the end of a nanopipette, with the pore being approach from the pipette with nanoprecise mechanical control. Alternatively, solid state nanopores can be fabricated through a membrane, supporting the ring. Both configuration are discussed in this paper, in term of implementation and sensitivity.

  4. NK sensitivity of neuroblastoma cells determined by a highly sensitive coupled luminescent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogbomo, Henry; Hahn, Anke; Geiler, Janina; Michaelis, Martin; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of natural killer (NK) cells toxicity against tumor or virus-infected cells especially in cases with small blood samples requires highly sensitive methods. Here, a coupled luminescent method (CLM) based on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase release from injured target cells was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of interleukin-2 activated NK cells against neuroblastoma cell lines. In contrast to most other methods, CLM does not require the pretreatment of target cells with labeling substances which could be toxic or radioactive. The effective killing of tumor cells was achieved by low effector/target ratios ranging from 0.5:1 to 4:1. CLM provides highly sensitive, safe, and fast procedure for measurement of NK cell activity with small blood samples such as those obtained from pediatric patients

  5. Instruction manual for ORNL tandem high abundance sensitivity mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; McKown, H.S.; Chrisite, W.H.; Walker, R.L.; Carter, J.A.

    1976-06-01

    This manual describes the physical characteristics of the tandem mass spectrometer built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the International Atomic Energy Agency. Specific requirements met include ability to run small samples, high abundance sensitivity, good precision and accuracy, and adequate sample throughput. The instrument is capable of running uranium samples as small as 10 -12 g and has an abundance sensitivity in excess of 10 6 . Precision and accuracy are enhanced by a special sweep control circuit. Sample throughput is 6 to 12 samples per day. Operating instructions are also given

  6. A highly sensitive and specific assay for vertebrate collagenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodek, J.; Hurum, S.; Feng, J.

    1981-01-01

    A highly sensitive and specific assay for vertebrate collagenase has been developed using a [ 14 C]-labeled collagen substrate and a combination of SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and fluorography to identify and quantitate the digestion products. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to permit the detection and quantitation of collagenase activity in 0.1 μl of gingival sulcal fluid, and in samples of cell culture medium without prior concentration. The assay has also been used to detect the presence of inhibitors of collagenolytic enzymes in various cell culture fluids. (author)

  7. Climate change and high-resolution whole-building numerical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.; Briggen, P.M.; Schellen, H.L.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the need of high-resolution whole-building numerical modelling in the context of climate change. High-resolution whole-building numerical modelling can be used for detailed analysis of the potential consequences of climate change on buildings and to evaluate remedial

  8. Tailored high-resolution numerical weather forecasts for energy efficient predictive building control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauch, V. J.; Gwerder, M.; Gyalistras, D.; Oldewurtel, F.; Schubiger, F.; Steiner, P.

    2010-09-01

    The high proportion of the total primary energy consumption by buildings has increased the public interest in the optimisation of buildings' operation and is also driving the development of novel control approaches for the indoor climate. In this context, the use of weather forecasts presents an interesting and - thanks to advances in information and predictive control technologies and the continuous improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models - an increasingly attractive option for improved building control. Within the research project OptiControl (www.opticontrol.ethz.ch) predictive control strategies for a wide range of buildings, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and representative locations in Europe are being investigated with the aid of newly developed modelling and simulation tools. Grid point predictions for radiation, temperature and humidity of the high-resolution limited area NWP model COSMO-7 (see www.cosmo-model.org) and local measurements are used as disturbances and inputs into the building system. The control task considered consists in minimizing energy consumption whilst maintaining occupant comfort. In this presentation, we use the simulation-based OptiControl methodology to investigate the impact of COSMO-7 forecasts on the performance of predictive building control and the resulting energy savings. For this, we have selected building cases that were shown to benefit from a prediction horizon of up to 3 days and therefore, are particularly suitable for the use of numerical weather forecasts. We show that the controller performance is sensitive to the quality of the weather predictions, most importantly of the incident radiation on differently oriented façades. However, radiation is characterised by a high temporal and spatial variability in part caused by small scale and fast changing cloud formation and dissolution processes being only partially represented in the COSMO-7 grid point predictions. On the

  9. Are inflationary predictions sensitive to very high energy physics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, C.P.; Lemieux, F.; Holman, R.; Cline, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    It has been proposed that the successful inflationary description of density perturbations on cosmological scales is sensitive to the details of physics at extremely high (trans-Planckian) energies. We test this proposal by examining how inflationary predictions depend on higher-energy scales within a simple model where the higher-energy physics is well understood. We find the best of all possible worlds: inflationary predictions are robust against the vast majority of high-energy effects, but can be sensitive to some effects in certain circumstances, in a way which does not violate ordinary notions of decoupling. This implies both that the comparison of inflationary predictions with CMB data is meaningful, and that it is also worth searching for small deviations from the standard results in the hopes of learning about very high energies. (author)

  10. Design of highly sensitive multichannel bimetallic photonic crystal fiber biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Mohamed Farhat O.; Alrayk, Yassmin K. A.; Shaalan, Abdelhamid A.; El Deeb, Walid S.; Obayya, Salah S. A.

    2016-10-01

    A design of a highly sensitive multichannel biosensor based on photonic crystal fiber is proposed and analyzed. The suggested design has a silver layer as a plasmonic material coated by a gold layer to protect silver oxidation. The reported sensor is based on detection using the quasi transverse electric (TE) and quasi transverse magnetic (TM) modes, which offers the possibility of multichannel/multianalyte sensing. The numerical results are obtained using a finite element method with perfect matched layer boundary conditions. The sensor geometrical parameters are optimized to achieve high sensitivity for the two polarized modes. High-refractive index sensitivity of about 4750 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and 4300 nm/RIU with corresponding resolutions of 2.1×10-5 RIU, and 2.33×10-5 RIU can be obtained according to the quasi TM and quasi TE modes of the proposed sensor, respectively. Further, the reported design can be used as a self-calibration biosensor within an unknown analyte refractive index ranging from 1.33 to 1.35 with high linearity and high accuracy. Moreover, the suggested biosensor has advantages in terms of compactness and better integration of microfluidics setup, waveguide, and metallic layers into a single structure.

  11. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korniyenko Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects. Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  12. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniyenko, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects). Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  13. Polarization-sensitive and broadband germanium sulfide photodetectors with excellent high-temperature performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dezhi; Zhang, Wenjin; Wang, Xiaofan; Koirala, Sandhaya; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2017-08-31

    Layered materials, such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorene, have been established rapidly as intriguing building blocks for optoelectronic devices. Here, we introduce highly polarization sensitive, broadband, and high-temperature-operation photodetectors based on multilayer germanium sulfide (GeS). The GeS photodetector shows a high photoresponsivity of about 6.8 × 10 3 A W -1 , an extremely high specific detectivity of 5.6 × 10 14 Jones, and broad spectral response in the wavelength range of 300-800 nm. More importantly, the GeS photodetector has high polarization sensitivity to incident linearly polarized light, which provides another degree of freedom for photodetectors. Tremendously enhanced photoresponsivity is observed with a temperature increase, and high responsivity is achievable at least up to 423 K. The establishment of larger photoinduced reduction of the Schottky barrier height will be significant for the investigation of the photoresponse mechanism of 2D layered material-based photodetectors. These attributes of high photocurrent generation in a wide temperature range, broad spectral response, and polarization sensitivity coupled with environmental stability indicate that the proposed GeS photodetector is very suitable for optoelectronic applications.

  14. High Performance Building Facade Solutions - PIER Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2009-12-31

    Building facades directly influence heating and cooling loads and indirectly influence lighting loads when daylighting is considered, and are therefore a major determinant of annual energy use and peak electric demand. Facades also significantly influence occupant comfort and satisfaction, making the design optimization challenge more complex than many other building systems.This work focused on addressing significant near-term opportunities to reduce energy use in California commercial building stock by a) targeting voluntary, design-based opportunities derived from the use of better design guidelines and tools, and b) developing and deploying more efficient glazings, shading systems, daylighting systems, facade systems and integrated controls. This two-year project, supported by the California Energy Commission PIER program and the US Department of Energy, initiated a collaborative effort between The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and major stakeholders in the facades industry to develop, evaluate, and accelerate market deployment of emerging, high-performance, integrated facade solutions. The LBNL Windows Testbed Facility acted as the primary catalyst and mediator on both sides of the building industry supply-user business transaction by a) aiding component suppliers to create and optimize cost effective, integrated systems that work, and b) demonstrating and verifying to the owner, designer, and specifier community that these integrated systems reliably deliver required energy performance. An industry consortium was initiated amongst approximately seventy disparate stakeholders, who unlike the HVAC or lighting industry, has no single representative, multi-disciplinary body or organized means of communicating and collaborating. The consortium provided guidance on the project and more importantly, began to mutually work out and agree on the goals, criteria, and pathways needed to attain the ambitious net zero energy goals defined by California and

  15. Design, Monitoring, and Validation of a High Performance Sustainable Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ES-1 1.0 INTRODUCTION ...better quality in the overall building construction (e.g., plumbing the building correctly). 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION The U.S. DUSEPArtment of...al, 2006 U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Directive 4170.11. 2009. Department of Defense Instruction- Installation Energy Mangement . December 11

  16. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R&D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion.

  17. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R and D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion

  18. Online high sensitivity measurement system for transuranic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    A measurement system for transuranic aerosols has been designed that will be able to withstand the corrosive nature of stack effluents and yet have extremely high sensitivity. It will be capable of measuring 1 maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of plutonium or americium in 30 minutes with a fractional standard deviation of less than 0.33. Background resulting from 218 Po is eliminated by alpha energy discrimination and a decay scheme analysis. A microprocessor controls all data acquisition, data reduction, and instrument calibration

  19. Recent trends in high spin sensitivity magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Aharon; Twig, Ygal; Ishay, Yakir

    2017-07-01

    new ideas, show how these limiting factors can be mitigated to significantly improve the sensitivity of induction detection. Finally, we outline some directions for the possible applications of high-sensitivity induction detection in the field of electron spin resonance.

  20. Wind load effects on high rise buildings in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamani, Z.; Thang, K. C.; Haider, B.; Shariff, M.

    2018-04-01

    Wind is a randomly varying dynamic phenomenon composed of a multitude of eddies of varying sizes and rotational characteristics along a general stream of air moving relative to the ground. These eddies give wind its gustiness, creating fluctuation and results in a complex flow characteristics. The wind vector at any point can be regarded as the sum of mean wind vector and the fluctuation components. These components not only vary with height but also dependant on the approach terrain and topography. Prevailing wind exerts pressure onto the structural surfaces. The effects of wind pressure in the form of shear and bending moments are found to be a major problem in structural failure. This study aims to study the effects of wind load on a fifteen-storey high rise building using EN 1991-1-4 code and MS1553:2002. The simulation results showed that by increasing the wind speed, the storey resultant forces, namely storey shear and storey moment increases significantly. Furthermore, simulation results according to EN 1991-1-4 yield higher values compared to the simulation results according to MS1553:2002.

  1. High-sensitivity bend angle measurements using optical fiber gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdul; Zhao, Jianlin; Jiang, Biqiang

    2013-07-20

    We present a high-sensitivity and more flexible bend measurement method, which is based on the coupling of core mode to the cladding modes at the bending region in concatenation with optical fiber grating serving as band reflector. The characteristics of a bend sensing arm composed of bending region and optical fiber grating is examined for different configurations including single fiber Bragg grating (FBG), chirped FBG (CFBG), and double FBGs. The bend loss curves for coated, stripped, and etched sections of fiber in the bending region with FBG, CFBG, and double FBG are obtained experimentally. The effect of separation between bending region and optical fiber grating on loss is measured. The loss responses for single FBG and CFBG configurations are compared to discover the effectiveness for practical applications. It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the double FBG scheme is twice that of the single FBG and CFBG configurations, and hence acts as sensitivity multiplier. The bend loss response for different fiber diameters obtained through etching in 40% hydrofluoric acid, is measured in double FBG scheme that resulted in a significant increase in the sensitivity, and reduction of dead-zone.

  2. Development of national standards related to the integrated safety and security of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskresenskaya, Elena; Vorona-Slivinskaya, Lubov

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the issues of developing national standards for high-rise construction. The system of standards should provide industrial, operational, economic and terrorist safety of high-rise buildings and facilities. Modern standards of high-rise construction should set the rules for designing engineering systems of high-rise buildings, which will ensure the integrated security of buildings, increase their energy efficiency and reduce the consumption of resources in construction and operation.

  3. Development of national standards related to the integrated safety and security of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskresenskaya Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of developing national standards for high-rise construction. The system of standards should provide industrial, operational, economic and terrorist safety of high-rise buildings and facilities. Modern standards of high-rise construction should set the rules for designing engineering systems of high-rise buildings, which will ensure the integrated security of buildings, increase their energy efficiency and reduce the consumption of resources in construction and operation.

  4. Sensitivity of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array and its build-out stages to one-point statistics from redshifted 21 cm observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittiwisit, Piyanat; Bowman, Judd D.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Beardsley, Adam P.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan

    2018-03-01

    We present a baseline sensitivity analysis of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and its build-out stages to one-point statistics (variance, skewness, and kurtosis) of redshifted 21 cm intensity fluctuation from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) based on realistic mock observations. By developing a full-sky 21 cm light-cone model, taking into account the proper field of view and frequency bandwidth, utilizing a realistic measurement scheme, and assuming perfect foreground removal, we show that HERA will be able to recover statistics of the sky model with high sensitivity by averaging over measurements from multiple fields. All build-out stages will be able to detect variance, while skewness and kurtosis should be detectable for HERA128 and larger. We identify sample variance as the limiting constraint of the measurements at the end of reionization. The sensitivity can also be further improved by performing frequency windowing. In addition, we find that strong sample variance fluctuation in the kurtosis measured from an individual field of observation indicates the presence of outlying cold or hot regions in the underlying fluctuations, a feature that can potentially be used as an EoR bubble indicator.

  5. Gardening as vector of a humanization of high-rise building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekareva, Nina; Zaslavskaya, Anna

    2018-03-01

    Article is devoted to issue of integration of vertical gardening into structure of high-rise building in the conditions of the constrained town-planning situation. On the basis of the analysis of the existing experience of design and building of "biopositive" high-rise building ecological, town-planning, social and constructive advantages of the organization of gardens on roofs and vertical gardens are considered [1]. As the main mechanism of increase in investment appeal of high-rise building the principle of a humanization due to gardening of high-rise building taking into account requirements of ecology, energy efficiency of buildings and improvement of quality of construction with minimization of expenses and maximizing comfort moves forward. The National Standards of Green construction designed to adapt the international requirements of architecture and construction of the energy efficient, eco-friendly and comfortable building or a complex to local conditions are considered [2,3].

  6. Towards highly sensitive strain sensing based on nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Dzung Viet; Nakamura, Koichi; Sugiyama, Susumu; Bui, Tung Thanh; Dau, Van Thanh; Yamada, Takeo; Hata, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents our recent theoretical and experimental study of piezo-effects in nanostructured materials for highly sensitive, high resolution mechanical sensors. The piezo-effects presented here include the piezoresistive effect in a silicon nanowire (SiNW) and single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin film, as well as the piezo-optic effect in a Si photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity. Firstly, the electronic energy band structure of the silicon nanostructure is discussed and simulated by using the First-Principles Calculations method. The result showed a remarkably different energy band structure compared with that of bulk silicon. This difference in the electronic state will result in different physical, chemical, and therefore, sensing properties of silicon nanostructures. The piezoresistive effects of SiNW and SWCNT thin film were investigated experimentally. We found that, when the width of ( 110 ) p-type SiNW decreases from 500 to 35 nm, the piezoresistive effect increases by more than 60%. The longitudinal piezoresistive coefficient of SWCNT thin film was measured to be twice that of bulk p-type silicon. Finally, theoretical investigations of the piezo-optic effect in a PhC nanocavity based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) showed extremely high resolution strain sensing. These nanostructures were fabricated based on top-down nanofabrication technology. The achievements of this work are significant for highly sensitive, high resolution and miniaturized mechanical sensors

  7. Convex Programming and Bootstrap Sensitivity for Optimized Electricity Bill in Healthcare Buildings under a Time-Of-Use Pricing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Gordillo-Orquera

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient energy management is strongly dependent on determining the adequate power contracts among the ones offered by different electricity suppliers. This topic takes special relevance in healthcare buildings, where noticeable amounts of energy are required to generate an adequate health environment for patients and staff. In this paper, a convex optimization method is scrutinized to give a straightforward analysis of the optimal power levels to be contracted while minimizing the electricity bill cost in a time-of-use pricing scheme. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the constraints in the optimization problems, which are analyzed in terms of both their empirical distribution and their bootstrap-estimated statistical distributions to create a simple-to-use tool for this purpose, the so-called mosaic-distribution. The evaluation of the proposed method was carried out with five-year consumption data on two different kinds of healthcare buildings, a large one given by Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, and a primary care center, Centro de Especialidades el Arroyo, both located at Fuenlabrada (Madrid, Spain. The analysis of the resulting optimization shows that the annual savings achieved vary moderately, ranging from −0.22 % to +27.39%, depending on the analyzed year profile and the healthcare building type. The analysis introducing mosaic-distribution to represent the sensitivity score also provides operative information to evaluate the convenience of implementing energy saving measures. All this information is useful for managers to determine the appropriate power levels for next year contract renewal and to consider whether to implement demand response mechanisms in healthcare buildings.

  8. High sensitivity tests of the standard model for electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koetke, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    The work done on this project was focussed mainly on LAMPF experiment E969 known as the MEGA experiment, a high sensitivity search for the lepton family number violating decay μ → eγ to a sensitivity which, measured in terms of the branching ratio, BR = [μ→eγ]/[μ→e ν μ ν e ] ∼10 -13 is over two orders of magnitude better than previously reported values. The work done on MEGA during this period was divided between that done at Valparaiso University and that done at LAMPF. In addition, some contributions were made to a proposal to the LAMPF PAC to perform a precision measurement of the Michel ρ parameter, described below

  9. High sensitivity tests of the standard model for electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The work done on this project focused on two LAMPF experiments. The MEGA experiment is a high-sensitivity search for the lepton family number violating decay μ → eγ to a sensitivity which, measured in terms of the branching ratio, BR = [μ → eγ]/[μ eν μ ν e ] ∼ 10 -13 , will be over two orders of magnitude better than previously reported values. The second is a precision measurement of the Michel ρ parameter from the positron energy spectrum of μ → eν μ ν e to test the predictions V-A theory of weak interactions. In this experiment the uncertainty in the measurement of the Michel ρ parameter is expected to be a factor of three lower than the present reported value. The detectors are operational, and data taking has begun

  10. High sensitivity tests of the standard model for electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koetke, D.D.; Manweiler, R.W.; Shirvel Stanislaus, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    The work done on this project was focused on two LAMPF experiments. The MEGA experiment, a high-sensitivity search for the lepton-family-number-violating decay μ → e γ to a sensitivity which, measured in terms of the branching ratio, BR = [μ → e γ]/[μ → ev μ v e ] ∼ 10 -13 , is over two orders of magnitude better than previously reported values. The second is a precision measurement of the Michel ρ parameter from the positron energy spectrum of μ → ev μ v e to test the V-A theory of weak interactions. The uncertainty in the measurement of the Michel ρ parameter is expected to be a factor of three lower than the present reported value

  11. High sensitive quench detection method using an integrated test wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fevrier, A.; Tavergnier, J.P.; Nithart, H.; Kiblaire, M.; Duchateau, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A high sensitive quench detection method which works even in the presence of an external perturbing magnetic field is reported. The quench signal is obtained from the difference in voltages at the superconducting winding terminals and at the terminals at a secondary winding strongly coupled to the primary. The secondary winding could consist of a ''zero-current strand'' of the superconducting cable not connected to one of the winding terminals or an integrated normal test wire inside the superconducting cable. Experimental results on quench detection obtained by this method are described. It is shown that the integrated test wire method leads to efficient and sensitive quench detection, especially in the presence of an external perturbing magnetic field

  12. Development of miniature γ dose rate monitor with high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huilu; Tuo Xianguo; Xi Dashun; Tang Rong; Mu Keliang; Yang Jianbo

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a miniature γ dose rate monitor with high sensitivity which design based on single chip microcomputer, it can continue monitoring γ dose rate and then choose wire or wireless communications to sent the monitoring data to host according to the actual conditions. It has two kinds of power supply system, AC power supply system and battery which can be chose by concrete circumstances. The design idea and implementation technology of hardware and software and the system structure of the monitor are detailed illustrated in this paper. The experimental results show that measurable range is 0.1 mR/h-200 mR/h, the sensitivity of γ is 90 cps/mR/h, dead time below 200 us, error of stability below ±10%. (authors)

  13. Polymer-Particle Pressure-Sensitive Paint with High Photostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Matsuda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel fast-responding and paintable pressure-sensitive paint (PSP based on polymer particles, i.e. polymer-particle (pp-PSP. As a fast-responding PSP, polymer-ceramic (PC-PSP is widely studied. Since PC-PSP generally consists of titanium (IV oxide (TiO2 particles, a large reduction in the luminescent intensity will occur due to the photocatalytic action of TiO2. We propose the usage of polymer particles instead of TiO2 particles to prevent the reduction in the luminescent intensity. Here, we fabricate pp-PSP based on the polystyrene particle with a diameter of 1 μm, and investigate the pressure- and temperature-sensitives, the response time, and the photostability. The performances of pp-PSP are compared with those of PC-PSP, indicating the high photostability with the other characteristics comparable to PC-PSP.

  14. Field test investigation of high sensitivity fiber optic seismic geophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Min, Li; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Faxiang; Sun, Zhihui; Li, Shujuan; Wang, Chang; Zhao, Zhong; Hao, Guanghu

    2017-10-01

    Seismic reflection, whose measured signal is the artificial seismic waves ,is the most effective method and widely used in the geophysical prospecting. And this method can be used for exploration of oil, gas and coal. When a seismic wave travelling through the Earth encounters an interface between two materials with different acoustic impedances, some of the wave energy will reflect off the interface and some will refract through the interface. At its most basic, the seismic reflection technique consists of generating seismic waves and measuring the time taken for the waves to travel from the source, reflect off an interface and be detected by an array of geophones at the surface. Compared to traditional geophones such as electric, magnetic, mechanical and gas geophone, optical fiber geophones have many advantages. Optical fiber geophones can achieve sensing and signal transmission simultaneously. With the development of fiber grating sensor technology, fiber bragg grating (FBG) is being applied in seismic exploration and draws more and more attention to its advantage of anti-electromagnetic interference, high sensitivity and insensitivity to meteorological conditions. In this paper, we designed a high sensitivity geophone and tested its sensitivity, based on the theory of FBG sensing. The frequency response range is from 10 Hz to 100 Hz and the acceleration of the fiber optic seismic geophone is over 1000pm/g. sixteen-element fiber optic seismic geophone array system is presented and the field test is performed in Shengli oilfield of China. The field test shows that: (1) the fiber optic seismic geophone has a higher sensitivity than the traditional geophone between 1-100 Hz;(2) The low frequency reflection wave continuity of fiber Bragg grating geophone is better.

  15. A CMOS In-Pixel CTIA High Sensitivity Fluorescence Imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, Kartikeya; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Thakor, Nitish; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2011-10-01

    Traditionally, charge coupled device (CCD) based image sensors have held sway over the field of biomedical imaging. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based imagers so far lack sensitivity leading to poor low-light imaging. Certain applications including our work on animal-mountable systems for imaging in awake and unrestrained rodents require the high sensitivity and image quality of CCDs and the low power consumption, flexibility and compactness of CMOS imagers. We present a 132×124 high sensitivity imager array with a 20.1 μm pixel pitch fabricated in a standard 0.5 μ CMOS process. The chip incorporates n-well/p-sub photodiodes, capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) based in-pixel amplification, pixel scanners and delta differencing circuits. The 5-transistor all-nMOS pixel interfaces with peripheral pMOS transistors for column-parallel CTIA. At 70 fps, the array has a minimum detectable signal of 4 nW/cm(2) at a wavelength of 450 nm while consuming 718 μA from a 3.3 V supply. Peak signal to noise ratio (SNR) was 44 dB at an incident intensity of 1 μW/cm(2). Implementing 4×4 binning allowed the frame rate to be increased to 675 fps. Alternately, sensitivity could be increased to detect about 0.8 nW/cm(2) while maintaining 70 fps. The chip was used to image single cell fluorescence at 28 fps with an average SNR of 32 dB. For comparison, a cooled CCD camera imaged the same cell at 20 fps with an average SNR of 33.2 dB under the same illumination while consuming over a watt.

  16. Highly sensitive detection of urinary cadmium to assess personal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argun, Avni A.; Banks, Ashley M.; Merlen, Gwendolynne; Tempelman, Linda A. [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States); Becker, Michael F.; Schuelke, Thomas [Fraunhofer USA – CCL, 1449 Engineering Research Ct., East Lansing 48824, MI (United States); Dweik, Badawi M., E-mail: bdweik@ginerinc.com [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States)

    2013-04-22

    Highlights: ► An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting cadmium at parts-per-billion levels in urine. ► A novel fabrication method for Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode (UME) arrays. ► Unique combination of BDD UME arrays and a differential pulse voltammetry algorithm. ► High sensitivity, high reproducibility, and very low noise levels. ► Opportunity for portable operation to assess on-site personal exposure. -- Abstract: A series of Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode arrays were fabricated and investigated for their performance as electrochemical sensors to detect trace level metals such as cadmium. The steady-state diffusion behavior of these sensors was validated using cyclic voltammetry followed by electrochemical detection of cadmium in water and in human urine to demonstrate high sensitivity (>200 μA ppb{sup −1} cm{sup −2}) and low background current (<4 nA). When an array of ultramicroelectrodes was positioned with optimal spacing, these BDD sensors showed a sigmoidal diffusion behavior. They also demonstrated high accuracy with linear dose dependence for quantification of cadmium in a certified reference river water sample from the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as well as in a human urine sample spiked with 0.25–1 ppb cadmium.

  17. Field Test Data for Detecting Vibrations of a Building Using High-Speed Video Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    ARL-TR-8185 ● OCT 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Field Test Data for Detecting Vibrations of a Building Using High-Speed Video...Field Test Data for Detecting Vibrations of a Building Using High-Speed Video Cameras by Caitlin P Conn and Geoffrey H Goldman Sensors and...June 2016 – October 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Field Test Data for Detecting Vibrations of a Building Using High-Speed Video Cameras 5a. CONTRACT

  18. High order effects in cross section sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Karni, Y.; Gilai, D.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of high order effects associated with perturbations in the flux shape are considered: Spectral Fine Structure Effects (SFSE) and non-linearity between changes in performance parameters and data uncertainties. SFSE are investigated in Part I using a simple single resonance model. Results obtained for each of the resolved and for representative unresolved resonances of 238 U in a ZPR-6/7 like environment indicate that SFSE can have a significant contribution to the sensitivity of group constants to resonance parameters. Methods to account for SFSE both for the propagation of uncertainties and for the adjustment of nuclear data are discussed. A Second Order Sensitivity Theory (SOST) is presented, and its accuracy relative to that of the first order sensitivity theory and of the direct substitution method is investigated in Part II. The investigation is done for the non-linear problem of the effect of changes in the 297 keV sodium minimum cross section on the transport of neutrons in a deep-penetration problem. It is found that the SOST provides a satisfactory accuracy for cross section uncertainty analysis. For the same degree of accuracy, the SOST can be significantly more efficient than the direct substitution method

  19. Operationalization of the Russian Version of Highly Sensitive Person Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Регина Вячеславовна Ершова

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to operationalize a Russian version of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS. The empirical data were collected in two ways: active, through oral advertising and inviting those who wish to take part in the study (snowball technique and passive (placement of ads about taking part in a research in social networks VKontakte and Facebook. As a result, 350 university students (117 men, 233 women, an average age of 18,2 (± 1,7 applied to a research laboratory and filled out the HSPS questionnaire, and another 510 respondents (380 women, 130 men, average age 22,6 ( ± 7,9 filled the HSPS online. The results of the study did not confirm the one-dimensional model of the construct, proposed by Aron & Aron (1997, as well as the most commonly used in the English-language studies three-factor solution. The hierarchical claster and confirmatory analyses used in the operationalization procedure allowed us to conclude that the variance of the Russian version of HSPS is best described in the framework of a two-factor model including the two separate subscales: Ease of Excitation (EOE, Low threshold of sensitivity (LTS. Sensory Processing Sensitivity may be defined as an increased susceptibility to external and internal stimuli, realized through negative emotional responses and deep susceptibility (distress to excessive stimulation.

  20. A wide-bandwidth and high-sensitivity robust microgyroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Korhan; Sahin, Emre; Akin, Tayfun; Alper, Said Emre

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a microgyroscope design concept with the help of a 2 degrees of freedom (DoF) sense mode to achieve a wide bandwidth without sacrificing mechanical and electronic sensitivity and to obtain robust operation against variations under ambient conditions. The design concept is demonstrated with a tuning fork microgyroscope fabricated with an in-house silicon-on-glass micromachining process. When the fabricated gyroscope is operated with a relatively wide bandwidth of 1 kHz, measurements show a relatively high raw mechanical sensitivity of 131 µV (° s −1 ) −1 . The variation in the amplified mechanical sensitivity (scale factor) of the gyroscope is measured to be less than 0.38% for large ambient pressure variations such as from 40 to 500 mTorr. The bias instability and angle random walk of the gyroscope are measured to be 131° h −1 and 1.15° h −1/2 , respectively

  1. Development of an underwater high sensitivity Cherenkov detector: Sea Urchin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camerini, U.; McGibney, D.; Roberts, A.

    1982-01-01

    The need for a high gain, high sensitivity Cherenkov light sensor to be used in a deep underwater muon and neutrino detector (DUMAND) array has led to the design of the Sea Urchin detector. In this design a spherical photocathode PMTis optically coupled through a glass hemisphere to a large number of glass spines, each of which is filled with a wavelength-shifting (WLS) solution of a high quantum efficiency phosphor. The Cherenkov radiation is absorbed in the spine, isotropically re-radiated at a longer wavelength, and a fraction of the fluorescent light is internally reflected in the spine, and guided to the photomultiplier concentrically located in the glass hemisphere. Experiments measuring the optical characteristics of the spines and computer programs simulating light transformation and detection cross sections are described. Overall optical gains in the range 5-10 are achieved. The WLS solution is inexpensive, and may have other applications. (orig.)

  2. Position sensitive detection of neutrons in high radiation background field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrik, D; Jakubek, J; Pospisil, S; Vacik, J

    2014-01-01

    We present the development of a high-resolution position sensitive device for detection of slow neutrons in the environment of extremely high γ and e(-) radiation background. We make use of a planar silicon pixelated (pixel size: 55 × 55 μm(2)) spectroscopic Timepix detector adapted for neutron detection utilizing very thin (10)B converter placed onto detector surface. We demonstrate that electromagnetic radiation background can be discriminated from the neutron signal utilizing the fact that each particle type produces characteristic ionization tracks in the pixelated detector. Particular tracks can be distinguished by their 2D shape (in the detector plane) and spectroscopic response using single event analysis. A Cd sheet served as thermal neutron stopper as well as intensive source of gamma rays and energetic electrons. Highly efficient discrimination was successful even at very low neutron to electromagnetic background ratio about 10(-4).

  3. Highly Sensitive Flexible Magnetic Sensor Based on Anisotropic Magnetoresistance Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguang; Wang, Xinjun; Li, Menghui; Gao, Yuan; Hu, Zhongqiang; Nan, Tianxiang; Liang, Xianfeng; Chen, Huaihao; Yang, Jia; Cash, Syd; Sun, Nian-Xiang

    2016-11-01

    A highly sensitive flexible magnetic sensor based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect is fabricated. A limit of detection of 150 nT is observed and excellent deformation stability is achieved after wrapping of the flexible sensor, with bending radii down to 5 mm. The flexible AMR sensor is used to read a magnetic pattern with a thickness of 10 μm that is formed by ferrite magnetic inks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. High sensitivity on-line monitor for radioactive effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Toshimi [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Ltd., Sendai (Japan); Ishizuka, Akira; Abe, Eisuke; Inoue, Yasuhiko; Fujii, Masaaki; Kitaguchi, Hiroshi; Doi, Akira

    1983-04-01

    A new approach for a highly sensitive effluent monitor is presented. The free flow type monitor, which consists of a straightener, nozzle, monitoring section and ..gamma..-ray detector, is demonstrated to be effective in providing long term stability. The 160 start-and-stop cycles of effluent discharge were repeated in a 120-h testing period. Results showed a background increase was not observed for the free flow type monitor. The background count rate was calibrated to the lowest detection limit to be 2.2 x 10/sup -2/ Bq/ml for a 300 s measurement time.

  5. High-Sensitivity Measurement of Density by Magnetic Levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroski, Alex; Kumar, A A; Soh, Siowling; Harburg, Daniel V; Yu, Hai-Dong; Whitesides, George M

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents methods that use Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) to measure very small differences in density of solid diamagnetic objects suspended in a paramagnetic medium. Previous work in this field has shown that, while it is a convenient method, standard MagLev (i.e., where the direction of magnetization and gravitational force are parallel) cannot resolve differences in density mm) because (i) objects close in density prevent each other from reaching an equilibrium height due to hard contact and excluded volume, and (ii) using weaker magnets or reducing the magnetic susceptibility of the medium destabilizes the magnetic trap. The present work investigates the use of weak magnetic gradients parallel to the faces of the magnets as a means of increasing the sensitivity of MagLev without destabilization. Configuring the MagLev device in a rotated state (i.e., where the direction of magnetization and gravitational force are perpendicular) relative to the standard configuration enables simple measurements along the axes with the highest sensitivity to changes in density. Manipulating the distance of separation between the magnets or the lengths of the magnets (along the axis of measurement) enables the sensitivity to be tuned. These modifications enable an improvement in the resolution up to 100-fold over the standard configuration, and measurements with resolution down to 10(-6) g/cm(3). Three examples of characterizing the small differences in density among samples of materials having ostensibly indistinguishable densities-Nylon spheres, PMMA spheres, and drug spheres-demonstrate the applicability of rotated Maglev to measuring the density of small (0.1-1 mm) objects with high sensitivity. This capability will be useful in materials science, separations, and quality control of manufactured objects.

  6. High pressure-sensitive gene expression in Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Vogel

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium used in food biotechnology. It is necessary to investigate many aspects of a model organism to elucidate mechanisms of stress response, to facilitate preparation, application and performance in food fermentation, to understand mechanisms of inactivation, and to identify novel tools for high pressure biotechnology. To investigate the mechanisms of the complex bacterial response to high pressure we have analyzed changes in the proteome and transcriptome by 2-D electrophoresis, and by microarrays and real time PCR, respectively. More than 16 proteins were found to be differentially expressed upon high pressure stress and were compared to those sensitive to other stresses. Except for one apparently high pressure-specific stress protein, no pressure-specific stress proteins were found, and the proteome response to pressure was found to differ from that induced by other stresses. Selected pressure-sensitive proteins were partially sequenced and their genes were identified by reverse genetics. In a transcriptome analysis of a redundancy cleared shot gun library, about 7% of the genes investigated were found to be affected. Most of them appeared to be up-regulated 2- to 4-fold and these results were confirmed by real time PCR. Gene induction was shown for some genes up-regulated at the proteome level (clpL/groEL/rbsK, while the response of others to high hydrostatic pressure at the transcriptome level seemed to differ from that observed at the proteome level. The up-regulation of selected genes supports the view that the cell tries to compensate for pressure-induced impairment of translation and membrane transport.

  7. Evaluation and specification of high build and special use waterborne pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    High build waterborne traffic paints and highly retro-reflective elements were applied at various locations to evaluate their : practicality for use by NYSDOT Maintenance forces. In addition, highly reflective elements were applied within grooved in ...

  8. Federal High Performance and Sustainable Buildings: Guiding Principles for the Laboratory Support Building (LSB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Jason E.

    2014-09-01

    This report documents the federal Guiding Principles conformance effort for LSB at PNNL. The effort is part of continued progress toward a campus building inventory that is 100% compliant with the Guiding Principles. The report documentation provides a narrative of how the LSB complies with each of the Guiding Principles requirements. These narratives draw from the many sources that are explained in the text and rely on extensive data collection. The descriptions point to each of these sources, providing the reader with specific policies, procedures, and data points.

  9. High-Performance Green Building: Towards a Conceptual Framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available consumption is building performance design targets (AIA 2005:2). Kibert notes that “a unique vocabulary is emerging to describe concepts related to sustainability” including concepts such as “Factor 4 and Factor 10, ecological footprint, ecological rucksack...

  10. LDDX: A High Efficiency Air Conditioner for DOD Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Additional Benefits ........................................................................................................ 3 1.2.6 Deliverables...inadequate latent cooling can lead building managers to restrict ventilation to minimal levels that further compromise both the comfort and health of...bulb temperatures for outdoor air and return air respectively per ANSI/AHRI Standard 210/240 “Performance Rating of Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air

  11. Building America System Research Results. Innovations for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-05-01

    This report provides a summary of key lessons learned from the first 10 years of the Building America program and also included a summary of the future challenges that must be met to reach the program’s long term performance goals.

  12. On the design of high-rise buildings with a specified level of reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolganov, Andrey; Kagan, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    High-rise buildings have a specificity, which significantly distinguishes them from traditional buildings of high-rise and multi-storey buildings. Steel structures in high-rise buildings are advisable to be used in earthquake-proof regions, since steel, due to its plasticity, provides damping of the kinetic energy of seismic impacts. These aspects should be taken into account when choosing a structural scheme of a high-rise building and designing load-bearing structures. Currently, modern regulatory documents do not quantify the reliability of structures. Although the problem of assigning an optimal level of reliability has existed for a long time. The article shows the possibility of designing metal structures of high-rise buildings with specified reliability. Currently, modern regulatory documents do not quantify the reliability of high-rise buildings. Although the problem of assigning an optimal level of reliability has existed for a long time. It is proposed to establish the value of reliability 0.99865 (3σ) for constructions of buildings and structures of a normal level of responsibility in calculations for the first group of limiting states. For increased (construction of high-rise buildings) and reduced levels of responsibility for the provision of load-bearing capacity, it is proposed to assign respectively 0.99997 (4σ) and 0.97725 (2σ). The coefficients of the use of the cross section of a metal beam for different levels of security are given.

  13. Indoor air quality in green buildings: A case-study in a residential high-rise building in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Youyou; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Andrews, Clinton J

    2015-01-01

    Improved indoor air quality (IAQ) is one of the critical components of green building design. Green building tax credit (e.g., New York State Green Building Tax Credit (GBTC)) and certification programs (e.g., Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED)) require indoor air quality measures and compliance with allowable maximum concentrations of common indoor air pollutants. It is not yet entirely clear whether compliance with these programs results in improved IAQ and ultimately human health. As a case in point, annual indoor air quality measurements were conducted in a residential green high-rise building for five consecutive years by an industrial hygiene contractor to comply with the building's GBTC requirements. The implementation of green design measures resulted in better IAQ compared to data in references of conventional homes for some parameters, but could not be confirmed for others. Relative humidity and carbon dioxide were satisfactory according to existing standards. Formaldehyde levels during four out of five years were below the most recent proposed exposure limits found in the literature. To some degree, particulate matter (PM) levels were lower than that in studies from conventional residential buildings. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) with known permissible exposure limits were below levels known to cause chronic health effects, but their concentrations were inconclusive regarding cancer health effects due to relatively high detection limits. Although measured indoor air parameters met all IAQ maximum allowable concentrations in GBTC and applicable LEED requirements at the time of sampling, we argue that these measurements were not sufficient to assess IAQ comprehensively because more sensitive sampling/analytical methods for PM and VOCs are needed; in addition, there is a need for a formal process to ensure rigor and adequacy of sampling and analysis methods. Also, we suggest that a comprehensive IAQ assessment should

  14. A simple, tunable, and highly sensitive radio-frequency sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Sun, Jiwei; He, Yuxi; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Pingshan

    2013-08-05

    We report a radio frequency (RF) sensor that exploits tunable attenuators and phase shifters to achieve high-sensitivity and broad band frequency tunability. Three frequency bands are combined to enable sensor operations from ∼20 MHz to ∼38 GHz. The effective quality factor ( Q eff ) of the sensor is as high as ∼3.8 × 10 6 with 200  μ l of water samples. We also demonstrate the measurement of 2-proponal-water-solution permittivity at 0.01 mole concentration level from ∼1 GHz to ∼10 GHz. Methanol-water solution and de-ionized water are used to calibrate the RF sensor for the quantitative measurements.

  15. Correcting systematic errors in high-sensitivity deuteron polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantjes, N. P. M.; Dzordzhadze, V.; Gebel, R.; Gonnella, F.; Gray, F. E.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Imig, A.; Kruithof, W. L.; Lazarus, D. M.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Messi, R.; Moricciani, D.; Morse, W. M.; Noid, G. A.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Özben, C. S.; Prasuhn, D.; Levi Sandri, P.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; da Silva e Silva, M.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stockhorst, H.; Venanzoni, G.; Versolato, O. O.

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports deuteron vector and tensor beam polarization measurements taken to investigate the systematic variations due to geometric beam misalignments and high data rates. The experiments used the In-Beam Polarimeter at the KVI-Groningen and the EDDA detector at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY at Jülich. By measuring with very high statistical precision, the contributions that are second-order in the systematic errors become apparent. By calibrating the sensitivity of the polarimeter to such errors, it becomes possible to obtain information from the raw count rate values on the size of the errors and to use this information to correct the polarization measurements. During the experiment, it was possible to demonstrate that corrections were satisfactory at the level of 10 -5 for deliberately large errors. This may facilitate the real time observation of vector polarization changes smaller than 10 -6 in a search for an electric dipole moment using a storage ring.

  16. Correcting systematic errors in high-sensitivity deuteron polarization measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantjes, N.P.M. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747AA Groningen (Netherlands); Dzordzhadze, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Gebel, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Gonnella, F. [Physica Department of ' Tor Vergata' University, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sez. ' Roma tor Vergata,' Rome (Italy); Gray, F.E. [Regis University, Denver, CO 80221 (United States); Hoek, D.J. van der [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747AA Groningen (Netherlands); Imig, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Kruithof, W.L. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747AA Groningen (Netherlands); Lazarus, D.M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Messi, R. [Physica Department of ' Tor Vergata' University, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sez. ' Roma tor Vergata,' Rome (Italy); Moricciani, D. [INFN-Sez. ' Roma tor Vergata,' Rome (Italy); Morse, W.M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Noid, G.A. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); and others

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports deuteron vector and tensor beam polarization measurements taken to investigate the systematic variations due to geometric beam misalignments and high data rates. The experiments used the In-Beam Polarimeter at the KVI-Groningen and the EDDA detector at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY at Juelich. By measuring with very high statistical precision, the contributions that are second-order in the systematic errors become apparent. By calibrating the sensitivity of the polarimeter to such errors, it becomes possible to obtain information from the raw count rate values on the size of the errors and to use this information to correct the polarization measurements. During the experiment, it was possible to demonstrate that corrections were satisfactory at the level of 10{sup -5} for deliberately large errors. This may facilitate the real time observation of vector polarization changes smaller than 10{sup -6} in a search for an electric dipole moment using a storage ring.

