WorldWideScience

Sample records for building exits

  1. Architecture design of Exit-Entry Administration Building of Shanghai Municipal Public Security Bureau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Limin; JIANG Du

    2007-01-01

    In retrospect of the architecture design of Exit- Entry Administration Building of Shanghai Municipal Public Security Bureau, this paper elaborates on the architect's pursuit of the symbol of the image, the fluidity of the space and the sequence of the function. It promotes a case which deals with the harmony of the architecture individuality and the urban space commonness in city center.

  2. Build to order and entry/exit strategies under exchange rate uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Tsai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Under uncertainty of exchange rate, we extend the build to order production model of Lin et al. (2002 by considering the export-oriented manufacturer to make decisions to switch production location freely between domestic and foreign ones. The export-oriented manufacturer is risk neutral and has rational expectations. When we transfer the production location from domestic (foreign to foreign (domestic, and the production location transferring cost and the drift of real exchange rate are both equal to zero, then the optimal entry and exit threshold value of Cobb-Douglas production function are equal, no matter whether we use real options or net present value method. Thus export-oriented manufacturer can make decisions at the optimal transfer threshold value for transferable locations wherever the production locations are. It provides the export-oriented manufacturer with another way of thinking.

  3. STS-103 crew exit O&C Building to head for launch pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Wearing their launch suits, the STS-103 crew exit the Operations and Checkout Building at KSC, heading for the Astrovan that will take them to Launch Pad 39B and more Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) actvities. In front (left to right) are Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; in the second row are Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.) and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA); in the third row are C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.) and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, also with ESA; and at the rear is Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  4. Exit Prostitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Theresa Dyrvig; Aslaug Kjær, Agnete; Christensen, Gunvor

    2015-01-01

    Dette midtvejsnotat omhandler projektet ”Exit prostitution”. Exit-projektet blev påbegyndt i april 2012 og løber til udgangen af 2015 og befinder sig i øjeblikket midtvejs i projektets afprøvningsfase. I projektet anvendes metoden Critical Time Intervention (CTI), der er en evidensbaseret...... til det. Exit-projektet er dermed en central socialpolitisk indsats overfor borgere i prostitution i det danske samfund. I dette notat belyser vi midtvejsresultater for, hvordan udviklingen er for de borgere, der er nået halvt igennem et CTI-forløb. I den afsluttende evaluering af projektet i 2015 vil...

  5. Exit prostitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Line; Aslaug Kjær, Agnete; Amilon, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Dette statusnotat for projektet ”Exit Prostitution” belyser de foreløbige resultater og tendenser for projektet. Exit Prostitution løb oprindeligt fra april 2012 til udgangen af 2015, men med en nylig forlængelse løber projektet til udgangen af 2016. Projektet befinder sig således i slutningen af...... afprøvet med succes i forhold til hjemløshed både nationalt og internationalt. Målet med anvendelsen af metoden i forhold til målgruppen for Exit Prostitution er, at borgere med prostitutionserfaring, som ønsker at ophøre med salg af seksuelle ydelser eller ønsker at opleve en forbedring af deres...

  6. Exit Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melone, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Skills Acquired: Tensile Testing: Prepare materials and setting up the tensile tests; Collect and interpret (messy) data. Outgassing Testing: Understand TML (Total Mass Loss) and CVCM (Collected Volatile Condensable Material); Collaboration with other NASA centers. Z2 (NASA's Prototype Space Suit Development) Support: Hands on building mockups of components; Analyze data; Work with others, understanding what both parties need in order to make a run successful. LCVG (Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment) Flush and Purge Console: Both formal design and design review process; How to determine which components to use - flow calculations, pressure ratings, size, etc.; Hazard Analysis; How to make design tradeoffs.

  7. Exit from contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the procedure of exiting the contract its costs and benefits. Methods statistical method comparative analysis. Results free exit from contract is one of the most powerful tools for the consumer rights protection. The procedure frees consumers from bad deals and keeps businesses honest. Yet consumers often choose transactions with lockin provisions trading off exit rights for other perks. This article examines the costs and benefits of free exit as compared to the lockin alternative. According to the authors the present regulation of exit penalties in the USA is poorly tailored to address concerns about lockin particularly in light of increasingly ubiquitous marketbased solutions. The article also calls regulatory attention to loyalty rewards which are shown to be as powerful as exit penalties and equally detrimental. Scientific novelty the article reveals a paradoxical state of the law exit regulations in the USA are used most where they are needed least. Termination penalties present an obvishyous target for regulatory intervention while loyalty programs seem benign not warranting any regulatory attention. Practical significance the article is of interest for the Russian juridical science and lawmaking authorities as in Russia the issue of exiting the contract is as topical as in the USA and requires solution which would impair neither the rights of consumers nor the rights of the sellers ofnbspproducts and services. nbsp

  8. Exit-strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Palm, Anne-Mette; Sys Møller-Andersen, Camilla

    This paper is about exit-strategies, constructing a theoretical and empirical informed analysis of current societal conditions that influence motor cycle gangs such as Hells Angels or Bandidos and other ‘wild' youth' possibilities and limitations for moving beyond criminal activities. We especially...... focus on the involved communities in the current Danish gang-conflict, which escalated with deadly killings in 2008, and thereby became a so called "gang-war". We will start out presenting different practice notions of exit, and we will extend and discuss understandings of "exit-strategies" by analyzing...... to the diversity of the involved communities. This includes movements beyond thinking in dichotomies of either being criminal, ex-criminal or not criminal. 2) As pointed in the quote above, expanding conditions for exit is also about ending the gang-war, which includes police intervention and negotiations between...