  17. Wide bandwidth transimpedance amplifier for extremely high sensitivity continuous measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Giorgio; Sampietro, Marco

    2007-09-01

    This article presents a wide bandwidth transimpedance amplifier based on the series of an integrator and a differentiator stage, having an additional feedback loop to discharge the standing current from the device under test (DUT) to ensure an unlimited measuring time opportunity when compared to switched discharge configurations while maintaining a large signal amplification over the full bandwidth. The amplifier shows a flat response from 0.6 Hz to 1.4 MHz, the capability to operate with leakage currents from the DUT as high as tens of nanoamperes, and rail-to-rail dynamic range for sinusoidal current signals independent of the DUT leakage current. Also available is a monitor output of the stationary current to track experimental slow drifts. The circuit is ideal for noise spectral and impedance measurements of nanodevices and biomolecules when in the presence of a physiological medium and in all cases where high sensitivity current measurements are requested such as in scanning probe microscopy systems.

  18. Design of a charge sensitive preamplifier on high resistivity silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.; Rescia, S.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Strueder, L.; Kemmer, J.

    1987-01-01

    A low noise, fast charge sensitive preamplifier was designed on high resistivity, detector grade silicon. It is built at the surface of a fully depleted region of n-type silicon. This allows the preamplifier to be placed very close to a detector anode. The preamplifier uses the classical input cascode configuration with a capacitor and a high value resistor in the feedback loop. The output stage of the preamplifier can drive a load up to 20pF. The power dissipation of the preamplifier is 13mW. The amplifying elements are ''Single Sided Gate JFETs'' developed especially for this application. Preamplifiers connected to a low capacitance anode of a drift type detector should achieve a rise time of 20ns and have an equivalent noise charge (ENC), after a suitable shaping, of less than 50 electrons. This performance translates to a position resolution better than 3μm for silicon drift detectors. 6 refs., 9 figs

  19. High speed elevator s rise high rise building; Chokoso biru wo kakenoboru elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, K. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-20

    The world`s fastest (750 m/min) elevators are operating in Yokohama Landmark Tower. This paper describes how engineers solved the technological problems to realize the high-speed elevator. Buildings in Japan have become higher and higher. At the present, this Tower is the highest in Japan (296 m, 70 stories). The Ministry of Construction is going to start a research team to study construction of buildings of the order of 1,000 m high. An important issue for a skyscraper is how to reduce the elevator space adapting to the increase of the number of inhabitants in the building. The basic solution is to increase the elevator speed and to plan the best elevator moving line. The 120 kW AC motor direct-driven winding machine that withstands the superhigh-speed suspending load was developed. Vibrations from the motor and the mechanical system are minimized and the touch-down tolerances for the elevator cage are controlled to {plus_minus}15 mm. The safety devices of the elevator include the emergency stopper of special ceramic material and the hydraulic shock absorber with the optimum reduction characteristic. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  20. High-Sensitivity Temperature-Independent Silicon Photonic Microfluidic Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kangbaek

    Optical biosensors that can precisely quantify the presence of specific molecular species in real time without the need for labeling have seen increased use in the drug discovery industry and molecular biology in general. Of the many possible optical biosensors, the TM mode Si biosensor is shown to be very attractive in the sensing application because of large field amplitude on the surface and cost effective CMOS VLSI fabrication. Noise is the most fundamental factor that limits the performance of sensors in development of high-sensitivity biosensors, and noise reduction techniques require precise studies and analysis. One such example stems from thermal fluctuations. Generally SOI biosensors are vulnerable to ambient temperature fluctuations because of large thermo-optic coefficient of silicon (˜2x10 -4 RIU/K), typically requiring another reference ring and readout sequence to compensate temperature induced noise. To address this problem, we designed sensors with a novel TM-mode shallow-ridge waveguide that provides both large surface amplitude for bulk and surface sensing. With proper design, this also provides large optical confinement in the aqueous cladding that renders the device athermal using the negative thermo-optic coefficient of water (~ --1x10-4RIU/K), demonstrating cancellation of thermo-optic effects for aqueous solution operation near 300K. Additional limitations resulting from mechanical actuator fluctuations, stability of tunable lasers, and large 1/f noise of lasers and sensor electronics can limit biosensor performance. Here we also present a simple harmonic feedback readout technique that obviates the need for spectrometers and tunable lasers. This feedback technique reduces the impact of 1/f noise to enable high-sensitivity, and a DSP lock-in with 256 kHz sampling rate can provide down to micros time scale monitoring for fast transitions in biomolecular concentration with potential for small volume and low cost. In this dissertation, a novel

  1. Evaluation of possibility to increasing sustainability of high-rise buildings through use university intellectual property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potekhin, Igor; Mischenko, Valeryi; Mottaeva, Angela; Zheltenkov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    In this article explained approach of valuation of intellectual property of Voronezh State Technical University, as her usefulness to increasing the sustainability and ecological safety of high-rise building. High-rise building is main type of buildings in modern cities. They include large volume of material mass, high volume of energy using and high volume of emissions. Using innovation solutions to improving ecology safety of high-rise buildings has large potential to city in whole. Explained in the article methods of calculation of effects helps to value sustainable solutions of present and future generations. Thus usefulness of patents express through usefulness regarding to high-rise building, including for sustainable development.

  2. High sensitivity pyrogen testing in water and dialysis solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Mardas; Wendel, Albrecht; Hartung, Thomas; von Aulock, Sonja

    2008-07-20

    The dialysis patient is confronted with hundreds of litres of dialysis solution per week, which pass the natural protective barriers of the body and are brought into contact with the tissue directly in the case of peritoneal dialysis or indirectly in the case of renal dialysis (hemodialysis). The components can be tested for living specimens or dead pyrogenic (fever-inducing) contaminations. The former is usually detected by cultivation and the latter by the endotoxin-specific Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Assay (LAL). However, the LAL assay does not reflect the response of the human immune system to the wide variety of possible pyrogenic contaminations in dialysis fluids. Furthermore, the test is limited in its sensitivity to detect extremely low concentrations of pyrogens, which in their sum result in chronic pathologies in dialysis patients. The In vitro Pyrogen Test (IPT) employs human whole blood to detect the spectrum of pyrogens to which humans respond by measuring the release of the endogenous fever mediator interleukin-1beta. Spike recovery checks exclude interference. The test has been validated in an international study for pyrogen detection in injectable solutions. In this study we adapted the IPT to the testing of dialysis solutions. Preincubation of 50 ml spiked samples with albumin-coated microspheres enhanced the sensitivity of the assay to detect contaminations down to 0.1 pg/ml LPS or 0.001 EU/ml in water or saline and allowed pyrogen detection in dialysis concentrates or final working solutions. This method offers high sensitivity detection of human-relevant pyrogens in dialysis solutions and components.

  3. Time Impact of Scheduling Simulation for High Rise Building

    OpenAIRE

    Asmadi Ismail; Mohamad Ibrahim Mohamad; Muhamad Azani Yahya

    2011-01-01

    Although the long-introduced Industrialised Building System (IBS) has promised to solve and improve the current construction method and scenario in our country, but the IBS method has not gained enough popularity. One of the reasons is due to lack of research works done to quantifying the benefit of IBS especially in construction time saving. In lieu with such scenario, this study conducted to quantify evidence of time saving in IBS application. The methodology adopted for this study is by mo...

  4. Planning and Scheduling of High Rise Building Using Primavera

    OpenAIRE

    T. Subramani; A. Sarkunam

    2014-01-01

    Although the long-introduced Industrialized Building System (IBS) has promised to solve and improve the current construction method and scenario in our country, but the IBS method has not gained enough popularity. One of the reasons is due to lack of research works done to quantifying the benefit of IBS especially in construction time saving. In lieu with such scenario, this study conducted to quantify evidence of time saving in IBS application. The methodology adopted for thi...

  5. A wearable and highly sensitive pressure sensor with ultrathin gold nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shu; Schwalb, Willem; Wang, Yongwei; Chen, Yi; Tang, Yue; Si, Jye; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Cheng, Wenlong

    2014-02-01

    Ultrathin gold nanowires are mechanically flexible yet robust, which are novel building blocks with potential applications in future wearable optoelectronic devices. Here we report an efficient, low-cost fabrication strategy to construct a highly sensitive, flexible pressure sensor by sandwiching ultrathin gold nanowire-impregnated tissue paper between two thin polydimethylsiloxane sheets. The entire device fabrication process is scalable, enabling facile large-area integration and patterning for mapping spatial pressure distribution. Our gold nanowires-based pressure sensors can be operated at a battery voltage of 1.5 V with low energy consumption (1.14 kPa-1) and high stability (>50,000 loading-unloading cycles). In addition, our sensor can resolve pressing, bending, torsional forces and acoustic vibrations. The superior sensing properties in conjunction with mechanical flexibility and robustness enabled real-time monitoring of blood pulses as well as detection of small vibration forces from music.

  6. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of energy and visual performances of office building with external venetian blind shading in hot-dry climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ramkishore; Lazarus, I.J.; Kishore, V.V.N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Various alternatives of glazing and venetian blind were simulated for office space. • Daylighting and energy performances were assessed for each alternative. • Large uncertainties were estimated in the energy consumptions and UDI values. • Glazing design parameters were prioritised by performing sensitivity analysis. • WWR, glazing type, blind orientation and slat angle were identified top in priority. - Abstract: Fenestration has become an integral part of the buildings and has a significant impact on the energy and indoor visual performances. Inappropriate design of the fenestration component may lead to low energy efficiency and visual discomfort as a result of high solar and thermal heat gains, excessive daylight and direct sunlight. External venetian blind has been identified as one of the effective shading devices for controlling the heat gains and daylight through fenestration. This study explores uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to identify and prioritize the most influencing parameters for designing glazed components that include external shading devices for office buildings. The study was performed for hot-dry climate of Jodhpur (Latitude 26° 180′N, longitude 73° 010′E) using EnergyPlus, a whole building energy simulation tool providing a large number of inputs for eight façade orientations. A total 150 and 845 data points (for each orientation) for input variables were generated using Hyper Cubic Sampling and extended FAST methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analyses respectively. Results indicated a large uncertainty in the lighting, HVAC, source energy consumptions and useful daylight illuminance (UDI). The estimated coefficients of variation were highest (up to 106%) for UDI, followed by lighting energy (up to 45%) and HVAC energy use (around 33%). The sensitivity analysis identified window to wall ratio, glazing type, blind type (orientation of slats) and slat angle as highly influencing factors for energy and

  7. Investigating User Perception of High-Performance Schools about Factors Associated with Building Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Najib Mohd Salleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy demand in buildings can be reduced by improving energy efficiency. MS1525 has recommended that energy efficiency for Non-Residential Buildings in Malaysia to be not more than 135kWh/m²/year. A school building is a non-residential building and has major social responsibilities. Based on the theory of building energy-efficiency, energy efficiency can be achieved through three main factors: a design of buildings; b design of services; and c user behavior. This study aims to investigate the user perceptions in High-Performance Schools. The questionnaire viewed three main perceptions of users: perception of user behavior, the perception of building design and perception of services design.

  8. Luminescent Lanthanide Reporters for High-Sensitivity Novel Bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anstey, Mitchell R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Fruetel, Julia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Buckley, Heather L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Arnold, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Biological imaging and assay technologies rely on fluorescent organic dyes as reporters for a number of interesting targets and processes. However, limitations of organic dyes such as small Stokes shifts, spectral overlap of emission signals with native biological fluorescence background, and photobleaching have all inhibited the development of highly sensitive assays. To overcome the limitations of organic dyes for bioassays, we propose to develop lanthanide-based luminescent dyes and demonstrate them for molecular reporting applications. This relatively new family of dyes was selected for their attractive spectral and chemical properties. Luminescence is imparted by the lanthanide atom and allows for relatively simple chemical structures that can be tailored to the application. The photophysical properties offer unique features such as narrow and non-overlapping emission bands, long luminescent lifetimes, and long wavelength emission, which enable significant sensitivity improvements over organic dyes through spectral and temporal gating of the luminescent signal.Growth in this field has been hindered due to the necessary advanced synthetic chemistry techniques and access to experts in biological assay development. Our strategy for the development of a new lanthanide-based fluorescent reporter system is based on chelation of the lanthanide metal center using absorbing chromophores. Our first strategy involves "Click" chemistry to develop 3-fold symmetric chelators and the other involves use of a new class of tetrapyrrole ligands called corroles. This two-pronged approach is geared towards the optimization of chromophores to enhance light output.

  9. New application of superconductors: High sensitivity cryogenic light detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardani, L., E-mail: laura.cardani@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Physics Department, Princeton University, Washington Road, 08544 Princeton, NJ (United States); Bellini, F.; Casali, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy (Italy); Castellano, M.G. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie – CNR, Via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Roma (Italy); Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy (Italy); D' Addabbo, A. [INFN – Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (L' Aquila) 67010 (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [INFN – Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Martinez, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy (Italy); Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain); Tomei, C. [INFN – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    In this paper we describe the current status of the CALDER project, which is developing ultra-sensitive light detectors based on superconductors for cryogenic applications. When we apply an AC current to a superconductor, the Cooper pairs oscillate and acquire kinetic inductance, that can be measured by inserting the superconductor in a LC circuit with high merit factor. Interactions in the superconductor can break the Cooper pairs, causing sizable variations in the kinetic inductance and, thus, in the response of the LC circuit. The continuous monitoring of the amplitude and frequency modulation allows to reconstruct the incident energy with excellent sensitivity. This concept is at the basis of Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) that are characterized by natural aptitude to multiplexed read-out (several sensors can be tuned to different resonant frequencies and coupled to the same line), resolution of few eV, stable behavior over a wide temperature range, and ease in fabrication. We present the results obtained by the CALDER collaboration with 2×2 cm{sup 2} substrates sampled by 1 or 4 Aluminum KIDs. We show that the performances of the first prototypes are already competitive with those of other commonly used light detectors, and we discuss the strategies for a further improvement.

  10. New application of superconductors: High sensitivity cryogenic light detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardani, L.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Castellano, M.G.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; D'Addabbo, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Martinez, M.; Tomei, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we describe the current status of the CALDER project, which is developing ultra-sensitive light detectors based on superconductors for cryogenic applications. When we apply an AC current to a superconductor, the Cooper pairs oscillate and acquire kinetic inductance, that can be measured by inserting the superconductor in a LC circuit with high merit factor. Interactions in the superconductor can break the Cooper pairs, causing sizable variations in the kinetic inductance and, thus, in the response of the LC circuit. The continuous monitoring of the amplitude and frequency modulation allows to reconstruct the incident energy with excellent sensitivity. This concept is at the basis of Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) that are characterized by natural aptitude to multiplexed read-out (several sensors can be tuned to different resonant frequencies and coupled to the same line), resolution of few eV, stable behavior over a wide temperature range, and ease in fabrication. We present the results obtained by the CALDER collaboration with 2×2 cm"2 substrates sampled by 1 or 4 Aluminum KIDs. We show that the performances of the first prototypes are already competitive with those of other commonly used light detectors, and we discuss the strategies for a further improvement.

  11. SEISMIC Analysis of high-rise buildings with composite metal damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ruixue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly studies on the mechanical characteristics and application effect of composite metal damper in the high-rise buildings via the numerical simulation analysis. The research adopts the elastic and elastic-plastic dynamic approach and the displacement time history response and damper energy dissipation capacity and so on of the high-rise building are compared and analyzed before and after installation. The analysis found that the energy dissipation characteristic of metallic dampers is good. High-rise building story drift significantly is reduced and the extent of damage of the walls and coupling beams is decreased, achieved a good energy dissipation effect. Composite metal damper can effectively and economically improve the seismic performance of high-rise buildings, meet the requirement of the 3-level design for seismic resistance. The result has certain reference significance for the application of metallic damper in the high-rise buildings.

  12. Radiation Build-Up Of High Energy Gamma In Shielding Of High Atomic Number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuliati, Helfi; Akhadi, Mukhlis

    2000-01-01

    Research to observe effect of radiation build-up factor (b) in iron (Fe) and lead (Pb) for high energy gamma shielding from exp.137 Cs (E gamma : 662 keV) and exp.60 Co (E gamma : 1332 keV) sources has been carried out. Research was conducted bt counting of radiation intensity behind shielding with its thickness vary from 1 to 5 times of half value thickness (HVT). NaI (TI) detector which connected to multi channel analyzer (MCA) was used for the counting. Calculation result show that all of b value are near to 1 (b∼1) both for Fe and Pb. Without inserting b in calculation, from the experiment it was obtained HVT value of Fe for high gamma radiation of 662 and 1332 keV were : (12,94 n 0,03) mm and (17,33 n 0,01) mm with their deviation standards were 0,2% and 0,06% respectively. Value of HVT for Pb with the same energy were : (6,31 n 0,03) mm and (11,86 n 0,03) mm with their deviation standars were : 0,48% and 0,25% respectively. HVL concept could be applied directly to estimate shielding thickness of high atomic number of high energy gamma radiation, without inserting correction of radiation build-up factor

  13. High-Sensitivity AGN Polarimetry at Sub-Millimeter Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Martí-Vidal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The innermost regions of radio loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN jets are heavily affected by synchrotron self-absorption, due to the strong magnetic fields and high particle densities in these extreme zones. The only way to overcome this absorption is to observe at sub-millimeter wavelengths, although polarimetric observations at such frequencies have so far been limited by sensitivity and calibration accuracy. However, new generation instruments such as the Atacama Large mm/sub-mm Array (ALMA overcome these limitations and are starting to deliver revolutionary results in the observational studies of AGN polarimetry. Here we present an overview of our state-of-the-art interferometric mm/sub-mm polarization observations of AGN jets with ALMA (in particular, the gravitationally-lensed sources PKS 1830−211 and B0218+359, which allow us to probe the magneto-ionic conditions at the regions closest to the central black holes.

  14. High resolution, position sensitive detector for energetic particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, E.P.; Strathman, M.D.; Reed, D.A.; Odom, R.W.; Morse, D.H.; Pontau, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    The performance and design of an imaging position sensitive, particle beam detector will be presented. The detector is minimally invasive, operates a wide dynamic range (>10 10 ), and exhibits high spatial resolution. The secondary electrons produced when a particle beam passes through a thin foil are imaged using stigmatic ion optics onto a two-dimensional imaging detector. Due to the low scattering cross section of the 6 nm carbon foil the detector is a minimal perturbation on the primary beam. A prototype detector with an image resolution of approximately 5 μm for a field of view of 1 mm has been reported. A higher resolution detector for imaging small beams (<50 μm) with an image resolution of better than 0.5 μm has since been developed and its design is presented. (orig.)

  15. High resolution, position sensitive detector for energetic particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, E P [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Strathman, M D [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Reed, D A [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Odom, R W [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Morse, D H [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Pontau, A E [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The performance and design of an imaging position sensitive, particle beam detector will be presented. The detector is minimally invasive, operates a wide dynamic range (>10[sup 10]), and exhibits high spatial resolution. The secondary electrons produced when a particle beam passes through a thin foil are imaged using stigmatic ion optics onto a two-dimensional imaging detector. Due to the low scattering cross section of the 6 nm carbon foil the detector is a minimal perturbation on the primary beam. A prototype detector with an image resolution of approximately 5 [mu]m for a field of view of 1 mm has been reported. A higher resolution detector for imaging small beams (<50 [mu]m) with an image resolution of better than 0.5 [mu]m has since been developed and its design is presented. (orig.)

  16. Highly Sensitive Filter Paper Substrate for SERS Trace Explosives Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Fierro-Mercado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel and extremely low-cost surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS substrate fabricated depositing gold nanoparticles on common lab filter paper using thermal inkjet technology. The paper-based substrate combines all advantages of other plasmonic structures fabricated by more elaborate techniques with the dynamic flexibility given by the inherent nature of the paper for an efficient sample collection, robustness, and stability. We describe the fabrication, characterization, and SERS activity of our substrate using 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene as analytes. The paper-based SERS substrates presented a high sensitivity and excellent reproducibility for analytes employed, demonstrating a direct application in forensic science and homeland security.

  17. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2010-06-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui; Liu, Jingyuan; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Le; Moon, Soo-Jin; Liska, Paul; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Moser, Jacques-E.; Grä tzel, Carole; Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.

    2010-01-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effective dose calculation in CT using high sensitivity TLDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Z.; Johnston, P.N.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: To determine the effective dose for common paediatric CT examinations using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) mea surements. High sensitivity TLD chips (LiF:Mg,Cu,P, TLD-IOOH, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) were calibrated on a linac at an energy of 6 MY. A calibration was also performed on a superricial X-ray unit at a kilovoltage energy to validate the megavoltage cali bration for the purpose of measuring doses in the diagnostic energy range. The dose variation across large organs was assessed and a methodology for TLD placement in a 10 year old anthropomorphic phantom developed. Effective dose was calculated from the TLD measured absorbed doses for typical CT examinations after correcting for the TLD energy response and taking into account differences in the mass energy absorption coefficients for different tissues and organs. Results Using new tissue weighting factors recommended in ICRP Publication 103, the effective dose for a CT brain examination on a 10 year old was 1.6 millisieverts (mSv), 4.9 mSv for a CT chest exa ination and 4.7 mSv for a CT abdomen/pelvis examination. These values are lower for the CT brain examination, higher for the CT chest examination and approximately the same for the CT abdomen/ pelvis examination when compared with effective doses calculated using ICRP Publication 60 tissue weighting factors. Conclusions High sensitivity TLDs calibrated with a radiotherapy linac are useful for measuring dose in the diagnostic energy range and overcome limitations of output reproducibility and uniformity asso ciated with traditional TLD calibration on CT scanners or beam quality matched diagnostic X-ray units.

  20. Scanning Auger microscopy for high lateral and depth elemental sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, E., E-mail: eugenie.martinez@cea.fr [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Yadav, P. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bouttemy, M. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Renault, O.; Borowik, Ł.; Bertin, F. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Etcheberry, A. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Chabli, A. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •SAM performances and limitations are illustrated on real practical cases such as the analysis of nanowires and nanodots. •High spatial elemental resolution is shown with the analysis of reference semiconducting Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As/GaAs multilayers. •High in-depth elemental resolution is also illustrated. Auger depth profiling with low energy ion beams allows revealing ultra-thin layers (∼1 nm). •Analysis of cross-sectional samples is another effective approach to obtain in-depth elemental information. -- Abstract: Scanning Auger microscopy is currently gaining interest for investigating nanostructures or thin multilayers stacks developed for nanotechnologies. New generation Auger nanoprobes combine high lateral (∼10 nm), energy (0.1%) and depth (∼2 nm) resolutions thus offering the possibility to analyze the elemental composition as well as the chemical state, at the nanometre scale. We report here on the performances and limitations on practical examples from nanotechnology research. The spatial elemental sensitivity is illustrated with the analysis of Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As/GaAs heterostructures, Si nanowires and SiC nanodots. Regarding the elemental in-depth composition, two effective approaches are presented: low energy depth profiling to reveal ultra-thin layers (∼1 nm) and analysis of cross-sectional samples.

  1. Lessons Learned from Field Evaluation of Six High-Performance Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, P.; Deru, M.; Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Pless, S.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D. B.

    2004-07-01

    The energy performance of six high-performance buildings around the United States was monitored in detail. The six buildings include the Visitor Center at Zion National Park; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Thermal Test Facility; the Chesapeake Bay Foundation's Merrill Center; The BigHorn Home Improvement Center; the Cambria DEP Office Building; and the Oberlin College Lewis Center. This paper discusses the design energy targets and actual performance.

  2. Structural and compositional features of high-rise buildings: experimental design in Yekaterinburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovskaya, Yulia; Lobanov, Yuriy; Temnov, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    The study looks at the specifics of high-rise development in Yekaterinburg. High-rise buildings are considered in the context of their historical development, structural features, compositional and imaginative design techniques. Experience of Yekaterinburg architects in experimental design is considered and analyzed. Main issues and prospects of high-rise development within the Yekaterinburg structure are studied. The most interesting and significant conceptual approaches to the structural and compositional arrangement of high-rise buildings are discussed.

  3. Laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper for instilling high sensitivity, high stretchability, and high linearity in strain sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Yangyang

    2017-06-29

    There is an increasing demand for strain sensors with high sensitivity and high stretchability for new applications such as robotics or wearable electronics. However, for the available technologies, the sensitivity of the sensors varies widely. These sensors are also highly nonlinear, making reliable measurement challenging. Here we introduce a new family of sensors composed of a laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper embedded in an elastomer. A roll-to-roll pressing of these sensors activates a pre-defined fragmentation process, which results in a well-controlled, fragmented microstructure. Such sensors are reproducible and durable and can attain ultrahigh sensitivity and high stretchability (with a gauge factor of over 4.2 × 10(4) at 150% strain). Moreover, they can attain high linearity from 0% to 15% and from 22% to 150% strain. They are good candidates for stretchable electronic applications that require high sensitivity and linearity at large strains.

  4. Accelerated Sensitivity Analysis in High-Dimensional Stochastic Reaction Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, Georgios; Katsoulakis, Markos A; Pantazis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Existing sensitivity analysis approaches are not able to handle efficiently stochastic reaction networks with a large number of parameters and species, which are typical in the modeling and simulation of complex biochemical phenomena. In this paper, a two-step strategy for parametric sensitivity analysis for such systems is proposed, exploiting advantages and synergies between two recently proposed sensitivity analysis methodologies for stochastic dynamics. The first method performs sensitivity analysis of the stochastic dynamics by means of the Fisher Information Matrix on the underlying distribution of the trajectories; the second method is a reduced-variance, finite-difference, gradient-type sensitivity approach relying on stochastic coupling techniques for variance reduction. Here we demonstrate that these two methods can be combined and deployed together by means of a new sensitivity bound which incorporates the variance of the quantity of interest as well as the Fisher Information Matrix estimated from the first method. The first step of the proposed strategy labels sensitivities using the bound and screens out the insensitive parameters in a controlled manner. In the second step of the proposed strategy, a finite-difference method is applied only for the sensitivity estimation of the (potentially) sensitive parameters that have not been screened out in the first step. Results on an epidermal growth factor network with fifty parameters and on a protein homeostasis with eighty parameters demonstrate that the proposed strategy is able to quickly discover and discard the insensitive parameters and in the remaining potentially sensitive parameters it accurately estimates the sensitivities. The new sensitivity strategy can be several times faster than current state-of-the-art approaches that test all parameters, especially in "sloppy" systems. In particular, the computational acceleration is quantified by the ratio between the total number of parameters over the

  5. Accelerated Sensitivity Analysis in High-Dimensional Stochastic Reaction Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Arampatzis

    Full Text Available Existing sensitivity analysis approaches are not able to handle efficiently stochastic reaction networks with a large number of parameters and species, which are typical in the modeling and simulation of complex biochemical phenomena. In this paper, a two-step strategy for parametric sensitivity analysis for such systems is proposed, exploiting advantages and synergies between two recently proposed sensitivity analysis methodologies for stochastic dynamics. The first method performs sensitivity analysis of the stochastic dynamics by means of the Fisher Information Matrix on the underlying distribution of the trajectories; the second method is a reduced-variance, finite-difference, gradient-type sensitivity approach relying on stochastic coupling techniques for variance reduction. Here we demonstrate that these two methods can be combined and deployed together by means of a new sensitivity bound which incorporates the variance of the quantity of interest as well as the Fisher Information Matrix estimated from the first method. The first step of the proposed strategy labels sensitivities using the bound and screens out the insensitive parameters in a controlled manner. In the second step of the proposed strategy, a finite-difference method is applied only for the sensitivity estimation of the (potentially sensitive parameters that have not been screened out in the first step. Results on an epidermal growth factor network with fifty parameters and on a protein homeostasis with eighty parameters demonstrate that the proposed strategy is able to quickly discover and discard the insensitive parameters and in the remaining potentially sensitive parameters it accurately estimates the sensitivities. The new sensitivity strategy can be several times faster than current state-of-the-art approaches that test all parameters, especially in "sloppy" systems. In particular, the computational acceleration is quantified by the ratio between the total number of

  6. High Strength Phosphogypsum and Its Use as a Building Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Wellington Massayuki; Rossetto, Hebert Luis; de Souza, Milton Ferreira; Máduar, Marcelo Francis; de Campos, Marcia Pires; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci

    2008-08-01

    A new process (patent applied) that works equally well with both plaster of mineral gypsum and phosphogypsum for the preparation of gypsum components, UCOS, has been developed. The process consists of the following steps: humidification of plaster by fine water droplets, uni-axial compression, hydration reaction and drying. Strong hydrogen bonds develop among the crystals together with adhesion provided by confined water that accounts for nearly 70% of the adhesion forces. By reducing the plaster to water ratio to close the minimum necessary, new features are generated. An experimental house has been constructed, in which walls and ceilings have been built of gypsum and phosphogypsum. Since phosphogypsum potentially contain radioactive elements, the application of an activity concentration index to the phosphogypsum employed in the building was carried out.

  7. Design and Implementation of Green Construction Scheme for a High-rise Residential Building Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Huang, You Zhen

    2018-06-01

    This paper mainly studies the green construction scheme of a high-rise residential building project. From "four sections one environmental protection", saving material, water saving, energy saving, economical use of land and environmental protection conduct analysis and research. Adopting scientific, advanced, reasonable and economical construction technology measures, implementing green construction method. Promoting energy-saving technologies in buildings, ensuring the sustainable use of resources, Maximum savings of resources and energy, increase energy efficiency, to reduce pollution, reducing the adverse environmental impact of construction activities, ensure construction safety, build sustainable buildings.

  8. 76 FR 65511 - Office of Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High- Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee... meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the Committee). The meeting is open to the..., Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services...

  9. High-Performance Buildings – Value, Messaging, Financial and Policy Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Molly

    2011-02-22

    At the request of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, an in-depth analysis of the rapidly evolving state of real estate investments, high-performance building technology, and interest in efficiency was conducted by HaydenTanner, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The analysis objectives were • to evaluate the link between high-performance buildings and their market value • to identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to appropriately value and deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings • to summarize financial mechanisms that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a literature review of relevant writings, examination of existing and emergent financial and policy mechanisms, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implications through financial modeling. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Building Technologies Program on policy and program planning for the financing of high-performance new buildings and building retrofit projects.

  10. Highly sensitive and multiplexed platforms for allergy diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Margo R.

    Allergy is a disorder of the immune system caused by an immune response to otherwise harmless environmental allergens. Currently 20% of the US population is allergic and 90% of pediatric patients and 60% of adult patients with asthma have allergies. These percentages have increased by 18.5% in the past decade, with predicted similar trends for the future. Here we design sensitive, multiplexed platforms to detect allergen-specific IgE using the Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS) for various clinical settings. A microarray platform for allergy diagnosis allows for testing of specific IgE sensitivity to a multitude of allergens, while requiring only small volumes of patient blood sample. However, conventional fluorescent microarray technology is limited by i) the variation of probe immobilization, which hinders the ability to make quantitative, assertive, and statistically relevant conclusions necessary in immunodiagnostics and ii) the use of fluorophore labels, which is not suitable for some clinical applications due to the tendency of fluorophores to stick to blood particulates and require daily calibration methods. This calibrated fluorescence enhancement (CaFE) method integrates the low magnification modality of IRIS with enhanced fluorescence sensing in order to directly correlate immobilized probe (major allergens) density to allergen-specific IgE in patient serum. However, this platform only operates in processed serum samples, which is not ideal for point of care testing. Thus, a high magnification modality of IRIS was adapted as an alternative allergy diagnostic platform to automatically discriminate and size single nanoparticles bound to specific IgE in unprocessed, characterized human blood and serum samples. These features make IRIS an ideal candidate for clinical and diagnostic applications, such a POC testing. The high magnification (nanoparticle counting) modality in conjunction with low magnification of IRIS in a combined instrument

  11. A high-speed DAQ framework for future high-level trigger and event building clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caselle, M.; Perez, L.E. Ardila; Balzer, M.; Dritschler, T.; Kopmann, A.; Mohr, H.; Rota, L.; Vogelgesang, M.; Weber, M.

    2017-01-01

    Modern data acquisition and trigger systems require a throughput of several GB/s and latencies of the order of microseconds. To satisfy such requirements, a heterogeneous readout system based on FPGA readout cards and GPU-based computing nodes coupled by InfiniBand has been developed. The incoming data from the back-end electronics is delivered directly into the internal memory of GPUs through a dedicated peer-to-peer PCIe communication. High performance DMA engines have been developed for direct communication between FPGAs and GPUs using 'DirectGMA (AMD)' and 'GPUDirect (NVIDIA)' technologies. The proposed infrastructure is a candidate for future generations of event building clusters, high-level trigger filter farms and low-level trigger system. In this paper the heterogeneous FPGA-GPU architecture will be presented and its performance be discussed.

  12. The high-rise building. A review of sociological approaches for study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vergara Vidal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The verticalization of Chilean cities is a phenomenon that attracts the public interest and requires an understanding that exceeds the economic reasons and technical possibilities that lead to the proliferation of high buildings within them. This paper reviews in the sociological literature the treatment given to high-rise buildings with the aim of providing clues that collaborate with the social study of these architectural forms. The conclusions identify an epistemological turn that has allowed tools to link the architectural, material and technical aspects involved in high-rise buildings with the sociological analysis of these.

  13. Building a Virtual High School...Click by Click

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoll, Sue; Randle, Darcy

    2005-01-01

    The Rapid City Academy is the alternative high school program for South Dakota's Rapid City Area Schools, which has an enrollment of about 13,000 K-12 students, with five middle schools feeding two large traditional high schools and the alternative program. A high percentage of students at the academy are considered "at-risk" due to…

  14. Adjoint sensitivity analysis of high frequency structures with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Bakr, Mohamed; Demir, Veysel

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the theory of adjoint sensitivity analysis and uses the popular FDTD (finite-difference time-domain) method to show how wideband sensitivities can be efficiently estimated for different types of materials and structures. It includes a variety of MATLAB® examples to help readers absorb the content more easily.

  15. Data and analytics to inform energy retrofit of high performance buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Yang, Le; Hill, David; Feng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High performance buildings can be retrofitted using measured data and analytics. • Data of energy use, systems operating and environmental conditions are needed. • An energy data model based on the ISO Standard 12655 is key for energy benchmarking. • Three types of analytics are used: energy profiling, benchmarking, and diagnostics. • The case study shows 20% of electricity can be saved by retrofit. - Abstract: Buildings consume more than one-third of the world’s primary energy. Reducing energy use in buildings with energy efficient technologies is feasible and also driven by energy policies such as energy benchmarking, disclosure, rating, and labeling in both the developed and developing countries. Current energy retrofits focus on the existing building stocks, especially older buildings, but the growing number of new high performance buildings built around the world raises a question that how these buildings perform and whether there are retrofit opportunities to further reduce their energy use. This is a new and unique problem for the building industry. Traditional energy audit or analysis methods are inadequate to look deep into the energy use of the high performance buildings. This study aims to tackle this problem with a new holistic approach powered by building performance data and analytics. First, three types of measured data are introduced, including the time series energy use, building systems operating conditions, and indoor and outdoor environmental parameters. An energy data model based on the ISO Standard 12655 is used to represent the energy use in buildings in a three-level hierarchy. Secondly, a suite of analytics were proposed to analyze energy use and to identify retrofit measures for high performance buildings. The data-driven analytics are based on monitored data at short time intervals, and cover three levels of analysis – energy profiling, benchmarking and diagnostics. Thirdly, the analytics were applied to a high

  16. Polypyrrole–gold nanoparticle composites for highly sensitive DNA detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain, Elaine; Keyes, Tia E.; Forster, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    DNA capture surfaces represent a powerful approach to developing highly sensitive sensors for identifying the cause of infection. Electrochemically deposited polypyrrole, PPy, films have been functionalized with electrodeposited gold nanoparticles to give a nanocomposite material, PPy–AuNP. Thiolated capture strand DNA, that is complementary to the sequence from the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus that causes mammary gland inflammation, was then immobilized onto the gold nanoparticles and any of the underlying gold electrode that is exposed. A probe strand, labelled with horse radish peroxidase, HRP, was then hybridized to the target. The concentration of the target was determined by measuring the current generated by reducing benzoquinone produced by the HRP label. Semi-log plots of the pathogen DNA concentration vs. faradaic current are linear from 150 pM to 1 μM and pM concentrations can be detected without the need for molecular, e.g., PCR or NASBA, amplification. The nanocomposite also exhibits excellent selectivity and single base mismatches in a 30 mer sequence can be detected

  17. Improvement of sensitivity in high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Nakajima, K.; Suzuki, M.; Kimura, K.; Sasakawa, K.

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity (limit of detection) of high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HRBS) is mainly determined by the background noise of the spectrometer. There are two major origins of the background noise in HRBS, one is the stray ions scattered from the inner wall of the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer and the other is the dark noise of the microchannel plate (MCP) detector which is commonly used as a focal plane detector of the spectrometer in HRBS. In order to reject the stray ions, several barriers are installed inside the spectrometer and a thin Mylar foil is mounted in front of the detector. The dark noise of the MCP detector is rejected by the coincidence measurement with the secondary electrons emitted from the Mylar foil upon the ion passage. After these improvements, the background noise is reduced by a factor of 200 at a maximum. The detection limit can be improved down to 10 ppm for As in Si at a measurement time of 1 h under ideal conditions.

  18. Highly sensitive MoS2 photodetectors with graphene contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peize; St. Marie, Luke; Wang, Qing X.; Quirk, Nicholas; El Fatimy, Abdel; Ishigami, Masahiro; Barbara, Paola

    2018-05-01

    Two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are ideal candidates to create ultra-thin electronics suitable for flexible substrates. Although optoelectronic devices based on TMDs have demonstrated remarkable performance, scalability is still a significant issue. Most devices are created using techniques that are not suitable for mass production, such as mechanical exfoliation of monolayer flakes and patterning by electron-beam lithography. Here we show that large-area MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition and patterned by photolithography yields highly sensitive photodetectors, with record shot-noise-limited detectivities of 8.7 × 1014 Jones in ambient condition and even higher when sealed with a protective layer. These detectivity values are higher than the highest values reported for photodetectors based on exfoliated MoS2. We study MoS2 devices with gold electrodes and graphene electrodes. The devices with graphene electrodes have a tunable band alignment and are especially attractive for scalable ultra-thin flexible optoelectronics.

  19. Ultra-high sensitivity imaging of cancer using SERRS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Moritz F.

    2016-05-01

    "Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy" (SERS) nanoparticles have gained much attention in recent years for in silico, in vitro and in vivo sensing applications. Our group has developed novel generations of biocompatible "surfaceenhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy" (SERRS) nanoparticles as novel molecular imaging agents. Via rigorous optimization of the different variables contributing to the Raman enhancement, we were able to design SERRS nanoparticles with so far unprecedented sensitivity of detection under in vivo imaging conditions (femto-attomolar range). This has resulted in our ability to visualize, with a single nanoparticle, many different cancer types (after intravenous injection) in mouse models. The cancer types we have tested so far include brain, breast, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, sarcoma, and prostate cancer. All mouse models used are state-of-the-art and closely mimic the tumor biology in their human counterparts. In these animals, we were able to visualize not only the bulk tumors, but importantly also microscopic extensions and locoregional satellite metastases, thus delineating for the first time the true extent of tumor spread. Moreover, the particles enable the detection of premalignant lesions. Given their inert composition they are expected to have a high chance for clinical translation, where we envision them to have an impact in various scenarios ranging from early detection, image-guidance in open or minimally invasive surgical procedures, to noninvasive imaging in conjunction with spatially offset (SESORS) Raman detection devices.

  20. Characterization of three high efficiency and blue sensitive silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otte, Adam Nepomuk, E-mail: otte@gatech.edu; Garcia, Distefano; Nguyen, Thanh; Purushotham, Dhruv

    2017-02-21

    We report about the optical and electrical characterization of three high efficiency and blue sensitive Silicon photomultipliers from FBK, Hamamatsu, and SensL. Key features of the tested devices when operated at 90% breakdown probability are peak photon detection efficiencies between 40% and 55%, temperature dependencies of gain and PDE that are less than 1%/°C, dark rates of ∼50 kHz/mm{sup 2} at room temperature, afterpulsing of about 2%, and direct optical crosstalk between 6% and 20%. The characteristics of all three devices impressively demonstrate how the Silicon-photomultiplier technology has improved over the past ten years. It is further demonstrated how the voltage and temperature characteristics of a number of quantities can be parameterized on the basis of physical models. The models provide a deeper understanding of the device characteristics over a wide bias and temperature range. They also serve as examples how producers could provide the characteristics of their SiPMs to users. A standardized parameterization of SiPMs would enable users to find the optimal SiPM for their application and the operating point of SiPMs without having to perform measurements thus significantly reducing design and development cycles.

  1. High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image Building Extraction Based on Markov Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Yan, L.; Chang, Y.; Gong, L.

    2018-04-01

    With the increase of resolution, remote sensing images have the characteristics of increased information load, increased noise, more complex feature geometry and texture information, which makes the extraction of building information more difficult. To solve this problem, this paper designs a high resolution remote sensing image building extraction method based on Markov model. This method introduces Contourlet domain map clustering and Markov model, captures and enhances the contour and texture information of high-resolution remote sensing image features in multiple directions, and further designs the spectral feature index that can characterize "pseudo-buildings" in the building area. Through the multi-scale segmentation and extraction of image features, the fine extraction from the building area to the building is realized. Experiments show that this method can restrain the noise of high-resolution remote sensing images, reduce the interference of non-target ground texture information, and remove the shadow, vegetation and other pseudo-building information, compared with the traditional pixel-level image information extraction, better performance in building extraction precision, accuracy and completeness.

  2. Introducing wet aerosols into the static high sensitivity ICP (SHIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, Andy; Engelhard, Carsten; Sperling, Michael; Buscher, Wolfgang [University of Muenster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Muenster (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    A demountable design of the static high sensitivity ICP (SHIP) for optical emission spectrometry is presented, and its use as an excitation source with the introduction of wet aerosols was investigated. Aerosols were produced by standard pneumatic sample introduction systems, namely a cross flow nebulizer, Meinhard nebulizer and PFA low flow nebulizer, which have been applied in conjunction with a double pass and a cyclonic spray chamber. The analytical capabilities of these sample introduction systems in combination with the SHIP system were evaluated with respect to the achieved sensitivity. It was found that a nebulizer tailored for low argon flow rates (0.3-0.5 L min{sup -1}) is best suited for the low flow plasma (SHIP). An optimization of all gas flow rates of the SHIP system with the PFA low flow nebulizer was carried out in a two-dimensional way with the signal to background ratio (SBR) and the robustness as optimization target parameters. Optimum conditions for a torch model with 1-mm injector tube were 0.25 and 0.36 L min{sup -1} for the plasma gas and the nebulizer gas, respectively. A torch model with a 2-mm injector tube was optimized to 0.4 L min{sup -1} for the plasma gas and 0.44 L min{sup -1} for the nebulizer gas. In both cases the SHIP system saves approximately 95% of the argon consumed by conventional inductively coupled plasma systems. The limits of detection were found to be in the low microgram per litre range and below for many elements, which was quite comparable to those of the conventional setup. Furthermore, the short-term stability and the wash out behaviour of the SHIP were investigated. Direct comparison with the conventional setup indicated that no remarkable memory effects were caused by the closed design of the torch. The analysis of a NIST SRM 1643e (Trace Elements in Water) with the SHIP yielded recoveries of 97-103% for 13 elements, measured simultaneously. (orig.)

  3. Building a High Performance Computing Infrastructure for Novosibirsk Scientific Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adakin, A; Chubarov, D; Nikultsev, V; Belov, S; Kaplin, V; Sukharev, A; Zaytsev, A; Kalyuzhny, V; Kuchin, N; Lomakin, S

    2011-01-01

    Novosibirsk Scientific Center (NSC), also known worldwide as Akademgorodok, is one of the largest Russian scientific centers hosting Novosibirsk State University (NSU) and more than 35 research organizations of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences including Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Institute of Computational Technologies (ICT), and Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics (ICM and MG). Since each institute has specific requirements on the architecture of the computing farms involved in its research field, currently we've got several computing facilities hosted by NSC institutes, each optimized for the particular set of tasks, of which the largest are the NSU Supercomputer Center, Siberian Supercomputer Center (ICM and MG), and a Grid Computing Facility of BINP. Recently a dedicated optical network with the initial bandwidth of 10 Gbps connecting these three facilities was built in order to make it possible to share the computing resources among the research communities of participating institutes, thus providing a common platform for building the computing infrastructure for various scientific projects. Unification of the computing infrastructure is achieved by extensive use of virtualization technologies based on XEN and KVM platforms. The solution implemented was tested thoroughly within the computing environment of KEDR detector experiment which is being carried out at BINP, and foreseen to be applied to the use cases of other HEP experiments in the upcoming future.

  4. Building predictive in vitro pulmonary toxicity assays using high-throughput imaging and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-Ying Joey; Miller, James Alastair; Basu, Sreetama; Kee, Ting-Zhen Vanessa; Loo, Lit-Hsin

    2018-06-01

    Human lungs are susceptible to the toxicity induced by soluble xenobiotics. However, the direct cellular effects of many pulmonotoxic chemicals are not always clear, and thus, a general in vitro assay for testing pulmonotoxicity applicable to a wide variety of chemicals is not currently available. Here, we report a study that uses high-throughput imaging and artificial intelligence to build an in vitro pulmonotoxicity assay by automatically comparing and selecting human lung-cell lines and their associated quantitative phenotypic features most predictive of in vivo pulmonotoxicity. This approach is called "High-throughput In vitro Phenotypic Profiling for Toxicity Prediction" (HIPPTox). We found that the resulting assay based on two phenotypic features of a human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B, can accurately classify 33 reference chemicals with human pulmonotoxicity information (88.8% balance accuracy, 84.6% sensitivity, and 93.0% specificity). In comparison, the predictivity of a standard cell-viability assay on the same set of chemicals is much lower (77.1% balanced accuracy, 84.6% sensitivity, and 69.5% specificity). We also used the assay to evaluate 17 additional test chemicals with unknown/unclear human pulmonotoxicity, and experimentally confirmed that many of the pulmonotoxic reference and predicted-positive test chemicals induce DNA strand breaks and/or activation of the DNA-damage response (DDR) pathway. Therefore, HIPPTox helps us to uncover these common modes-of-action of pulmonotoxic chemicals. HIPPTox may also be applied to other cell types or models, and accelerate the development of predictive in vitro assays for other cell-type- or organ-specific toxicities.

  5. High concentrations of radon. Specifically affected buildings; Hohe Radonkonzentrationen. Besonders betroffene Gebaeudetypen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Winfried [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents a concept for the prognosis of exceeding probabilities of thresholds of radon in dwellings in different building types. A transfer model for the interface subsoil - building was used as a basis. The partial datasets obtained by stratification of five relevant building characteristics can be de-scribed by a 3-parametric-lognormal distribution good in most times. The available data permit statistical predictions to 60 combinations of building characteristics for the region ''east'' and 85 combinations of building characteristics for the region ''West''. The uncertainties for the probability of exceeding a threshold were estimated from the data with bootstrapping. The importance of different building characteristics for the presence of enhanced radon concentrations can be predicted from the results of this estimation. Therefore, targeting of affected buildings is possible on this basis. Regional prognoses of exceeding probabilities for building types with high presence can also be created by the use of transfer factors. A Strategy to reduce the health risk from radon in the long run might be derived, where alongside the delineation of radon prone areas, special attention should be paid to a set out building characteristics, also outside the radon prone areas.

  6. A highly sensitive electrostatic precipitator with no moving parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodosić, V.

    1968-01-01

    Cross correlation between a modulated precipitation voltage and the corresponding detector voltage variation gives a signal which is proportional to the fission gas concentration even when the precipitation electrode is not moving, which makes it possible to build a simple unit for fuel leakage...... detection....

  7. Building a Framework for Engineering Design Experiences in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Cameron D.; Lammi, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Denson and Lammi put forth a conceptual framework that will help promote the successful infusion of engineering design experiences into high school settings. When considering a conceptual framework of engineering design in high school settings, it is important to consider the complex issue at hand. For the purposes of this…

  8. Computer aided seismic and fire retrofitting analysis of existing high rise reinforced concrete buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Raja Rizwan; Hasan, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    This book details the analysis and design of high rise buildings for gravity and seismic analysis. It provides the knowledge structural engineers need to retrofit existing structures in order to meet safety requirements and better prevent potential damage from such disasters as earthquakes and fires. Coverage includes actual case studies of existing buildings, reviews of current knowledge for damages and their mitigation, protective design technologies, and analytical and computational techniques. This monograph also provides an experimental investigation on the properties of fiber reinforced concrete that consists of natural fibres like coconut coir and also steel fibres that are used for comparison in both Normal Strength Concrete (NSC) and High Strength Concrete (HSC). In addition, the authors examine the use of various repair techniques for damaged high rise buildings. The book will help upcoming structural design engineers learn the computer aided analysis and design of real existing high rise buildings ...

  9. Detecting blind building façades from highly overlapping wide angle aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burochin, Jean-Pascal; Vallet, Bruno; Brédif, Mathieu; Mallet, Clément; Brosset, Thomas; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    This paper deals with the identification of blind building façades, i.e. façades which have no openings, in wide angle aerial images with a decimeter pixel size, acquired by nadir looking cameras. This blindness characterization is in general crucial for real estate estimation and has, at least in France, a particular importance on the evaluation of legal permission of constructing on a parcel due to local urban planning schemes. We assume that we have at our disposal an aerial survey with a relatively high stereo overlap along-track and across-track and a 3D city model of LoD 1, that can have been generated with the input images. The 3D model is textured with the aerial imagery by taking into account the 3D occlusions and by selecting for each façade the best available resolution texture seeing the whole façade. We then parse all 3D façades textures by looking for evidence of openings (windows or doors). This evidence is characterized by a comprehensive set of basic radiometric and geometrical features. The blindness prognostic is then elaborated through an (SVM) supervised classification. Despite the relatively low resolution of the images, we reach a classification accuracy of around 85% on decimeter resolution imagery with 60 × 40 % stereo overlap. On the one hand, we show that the results are very sensitive to the texturing resampling process and to vegetation presence on façade textures. On the other hand, the most relevant features for our classification framework are related to texture uniformity and horizontal aspect and to the maximal contrast of the opening detections. We conclude that standard aerial imagery used to build 3D city models can also be exploited to some extent and at no additional cost for facade blindness characterisation.

  10. The Impact of High-Rise Buildings on the Living Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyasov, Botir; Giyasova, Irina

    2018-03-01

    Urbanization as a socio-economic process manifested in the concentration of the population in modern big cities contributes to the development of high-rise building construction. With the development of education and culture, changing leisure habits, city residents put forward new architectural and functional requirements to the living environment and urban infrastructure. This calls for the creation of new types and forms of residential buildings, the structure of the city and transport networks. In addition, the need to develop high-rise building construction is justified by the growing demand for residential, public and administrative buildings and the lack of free space.The paper analyzes the development of high-rise building construction in urban areas. The problem of the impact of high-rise building construction in big cities on the living environment is considered. Using analytical methods, causes and sources of pollution, such as transport and engineering infrastructure have been identified. In some urban areas, there are zones with modified thermal conditions and air exchange resulting in the formation of the "urban heat island"The qualitative and quantitative characteristics of variations in temperature and wind speed with respect to the height of the building have been calculated, using the example of the Evolution Tower of the Moscow International Business Center ("Moscow City"). Calculation and comparative analysis for the cities of Moscow, Khanty-Mansiysk and Vladivostok has made it possible to assess the variation in temperature and wind speed and their impact on the living environment under different climatic conditions.

  11. THE CHANGE IN DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCRETE MONOLITHIC HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Punahin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article results of studies of deformation features of concrete on actuate cement for monolithic high-altitude buildings are presented. It is shown that in construction of the high-altitude monolithic buildings in a summer period of a year one should take into account the character of changing the concrete elasticity and plasticity in time, which differs from the same indices for the concrete of normal hardening.

  12. Architecture of high-rise buildings as a brand of the modern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrassilova, Gulnara; Kozbagarova, Nina; Tuyakayeva, Ainagul

    2018-03-01

    Using practical examples article reviews urban-planning and space-planning features of design and construction of high-rise buildings in Kazakhstan conditions; methods are identified that provide for structural stability against wind and seismic loads based on innovative technical and technological solutions. Article authors stress out the fashion function of high-rise buildings in the new capital of Kazakhstan, the Astana city.

  13. High-sensitivity Cardiac Troponin Elevation after Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Andreas; Pal, Swatilika; Johnston, Joshua; Helwani, Mohammad A.; Bhat, Adithya; Gill, Bali; Rosenkvist, Jessica; Cartmill, Christopher; Brown, Frank; Miller, J. Philip; Scott, Mitchell G; Sanchez-Conde, Francisco; Jarvis, Michael; Farber, Nuri B.; Zorumski, Charles F.; Conway, Charles; Nagele, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is widely regarded as a life-saving and safe procedure, evidence regarding its effects on myocardial cell injury are sparse. The objective of this investigation was to determine incidence and magnitude of new cardiac troponin elevation after ECT using a novel high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hscTnI) assay. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in adult patients undergoing ECT in a single academic center (up to three ECT treatments per patient). The primary outcome was new hscTnI elevation after ECT, defined as an increase of hscTnI >100% after ECT compared to baseline with at least one value above the limit of quantification (10 ng/L). 12-lead ECG and hscTnI values were obtained prior to and 15–30 minutes after ECT; in a subset of patients an additional 2-hour hscTnI value was obtained. Results The final study population was 100 patients and a total of 245 ECT treatment sessions. Eight patients (8/100, 8%) experienced new hscTnI elevation after ECT with a cumulative incidence of 3.7% (9/245 treatments; one patient had two hscTnI elevations), two of whom had a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (incidence 2/245, 0.8%). Median hscTnI concentrations did not increase significantly after ECT. Tachycardia and/or elevated systolic blood pressure developed after approximately two thirds of ECT treatments. Conclusions ECT appears safe from a cardiac standpoint in a large majority of patients. A small subset of patients with pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors, however, may develop new cardiac troponin elevation after ECT, the clinical relevance of which is unclear in the absence of signs of myocardial ischemia. PMID:28166110

  14. Proactive control for solar energy exploitation: A german high-inertia building case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailidis, Iakovos T.; Baldi, Simone; Pichler, Martin F.; Kosmatopoulos, Elias B.; Santiago, Juan R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar gains exploitation by utilizing large glass facades and concrete core thermal energy storing capacity. • Efficient Building Energy Management in a well-insulated modern building construction. • Energy consumption reduction by maintaining user comfort. • High inertia large scale office building test case, located in Germany. - Abstract: Energy efficient passive designs and constructions have been extensively studied in the last decades as a way to improve the ability of a building to store thermal energy, increase its thermal mass, increase passive insulation and reduce heat losses. However, many studies show that passive thermal designs alone are not enough to fully exploit the potential for energy efficiency in buildings: in fact, harmonizing the active elements for indoor thermal comfort with the passive design of the building can lead to further improvements in both energy efficiency and comfort. These improvements can be achieved via the design of appropriate Building Optimization and Control (BOC) systems, a task which is more complex in high-inertia buildings than in conventional ones. This is because high thermal mass implies a high memory, so that wrong control decisions will have negative repercussions over long time horizons. The design of proactive control strategies with the capability of acting in advance of a future situation, rather than just reacting to current conditions, is of crucial importance for a full exploitation of the capabilities of a high-inertia building. This paper applies a simulation-assisted control methodology to a high-inertia building in Kassel, Germany. A simulation model of the building is used to proactively optimize, using both current and future information about the external weather condition and the building state, a combined criterion composed of the energy consumption and the thermal comfort index. Both extensive simulation as well as real-life experiments performed during the unstable German

  15. High-intensity xenon plasma discharge lamp for bulk-sensitive high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souma, S; Sato, T; Takahashi, T; Baltzer, P

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a highly brilliant xenon (Xe) discharge lamp operated by microwave-induced electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) for ultrahigh-resolution bulk-sensitive photoemission spectroscopy (PES). We observed at least eight strong radiation lines from neutral or singly ionized Xe atoms in the energy region of 8.4-10.7 eV. The photon flux of the strongest Xe I resonance line at 8.437 eV is comparable to that of the He Ialpha line (21.218 eV) from the He-ECR discharge lamp. Stable operation for more than 300 h is achieved by efficient air-cooling of a ceramic tube in the resonance cavity. The high bulk sensitivity and high-energy resolution of PES using the Xe lines are demonstrated for some typical materials.

  16. Development of high sensitivity and high speed large size blank inspection system LBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shinobu; Yoshida, Akinori; Hirai, Mitsuo; Kato, Takenori; Moriizumi, Koichi; Kusunose, Haruhiko

    2017-07-01

    The production of high-resolution flat panel displays (FPDs) for mobile phones today requires the use of high-quality large-size photomasks (LSPMs). Organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays use several transistors on each pixel for precise current control and, as such, the mask patterns for OLED displays are denser and finer than the patterns for the previous generation displays throughout the entire mask surface. It is therefore strongly demanded that mask patterns be produced with high fidelity and free of defect. To enable the production of a high quality LSPM in a short lead time, the manufacturers need a high-sensitivity high-speed mask blank inspection system that meets the requirement of advanced LSPMs. Lasertec has developed a large-size blank inspection system called LBIS, which achieves high sensitivity based on a laser-scattering technique. LBIS employs a high power laser as its inspection light source. LBIS's delivery optics, including a scanner and F-Theta scan lens, focus the light from the source linearly on the surface of the blank. Its specially-designed optics collect the light scattered by particles and defects generated during the manufacturing process, such as scratches, on the surface and guide it to photo multiplier tubes (PMTs) with high efficiency. Multiple PMTs are used on LBIS for the stable detection of scattered light, which may be distributed at various angles due to irregular shapes of defects. LBIS captures 0.3mμ PSL at a detection rate of over 99.5% with uniform sensitivity. Its inspection time is 20 minutes for a G8 blank and 35 minutes for G10. The differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope on the inspection head of LBIS captures high-contrast review images after inspection. The images are classified automatically.

  17. STUDY ON BUILDING EXTRACTION FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGES USING MBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ding

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Building extraction from high resolution remote sensing images is a hot research topic in the field of photogrammetry and remote sensing. However, the diversity and complexity of buildings make building extraction methods still face challenges in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and so on. In this study, a new building extraction framework based on MBI and combined with image segmentation techniques, spectral constraint, shadow constraint, and shape constraint is proposed. In order to verify the proposed method, worldview-2, GF-2, GF-1 remote sensing images covered Xiamen Software Park were used for building extraction experiments. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method improve the original MBI significantly, and the correct rate is over 86 %. Furthermore, the proposed framework reduces the false alarms by 42 % on average compared to the performance of the original MBI.

  18. Sources of indoor air contamination on the ground floor of a high-rise commercial building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayebzadeh, A.; Cragg-Elkouh, S.; Rancy, R.; Dufresne, A.

    1999-01-01

    Indoor air quality is a subject of growing concern in the developed world. Many sources of indoor air contamination in commercial and office buildings are recognised and have been investigated. In addition to the usual internal sources of air contaminants, other external sources from attached facilities can find their way into the building. This report presents the results of an indoor air quality survey in a high-rise office building which demonstrated an obvious seasonal change in regard to the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ). Furthermore, a complementary survey in the same building was carried out to identify the relevant sources of air contamination in the building and the results indicated that an attached train station and the nearby street traffic had a significant impact on indoor air quality. (author)

  19. Ultra high benefits system for electric energy saving and management of lighting energy in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Presenting a novel multi channel smart system to manage lighting energy in buildings. • Saving considerable electric energy which is converted to lighting in buildings. • Providing desired constant and adjustable luminance for each location in buildings. • Capability of working with all AC electric power sources. • To automatically control and manage lighting energy in buildings. - Abstract: This paper presents a smart system, including a multi channel dimmer and a central process unit (CPU) together with an exact multi channel feedback mechanism, which automatically regulates and manages lighting in buildings. Based on a multi channel luminance feedback, a high benefits technique is utilized to convert the electric energy to lighting energy. Saving a lot of the electric energy which should be converted to lighting energy in buildings, managing the lighting energy in buildings, providing desired constant and adjustable luminance for each room (location), and the capability of working with all AC electric power sources regardless of frequency and voltage amplitude are some advantages of using the proposed system and technique, thus it will be widely used in buildings. An experimental prototype of the proposed smart system has been constructed to validate the theoretical results and to carry out the experimental tests. Experimental results earned by utilizing the proposed smart system in a sample building are presented to prove the benefits of using the system. The experimental results explicitly show a considerable electric energy saving (about 27%) in the sample building while the proposed system has provided desired constant and adjustable luminance for each location of the building

  20. Model dependence of isospin sensitive observables at high densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wen-Mei [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Science, Huzhou Teachers College, Huzhou 313000 (China); Yong, Gao-Chan, E-mail: yonggaochan@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Yongjia [School of Science, Huzhou Teachers College, Huzhou 313000 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Qingfeng [School of Science, Huzhou Teachers College, Huzhou 313000 (China); Zhang, Hongfei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zuo, Wei [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2013-10-07

    Within two different frameworks of isospin-dependent transport model, i.e., Boltzmann–Uehling–Uhlenbeck (IBUU04) and Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) transport models, sensitive probes of nuclear symmetry energy are simulated and compared. It is shown that neutron to proton ratio of free nucleons, π{sup −}/π{sup +} ratio as well as isospin-sensitive transverse and elliptic flows given by the two transport models with their “best settings”, all have obvious differences. Discrepancy of numerical value of isospin-sensitive n/p ratio of free nucleon from the two models mainly originates from different symmetry potentials used and discrepancies of numerical value of charged π{sup −}/π{sup +} ratio and isospin-sensitive flows mainly originate from different isospin-dependent nucleon–nucleon cross sections. These demonstrations call for more detailed studies on the model inputs (i.e., the density- and momentum-dependent symmetry potential and the isospin-dependent nucleon–nucleon cross section in medium) of isospin-dependent transport model used. The studies of model dependence of isospin sensitive observables can help nuclear physicists to pin down the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy through comparison between experiments and theoretical simulations scientifically.

  1. Constructive systems, load-bearing and enclosing structures of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatol'evna Korol', Elena; Olegovna Kustikova, Yuliya

    2018-03-01

    As the height of the building increases, loads on load-carrying structures increase dramatically, and as a result of the development of high-rise construction, several structural systems of such buildings have been developed: frame, frame-frame, cross-wall, barrel, box-type, box-to-wall ("pipe in pipe", "Trumpet in the farm"), etc. In turn, the barrel systems have their own versions: cantilever support of the ceilings on the trunk, suspension of the outer part of the overlap to the upper carrying console "hanging house" or its support by means of the walls on the lower bearing cantilever, intermediate position of the supporting cantilevers in height to the floor, from a part of floors. The object of the study are the structural solutions of high-rise buildings. The subject of the study is the layout of structural schemes of high-rise buildings, taking into account the main parameters - altitude (height), natural climatic conditions of construction, materials of structural elements and their physical and mechanical characteristics. The purpose of the study is to identify the features and systematization of structural systems of high-rise buildings and the corresponding structural elements. The results of the research make it possible, at the stage of making design decisions, to establish rational parameters for the correspondence between the structural systems of high-rise buildings and their individual elements.

  2. High contrast sensitivity for visually guided flight control in bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Aravin; Kelber, Almut; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2017-12-01

    Many insects rely on vision to find food, to return to their nest and to carefully control their flight between these two locations. The amount of information available to support these tasks is, in part, dictated by the spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity of their visual systems. Here, we investigate the absolute limits of these visual properties for visually guided position and speed control in Bombus terrestris. Our results indicate that the limit of spatial vision in the translational motion detection system of B. terrestris lies at 0.21 cycles deg -1 with a peak contrast sensitivity of at least 33. In the perspective of earlier findings, these results indicate that bumblebees have higher contrast sensitivity in the motion detection system underlying position control than in their object discrimination system. This suggests that bumblebees, and most likely also other insects, have different visual thresholds depending on the behavioral context.

  3. Building high-coverage monolayers of covalently bound magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mackenzie G.; Teplyakov, Andrew V., E-mail: andrewt@udel.edu

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A method for forming a layer of covalently bound nanoparticles is offered. • A nearly perfect monolayer of covalently bound magnetic nanoparticles was formed on gold. • Spectroscopic techniques confirmed covalent binding by the “click” reaction. • The influence of the functionalization scheme on surface coverage was investigated. - Abstract: This work presents an approach for producing a high-coverage single monolayer of magnetic nanoparticles using “click chemistry” between complementarily functionalized nanoparticles and a flat substrate. This method highlights essential aspects of the functionalization scheme for substrate surface and nanoparticles to produce exceptionally high surface coverage without sacrificing selectivity or control over the layer produced. The deposition of one single layer of magnetic particles without agglomeration, over a large area, with a nearly 100% coverage is confirmed by electron microscopy. Spectroscopic techniques, supplemented by computational predictions, are used to interrogate the chemistry of the attachment and to confirm covalent binding, rather than attachment through self-assembly or weak van der Waals bonding. Density functional theory calculations for the surface intermediate of this copper-catalyzed process provide mechanistic insight into the effects of the functionalization scheme on surface coverage. Based on this analysis, it appears that steric limitations of the intermediate structure affect nanoparticle coverage on a flat solid substrate; however, this can be overcome by designing a functionalization scheme in such a way that the copper-based intermediate is formed on the spherical nanoparticles instead. This observation can be carried over to other approaches for creating highly controlled single- or multilayered nanostructures of a wide range of materials to result in high coverage and possibly, conformal filling.

  4. Do High School Sports Build or Reveal Character?

    OpenAIRE

    Ransom, Michael R.; Ransom, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    We examine the extent to which participation in high school athletics has beneficial effects on future education, labor market, and health outcomes. Due to the absence of plausible instruments in observational data, we use recently developed methods that relate selection on observables with selection on unobservables to estimate bounds on the causal effect of athletics participation. We analyze these effects in the US separately for men and women using three different nationally representativ...

  5. Combined effect of noise and vibration produced by high-speed trains on annoyance in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyoung Jik; Griffin, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    The effects of noise and vibration on annoyance in buildings during the passage of a nearby high-speed train have been investigated in a laboratory experiment with recorded train noise and 20 Hz vibration. The noises included the effects of two types of façade: windows-open and windows-closed. Subjects were exposed to six levels of noise and six magnitudes of vibration, and asked to rate annoyance using an 11-point numerical scale. The experiment consisted of four sessions: (1) evaluation of noise annoyance in the absence of vibration, (2) evaluation of total annoyance from simultaneous noise and vibration, (3) evaluation of noise annoyance in the presence of vibration, and (4) evaluation of vibration annoyance in the absence of noise. The results show that vibration did not influence ratings of noise annoyance, but that total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration was considerably greater than the annoyance caused by noise alone. The noise annoyance and the total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration were associated with subject self-ratings of noise sensitivity. Two classical models of total annoyance due to combined noise sources (maximum of the single source annoyance or the integration of individual annoyance ratings) provided useful predictions of the total annoyance caused by simultaneous noise and vibration.

  6. Metal ion-organic compound for high sensitive ESR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, G.M.; Ikeya, Motoji

    2000-01-01

    A systematic study to find a tissue equivalent and high sensitive dosimeter material has been made to stimulate the field of ESR dosimetry. Lithium acetate dihydrate (Li-Ac·2H 2 O:CH 3 COOLi·2H 2 O) and lithium phosphate (Li-phosphate:Li 3 PO 4 ) were irradiated by γ-rays to study radicals with (ESR) in addition to magnesium lactate (Mg-lactate (CH 3 CH(OH)COO) 2 Mg) doped with nominal pure lithium lactate (Mg(Li)-lactate) and lithium lactate (CH 3 CH(OH)COOLi) doped with Mg-lactate (Li(Mg)-lactate). A triplet spectrum with intensity ratio of 1:2:1 in Li-Ac·2H 2 O was ascribed to acetate radical which has g=2.0031±0.0004 and hyperfine splitting of A/gβ=2.12±0.1 mT. The Li-phosphate spectrum shows splitting due to anisotropic g-factors of g par =2.0190±0.0005 and g perp =1.9974±0.0004. Quartet spectra with the intensity ratio of 1:3:3:1 in Mg(Li)-lactate and Li(Mg)-lactate were ascribed to lactate radicals with g-factors of 2.0032 ± 0.0004 and 2.0029 ± 0.0004 and the intensity ratio of 1:3:3:1 and A/gβ=1.92±0.06 and 1.82 ± 0.06 mT, respectively. The response to γ-ray dose and the thermal stability as well as the effect of UV-illumination have been studied. The obtained number of free radicals per 100 eV (G-values) were 0.4 ± 0.13, 1.02 ± 0.31, 1.35 ± 0.35 and 0.78 ± 0 for Li-Ac.2H 2 O, Li-phosphate, Mg(Li)-lactate, and Li(Mg)-lactate, respectively. The lifetimes were estimated from Arrhenius plots to be approximately 2.0 ± 0.6, 50.7 ± 20 and 10 ± 3.5 years for Li-phosphate, Mg(Li)-lactate and Li(Mg)-lactate, respectively. The lifetime for Li-Ac·2H 2 O cannot be estimated because of the decomposition by heating

  7. Lateral Load-Resisting System Using Mass Timber Panel for High-Rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As global interest in using engineered wood products in tall buildings intensifies due to the “green” credential of wood, it is expected that more tall wood buildings will be designed and constructed in the coming years. This, however, brings new challenges to the designers. One of the major challenges is how to design lateral load-resisting systems (LLRSs with sufficient stiffness, strength, and ductility to resist strong wind and earthquakes. In this study, an LLRS using mass timber panel on a stiff podium was developed for high-rise buildings in accordance with capacity-based design principle. The LLRS comprises eight shear walls with a core in the center of the building, which was constructed with structural composite lumber and connected with dowel-type connections and wood–steel composite system. The main energy dissipating mechanism of the LLRS was detailed to be located at the panel-to-panel interface. This LLRS was implemented in the design of a hypothetical 20-storey building. A finite element (FE model of the building was developed using general-purpose FE software, ABAQUS. The wind-induced and seismic response of the building model was investigated by performing linear static and non-linear dynamic analyses. The analysis results showed that the proposed LLRS using mass timber was suitable for high-rise buildings. This study provided a valuable insight into the structural performance of LLRS constructed with mass timber panels as a viable option to steel and concrete for high-rise buildings.

  8. Development of High Temperature/High Sensitivity Novel Chemical Resistive Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chunrui [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Enriquez, Erik [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Wang, Haibing [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Xu, Xing [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Bao, Shangyong [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Collins, Gregory [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2013-08-13

    The research has been focused to design, fabricate, and develop high temperature/high sensitivity novel multifunctional chemical sensors for the selective detection of fossil energy gases used in power and fuel systems. By systematically studying the physical properties of the LnBaCo2O5+d (LBCO) [Ln=Pr or La] thin-films, a new concept chemical sensor based high temperature chemical resistant change has been developed for the application for the next generation highly efficient and near zero emission power generation technologies. We also discovered that the superfast chemical dynamic behavior and an ultrafast surface exchange kinetics in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films. Furthermore, our research indicates that hydrogen can superfast diffuse in the ordered oxygen vacancy structures in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films, which suggest that the LBCO thin film not only can be an excellent candidate for the fabrication of high temperature ultra sensitive chemical sensors and control systems for power and fuel monitoring systems, but also can be an excellent candidate for the low temperature solid oxide fuel cell anode and cathode materials.

  9. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolobova Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  10. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobova, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  11. Soil Structure Interaction Effect on High Rise and Low Rise Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Pathak; PAresh H. SHAH

    2000-01-01

    Effect of supporting soil on the response of structure has been analyzed in the present study. A low rise (G+ 5 storey) and a high rise (G+12 storey) building has been taken for the analysis. For both type of buildings, the response of building with and without consideration of soil structure interaction effect has been compared.Without interaction case is the case in which ends of the structure are assumed to be fixed while in interaction case, structure is assumed to be...

  12. Influence of placement and height of high-rise buildings on wind pressure distribution and natural ventilation of low- and medium-rise buildings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Butova, A.; Pospíšil, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, 3/4 (2016), s. 253-266 ISSN 1473-3315 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : natural ventilation * high-rise building s * low- and medium-rise building s * wind pressure coefficient * wind tunnel tests Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.391, year: 2016 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14733315.2016.1214396

  13. High-speed high-sensitivity infrared spectroscopy using mid-infrared swept lasers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, David T. D.; Groom, Kristian M.; Hogg, Richard A.; Revin, Dmitry G.; Cockburn, John W.; Rehman, Ihtesham U.; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a highly attractive read-out technology for compositional analysis of biomedical specimens because of its unique combination of high molecular sensitivity without the need for exogenous labels. Traditional techniques such as FTIR and Raman have suffered from comparatively low speed and sensitivity however recent innovations are challenging this situation. Direct mid-IR spectroscopy is being speeded up by innovations such as MEMS-based FTIR instruments with very high mirror speeds and supercontinuum sources producing very high sample irradiation levels. Here we explore another possible method - external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL's) with high cavity tuning speeds (mid-IR swept lasers). Swept lasers have been heavily developed in the near-infrared where they are used for non-destructive low-coherence imaging (OCT). We adapt these concepts in two ways. Firstly by combining mid-IR quantum cascade gain chips with external cavity designs adapted from OCT we achieve spectral acquisition rates approaching 1 kHz and demonstrate potential to reach 100 kHz. Secondly we show that mid-IR swept lasers share a fundamental sensitivity advantage with near-IR OCT swept lasers. This makes them potentially able to achieve the same spectral SNR as an FTIR instrument in a time x N shorter (N being the number of spectral points) under otherwise matched conditions. This effect is demonstrated using measurements of a PDMS sample. The combination of potentially very high spectral acquisition rates, fundamental SNR advantage and the use of low-cost detector systems could make mid-IR swept lasers a powerful technology for high-throughput biomedical spectroscopy.

  14. The Pajarito Monitor: a high-sensitivity monitoring system for highly enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.; Coop, K.; Garcia, C.; Martinez, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Pajarito Monitor for Special Nuclear Material is a high-sensitivity gamma-ray monitoring system for detecting small quantities of highly enriched uranium transported by pedestrians or motor vehicles. The monitor consists of two components: a walk-through personnel monitor and a vehicle monitor. The personnel monitor has a plastic-scintillator detector portal, a microwave occupancy monitor, and a microprocessor control unit that measures the radiation intensity during background and monitoring periods to detect transient diversion signals. The vehicle monitor examines stationary motor vehicles while the vehicle's occupants pass through the personnel portal to exchange their badges. The vehicle monitor has four groups of large plastic scintillators that scan the vehicle from above and below. Its microprocessor control unit measures separate radiation intensities in each detector group. Vehicle occupancy is sensed by a highway traffic detection system. Each monitor's controller is responsible for detecting diversion as well as serving as a calibration and trouble-shooting aid. Diversion signals are detected by a sequential probability ratio hypothesis test that minimizes the monitoring time in the vehicle monitor and adapts itself well to variations in individual passage speed in the personnel monitor. Designed to be highly sensitive to diverted enriched uranium, the monitoring system also exhibits exceptional sensitivity for plutonium

  15. Building high resolution genetic variation map for Mongolians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaosen

    the paternal or maternal transmission, or carrying out the genetic disease studies based on the data of a small number of variants or partial genomic regions. In the study plan, first, we collected the genomic DNA of a representative Mongolian male individual, performed high coverage whole genome sequencing...... the pigmentation gene OCA2 play an important role in the convergent skin lightening of East Asians during recent human evolution. However, the genomics research on Mongolians, which attract strong research interests, still remains the levels of using the data of Y chromosome or Mitochondrial genome to explore...... the individual possesses a risk allele that may cause carnitine deficiency. Y haplogroup analysis located the paternal inheritance to the clade D3a, which is the one of oldest lineage in East Asians and present the most common in Tibeto- Burman populations. Through final population genetics analyses, we roughly...

  16. Economics of high-rise construction: the feasibility of skyscrapers building in the Russian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Artur; Petrova, Daria

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the economic aspects of constructing high-rise buildings in the world and in Russia. Data on the number of high-rise buildings in Russian cities with a million population are presented. It is proved that interest in high-rise construction in Russia has been formed only in Moscow and partly in St. Petersburg and Yekaterinburg. The analysis showed that the reason for this is the expensiveness of high-rise construction. According to the enlarged macro-calculation, the cost of building 1 m2 of the area of the Federation Towers complex (Moscow City) is about 2710 /m2. Practically a possibility of return on investments in the foreseeable time interval exists only in Moscow. For the regions of Russia this task is rather complicated. Population density in regional Russian cities is quite low, business entities do not have the necessary financial resources for investing in high-rise construction, and investments from abroad absent.

  17. High sensitivity and label-free detection of Enterovirus 71 by nanogold modified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the most fulminant and invasive species of enterovirus, can cause children neurologic complications and death within 2-3 days after fever and rash developed. Besides, EV71 has high sequence similarity with Coxsackie A 16 (CA16) that makes differential diagnosis difficult in clinic and laboratory. Since conventional viral diagnostic method cannot diagnose EV71 quickly and EV71 can transmit at low viral titer, the patients might delay in treatment. A quick, high sensitive, and high specific test for EV71 detection is pivotal. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been applied for detecting bio-molecules as biosensors recently. In this study, we try to build a detection platform for EV71 detection by nanogold modified EIS probe. The result shows that our probe can detect 3.6 VP1/50 μl (one EV71 particle has 60 VP1) in 3 minutes. The test can also distinguish EV71 from CA16 and lysozyme. Diagnosis of enterovirus 71 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has the potential to apply in clinic.

  18. High-rise build renovation - Colouring a high-rise building's facade; Renovation des Hochhauses Schoppi Spreitenbach. Farbigkeit einer Hochhausfassade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enkerli, W.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated article takes a look at the renovation of the 70-metres high, high-rise apartment building that forms an integral part of a large shopping centre in Spreitenbach, Switzerland. The buildings and their infrastructure, realised in 1970, were in need of renovation. The facade elements no longer met energy requirements and the shopping mall was to be extended to meet modern shopping needs. The article deals with the technical and aesthetic requirements placed on the facades. The colour concept for the venetian blinds integrated into the windows, which includes the use of 20 different shades of colour, is described. A total of 3,200 blinds are fitted. The removal of the old window elements and the fitting of the new facade elements is described and discussed.

  19. Desensitization protocol in highly HLA-sensitized and ABO-incompatible high titer kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, J; Machida, Y; Iwai, T; Naganuma, T; Kitamoto, K; Iguchi, T; Maeda, S; Kamada, Y; Kuwabara, N; Kim, T; Nakatani, T

    2010-12-01

    A positive crossmatch indicates the presence of donor-specific alloantibodies and is associated with a graft loss rate of >80%; anti-ABO blood group antibodies develop in response to exposure to foreign blood groups, resulting in immediate graft loss. However, a desensitization protocol for highly HLA-sensitized and ABO-incompatible high-titer kidney transplantation has not yet been established. We treated 6 patients with high (≥1:512) anti-A/B antibody titers and 2 highly HLA-sensitized patients. Our immunosuppression protocol was initiated 1 month before surgery and included mycophenolate mofetil (1 g/d) and/or low-dose steroid (methylprednisolone 8 mg/d). Two doses of the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab (150 mg/m(2)) were administered 2 weeks before and on the day of transplantation. We performed antibody removal with 6-12 sessions of plasmapheresis (plasma exchange or double-filtration plasmapheresis) before transplantation. Splenectomy was also performed on the day of transplantation. Postoperative immunosuppression followed the same regimen as ABO-compatible cases, in which calcineurin inhibitors were initiated 3 days before transplantation, combined with 2 doses of basiliximab. Of the 8 patients, 7 subsequently underwent successful living-donor kidney transplantation. Follow-up of our recipients showed that the patient and graft survival rates were 100%. Acute cellular rejection and antibody-mediated rejection episodes occurred in 1 of the 7 recipients. These findings suggest that our immunosuppression regimen consisting of rituximab infusions, splenectomy, plasmapheresis, and pharmacologic immunosuppression may prove to be effective as a desensitization protocol for highly HLA-sensitized and ABO-incompatible high-titer kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy harvesting from high-rise buildings by a piezoelectric harvester device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, X.D.; Wang, Q.; Wang, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel piezoelectric technology of harvesting energy from high-rise buildings is developed. While being used to harness vibration energy of a building, the technology is also helpful to dissipate vibration of the building by the designed piezoelectric harvester as a tuned mass damper. The piezoelectric harvester device is made of two groups of series piezoelectric generators connected by a shared shaft. The shaft is driven by a linking rod hinged on a proof mass on the tip of a cantilever fixed on the roof of the building. The influences of some practical considerations, such as the mass ratio of the proof mass to the main structure, the ratios of the length and flexural rigidity of the cantilever to those of the main structure, on the root mean square (RMS) of the generated electric power and the energy harvesting efficiency of the piezoelectric harvester device are discussed. The research provides a new method for an efficient and practical energy harvesting from high-rise buildings by piezoelectric harvesters. - Highlights: • A new piezoelectric technology in energy harvesting from high-rise buildings is introduced. • A new mathematics model to calculate the energy harvested by the piezoelectric device is developed. • A novel efficient design of the piezoelectric harvester device in provided. • An electric power up to 432 MW under a seismic excitation at a frequency of 30 rad/s is achieved.

  1. Energy efficiency of elevated water supply tanks for high-rise buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, C.T.; Mui, K.W.; Wong, L.T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate energy efficiency for water supply tank location in buildings. ► Water supply tank arrangement in a building affects pumping energy use. ► We propose a mathematical model for optimal design solutions. ► We test the model with measurements in 22 Hong Kong buildings. ► A potential annual energy saving for Hong Kong is up to 410 TJ. -- Abstract: High-rise housing, a trend in densely populated cities around the world, increases the energy use for water supply and corresponding greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents an energy efficiency evaluation measure for water supply system designs and a mathematical model for optimizing pumping energy through the arrangement of water tanks in a building. To demonstrate that the model is useful for establishing optimal design solutions that integrate energy consumption into urban water planning processes which cater to various building demands and usage patterns, measurement data of 22 high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong are employed. The results show the energy efficiency of many existing high-rise water supply systems is about 0.25 and can be improved to 0.26–0.37 via water storage tank relocations. The corresponding annual electricity that can be saved is 160–410 TJ, a 0.1–0.3% of the total annual electricity consumption in Hong Kong.

  2. Highly sensitive straightness measurement system using a ball-lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minho; Yang, Hyun-Ik; Cho, Nahm-Gyoo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new and simple optical technique to accurately measure the straightness errors of a linear stage is proposed. To improve the performance, including the measurement sensitivity and resolution of the measurement system, and to simultaneously measure two-dimensional straightness errors (2D straightness errors), an optical system was designed using a laser, a retro-reflector, a ball-lens, and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector (2D PSD). The characteristics of the measurement system were analytically and experimentally investigated. A prototype measurement system was manufactured based on the investigated results, and the performances of this system have been tested. The measuring performance of the system was easily improved by about 12 times using the proposed technique and it can be further improved. It is shown that the proposed technique can easily and effectively improve the performance of a conventional straightness measurement system based on the geometric optical method using a PSD. (paper)

  3. Highly Sensitive Cadmium Concentration Sensor Using Long Period Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lalasangi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a simple and effective Long Period Grating chemical sensor for detecting the traces of Cadmium (Cd++ in drinking water at ppm level. Long Period gratings (LPG were fabricated by point-by-point technique with CO2 laser. We have characterized the LPG concentration sensor sensitivity for different solutions of Cd concentrations varying from 0.01 ppm to 0.04 ppm by injecting white Light source and observed transmitted spectra using Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA. Proper reagents have been used in the solutions for detection of the Cd species. The overall shift in wavelength is 10 nm when surrounding medium gradually changed from water to 0.04 ppm of cadmium concentrations. A comparative study has been done using sophisticated spectroscopic atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP instruments. The spectral sensitivity enhancement was done by modifying grating surface with gold nanoparticles.

  4. Highly sensitive BTX detection using surface functionalized QCM sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozkurt, Asuman Aşıkoğlu; Özdemir, Okan; Altındal, Ahmet, E-mail: altindal@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa, 34210 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    A novel organic compound was designed and successfully synthesized for the fabrication of QCM based sensors to detect the low concentrations of BTX gases in indoor air. The effect of the long-range electron orbital delocalization on the BTX vapour sensing properties of azo-bridged Pcs based chemiresistor-type sensors have also been investigated in this work. The sensing behaviour of the film for the online detection of volatile organic solvent vapors was investigated by utilizing an AT-cut quartz crystal resonator. It was observed that the adsorption of the target molecules on the coating surface cause a reversible negative frequency shift of the resonator. Thus, a variety of solvent vapors can be detected by using the phthalocyanine film as sensitive coating, with sensitivity in the ppm range and response times in the order of several seconds depending on the molecular structure of the organic solvent.