  9. Exit and Voice: Organizational Loyalty and Dispute Resolution Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study compares workplace dispute resolution strategies (exit, voice and toleration) in matched pairs of conventional and worker-owned cooperative organizations operating in three industries--coal mining, taxicab driving and organic food distribution. Building on Hirschman's classic exit, voice and loyalty thesis, this research demonstrates…

  10. Exit from Synchrony in Joint Improvised Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Assi; Noy, Lior; Hart, Yuval; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Motion synchrony correlates with effective and well-rated human interaction. However, people do not remain locked in synchrony; Instead, they repeatedly enter and exit synchrony. In many important interactions, such as therapy, marriage and parent-infant communication, it is the ability to exit and then re-enter synchrony that is thought to build strong relationship. The phenomenon of entry into zero-phase synchrony is well-studied experimentally and in terms of mathematical modeling. In contrast, exit-from-synchrony is under-studied. Here, we focus on human motion coordination, and examine the exit-from-synchrony phenomenon using experimental data from the mirror game paradigm, in which people perform joint improvised motion, and from human tracking of computer-generated stimuli. We present a mathematical mechanism that captures aspects of exit-from-synchrony in human motion. The mechanism adds a random motion component when the accumulated velocity error between the players is small. We introduce this mechanism to several models for human coordinated motion, including the widely studied HKB model, and the predictor-corrector model of Noy, Dekel and Alon. In all models, the new mechanism produces realistic simulated behavior when compared to experimental data from the mirror game and from tracking of computer generated stimuli, including repeated entry and exit from zero-phase synchrony that generates a complexity of motion similar to that of human players. We hope that these results can inform future research on exit-from-synchrony, to better understand the dynamics of coordinated action of people and to enhance human-computer and human-robot interaction. PMID:27711185

  11. Promoting Exit from Violent Extremism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A number of Western countries are currently adding exit programs targeting militant Islamists to their counterterrorism efforts. Drawing on research into voluntary exit from violent extremism, this article identifies themes and issues that seem to cause doubt, leading to exit. It then provides a ...... the influence attempt as subtle as possible, use narratives and self-affirmatory strategies to reduce resistance to persuasion, and consider the possibility to promote attitudinal change via behavioral change as an alternative to seek to influence beliefs directly....

  12. Innovation and venture capital exits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwienbacher, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses how start-ups financed by venture capital choose their innovation strategy based on the investor's exit preferences and thereby form different outcomes in the product market. It considers innovation choices and venture capital exits (IPO vs trade sale) in a setting in which ent

  13. Technological Progress, Exit and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    The dynamics of export market exit and firm closure have found limited attention in heterogeneous-firms trade models. Accordingly, several of the predictions on exit stemming from new-new trade theory are at odds with the stylized facts. Empirically, higher productivity firms survive longer, higher...

  14. Computing the Exit Complexity of Knowledge in Distributed Quantum Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Quantum computers abide from the exit complexity of the knowledge. The exit complexity is the accrue of the nodal information needed to clarify the total egress system with deference to a distinguished exit node. The core objective of this paper is to compile an arrogant methodology for assessing the exit complexity of the knowledge in distributed quantum computers. The proposed methodology is based on contouring the knowledge using the unlabeled binary trees, hence building an benchmarked and a computer based model. The proposed methodology dramatizes knowledge autocratically calculates the exit complexity. The methodology consists of several amphitheaters, starting with detecting the baron aspect of the tree of others entitled express knowledge and then measure the volume of information and the complexity of behavior destining from the bargain of information. Then calculate egress resulting from episodes that do not lead to the withdrawal of the information. In the end is calculated total egress complexity and then appraised total exit complexity of the system. Given the complexity of the operations within the Distributed Computing Quantity, this research addresses effective transactions that could affect the three-dimensional behavior of knowledge. The results materialized that the best affair where total exit complexity as minimal as possible is a picture of a binary tree is entitled at the rate of positive and negative cardinal points medium value. It could be argued that these cardinal points should not amass the upper bound apex or minimum.

  15. Exiting prostitution: an integrated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lynda M; Dalla, Rochelle L; Williamson, Celia

    2010-05-01

    Exiting street-level prostitution is a complex, convoluted process. Few studies have described this process within any formal conceptual framework. This article reviews two general models and two prostitution-specific models and their applicability to the exiting process. Barriers encountered as women attempt to leave the streets are identified. Based on the four models, the barriers, the prostitution literature, and the authors' experience with prostituted women, a new integrated six-stage model that is comprehensive in scope and sensitive to women's attempts to exit prostitution is offered as a foundation for continued research on the process of women leaving the streets.

  16. Intelligent Exit-Selection Behaviors during a Room Evacuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zarita Zainuddin; Lim Eng Aik

    2012-01-01

    A modified version of the existing cellular automata (CA) model is proposed to simulate an evacuation procedure in a classroom with and without obstacles. Based on the numerous literature on the implementation of CA in modeling evacuation motions, it is notable that most of the published studies do not take into account the pedestrian's ability to select the exit route in their models. To resolve these issues, we develop a CA model incorporating a probabilistic neural network for determining the decision-making ability of the pedestrians, and simulate an exit-selection phenomenon in the simulation. Intelligent exit-selection behavior is observed in our model. From the simulation results, it is observed that occupants tend to select the exit closest to them when the density is low, but if the density is high they will go to an aiternative exit so as to avoid a long wait. This reflects the fact that occupants may not fully utilize multiple exits during evacuation. The improvement in our proposed model is valuable for further study and for upgrading the safety aspects of building designs.%A modified version of the existing cellular automata (CA) model is proposed to simulate an evacuation procedure in a classroom with and without obstacles.Based on the numerous literature on the implementation of CA in modeling evacuation motions,it is notable that most of the published studies do not take into account the pedestrian's ability to select the exit route in their models.To resolve these issues,we develop a CA model incorporating a probabilistic neural network for determining the decision-making ability of the pedestrians,and simulate an exit-selection phenomenon in the simulation.Intelligent exit-selection behavior is observed in our model.From the simulation results,it is observed that occupants tend to select the exit closest to them when the density is low,but if the density is high they will go to an alternative exit so as to avoid a long wait.This reflects the fact