  5. Antibody Desensitization Therapy in Highly Sensitized Lung Transplant Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, L. D.; Gray, A. L.; Reynolds, J. M.; Arepally, G. M.; Bedoya, A.; Hartwig, M. G.; Davis, R. D.; Lopes, K. E.; Wegner, W. E.; Chen, D. F.; Palmer, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    As HLAs antibody detection technology has evolved, there is now detailed HLA antibody information available on prospective transplant recipients. Determining single antigen antibody specificity allows for a calculated panel reactive antibodies (cPRA) value, providing an estimate of the effective donor pool. For broadly sensitized lung transplant candidates (cPRA ≥ 80%), our center adopted a pretransplant multimodal desensitization protocol in an effort to decrease the cPRA and expand the donor pool. This desensitization protocol included plasmapheresis, solumedrol, bortezomib and rituximab given in combination over 19 days followed by intravenous immunoglobulin. Eight of 18 candidates completed therapy with the primary reasons for early discontinuation being transplant (by avoiding unacceptable antigens) or thrombocytopenia. In a mixed-model analysis, there were no significant changes in PRA or cPRA changes over time with the protocol. A sub-analysis of the median fluorescence intensity (MFI) change indicated a small decline that was significant in antibodies with MFI 5000–10 000. Nine of 18 candidates subsequently had a transplant. Posttransplant survival in these nine recipients was comparable to other pretransplant-sensitized recipients who did not receive therapy. In summary, an aggressive multi-modal desensitization protocol does not significantly reduce pretransplant HLA antibodies in a broadly sensitized lung transplant candidate cohort. PMID:24666831

  6. A High-Sensitivity Current Sensor Utilizing CrNi Wire and Microfiber Coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Xie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We obtain an extremely high current sensitivity by wrapping a section of microfiber on a thin-diameter chromium-nickel wire. Our detected current sensitivity is as high as 220.65 nm/A2 for a structure length of only 35 μm. Such sensitivity is two orders of magnitude higher than the counterparts reported in the literature. Analysis shows that a higher resistivity or/and a thinner diameter of the metal wire may produce higher sensitivity. The effects of varying the structure parameters on sensitivity are discussed. The presented structure has potential for low-current sensing or highly electrically-tunable filtering applications.

  7. Highly insulating glazing in new multi-storey buildings; Hoejisolerende glaspartier i nye etageboliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelund Thomsen, K.; Schmidt, H.; Aggerholm, S.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to illustrate how highly insulating types of glazing can be used in multi-storey buildings for housing in new ways. These are energy efficient and provide good indoor climate and also satisfy requirements to high architectural quality. The project has resulted in a number of design proposal demonstrating how new types of glazing can be fitted into multi-storey buildings and how new facade expressions, space and lighting effects can be obtained by using highly insulating glass areas. The project is collaboration between the architects Boje Lundgaard and Lene Tranberg's Tegnestue, KAB Bygge og Boligadministration and Danish Building and Urban Research. Calculations of heat demand suggest that it is possible to meet the targets outlined in the Danish Government's action plan for energy. Energy 21 by using new types of highly insulating glazing in new buildings. Another 33% reduction of the heating demand is targeted in relation to existing requirements in the Danish Building Regulations 1995 (BR 95) and the Danish Building Regulations for Small Dwellings 1998 (BR-S 98). The project builds on experience gained from 'High-insulated Glass House' (Wittchen and Aggerholm, 1999) built on the housing estage Egebjerggaard in Ballerup, a suburb of Copenhagen. Examples of existing multi-storey buildings with glass facades show extensive use of glazing as early as 1830 in Spain. Walls preceding the curtain wall were built from wood and glass and rested on stone corbels at about 1 m from the load-bearing facade. The first multi-storey buildings with facades entirely made from glass date from the 1920s. The architect Le Corbusier was the first to create a building system that facilitated the construction of non-loadbearing facades. Various conditions must be especially considered at the design of facades with highly insulating glass areas, i.a. type of glass and glazing, solar shadings, frame constructions and airtightness

  8. Semi-automatic building extraction in informal settlements from high-resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayunga, Selassie David

    The extraction of man-made features from digital remotely sensed images is considered as an important step underpinning management of human settlements in any country. Man-made features and buildings in particular are required for varieties of applications such as urban planning, creation of geographical information systems (GIS) databases and Urban City models. The traditional man-made feature extraction methods are very expensive in terms of equipment, labour intensive, need well-trained personnel and cannot cope with changing environments, particularly in dense urban settlement areas. This research presents an approach for extracting buildings in dense informal settlement areas using high-resolution satellite imagery. The proposed system uses a novel strategy of extracting building by measuring a single point at the approximate centre of the building. The fine measurement of the building outlines is then effected using a modified snake model. The original snake model on which this framework is based, incorporates an external constraint energy term which is tailored to preserving the convergence properties of the snake model; its use to unstructured objects will negatively affect their actual shapes. The external constrained energy term was removed from the original snake model formulation, thereby, giving ability to cope with high variability of building shapes in informal settlement areas. The proposed building extraction system was tested on two areas, which have different situations. The first area was Tungi in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania where three sites were tested. This area is characterized by informal settlements, which are illegally formulated within the city boundaries. The second area was Oromocto in New Brunswick, Canada where two sites were tested. Oromocto area is mostly flat and the buildings are constructed using similar materials. Qualitative and quantitative measures were employed to evaluate the accuracy of the results as well as the performance

  9. High-resolution, high-sensitivity NMR of nano-litre anisotropic samples by coil spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakellariou, D [CEA Saclay, DSM, DRECAM, SCM, Lab Struct and Dynam Resonance Magnet, CNRS URA 331, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Le Goff, G; Jacquinot, J F [CEA Saclay, DSM, DRECAM, SPEC: Serv Phys Etat Condense, CNRS URA 2464, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can probe the local structure and dynamic properties of liquids and solids, making it one of the most powerful and versatile analytical methods available today. However, its intrinsically low sensitivity precludes NMR analysis of very small samples - as frequently used when studying isotopically labelled biological molecules or advanced materials, or as preferred when conducting high-throughput screening of biological samples or 'lab-on-a-chip' studies. The sensitivity of NMR has been improved by using static micro-coils, alternative detection schemes and pre-polarization approaches. But these strategies cannot be easily used in NMR experiments involving the fast sample spinning essential for obtaining well-resolved spectra from non-liquid samples. Here we demonstrate that inductive coupling allows wireless transmission of radio-frequency pulses and the reception of NMR signals under fast spinning of both detector coil and sample. This enables NMR measurements characterized by an optimal filling factor, very high radio-frequency field amplitudes and enhanced sensitivity that increases with decreasing sample volume. Signals obtained for nano-litre-sized samples of organic powders and biological tissue increase by almost one order of magnitude (or, equivalently, are acquired two orders of magnitude faster), compared to standard NMR measurements. Our approach also offers optimal sensitivity when studying samples that need to be confined inside multiple safety barriers, such as radioactive materials. In principle, the co-rotation of a micrometer-sized detector coil with the sample and the use of inductive coupling (techniques that are at the heart of our method) should enable highly sensitive NMR measurements on any mass-limited sample that requires fast mechanical rotation to obtain well-resolved spectra. The method is easy to implement on a commercial NMR set-up and exhibits improved performance with miniaturization, and we

  10. 76 FR 13617 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings (OFHPGB); Notice of GSA Bulletin OFHPGB 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ...-Performance Green Buildings (OFHPGB); Notice of GSA Bulletin OFHPGB 2011-OGP-1 AGENCY: Office of.... Procedures Bulletins regarding the Office of Federal High-Performance Green Building are located on the... Washington, DC 20405 OFFICE OF FEDERAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE GREEN BUILDINGS GSA Bulletin 2011-OGP-1 TO: Heads of...

  11. From Molecular Design to Co-sensitization; High performance indole based photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, Dickson D.; Su, Rui; El-Shafei, Ahmed; Adhikari, Airody Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    displays promising photovoltaic results and exhibited an enhanced efficiency of 8.06%. Further, good agreement between the calculated and experimental results showcase the precision of the energy functional and basis set utilized in this study. All these findings provide a deeper insight and better understanding into the intricacies involved in the design of superior co-sensitizers for development of highly efficient DSSCs.

  12. Construction of high-rise buildings in the Far East of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Sergey; Bugunov, Semen; Pogulyaeva, Evgeniya; Peters, Anastasiya; Kotenko, Zhanna; Grigor'yev, Danil

    2018-03-01

    The construction of high-rise buildings on plate foundation in geotechnical conditions of the Russian Far East is a complicated problem. In this respect foundation engineering becomes rather essential. In order to set a firm foundation it is necessary to take into account the pressure distribution at the structure base, in homogeneity of building deformation, which is due to collaborative geotechnical calculations complicated by a number of factors: actual over-placement of soils, the complex geometry of the building under construction, spatial work of the foundation ground with consideration for physical nonlinearity, the influence of the stiffness of the superstructure (reinforced concrete framing) upon the development of foundation deformations, foundation performance (the performance of the bed plate under the building and stairwells), the origination of internal forces in the superstructure with differential settlement. The solution of spatial problems regarding the mutual interaction between buildings and foundations with account of the factors mentioned above is fully achievable via the application of numerical modeling methodology. The work makes a review of the results of high-rise plate building numerical modeling in geotechnical conditions of the Russian Far East by way of the example of Khabarovsk city.

  13. Research of building information extraction and evaluation based on high-resolution remote-sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qiong; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Wang, Lang

    2016-09-01

    Building extraction currently is important in the application of high-resolution remote sensing imagery. At present, quite a few algorithms are available for detecting building information, however, most of them still have some obvious disadvantages, such as the ignorance of spectral information, the contradiction between extraction rate and extraction accuracy. The purpose of this research is to develop an effective method to detect building information for Chinese GF-1 data. Firstly, the image preprocessing technique is used to normalize the image and image enhancement is used to highlight the useful information in the image. Secondly, multi-spectral information is analyzed. Subsequently, an improved morphological building index (IMBI) based on remote sensing imagery is proposed to get the candidate building objects. Furthermore, in order to refine building objects and further remove false objects, the post-processing (e.g., the shape features, the vegetation index and the water index) is employed. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, the omission errors (OE), commission errors (CE), the overall accuracy (OA) and Kappa are used at final. The proposed method can not only effectively use spectral information and other basic features, but also avoid extracting excessive interference details from high-resolution remote sensing images. Compared to the original MBI algorithm, the proposed method reduces the OE by 33.14% .At the same time, the Kappa increase by 16.09%. In experiments, IMBI achieved satisfactory results and outperformed other algorithms in terms of both accuracies and visual inspection

  14. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexuan Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for “green” buildings and the use of “environmentally friendly” products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m3, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates.

  15. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lexuan; Su, Feng-Chiao; Batterman, Stuart

    2017-01-21

    Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for "green" buildings and the use of "environmentally friendly" products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m³, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ) by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates.

  16. Fire Problems in High-Rise Buildings. California Fire Service Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Industrial Education.

    Resulting from a conference concerned with high-rise fire problems, this manual has been prepared as a fire department training manual and as a reference for students enrolled in fire service training courses. Information is provided for topics dealing with: (1) Typical Fire Problems in High-Rise Buildings, (2) Heat, (3) Smoke and Fire Gases, (4)…

  17. New approach to 3-D, high sensitivity, high mass resolution space plasma composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new type of 3-D space plasma composition analyzer. The design combines high sensitivity, high mass resolution measurements with somewhat lower mass resolution but even higher sensitivity measurements in a single compact and robust design. While the lower resolution plasma measurements are achieved using conventional straight-through time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the high mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions reflected in a linear electric field (LEF), where the restoring force that an ion experiences is proportional to the depth it travels into the LEF region. Consequently, the ion's equation of motion in that dimension is that of a simple harmonic oscillator and its travel time is simply proportional to the square root of the ion's mass/charge (m/q). While in an ideal LEF, the m/q resolution can be arbitrarily high, in a real device the resolution is limited by the field linearity which can be achieved. In this paper we describe how a nearly linear field can be produced and discuss how the design can be optimized for various different plasma regimes and spacecraft configurations

  18. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael D; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W

    2009-05-01

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 microN. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  19. The Impact of High-Rise Buildings on the Living Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasov Botir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization as a socio-economic process manifested in the concentration of the population in modern big cities contributes to the development of high-rise building construction. With the development of education and culture, changing leisure habits, city residents put forward new architectural and functional requirements to the living environment and urban infrastructure. This calls for the creation of new types and forms of residential buildings, the structure of the city and transport networks. In addition, the need to develop high-rise building construction is justified by the growing demand for residential, public and administrative buildings and the lack of free space.The paper analyzes the development of high-rise building construction in urban areas. The problem of the impact of high-rise building construction in big cities on the living environment is considered. Using analytical methods, causes and sources of pollution, such as transport and engineering infrastructure have been identified. In some urban areas, there are zones with modified thermal conditions and air exchange resulting in the formation of the “urban heat island”The qualitative and quantitative characteristics of variations in temperature and wind speed with respect to the height of the building have been calculated, using the example of the Evolution Tower of the Moscow International Business Center (“Moscow City”. Calculation and comparative analysis for the cities of Moscow, Khanty-Mansiysk and Vladivostok has made it possible to assess the variation in temperature and wind speed and their impact on the living environment under different climatic conditions.

  20. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Jensen, Robert; Christensen, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal...

  1. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  2. The Relationship between Ethical Sensitivity, High Ability and Gender in Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Ingrid; Wolfensberger, Marca; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the ethical sensitivity of high-ability undergraduate students (n=731) in the Netherlands who completed the 28-item Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ) developed by Tirri & Nokelainen (2007; 2011). The ESSQ is based on Narvaez' (2001) operationalization of ethical sensitivity in seven dimensions. The following…

  3. Platinum decorated carbon nanotubes for highly sensitive amperometric glucose sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jining; Wang Shouyan; Aryasomayajula, L; Varadan, V K

    2007-01-01

    Fine platinum nanoparticles (1-5 nm in diameter) were deposited on functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) through a decoration technique. A novel type of enzymatic Pt/MWNTs paste-based mediated glucose sensor was fabricated. Electrochemical measurements revealed a significantly improved sensitivity (around 52.7 μA mM -1 cm -2 ) for glucose sensing without using any picoampere booster or Faraday cage. In addition, the calibration curve exhibited a good linearity in the range of 1-28 mM of glucose concentration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were performed to investigate the nanoscale structure and the chemical bonding information of the Pt/MWNTs paste-based sensing material, respectively. The improved sensitivity of this novel glucose sensor could be ascribed to its higher electroactive surface area, enhanced electron transfer, efficient enzyme immobilization, unique interaction in nanoscale and a synergistic effect on the current signal from possible multi-redox reactions

  4. High Sensitivity TSS Prediction: Estimates of Locations Where TSS Cannot Occur

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Ulf; Kodzius, Rimantas; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2013-01-01

    from mouse and human genomes, we developed a methodology that allows us, by performing computational TSS prediction with very high sensitivity, to annotate, with a high accuracy in a strand specific manner, locations of mammalian genomes that are highly

  5. Modeling work of the dispatching service of high-rise building as queuing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement'eva, Marina; Dement'eva, Anastasiya

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of calculating the performance indicators of the dispatcher service of a high-rise building as a queuing system with an unlimited queue. The calculation was carried out for three models: with a single control room and brigade of service, with a single control room and a specialized service, with several dispatch centers and specialized services. The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of the structural scheme of the organization of the dispatcher service of a high-rise building on the amount of operating costs and the time of processing and fulfilling applications. The problems of high-rise construction and their impact on the complication of exploitation are analyzed. The composition of exploitation activities of high-rise buildings is analyzed. The relevance of the study is justified by the need to review the role of dispatch services in the structure of management of the quality of buildings. Dispatching service from the lower level of management of individual engineering systems becomes the main link in the centralized automated management of the exploitation of high-rise buildings. With the transition to market relations, the criterion of profitability at the organization of the dispatching service becomes one of the main parameters of the effectiveness of its work. A mathematical model for assessing the efficiency of the dispatching service on a set of quality of service indicators is proposed. The structure of operating costs is presented. The algorithm of decision-making is given when choosing the optimal structural scheme of the dispatching service of a high-rise building.

  6. High Resolution SAR Imaging Employing Geometric Features for Extracting Seismic Damage of Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, L. P.; Wang, X. P.; Dou, A. X.; Ding, X.

    2018-04-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is relatively easy to acquire but difficult for interpretation. This paper probes how to identify seismic damage of building using geometric features of SAR. The SAR imaging geometric features of buildings, such as the high intensity layover, bright line induced by double bounce backscattering and dark shadow is analysed, and show obvious differences texture features of homogeneity, similarity and entropy in combinatorial imaging geometric regions between the un-collapsed and collapsed buildings in airborne SAR images acquired in Yushu city damaged by 2010 Ms7.1 Yushu, Qinghai, China earthquake, which implicates a potential capability to discriminate collapsed and un-collapsed buildings from SAR image. Study also shows that the proportion of highlight (layover & bright line) area (HA) is related to the seismic damage degree, thus a SAR image damage index (SARDI), which related to the ratio of HA to the building occupation are of building in a street block (SA), is proposed. While HA is identified through feature extraction with high-pass and low-pass filtering of SAR image in frequency domain. A partial region with 58 natural street blocks in the Yushu City are selected as study area. Then according to the above method, HA is extracted, SARDI is then calculated and further classified into 3 classes. The results show effective through validation check with seismic damage classes interpreted artificially from post-earthquake airborne high resolution optical image, which shows total classification accuracy 89.3 %, Kappa coefficient 0.79 and identical to the practical seismic damage distribution. The results are also compared and discussed with the building damage identified from SAR image available by other authors.

  7. Hydraulic Control Method for Heating Systems of High-Rise Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, D.; Chernenkov, V.; Likhachev, I.

    2017-11-01

    The following article reflects the ideas of possibility to increase energy efficiency of heating systems in high-rise buildings. The article also includes the principle ways of high-rise building heating systems operation as well as traditional engineering decisions aimed at the elimination of the increased pressure effect in heaters. The main disadvantages of such decisions are also presented for the reader. Moreover, the article offers the way of operation for the above-mentioned systems together with the equipment that implements this operation. An economic impact from such energy-saving technology application has been also evaluated.

  8. Elaboration of technology organizational models of constructing high-rise buildings in plans of construction organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipenkova, Irina; Simankina, Tatyana; Syrygina, Taisiia; Lukinov, Vitaliy

    2018-03-01

    This article represents features of the elaboration of technology organizational models of high-rise building construction in technology organizational documentation on the example of the plan of construction organization. Some examples of enhancing the effectiveness of high-rise building construction based on developments of several options of the organizational and technological plan are examined. Qualitative technology organizational documentation allows to increase the competitiveness of construction companies and provides prime cost of construction and assembly works reductions. Emphasis is placed on the necessity to comply with the principle of comprehensiveness of engineering, scientific and research works, development activities and scientific and technical support.

  9. Highly sensitive urea sensing with ion-irradiated polymer foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Dietmar; Muñoz Hernandez, Gerardo; Alfonta, Lital

    2012-01-01

    Recently we prepared urea-sensors by attaching urease to the inner walls of etched ion tracks within thin polymer foil. Here, alternative track-based sensor configurations are examined where the enzyme remained in solution. The conductivities of systems consisting of two parallel irradiated polymer foils and confining different urea/urease mixtures in between were examined. The correlations between conductivity and urea concentration differed strongly for foils with unetched and etched tracks, which points at different sensing mechanisms – tentatively attributed to the adsorption of enzymatic reaction products on the latent track entrances and to the enhanced conductivity of reaction product-filled etched tracks, respectively. All examined systems enable in principle, urea sensing. They point at the possibility of sensor cascade construction for more sensitive or selective sensor systems.

  10. A new compact, high sensitivity neutron imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Rosse, B.; Thfoin, I.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF,F-91297 Arpajon (France); Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Park, H. S.; Robey, H. F.; Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    We have developed a new small neutron imaging system (SNIS) diagnostic for the OMEGA laser facility. The SNIS uses a penumbral coded aperture and has been designed to record images from low yield (10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} neutrons) implosions such as those using deuterium as the fuel. This camera was tested at OMEGA in 2009 on a rugby hohlraum energetics experiment where it recorded an image at a yield of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}. The resolution of this image was 54 {mu}m and the camera was located only 4 meters from target chamber centre. We recently improved the instrument by adding a cooled CCD camera. The sensitivity of the new camera has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source. The calibration showed that the signal-to-noise ratio could be improved by using raw binning detection.

  11. A new compact, high sensitivity neutron imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Rossé, B.; Thfoin, I.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Park, H. S.; Robey, H. F.; Amendt, P.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a new small neutron imaging system (SNIS) diagnostic for the OMEGA laser facility. The SNIS uses a penumbral coded aperture and has been designed to record images from low yield (10 9 –10 10 neutrons) implosions such as those using deuterium as the fuel. This camera was tested at OMEGA in 2009 on a rugby hohlraum energetics experiment where it recorded an image at a yield of 1.4 × 10 10 . The resolution of this image was 54 μm and the camera was located only 4 meters from target chamber centre. We recently improved the instrument by adding a cooled CCD camera. The sensitivity of the new camera has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a 60 Co γ-ray source. The calibration showed that the signal-to-noise ratio could be improved by using raw binning detection.

  12. Shear-lag effect and its effect on the design of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Bui Thanh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For super high-rise buildings, the analysis and selection of suitable structural solutions are very important. The structure has not only to carry the gravity loads (self-weight, live load, etc., but also to resist lateral loads (wind and earthquake loads. As the buildings become taller, the demand on different structural systems dramatically increases. The article considers the division of the structural systems of tall buildings into two main categories - interior structures for which the major part of the lateral load resisting system is located within the interior of the building, and exterior structures for which the major part of the lateral load resisting system is located at the building perimeter. The basic types of each of the main structural categories are described. In particular, the framed tube structures, which belong to the second main category of exterior structures, seem to be very efficient. That type of structure system allows tall buildings resist the lateral loads. However, those tube systems are affected by shear lag effect - a nonlinear distribution of stresses across the sides of the section, which is commonly found in box girders under lateral loads. Based on a numerical example, some general conclusions for the influence of the shear-lag effect on frequencies, periods, distribution and variation of the magnitude of the internal forces in the structure are presented.

  13. Shear-lag effect and its effect on the design of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Dat, Bui; Traykov, Alexander; Traykova, Marina

    2018-03-01

    For super high-rise buildings, the analysis and selection of suitable structural solutions are very important. The structure has not only to carry the gravity loads (self-weight, live load, etc.), but also to resist lateral loads (wind and earthquake loads). As the buildings become taller, the demand on different structural systems dramatically increases. The article considers the division of the structural systems of tall buildings into two main categories - interior structures for which the major part of the lateral load resisting system is located within the interior of the building, and exterior structures for which the major part of the lateral load resisting system is located at the building perimeter. The basic types of each of the main structural categories are described. In particular, the framed tube structures, which belong to the second main category of exterior structures, seem to be very efficient. That type of structure system allows tall buildings resist the lateral loads. However, those tube systems are affected by shear lag effect - a nonlinear distribution of stresses across the sides of the section, which is commonly found in box girders under lateral loads. Based on a numerical example, some general conclusions for the influence of the shear-lag effect on frequencies, periods, distribution and variation of the magnitude of the internal forces in the structure are presented.

  14. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-01-01

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD 10 dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-α, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 ± 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 ± 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-α2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating the JAK/STAT3

  15. Organizing vertical layout environments: a forward-looking development strategy for high-rise building projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magay, A. A.; Bulgakova, E. A.; Zabelina, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    The article highlights issues surrounding development of high rise buildings. With the rapid increase of the global population there has been a trend for people to migrate into megacities and has caused the expansion of big city territories. This trend, coupled with the desire for a comfortable living environment, has resulted in numerous problems plaguing the megacity. This article proposes that a viable solution to the problems facing megacities is to create vertical layout environments. Potential options for creating vertical layout environments are set out below including the construction of buildings with atriums. Further, the article puts forth suggested spatial organization of the environment as well as optimal landscaping of high-rise buildings and constructions for the creation of vertical layout environments. Finally, the persuasive reasons for the adoption of vertical layout environments is that it will decrease the amount of developed urban areas, decrease traffic and increase environmental sustainability.

  16. Overcoming barriers to high performance seismic design using lessons learned from the green building industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezil, Dorothy

    NEHRP's Provisions today currently governing conventional seismic resistant design. These provisions, though they ensure the life-safety of building occupants, extensive damage and economic losses may still occur in the structures. This minimum performance can be enhanced using the Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering methodology and passive control systems like base isolation and energy dissipation systems. Even though these technologies and the PBEE methodology are effective reducing economic losses and fatalities during earthquakes, getting them implemented into seismic resistant design has been challenging. One of the many barriers to their implementation has been their upfront costs. The green building community has faced some of the same challenges that the high performance seismic design community currently faces. The goal of this thesis is to draw on the success of the green building industry to provide recommendations that may be used overcome the barriers that high performance seismic design (HPSD) is currently facing.

  17. The use of nanomodified concrete in construction of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Sergei

    2018-03-01

    Construction is one of the leading economy sectors. Currently, concrete is the basis of most of the structural elements, without which it is impossible to imagine the construction of a single building or facility. Their strength, reinforcement and the period of concrete lifetime are determined at the design stage, taking into account long-term operation. However, in real life, the number of impacts that affects the structural strength is pretty high. In some cases, they are random and do not have standardized values. This is especially true in the construction and exploitation of high-rise buildings and structures. Unlike the multi-storey buildings, they experience significant loads already at the stage of erection, as they support load-lifting mechanisms, formwork systems, workers, etc. The purpose of the presented article is to develop a methodology for estimating the internal fatigue of concrete structures based on changes in their electrical conductivity.

  18. Natural radionuclide and radiological assessment of building materials in high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Moghaddam, Masoud Vahabi; Fathabadi, Nasrin

    2013-04-01

    Building materials, collected from different sites in Ramsar, a northern coastal city in Iran, were analyzed for their natural radionuclide contents. The measurements were carried out using a high resolution high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K content varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 86,400 Bqkg(-1), 187 Bqkg(-1), and 1350 Bqkg(-1), respectively. The radiological hazards incurred from the use of these building materials were estimated through various radiation hazard indices. The result of this survey shows that values obtained for some samples are more than the internationally accepted maximum limits and as such, the use of them as a building material pose significant radiation hazard to individuals.

  19. Highly sensitive assay for tyrosine hydroxylase activity by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsu, T; Oka, K; Kato, T

    1979-07-21

    A highly sensitive assay for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with amperometric detection was devised based on the rapid isolation of enzymatically formed DOPA by a double-column procedure, the columns fitted together sequentially (the top column of Amberlite CG-50 and the bottom column of aluminium oxide). DOPA was adsorbed on the second aluminium oxide column, then eluted with 0.5 M hydrochloric acid, and assayed by HPLC with amperometric detection. D-Tyrosine was used for the control. alpha-Methyldopa was added to the incubation mixture as an internal standard after incubation. This assay was more sensitive than radioassays and 5 pmol of DOPA formed enzymatically could be measured in the presence of saturating concentrations of tyrosine and 6-methyltetrahydropterin. The TH activity in 2 mg of human putamen could be easily measured, and this method was found to be particularly suitable for the assay of TH activity in a small number of nuclei from animal and human brain.

  20. Silicene Flowers: A Dual Stabilized Silicon Building Block for High-Performance Lithium Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghao; Qiu, Xiongying; Kong, Debin; Zhou, Lu; Li, Zihao; Li, Xianglong; Zhi, Linjie

    2017-07-25

    Nanostructuring is a transformative way to improve the structure stability of high capacity silicon for lithium batteries. Yet, the interface instability issue remains and even propagates in the existing nanostructured silicon building blocks. Here we demonstrate an intrinsically dual stabilized silicon building block, namely silicene flowers, to simultaneously address the structure and interface stability issues. These original Si building blocks as lithium battery anodes exhibit extraordinary combined performance including high gravimetric capacity (2000 mAh g -1 at 800 mA g -1 ), high volumetric capacity (1799 mAh cm -3 ), remarkable rate capability (950 mAh g -1 at 8 A g -1 ), and excellent cycling stability (1100 mA h g -1 at 2000 mA g -1 over 600 cycles). Paired with a conventional cathode, the fabricated full cells deliver extraordinarily high specific energy and energy density (543 Wh kg ca -1 and 1257 Wh L ca -1 , respectively) based on the cathode and anode, which are 152% and 239% of their commercial counterparts using graphite anodes. Coupled with a simple, cost-effective, scalable synthesis approach, this silicon building block offers a horizon for the development of high-performance batteries.

  1. Connections in Precast Buildings using Ultra High-Strength Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1995-01-01

    Ultra high-strength concrete adds new dimensions to the design of concrete structures. It is a brittle material but introducing fibres into the matrix changes the material into a highly ductile material. Furthermore, the fibre reinforcement increases the anchorage of traditional reinforcement bar...... and the fire resistance. Such a fibre reinforced ultra high-strength material has been used to develop a simple joint solution between slab elements in a column - slab building system....

  2. Nitrogen detected TROSY at high field yields high resolution and sensitivity for protein NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Koh; Arthanari, Haribabu; Shimada, Ichio; Wagner, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Detection of 15 N in multidimensional NMR experiments of proteins has sparsely been utilized because of the low gyromagnetic ratio (γ) of nitrogen and the presumed low sensitivity of such experiments. Here we show that selecting the TROSY components of proton-attached 15 N nuclei (TROSY 15 N H ) yields high quality spectra in high field magnets (>600 MHz) by taking advantage of the slow 15 N transverse relaxation and compensating for the inherently low 15 N sensitivity. The 15 N TROSY transverse relaxation rates increase modestly with molecular weight but the TROSY gain in peak heights depends strongly on the magnetic field strength. Theoretical simulations predict that the narrowest line width for the TROSY 15 N H component can be obtained at 900 MHz, but sensitivity reaches its maximum around 1.2 GHz. Based on these considerations, a 15 N-detected 2D 1 H– 15 N TROSY-HSQC ( 15 N-detected TROSY-HSQC) experiment was developed and high-quality 2D spectra were recorded at 800 MHz in 2 h for 1 mM maltose-binding protein at 278 K (τ c  ∼ 40 ns). Unlike for 1 H detected TROSY, deuteration is not mandatory to benefit 15 N detected TROSY due to reduced dipolar broadening, which facilitates studies of proteins that cannot be deuterated, especially in cases where production requires eukaryotic expression systems. The option of recording 15 N TROSY of proteins expressed in H 2 O media also alleviates the problem of incomplete amide proton back exchange, which often hampers the detection of amide groups in the core of large molecular weight proteins that are expressed in D 2 O culture media and cannot be refolded for amide back exchange. These results illustrate the potential of 15 N H -detected TROSY experiments as a means to exploit the high resolution offered by high field magnets near and above 1 GHz

  3. Nitrogen detected TROSY at high field yields high resolution and sensitivity for protein NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Koh [National Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Molecular Profiling Research Center for Drug Discovery (Japan); Arthanari, Haribabu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Shimada, Ichio, E-mail: shimada@iw-nmr.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp [National Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Molecular Profiling Research Center for Drug Discovery (Japan); Wagner, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard-wagner@hms.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Detection of {sup 15}N in multidimensional NMR experiments of proteins has sparsely been utilized because of the low gyromagnetic ratio (γ) of nitrogen and the presumed low sensitivity of such experiments. Here we show that selecting the TROSY components of proton-attached {sup 15}N nuclei (TROSY {sup 15}N{sub H}) yields high quality spectra in high field magnets (>600 MHz) by taking advantage of the slow {sup 15}N transverse relaxation and compensating for the inherently low {sup 15}N sensitivity. The {sup 15}N TROSY transverse relaxation rates increase modestly with molecular weight but the TROSY gain in peak heights depends strongly on the magnetic field strength. Theoretical simulations predict that the narrowest line width for the TROSY {sup 15}N{sub H} component can be obtained at 900 MHz, but sensitivity reaches its maximum around 1.2 GHz. Based on these considerations, a {sup 15}N-detected 2D {sup 1}H–{sup 15}N TROSY-HSQC ({sup 15}N-detected TROSY-HSQC) experiment was developed and high-quality 2D spectra were recorded at 800 MHz in 2 h for 1 mM maltose-binding protein at 278 K (τ{sub c} ∼ 40 ns). Unlike for {sup 1}H detected TROSY, deuteration is not mandatory to benefit {sup 15}N detected TROSY due to reduced dipolar broadening, which facilitates studies of proteins that cannot be deuterated, especially in cases where production requires eukaryotic expression systems. The option of recording {sup 15}N TROSY of proteins expressed in H{sub 2}O media also alleviates the problem of incomplete amide proton back exchange, which often hampers the detection of amide groups in the core of large molecular weight proteins that are expressed in D{sub 2}O culture media and cannot be refolded for amide back exchange. These results illustrate the potential of {sup 15}N{sub H}-detected TROSY experiments as a means to exploit the high resolution offered by high field magnets near and above 1 GHz.

  4. Applications of molecules as high-resolution, high-sensitivity threshold electron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutjian, A.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the work under the contract entitled ''Applications of Molecules as High-Resolution, High-Sensitivity Threshold Electron Detectors'' (DoE IAA No. DE-AI01-83ER13093 Mod. A006) was to explore the electron attachment properties of a variety of molecules at electron energies not accessible by other experimental techniques. As a result of this work, not only was a large body of basic data measured on attachment cross sections and rate constants; but also extensive theoretical calculations were carried out to verify the underlying phenomenon of s-wave attachment. Important outgrowths of this week were also realized in other areas of research. The basic data have applications in fields such as combustion, soot reduction, rocket-exhaust modification, threshold photoelectron spectroscopy, and trace species detection

  5. An application of impediography to the high sensitivity and high resolution identification of structural damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L; Yang, J; Semperlotti, F; Wang, K W

    2015-01-01

    In this study we explore the use of impediographic techniques to perform damage detection in plate-like metal structures. Impediography relies on the piezo-resistive coupling of the host structure to reconstruct high sensitivity and high resolution maps of the internal electrical conductivity. By exploiting localized strain perturbations generated via focused acoustic waves, the piezo-resistive coupling allows extracting a set of linearly independent boundary voltage data that drastically reduces the ill-conditioning of the inverse problem, therefore increasing the performance. The localized perturbation is achieved by leveraging the concept of frequency selective structure (FSS), that is a dynamically tailored structural element enabling the required acoustic focusing via vibration localization. Based on the FSS approach, the impediographic technique is numerically tested to investigate the performance of the combined approach for structural damage detection. The effects of practical implementation issues, such as limited perturbations and limited boundary data, are also explored. (paper)

  6. Storing quantum information in spins and high-sensitivity ESR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John J L; Bertet, Patrice

    2018-02-01

    Quantum information, encoded within the states of quantum systems, represents a novel and rich form of information which has inspired new types of computers and communications systems. Many diverse electron spin systems have been studied with a view to storing quantum information, including molecular radicals, point defects and impurities in inorganic systems, and quantum dots in semiconductor devices. In these systems, spin coherence times can exceed seconds, single spins can be addressed through electrical and optical methods, and new spin systems with advantageous properties continue to be identified. Spin ensembles strongly coupled to microwave resonators can, in principle, be used to store the coherent states of single microwave photons, enabling so-called microwave quantum memories. We discuss key requirements in realising such memories, including considerations for superconducting resonators whose frequency can be tuned onto resonance with the spins. Finally, progress towards microwave quantum memories and other developments in the field of superconducting quantum devices are being used to push the limits of sensitivity of inductively-detected electron spin resonance. The state-of-the-art currently stands at around 65 spins per Hz, with prospects to scale down to even fewer spins. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Storing quantum information in spins and high-sensitivity ESR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John J. L.; Bertet, Patrice

    2018-02-01

    Quantum information, encoded within the states of quantum systems, represents a novel and rich form of information which has inspired new types of computers and communications systems. Many diverse electron spin systems have been studied with a view to storing quantum information, including molecular radicals, point defects and impurities in inorganic systems, and quantum dots in semiconductor devices. In these systems, spin coherence times can exceed seconds, single spins can be addressed through electrical and optical methods, and new spin systems with advantageous properties continue to be identified. Spin ensembles strongly coupled to microwave resonators can, in principle, be used to store the coherent states of single microwave photons, enabling so-called microwave quantum memories. We discuss key requirements in realising such memories, including considerations for superconducting resonators whose frequency can be tuned onto resonance with the spins. Finally, progress towards microwave quantum memories and other developments in the field of superconducting quantum devices are being used to push the limits of sensitivity of inductively-detected electron spin resonance. The state-of-the-art currently stands at around 65 spins per √{ Hz } , with prospects to scale down to even fewer spins.

  8. Highly sensitive DNA sensors based on cerium oxide nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyet, Nguyen Thi; Hai Yen, Le Thi; Van Thu, Vu; lan, Hoang; Trung, Tran; Vuong, Pham Hung; Tam, Phuong Dinh

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a CeO2 nanorod (NR)-based electrochemical DNA sensor was developed to identify Salmonella that causes food-borne infections. CeO2 NRs were synthesized without templates via a simple and unexpensive hydrothermal approach at 170 °C for 12 h by using CeO(NO3)3·6H2O as a Ce source. The DNA probe was immobilized onto the CeO2 NR-modified electrode through covalent attachment. The characteristics of the hybridized DNA were analyzed through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- as a redox probe. Experimental results showed that electron transfer resistance (Ret) increased after the DNA probe was attached to the electrode surface and increased further after the DNA probe hybridized with its complementary sequence. A linear response of Ret to the target DNA concentration was found from 0.01 μM to 2 μM. The detection limit and sensitivity of the DNA sensor were 0.01 μM and 3362.1 Ω μM-1 cm-2, respectively. Various parameters, such as pH value, ionic strength, DNA probe concentration, and hybridization time, influencing DNA sensor responses were also investigated.

  9. On Roof Geometry for Urban Wind Energy Exploitation in High-Rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Toja-Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The European program HORIZON2020 aims to have 20% of electricity produced by renewable sources. The building sector represents 40% of the European Union energy consumption. Reducing energy consumption in buildings is therefore a priority for energy efficiency. The present investigation explores the most adequate roof shapes compatible with the placement of different types of small wind energy generators on high-rise buildings for urban wind energy exploitation. The wind flow around traditional state-of-the-art roof shapes is considered. In addition, the influence of the roof edge on the wind flow on high-rise buildings is analyzed. These geometries are investigated, both qualitatively and quantitatively, and the turbulence intensity threshold for horizontal axis wind turbines is considered. The most adequate shapes for wind energy exploitation are identified, studying vertical profiles of velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulence intensity. Curved shapes are the most interesting building roof shapes from the wind energy exploitation point of view, leading to the highest speed-up and the lowest turbulence intensity.

  10. Highly efficient and stable cyclometalated ruthenium(II) complexes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Liu, Jun-Min; Su, Pei-Yang; Chen, Yi-Fan; Shen, Yong; Xiao, Li-Min; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Four novel thiocyanate-free cyclometalated ruthenium sensitizer were conveniently synthesized. • The D-CF 3 -sensitized DSSCs show higher efficiency compared to N719 based cells. • The DSSCs based on D-CF 3 and D-bisCF 3 sensitizers exhibit excellent long-term stability. • The diverse cyclometalated Ru complexes can be developed as high-performance sensitizers for use in DSSC. - Abstract: Four novel thiocyanate-free cyclometallted Ru(II) complexes, D-bisCF 3 , D-CF 3 , D-OMe, and D-DPA, with two 4,4′-dicarboxylic acid-2,2′-bipyridine together with a functionalized phenylpyridine ancillary ligand, have been designed and synthesized. The effect of different substituents (R = bisCF 3 , CF 3 , OMe, and DPA) on the ancillary C^N ligand on the photophysical properties and photovoltaic performance is investigated. Under standard global AM 1.5 solar conditions, the device based on D-CF 3 sensitizer gives a higher conversion efficiency of 8.74% than those based on D-bisCF 3 , D-OMe, and D-DPA, which can be ascribed to its broad range of visible light absorption, appropriate localization of the frontier orbitals, weak hydrogen bonds between -CF 3 and -OH groups at the TiO 2 surface, moderate dye loading on TiO 2 , and high charge collection efficiency. Moreover, the D-bisCF 3 and D-CF 3 based DSSCs exhibit good stability under 100 mW cm −2 light soaking at 60 °C for 400 h

  11. Photoelastic colloidal gel for a high-sensitivity strain sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui; Chen, Zhixin; Zhu, Shenmin; Jiang, Chun; Zhang, Di

    2018-04-01

    Nanoparticles, having the ability to self-assemble into an ordered structure in their suspensions, analogous to liquid crystals, have attracted extensive attention. Herein, we report a new type of colloidal gel with an ordered crystal structure assembled from 1D and 2D nanoparticles. The material has high elasticity and, more interestingly, it shows significant photoelasticity. Its refractive index can be tuned under external stress and exhibits an ultra-wide dynamic range (Δn) of the order of 10-2. Due to the large Δn, the material shows an extremely high strain sensibility of 720 nm/ɛ, an order of magnitude higher than the reported ones.

  12. Field monitoring of column shortenings in a high-rise building during construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-10-24

    The automatic monitoring of shortenings of vertical members in high-rise buildings under construction is a challenging issue in the high-rise building construction field. In this study, a practical system for monitoring column shortening in a high-rise building under construction is presented. The proposed monitoring system comprises the following components: (1) a wireless sensing system and (2) the corresponding monitoring software. The wireless sensing system comprises the sensors and energy-efficient wireless sensing units (sensor nodes, master nodes, and repeater nodes), which automate the processes for measuring the strains of vertical members and transmitting the measured data to the remote server. The monitoring software enables construction administrators to monitor real-time data collected by the server via an Internet connection. The proposed monitoring system is applied to actual 66-floor and 72-floor high-rise buildings under construction. The system enables automatic and real-time measurements of the shortening of vertical members, which can result in more precise construction.

  13. The Airborne Transmission of Infection Between Flats in High-rise Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, N. P.; Niu, J. L.; Perino, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several case clusters occurred in high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong in the 2003 SARS (the severe acute respiratory syndrome) epidemic, which motivated a series of engineering investigations into the possible airborne transport routes. It is suspected that, driven by buoyancy force...

  14. The efficacy of a highly insulated building in KwaZulu-Natal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR undertook an energy and thermal performance research project in 2011 on a house constructed with the Imison 3 Building System. The purpose was to analyse the energy and thermal performance of a highly insulated house in Pretoria. The scope...

  15. Methodology for estimating human perception to tremors in high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenqi; Goh, Key Seng; Pan, Tso-Chien

    2017-07-01

    Human perception to tremors during earthquakes in high-rise buildings is usually associated with psychological discomfort such as fear and anxiety. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the level of perception to tremors for occupants living in high-rise buildings subjected to ground motion excitations. Unlike other approaches based on empirical or historical data, the proposed methodology performs a regression analysis using the analytical results of two generic models of 15 and 30 stories. The recorded ground motions in Singapore are collected and modified for structural response analyses. Simple predictive models are then developed to estimate the perception level to tremors based on a proposed ground motion intensity parameter—the average response spectrum intensity in the period range between 0.1 and 2.0 s. These models can be used to predict the percentage of occupants in high-rise buildings who may perceive the tremors at a given ground motion intensity. Furthermore, the models are validated with two recent tremor events reportedly felt in Singapore. It is found that the estimated results match reasonably well with the reports in the local newspapers and from the authorities. The proposed methodology is applicable to urban regions where people living in high-rise buildings might feel tremors during earthquakes.