  17. Exit EI Jefe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Fidel Castro has left the political stage after nearly 50 years as Cuba’s president Fidel Castro’s resignation inevitably has become the focus of the international community.Cubans have made significant achieve- ments in building socialism under the leadership of Castro. International affairs observers are curious to see what will become of Cuba without Fidel Castro. Where will Cuba go? When Castro fell ill and was hospitalized in August 2006, experts started discussing and

  18. Early exit: Estimating and explaining early exit from drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Melony

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early exit (drop-out from drug treatment can mean that drug users do not derive the full benefits that treatment potentially offers. Additionally, it may mean that scarce treatment resources are used inefficiently. Understanding the factors that lead to early exit from treatment should enable services to operate more effectively and better reduce drug related harm. To date, few studies have focused on drop-out during the initial, engagement phase of treatment. This paper describes a mixed method study of early exit from English drug treatment services. Methods Quantitative data (n = 2,624 was derived from three English drug action team areas; two metropolitan and one provincial. Hierarchical linear modelling (HLM was used to investigate predictors of early-exit while controlling for differences between agencies. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 53 ex-clients and 16 members of staff from 10 agencies in these areas to explore their perspectives on early exit, its determinants and, how services could be improved. Results Almost a quarter of the quantitative sample (24.5% dropped out between assessment and 30 days in treatment. Predictors of early exit were: being younger; being homeless; and not being a current injector. Age and injection status were both consistently associated with exit between assessment and treatment entry. Those who were not in substitution treatment were significantly more likely to leave treatment at this stage. There were substantial variations between agencies, which point to the importance of system factors. Qualitative analysis identified several potential ways to improve services. Perceived problems included: opening hours; the service setting; under-utilisation of motivational enhancement techniques; lack of clarity about expectations; lengthy, repetitive assessment procedures; constrained treatment choices; low initial dosing of opioid substitution treatment; and the routine requirement

  19. PCR, exit stage left ...

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Prevessin Control Room during LEP's start up in 1989. The Prévessin Control Room (PCR) was recently engulfed in a wave of nostalgia. The PCR, scene of some of the greatest moments in CERN's history, is being dismantled to prepare for a complete overhaul. In February 2006, a new combined control centre for all the accelerators will open its doors on the same site, together with a new building currently under construction (see Bulletin issue 27/2004 of 28 June 2004). This marks the end of an important chapter in CERN's history. The Prévessin Control Room saw its first momentous event 28 years ago when the 400 GeV beam for the SPS was commissioned in the presence of Project Leader John Adams. It was also here that the first proton-antiproton collisions were observed, in 1981. Eight years later, in 1989, operators and directors alike jumped for joy at the announcement of the first electron-positron collisions at the start up of LEP, the biggest accelerator in the world. Today the 80 terminals and PCs have b...

  20. 14 CFR 25.807 - Emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Type II exits must be floor-level exits unless located over the wing, in which case they must not have... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... exits. (a) Type. For the purpose of this part, the types of exits are defined as follows: (1) Type...

  1. 14 CFR 23.807 - Emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... persons using that exit. (b) Type and operation. Emergency exits must be movable windows, panels, canopies... emergency exit, except floor level exits, must be located over the wing or, if not less than six feet...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.122 - Employee exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee exits. 1917.122 Section 1917.122 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.122 Employee exits. (a) Employee exits shall be clearly marked. (b) If an employee exit is not visible from employees' work stations, directional...

  3. First Degree Pacemaker Exit Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Usually atrial and ventricular depolarizations follow soon after the pacemaker stimulus (spike on the ECG. But there can be an exit block due to fibrosis at the electrode - tissue interface at the lead tip. This can increase the delay between the spike and atrial or ventricular depolarization.

  4. Graceful Exit in String Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Brustein, Ram; Brustein, Ram; Madden, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The graceful exit transition from a dilaton-driven inflationary phase to a decelerated Friedmann-Robertson-Walker era requires certain classical and quantum corrections to the string effective action. Classical corrections can stabilize a high curvature string phase while the evolution is still in the weakly coupled regime, and quantum corrections can induce violation of the null energy condition, allowing evolution towards a decelerated phase.

  5. 14 CFR 27.807 - Emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency exit must be shown by test. (d) Ditching emergency exits for passengers. If certification with ditching provisions is requested, the markings required by paragraph (b)(3) of this section must...

  6. Exit From the High Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bly, Sarah; Gwozdz, Wencke; Reisch, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    by focusing on a previously under-researched group of consumers – ‘sustainable fashion consumption pioneers’ who actively engage and shape their own discourse around the notion of sustainable fashion consumption. These pioneers actively create and communicate strategies for sustainable fashion behaviour...... that can overcome the nebulous and somewhat paradoxical reality that sustainable development in the fashion industry presents. Specifically, we use passive netnography and semi-structured interviews to illuminate the role of motivational and contextual factors that help shape these consumers' definitions...... of sustainable fashion including such key behaviours as purchasing fewer garments of higher quality, exiting the retail market, purchasing only second-hand fashion goods and sewing or upgrading their own clothing. Central to much of these behaviours is the notion that personal style, rather than fashion, can...

  7. Minimal Exit Trajectories with Optimum Correctional Manoeuvres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Srivastava

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available Minimal exit trajectories with optimum correctional manoeuvers to a rocket between two coplaner, noncoaxial elliptic orbits in an inverse square gravitational field have been investigated. Case of trajectories with no correctional manoeuvres has been analysed. In the end minimal exit trajectories through specified orbital terminals are discussed and problem of ref. (2 is derived as a particular case.