  16. Innovative Hybrid CHP systems for high temperature heating plant in existing buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Santoli, Livio; Lo Basso, Gianluigi; Nastasi, B.; d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca R.; Mazzarella and Piercarlo, Livio

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the potential role of new hybrid CHP systems application providing both electricity and heat which are compatible with the building architectural and landscape limitations. In detail, three different plant layout options for high temperature heat production along with the

  17. Indoor climate design for a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Lony, R.J.M.; Schellen, H.L.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a case study on the performance based design for the indoor climate of a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads. Several scenarios of the past performance and new control classes are simulated and evaluated. The results include the influence of hygric inertia

  18. Indoor climate design for a monumental building with incidental high indoor moisture loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the indoor climate of a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads. Several scenarios of the past performance and new control classes are simulated and evaluated. The results include the influence of hygric inertia on the indoor climate and

  19. Effectiveness of E-Learning for Students Vocational High School Building Engineering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeparno; Muslim, Supari

    2018-04-01

    Implementation of vocational learning in accordance with the 2013 curriculum must meet the criteria, one of which is learning to be consistent with advances in technology and information. Technology-based learning in vocational commonly referred to as E-Learning, online (in the network) and WBL (Web-Based Learning). Facts on the ground indicate that based learning technology and information on Vocational High School of Building Engineering is still not going well. The purpose of this research is to know: advantages and disadvantages of learning with E-Learning, conformity of learning with E-Learning with characteristics of students on Vocational High School of Building Engineering and effective learning method based on E-Learning for students on Vocational High School of Building Engineering. Research done by literature method, get the following conclusion as follow: the advantages of E-Learning is learning can be done anywhere and anytime, efficient in accessing materials and tasks, ease of communication and discussion; while the shortage is the need for additional costs for good internet access and lack of social interaction between teachers and students. E-learning is appropriate to basic knowledge competencies, and not appropriate at the level of advanced competencies and skills. Effective E-Learning Based Learning Method on Vocational High School of Building Engineering is a Blended method that is a mix between conventional method and e-learning.

  20. Auditable safety analysis: High Radiation Level Chemical Development Facility (Buildings 4507 and 4556), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1998-07-01

    The High-Radiation-Level Chemical Development Facility includes Buildings 4507 and 4556. Building 4507, located immediately to the west of Building 4500N and to the south of Building 4505, is a doubly contained three-level structure constructed in 1957. The most recent use of the facility was for recovery of multi-gram quantities of 244 Cm during the early 1970s and for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel studies in the late 1970s. It has remained in safe standby since 1980. Building 4556 is a below-grade filter pit located to the southwest of Building 4507 and was constructed in 1972. Ventilation from the cells in Building 4507 is passed through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration in this building prior to being exhausted to the Building 3039 stack system. This building remains in operation to support ventilation requirements for Building 4507. This Auditable Safety Analysis (ASA) was developed in accordance with the requirements in Energy Systems Program Description FS-103PD, Safety Documentation, Revision 1. This ASA identifies and screens all hazards associated with Buildings 4507 and 4556. The only hazard not screened out and requiring further analysis following the initial screening process is radioactive material in the form of surface contamination. The results of this ASA indicate that the hazards associated with Buildings 4507 and 4556 do not pose a significant threat to workers, the public, or the environment

  1. Rise and Shock: Optimal Defibrillator Placement in a High-rise Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in high-rise buildings experience lower survival and longer delays until paramedic arrival. Use of publicly accessible automated external defibrillators (AED) can improve survival, but "vertical" placement has not been studied. We aim to determine whether elevator-based or lobby-based AED placement results in shorter vertical distance travelled ("response distance") to OHCAs in a high-rise building. We developed a model of a single-elevator, n-floor high-rise building. We calculated and compared the average distance from AED to floor of arrest for the two AED locations. We modeled OHCA occurrences using floor-specific Poisson processes, the risk of OHCA on the ground floor (λ 1 ) and the risk on any above-ground floor (λ). The elevator was modeled with an override function enabling direct travel to the target floor. The elevator location upon override was modeled as a discrete uniform random variable. Calculations used the laws of probability. Elevator-based AED placement had shorter average response distance if the number of floors (n) in the building exceeded three quarters of the ratio of ground-floor OHCA risk to above-ground floor risk (λ 1 /λ) plus one half (n ≥ 3λ 1 /4λ + 0.5). Otherwise, a lobby-based AED had shorter average response distance. If OHCA risk on each floor was equal, an elevator-based AED had shorter average response distance. Elevator-based AEDs travel less vertical distance to OHCAs in tall buildings or those with uniform vertical risk, while lobby-based AEDs travel less vertical distance in buildings with substantial lobby, underground, and nearby street-level traffic and OHCA risk.

  2. High-sensitivity mass spectrometry with a tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, W.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristic features of accelerator mass spectrometry are discussed. A short overview is given of the current status of mass spectrometry with high-energy (MeV/nucleon) heavy-ion accelerators. Emphasis is placed on studies with tandem accelerators and on future mass spectrometry of heavier isotopes with the new generation of higher-voltage tandems

  3. Correcting systematic errors in high-sensitivity deuteron polarization measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantjes, N. P. M.; Dzordzhadze, V.; Gebel, R.; Gonnella, F.; Gray, F. E.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Imig, A.; Kruithof, W. L.; Lazarus, D. M.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Messi, R.; Moricciani, D.; Morse, W. M.; Noid, G. A.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Ozben, C. S.; Prasuhn, D.; Sandri, P. Levi; Semertzidis, Y. K.; da Silva e Silva, M.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stockhorst, H.; Venanzoni, G.; Versolato, O. O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports deuteron vector and tensor beam polarization measurements taken to investigate the systematic variations due to geometric beam misalignments and high data rates. The experiments used the In-Beam Polarimeter at the KVI-Groningen and the EDDA detector at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY

  4. Variable high pressure processing sensitivities for GII human noroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of foodborne diseases worldwide. High pressure processing (HPP) is one of the most promising non-thermal technologies for decontamination of viral pathogens in foods. However, the survival of HuNoVs by HPP is poorly understood because these viruses cann...

  5. Intelligent buildings. Living and working in a high-tech building; Das intelligente Haus. Wohnen und Arbeiten mit zukunftsweisender Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traenkler, H.R. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Sensoren und Messsysteme; Schneider, F. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Messsystem- und Sensortechnik

    2001-07-01

    Intelligent buildings (smart home, home automation, intelligent living) are characterised by technical facilities with high comfort, flexible use of rooms, central and decentralised control, communication options, environmental compatibility, low energy cost and low operating cost. This book discusses technologies, components, subsystems and general aspects of smart homes. Sensors and sensor systems are discussed in particular as they are key components. Target groups of the publication are planning authorities, architects and constructional engineers, component producers, suppliers, tradesmen and private builder-owners. [German] Die interdisziplinaere Thematik des Intelligenten Hauses bzw. der Intelligenten Hausinstrumentarisierung (Smart Home, Home Automation, Intelligent Living) gewinnt zunehmend an Interesse. Waehrend die konventionelle Elektroinstallation im privaten Haus seit Jahrzehnten lediglich auf die Verteilung und das Schalten der elektrischen Energie ausgerichtet war, haben sich die Anforderungen an eine moderne Haustechnik hinsichtlich Komfort, Moeglichkeiten flexibler Raumnutzungen, zentraler und dezentraler Steuerungen, Kommunikationsmoeglichkeiten, Umweltvertraeglichkeit sowie Energie- und Betriebskostenminimierung geaendert und erweitert.Das vorliegende Werk behandelt Technologien, Komponenten, Subsysteme und Gesamtsystemaspekte fuer das intelligente Haus. Eine Schluesselrolle nehmen dabei Sensoren und Sensorsysteme ein, da nur solche Informationen verarbeitet werden koennen, die zuverlaessig erfasst worden sind. Neue Anwendungen ermoeglichen die Schaffung von Wohnraum, der den Bewohnern angepasst werden kann (kindgerecht, seniorengerecht), der im Einklang mit der Natur steht (Passivhaus, Nullheizenergiehaus), der vorteilhaft geplant werden kann (Gebaeudegeometrie, Gebaeudeausrichtung, Baumaterial, Landschaftsbezogenheit), der die mitdenkende Haut besitzt (lichtlenkende Fassade, transluzente Waermedaemmung) und der mit selbstregulierenden Systemen

  6. Change detection on LOD 2 building models with very high resolution spaceborne stereo imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rongjun

    2014-10-01

    Due to the fast development of the urban environment, the need for efficient maintenance and updating of 3D building models is ever increasing. Change detection is an essential step to spot the changed area for data (map/3D models) updating and urban monitoring. Traditional methods based on 2D images are no longer suitable for change detection in building scale, owing to the increased spectral variability of the building roofs and larger perspective distortion of the very high resolution (VHR) imagery. Change detection in 3D is increasingly being investigated using airborne laser scanning data or matched Digital Surface Models (DSM), but rare study has been conducted regarding to change detection on 3D city models with VHR images, which is more informative but meanwhile more complicated. This is due to the fact that the 3D models are abstracted geometric representation of the urban reality, while the VHR images record everything. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to detect changes directly on LOD (Level of Detail) 2 building models with VHR spaceborne stereo images from a different date, with particular focus on addressing the special characteristics of the 3D models. In the first step, the 3D building models are projected onto a raster grid, encoded with building object, terrain object, and planar faces. The DSM is extracted from the stereo imagery by hierarchical semi-global matching (SGM). In the second step, a multi-channel change indicator is extracted between the 3D models and stereo images, considering the inherent geometric consistency (IGC), height difference, and texture similarity for each planar face. Each channel of the indicator is then clustered with the Self-organizing Map (SOM), with "change", "non-change" and "uncertain change" status labeled through a voting strategy. The "uncertain changes" are then determined with a Markov Random Field (MRF) analysis considering the geometric relationship between faces. In the third step, buildings are

  7. Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Framework Nanosheets: Preparation and Application in Highly Sensitive and Selective DNA Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yongwu; Huang, Ying; Zhu, Yihan; Chen, Bo; Wang, Liying; Lai, Zhuangchai; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zhao, Meiting; Tan, Chaoliang; Yang, Nailiang; Shao, Fangwei; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    The ability to prepare ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) covalent organic framework (COF) nanosheets (NSs) in high yield is of great importance for the further exploration of their unique properties and potential applications. Herein, by elaborately designing and choosing two flexible molecules with C3v molecular symmetry as building units, a novel imine-linked COF, namely TPA-COF, with hexagonal layered structure and sheet-like morphology, is synthesized. Since the flexible building units are integrated into the COF skeletons, the interlayer stacking becomes weak, resulting in the easy exfoliation of TPA-COF into ultrathin 2D NSs. Impressively, for the first time, the detailed structural information, i.e. the pore channels and individual building units in the NSs, is clearly visualized by using the recently developed low-dose imaging technique of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a proof-of-concept application, the obtained ultrathin COF NSs are used as a novel fluorescence sensing platform for the highly sensitive and selective detection of DNA.

  8. Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Framework Nanosheets: Preparation and Application in Highly Sensitive and Selective DNA Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongwu; Huang, Ying; Zhu, Yihan; Chen, Bo; Wang, Liying; Lai, Zhuangchai; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zhao, Meiting; Tan, Chaoliang; Yang, Nailiang; Shao, Fangwei; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2017-06-28

    The ability to prepare ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) covalent organic framework (COF) nanosheets (NSs) in high yield is of great importance for the further exploration of their unique properties and potential applications. Herein, by elaborately designing and choosing two flexible molecules with C 3v molecular symmetry as building units, a novel imine-linked COF, namely, TPA-COF, with a hexagonal layered structure and sheet-like morphology, is synthesized. Since the flexible building units are integrated into the COF skeletons, the interlayer stacking becomes weak, resulting in the easy exfoliation of TPA-COF into ultrathin 2D NSs. Impressively, for the first time, the detailed structural information, i.e., the pore channels and individual building units in the NSs, is clearly visualized by using the recently developed low-dose imaging technique of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a proof-of-concept application, the obtained ultrathin COF NSs are used as a novel fluorescence sensing platform for the highly sensitive and selective detection of DNA.

  9. Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Framework Nanosheets: Preparation and Application in Highly Sensitive and Selective DNA Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yongwu

    2017-06-03

    The ability to prepare ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) covalent organic framework (COF) nanosheets (NSs) in high yield is of great importance for the further exploration of their unique properties and potential applications. Herein, by elaborately designing and choosing two flexible molecules with C3v molecular symmetry as building units, a novel imine-linked COF, namely TPA-COF, with hexagonal layered structure and sheet-like morphology, is synthesized. Since the flexible building units are integrated into the COF skeletons, the interlayer stacking becomes weak, resulting in the easy exfoliation of TPA-COF into ultrathin 2D NSs. Impressively, for the first time, the detailed structural information, i.e. the pore channels and individual building units in the NSs, is clearly visualized by using the recently developed low-dose imaging technique of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a proof-of-concept application, the obtained ultrathin COF NSs are used as a novel fluorescence sensing platform for the highly sensitive and selective detection of DNA.

  10. Smart glass as the method of improving the energy efficiency of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunova, Olga; Gumerova, Eliza; Miloradova, Nadezda

    2018-03-01

    The question that has to be answered in high-rise building is glazing and its service life conditions. Contemporary market offers several types of window units, for instance, wooden, aluminum, PVC and combined models. Wooden and PVC windows become the most widespread and competitive between each other. In recent times design engineers choose smart glass. In this article, the advantages and drawbacks of all types of windows are reviewed, and the recommendations are given according to choice of window type in order to improve energy efficiency of buildings.

  11. Radiation shielding and dose rate distribution for the building of the high dose rate accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Koji; Takagaki, Torao; Nakase, Yoshiaki; Nakai, Yohta.

    1984-03-01

    A high dose rate electron accelerator was established at Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Takasaki Establishment, JAERI in the fiscal year of 1975. This report shows the fundamental concept for the radiation shielding of the accelerator building and the results of their calculations which were evaluated through the model experiments. After the construction of the building, the leak radiation was measured in order to evaluate the calculating method of radiation shielding. Dose rate distribution of X-rays was also measured in the whole area of the irradiation room as a data base. (author)

  12. Technological aspects of lift-slab method in high-rise-building construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidukov, Pavel V.; Pugach, Evgeny M.

    2018-03-01

    The utilization efficiency of slab lifting technology for high-rise-building construction is regarded in the present article. The main problem of the article is organizing technology abilities indication, which proves the method application possibility. There is the comparing of lifting technologies and sequential concrete-frame extension, as follows: the first one: the parameters are defined, and the second one: the organizational model is executed. This model defines borders of the usage methods, as well. There is the mathematic model creating, which describes boundary conditions of the present technologies usage. This model allows to predict construction efficiency for different stored-number buildings.

  13. High Sensitivity Indium Phosphide Based Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — nLight has demonstrated highly-uniform APD arrays based on the highly sensitive InGaAs/InP material system. These results provide great promise for achieving the...

  14. AIRFLOW PATTERNS AND STACK PRESSURE SIMULATION IN A HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDING LOCATED IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoukhi Maatouk

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Buoyancy forces due to air density difference between outdoor air and indoor air cause stack effect in high-rise buildings in cold climates. This stack effect occurs mainly at the core of the building such as the stairway and elevator shafts and causes many problems such as the energy loss caused by air flow, the blocked elevator door and discomfort due to inflowing of strong outdoor air. The main purpose of this work is to model the airflow pattern in a highrise building during the winter period by mean of COMIS. The presented building which is situated in Korea contains 30 floors above the ground level and 5 basement floors. Using COMIS, the simulation has been carried out for the entire building. However, the simulation failed due to the huge number of zones and interactions between them. Therefore, a model of building which contains 14 floors with 5 floors in the basement has been considered; and a simplified model based on the considered one has been constructed and compared with the 14 floors model. The simplified model consists on reducing the number of floors by combining a certain number of stories into one so that to enable the simulation to be carried on with a minimum number of zones and links. The result of the simulation shows that this approach could be used with accuracy still being satisfied. Therefore, the simplified procedure has been extended and applied to the high rise building model with 30 stories above the ground level and 5 stories in the basement. The effect of the exterior wall air-tightness of the building with 30 stories on the stack pressure and airflow by infiltration and/or by exfiltration has been investigated. The result shows that the total air by infiltration and/or exfiltration within the elevator shafts increases with the decrease of the level of the air-tightness of the exterior wall of the building. It has been also shown that a huge amount of air infiltrates through the shuttle and emergency elevator

  15. Mass Spectrometry-based Assay for High Throughput and High Sensitivity Biomarker Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xuejiang; Tang, Keqi

    2017-06-14

    Searching for disease specific biomarkers has become a major undertaking in the biomedical research field as the effective diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many complex human diseases are largely determined by the availability and the quality of the biomarkers. A successful biomarker as an indicator to a specific biological or pathological process is usually selected from a large group of candidates by a strict verification and validation process. To be clinically useful, the validated biomarkers must be detectable and quantifiable by the selected testing techniques in their related tissues or body fluids. Due to its easy accessibility, protein biomarkers would ideally be identified in blood plasma or serum. However, most disease related protein biomarkers in blood exist at very low concentrations (<1ng/mL) and are “masked” by many none significant species at orders of magnitude higher concentrations. The extreme requirements of measurement sensitivity, dynamic range and specificity make the method development extremely challenging. The current clinical protein biomarker measurement primarily relies on antibody based immunoassays, such as ELISA. Although the technique is sensitive and highly specific, the development of high quality protein antibody is both expensive and time consuming. The limited capability of assay multiplexing also makes the measurement an extremely low throughput one rendering it impractical when hundreds to thousands potential biomarkers need to be quantitatively measured across multiple samples. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based assays have recently shown to be a viable alternative for high throughput and quantitative candidate protein biomarker verification. Among them, the triple quadrupole MS based assay is the most promising one. When it is coupled with liquid chromatography (LC) separation and electrospray ionization (ESI) source, a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in a special selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode

  16. High-rise buildings under multi-hazard environment assessment and design for optimal performance

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Mingfeng

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses performance-based seismic and wind-resistant design for high-rise building structures, with a particular focus on establishing an integrated approach for performance-based wind engineering, which is currently less advanced than seismic engineering. This book also provides a state-of-the-art review of numerous methodologies, including computational fluid dynamics (CFD), extreme value analysis, structural optimization, vibration control, pushover analysis, response spectrum analysis, modal parameter identification for the assessment of the wind-resistant and seismic performance of tall buildings in the design stage and actual tall buildings in use. Several new structural optimization methods, including the augmented optimality criteria method, have been developed and employed in the context of performance-based design. This book is a valuable resource for students, researchers and engineers in the field of civil and structural engineering.

  17. A Laboratory for studying radon mitigation methods in high-rise office buildings in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Hung, L.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.

    1996-01-01

    A territory-wide survey of indoor radon level in 1993 showed that 17% of offices Hong Kong have radon concentrations above 200 Bq m -3 compared with 4% for dwellings. Consequently, the Radioisotope Unit Radon Analysis Laboratory (RURAL) is being built for studying radon mitigation methods applicable to high-rise office buildings. The laboratory consists of three rooms; the main exposure room is built of concrete and is surrounded by the buffer room; and all controls and operations are done inside the control room. The exposure room can, with the aid of the buffer room, simulate any environmental conditions that can be faced by a real building. The pressure, temperature and humidity can be adjusted to any meteorological conditions that can be found in Hong Kong. Pressure differential and temperature differential can be adjusted to simulate the arrival of fronts, troughs or typhoons. Aerosol concentration and distribution inside the exposure room are controllable as well as the ventilation conditions. Various mitigation methods will be tested under different conditions. Passive methods include application of radon barriers to building structures and active methods include the use of air cleaners; techniques to increase radon daughters plateout or reduce their attachment to aerosols; and various modifications to the ventilation systems. Mitigation techniques involving modifications to the building strictures and building services will also be developed with the help of the RURAL. (author)

  18. Impacts of orientation on daylighting in high-rise office buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdolHamid Mahdavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation is one of the important factors in building design to use daylight and ‎conserve energy. Well-orientated buildings maximise daylight reception through ‎building facades and reduce the need for artificial lighting. Reasonable daylighting usage in office buildings is an important part of an architect’s designing process, which leads to lesser electricity consumption as well as providing a visual and thermal comfort for the occupants. Orientation is an important factor in passive design strategies. This paper focuses on the orientation effect on daylighting into office rooms. The research method of this study was simulation which is performed on a hypothetical model on a 25 storey high-rise office building in Malaysia. All simulations were carried out in the IES-VE software that uses RADIANCE program for illuminance calculations. To evaluate the daylight in various conditions, a new index SAZ was introduced which assesses daylight factor (DF and absolute Lux. Results showed similar SAZ in CIE overcast sky in various orientations; whereas, in sunny sky due to sun path in Malaysia, different results showed northern and southern rooms have the best illuminance distribution. However, the similar window form and size in four orientations lead to more energy consumption for artificial lighting and cooling loads.

  19. Effect of highly reflective roofing sheet on building thermal loads for a school in Osaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jihui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, urban heat island (UHI phenomenon and building energy consumptions are becoming serious. Strategies to mitigate UHI and reduce building energy consumptions are implemented worldwide. In Japan, as an effective means of mitigating UHI and saving energy of buildings, highly reflective (HR and green roofs are increasingly used. In order to evaluate the effect of roofs with high reflection and thermal insulation on the energy conservation of buildings, we investigated the roof solar reflectivity of the subject school in Osaka, in which the HR roofing sheet was installed on the roof from 2010. Thermal loads, including cooling and heating loads of the top floor of school, were calculated using the thermal load calculation software, New HASP/ACLD-β. Comparing the thermal loads after HR roofing sheet installation to previous, the annual thermal load decreased about 25 MJ/m2-year and the cooling load decreased about 112 MJ/m2-year. However, the heating load increased about 87 MJ/m2-year in winter. To minimize the annual thermal load, thermal insulation of the roof was also considered be used together with HR roofing sheet in this study. The results showed that the combination of HR roofing sheet and high thermal insulation is more effective to reduce the annual thermal load.

  20. Self-powered neutron detector of high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.; Spillekothen, H.G.; Benninghofen, G.; Serafin, N.

    1983-01-01

    A self-powered neutron detector is proposed, consisting of three concentrically arranged electrically conducting tubes; where the central one forms the emitter and the inner and outer ones form the collector and where the tubes are electrically insulated from each other by insulating material. The emitter consists of a material with a high absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons, particularly of gadolinium, and is provided with an auxiliary emitter layer on the inside or the outside. With suitable dimensions and material, the auxiliary emitter layer increases the yield of electrons. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Extraction Method for Earthquake-Collapsed Building Information Based on High-Resolution Remote Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Wu, Jian; Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    At present, the extraction of earthquake disaster information from remote sensing data relies on visual interpretation. However, this technique cannot effectively and quickly obtain precise and efficient information for earthquake relief and emergency management. Collapsed buildings in the town of Zipingpu after the Wenchuan earthquake were used as a case study to validate two kinds of rapid extraction methods for earthquake-collapsed building information based on pixel-oriented and object-oriented theories. The pixel-oriented method is based on multi-layer regional segments that embody the core layers and segments of the object-oriented method. The key idea is to mask layer by layer all image information, including that on the collapsed buildings. Compared with traditional techniques, the pixel-oriented method is innovative because it allows considerably rapid computer processing. As for the object-oriented method, a multi-scale segment algorithm was applied to build a three-layer hierarchy. By analyzing the spectrum, texture, shape, location, and context of individual object classes in different layers, the fuzzy determined rule system was established for the extraction of earthquake-collapsed building information. We compared the two sets of results using three variables: precision assessment, visual effect, and principle. Both methods can extract earthquake-collapsed building information quickly and accurately. The object-oriented method successfully overcomes the pepper salt noise caused by the spectral diversity of high-resolution remote sensing data and solves the problem of same object, different spectrums and that of same spectrum, different objects. With an overall accuracy of 90.38%, the method achieves more scientific and accurate results compared with the pixel-oriented method (76.84%). The object-oriented image analysis method can be extensively applied in the extraction of earthquake disaster information based on high-resolution remote sensing

  2. An Underwater Acoustic Vector Sensor with High Sensitivity and Broad Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, acoustic vector sensor that use accelerators as sensing elements are widely used in underwater acoustic engineering, but the sensitivity of which at low frequency band is usually lower than -220 dB. In this paper, using a piezoelectric trilaminar optimized low frequency sensing element, we designed a high sensitivity internal placed ICP piezoelectric accelerometer as sensing element. Through structure optimization, we made a high sensitivity, broadband, small scale vector sensor. The working band is 10-2000 Hz, sound pressure sensitivity is -185 dB (at 100 Hz, outer diameter is 42 mm, length is 80 mm.

  3. Serine Protease Zymography: Low-Cost, Rapid, and Highly Sensitive RAMA Casein Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumitsu, Hidetaro

    2017-01-01

    To detect serine protease activity by zymography, casein and CBB stain have been used as a substrate and a detection procedure, respectively. Casein zymography has been using substrate concentration at 1 mg/mL and employing conventional CBB stain. Although ordinary casein zymography provides reproducible results, it has several disadvantages including time-consuming and relative low sensitivity. Improved casein zymography, RAMA casein zymography, is rapid and highly sensitive. RAMA casein zymography completes the detection process within 1 h after incubation and increases the sensitivity at least by tenfold. In addition to serine protease, the method also detects metalloprotease 7 (MMP7, Matrilysin) with high sensitivity.

  4. Highly sensitive determination of atropine using cobalt oxide nanostructures: Influence of functional groups on the signal sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soomro, Razium Ali, E-mail: raziumsoomro@gmail.com [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Nafady, Ayman [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt); Hallam, Keith Richard [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Jawaid, Sana [National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Al Enizi, Abdullah [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Sirajuddin [National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain [Dr M.A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Willander, Magnus [Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrkoping, Linkoping University, SE-60174, Norrkoping (Sweden)

    2016-12-15

    This study describes sensitive determination of atropine using glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. The as-synthesised nanostructures were grown using cysteine (CYS), glutathione (GSH) and histidine (HYS) as effective templates under hydrothermal action. The obtained morphologies revealed interesting structural features, including both cavity-based and flower-shaped structures. The as-synthesised morphologies were noted to actively participate in electro-catalysis of atropine (AT) drug where GSH-assisted structures exhibited the best signal response in terms of current density and over-potential value. The study also discusses the influence of functional groups on the signal sensitivity of atropine electro-oxidation. The functionalisation was carried with the amino acids originally used as effective templates for the growth of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. The highest increment was obtained when GSH was used as the surface functionalising agent. The GSH-functionalised Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}-modified electrode was utilised for the electro-chemical sensing of AT in a concentration range of 0.01–0.46 μM. The developed sensor exhibited excellent working linearity (R{sup 2} = 0.999) and signal sensitivity up to 0.001 μM of AT. The noted high sensitivity of the sensor is associated with the synergy of superb surface architectures and favourable interaction facilitating the electron transfer kinetics for the electro-catalytic oxidation of AT. Significantly, the developed sensor demonstrated excellent working capability when used for AT detection in human urine samples with strong anti-interference potential against common co-existing species, such as glucose, fructose, cysteine, uric acid, dopamine and ascorbic acid. - Highlights: • Template-assisted growth of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. • Shape-dependent electro-catalysis of atropine. • Effect of functionalisation of signal sensitivity.

  5. High-speed asynchronous optical sampling for high-sensitivity detection of coherent phonons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekorsy, T; Taubert, R; Hudert, F; Schrenk, G; Bartels, A; Cerna, R; Kotaidis, V; Plech, A; Koehler, K; Schmitz, J; Wagner, J

    2007-01-01

    A new optical pump-probe technique is implemented for the investigation of coherent acoustic phonon dynamics in the GHz to THz frequency range which is based on two asynchronously linked femtosecond lasers. Asynchronous optical sampling (ASOPS) provides the performance of on all-optical oscilloscope and allows us to record optically induced lattice dynamics over nanosecond times with femtosecond resolution at scan rates of 10 kHz without any moving part in the set-up. Within 1 minute of data acquisition time signal-to-noise ratios better than 10 7 are achieved. We present examples of the high-sensitivity detection of coherent phonons in superlattices and of the coherent acoustic vibration of metallic nanoparticles

  6. High-precision high-sensitivity clock recovery circuit for a mobile payment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lichong; Yan Na; Min Hao; Ren Wenliang

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated carrier clock recovery circuit for a mobile payment application. The architecture is based on a sampling-detection module and a charge pump phase locked loop. Compared with clock recovery in conventional 13.56 MHz transponders, this circuit can recover a high-precision consecutive carrier clock from the on/off keying (OOK) signal sent by interrogators. Fabricated by a SMIC 0.18-μm EEPROM CMOS process, this chip works from a single power supply as low as 1.5 V Measurement results show that this circuit provides 0.34% frequency deviation and 8 mV sensitivity. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. Ionization chamber with build-up cup spectral sensitivity to megavoltage (0.5-20 MeV) photon fluences in free air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlachev, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    In-air measurements of photon beam properties, used in radiation therapy, is common practice for determining radiation output dependence from the field size, known as head scatter factors (HSF). PMMA and brass build-up caps are most popular miniphantoms for providing electron equilibrium. Discrepancies up to 2% in HSF measurements by different combinations of detectors and equilibrium caps have been published. One of the main reasons of those discrepancies is the detector system spectral sensitivity and differences in primary and scatter radiation spectra. In the light of new model based dose calculation methods direct radiation fluence measurement is of great interest. So, understanding of detector spectral sensitivity is important task for modern dosimetry of radiation therapy. In the present study Monte Carlo (MC) method was employed to calculate ionization chamber response to monoenergetic photon fluences, normalized to water kerma units. Simulation was done using EGS4 package. Electron transport was performed with ESTEPE equal to 4%. PEGS cross sections were generated for maximal energy 20 MeV with cutoff kinetic energy 10 KeV both for photons and electrons. Scanditronix RK-05 ionization chamber was chosen as a prototype. Eight cylindrical miniphantoms, representing four materials (PMMA, Al, Cu, Pb) and two front wall thickness, were simulated. Results are presented. Miniphantom front wall thicknesses in each case are shown in the figure. Diameter depends on the material and equal respectively: PMMA - 4, Al - 2.5, Cu - 1.5, and PB - 1.5 cm. Ionization chamber outer diameter is equal to 0.7 cm. Detector sensitivity has considerable energy dependence. Two effects explain it. First is the radiation attenuation in the miniphantom. Second is pair production, which dominates in high atomic number miniphantoms for energies above 5 MeV. Depending on the miniphantom material detector response changes from 1.5 to 5 times in the energy range from 0.5 to 20 MeV. Correct

  8. A highly sensitive method for quantification of iohexol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, A.; Boeringer, F.; Swifka, J.

    2014-01-01

    -chromatography-electrospray-massspectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) approach using the multiple reaction monitoring mode for iohexol quantification. In order to test whether a significantly decreased amount of iohexol is sufficient for reliable quantification, a LC-ESI-MS approach was assessed. We analyzed the kinetics of iohexol in rats after application...... of different amounts of iohexol (15 mg to 150 1.tg per rat). Blood sampling was conducted at four time points, at 15, 30, 60, and 90 min, after iohexol injection. The analyte (iohexol) and the internal standard (iotha(amic acid) were separated from serum proteins using a centrifugal filtration device...... with a cut-off of 3 kDa. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an analytical Zorbax SB C18 column. The detection and quantification were performed on a high capacity trap mass spectrometer using positive ion ESI in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Furthermore, using real-time polymerase...

  9. High Quality Rapeseed Products as Feed for Sensitive Monogastrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Heidi Blok

    in plants of the order Brassicales (former known as Capparales), which include rapeseed, rype (Brassica campestris L.) Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.), broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.var. italica) and many other plants. Glucosinolates have been studied widely for their biologic effects ranging from...... by xenobiotica enzymes in the liver. The last study (manuscript IV) deals with the novel processing techniques, pulsed electric field (PEF) and high pressure treatment (HPT) and the processing effects on glucosinolates in broccoli. The largest effects were observed to be a result of the different handling...... of the plant materials prior to the process treatment. It was thus found that a great amount of the glucosinolate loss has occurred in the broccoli juice and purée prior to PEF processing. Only a minor loss was observed in broccoli flowers prior to processing, and HP treatment at 700 MPa for 10 min. was found...

  10. Silicon nanowire structures as high-sensitive pH-sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belostotskaya, S O; Chuyko, O V; Kuznetsov, A E; Kuznetsov, E V; Rybachek, E N

    2012-01-01

    Sensitive elements for pH-sensors created on silicon nanostructures were researched. Silicon nanostructures have been used as ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) for the measurement of solution pH. Silicon nanostructures have been fabricated by 'top-down' approach and have been studied as pH sensitive elements. Nanowires have the higher sensitivity. It was shown, that sensitive element, which is made of 'one-dimensional' silicon nanostructure have bigger pH-sensitivity as compared with 'two-dimensional' structure. Integrated element formed from two p- and n-type nanowire ISFET ('inverter') can be used as high sensitivity sensor for local relative change [H+] concentration in very small volume.

  11. A novel high resolution, high sensitivity SPECT detector for molecular imaging of cardiovascular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusanno, F.; Argentieri, A.; Baiocchi, M.; Colilli, S.; Cisbani, E.; De Vincentis, G.; Fratoni, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lucentini, M.; Magliozzi, M. L.; Majewski, S.; Marano, G.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Santavenere, F.; Torrioli, S.; Tsui, B. M. W.; Vitelli, L.; Wang, Y.

    2010-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death in western countries. Understanding the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques and monitoring the effect of innovative therapies of heart failure is of fundamental importance. A flexible, high resolution, high sensitivity detector system for molecular imaging with radionuclides on small animal models has been designed for this aim. A prototype has been built using tungsten pinhole and LaBr3(Ce) scintillator coupled to Hamamatsu Flat Panel PMTs. Compact individual-channel readout has been designed, built and tested. Measurements with phantoms as well as pilot studies on mice have been performed, the results show that the myocardial perfusion in mice can be determined with sufficient precision. The detector will be improved replacing the Hamamatsu Flat Panel with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) to allow integration of the system with MRI scanners. Application of LaBr3(Ce) scintillator coupled to photosensor with high photon detection efficiency and excellent energy resolution will allow dual-label imaging to monitor simultaneously the cardiac perfusion and the molecular targets under investigation during the heart therapy.

  12. Simulation on spread of fire smoke in the elevator shaft for a high-rise building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchun Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spread of fire smoke in the elevator shaft of a high-rise building is influenced by many driving facts. We simulate smoke spreading in the elevator shaft, stair room, and pre-chamber with and without different supplied pressurized air. The simulation shows that smoke moves very fast in the elevator shaft. When a 12 floor high-rise building is in fire, smoke can fill up the elevator shaft in less than 1.5 min after a fire started, temperature in the elevator shaft can be higher than 187°C in 5 min, and the concentration of CO can also reach a high level. The elevator shaft has a very low visibility in less than about 100 s.

  13. Nanowire-templated microelectrodes for high-sensitivity pH detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antohe, V.A.; Radu, Adrian; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária

    2009-01-01

    A highly sensitive pH capacitive sensor has been designed by confined growth of vertically aligned nanowire arrays on interdigited microelectrodes. The active surface of the device has been functionalized with an electrochemical pH transducer (polyaniline). We easily tune the device features...... by combining lithographic techniques with electrochemical synthesis. The reported electrical LC resonance measurements show considerable sensitivity enhancement compared to conventional capacitive pH sensors realized with microfabricated interdigited electrodes. The sensitivity can be easily improved...

  14. Eating high-fat chow enhances sensitization to the effects of methamphetamine on locomotion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Blaine A; Baladi, Michelle G; France, Charles P

    2011-05-11

    Eating high-fat chow can modify the effects of drugs acting directly or indirectly on dopamine systems and repeated intermittent drug administration can markedly increase sensitivity (i.e., sensitization) to the behavioral effects of indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonists (e.g., methamphetamine). This study examined whether eating high-fat chow alters the sensitivity of male Sprague Dawley rats to the locomotor stimulating effects of acute or repeated administration of methamphetamine. The acute effects of methamphetamine on locomotion were not different between rats (n=6/group) eating high-fat or standard chow for 1 or 4 weeks. Sensitivity to the effects of methamphetamine (0.1-10mg/kg, i.p.) increased progressively across 4 once per week tests; this sensitization developed more rapidly and to a greater extent in rats eating high-fat chow as compared with rats eating standard chow. Thus, while eating high-fat chow does not appear to alter sensitivity of rats to acutely-administered methamphetamine, it significantly increases the sensitization that develops to repeated intermittent administration of methamphetamine. These data suggest that eating certain foods influences the development of sensitization to drugs acting on dopamine systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CONSTRUCTION OF A DIFFERENTIAL ISOTHERMAL CALORIMETER OF HIGH SENSITIVITY AND LOW COST.

    OpenAIRE

    Trinca, RB; Perles, CE; Volpe, PLO

    2009-01-01

    CONSTRUCTION OF A DIFFERENTIAL ISOTHERMAL CALORIMETER OF HIGH SENSITIVITY AND LOW COST The high cost of sensitivity commercial calorimeters may represent an obstacle for many calorimetric research groups. This work describes (fie construction and calibration of a batch differential heat conduction calorimeter with sample cells volumes of about 400 mu L. The calorimeter was built using two small high sensibility square Peltier thermoelectric sensors and the total cost was estimated to be about...

  16. CALCULATION OF THE UNIQUE HIGH-RISE BUILDING FOR EARTHQUAKES IN NONLINEAR DYNAMIC FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkrtychev Oleg Vartanovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the calculation of a 80-storey high-rise building on 3-component accelerograms with different dominant frequencies. The “Akhmat Tower” belongs to the complex “Grozny-city 2” and is classified as a unique construction, its height is 400 m. During the construction unique high-rise buildings and high-rise buildings in seismic areas an additional computational studies are required, which should take into account the nonlinear nature of the design. For the case of linear instrumental-synthesized accelerograms, it is necessary to apply nonlinear dynamic methods. The studies were conducted using the software LS-DYNA, implementing the methods of direct integration of the equations of motion by the explicit scheme. The constructive scheme of the building frame is braced, the spatial stability is ensured by load-bearing interior walls, columns and hard disks, and frame metal coatings. The choice of the type and dimensions of the finite element and the step of integration is due to the ability to perform calculations in reasonable time, and to the required accuracy of calculation. For this aim the issues of convergence of the solutions on a number of settlement schemes were investigated with the terms of thickened mesh of finite elements: 0.5 m; 1 m; 2 m; 3 m. As a result of the research it was obtained that the best is to split into finite elements with a characteristic size of 2 m. The calculation of the building is made on rigid foundation. The authors used accelerograms normalized for earthquakes of 8 and 9 points on the MSK-64 scale. The destruction of the elements in the process of loading, and the interaction of the elements during their contact was taken into account, i.e. the calculation was made taking into account physical, geometrical and structural nonlinearities. The article analyzes the results of the calculation. The authors evaluated the seismic stability of the building. Possible ways to improve the seismic

  17. Development of the "Highly Sensitive Dog" questionnaire to evaluate the personality dimension "Sensory Processing Sensitivity" in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Braem

    Full Text Available In humans, the personality dimension 'sensory processing sensitivity (SPS', also referred to as "high sensitivity", involves deeper processing of sensory information, which can be associated with physiological and behavioral overarousal. However, it has not been studied up to now whether this dimension also exists in other species. SPS can influence how people perceive the environment and how this affects them, thus a similar dimension in animals would be highly relevant with respect to animal welfare. We therefore explored whether SPS translates to dogs, one of the primary model species in personality research. A 32-item questionnaire to assess the "highly sensitive dog score" (HSD-s was developed based on the "highly sensitive person" (HSP questionnaire. A large-scale, international online survey was conducted, including the HSD questionnaire, as well as questions on fearfulness, neuroticism, "demographic" (e.g. dog sex, age, weight; age at adoption, etc. and "human" factors (e.g. owner age, sex, profession, communication style, etc., and the HSP questionnaire. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effect models with forward stepwise selection to test prediction of HSD-s by the above-mentioned factors, with country of residence and dog breed treated as random effects. A total of 3647 questionnaires were fully completed. HSD-, fearfulness, neuroticism and HSP-scores showed good internal consistencies, and HSD-s only moderately correlated with fearfulness and neuroticism scores, paralleling previous findings in humans. Intra- (N = 447 and inter-rater (N = 120 reliabilities were good. Demographic and human factors, including HSP score, explained only a small amount of the variance of HSD-s. A PCA analysis identified three subtraits of SPS, comparable to human findings. Overall, the measured personality dimension in dogs showed good internal consistency, partial independence from fearfulness and neuroticism, and good intra- and inter

  18. Monitoring the Deformation of High-Rise Buildings in Shanghai Luijiazui Zone by Tomo-Psinsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L. F.; Ma, P. F.; Xia, Y.; Xie, C. H.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we utilize a Tomography-based Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (Tomo-PSInSAR) approach for monitoring the deformation performances of high-rise buildings, i.e. SWFC and Jin Mao Tower, in Shanghai Lujiazui Zone. For the purpose of this study, we use 31 Stripmap acquisitions from TerraSAR-X missions, spanning from December 2009 to February 2013. Considering thermal expansion, creep and shrinkage are two long-term movements that occur in high-rise buildings with concrete structures, we use an extended 4-D SAR phase model, and three parameters (height, deformation velocity, and thermal amplitude) are estimated simultaneously. Moreover, we apply a two-tier network strategy to detect single and double PSs with no need for preliminary removal of the atmospheric phase screen (APS) in the study area, avoiding possible error caused by the uncertainty in spatiotemporal filtering. Thermal expansion is illustrated in the thermal amplitude map, and deformation due to creep and shrinkage is revealed in the linear deformation velocity map. The thermal amplitude map demonstrates that the derived thermal amplitude of the two high-rise buildings both dilate and contract periodically, which is highly related to the building height due to the upward accumulative effect of thermal expansion. The linear deformation velocity map reveals that SWFC is subject to deformation during the new built period due to creep and shrinkage, which is height-dependent movements in the linear velocity map. It is worth mention that creep and shrinkage induces movements that increase with the increasing height in the downward direction. In addition, the deformation rates caused by creep and shrinkage are largest at the beginning and gradually decrease, and at last achieve a steady state as time goes infinity. On the contrary, the linear deformation velocity map shows that Jin Mao Tower is almost stable, and the reason is that it is an old built building, which is not influenced by creep

  19. MONITORING THE DEFORMATION OF HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS IN SHANGHAI LUIJIAZUI ZONE BY TOMO-PSINSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we utilize a Tomography-based Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (Tomo-PSInSAR approach for monitoring the deformation performances of high-rise buildings, i.e. SWFC and Jin Mao Tower, in Shanghai Lujiazui Zone. For the purpose of this study, we use 31 Stripmap acquisitions from TerraSAR-X missions, spanning from December 2009 to February 2013. Considering thermal expansion, creep and shrinkage are two long-term movements that occur in high-rise buildings with concrete structures, we use an extended 4-D SAR phase model, and three parameters (height, deformation velocity, and thermal amplitude are estimated simultaneously. Moreover, we apply a two-tier network strategy to detect single and double PSs with no need for preliminary removal of the atmospheric phase screen (APS in the study area, avoiding possible error caused by the uncertainty in spatiotemporal filtering. Thermal expansion is illustrated in the thermal amplitude map, and deformation due to creep and shrinkage is revealed in the linear deformation velocity map. The thermal amplitude map demonstrates that the derived thermal amplitude of the two high-rise buildings both dilate and contract periodically, which is highly related to the building height due to the upward accumulative effect of thermal expansion. The linear deformation velocity map reveals that SWFC is subject to deformation during the new built period due to creep and shrinkage, which is height-dependent movements in the linear velocity map. It is worth mention that creep and shrinkage induces movements that increase with the increasing height in the downward direction. In addition, the deformation rates caused by creep and shrinkage are largest at the beginning and gradually decrease, and at last achieve a steady state as time goes infinity. On the contrary, the linear deformation velocity map shows that Jin Mao Tower is almost stable, and the reason is that it is an old built building, which is not

  20. Development of high-rise buildings: digitalization of life cycle management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusakova Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the accumulated long-term experience in the construction and operation of high-rise buildings reveals not only the engineering specificity of such projects, but also systemic problems in the field of project management. Most of the project decisions are made by the developer and the investor in the early stages of the life cycle - from the acquisition of the site to the start of operation, so most of the participants in the construction and operation of the high-rise building are far from the strategic life-cycle management of the project. The solution of these tasks due to the informatization of management has largely exhausted its efficiency resource. This is due to the fact that the applied IT-systems automated traditional "inherited" processes and management structures, and, in addition, they were focused on informatization of the activities of the construction company, rather than the construction project. Therefore, in the development of high-rise buildings, the tasks of researching approaches and methods for managing the full life cycle of projects that will improve their competitiveness become topical. For this purpose, the article substantiates the most promising approaches and methods of informational modeling of high-rise construction as a basis for managing the full life cycle of this project. Reengineering of information interaction schemes for project participants is considered; formation of a unified digital environment for the life cycle of the project; the development of systems for integrating data management and project management.

  1. Construction of high-rise building with underground parking in Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyichev, Vyacheslav; Nikiforova, Nadezhda; Konnov, Artem

    2018-03-01

    Paper presents results of scientific support to construction of unique residential building 108 m high with one storey underground part under high-rise section and 3-storey underground parking connected by underground passage. On-site soils included anthropogenic soil, clayey soils soft-stiff, saturated sands of varied grain coarseness. Design of retaining structure and support system for high-rise part excavation was developed. It suggested installation of steel pipes and struts. Construction of adjacent 3-storey underground parking by "Moscow method" is described in the paper. This method involves implementation of retaining wall consisted of prefabricated panels, truss structures (used as struts) and reinforced concrete slabs. Also design and construction technology is provided for foundations consisted of bored piles 800 MM in diameter joined by slab with base widening diameter of 1500 MM. Experiment results of static and dynamic load testing (ELDY method) are considered. Geotechnical monitoring data of adjacent building and utility systems settlement caused by construction of presented high-rise building were compared to numerical modelling results, predicted and permissible values.

  2. Development of high-rise buildings: digitalization of life cycle management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakova, Elena

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of the accumulated long-term experience in the construction and operation of high-rise buildings reveals not only the engineering specificity of such projects, but also systemic problems in the field of project management. Most of the project decisions are made by the developer and the investor in the early stages of the life cycle - from the acquisition of the site to the start of operation, so most of the participants in the construction and operation of the high-rise building are far from the strategic life-cycle management of the project. The solution of these tasks due to the informatization of management has largely exhausted its efficiency resource. This is due to the fact that the applied IT-systems automated traditional "inherited" processes and management structures, and, in addition, they were focused on informatization of the activities of the construction company, rather than the construction project. Therefore, in the development of high-rise buildings, the tasks of researching approaches and methods for managing the full life cycle of projects that will improve their competitiveness become topical. For this purpose, the article substantiates the most promising approaches and methods of informational modeling of high-rise construction as a basis for managing the full life cycle of this project. Reengineering of information interaction schemes for project participants is considered; formation of a unified digital environment for the life cycle of the project; the development of systems for integrating data management and project management.

  3. Construction of high-rise building with underground parking in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyichev Vyacheslav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents results of scientific support to construction of unique residential building 108 m high with one storey underground part under high-rise section and 3-storey underground parking connected by underground passage. On-site soils included anthropogenic soil, clayey soils soft-stiff, saturated sands of varied grain coarseness. Design of retaining structure and support system for high-rise part excavation was developed. It suggested installation of steel pipes and struts. Construction of adjacent 3-storey underground parking by “Moscow method” is described in the paper. This method involves implementation of retaining wall consisted of prefabricated panels, truss structures (used as struts and reinforced concrete slabs. Also design and construction technology is provided for foundations consisted of bored piles 800 MM in diameter joined by slab with base widening diameter of 1500 MM. Experiment results of static and dynamic load testing (ELDY method are considered. Geotechnical monitoring data of adjacent building and utility systems settlement caused by construction of presented high-rise building were compared to numerical modelling results, predicted and permissible values.

  4. Differential sensitivity of long-sleep and short-sleep mice to high doses of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Ruth, J A; Collins, A C

    1989-12-01

    The cocaine sensitivity of male and female long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice, which have been selectively bred for differential ethanol-induced "sleep-time," was examined in a battery of behavioral and physiological tests. Differences between these two mouse lines were subtle and were seen primarily at high doses. At high doses, SS mice were more sensitive than LS mice, particularly to cocaine-induced hypothermia; however, significant hypothermia was not seen except at doses which were very near to the seizure threshold. During a 60-min test of locomotor activity, LS mice showed greater stimulation of Y-maze activity by 20 mg/kg cocaine than SS mice. Consistent with the finding of subtle differences in sensitivity to low doses of cocaine. LS and SS mice did not differ in sensitivity to cocaine inhibition of synaptosomal uptake of [3H]-dopamine, [3H]-norepinephrine or [3H]-5-hydroxytryptamine. However, consistent with the finding of differential sensitivity to high doses of cocaine, SS mice were more sensitive to the seizure-producing effects of the cocaine and lidocaine, a local anesthetic. It is hypothesized that the differential sensitivity of these mouse lines to high doses of cocaine is due to differential sensitivity to cocaine's actions on systems that regulate local anesthetic effects. Selective breeding for differential duration of alcohol-induced "sleep-time" may have resulted in differential ion channel structure or function in these mice.

  5. Organic dye for highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Mende, L.; Bach, U.; Humphry-Baker, R.; Ito, S.; Graetzel, M. [Institut des Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques (ISIC), Laboratoire de Photonique et Interfaces (LPI), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Horiuchi, T.; Miura, H. [Technology Research Laboratory, Corporate Research Center, Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited, 46, Wadai, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan); Uchida, S. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1-1 Katahira 2-chome, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2005-04-04

    The feasibility of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells as a low-cost alternative to amorphous silicon cells is demonstrated. Such a cell with a record efficiency of over 4 % under simulated sunlight is reported, made possible by using a new organic metal-free indoline dye as the sensitizer with high absorption coefficient. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Regionalized sensitivity analysis with respect to multiple outputs - and an application for real-time building space exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben

    coordinate plot (PCP) is a popular tool, because it is easy to use in “real-time” – even for multiple decision-makers. However, the PCP becomes unmanageable if it contains many variables, e.g. more than 10–15. Since building simulations typically involve a lot more parameters, we would like to reduce...

  7. Development of knowledge building program concerning about high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Takase, Hiroyasu

    2005-01-01

    Acquirement of knowledge about the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal is one of the important factors for public to determine the social acceptance of HLW disposal. However in Japan, public do not have knowledge about HLW and its disposal sufficiently. In this work, we developed the knowledge building program concerning about HLW disposal based on Nonaka, and Takeuchi's SECI spiral model in knowledge management, and carried to the experiment on this program. In the results, we found that the participants' knowledge about the HLW disposal increased and changed from misunderstanding' or 'assuming' to 'facts' or 'consideration' through this experimental program. These results said that the experimental program leads participants to have higher quality of knowledge about the HLW disposal. In consequence, this knowledge building program may be effective in the acquirement of high quality knowledge. (author)

  8. Assessment of Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET in Transitional Spaces of a High-Rise Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooriati Taib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One passive approach that can significantly reduce energy usage in high-rise buildings is through the creation of non-air conditioned spaces such as transitional spaces. Optimizing passive design would reduce wastage associated with the building’s energy consumption. The study measures the thermal comfort of three types of transitional spaces (sky court, balcony, and rooftop in a high-rise office building. Based on the assessment of Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET, the outcome showed significant differences in PET in all locations in both wet and dry season. The effectiveness of such area can be improved with the contributions of landscape, maximizing natural ventilation and day lighting where possible.

  9. Feasibility study tool for semi-rigid joints design of high-rise buildings steel structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagautdinov, Ruslan; Monastireva, Daria; Bodak, Irina; Potapova, Irina

    2018-03-01

    There are many ways to consider the final cost of the high-rise building structures and to define, which of their different variations are the most effective from different points of view. The research of Jaakko Haapio is conducted in Tampere University of Technology, which aims to develop a method that allows determining the manufacturing and installation costs of steel structures already at the tender phase while taking into account their details. This paper is aimed to make the analysis of the Feature-Based Costing Method for skeletal steel structures proposed by Jaakko Haapio. The most appropriate ways to improve the tool and to implement it in the Russian circumstances for high-rise building design are derived. Presented tool can be useful not only for the designers but, also, for the steel structures manufacturing organizations, which can help to utilize BIM technologies in the organization process and controlling on the factory.

  10. Feasibility study tool for semi-rigid joints design of high-rise buildings steel structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagautdinov Ruslan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to consider the final cost of the high-rise building structures and to define, which of their different variations are the most effective from different points of view. The research of Jaakko Haapio is conducted in Tampere University of Technology, which aims to develop a method that allows determining the manufacturing and installation costs of steel structures already at the tender phase while taking into account their details. This paper is aimed to make the analysis of the Feature-Based Costing Method for skeletal steel structures proposed by Jaakko Haapio. The most appropriate ways to improve the tool and to implement it in the Russian circumstances for high-rise building design are derived. Presented tool can be useful not only for the designers but, also, for the steel structures manufacturing organizations, which can help to utilize BIM technologies in the organization process and controlling on the factory.

  11. High Rise Building: The Mega Sculpture Made Of Steel, Concrete and Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańska, Alicja; Załuski, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    High rise building has transformed from providing not only the expansion of floor space but functioning as mega sculpture in the city. The shift away from economic efficiency driven need is only expected to grow in the future. Based on literature studies; after analysing planning documents and case studies, it was examined whether the presumption that gaining the maximum amount of usable area is the only driving factor; or if the need for the creation of an image for the city provided a supplementary reason. The results showed that forming high rise buildings as three-dimensional sculptures is influenced not only by aesthetics, but also marketing. Visual distinction in the city skyline is economically beneficial for investors gaining not only functionality but art, enriching the cultural landscape. Organizing architectural competitions, public debates and following the latest art trends is therefore possible due to large budgets of such projects.

  12. A study of building structural features associated with high indoor air concentrations of organochlorine termiticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisaniello, D L; Gun, R T; Tkaczuk, M N; Hann, C; Crea, J

    1993-09-01

    As part of a two-year study of post-treatment residential exposure to the termiticide, aldrin, the building structural features of ten houses with crawl-space-type floors were assessed by an independent inspector. Building attributes recorded on a checklist included the age of the dwelling, room characteristics, floor details and the nature of subfloor ventilation. At the end of each inspection, the inspector, who was blinded to data on airborne aldrin concentrations, provided a rating of expected indoor air contamination. Several of the building attributes, including the age of the house, the area of exterior subfloor vents, as well as the inspector's rating, were significantly correlated with airborne aldrin values. No single building variable, however, was highly correlated with every measure of aldrin concentration over a 12-month period. The observed data are consistent with poor subfloor ventilation and a 'leaky' floor being important contributors to indoor air pollution. It is recommended that pest control companies advise householders about any obvious floor and ventilation deficiencies before soil treatment work is undertaken. Pesticide exposure (by analogy with geological radon exposure) may be reduced by sealing gaps in floors and/or by improving subfloor ventilation.

  13. Load test of the 277W Building high bay roof deck and support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The 277W Building high bay roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure, WHC-SD-GN-TP-30015, Revision 1. The 277W Building is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: roof deck -- wood decking supported by 4 x 14 timber purlins; roof membrane -- tar and gravel; roof slope -- flat (<10 deg); and roof elevation -- maximum height of about 63 ft. The 227W Building was visited in March 1994 for a visual inspection. During this inspection, cracked areas were visible in the decking, but it was not possible to determine whether these cracks extended completely through the decking, which is 2-in. thick. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof requires personnel access, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ''No Roof Access'' signs can be changed to ''Roof Access Restricted'' signs

  14. Pressure integration technique for predicting wind-induced response in high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Mousaad Aly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure for response prediction in high-rise buildings under wind loads. The procedure is illustrated in an application example of a tall building exposed to both cross-wind and along-wind loads. The responses of the building in the lateral directions combined with torsion are estimated simultaneously. Results show good agreement with recent design standards; however, the proposed procedure has the advantages of accounting for complex mode shapes, non-uniform mass distribution, and interference effects from the surrounding. In addition, the technique allows for the contribution of higher modes. For accurate estimation of the acceleration response, it is important to consider not only the first two lateral vibrational modes, but also higher modes. Ignoring the contribution of higher modes may lead to underestimation of the acceleration response; on the other hand, it could result in overestimation of the displacement response. Furthermore, the procedure presented in this study can help decision makers, involved in a tall building design/retrofit to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, damping enhancement, and/or materials change, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability under extreme wind actions.

  15. EARTH, WIND AND FIRE: BUILDING METEOROLOGICALLY-SENSITIVE BIOGENIC AND WILDLAND FIRE EMISSION ESTIMATES FOR AIR QUALITY MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission estimates are important for ensuring the accuracy of atmospheric chemical transport models. Estimates of biogenic and wildland fire emissions, because of their sensitivity to meteorological conditions, need to be carefully constructed and closely linked with a meteorolo...

  16. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  17. RAMA casein zymography: Time-saving and highly sensitive casein zymography for MMP7 and trypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumitsu, Hidetaro; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A

    2016-11-01

    To detect metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7), zymography is conducted using a casein substrate and conventional CBB stain. It has disadvantages because it is time consuming and has low sensitivity. Previously, a sensitive method to detect MMP7 up to 30 pg was reported, however it required special substrates and complicated handlings. RAMA casein zymography described herein is rapid, sensitive, and reproducible. By applying high-sensitivity staining with low substrate conditions, the staining process is completed within 1 h and sensitivity was increased 100-fold. The method can detect 10 pg MMP7 by using commercially available casein without complicated handlings. Moreover, it increases detection sensitivity for trypsin. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Multi-level nonlinear modeling verification scheme of RC high-rise wall buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Alwaeli, W.; Mwafy, A.; Pilakoutas, K.; Guadagnini, M.

    2017-01-01

    Earthquake-resistant reinforced concrete (RC) high-rise wall buildings are designed and detailed to respond well beyond the elastic range under the expected earthquake ground motions. However, despite their considerable section depth, in terms of analysis, RC walls are still often treated as linear elements, ignoring the effect of deformation compatibility. Due to the limited number of available comprehensive experimental studies on RC structural wall systems subjected to cycling loading, few...

  19. Prototype of high resolution PET using resistive electrode position sensitive CdTe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yohei; Ishii, Keizo; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Yamazaki, Hiromichi

    2008-01-01

    Downsizing detector elements makes it possible that spatial resolutions of positron emission tomography (PET) cameras are improved very much. From this point of view, semiconductor detectors are preferable. To obtain high resolution, the pixel type or the multi strip type of semiconductor detectors can be used. However, in this case, there is a low packing ratio problem, because a dead area between detector arrays cannot be neglected. Here, we propose the use of position sensitive semiconductor detectors with resistive electrode. The CdTe detector is promising as a detector for PET camera because of its high sensitivity. In this paper, we report development of prototype of high resolution PET using resistive electrode position sensitive CdTe detectors. We made 1-dimensional position sensitive CdTe detectors experimentally by changing the electrode thickness. We obtained 750 A as an appropriate thickness of position sensitive detectors, and evaluated the performance of the detector using a collimated 241 Am source. A good position resolution of 1.2 mm full width half maximum (FWHM) was obtained. On the basis of the fundamental development of resistive electrode position sensitive detectors, we constructed a prototype of high resolution PET which was a dual head type and was consisted of thirty-two 1-dimensional position sensitive detectors. In conclusion, we obtained high resolutions which are 0.75 mm (FWHM) in transaxial, and 1.5 mm (FWHM) in axial. (author)

  20. Building America Case Study: Standard- Versus High-Velocity Air Distribution in High-Performance Townhomes, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Poerschke, R. Beach, T. Begg

    2017-06-01

    IBACOS investigated the performance of a small-diameter high-velocity heat pump system compared to a conventional system in a new construction triplex townhouse. A ductless heat pump system also was installed for comparison, but the homebuyer backed out because of aesthetic concerns about that system. In total, two buildings, having identical solar orientation and comprised of six townhomes, were monitored for comfort and energy performance.

  1. Forensic entomology of high-rise buildings in Malaysia: Three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsa, R A; Omar, B; Zuha, R M; Faridah, M N; Swarhib, M S; Hidayatulfathi, O; Shahrom, A W

    2015-06-01

    The distributions of flies are not only confined to ground level but can also be at higher altitudes. Here, we report three forensic cases involving dipterans in high-rise buildings in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Case 1 involved a corpse of adult female found at the top floor of a fifteen-story apartment. Case 2 dealt with a body of a 75-year-old female discovered in a bedroom on the eleventh floor of an eighteen-story building, while Case 3 was a 52-year-old male found in his fifth floor shop house. Interestingly, entomological analysis revealed that all corpses were infested with similar Dipterans: Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) (Diptera: Muscidae) and sarcophagid (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). The first two species were commonly associated with corpses found indoors at ground level. We noted the additional occurrence of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae in Case 2 and Case 3, respectively. Findings from this study are significant as they demonstrate that certain groups of fly can locate dead bodies even in high-rise buildings. Forensic entomofauna research on corpses found at high elevation is scarce and our study has highlighted the peculiarity of the fly species involved in Malaysia.

  2. Highly sensitive optical chemosensor for the detection of Cu using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Highly sensitive colorimetric chemosensor molecule RHN for selective detection of Cu. 2+ in ... colour development against the colourless blank during the sensing event, a feature that would facilitate ... ever reported, much attention has been.

  3. A highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive hydrogel spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Mulle, Matthieu; Ventura, Isaac Aguilar; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Wearable pressure sensing solutions have promising future for practical applications in health monitoring and human/machine interfaces. Here, a highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive single-walled carbon nanotube

  4. A new method of removing the high value feedback resistor in the charge sensitive preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1993-01-01

    A new method of removing the high value feedback resistor in the charge sensitive preamplifier is introduced. The circuit analysis of this novel design is described and the measured performances of a practical circuit are provided

  5. High-Q Fabry–Pérot Micro-Cavities for High-Sensitivity Volume Refractometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Gaber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a novel structure for a Fabry–Pérot micro cavity that combines the highest reported quality factor for an on-chip Fabry–Pérot resonator that exceeds 9800, and a very high sensitivity for an on-chip volume refractometer based on a Fabry–Pérot cavity that is about 1000 nm/refractive index unit (RIU. The structure consists of two cylindrical Bragg micromirrors that achieve confinement of the Gaussian beam in the plan parallel to the chip substrate, while for the perpendicular plan, external fiber rod lenses (FRLs are placed in the optical path of the input and the output of the cavity. This novel structure overcomes number of the drawbacks presented in previous designs. The analyte is passed between the mirrors, enabling its detection from the resonance peak wavelengths of the transmission spectra. Mixtures of ethanol and deionized (DI-water with different ratios are used as analytes with different refractive indices to exploit the device as a micro-opto-fluidic refractometer. The design criteria are detailed and the modeling is based on Gaussian-optics equations, which depicts a scenario closer to reality than the usually used ray-optics modeling.

  6. High-throughput, Highly Sensitive Analyses of Bacterial Morphogenesis Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Samantha M.; Tropini, Carolina; Miguel, Amanda; Cava, Felipe; Monds, Russell D.; de Pedro, Miguel A.; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial cell wall is a network of glycan strands cross-linked by short peptides (peptidoglycan); it is responsible for the mechanical integrity of the cell and shape determination. Liquid chromatography can be used to measure the abundance of the muropeptide subunits composing the cell wall. Characteristics such as the degree of cross-linking and average glycan strand length are known to vary across species. However, a systematic comparison among strains of a given species has yet to be undertaken, making it difficult to assess the origins of variability in peptidoglycan composition. We present a protocol for muropeptide analysis using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and demonstrate that UPLC achieves resolution comparable with that of HPLC while requiring orders of magnitude less injection volume and a fraction of the elution time. We also developed a software platform to automate the identification and quantification of chromatographic peaks, which we demonstrate has improved accuracy relative to other software. This combined experimental and computational methodology revealed that peptidoglycan composition was approximately maintained across strains from three Gram-negative species despite taxonomical and morphological differences. Peptidoglycan composition and density were maintained after we systematically altered cell size in Escherichia coli using the antibiotic A22, indicating that cell shape is largely decoupled from the biochemistry of peptidoglycan synthesis. High-throughput, sensitive UPLC combined with our automated software for chromatographic analysis will accelerate the discovery of peptidoglycan composition and the molecular mechanisms of cell wall structure determination. PMID:26468288

  7. Highly sensitive and selective detection of dopamine using one-pot synthesized highly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Xiaokai; Kai, Siqi; Wang, Hong-Yin; Yang, Jingjing; Wu, Fu-Gen; Chen, Zhan

    2015-03-17

    A simple and highly efficient method for dopamine (DA) detection using water-soluble silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) was reported. The SiNPs with a high quantum yield of 23.6% were synthesized by using a one-pot microwave-assisted method. The fluorescence quenching capability of a variety of molecules on the synthesized SiNPs has been tested; only DA molecules were found to be able to quench the fluorescence of these SiNPs effectively. Therefore, such a quenching effect can be used to selectively detect DA. All other molecules tested have little interference with the dopamine detection, including ascorbic acid, which commonly exists in cells and can possibly affect the dopamine detection. The ratio of the fluorescence intensity difference between the quenched and unquenched cases versus the fluorescence intensity without quenching (ΔI/I) was observed to be linearly proportional to the DA analyte concentration in the range from 0.005 to 10.0 μM, with a detection limit of 0.3 nM (S/N = 3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the lowest limit for DA detection reported so far. The mechanism of fluorescence quenching is attributed to the energy transfer from the SiNPs to the oxidized dopamine molecules through Förster resonance energy transfer. The reported method of SiNP synthesis is very simple and cheap, making the above sensitive and selective DA detection approach using SiNPs practical for many applications.

  8. An Adaptive Intelligent Integrated Lighting Control Approach for High-Performance Office Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karizi, Nasim

    An acute and crucial societal problem is the energy consumed in existing commercial buildings. There are 1.5 million commercial buildings in the U.S. with only about 3% being built each year. Hence, existing buildings need to be properly operated and maintained for several decades. Application of integrated centralized control systems in buildings could lead to more than 50% energy savings. This research work demonstrates an innovative adaptive integrated lighting control approach which could achieve significant energy savings and increase indoor comfort in high performance office buildings. In the first phase of the study, a predictive algorithm was developed and validated through experiments in an actual test room. The objective was to regulate daylight on a specified work plane by controlling the blind slat angles. Furthermore, a sensor-based integrated adaptive lighting controller was designed in Simulink which included an innovative sensor optimization approach based on genetic algorithm to minimize the number of sensors and efficiently place them in the office. The controller was designed based on simple integral controllers. The objective of developed control algorithm was to improve the illuminance situation in the office through controlling the daylight and electrical lighting. To evaluate the performance of the system, the controller was applied on experimental office model in Lee et al.'s research study in 1998. The result of the developed control approach indicate a significantly improvement in lighting situation and 1-23% and 50-78% monthly electrical energy savings in the office model, compared to two static strategies when the blinds were left open and closed during the whole year respectively.

  9. Damage detection in high-rise buildings using damage-induced rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Seung Hun; Jung, Ho Youn; Lee, Jung Hoon; Jung, Hyung Jo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new damage-detection method based on structural vibration is proposed. The essence of the proposed method is the detection of abrupt changes in rotation. Damage-induced rotation (DIR), which is determined from the modal flexibility of the structure, initially occurs only at a specific damaged location. Therefore, damage can be localized by evaluating abrupt changes in rotation. We conducted numerical simulations of two damage scenarios using a 10-story cantilever-type building model. Measurement noise was also considered in the simulation. We compared the sensitivity of the proposed method to localize damage to that of two conventional modal-flexibility-based damage-detection methods, i.e., uniform load surface (ULS) and ULS curvature. The proposed method was able to localize damage in both damage scenarios for cantilever structures, but the conventional methods could not

  10. Damage detection in high-rise buildings using damage-induced rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Seung Hoon; Jung, Ho Youn; Lee, Jung Hoon; Jung, Hyung Jo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new damage-detection method based on structural vibration is proposed. The essence of the proposed method is the detection of abrupt changes in rotation. Damage-induced rotation (DIR), which is determined from the modal flexibility of the structure, initially occurs only at a specific damaged location. Therefore, damage can be localized by evaluating abrupt changes in rotation. We conducted numerical simulations of two damage scenarios using a 10-story cantilever-type building model. Measurement noise was also considered in the simulation. We compared the sensitivity of the proposed method to localize damage to that of two conventional modal-flexibility-based damage-detection methods, i.e., uniform load surface (ULS) and ULS curvature. The proposed method was able to localize damage in both damage scenarios for cantilever structures, but the conventional methods could not.

  11. Object-oriented Method of Hierarchical Urban Building Extraction from High-resolution Remote-Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAO Chao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An automatic urban building extraction method for high-resolution remote-sensing imagery,which combines building segmentation based on neighbor total variations with object-oriented analysis,is presented in this paper. Aimed at different extraction complexity from various buildings in the segmented image,a hierarchical building extraction strategy with multi-feature fusion is adopted. Firstly,we extract some rectangle buildings which remain intact after segmentation through shape analysis. Secondly,in order to ensure each candidate building target to be independent,multidirectional morphological road-filtering algorithm is designed which can separate buildings from the neighboring roads with similar spectrum. Finally,we take the extracted buildings and the excluded non-buildings as samples to establish probability model respectively,and Bayesian discriminating classifier is used for making judgment of the other candidate building objects to get the ultimate extraction result. The experimental results have shown that the approach is able to detect buildings with different structure and spectral features in the same image. The results of performance evaluation also support the robustness and precision of the approach developed.

  12. Transforming State-of-the-Art into Best Practice: A Guide for High-Performance Energy Efficient Buildings in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Reshma; Ravache, Baptiste; Sartor, Dale

    2018-04-13

    India launched the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, and a revised version in 2017 as ambitious first steps towards promoting energy efficiency in the building sector. Pioneering early adopters—building owners, A&E firms, and energy consultants—have taken the lead to design customized solutions for their energy-efficient buildings. This Guide offers a synthesizing framework, critical lessons, and guidance to meet and exceed ECBC. Its whole-building lifecycle assurance framework provides a user-friendly methodology to achieve high performance in terms of energy, environmental, and societal impact. Class A offices are selected as a target typology, being a high-growth sector, with significant opportunities for energy savings. The practices may be extrapolated to other commercial building sectors, as well as extended to other regions with similar cultural, climatic, construction, and developmental contexts

  13. Depleted Nanocrystal-Oxide Heterojunctions for High-Sensitivity Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: 4.3 Electronic Sensing - Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High...reviewed journals: Final Report: 4.3 Electronic Sensing - Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High-Sensitivity Infrared Detection Report Title...PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: 1 1 Final Progress Report Project title: Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High

  14. Characteristics of air pollutant dispersion around a high-rise building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Kwok, K.C.S.; Liu, X.-P.; Niu, J.-L.

    2015-01-01

    A numerical wind tunnel model was proposed. The computed results of the pollutant diffusion around a typical Hong Kong high-rise building model (at a linear scale of 1:30), were found to show a similar trend to the outcomes of self-conducted experimental measurements that the pathways of pollutant migration for windward and leeward pollutant emission are different. For the case with windward pollutant emission at the 3rd floor within a re-entry, the pollutant migrated downwards due to the downwash created by the wind. In contrast, for the case with leeward pollution emission, dispersion is dominated by intense turbulent mixing in the near wake and characterized by the upward migration of the pollutant in the leeward re-entry. The simulated results of haze-fog (HF) studies confirm that the pathway of pollutant migration is dominated by wind–structure interaction and buoyancy effect only plays a minor role in the dispersion process. - Highlights: • A self-developed numerical wind tunnel model was proposed. • Characteristics of air pollutant dispersion with windward/leeward emission were discussed. • Wind–structure interaction controls the air pollutant dispersion around the building. - The different characteristics of air pollutant dispersion around a high-rise building, for both cases of a dispersion source in either the windward face or leeward face, are dominated by wind–structure interaction, with buoyancy effect playing only a minor role

  15. AUTOMATIC INTERPRETATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION SAR IMAGES: FIRST RESULTS OF SAR IMAGE SIMULATION FOR SINGLE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the all-weather data acquisition capabilities, high resolution space borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR plays an important role in remote sensing applications like change detection. However, because of the complex geometric mapping of buildings in urban areas, SAR images are often hard to interpret. SAR simulation techniques ease the visual interpretation of SAR images, while fully automatic interpretation is still a challenge. This paper presents a method for supporting the interpretation of high resolution SAR images with simulated radar images using a LiDAR digital surface model (DSM. Line features are extracted from the simulated and real SAR images and used for matching. A single building model is generated from the DSM and used for building recognition in the SAR image. An application for the concept is presented for the city centre of Munich where the comparison of the simulation to the TerraSAR-X data shows a good similarity. Based on the result of simulation and matching, special features (e.g. like double bounce lines, shadow areas etc. can be automatically indicated in SAR image.

  16. Towards high-reliability organising in healthcare: a strategy for building organisational capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboumatar, Hanan J; Weaver, Sallie J; Rees, Dianne; Rosen, Michael A; Sawyer, Melinda D; Pronovost, Peter J

    2017-08-01

    In a high-reliability organisation (HRO), safety and quality (SQ) is an organisational priority, and all workforce members are engaged, continuously learning and improving their work. To build organisational capacity for SQ work, we have developed a role-tailored capacity-building framework that we are currently employing at the Johns Hopkins Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality as part of an organisational strategy towards HRO. This framework considers organisation-wide competencies for SQ that includes all staff and faculty and is integrated into a broader organisation-wide operating management system for improving quality. In this framework, achieving safe, high-quality care is connected to healthcare workforce preparedness. Capacity-building efforts are tailored to the needs of distinct groups within the workforce that fall within three categories: (1) front-line providers and staff, (2) managers and local improvement personnel and (3) SQ leaders and experts. In this paper we describe this framework, our implementation efforts to date, challenges met and lessons learnt. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Contributing to Net Zero Building: High Energy Efficient EIFS Wall Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbary, Lawrence D. [Dow Corning Corporation; Perkins, Laura L. [Dow Corning Corporation; Serino, Roland [Dryvit Systems, Inc; Preston, Bill [Dryvit Systems, Inc; Kosny, Jan [Fraunhofer USA, Inc. CSE

    2014-01-29

    The team led by Dow Corning collaborated to increase the thermal performance of exterior insulation and finishing systems (EIFS) to reach R-40 performance meeting the needs for high efficiency insulated walls. Additionally, the project helped remove barriers to using EIFS on retrofit commercial buildings desiring high insulated walls. The three wall systems developed within the scope of this project provide the thermal performance of R-24 to R-40 by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an expanded polystyrene (EPS) encapsulated vacuum insulated sandwich element (VISE). The VISE was incorporated into an EIFS as pre-engineered insulation boards. The VISE is installed using typical EIFS details and network of trained installers. These three wall systems were tested and engineered to be fully code compliant as an EIFS and meet all of the International Building Code structural, durability and fire test requirements for a code compliant exterior wall cladding system. This system is being commercialized under the trade name Dryvit® Outsulation® HE system. Full details, specifications, and application guidelines have been developed for the system. The system has been modeled both thermally and hygrothermally to predict condensation potential. Based on weather models for Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Miami, FL; Minneapolis, MN; Phoenix, AZ; and Seattle, WA; condensation and water build up in the wall system is not a concern. Finally, the team conducted a field trial of the system on a building at the former Brunswick Naval Air Station which is being redeveloped by the Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority (Brunswick, Maine). The field trial provided a retrofit R-30 wall onto a wood frame construction, slab on grade, 1800 ft2 building, that was monitored over the course of a year. Simultaneous with the façade retrofit, the building’s windows were upgraded at no charge to this program. The retrofit building used 49% less natural gas during the winter of

  18. Method for evaluating building materials with a high content of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1979-01-01

    In order to avoid increased radiation doses to the population due to the introduction of building materials with an unusually high content of radioactivity, a method for evaluating building materials has been developed. An expression for the gamma radiation due to radium, thorium and potassium 40 has been proposed by a Scandinavian group. When this value for a given material does not exceed 1, then no restriction is placed. Should it exceed 1, then the material is subjected to further investigation. Similarly, since the radon concentration depends on the radium content, an expression for this is proposed. Should this be less than unity the material may be sold freely. Should it exceed unity, further investigations must be made. Measurements have also been made on the exhalation of radon from concrete, and the results are given. An expression including this exhalation rate and the ventilation rate, giving the radon concentration is given. (JIW)

  19. Curvilinear steel elements in load-bearing structures of high-rise building spatial frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibragimov Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of curvilinear elements in load-bearing metal structures of high-rise buildings supposes ensuring of their bearing capacity and serviceability. There may exist a great variety of shapes and orientations of such structural elements. In particular, it may be various flat curves of an open or closed oval profile such as circular or parabolic arch or ellipse. The considered approach implies creating vast internal volumes without loss in the load-bearing capacity of the frame. The basic concept makes possible a wide variety of layout and design solutions. The presence of free internal spaces of large volume in "skyscraper" type buildings contributes to resolving a great number of problems, including those of communicative nature. The calculation results confirm the basic assumptions.

  20. Curvilinear steel elements in load-bearing structures of high-rise building spatial frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimov, Alexander; Danilov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The application of curvilinear elements in load-bearing metal structures of high-rise buildings supposes ensuring of their bearing capacity and serviceability. There may exist a great variety of shapes and orientations of such structural elements. In particular, it may be various flat curves of an open or closed oval profile such as circular or parabolic arch or ellipse. The considered approach implies creating vast internal volumes without loss in the load-bearing capacity of the frame. The basic concept makes possible a wide variety of layout and design solutions. The presence of free internal spaces of large volume in "skyscraper" type buildings contributes to resolving a great number of problems, including those of communicative nature. The calculation results confirm the basic assumptions.

  1. SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE LATTICE TEST REACTOR BUILDING 318 PROJECT CAH-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitro Engineering Company

    1964-07-15

    This is the specifications for the High Temperature Lattice Test Reactor Building 318 and it is divided into the following 21 divisions or chapters: (1) Excavating, Backfill & Grading; (2) Reinforced Concrete; (3) Masonry; (4) Structural Steel & Miscellaneous Metal Items, Contents - Division V; (5) Plumbing, Process & Service Piping; (6) Welding; (7) Insulated Metal Siding; (8) Roof Decks & Roofing; (9) Plaster Partitions & Ceiling; (10) Standard Doors, Windows & Hardware; (11) Shielding Doors; (12) Sprinkler System & Fire Extinguishers, Contents - Division XIII; (13) Heating, Ventilating & Air Conditioning; (14) Painting, Protective Coating & Floor Covering, Contents - Division XV; (15) Electrical; (16) Communications & Alarm Systems; (17) Special Equipment & Furnishings; (18) Overhead Bridge Crane; (19) Prefabricated Steel Building; (20) Paved Drive; and (21) Landscaping & Irrigation Sprinklers.

  2. ANALYSIS OF WIND-INDUCED VIBRATIONS IN HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Peter; Austrell, Per-Erik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    Buildings are getting taller due to increased urbanisation and densification of cities. More advanced construction methods and the desire to construct impressive buildings is also supporting the trend. Due to their inherent slenderness resulting in low eigenfrequencies, these buildings are suscep......Buildings are getting taller due to increased urbanisation and densification of cities. More advanced construction methods and the desire to construct impressive buildings is also supporting the trend. Due to their inherent slenderness resulting in low eigenfrequencies, these buildings...

  3. Monte carlo calculation of energy-dependent response of high-sensitive neutron monitor, HISENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Ebisawa, Tohru; Kobayashi, Keiji; Koide, Hiroaki; Seo, Takeshi; Kawano, Shinji

    1988-01-01

    A highly sensitive neutron monitor system, HISENS, has been developed to measure leakage neutrons from nuclear facilities. The counter system of HISENS contains a detector bank which consists of ten cylindrical proportional counters filled with 10 atm 3 He gas and a paraffin moderator mounted in an aluminum case. The size of the detector bank is 56 cm high, 66 cm wide and 10 cm thick. It is revealed by a calibration experiment using an 241 Am-Be neutron source that the sensitivity of HISENS is about 2000 times as large as that of a typical commercial rem-counter. Since HISENS is designed to have a high sensitivity in a wide range of neutron energy, the shape of its energy dependent response curve cannot be matched to that of the dose equivalent conversion factor. To estimate dose equivalent values from neutron counts by HISENS, it is necessary to know the energy and angular characteristics of both HISENS and the neutron field. The area of one side of the detector bank is 3700 cm 2 and the detection efficiency in the constant region of the response curve is about 30 %. Thus, the sensitivity of HISENS for this energy range is 740 cps/(n/cm 2 /sec). This value indicates the extremely high sensitivity of HISENS as compared with exsisting highly sensitive neutron monitors. (Nogami, K.)

  4. A novel detection platform for parallel monitoring of DNA hybridization with high sensitivity and specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Sun; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Wang, Zhenyu

    We developed a high-sensitive platform to monior multiple hybridization events in real time. By creating a microoptical array in a polymeric chip, the system combine the excellent discriminative power of supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) microscopy with high-throughput capabilities of microa......We developed a high-sensitive platform to monior multiple hybridization events in real time. By creating a microoptical array in a polymeric chip, the system combine the excellent discriminative power of supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) microscopy with high-throughput capabilities...

  5. Towards Building a High Performance Spatial Query System for Large Scale Medical Imaging Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, Ablimit; Wang, Fusheng; Saltz, Joel H

    2012-11-06

    Support of high performance queries on large volumes of scientific spatial data is becoming increasingly important in many applications. This growth is driven by not only geospatial problems in numerous fields, but also emerging scientific applications that are increasingly data- and compute-intensive. For example, digital pathology imaging has become an emerging field during the past decade, where examination of high resolution images of human tissue specimens enables more effective diagnosis, prediction and treatment of diseases. Systematic analysis of large-scale pathology images generates tremendous amounts of spatially derived quantifications of micro-anatomic objects, such as nuclei, blood vessels, and tissue regions. Analytical pathology imaging provides high potential to support image based computer aided diagnosis. One major requirement for this is effective querying of such enormous amount of data with fast response, which is faced with two major challenges: the "big data" challenge and the high computation complexity. In this paper, we present our work towards building a high performance spatial query system for querying massive spatial data on MapReduce. Our framework takes an on demand index building approach for processing spatial queries and a partition-merge approach for building parallel spatial query pipelines, which fits nicely with the computing model of MapReduce. We demonstrate our framework on supporting multi-way spatial joins for algorithm evaluation and nearest neighbor queries for microanatomic objects. To reduce query response time, we propose cost based query optimization to mitigate the effect of data skew. Our experiments show that the framework can efficiently support complex analytical spatial queries on MapReduce.

  6. Modelling of energy consumption at construction of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-rise building structures in the course of its erection suppose primary use of methods provided for erection, concrete and external finishing works. Erection works do not differ significantly from usual ones: traditional equipment, accessories and techniques are used which are based on erection of structures in project position using a crane. Structures to be assembled in building frame include steel columns and beams, wall panels, form elements of columns, walls and floor structures. We can note heightened attention to operational control for quality of erection, but it is attributable to all works in the course of high-rise construction. During high-rise erection by means of cast in-situ reinforced concrete all formworks to be used do not have any special differences except systems specially designed for high-rise erection using sliding formwork or vertical traveling forms. In these systems special attention is paid to safety of elevated works. Working methods of placement and curing of concrete and structures as a whole remain traditional – the requirements for controlling such operations become toughened. The most evident differences in high-rise erection with regard to equipment, machinery and accessories used are in means provided for load transportation and safety of works at heights. Particularity of internal finishing works which are also obligatory during construction of skyscrapers allows not considering them in as technological differences from usual construction as far as the «height» of its execution is limited by height of particular floor and determined by price and building class.

  7. Modelling of energy consumption at construction of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Elena; Korol, Oleg

    2018-03-01

    High-rise building structures in the course of its erection suppose primary use of methods provided for erection, concrete and external finishing works. Erection works do not differ significantly from usual ones: traditional equipment, accessories and techniques are used which are based on erection of structures in project position using a crane. Structures to be assembled in building frame include steel columns and beams, wall panels, form elements of columns, walls and floor structures. We can note heightened attention to operational control for quality of erection, but it is attributable to all works in the course of high-rise construction. During high-rise erection by means of cast in-situ reinforced concrete all formworks to be used do not have any special differences except systems specially designed for high-rise erection using sliding formwork or vertical traveling forms. In these systems special attention is paid to safety of elevated works. Working methods of placement and curing of concrete and structures as a whole remain traditional - the requirements for controlling such operations become toughened. The most evident differences in high-rise erection with regard to equipment, machinery and accessories used are in means provided for load transportation and safety of works at heights. Particularity of internal finishing works which are also obligatory during construction of skyscrapers allows not considering them in as technological differences from usual construction as far as the «height» of its execution is limited by height of particular floor and determined by price and building class.

  8. Sensitivity analysis of the use of Life Cycle Impact Assessment methods: a case study on building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bueno, Cristiane; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Rossignolo, Joao Adriano

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to perform a sensitivity analysis of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) case study to understand if the use of different Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods may lead to different conclusions by decision makers and stakeholders. A complete LCA was applied to non...