  8. Exit strategies for social venture entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuer, A.T.K.

    2015-01-01

    Key Words:  Social Venture Entrepreneurs, Exit, Ownership Social Venture Entrepreneurs invest in local and mostly bottom of pyramid (BoPs), and more so in developing economies. Different understanding  and meanings given to the term  exit and ownership, by social venture entrepreneurs

  9. Influences of exit and stair conditions on human evacuation in a dormitory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wenjun; Li, Angui; Gao, Ran; Wang, Xiaowei

    2012-12-01

    Evacuation processes of students are investigated by experiment and simulation. The experiment is performed for students evacuating from a dormitory with an exit and stairs. FDS+Evac is proposed to simulate the exit and stair dynamics of occupant evacuation. Concerning the exit and stair widths, we put forward some useful standpoints. Good agreement is achieved between the predicted results and experimental results. With the increase of exit width, a significant stratification phenomenon will be found in flow rate. Stratification phenomenon is that two different stable flow rates will emerge during the evacuation. And the flow rate curve looks like a ladder. The larger the exit width, the earlier the stratification phenomenon appears. When exit width is more than 2.0 m, the flow rate of each exit width is divided into two stable stages, and the evacuation times show almost no change. The judgment that the existence of stairs causes flow stratification is reasonable. By changing the width of the stairs, we proved that judgment. The smaller the width of BC, the earlier the stratification appears. We found that scenario 5 is the most adverse circumstance. Those results are helpful in performance-based design of buildings.

  10. Exit and the duty to admit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti Tamara Lenard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, it is presumed that while citizens have the right to exit the state in which they are located, no particular state (except a citizen's home state is required to admit them. Yet, this convention has produced, and continues to produce, injustice; to understand why, I focus on defining and protecting a right to exit, as distinct from the right to move in general. This analysis leads me to propose that whereas the political theoretic literature appears to have converged on a commitment to decisive asymmetry (in favor of accepting a state's right to exclude, I propose that only a weak asymmetry is justified. I argue that receiving states are duty-bound to act in ways that enable migrants to exercise their right to exit. In particular, I argue that receiving states have a perfect duty to collectivize the process by which needy migrants can exercise the right to exit.

  11. Room evacuation through two contiguous exits

    CERN Document Server

    Sticco, I M; Dorso, C O

    2016-01-01

    Current regulations demand that at least two exits should be available for a safe evacuation during a panic situation. Although the "faster is slower" effect is expected to take place near the exits, the evacuation time will improve because of the additional exits. However, rooms having contiguous doors not always reduce the leaving time as expected. We investigated the relation between the doors separation and the evacuation performance. We found that there exists a separation distance range that does not really improve the evacuation time, or it can even worsen the process performance. To our knowledge, no attention has been given to this issue in the literature. This work reports how the pedestrians dynamics differ when the separation distance between two exit doors changes and how this affects the overall performance.

  12. Entry and exit decisions under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hans Christian

    1996-01-01

    This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result......This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result...

  13. Please use the emergency exit

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    In order to minimise the consequences of an incident like the one that occurred in 2008, the LHC has been fitted with safety valves. A total of 1,344 of these valves, whose function is to release the helium in the event of over-pressure, will be in place by the end of LS1.   The cutting operation is carried out using a circular saw designed at CERN. This photo was taken in Building 181 during training. Let's go back five years. It’s 2008 and an electrical incident has just caused a helium leak in LHC Sector 3-4. 30-tonne magnets moved half a metre as a result of the over-pressure. What did the ensuing investigation find? A defective electrical connection between two magnets caused a short-circuit, provoking an electrical arc, which in turn led to a leakage of liquid helium into the insulation vacuum of the cryostats containing the magnet cold masses. While helium is liquid at a temperature of 1.9 K (inside the magnets), it becomes gaseous as soon as the temperature exceeds 4...

  14. The Effect of Exit Strategy on Optimal Portfolio Selection with Birandom Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to use a birandom variable to denote the stock return selected by some recurring technical patterns and to study the effect of exit strategy on optimal portfolio selection with birandom returns. Firstly, we propose a new method to estimate the stock return and use birandom distribution to denote the final stock return which can reflect the features of technical patterns and investors' heterogeneity simultaneously; secondly, we build a birandom safety-first model and design a hybrid intelligent algorithm to help investors make decisions; finally, we innovatively study the effect of exit strategy on the given birandom safety-first model. The results indicate that (1 the exit strategy affects the proportion of portfolio, (2 the performance of taking the exit strategy is better than when the exit strategy is not taken, if the stop-loss point and the stop-profit point are appropriately set, and (3 the investor using the exit strategy become conservative.

  15. 10 CFR 431.202 - Definitions concerning illuminated exit signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning illuminated exit signs. 431.202... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Illuminated Exit Signs § 431.202 Definitions concerning illuminated exit signs. Basic model means, with respect to illuminated exit signs, all units of a given type...

  16. Exit Tickets Open the Door to University Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danley, Angela; McCoy, Ann; Weed, Rahila

    2006-01-01

    Four instructors from a mid-western university implemented exit tickets in their university courses. The exit tickets were based on Marzano's (2012) four types of exit tickets and were analyzed for patterns. Faculty completed a journal to reflect on what was learned examining the exit tickets. A survey was completed by both instructors and…

  17. Exit Tickets Open the Door to University Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Danley, EdD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Four instructors from a mid-western university implemented exit tickets in their university courses. The exit tickets were based on Marzano’s (2012 four types of exit tickets and were analyzed for patterns. Faculty completed a journal to reflect on what was learned examining the exit tickets. A survey was completed by both instructors and university students to determine the benefits of the use of exit tickets as a formative assessment at the university. Researchers share the processes used for implementing exit tickets and the results of the data collected along with implications for the use of exit tickets at the university.

  18. The Political Economy of Early Exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Carina; Starke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale exit from the labour market began in the 1970s in many OECD countries. The literature indicates that individual early retirement decisions are facilitated by generous and accessible ‘pathways’ into retirement in the public pension system, unemployment insurance or disability benefits....... It is unclear, however, why early exit became so much more prevalent in some countries than in others and why such differences remain, despite a recent shift back towards higher employment rates and ‘active ageing’. We test a logic of sectoral cost-shifting politics involving cross-class alliances...... in the tradable sector, against a more traditional class-based logic of welfare state policy-making. Quantitative analysis of employment outcomes in 21 countries shows that the political economy of early exit clearly rests on the sectoral politics of cost-shifting....

  19. Firm Exit, Technological Progress and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    productivity firms survive longer, most firm closures are young firms, higher productivity exporters are more likely to continue to export compared to less productive exporters and market exits as well as firm closures are typically preceded by periods of contracting market shares. The present paper shows...... that the simple inclusion of exogenous economy wide technological progress into the standard Melitz (2003) model generates a tractable dynamic framework that generates endogenous exit decisions of firms in line with the stylized facts. Furthermore, we derive the effects of faster technological progress and trade...

  20. Processes with multiple entries and exits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Stefanescu, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to integrate the algebra of communicating processes (ACP) and the algebra of flownomials (AF). Basically, this means to combine axiomatized parallel and looping operators. To this end we introduce a model of process graphs with multiple entries and exits. In this model the u

  1. Exit strategies following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cormio, Luigi; Gonzalez, Gaspar Ibarlucea; Tolley, David

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the characteristics and outcomes of exit strategies following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) using the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PCNL Global Study database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two matched data sets were prepared in order to compare...... was associated with significantly longer operating times (p = 0.029) and longer hospital stay (p ...

  2. Determinants of Business Exits in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The annually increasing firm exits have significant financial, legal and social impacts on productivity, employment and economic growth in Australia. However, evidence of the impacts of firm exits is sparse. This paper undertakes a first-ever study that empirically investigates the determinants and their impacts on firm churn. This paper is innovative to the literature in four aspects: (1 Local Region Areas (LGAs data, rarely available in other countries, has been used for the analysis; (2 using LGAs as the basic analytical unit is able to eliminate the heterogeneity problems encountered by other studies which are based on national and cross-national data; (3 panel data modelling techniques identify robust evidence; (4 systematic statistical tests guarantees the robustness of the results. The dataset, provided by Australia Bureau of Statistics, include 3462 observations of 577 Local Government Areas (LGAs during 2004-2009. The research identifies variables positively and negatively affecting the exits and finds that size matters in determining business exits. The last section concludes with a discussion of limitations and future research directions.

  3. Exit problems for oscillating compound Poisson process

    CERN Document Server

    Kadankova, Tetyana

    2011-01-01

    In this article we determine the Laplace transforms of the main boundary functionals of the oscillating compound Poisson process. These are the first passage time of the level, the joint distribution of the first exit time from the interval and the value of the overshoot through the boundary. Under certain conditions we establish the asymptotic behaviour of the mentioned functionals.

  4. Epigenetics as a First Exit Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, E.; Sneppen, K.

    2002-01-01

    We develop a framework to discuss the stability of epigenetic states as first exit problems in dynamical systems with noise. We consider in particular the stability of the lysogenic state of the λ prophage. The formalism defines a quantitative measure of robustness of inherited states.

  5. Couplings and Asymptotic Exponentiality of Exit Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassesco, S.; Olivieri, E.; Vares, M. E.

    1998-10-01

    The goal of this note is simply to call attention to the resulting simplification in the proof of asymptotic exponentiality of exit times in the Freidlin-Wentzell regime (as proved by F. Martinelli et al.) by using the coupling proposed by T. Lindvall and C. Rogers.

  6. On the Bochner subordination of exit laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hmissi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let \\(\\mathbb{P}=(P_t_{t\\ge 0}\\ be a sub-Markovian semigroup on \\(L^2(m\\, let \\(\\beta=(\\beta_t_{t\\ge 0}\\ be a Bochner subordinator and let \\(\\mathbb{P}^{\\beta}=(P_t^{\\beta}_{t\\ge 0}\\ be the subordinated semigroup of \\(\\mathbb{P}\\ by means of \\(\\beta\\, i.e. \\(P^{\\beta}_s:=\\int_0^{\\infty} P_r\\,\\beta_s(dr\\. Let \\(\\varphi:=(\\varphi_t_{t\\gt 0}\\ be a \\(\\mathbb{P}\\-exit law, i.e. \\[ P_t\\varphi_s= \\varphi_{s+t}, \\qquad s,t\\gt 0\\] and let \\(\\varphi^{\\beta}_t:=\\int_0^{\\infty} \\varphi_s\\,\\beta_t(ds\\. Then \\(\\varphi^{\\beta}:=(\\varphi_t^{\\beta}_{t\\gt 0}\\ is a \\(\\mathbb{P}^{\\beta}\\-exit law whenever it lies in \\(L^2(m\\. This paper is devoted to the converse problem when \\(\\beta\\ is without drift. We prove that a \\(\\mathbb{P}^{\\beta}\\-exit law \\(\\psi:=(\\psi_t_{t\\gt 0}\\ is subordinated to a (unique \\(\\mathbb{P}\\-exit law \\(\\varphi\\ (i.e. \\(\\psi=\\varphi^{\\beta}\\ if and only if \\((P_tu_{t\\gt 0}\\subset D(A^{\\beta}\\, where \\(u=\\int_0^{\\infty} e^{-s} \\psi_s ds\\ and \\(A^{\\beta}\\ is the \\(L^2(m\\-generator of \\(\\mathbb{P}^{\\beta}\\.

  7. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this section, the suitability of each person it permits to occupy an exit seat, in accordance with this... public at all passenger loading gates and ticket counters at each airport where it conducts passenger...-holding district office. (o) Certificate holders shall assign seats prior to boarding consistent with...