  9. Development and Application of High-Cr Ferritic Stainless Steels as Building Exterior Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong H.; Lee, Yong H.; Lee, Yong D.

    2008-01-01

    Stainless Steels have been widely used as a building exterior materials in Asian countries for the last decade. It is required for the materials in this field to have an aesthetic appearance,a relatively high strength, and an excellent corrosion resistance. Other metallic materials such as copper, aluminum, and carbon steels have been also used as the exterior materials. Considering the cost of maintenance, stainless steel, having the outstanding corrosion resistance, is replacing other materials in the several parts in the building exteriors. Ferritic stainless steel has been applied as the roofing materials because its thermal expansion is much smaller than that of austenitic stainless steel. Therefore, it is suitable for the large-scale construction such as airport terminal, convention center, and football stadium. To improve the corrosion resistance of the ferritic stainless steels, the modification of alloy composition has been studied to develop new grade materials and the progress in the surface technology has been introduced. Corrosion properties, of these materials were evaluated in the laboratory and in the field for longer than two years. High-Cr ferritic stainless steel showed excellent corrosion resistance to the atmospheric environments. In the region close to the sea, the corrosion resistance of high-Cr ferritic stainless steel was much superior to that of other materials, which may prove this steel to be the appropriate materials for the construction around seashore. In some of the large constructions around seashore in South Korea, high-Cr ferritic stainless steels have been used as the building exterior materials for six years

  10. Development and Application of High-Cr Ferritic Stainless Steels as Building Exterior Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong H.; Lee, Yong H.; Lee, Yong D. [POSCO Technical Reseaarch Lab., Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Stainless Steels have been widely used as a building exterior materials in Asian countries for the last decade. It is required for the materials in this field to have an aesthetic appearance,a relatively high strength, and an excellent corrosion resistance. Other metallic materials such as copper, aluminum, and carbon steels have been also used as the exterior materials. Considering the cost of maintenance, stainless steel, having the outstanding corrosion resistance, is replacing other materials in the several parts in the building exteriors. Ferritic stainless steel has been applied as the roofing materials because its thermal expansion is much smaller than that of austenitic stainless steel. Therefore, it is suitable for the large-scale construction such as airport terminal, convention center, and football stadium. To improve the corrosion resistance of the ferritic stainless steels, the modification of alloy composition has been studied to develop new grade materials and the progress in the surface technology has been introduced. Corrosion properties, of these materials were evaluated in the laboratory and in the field for longer than two years. High-Cr ferritic stainless steel showed excellent corrosion resistance to the atmospheric environments. In the region close to the sea, the corrosion resistance of high-Cr ferritic stainless steel was much superior to that of other materials, which may prove this steel to be the appropriate materials for the construction around seashore. In some of the large constructions around seashore in South Korea, high-Cr ferritic stainless steels have been used as the building exterior materials for six years.

  11. A Saliency Guided Semi-Supervised Building Change Detection Method for High Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of up to date information of the Earth’s surface are an important application providing insights to urban planning, resources monitoring and environmental studies. A large number of change detection (CD methods have been developed to solve them by utilizing remote sensing (RS images. The advent of high resolution (HR remote sensing images further provides challenges to traditional CD methods and opportunities to object-based CD methods. While several kinds of geospatial objects are recognized, this manuscript mainly focuses on buildings. Specifically, we propose a novel automatic approach combining pixel-based strategies with object-based ones for detecting building changes with HR remote sensing images. A multiresolution contextual morphological transformation called extended morphological attribute profiles (EMAPs allows the extraction of geometrical features related to the structures within the scene at different scales. Pixel-based post-classification is executed on EMAPs using hierarchical fuzzy clustering. Subsequently, the hierarchical fuzzy frequency vector histograms are formed based on the image-objects acquired by simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC segmentation. Then, saliency and morphological building index (MBI extracted on difference images are used to generate a pseudo training set. Ultimately, object-based semi-supervised classification is implemented on this training set by applying random forest (RF. Most of the important changes are detected by the proposed method in our experiments. This study was checked for effectiveness using visual evaluation and numerical evaluation.

  12. Building Extraction in Very High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery Using Deep Learning and Guided Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyang Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Very high resolution (VHR remote sensing imagery has been used for land cover classification, and it tends to a transition from land-use classification to pixel-level semantic segmentation. Inspired by the recent success of deep learning and the filter method in computer vision, this work provides a segmentation model, which designs an image segmentation neural network based on the deep residual networks and uses a guided filter to extract buildings in remote sensing imagery. Our method includes the following steps: first, the VHR remote sensing imagery is preprocessed and some hand-crafted features are calculated. Second, a designed deep network architecture is trained with the urban district remote sensing image to extract buildings at the pixel level. Third, a guided filter is employed to optimize the classification map produced by deep learning; at the same time, some salt-and-pepper noise is removed. Experimental results based on the Vaihingen and Potsdam datasets demonstrate that our method, which benefits from neural networks and guided filtering, achieves a higher overall accuracy when compared with other machine learning and deep learning methods. The method proposed shows outstanding performance in terms of the building extraction from diversified objects in the urban district.

  13. ZnO nanorod biosensor for highly sensitive detection of specific protein binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Park, Won Il; Lee, Chul Ho; Yi, Gyu Chul

    2006-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of electrical biosensors based on functionalized ZnO nanorod surfaces with biotin for highly sensitive detection of biological molecules. Due to the clean interface and easy surface modification, the ZnO nanorod sensors can easily detect streptavidin binding down to a concentration of 25 nM, which is more sensitive than previously reported one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure electrical biosensors. In addition, the unique device structure with a micrometer-scale hole at the center of the ZnO nanorod's conducting channel reduces the leakage current from the aqueous solution, hence enhancing device sensitivity. Moreover, ZnO nanorod field-effect-transistor (FET) sensors may open up opportunities to create many other oxide nanorod electrical sensors for highly sensitive and selective real-time detection of a wide variety of biomolecules.

  14. Load test of the 272E Building high bay roof deck and support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The 272E Building high bay roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure. The 272E Building is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: Roof deck -- wood decking supported by 4 x 14 timber purlins; Roof membrane -- tar and gravel; Roof slope -- flat (<10 deg); and Roof elevation -- maximum height of about 63 ft. The 272 Building was visited in August 1992 for a visual inspection. During this inspection, cracked areas were visible in the decking, but it was not possible to determine whether these cracks extended completely through the decking, which is 2-in. thick. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof requires personnel access, a test was determine to be the best way to qualify the roof. The pre-test briefing consisted of filling out the pre-test checklist, discussing proper lifting techniques, reviewing the fall-protection plan, reviewing the job hazards analysis, and reviewing the robot travel path. The load-test results consist of visual observations and the test engineer's conclusions. Visual observations found no adverse conditions such as large deflections or permanent deformations. No deflection measurements were recorded because the tar and gravel on roof get displaced by the robot tracks; the result is large variations in deflection measurements. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ''No Roof Access'' signs can be changed to ''Roof Access Restricted'' signs

  15. Control of high natural activity building materials and land areas in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced levels of natural radioactivity in the ground can cause problems with high concentrations of indoor 222 Rn, elevated levels of gamma radiation and natural radioactive elements in drinking water. Of the Nordic countries it is essentially Finland, Norway and Sweden that have problems with enhanced natural radioactivity in the ground and in building materials. Finland and Sweden have among the highest mean 222 Rn concentrations in dwellings in the world, 123 Bq m -3 and 108 Bq m -3 with a corresponding mean annual effective dose of about 2 mSv. In Sweden about 500,000 and in Finland and Norway about 200,000 persons get their drinking water from wells drilled in bedrock. The water from a large number of these wells contain elevated levels of naturally occurring radioactive elements, primarily 222 Rn. The action levels for 222 Rn in dwellings and above-ground workplaces are essentially the same in Finland, Norway and Sweden: 200 Bq m -3 for new buildings and 400 Bq m -3 for existing buildings. For mines and underground excavations, however, there are some differences. The treatment of gamma emitting natural radionuclides in building materials etc. is similar, although there are differences in the degree of control. The action levels for 222 Rn in drinking water differ from 100 Bq l -1 to 500 Bq l -1 . The action level in Finland has the form of an activity index that restricts also other radioactive nuclides. Denmark has not adopted a formal radon policy and has no recommended or legally binding action levels for 222 Rn or any other naturally occurring radionuclides. (author)

  16. The effects of window alternatives on energy efficiency and building economy in high-rise residential buildings in moderate to humid climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaşar, Yalçın; Kalfa, Sibel Maçka

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated energy and economy efficiency of window alternatives in Trabzon. ► Energy consumptions of eight window alternatives were simulated and discussed. ► Window alternatives’s life cycle costs were calculated and compared. ► We suggested appropriate energy and economy efficient window alternatives. ► The study defines useful guidelines to select appropriate window alternatives. - Abstract: Currently, focused efforts are being made to determine the influence of windows on the energy consumption and economy of high-rise buildings. Certain window designs and appropriate glazing systems reduce building energy consumption for heating and cooling and contribute to building economy. This paper addresses double-glazed window units that are composed of tinted glass; clear reflective glass; low emissivity (low-e) glass; and smart glass (one surface consists of a high-performance, heat-reflective glass, and other surface has a low-emissivity coated). These materials reduce the heating and cooling loads of buildings by providing solar control and heat conservation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these alternative units, rather than readily available double-glazed units, in two types of flats. The flats have the same construction and operating system, but they have different plan types with regard to building energy consumption and building economy as it relates to life cycle cost analysis. For this study, we selected buildings in Trabzon, in Climate Region II of Turkey, due to its moderate-humid climate. F- and C-type high-rise residential blocks, with flats composed of two to three bedrooms, constructed by the Republic of Turkey’s Prime Ministry Housing Development Administration of Turkey (TOKİ) are used as models for the simulation. The flat plans in these blocks are modeled using DesignBuilder v.1.8 energy simulation software. The simulation results show that smart-glazed units and those with low emissivity

  17. Highly Sensitive, Transparent, and Durable Pressure Sensors Based on Sea-Urchin Shaped Metal Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Hyungjin; Jeong, Youngjun; Ahn, Yumi; Nam, Geonik; Lee, Youngu

    2016-11-01

    Highly sensitive, transparent, and durable pressure sensors are fabricated using sea-urchin-shaped metal nanoparticles and insulating polyurethane elastomer. The pressure sensors exhibit outstanding sensitivity (2.46 kPa -1 ), superior optical transmittance (84.8% at 550 nm), fast response/relaxation time (30 ms), and excellent operational durability. In addition, the pressure sensors successfully detect minute movements of human muscles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A high sensitivity process variation sensor utilizing sub-threshold operation

    OpenAIRE

    Meterelliyoz, Mesut; Song, Peilin; Stellari, Franco; Kulkarni, Jaydeep P.; Roy, Kaushik

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel low-power, bias-free, high-sensitivity process variation sensor for monitoring random variations in the threshold voltage. The proposed sensor design utilizes the exponential current-voltage relationship of sub-threshold operation thereby improving the sensitivity by 2.3X compared to the above-threshold operation. A test-chip containing 128 PMOS and 128 NMOS devices has been fabri...

  19. A Microneedle Functionalized with Polyethyleneimine and Nanotubes for Highly Sensitive, Label-Free Quantification of DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Saadat-Moghaddam, Darius; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    The accurate measure of DNA concentration is necessary for many DNA-based biological applications. However, the current methods are limited in terms of sensitivity, reproducibility, human error, and contamination. Here, we present a microneedle functionalized with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) for the highly sensitive quantification of DNA. The microneedle was fabricated using ultraviolet (UV) lithography and anisotropic etching, and then functionalized w...

  20. Proposed strategies for designing sustainable high-rise apartment buildings in Ho Chi Minh City responding to critical urban issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Nguyen Hoang Long; Huan Giang, Ngoc; Binh Duong, Trong

    2018-03-01

    This paper aims at finding practical strategies for designing sustainable high-rise apartment buildings in Ho Chi Minh City responding to varied municipal issues. Two steps are made. Step-1 identifies the critical issues of Ho Chi Minh City which are associated with high-rise apartment building projects. Step-2 finds potential and applicable strategies which are solutions for the critical issues in Step-1 with reference of seven selected assessment methods. The study finds the set of 58 strategies applicable to designing sustainable high-rise apartment buildings in Ho Chi Minh City.

  1. High sensitivity phase retrieval method in grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Chen, Jian; Wang, Dajiang; Wang, Shenghao; Chen, Heng; Bao, Yuan; Shao, Qigang; Wang, Zhili, E-mail: wangnsrl@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Zhang, Kai [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu, Peiping; Wu, Ziyu, E-mail: wuzy@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029, China and Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging is considered as one of the most promising techniques for future medical imaging. Many different methods have been developed to retrieve phase signal, among which the phase stepping (PS) method is widely used. However, further practical implementations are hindered, due to its complex scanning mode and high radiation dose. In contrast, the reverse projection (RP) method is a novel fast and low dose extraction approach. In this contribution, the authors present a quantitative analysis of the noise properties of the refraction signals retrieved by the two methods and compare their sensitivities. Methods: Using the error propagation formula, the authors analyze theoretically the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the refraction images retrieved by the two methods. Then, the sensitivities of the two extraction methods are compared under an identical exposure dose. Numerical experiments are performed to validate the theoretical results and provide some quantitative insight. Results: The SNRs of the two methods are both dependent on the system parameters, but in different ways. Comparison between their sensitivities reveals that for the refraction signal, the RP method possesses a higher sensitivity, especially in the case of high visibility and/or at the edge of the object. Conclusions: Compared with the PS method, the RP method has a superior sensitivity and provides refraction images with a higher SNR. Therefore, one can obtain highly sensitive refraction images in grating-based phase contrast imaging. This is very important for future preclinical and clinical implementations.

  2. High sensitivity phase retrieval method in grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Chen, Jian; Wang, Dajiang; Wang, Shenghao; Chen, Heng; Bao, Yuan; Shao, Qigang; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Peiping; Wu, Ziyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging is considered as one of the most promising techniques for future medical imaging. Many different methods have been developed to retrieve phase signal, among which the phase stepping (PS) method is widely used. However, further practical implementations are hindered, due to its complex scanning mode and high radiation dose. In contrast, the reverse projection (RP) method is a novel fast and low dose extraction approach. In this contribution, the authors present a quantitative analysis of the noise properties of the refraction signals retrieved by the two methods and compare their sensitivities. Methods: Using the error propagation formula, the authors analyze theoretically the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the refraction images retrieved by the two methods. Then, the sensitivities of the two extraction methods are compared under an identical exposure dose. Numerical experiments are performed to validate the theoretical results and provide some quantitative insight. Results: The SNRs of the two methods are both dependent on the system parameters, but in different ways. Comparison between their sensitivities reveals that for the refraction signal, the RP method possesses a higher sensitivity, especially in the case of high visibility and/or at the edge of the object. Conclusions: Compared with the PS method, the RP method has a superior sensitivity and provides refraction images with a higher SNR. Therefore, one can obtain highly sensitive refraction images in grating-based phase contrast imaging. This is very important for future preclinical and clinical implementations

  3. Development of a high sensitivity pinhole type gamma camera using semiconductors for low dose rate fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Isao; Ishitsu, Takafumi; Tadokoro, Takahiro; Okada, Koichi; Nagumo, Yasushi; Fujishima, Yasutake; Yoshida, Akira; Umegaki, Kikuo

    2018-06-01

    We developed a pinhole type gamma camera, using a compact detector module of a pixelated CdTe semiconductor, which has suitable sensitivity and quantitative accuracy for low dose rate fields. In order to improve the sensitivity of the pinhole type semiconductor gamma camera, we adopted three methods: a signal processing method to set the discriminating level lower, a high sensitivity pinhole collimator and a smoothing image filter that improves the efficiency of the source identification. We tested basic performances of the developed gamma camera and carefully examined effects of the three methods. From the sensitivity test, we found that the effective sensitivity was about 21 times higher than that of the gamma camera for high dose rate fields which we had previously developed. We confirmed that the gamma camera had sufficient sensitivity and high quantitative accuracy; for example, a weak hot spot (0.9 μSv/h) around a tree root could be detected within 45 min in a low dose rate field test, and errors of measured dose rates with point sources were less than 7% in a dose rate accuracy test.

  4. Evaluation of Indoor Radio Deployment Options in High-Rise Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Wigard, Jeroen; Kovacs, Istvan

    2017-01-01

    to the increase of inter-cell interference (ICI). Increasing transmit power brings largest gain when the density of indoor cell is low, and the noise and/or outdoor interference is the dominant source of performance degradation. When analyzing performance gain of an ideal receiver-side Interference Cancellation......In this paper we set out to analyze the indoor capacity under a realistic high-rise building scenario. The study takes into consideration the number of indoor cells deployed per floor, different inter-site distances (ISDs), transmit power settings and outdoor macro interference levels. The outcome...

  5. Application of quality assurance guidelines to the high pressure gas system, building 331

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanel, S.

    1976-01-01

    Major improvements have been made to decrease the tritium release potential for LLL's tritium-handling facilities in Bldg. 331. Some of the major problems and solutions in designing and building the High Pressure Gas System, which was the first system to be rebuilt are described. To increase system safety, it was necessary to specify material and processes used in component manufacture, to inspect all materials and processes to ensure compliance with specifications, to use proper joint design, to use secondary containment in cases where specifications could not be met, and to exercise tighter control of operating procedures

  6. InGaN micro-LED-pillar as the building block for high brightness emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Cha, Dong Kyu; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Yang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    In summary, we confirmed the improved electrical and optical characteristics, with reduced efficiency droop in InGaN μLED-pillars when these devices were scaled down in size. We demonstrated that strain relief contributed to further improvement in EQE characteristics in small InGaN μLED-pillars (D < 50 μm), apart from the current spreading effect. The μLED-pillar can be deployed as the building block for large effective-area, high brightness emitter. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Determination of pollutants in foundry during the manufacture of metal constructions for high buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Irina; Sushko, Elena; Lyshnikova, Anna; Prykina, Larisa

    2018-03-01

    Current developments are devoted to the environmental safety of the foundry. There is a significant amount of pollutants, according to dust, which is released in the working area, during the manufacture of metal structures for high buildings. From the point of dust extraction, the most unfavorable areas are shot blasting, sand-blasting chambers and knockout grills. The weight fraction of dust composition with diameters up to 20 μm reaches 43,8% by mass, according to experimental analysis. This kind of dust is the most dangerous to employees and also it creates problems for dust-cleaning in the air.

  8. High frequency electrical stimulation concurrently induces central sensitization and ipsilateral inhibitory pain modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, L; Drummond, P D

    2013-03-01

    In healthy humans, analgesia to blunt pressure develops in the ipsilateral forehead during various forms of limb pain. The aim of the current study was to determine whether this analgesic response is induced by ultraviolet B radiation (UVB), which evokes signs of peripheral sensitization, or by high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS), which triggers signs of central sensitization. Before and after HFS and UVB conditioning, sensitivity to heat and to blunt and sharp stimuli was assessed at and adjacent to the treated site in the forearm. In addition, sensitivity to blunt pressure was measured bilaterally in the forehead. The effect of ipsilateral versus contralateral temple cooling on electrically evoked pain in the forearm was then examined, to determine whether HFS or UVB conditioning altered inhibitory pain modulation. UVB conditioning triggered signs of peripheral sensitization, whereas HFS conditioning triggered signs of central sensitization. Importantly, ipsilateral forehead analgesia developed after HFS but not UVB conditioning. In addition, decreases in electrically evoked pain at the HFS-treated site were greater during ipsilateral than contralateral temple cooling, whereas decreases at the UVB-treated site were similar during both procedures. HFS conditioning induced signs of central sensitization in the forearm and analgesia both in the ipsilateral forehead and the HFS-treated site. This ipsilateral analgesia was not due to peripheral sensitization or other non-specific effects, as it failed to develop after UVB conditioning. Thus, the supra-spinal mechanisms that evoke central sensitization might also trigger a hemilateral inhibitory pain modulation process. This inhibitory process could sharpen the boundaries of central sensitization or limit its spread. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  9. Radiation Build-Up In Shielding Of Low Activity High Energia Gamma Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfi-Yuliati; Mukhlis-Akhadi

    2003-01-01

    Research to observe radiation build-up factor (b) in aluminium (Al), iron (Fe) and lead (Pb) for shielding of gamma radiation of high energy from 137 cs (E γ : 662 keV) source and 60 Co (E γ : 1332 keV) of low activity sources has been carried out. Al with Z =13 represent metal of low atomic number, Fe with Z =26 represent metal of medium atomic number, and Pb with Z = 82 represent metal of high atomic number. Low activity source in this research is source which if its dose rate decrease to 3 % of its initial dose rate became safe for the workers. Research was conducted by counting of radiation intensity behind shielding with its thickness vary from 1 to 5 times of half value thickness (HVT). NaI(TI) detector which connected to multi channel analyzer (MCA) was used for the counting. Calculation result show that all of b value are close to 1 (b ∼ 1) for all kinds of metals. No radiation build-up factor is required in estimating the shielding thickness from several kinds of metals for low activity of high energy gamma source. (author)

  10. The visual-landscape analysis during the integration of high-rise buildings within the historic urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akristiniy, Vera A.; Dikova, Elena A.

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to one of the types of urban planning studies - the visual-landscape analysis during the integration of high-rise buildings within the historic urban environment for the purposes of providing pre-design and design studies in terms of preserving the historical urban environment and the implementation of the reconstructional resource of the area. In the article formed and systematized the stages and methods of conducting the visual-landscape analysis taking into account the influence of high-rise buildings on objects of cultural heritage and valuable historical buildings of the city. Practical application of the visual-landscape analysis provides an opportunity to assess the influence of hypothetical location of high-rise buildings on the perception of a historically developed environment and optimal building parameters. The contents of the main stages in the conduct of the visual - landscape analysis and their key aspects, concerning the construction of predicted zones of visibility of the significant historically valuable urban development objects and hypothetically planned of the high-rise buildings are revealed. The obtained data are oriented to the successive development of the planning and typological structure of the city territory and preservation of the compositional influence of valuable fragments of the historical environment in the structure of the urban landscape. On their basis, an information database is formed to determine the permissible urban development parameters of the high-rise buildings for the preservation of the compositional integrity of the urban area.

  11. The visual-landscape analysis during the integration of high-rise buildings within the historic urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akristiniy Vera A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the types of urban planning studies - the visual-landscape analysis during the integration of high-rise buildings within the historic urban environment for the purposes of providing pre-design and design studies in terms of preserving the historical urban environment and the implementation of the reconstructional resource of the area. In the article formed and systematized the stages and methods of conducting the visual-landscape analysis taking into account the influence of high-rise buildings on objects of cultural heritage and valuable historical buildings of the city. Practical application of the visual-landscape analysis provides an opportunity to assess the influence of hypothetical location of high-rise buildings on the perception of a historically developed environment and optimal building parameters. The contents of the main stages in the conduct of the visual - landscape analysis and their key aspects, concerning the construction of predicted zones of visibility of the significant historically valuable urban development objects and hypothetically planned of the high-rise buildings are revealed. The obtained data are oriented to the successive development of the planning and typological structure of the city territory and preservation of the compositional influence of valuable fragments of the historical environment in the structure of the urban landscape. On their basis, an information database is formed to determine the permissible urban development parameters of the high-rise buildings for the preservation of the compositional integrity of the urban area.

  12. Prediction of moisture migration and pore pressure build-up in concrete at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.; England, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of moisture migration and pore pressure build-up in non-uniformly heated concrete is important for safe operation of concrete containment vessels in nuclear power reactors and for assessing the behaviour of fire-exposed concrete structures. (1) Changes in moisture content distribution in a concrete containment vessel during long-term operation should be investigated, since the durability and radiation shielding ability of concrete are strongly influenced by its moisture content. (2) The pressure build-up in a concrete containment vessel in a postulated accident should be evaluated in order to determine whether a venting system is necessary between liner and concrete to relieve the pore pressure. (3) When concrete is subjected to rapid heating during a fire, the concrete can suffer from spalling due to pressure build-up in the concrete pores. This paper presents a mathematical and computational model for predicting changes in temperature, moisture content and pore pressure in concrete at elevated temperatures. A pair of differential equations for one-dimensional heat and moisture transfer in concrete are derived from the conservation of energy and mass, and take into account the temperature-dependent release of gel water and chemically bound water due to dehydration. These equations are numerically solved by the finite difference method. In the numerical analysis, the pressure, density and dynamic viscosity of water in the concrete pores are calculated explicitly from a set of formulated equations. The numerical analysis results are compared with two different sets of experimental data: (a) long-term (531 days) moisture migration test under a steady-state temperature of 200 deg. C, and (b) short-term (114 min) pressure build-up test under transient heating. These experiments were performed to investigate the moisture migration and pressure build-up in the concrete wall of a reactor containment vessel at high temperatures. The former experiment simulated

  13. Epidermis Microstructure Inspired Graphene Pressure Sensor with Random Distributed Spinosum for High Sensitivity and Large Linearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Zhang, Kunning; Yang, Zhen; Jiang, Song; Ju, Zhenyi; Li, Yuxing; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Danyang; Jian, Muqiang; Zhang, Yingying; Liang, Renrong; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-03-27

    Recently, wearable pressure sensors have attracted tremendous attention because of their potential applications in monitoring physiological signals for human healthcare. Sensitivity and linearity are the two most essential parameters for pressure sensors. Although various designed micro/nanostructure morphologies have been introduced, the trade-off between sensitivity and linearity has not been well balanced. Human skin, which contains force receptors in a reticular layer, has a high sensitivity even for large external stimuli. Herein, inspired by the skin epidermis with high-performance force sensing, we have proposed a special surface morphology with spinosum microstructure of random distribution via the combination of an abrasive paper template and reduced graphene oxide. The sensitivity of the graphene pressure sensor with random distribution spinosum (RDS) microstructure is as high as 25.1 kPa -1 in a wide linearity range of 0-2.6 kPa. Our pressure sensor exhibits superior comprehensive properties compared with previous surface-modified pressure sensors. According to simulation and mechanism analyses, the spinosum microstructure and random distribution contribute to the high sensitivity and large linearity range, respectively. In addition, the pressure sensor shows promising potential in detecting human physiological signals, such as heartbeat, respiration, phonation, and human motions of a pushup, arm bending, and walking. The wearable pressure sensor array was further used to detect gait states of supination, neutral, and pronation. The RDS microstructure provides an alternative strategy to improve the performance of pressure sensors and extend their potential applications in monitoring human activities.

  14. High degree gravitational sensitivity from Mars orbiters for the GMM-1 gravity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, F. J.; Smith, D. E.; Chan, J. C.; Patel, G. B.; Chinn, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    Orbital sensitivity of the gravity field for high degree terms (greater than 30) is analyzed on satellites employed in a Goddard Mars Model GMM-1, complete in spherical harmonics through degree and order 50. The model is obtained from S-band Doppler data on Mariner 9 (M9), Viking Orbiter 1 (VO1), and Viking Orbiter 2 (VO2) spacecraft, which were tracked by the NASA Deep Space Network on seven different highly eccentric orbits. The main sensitivity of the high degree terms is obtained from the VO1 and VO2 low orbits (300 km periapsis altitude), where significant spectral sensitivity is seen for all degrees out through degree 50. The velocity perturbations show a dominant effect at periapsis and significant effects out beyond the semi-latus rectum covering over 180 degrees of the orbital groundtrack for the low altitude orbits. Because of the wideband of periapsis motion covering nearly 180 degrees in w and +39 degrees in latitude coverage, the VO1 300 km periapsis altitude orbit with inclination of 39 degrees gave the dominant sensitivity in the GMM-1 solution for the high degree terms. Although the VO2 low periapsis orbit has a smaller band of periapsis mapping coverage, it strongly complements the VO1 orbit sensitivity for the GMM-1 solution with Doppler tracking coverage over a different inclination of 80 degrees.

  15. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C. K. N.

    2008-01-01

    Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the nerve agents, in a crowded environment. An example of this is the release of Sarin by Aum Shinrikyo sect in a crowded Tokyo subway in 1995. An example of the second terrorist threat is the ever-present possible suicide bomber in crowded environment such as airports, markets and large buildings. Minimizing the impact of both of these threats requires early detection of the presence of the CWAs and explosives. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is an exquisitely sensitive technique for the detection of trace gaseous species, a property that Pranalytica has extensively exploited in its CO2 laser based commercial instrumentation for the sub-ppb level detection of a number of industrially important gases including ammonia, ethylene, acrolein, sulfur hexafluoride, phosphine, arsine, boron trichloride and boron trifluoride. In this presentation, I will focus, however, on our recent use of broadly tunable single frequency high power room temperature quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for the detection of the CWAs and explosives. Using external grating cavity geometry, we have developed room temperature QCLs that produce continuously tunable single frequency CW power output in excess of 300 mW at wavelengths covering 5 μm to 12 μm. I will present data that show a CWA detection capability at ppb levels with false alarm rates below 1:108. I will also show the capability of detecting a variety of explosives at a ppb level, again with very low false alarm rates. Among the explosives, we have demonstrated the capability of detecting homemade explosives such as triacetone triperoxide and its liquid precursor, acetone which is a common household

  16. Flexible hemispheric microarrays of highly pressure-sensitive sensors based on breath figure method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Jin; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong

    2018-05-30

    Recently, flexible pressure sensors featuring high sensitivity, broad sensing range and real-time detection have aroused great attention owing to their crucial role in the development of artificial intelligent devices and healthcare systems. Herein, highly sensitive pressure sensors based on hemisphere-microarray flexible substrates are fabricated via inversely templating honeycomb structures deriving from a facile and static breath figure process. The interlocked and subtle microstructures greatly improve the sensing characteristics and compressibility of the as-prepared pressure sensor, endowing it a sensitivity as high as 196 kPa-1 and a wide pressure sensing range (0-100 kPa), as well as other superior performance, including a lower detection limit of 0.5 Pa, fast response time (10 000 cycles). Based on the outstanding sensing performance, the potential capability of our pressure sensor in capturing physiological information and recognizing speech signals has been demonstrated, indicating promising application in wearable and intelligent electronics.

  17. Photon Counting System for High-Sensitivity Detection of Bioluminescence at Optical Fiber End.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, Masataka; Kadoya, Yutaka; Kuroda, Akio

    2016-01-01

    The technique of photon counting is widely used for various fields and also applicable to a high-sensitivity detection of luminescence. Thanks to recent development of single photon detectors with avalanche photodiodes (APDs), the photon counting system with an optical fiber has become powerful for a detection of bioluminescence at an optical fiber end, because it allows us to fully use the merits of compactness, simple operation, highly quantum efficiency of the APD detectors. This optical fiber-based system also has a possibility of improving the sensitivity to a local detection of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by high-sensitivity detection of the bioluminescence. In this chapter, we are introducing a basic concept of the optical fiber-based system and explaining how to construct and use this system.

  18. A Flexible and Highly Sensitive Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Based on Micropatterned Films Coated with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-lin Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excellent flexibility, high sensitivity, and low consumption are essential characteristics in flexible microtube pressure sensing occasion, for example, implantable medical devices, industrial pipeline, and microfluidic chip. This paper reports a flexible, highly sensitive, and ultrathin piezoresistive pressure sensor for fluid pressure sensing, whose sensing element is micropatterned films with conductive carbon nanotube layer. The flexible pressure sensor, the thickness of which is 40 ± 10 μm, could be economically fabricated by using biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. Experimental results show that the flexible pressure sensor has high sensitivity (0.047 kPa−1 in gas sensing and 5.6 × 10−3 kPa−1 in liquid sensing and low consumption (<180 μW, and the sensor could be used to measure the pressure in curved microtubes.

  19. Multimode fiber tip Fabry-Perot cavity for highly sensitive pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W P; Wang, D N; Xu, Ben; Zhao, C L; Chen, H F

    2017-03-23

    We demonstrate an optical Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber tip sensor based on an etched end of multimode fiber filled with ultraviolet adhesive. The fiber device is miniature (with diameter of less than 60 μm), robust and low cost, in a convenient reflection mode of operation, and has a very high gas pressure sensitivity of -40.94 nm/MPa, a large temperature sensitivity of 213 pm/°C within the range from 55 to 85 °C, and a relatively low temperature cross-sensitivity of 5.2 kPa/°C. This device has a high potential in monitoring environment of high pressure.

  20. A highly sensitive CMOS digital Hall sensor for low magnetic field applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Pan, Hong-Bin; He, Shu-Zhuan; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Integrated CMOS Hall sensors have been widely used to measure magnetic fields. However, they are difficult to work with in a low magnetic field environment due to their low sensitivity and large offset. This paper describes a highly sensitive digital Hall sensor fabricated in 0.18 μm high voltage CMOS technology for low field applications. The sensor consists of a switched cross-shaped Hall plate and a novel signal conditioner. It effectively eliminates offset and low frequency 1/f noise by applying a dynamic quadrature offset cancellation technique. The measured results show the optimal Hall plate achieves a high current related sensitivity of about 310 V/AT. The whole sensor has a remarkable ability to measure a minimum ± 2 mT magnetic field and output a digital Hall signal in a wide temperature range from -40 °C to 120 °C.

  1. Lessons Learned from Case Studies of Six High-Performance Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Deru, M.; Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Judkoff, R.

    2006-06-01

    Commercial buildings have a significant impact on energy use and the environment. They account for approximately 18% (17.9 quads) of the total primary energy consumption in the United States (DOE 2005). The energy used by the building sector continues to increase, primarily because new buildings are added to the national building stock faster than old buildings are retired. Energy consumption by commercial buildings will continue to increase until buildings can be designed to produce more energy than they consume. As a result, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building Technologies Program has established a goal to create the technology and knowledge base for marketable zero-energy commercial buildings (ZEBs) by 2025.

  2. Integrated cost estimation methodology to support high-performance building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, Prasad; Greden, Lara; Eijadi, David; McDougall, Tom [The Weidt Group, Minnetonka (United States); Cole, Ray [Axiom Engineers, Monterey (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Design teams evaluating the performance of energy conservation measures (ECMs) calculate energy savings rigorously with established modelling protocols, accounting for the interaction between various measures. However, incremental cost calculations do not have a similar rigor. Often there is no recognition of cost reductions with integrated design, nor is there assessment of cost interactions amongst measures. This lack of rigor feeds the notion that high-performance buildings cost more, creating a barrier for design teams pursuing aggressive high-performance outcomes. This study proposes an alternative integrated methodology to arrive at a lower perceived incremental cost for improved energy performance. The methodology is based on the use of energy simulations as means towards integrated design and cost estimation. Various points along the spectrum of integration are identified and characterized by the amount of design effort invested, the scheduling of effort, and relative energy performance of the resultant design. It includes a study of the interactions between building system parameters as they relate to capital costs. Several cost interactions amongst energy measures are found to be significant.The value of this approach is demonstrated with alternatives in a case study that shows the differences between perceived costs for energy measures along various points on the integration spectrum. These alternatives show design tradeoffs and identify how decisions would have been different with a standard costing approach. Areas of further research to make the methodology more robust are identified. Policy measures to encourage the integrated approach and reduce the barriers towards improved energy performance are discussed.

  3. Investigation of the motion processes of wastewater in sewerage of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomogaeva Valentina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When designing, constructing and operating sewage pipelines in high-rise buildings, issues of failure-free operation of a network arise. Investigation of the processes of wastewater moving allows identifying problem areas during operation, assessing the possibility of obstructions and breakdowns of plumbing traps on the gravity drainage sections of the pipeline. The article performs the schemes of the water outflow from the floor sewer into the riser, including the places where the riser is bent, of air delivery to the working riser under the change of the direction of drain movement with the dropout line set-up, with the installation of an automatic anti-vacuum valve, with the installation of the ventilation pipeline. Investigations of the process of sewage waste flow in a sewage riser were carried out, in order to select the appropriate structure. The authors consider structure features of some sections of sewerage in high-rise buildings. The exhaustion value in the riser is determined from the rarefactions that occur below the compressed cross-section of the riser and the loss of the air flow pressure coming from the atmosphere into the riser during the deflooding of the liquid. Preventing the formation of obstructions and breakdowns of plumbing traps is an integral part of sewage networks.

  4. Investigation of the motion processes of wastewater in sewerage of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomogaeva, Valentina; Metechko, Lyudmila; Prokofiev, Dmitry; Narezhnaya, Tamara

    2018-03-01

    When designing, constructing and operating sewage pipelines in high-rise buildings, issues of failure-free operation of a network arise. Investigation of the processes of wastewater moving allows identifying problem areas during operation, assessing the possibility of obstructions and breakdowns of plumbing traps on the gravity drainage sections of the pipeline. The article performs the schemes of the water outflow from the floor sewer into the riser, including the places where the riser is bent, of air delivery to the working riser under the change of the direction of drain movement with the dropout line set-up, with the installation of an automatic anti-vacuum valve, with the installation of the ventilation pipeline. Investigations of the process of sewage waste flow in a sewage riser were carried out, in order to select the appropriate structure. The authors consider structure features of some sections of sewerage in high-rise buildings. The exhaustion value in the riser is determined from the rarefactions that occur below the compressed cross-section of the riser and the loss of the air flow pressure coming from the atmosphere into the riser during the deflooding of the liquid. Preventing the formation of obstructions and breakdowns of plumbing traps is an integral part of sewage networks.

  5. Real-time, single-step bioassay using nanoplasmonic resonator with ultra-high sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiang; Ellman, Jonathan A; Chen, Fanqing Frank; Su, Kai-Hang; Wei, Qi-Huo; Sun, Cheng

    2014-04-01

    A nanoplasmonic resonator (NPR) comprising a metallic nanodisk with alternating shielding layer(s), having a tagged biomolecule conjugated or tethered to the surface of the nanoplasmonic resonator for highly sensitive measurement of enzymatic activity. NPRs enhance Raman signals in a highly reproducible manner, enabling fast detection of protease and enzyme activity, such as Prostate Specific Antigen (paPSA), in real-time, at picomolar sensitivity levels. Experiments on extracellular fluid (ECF) from paPSA-positive cells demonstrate specific detection in a complex bio-fluid background in real-time single-step detection in very small sample volumes.

  6. Materials development and field demonstration of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostowari, Ken; Nosson, Ali

    2000-01-01

    The project developed high-recycled-content concrete material with balanced structural and thermal attributes for use in energy-efficient building construction. Recycled plastics, tire, wool, steel and concrete were used as replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete and masonry production. With recycled materials the specific heat and thermal conductivity of concrete could be tailored to enhance the energy-efficiency of concrete buildings. A comprehensive field project was implemented which confirmed the benefits of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction

  7. Measurement and evaluation of high-rise building response to ground motion generated by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the structural response research program being conducted for ERDA, the response behavior of high-rise buildings in Las Vegas, Nevada, due to ground motion caused by underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has been measured for the past 12 years. Results obtained include variation in dynamic response properties as a function of amplitude of motion, influence of nonstructural partitions in the building response, and comparison of calculated and measured response. These data for three reinforced concrete high-rise buildings, all designed as moment-resisting space frames are presented

  8. High sensitivity, high surface area Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpal; Morita, Takahiro; Suzuki, Yuma; Shimojima, Masayuki; Le Van, An; Sugamata, Masami; Yang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are considered the gold standard in the demonstration of various immunological reactions with an application in the detection of infectious diseases such as during outbreaks or in patient care. This study aimed to produce an ELISA-based diagnostic with an increased sensitivity of detection compared to the standard 96-well method in the immunologic diagnosis of infectious diseases. A '3DStack' was developed using readily available, low cost fabrication technologies namely nanoimprinting and press stamping with an increased surface area of 4 to 6 times more compared to 96-well plates. This was achieved by stacking multiple nanoimprinted polymer sheets. The flow of analytes between the sheets was enhanced by rotating the 3DStack and confirmed by Finite-Element (FE) simulation. An Immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA for the detection of antibodies in human serum raised against Rubella virus was performed for validation. An improved sensitivity of up to 1.9 folds higher was observed using the 3DStack compared to the standard method. The increased surface area of the 3DStack developed using nanoimprinting and press stamping technologies, and the flow pattern between sheets generated by rotating the 3DStack were potential contributors to a more sensitive ELISA-based diagnostic device.

  9. Connections in Precast Buildings using Ultra High-Strength Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Chr.; Jensen, Lars Rom; Hansen, F. Toft

    1995-01-01

    are preferred, but due to transportation and lift capacities on the site, the size of the slab elements is limited. A building system with great distance between columns, reasonable sizes of slab elements and great possibilities for the architect to form the façade lines, would be a step forward...... for the building industry. The Building Department of the Education Ministry has initiated such a development, and very simple building systems will be used for the next building complex at Aalborg University. The partners who did the development for the Building Department, are Carl Bro Group, Dall & Lindhardtsen...

  10. High Temperature and High Sensitive NOx Gas Sensor with Hetero-Junction Structure using Laser Ablation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Shi, Liqin; Hasegawa, Yuki; Katsube, Teruaki

    In order to develop a high temperature (200°C˜400°C) and high sensitive NOx gas sensor, we developed a new structure of SiC-based hetero-junction device Pt/SnO2/SiC/Ni, Pt/In2O3/SiC/Ni and Pt/WO3/SiC/Ni using a laser ablation method for the preparation of both metal (Pt) electrode and metal-oxide film. It was found that Pt/In2O3/SiC/Ni sensor shows higher sensitivity to NO2 gas compared with the Pt/SnO2/SiC/Ni and Pt/WO3/SiC/Ni sensor, whereas the Pt/WO3/SiC/Ni sensor had better sensitivity to NO gas. These results suggest that selective detection of NO and NO2 gases may be obtained by choosing different metal oxide films.

  11. Designing and Building a Collimation System for the High-Intensity LHC Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R W; Baishev, I S; Bruno, L; Brugger, M; Chiaveri, Enrico; Dehning, Bernd; Ferrari, A; Goddard, B; Jeanneret, J B; Jiménez, M; Kain, V; Kaltchev, D I; Lamont, M; Ruggiero, F; Schmidt, R; Sievers, P; Uythoven, J; Vlachoudis, V; Vos, L; Wenninger, J

    2003-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will collide proton beams at 14 TeV c.m. with unprecedented stored intensities. The transverse energy density in the beam will be about three orders of magnitude larger than previously handled in the Tevatron or in HERA, if compared at the locations of the betatron collimators. In particular, the population in the beam halo is much above the quench level of the superconducting magnets. Two LHC insertions are dedicated to collimation with the design goals of preventing magnet quenches in regular operation and preventing damage to accelerator components in case of irregular beam loss. We discuss the challenges for designing and building a collimation system that withstands the high power LHC beam and provides the required high cleaning efficiency. Plans for future work are outlined.