  8. Effect of exit locations on ants escaping a two-exit room stressed with repellent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujie; Cao, Shuchao; Wang, Qiao; Lian, Liping; Song, Weiguo

    2016-09-01

    In order to investigate the effect of the distance between two exits on ant evacuation efficiency and the behavior of ants escaping from a two-exit room, we conducted ant egress experiments using Camponotus japonicus in multiple situations. We found that the ants demonstrated the phenomenon of "symmetry breaking" in this stress situation. It was also shown that different locations for the exits obviously affected the ants' egress efficiency by measuring the time intervals between individual egress and flow rate in eight repeated experiments, each of which contained five different distance between the two exits. In addition, it is demonstrated that there are differences between the predictions of Social Force Model of pedestrians and the behaviors of ants in stress conditions through comparing some important behavioral features, including position, trajectory, velocity, and density map.

  9. Exit from exit: resetting the cell cycle through Amn1 inhibition of G protein signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanchang; Shirogane, Takahiro; Liu, Dou; Harper, J Wade; Elledge, Stephen J

    2003-03-07

    In S. cerevisiae cells undergoing anaphase, a ras-related GTPase, Tem1, is located on the spindle pole body that enters the daughter cell and activates a signal transduction pathway, MEN, to allow mitotic exit. MEN activation must be reversed after mitotic exit to reset the cell cycle in G1. We find that daughter cells activate an Antagonist of MEN pathway (AMEN) in part through induction of the Amn1 protein that binds directly to Tem1 and prevents its association with its target kinase Cdc15. Failure of Amn1 function results in defects of both the spindle assembly and nuclear orientation checkpoints and delays turning off Cdc14 in G1. Thus, Amn1 is part of a daughter-specific switch that helps cells exit from mitotic exit and reset the cell cycle.

  10. Mathematical design of a highway exit curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdemirli, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    A highway exit curve is designed under the assumption that the tangential and normal components of the acceleration of the vehicle remain constant throughout the path. Using fundamental principles of physics and calculus, the differential equation determining the curve function is derived. The equation and initial conditions are cast into a dimensionless form first for universality of the results. It is found that the curves are effected by only one dimensionless parameter which is the ratio of the tangential acceleration to the normal acceleration. For no tangential acceleration, the equation can be solved analytically yielding a circular arc solution as expected. For nonzero tangential acceleration, the function is complicated and no closed-form solutions exist for the differential equation. The equation is solved numerically for various acceleration ratios. Discussions for applications to highway exits are given.

  11. Dynamic exit pupil trackers for autostereoscopic displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akşit, Kaan; Baghsiahi, Hadi; Surman, Phil; Ölçer, Selim; Willman, Eero; Selviah, David R; Day, Sally; Urey, Hakan

    2013-06-17

    This paper describes the first demonstrations of two dynamic exit pupil (DEP) tracker techniques for autostereoscopic displays. The first DEP tracker forms an exit pupil pair for a single viewer in a defined space with low intraocular crosstalk using a pair of moving shutter glasses located within the optical system. A display prototype using the first DEP tracker is constructed from a pair of laser projectors, pupil-forming optics, moving shutter glasses at an intermediate pupil plane, an image relay lens, and a Gabor superlens based viewing screen. The left and right eye images are presented time-sequentially to a single viewer and seen as a 3D image without wearing glasses and allows the viewer to move within a region of 40 cm × 20 cm in the lateral plane, and 30 cm along the axial axis. The second DEP optics can move the exit pupil location dynamically in a much larger 3D space by using a custom spatial light modulator (SLM) forming an array of shutters. Simultaneous control of multiple exit pupils in both lateral and axial axes is demonstrated for the first time and provides a viewing volume with an axial extent of 0.6-3 m from the screen and within a lateral viewing angle of ± 20° for multiple viewers. This system has acceptable crosstalk (< 5%) between the stereo image pairs. In this novel version of the display the optical system is used as an advanced dynamic backlight for a liquid crystal display (LCD). This has advantages in terms of overall display size as there is no requirement for an intermediate image, and in image quality. This system has acceptable crosstalk (< 5%) between the stereo image pairs.

  12. Entry and Exit Stress Variation of Cold Rolling Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDong—cheng

    2012-01-01

    The shortcomings of an exit stress variation formula which has been well accepted are analyzed~ it is found that the exit stress variation formula violates the premise of the law of volume constancy. The shortcomings of an en- try stress variation formula are analyzed too, and the basic assumption of the formula is uniform exit velocity. How- ever, for a rigid-plastic material uniform exit velocity implies that the lateral distributioi1 of elongation is uniform, so the exit stress must be uniform and any type of flatness defect is impossible, which is contrary to the practice. In fact, entry and exit velocity variation influence entry and exit stress variation, and entry and exit stress variation in- fluence entry and exit velocity variation too, so a precise explicit stress variation formula cannot be got easily. Con- sidering the relationship between stress variation and velocity variation, an iteration method is presented to calculate entry and exit stress variation of cold rolling strip. To avoid divergent phenomenon of the iteration course, a relaxa- tion factor method is adopted. The calculation results are compared with the entry and exit stress variation formula commonly used by many researchers. The difference is remarkable, while the result calculated agree more well with measured result if the exit elastic recovery zone is considered. Specially, the incoming flatnessI propagate efficiency calculated ~ives a more realistic result.

  13. 14 CFR 27.805 - Flight crew emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.805 Flight crew emergency exits. (a) For rotorcraft with passenger emergency exits that are not convenient to the flight crew, there must be flight crew emergency exits, on both sides of the rotorcraft...

  14. 14 CFR 29.805 - Flight crew emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.805 Flight crew emergency exits. (a) For rotorcraft with passenger emergency exits that are... rotorcraft or as a top hatch, in the flight crew area. (b) Each flight crew emergency exit must be...

  15. EOS Terra Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    This EOS Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update presentation will discuss brief history of Terra EOM work; lifetime fuel estimates; baseline vs. proposed plan origin; resultant exit orbit; baseline vs. proposed exit plan; long term orbit altitude; revised lifetime proposal and fallback options.

  16. 14 CFR 23.813 - Emergency exit access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency exit access. 23.813 Section 23... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.813 Emergency exit access. (a) For commuter category airplanes, access to window-type emergency exits may not be obstructed by seats or seat backs. (b) In addition,...

  17. 14 CFR 25.813 - Emergency exit access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency exit access. 25.813 Section 25... Emergency exit access. Each required emergency exit must be accessible to the passengers and located where... following must be provided for each Type III or Type IV exit—(1) There must be access from the nearest...

  18. BST2/Tetherin Inhibition of Alphavirus Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw Shin Ooi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Semliki Forest virus (SFV are small enveloped RNA viruses that bud from the plasma membrane. Tetherin/BST2 is an interferon-induced host membrane protein that inhibits the release of many enveloped viruses via direct tethering of budded particles to the cell surface. Alphaviruses have highly organized structures and exclude host membrane proteins from the site of budding, suggesting that their release might be insensitive to tetherin inhibition. Here, we demonstrated that exogenously-expressed tetherin efficiently inhibited the release of SFV and CHIKV particles from host cells without affecting virus entry and infection. Alphavirus release was also inhibited by the endogenous levels of tetherin in HeLa cells. While rubella virus (RuV and dengue virus (DENV have structural similarities to alphaviruses, tetherin inhibited the release of RuV but not DENV. We found that two recently identified tetherin isoforms differing in length at the N-terminus exhibited distinct capabilities in restricting alphavirus release. SFV exit was efficiently inhibited by the long isoform but not the short isoform of tetherin, while both isoforms inhibited vesicular stomatitis virus exit. Thus, in spite of the organized structure of the virus particle, tetherin specifically blocks alphavirus release and shows an interesting isoform requirement.

  19. Entry and exit facet laser damage of optical windows with random antireflective surface structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Gopal; Case, Jason R.; Potter, Matthew G.; Busse, Lynda E.; Shaw, L. Brandon; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Poutous, Menelaos K.

    2016-12-01

    Nanosecond duration, high intensity and high average power laser pulses induce damage on uncoated optics, due to localized field enhancement at the exit surface of the components. Anti-reflection (AR) coated optics, due to their (multiple) thin film boundaries, have similar field enhancement regions, which lead to laser damage on both entry and exit sides. Nano-scale structured optical interfaces with AR performance (ARSS) have been widely demonstrated, and found to have higher laser damage resistance than conventional AR coatings. Comprehensive tests of optical entry and exit structured-surface laser damage using nanosecond pulses for ARSS are not widely available. We measured the laser damage of random anti-reflective surface structures (rARSS), on planar, optical quality, fused silica substrates, using single 6-8ns duration pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. The single-sided rARSS substrates were optimized for Fresnel reflectance suppression at 1064 nm, and the measured transmittance at normal incidence was increased by 3.2%, with a possible theoretical maximum of 3.5%. The high energy laser beam was focused to increase the incident intensity, in order to probe values above and below the damage thresholds reported in the literature. The source laser Q-switch durations were used to directly control incident fluence. Multiple locations were tested for each Q-switch setting, to build a statistical relationship between the fluence and damaging events. Single-sided, AR random surface structured substrates were tested, using entry and exit side orientations, to determine any effects the random structures may have in the damage induced by the field enhancement on the exit side. We found that the AR randomly structured surfaces have a higher resistance, to the onset of laser damage, when they are located at the entry (structured) side of the substrates. In comparison, when the same AR random structures are in the beam exit side of the substrates, the onset of laser damage

  20. Towards A Model of Identity and Role Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S. Milne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Explanations of role exit often focus on how factors associated with a specific role that affect whether the individual will exit a role or not. Other research explains how identities affect our performance in a role. However, no one has yet to demonstrate the connection between role-set factors and identities, and role exit. Using data from a survey of 940 current and former soccer referees, this paper provides a model of role exit that involves a complex of processes that include role-set factors (structural and cultural factors associated with a specific role and identity processes. Specifically, this paper demonstrates that, other than role conflict, identity processes explain the relationship between role-set factors and role exit. The model provides a beginning method for understanding the connection between identities and role exit.

  1. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  2. Tertiary interactions within the ribosomal exit tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosolapov, Andrey; Deutsch, Carol

    2009-04-01

    Although tertiary folding of whole protein domains is prohibited by the cramped dimensions of the ribosomal tunnel, dynamic tertiary interactions may permit folding of small elementary units within the tunnel. To probe this possibility, we used a beta-hairpin and an alpha-helical hairpin from the cytosolic N terminus of a voltage-gated potassium channel and determined a probability of folding for each at defined locations inside and outside the tunnel. Minimalist tertiary structures can form near the exit port of the tunnel, a region that provides an entropic window for initial exploration of local peptide conformations. Tertiary subdomains of the nascent peptide fold sequentially, but not independently, during translation. These studies offer an approach for diagnosing the molecular basis for folding defects that lead to protein malfunction and provide insight into the role of the ribosome during early potassium channel biogenesis.

  3. On the Bochner subordination of exit laws

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hmissi; Wajdi Maaouia

    2011-01-01

    Let \\(\\mathbb{P}=(P_t)_{t\\ge 0}\\) be a sub-Markovian semigroup on \\(L^2(m)\\), let \\(\\beta=(\\beta_t)_{t\\ge 0}\\) be a Bochner subordinator and let \\(\\mathbb{P}^{\\beta}=(P_t^{\\beta})_{t\\ge 0}\\) be the subordinated semigroup of \\(\\mathbb{P}\\) by means of \\(\\beta\\), i.e. \\(P^{\\beta}_s:=\\int_0^{\\infty} P_r\\,\\beta_s(dr)\\). Let \\(\\varphi:=(\\varphi_t)_{t\\gt 0}\\) be a \\(\\mathbb{P}\\)-exit law, i.e. \\[ P_t\\varphi_s= \\varphi_{s+t}, \\qquad s,t\\gt 0\\] and let \\(\\varphi^{\\beta}_t:=\\int_0^{\\infty} \\varphi_s...