  12. The nature and nurture of high IQ: an extended sensitive period for intellectual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Angela M; Munakata, Yuko; Boomsma, Dorret I; Defries, John C; Haworth, Claire M A; Keller, Matthew C; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matthew; Petrill, Stephen A; Plomin, Robert; Wadsworth, Sally J; Wright, Margaret J; Hewitt, John K

    2013-08-01

    IQ predicts many measures of life success, as well as trajectories of brain development. Prolonged cortical thickening observed in individuals with high IQ might reflect an extended period of synaptogenesis and high environmental sensitivity or plasticity. We tested this hypothesis by examining the timing of changes in the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on IQ as a function of IQ score. We found that individuals with high IQ show high environmental influence on IQ into adolescence (resembling younger children), whereas individuals with low IQ show high heritability of IQ in adolescence (resembling adults), a pattern consistent with an extended sensitive period for intellectual development in more-intelligent individuals. The pattern held across a cross-sectional sample of almost 11,000 twin pairs and a longitudinal sample of twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings.

  13. Economic and Technical Investigation of Grey Water Reuse in High-Rise Buildings in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Rohani Farahmand

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid zone with limited water resources. In urban areas where water supplies are short, effluents from wastewater treatment plants can be considered as a reliable alternative source to supply water, especially for such urban uses as flushing and landscape irrigation. The effluents can be used to supply the water for textile, chemical, plastic, and construction industries in addition to agricultural irrigation. While these demands can be supplied from non-potable water resources such as treatment effluents, the water required for drinking and cooking that accounts for only a small portion of the total consumption must be supplied from those resources that conform to quality standards. The objective of the present study was to develop incentive plans and innovative designs that would assist builders and inhabitants of high-rise buildings to implement and employ grey water reuse systems. The study also investigated the effects of emoploying two-storage septic tanks to improve such water parameters as BOD, COD, N, P, and TSS. Given the fact that water connection charges in Iran are only a function of total land and building areas with volumetric parameters excluded, the current pricing system for water and sewage connections needs to be revisited and duly adjusted. The additional costs of systems required for segregating black water from grey water and recirculating treated water within the building may not be economically justifiable and, thus, the incentive plans are expected to provide the required justification for both the water industry and the builders.

  14. High Throughput Measurement of Locomotor Sensitization to Volatilized Cocaine in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filošević, Ana; Al-Samarai, Sabina; Andretić Waldowski, Rozi

    2018-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster can be used to identify genes with novel functional roles in neuronal plasticity induced by repeated consumption of addictive drugs. Behavioral sensitization is a relatively simple behavioral output of plastic changes that occur in the brain after repeated exposures to drugs of abuse. The development of screening procedures for genes that control behavioral sensitization has stalled due to a lack of high-throughput behavioral tests that can be used in genetically tractable organism, such as Drosophila . We have developed a new behavioral test, FlyBong, which combines delivery of volatilized cocaine (vCOC) to individually housed flies with objective quantification of their locomotor activity. There are two main advantages of FlyBong: it is high-throughput and it allows for comparisons of locomotor activity of individual flies before and after single or multiple exposures. At the population level, exposure to vCOC leads to transient and concentration-dependent increase in locomotor activity, representing sensitivity to an acute dose. A second exposure leads to further increase in locomotion, representing locomotor sensitization. We validate FlyBong by showing that locomotor sensitization at either the population or individual level is absent in the mutants for circadian genes period (per) , Clock (Clk) , and cycle (cyc) . The locomotor sensitization that is present in timeless (tim) and pigment dispersing factor (pdf) mutant flies is in large part not cocaine specific, but derived from increased sensitivity to warm air. Circadian genes are not only integral part of the neural mechanism that is required for development of locomotor sensitization, but in addition, they modulate the intensity of locomotor sensitization as a function of the time of day. Motor-activating effects of cocaine are sexually dimorphic and require a functional dopaminergic transporter. FlyBong is a new and improved method for inducing and measuring locomotor sensitization

  15. High Throughput Measurement of Locomotor Sensitization to Volatilized Cocaine in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filošević

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster can be used to identify genes with novel functional roles in neuronal plasticity induced by repeated consumption of addictive drugs. Behavioral sensitization is a relatively simple behavioral output of plastic changes that occur in the brain after repeated exposures to drugs of abuse. The development of screening procedures for genes that control behavioral sensitization has stalled due to a lack of high-throughput behavioral tests that can be used in genetically tractable organism, such as Drosophila. We have developed a new behavioral test, FlyBong, which combines delivery of volatilized cocaine (vCOC to individually housed flies with objective quantification of their locomotor activity. There are two main advantages of FlyBong: it is high-throughput and it allows for comparisons of locomotor activity of individual flies before and after single or multiple exposures. At the population level, exposure to vCOC leads to transient and concentration-dependent increase in locomotor activity, representing sensitivity to an acute dose. A second exposure leads to further increase in locomotion, representing locomotor sensitization. We validate FlyBong by showing that locomotor sensitization at either the population or individual level is absent in the mutants for circadian genes period (per, Clock (Clk, and cycle (cyc. The locomotor sensitization that is present in timeless (tim and pigment dispersing factor (pdf mutant flies is in large part not cocaine specific, but derived from increased sensitivity to warm air. Circadian genes are not only integral part of the neural mechanism that is required for development of locomotor sensitization, but in addition, they modulate the intensity of locomotor sensitization as a function of the time of day. Motor-activating effects of cocaine are sexually dimorphic and require a functional dopaminergic transporter. FlyBong is a new and improved method for inducing and measuring locomotor

  16. A highly sensitive RF-to-DC power converter with an extended dynamic range

    KAUST Repository

    Almansouri, Abdullah Saud Mohammed

    2017-10-24

    This paper proposes a highly sensitive RF-to-DC power converter with an extended dynamic range that is designed to operate at the medical band 433 MHz and simulated using 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Compared to the conventional fully cross-coupled rectifier, the proposed design offers 3.2× the dynamic range. It is also highly sensitive and requires −18 dBm of input power to produce a 1 V-output voltage when operating with a 100 kΩ load. Furthermore, the proposed design offers an open circuit sensitivity of −23.4 dBm and a peak power conversion efficiency of 67%.

  17. A wide range and highly sensitive optical fiber pH sensor using polyacrylamide hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2017-12-01

    In the present study we report the fabrication and characterization of no-core fiber sensor (NCFS) using smart hydrogel coating for pH measurement. The no-core fiber (NCF) is stubbed between two single-mode fibers with SMA connector before immobilizing of smart hydrogel. The wavelength interrogation technique is used to calculate the sensitivity of the proposed sensor. The result shows a high sensitivity of 1.94 nm/pH for a wide range of pH values varied from 3 to 10 with a good linear response. In addition to high sensitivity, the fabricated sensor provides a fast response time with a good stability, repeatability and reproducibility.

  18. High-sensitivity visualization of localized electric fields using low-energy electron beam deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Samuel; Ito, Yoshikazu; Edwards, Gary; Fujita, Jun-ichi

    2018-06-01

    The visualization of localized electronic charges on nanocatalysts is expected to yield fundamental information about catalytic reaction mechanisms. We have developed a high-sensitivity detection technique for the visualization of localized charges on a catalyst and their corresponding electric field distribution, using a low-energy beam of 1 to 5 keV electrons and a high-sensitivity scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) detector. The highest sensitivity for visualizing a localized electric field was ∼0.08 V/µm at a distance of ∼17 µm from a localized charge at 1 keV of the primary electron energy, and a weak local electric field produced by 200 electrons accumulated on the carbon nanotube (CNT) apex can be visualized. We also observed that Au nanoparticles distributed on a CNT forest tended to accumulate a certain amount of charges, about 150 electrons, at a ‑2 V bias.

  19. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2010-08-11

    The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4- dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3.5% to 4.5%. The unattached DCM dyes exhibit an average excitation transfer efficiency (EÌ?TE) of 96% inside TT1-covered, mesostructured TiO2 films. Further performance increases were limited by the solubility of DCM in an acetonitrile based electrolyte. This demonstration shows that energy relay dyes can be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. High sensitivity optical fiber liquid level sensor based on a compact MMF-HCF-FBG structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshan; Zhang, Weigang; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Yanxin; Wang, Song; Yan, Tieyi

    2018-05-01

    An ultra-high sensitivity fiber liquid level sensor based on wavelength demodulation is proposed and demonstrated. The sensor is composed of a segment of multimode fiber and a large aperture hollow-core fiber assisted by a fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Interference occurs due to core mismatching and different modes with different effective refractive indices. The experimental results show that the liquid level sensitivity of the sensor is 1.145 nm mm‑1, and the linearity is up to 0.996. The dynamic temperature compensation of the sensor can be achieved by cascading an FBG. Considering the high sensitivity and compact structure of the sensor, it can be used for real-time intelligent monitoring of tiny changes in liquid level.

  1. [Extraction of buildings three-dimensional information from high-resolution satellite imagery based on Barista software].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-feng; Hu, Yuan-man; He, Hong-shi

    2010-05-01

    The demand for accurate and up-to-date spatial information of urban buildings is becoming more and more important for urban planning, environmental protection, and other vocations. Today's commercial high-resolution satellite imagery offers the potential to extract the three-dimensional information of urban buildings. This paper extracted the three-dimensional information of urban buildings from QuickBird imagery, and validated the precision of the extraction based on Barista software. It was shown that the extraction of three-dimensional information of the buildings from high-resolution satellite imagery based on Barista software had the advantages of low professional level demand, powerful universality, simple operation, and high precision. One pixel level of point positioning and height determination accuracy could be achieved if the digital elevation model (DEM) and sensor orientation model had higher precision and the off-Nadir View Angle was relatively perfect.

  2. Niacin Skin Sensitivity Is Increased in Adolescents at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor E Berger

    Full Text Available Most studies provide evidence that the skin flush response to nicotinic acid (niacin stimulation is impaired in schizophrenia. However, only little is known about niacin sensitivity in the ultra-high risk (UHR phase of psychotic disorders.We compared visual ratings of niacin sensitivity between adolescents at UHR for psychosis according to the one year transition outcome (UHR-T n = 11; UHR-NT n = 55 with healthy controls (HC n = 25 and first episode schizophrenia patients (FEP n = 25 treated with atypical antipsychotics.Contrary to our hypothesis niacin sensitivity of the entire UHR group was not attenuated, but significantly increased compared to the HC group, whereas no difference could be found between the UHR-T and UHR-NT groups. As expected, niacin sensitivity of FEP was attenuated compared to HC group. In UHR individuals niacin sensitivity was inversely correlated with omega-6 and -9 fatty acids (FA, but positively correlated with phospholipase A2 (inPLA2 activity, a marker of membrane lipid repair/remodelling.Increased niacin sensitivity in UHR states likely indicates an impaired balance of eicosanoids and omega-6/-9 FA at a membrane level. Our findings suggest that the emergence of psychosis is associated with an increased mobilisation of eicosanoids prior to the transition to psychosis possibly reflecting a "pro-inflammatory state", whereas thereafter eicosanoid mobilisation seems to be attenuated. Potential treatment implications for the UHR state should be further investigated.

  3. Development of Charge Sensitive Preamplifier and Readout Integrate Circuit Board for High Resolution Detector using ASIC Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, J. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Park, J. M.; Yang, J. Y.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, Y. S. [RadTek Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    - Design of discrete type charge sensitive amplifier for high resolution semi-conductor sensor - Design and develop the test board for the performance of charge sensitive amplifier with sensor - Performance of electrical test for the sensor and charge sensitive amplifier - Development of prototype 8 x 8 array type detector module - Noise equivalent charge test for the charge sensitive amplifier - Design and development of Micro SMD discrete type amplifier applying ASIC procedure - Development of Hybrid type charge sensitive amplifier including shape

  4. Waste generated in high-rise buildings construction: a quantification model based on statistical multiple regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi Kern, Andrea; Ferreira Dias, Michele; Piva Kulakowski, Marlova; Paulo Gomes, Luciana

    2015-05-01

    Reducing construction waste is becoming a key environmental issue in the construction industry. The quantification of waste generation rates in the construction sector is an invaluable management tool in supporting mitigation actions. However, the quantification of waste can be a difficult process because of the specific characteristics and the wide range of materials used in different construction projects. Large variations are observed in the methods used to predict the amount of waste generated because of the range of variables involved in construction processes and the different contexts in which these methods are employed. This paper proposes a statistical model to determine the amount of waste generated in the construction of high-rise buildings by assessing the influence of design process and production system, often mentioned as the major culprits behind the generation of waste in construction. Multiple regression was used to conduct a case study based on multiple sources of data of eighteen residential buildings. The resulting statistical model produced dependent (i.e. amount of waste generated) and independent variables associated with the design and the production system used. The best regression model obtained from the sample data resulted in an adjusted R(2) value of 0.694, which means that it predicts approximately 69% of the factors involved in the generation of waste in similar constructions. Most independent variables showed a low determination coefficient when assessed in isolation, which emphasizes the importance of assessing their joint influence on the response (dependent) variable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rocks, Clays, Water, and Salts: Highly Durable, Infinitely Rechargeable, Eminently Controllable Thermal Batteries for Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan W. Rempel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials that store the energy of warm days, to return that heat during cool nights, have been fundamental to vernacular building since ancient times. Although building with thermally rechargeable materials became a niche pursuit with the advent of fossil fuel-based heating and cooling, energy and climate change concerns have sparked new enthusiasm for these substances of high heat capacity and moderate thermal conductivity: stone, adobe, rammed earth, brick, water, concrete, and more recently, phase-change materials. While broadly similar, these substances absorb and release heat in unique patterns characteristic of their mineralogies, densities, fluidities, emissivities, and latent heats of fusion. Current architectural practice, however, shows little awareness of these differences and the resulting potential to match materials to desired thermal performance. This investigation explores that potential, illustrating the correspondence between physical parameters and thermal storage-and-release patterns in direct-, indirect-, and isolated-gain passive solar configurations. Focusing on heating applications, results demonstrate the superiority of water walls for daytime warmth, the tunability of granite and concrete for evening warmth, and the exceptional ability of phase-change materials to sustain near-constant heat delivery throughout the night.

  6. Development of a high sensitivity monitor for radionuclides characterization. Final report, August 1995--April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the development of a high sensitivity monitor for radiation, and the feasibility of applying a new radiation imaging concept developed for medical research to soil contamination. The concept utilizes sensors with storage photostimulable phosphor technology as radiation detectors. They are applicable to all types of radiation including tritium.

  7. High sensitivity of quick view capsule endoscopy for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling, Morten Lee; Nathan, Torben; Kjeldsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) has a high sensitivity for diagnosing small bowel Crohn's disease, but video analysis is time consuming. The quick view (qv) function is an effective tool to reduce time consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of missed small bowel ulcerations with qv-C...

  8. BH5047 type depth sand moisture-meter of high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Xie Liangnian; Zhang Shulan; Zhang Shuheng

    2000-01-01

    A new depth neutron moisture meter BH5047 has been developed. BH5047 neutron moisture meter is characterised by it is high sensitivity and used for sand water content measurement at concrete mixer. Calibration function is obtained by the Method of Least Squares. Linear correlation efficiency is as good as 0.9977

  9. Resting serum concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resting serum concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in sportsmen and untrained male adults. F.A. Niyi-Odumosu, O. A. Bello, S.A. Biliaminu, B.V. Owoyele, T.O. Abu, O.L. Dominic ...

  10. A high resolution position sensitive X-ray MWPC for small angle X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.; Stephenson, R.; Tappern, G.J.

    1981-02-01

    A small sealed-off delay line readout MWPC X-ray detector has been designed and built for small angle X-ray diffraction applications. Featuring a sensitive area of 100 mm x 25 mm it yields a spatial resolution of 0.13 mm (standard deviation) with a high rate capability and good quantum efficiency for copper K radiation. (author)

  11. Highly sensitive luminescence method of scandium determination in the products of metallurgical reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveets, M.A.; Akhmetova, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Highly sensitive reaction of scandium with 1,10-phenanthroline and eosin is used for the development of luminescence method of its determination in metallurgical products. The effect of interfering elements is eliminated by scandium extraction with monocarboxylic acids. The method permits to determine scandium content from 5 x 10 -5 % (Sr 0.15 - 0.25)

  12. Label-free biosensing with high sensitivity in dual-core microstructured polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Yuan, Wu; Vlachos, Kyriakos

    2011-01-01

    We present experimentally feasible designs of a dual-core microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF), which can act as a highly sensitive, label-free, and selective biosensor. An immobilized antigen sensing layer on the walls of the holes in the mPOF provides the ability to selectively capture...

  13. Development of a high sensitivity monitor for radionuclides characterization. Final report, August 1995--April 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the development of a high sensitivity monitor for radiation, and the feasibility of applying a new radiation imaging concept developed for medical research to soil contamination. The concept utilizes sensors with storage photostimulable phosphor technology as radiation detectors. They are applicable to all types of radiation including tritium

  14. A glycine residue essential for high ivermectin sensitivity in Cys-loop ion channel receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy; Lynch, Joseph W.

    2010-01-01

    Ivermectin exerts its anthelmintic effect by activating nematode Cys-loop glutamate-gated receptors. Here we show that a glycine residue at a specific transmembrane domain location is essential for high ivermectin sensitivity in both glycine- and glutamate-gated Cys-loop receptors. We also show...

  15. Association between high-sensitive troponin I and coronary artery calcification in a Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Fredrik; Engborg, Jonathan; Grønhøj, Mette H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) is an individual predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship between hs-TnI and coronary artery calcification (CAC) as determined by computed tomography (CT) has not previously been investigated in a general population...

  16. A highly sensitive RF-to-DC power converter with an extended dynamic range

    KAUST Repository

    Almansouri, Abdullah Saud Mohammed; Ouda, Mahmoud H.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a highly sensitive RF-to-DC power converter with an extended dynamic range that is designed to operate at the medical band 433 MHz and simulated using 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Compared to the conventional fully cross

  17. Rats bred for high alcohol drinking are more sensitive to delayed and probabilistic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, C J; Mitchell, S H

    2008-10-01

    Alcoholics and heavy drinkers score higher on measures of impulsivity than nonalcoholics and light drinkers. This may be because of factors that predate drug exposure (e.g. genetics). This study examined the role of genetics by comparing impulsivity measures in ethanol-naive rats selectively bred based on their high [high alcohol drinking (HAD)] or low [low alcohol drinking (LAD)] consumption of ethanol. Replicates 1 and 2 of the HAD and LAD rats, developed by the University of Indiana Alcohol Research Center, completed two different discounting tasks. Delay discounting examines sensitivity to rewards that are delayed in time and is commonly used to assess 'choice' impulsivity. Probability discounting examines sensitivity to the uncertain delivery of rewards and has been used to assess risk taking and risk assessment. High alcohol drinking rats discounted delayed and probabilistic rewards more steeply than LAD rats. Discount rates associated with probabilistic and delayed rewards were weakly correlated, while bias was strongly correlated with discount rate in both delay and probability discounting. The results suggest that selective breeding for high alcohol consumption selects for animals that are more sensitive to delayed and probabilistic outcomes. Sensitivity to delayed or probabilistic outcomes may be predictive of future drinking in genetically predisposed individuals.

  18. An UPLC-MS/MS method for highly sensitive high-throughput analysis of phytohormones in plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balcke Gerd Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytohormones are the key metabolites participating in the regulation of multiple functions of plant organism. Among them, jasmonates, as well as abscisic and salicylic acids are responsible for triggering and modulating plant reactions targeted against pathogens and herbivores, as well as resistance to abiotic stress (drought, UV-irradiation and mechanical wounding. These factors induce dramatic changes in phytohormone biosynthesis and transport leading to rapid local and systemic stress responses. Understanding of underlying mechanisms is of principle interest for scientists working in various areas of plant biology. However, highly sensitive, precise and high-throughput methods for quantification of these phytohormones in small samples of plant tissues are still missing. Results Here we present an LC-MS/MS method for fast and highly sensitive determination of jasmonates, abscisic and salicylic acids. A single-step sample preparation procedure based on mixed-mode solid phase extraction was efficiently combined with essential improvements in mobile phase composition yielding higher efficiency of chromatographic separation and MS-sensitivity. This strategy resulted in dramatic increase in overall sensitivity, allowing successful determination of phytohormones in small (less than 50 mg of fresh weight tissue samples. The method was completely validated in terms of analyte recovery, sensitivity, linearity and precision. Additionally, it was cross-validated with a well-established GC-MS-based procedure and its applicability to a variety of plant species and organs was verified. Conclusion The method can be applied for the analyses of target phytohormones in small tissue samples obtained from any plant species and/or plant part relying on any commercially available (even less sensitive tandem mass spectrometry instrumentation.

  19. Addressing Curse of Dimensionality in Sensitivity Analysis: How Can We Handle High-Dimensional Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, S.; Haghnegahdar, A.; Razavi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Complex environmental models are now the primary tool to inform decision makers for the current or future management of environmental resources under the climate and environmental changes. These complex models often contain a large number of parameters that need to be determined by a computationally intensive calibration procedure. Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a very useful tool that not only allows for understanding the model behavior, but also helps in reducing the number of calibration parameters by identifying unimportant ones. The issue is that most global sensitivity techniques are highly computationally demanding themselves for generating robust and stable sensitivity metrics over the entire model response surface. Recently, a novel global sensitivity analysis method, Variogram Analysis of Response Surfaces (VARS), is introduced that can efficiently provide a comprehensive assessment of global sensitivity using the Variogram concept. In this work, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of this highly efficient GSA method in saving computational burden, when applied to systems with extra-large number of input factors ( 100). We use a test function and a hydrological modelling case study to demonstrate the capability of VARS method in reducing problem dimensionality by identifying important vs unimportant input factors.

  20. A High-Sensitivity Potentiometric 65-nm CMOS ISFET Sensor for Rapid E. coli Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Liu, Xu; Dang, Tran Chien; Huang, Xiwei; Feng, Hao; Zhang, Qing; Yu, Hao

    2018-04-01

    Foodborne bacteria, inducing outbreaks of infection or poisoning, have posed great threats to food safety. Potentiometric sensors can identify bacteria levels in food by measuring medium's pH changes. However, most of these sensors face the limitation of low sensitivity and high cost. In this paper, we developed a high-sensitivity ion-sensitive field-effect transistor sensor. It is small sized, cost-efficient, and can be massively fabricated in a standard 65-nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process. A subthreshold pH-to-time-to-voltage conversion scheme was proposed to improve the sensitivity. Furthermore, design parameters, such as chemical sensing area, transistor size, and discharging time, were optimized to enhance the performance. The intrinsic sensitivity of passivation membrane was calculated as 33.2 mV/pH. It was amplified to 123.8 mV/pH with a 0.01-pH resolution, which greatly exceeded 6.3 mV/pH observed in a traditional source-follower based readout structure. The sensing system was applied to Escherichia coli (E. coli) detection with densities ranging from 14 to 140 cfu/mL. Compared to the conventional direct plate counting method (24 h), more efficient sixfold smaller screening time (4 h) was achieved to differentiate samples' E. coli levels. The demonstrated portable, time-saving, and low-cost prescreen system has great potential for food safety detection.

  1. Temperature uniformity mapping in a high pressure high temperature reactor using a temperature sensitive indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauwet, T.; Plancken, van der I.; Vervoort, L.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.; Loey, van A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the first prototype ovomucoid-based pressure–temperature–time indicator (pTTI) for high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing was described. However, for temperature uniformity mapping of high pressure (HP) vessels under HPHT sterilization conditions, this prototype needs to be

  2. Future premature mortality due to O3, secondary inorganic aerosols and primary PM in Europe--sensitivity to changes in climate, anthropogenic emissions, population and building stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geels, Camilla; Andersson, Camilla; Hänninen, Otto; Lansø, Anne Sofie; Schwarze, Per E; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Brandt, Jørgen

    2015-03-04

    Air pollution is an important environmental factor associated with health impacts in Europe and considerable resources are used to reduce exposure to air pollution through emission reductions. These reductions will have non-linear effects on exposure due, e.g., to interactions between climate and atmospheric chemistry. By using an integrated assessment model, we quantify the effect of changes in climate, emissions and population demography on exposure and health impacts in Europe. The sensitivity to the changes is assessed by investigating the differences between the decades 2000-2009, 2050-2059 and 2080-2089. We focus on the number of premature deaths related to atmospheric ozone, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and primary PM. For the Nordic region we furthermore include a projection on how population exposure might develop due to changes in building stock with increased energy efficiency. Reductions in emissions cause a large significant decrease in mortality, while climate effects on chemistry and emissions only affects premature mortality by a few percent. Changes in population demography lead to a larger relative increase in chronic mortality than the relative increase in population. Finally, the projected changes in building stock and infiltration rates in the Nordic indicate that this factor may be very important for assessments of population exposure in the future.

  3. Future Premature Mortality Due to O3, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and Primary PM in Europe — Sensitivity to Changes in Climate, Anthropogenic Emissions, Population and Building Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geels, Camilla; Andersson, Camilla; Hänninen, Otto; Lansø, Anne Sofie; Schwarze, Per E.; Ambelas Skjøth, Carsten; Brandt, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is an important environmental factor associated with health impacts in Europe and considerable resources are used to reduce exposure to air pollution through emission reductions. These reductions will have non-linear effects on exposure due, e.g., to interactions between climate and atmospheric chemistry. By using an integrated assessment model, we quantify the effect of changes in climate, emissions and population demography on exposure and health impacts in Europe. The sensitivity to the changes is assessed by investigating the differences between the decades 2000–2009, 2050–2059 and 2080–2089. We focus on the number of premature deaths related to atmospheric ozone, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and primary PM. For the Nordic region we furthermore include a projection on how population exposure might develop due to changes in building stock with increased energy efficiency. Reductions in emissions cause a large significant decrease in mortality, while climate effects on chemistry and emissions only affects premature mortality by a few percent. Changes in population demography lead to a larger relative increase in chronic mortality than the relative increase in population. Finally, the projected changes in building stock and infiltration rates in the Nordic indicate that this factor may be very important for assessments of population exposure in the future. PMID:25749320

  4. Future Premature Mortality Due to O3, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and Primary PM in Europe — Sensitivity to Changes in Climate, Anthropogenic Emissions, Population and Building Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Geels

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is an important environmental factor associated with health impacts in Europe and considerable resources are used to reduce exposure to air pollution through emission reductions. These reductions will have non-linear effects on exposure due, e.g., to interactions between climate and atmospheric chemistry. By using an integrated assessment model, we quantify the effect of changes in climate, emissions and population demography on exposure and health impacts in Europe. The sensitivity to the changes is assessed by investigating the differences between the decades 2000–2009, 2050–2059 and 2080–2089. We focus on the number of premature deaths related to atmospheric ozone, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and primary PM. For the Nordic region we furthermore include a projection on how population exposure might develop due to changes in building stock with increased energy efficiency. Reductions in emissions cause a large significant decrease in mortality, while climate effects on chemistry and emissions only affects premature mortality by a few percent. Changes in population demography lead to a larger relative increase in chronic mortality than the relative increase in population. Finally, the projected changes in building stock and infiltration rates in the Nordic indicate that this factor may be very important for assessments of population exposure in the future.

  5. The effect of combining a relative-humidity-sensitive ventilation system with the moisture-buffering capacity of materials on indoor climate and energy efficiency of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloszyn, Monika [Universite de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 (France); Universite Lyon1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); INSA-Lyon, CETHIL UMR CNRS 5008, bat. Sadi Carnot, F-69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Kalamees, Targo [Chair of Building Physics and Architecture, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehiteja tee 5 19086 (Estonia); Olivier Abadie, Marc [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana - PUCPR/CCET-Thermal Systems Laboratory, Rua Imaculada Conceicao, 1155 Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil); LEPTIAB-University of La Rochelle, Avenue M. Crepeau, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Steeman, Marijke [Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, UGENT-Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Sasic Kalagasidis, Angela [Department of Building Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Sven Hultins gata 8, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    Indoor moisture management, which means keeping the indoor relative humidity (RH) at correct levels, is very important for whole building performance in terms of indoor air quality (IAQ), energy performance and durability of the building. In this study, the effect of combining a relative-humidity-sensitive (RHS) ventilation system with indoor moisture buffering materials was investigated. Four comprehensive heat-air-moisture (HAM) simulation tools were used to analyse the performance of different moisture management strategies in terms of IAQ and of energy efficiency. Despite some differences in results, a good agreement was found and similar trends were detected from the results, using the four different simulation tools. The results from simulations demonstrate that RHS ventilation reduces the spread between the minimum and maximum values of the RH in the indoor air and generates energy savings. Energy savings are achieved while keeping the RH at target level, not allowing for possible risk of condensations. The disadvantage of this type of demand controlled-ventilation is that other pollutants (such as CO{sub 2}) may exceed target values. This study also confirmed that the use of moisture-buffering materials is a very efficient way to reduce the amplitude of daily moisture variations. It was possible, by the combined effect of ventilation and wood as buffering material, to keep the indoor RH at a very stable level. (author)

  6. Nearly Zero Energy Standard for Non-Residential Buildings with high Energy Demands—An Empirical Case Study Using the State-Related Properties of BAVARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keltsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 2010 calls for the Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB Standard for new buildings from 2021 onwards: Buildings using “almost no energy” are powered by renewable sources or by the energy produced by the building itself. For residential buildings, this ambitious new standard has already been reached. But for other building types, this goal is still far away. The potential of these buildings to meet a nZEB Standard was investigated by analyzing ten case studies, representing non-residential buildings with different uses. The analysis shows that the primary characteristics common to critical building types are a dense building context with a very high degree of technical installation (such as hospital, research, and laboratory buildings. The large primary energy demand of these types of buildings cannot be compensated by building- and property-related energy generation, including off-site renewables. If the future nZEB Standard were to be defined with lower requirements because of this, the state-related properties of Bavaria suggest that the real potential energy savings available in at least 85% of all new buildings would be insufficiently exploited. Therefore, it would be more useful to individualize the legal energy verification process for new buildings, to distinguish critical building types such as laboratories and hospitals from the other building types.

  7. Highly-sensitive and large-dynamic diffuse optical tomography system for breast tumor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenwen; Zhang, Limin; Yin, Guoyan; Zhang, Yanqi; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2018-02-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) as a new functional imaging has important clinical applications in many aspects such as benign and malignant breast tumor detection, tumor staging and so on. For quantitative detection of breast tumor, a three-wavelength continuous-wave DOT prototype system combined the ultra-high sensitivity of the photon-counting detection and the measurement parallelism of the lock-in technique was developed to provide high temporal resolution, high sensitivity, large dynamic detection range and signal-to-noise ratio. Additionally, a CT-analogous scanning mode was proposed to cost-effectively increase the detection data. To evaluate the feasibility of the system, a series of assessments were conducted. The results demonstrate that the system can obtain high linearity, stability and negligible inter-wavelength crosstalk. The preliminary phantom experiments show the absorption coefficient is able to be successfully reconstructed, indicating that the system is one of the ideal platforms for optical breast tumor detection.

  8. Confidentiality Enhancement of Highly Sensitive Nuclear Data Using Steganography with Chaotic Encryption over OFDM Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S.; Ayad, N.; Elsayed, F.; Elbendary, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Due to the widespread usage of the internet and other wired and wireless communication methods, the security of the transmitted data has become a major requirement. Nuclear knowledge is mainly built upon the exchange of nuclear information which is considered highly sensitive information, so its security has to be enhanced by using high level security mechanisms. Data confidentiality is concerned with the achievement of higher protection for confidential information from unauthorized disclosure or access. Cryptography and steganography are famous and widely used techniques that process information in order to achieve its confidentiality, but sometimes, when used individually, they don’t satisfy a required level of security for highly sensitive data. In this paper, cryptography is accompanied with steganography for constituting a multilayer security techniques that can strengthen the level of security of highly confidential nuclear data that are archived or transmitted through different channel types and noise conditions. (author)

  9. Sensitivity of MENA Tropical Rainbelt to Dust Shortwave Absorption: A High Resolution AGCM Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2016-06-13

    Shortwave absorption is one of the most important, but the most uncertain, components of direct radiative effect by mineral dust. It has a broad range of estimates from different observational and modeling studies and there is no consensus on the strength of absorption. To elucidate the sensitivity of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) tropical summer rainbelt to a plausible range of uncertainty in dust shortwave absorption, AMIP-style global high resolution (25 km) simulations are conducted with and without dust, using the High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Simulations with dust comprise three different cases by assuming dust as a very efficient, standard and inefficient absorber. Inter-comparison of these simulations shows that the response of the MENA tropical rainbelt is extremely sensitive to the strength of shortwave absorption. Further analyses reveal that the sensitivity of the rainbelt stems from the sensitivity of the multi-scale circulations that define the rainbelt. The maximum response and sensitivity are predicted over the northern edge of the rainbelt, geographically over Sahel. The sensitivity of the responses over the Sahel, especially that of precipitation, is comparable to the mean state. Locally, the response in precipitation reaches up to 50% of the mean, while dust is assumed to be a very efficient absorber. Taking into account that Sahel has a very high climate variability and is extremely vulnerable to changes in precipitation, the present study suggests the importance of reducing uncertainty in dust shortwave absorption for a better simulation and interpretation of the Sahel climate.

  10. Sensitivity of MENA Tropical Rainbelt to Dust Shortwave Absorption: A High Resolution AGCM Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2016-01-01

    Shortwave absorption is one of the most important, but the most uncertain, components of direct radiative effect by mineral dust. It has a broad range of estimates from different observational and modeling studies and there is no consensus on the strength of absorption. To elucidate the sensitivity of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) tropical summer rainbelt to a plausible range of uncertainty in dust shortwave absorption, AMIP-style global high resolution (25 km) simulations are conducted with and without dust, using the High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Simulations with dust comprise three different cases by assuming dust as a very efficient, standard and inefficient absorber. Inter-comparison of these simulations shows that the response of the MENA tropical rainbelt is extremely sensitive to the strength of shortwave absorption. Further analyses reveal that the sensitivity of the rainbelt stems from the sensitivity of the multi-scale circulations that define the rainbelt. The maximum response and sensitivity are predicted over the northern edge of the rainbelt, geographically over Sahel. The sensitivity of the responses over the Sahel, especially that of precipitation, is comparable to the mean state. Locally, the response in precipitation reaches up to 50% of the mean, while dust is assumed to be a very efficient absorber. Taking into account that Sahel has a very high climate variability and is extremely vulnerable to changes in precipitation, the present study suggests the importance of reducing uncertainty in dust shortwave absorption for a better simulation and interpretation of the Sahel climate.

  11. 12th Rencontres du Vietnam : High Sensitivity Experiments Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this workshop is to gather researchers, theoreticians, experimentalists and young scientists searching for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics using high sensitivity experiments. The standard model has been very successful in describing the particle physics world; the Higgs-Englert-Brout boson discovery is its last major discovery. Complementary to the high energy frontier explored at colliders, real opportunities for discovery exist at the precision frontier, testing fundamental symmetries and tracking small SM deviations.

  12. Highly sensitive electrochemical determination of 1-naphthol based on high-index facet SnO2 modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaofeng; Zhao Guohua; Liu Meichuan; Li Fengting; Qiao Junlian; Zhao Sichen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► It is the first time to employ high-index faceted SnO 2 in electrochemical analysis. ► High-index faceted SnO 2 has excellent electrochemical activity toward 1-naphthol. ► Highly sensitive determination of 1-naphthol is realized on high-index faceted SnO 2 . ► The detection limit of 1-naphthol is as low as 5 nM on high-index faceted SnO 2 . ► Electro-oxidation kinetics for 1-napthol on the novel electrode is discussed. - Abstract: SnO 2 nanooctahedron with {2 2 1} high-index facet (HIF) was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method, and was firstly employed to sensitive electrochemical sensing of a typical organic pollutant, 1-naphthol (1-NAP). The constructed HIF SnO 2 modified glassy carbon electrode (HIF SnO 2 /GCE) possessed advantages of large effective electrode area, high electron transfer rate, and low charge transfer resistance. These improved electrochemical properties allowed the high electrocatalytic performance, high effective active sites and high adsorption capacity of 1-NAP on HIF SnO 2 /GCE. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) results showed that the electrochemical oxidation of 1-NAP obeyed a two-electron transfer process and the electrode reaction was under diffusion control on HIF SnO 2 /GCE. By adopting differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), electrochemical detection of 1-NAP was conducted on HIF SnO 2 /GCE with a limit of detection as low as 5 nM, which was relatively low compared to the literatures. The electrode also illustrated good stability in comparison with those reported value. Satisfactory results were obtained with average recoveries in the range of 99.7–103.6% in the real water sample detection. A promising device for the electrochemical detection of 1-NAP with high sensitivity has therefore been provided.

  13. High-field modulated ion-selective field-effect-transistor (FET) sensors with sensitivity higher than the ideal Nernst sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Sarangadharan, Indu; Sukesan, Revathi; Hseih, Ching-Yen; Lee, Geng-Yen; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Wang, Yu-Lin

    2018-05-29

    Lead ion selective membrane (Pb-ISM) coated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) was used to demonstrate a whole new methodology for ion-selective FET sensors, which can create ultra-high sensitivity (-36 mV/log [Pb 2+ ]) surpassing the limit of ideal sensitivity (-29.58 mV/log [Pb 2+ ]) in a typical Nernst equation for lead ion. The largely improved sensitivity has tremendously reduced the detection limit (10 -10  M) for several orders of magnitude of lead ion concentration compared to typical ion-selective electrode (ISE) (10 -7  M). The high sensitivity was obtained by creating a strong filed between the gate electrode and the HEMT channel. Systematical investigation was done by measuring different design of the sensor and gate bias, indicating ultra-high sensitivity and ultra-low detection limit obtained only in sufficiently strong field. Theoretical study in the sensitivity consistently agrees with the experimental finding and predicts the maximum and minimum sensitivity. The detection limit of our sensor is comparable to that of Inductively-Coupled-Plasma Mass Spectrum (ICP-MS), which also has detection limit near 10 -10  M.

  14. The Effect of a Diet Moderately High in Protein and Fiber on Insulin Sensitivity Measured Using the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Te Morenga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that weight loss improves insulin sensitivity but few studies have examined the effect of macronutrient composition independently of weight loss on direct measures of insulin sensitivity. We randomised 89 overweight or obese women to either a standard diet (StdD, that was intended to be low in fat and relatively high in carbohydrate (n = 42 or to a relatively high protein (up to 30% of energy, relatively high fibre (>30 g/day diet (HPHFib (n = 47 for 10 weeks. Advice regarding strict adherence to energy intake goals was not given. Insulin sensitivity and secretion was assessed by a novel method—the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST. Although there were significant improvements in body composition and most cardiometabolic risk factors on HPHFib, insulin sensitivity was reduced by 19.3% (95% CI: 31.8%, 4.5%; p = 0.013 in comparison with StdD. We conclude that the reduction in insulin sensitivity after a diet relatively high in both protein and fibre, despite cardiometabolic improvements, suggests insulin sensitivity may reflect metabolic adaptations to dietary composition for maintenance of glucose homeostasis, rather than impaired metabolism.

  15. Development of an ozone high sensitive sensor working at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, F; Ghaddab, B; Sanchez, J B; Mavon, C

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid SnO 2 /SWNTs thin layer were deposited by using sol-gel process. Such sensitive layers showed very high performances for O 3 flow detection at ambient temperature. Limit sensitivity, lower than 21,5 ppb of O 3 in air has been reached by using these hybrid layers. Compared to usefull metal oxide sensors, the main advantage of the use of such hybrid layers, is that these devices enable the detection of O 3 traces at room temperature. The influence of sensor's working temperature is discussed and finally a reactional mechanism for the detection of O 3 is proposed.

  16. Highly sensitive heavy metal ion detection using AlQ3 microwire functionalized QCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Nursel; Aǧar, Meltem; Altındal, Ahmet

    2016-03-01

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) microwires was successfully synthesized for the fabrication of Alq3 microwires-coated QCM sensors to detect the heavy metal ions in aqueous solution. AT-cut quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) of 10 MHz fundamental resonance frequency having gold electrodes were used as transducers. Typical measuring cycle consisted of repeated flow of target measurands through the flow cell and subsequent washing to return the baseline. The QCM results indicated that the Alq3 microwires exhibit excellent sensitivity, stability and short response-recovery time, which are much attractive for the development of portable and highly sensitive heavy metal ion sensors in water samples.

  17. High sensitivity optical biosensor based on polymer materials and using the Vernier effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuelos, Paul; Girault, Pauline; Lorrain, Nathalie; Poffo, Luiz; Guendouz, Mohammed; Thual, Monique; Lemaître, Jonathan; Pirasteh, Parastesh; Hardy, Isabelle; Charrier, Joël

    2017-11-27

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a Vernier effect SU8/PMATRIFE polymer optical biosensor with high homogeneous sensitivity using a standard photolithography process. The sensor is based on one micro-resonator embedded on each arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Measurements are based on the refractive index variation of the optical waveguide superstrate with different concentrations of glucose solutions. The sensitivity of the sensor has been measured as 17558 nm/RIU and the limit of detection has been estimated to 1.1.10 -6 RIU.

  18. Study of extraterrestrial material by means of a high sensitive mass spectrometer, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, O.; Kaneko, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Shimamura, T.

    1975-01-01

    In this report it is described about a high sensitive mass spectrometer for measurement of isotopic abundance of extraterrestrial material. Detecting isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial matter induced by cosmic ray or solar wind irradiation, we can obtain many informations about interplanetary and/or intersteller space. For this purpose we reform the mass spectrometer of Low Energy Physics Division of INS to improve the sensitivity and the resolution. In section I--VI some improvements of the mass spectrometer (vacuum system, ion source, collector etc.) are described. In section VII--X newly developed ion counting system is discussed. (auth.)

  19. Precisely Controlled Ultrathin Conjugated Polymer Films for Large Area Transparent Transistors and Highly Sensitive Chemical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, Dongyoon; Ryu, Gi-Seong; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Hyunchul; Lee, Myungwon; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-04-13

    A uniform ultrathin polymer film is deposited over a large area with molecularlevel precision by the simple wire-wound bar-coating method. The bar-coated ultrathin films not only exhibit high transparency of up to 90% in the visible wavelength range but also high charge carrier mobility with a high degree of percolation through the uniformly covered polymer nanofibrils. They are capable of realizing highly sensitive multigas sensors and represent the first successful report of ethylene detection using a sensor based on organic field-effect transistors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Highly sensitive voltammetric biosensor for nitric oxide based on its high affinity with hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Chunhai; Liu Xinjian; Pang Jiantao; Li Genxi; Scheer, Hugo

    2004-01-01

    Although heme protein-based, amperometric nitric oxide (NO) biosensors have been well documented in previous studies, most have been conducted in anaerobic conditions. Herein we report a novel hemoglobin-based NO biosensor that is not only very sensitive but also usable in air. The heme protein was entrapped in a sodium montmorillonite film, which was immobilized at a pyrolytic graphite electrode surface. Film-entrapped hemoglobin can directly exchange electrons with the electrode, and this process has proven to favor the catalytic reduction of oxygen. In addition, NO induced a cathodic potential shift of the catalytic reduction peak of oxygen. This potential shift was proportional to the logarithm of NO concentration ranging from 4.0 x 10 -11 to 5.0 x 10 -6 mol/L. The detection limit has been estimated to be 20 pM, approximately four orders lower than previously reported amperometric detectors