  4. ENTREPRENEURIAL EXIT AND REENTRY: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF TURKISH ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to develop a better understanding in an emerging economy of the exit and reentry processes of entrepreneurs. Twelve case studies were conducted in Turkey with entrepreneurs who, following entrepreneurial exit, re-entered with new ventures. Human and social capital perspectives are used to gain insights into the reentry process. The study indicates that reasons for and modes of exit influence the entrepreneur's decisions surrounding reentry. Results further reveal that expe...

  5. Control of the mitotic exit network during meiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Attner, Michelle A.; Amon, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    The mitotic exit network (MEN) is an essential GTPase signaling pathway that triggers exit from mitosis in budding yeast. We show here that during meiosis, the MEN is dispensable for exit from meiosis I but contributes to the timely exit from meiosis II. Consistent with a role for the MEN during meiosis II, we find that the signaling pathway is active only during meiosis II. Our analysis further shows that MEN signaling is modulated during meiosis in several key ways. Whereas binding of MEN c...

  6. Resolution extension and exit wave reconstruction in complex HREM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Kuo; Chen, Fu-Rong; Kai, Ji-Jung; Kirkland, A I

    2004-01-01

    Direct methods in real and reciprocal space are developed for structural reversion. The direct method in real space involves the use of a novel method to retrieve the phase in the image plane using transport of intensity equation/maximum entropy method (TIE/MEM) and exit wave reconstruction by self-consistent propagation. Since the exit wave is restored from the complex signal in the image planes, no image model between the exit wave and image is assumed. The structural information in the reconstructed exit wave is then further extended by a "complex" maximum entropy method as a direct method in reciprocal space to extrapolate the phase to higher frequencies.

  7. Comparison of exit site infection and peritonitis incidences between povidone-iodine and normal saline use for chronic exit site care in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Mi Lee

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Exit site care using normal saline did not increase the incidence of exit site infection and peritonitis. Therefore, normal saline may be an alternative treatment for exit site care in patients receiving PD.

  8. First exit distribution and path continuity of Hunt processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui-zeng; KANG Xu-sheng; ZHAO Min-zhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a characterization of a Hunt process path by the first exit left limit distribution. It is also showed that if the first exit left limit distribution leaving any ball from the center is a uniform distribution on the sphere, then the Lévy Processes are a scaled Brownian motion.

  9. 14 CFR 29.807 - Passenger emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a crash landing must be extremely remote. (d) Ditching emergency exits for passengers. If certification with ditching provisions is requested, ditching emergency exits must be provided in accordance... shown through analysis, ditching demonstrations, or any other tests found necessary by the...

  10. 14 CFR 29.813 - Emergency exit access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo... aisle to each Type III and Type IV exit, and (1) For rotorcraft that have a passenger seating... that exit of not less than the width of the narrowest passenger seat installed on the rotorcraft;...

  11. Exit and voice in dutch social health insurance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gress, S.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2003-01-01

    According to Hirschmann's concept of exit and voice, people have two options to make sure that firms or organisations realise what they (their consumers or members) are interested in (Hirschmann 1970). In the Dutch public health insurance system voice existed for a long time, but exit was only intro

  12. High School Exit Exam Scores and University Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Bonner, Sarah M.

    2009-01-01

    Many U.S. students must pass a standards-based exit exam to earn a high school diploma. The degree to which exit exams and state standards properly signal to students their preparedness for postsecondary schooling has been questioned. The alignment of test scores with college grades for students at the University of Arizona (n = 2,667) who took…

  13. A Case Report of Rash at Peritoneal Dialysis Exit Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira O. Gosmanova MD, FASN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis recommends the regular application of topical antibiotic-containing preparations in addition to a routine exit site care to reduce the risk of exit site infection (ESI. Among these prophylactic antimicrobial preparations, topical gentamicin is one of the widely used and effective antibiotics for prevention of ESI and peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. Overall, topical gentamicin is well tolerated; however, its use can be associated with the development of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD. We describe a first reported case of PD catheter exit site contact ACD due to topical gentamicin mimicking ESI. The patient in this report developed worsening violaceous in color and pruritic rash surrounding the PD catheter exit site that appeared 3 weeks after the initiation of gentamicin cream. The association between development of rash and initiation of topical gentamicin led to a suspicion of local reaction to gentamicin rather than ESI. Skin biopsy confirmed ACD. Discontinuation of the provoking agent and subsequent treatment with topical hydrocortisone application led to a resolution of the exit site rash. Any rash at a PD catheter exit site should be considered infectious until proven otherwise. However, it is important to be aware of noninfectious etiologies of exit site rashes as the treatment of these 2 conditions differs.

  14. Entry and Exit Dynamics of Nascent Business Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    in the labor market and entry modes shape the post-entry dynamics of nascent business owners. By differentiating between different entry and exit routes, this paper provides new evidence on different human capital patterns among nascent business owners and on key determinants of entrepreneurial survival. Our...... results suggest that different exit modes can be predicted by business owners’ entry route. Furthermore, different exit modes exhibit different duration dependence patterns according to the entry mode. Additionally, the paper shows that businesses started after a displacement episode are not necessarily...

  15. Jet Engine Nozzle Exit Configurations and Associated Systems and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengle, Vinod G. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Nozzle exit configurations and associated systems and methods are disclosed. An aircraft system in accordance with one embodiment includes a jet engine exhaust nozzle having an internal flow surface and an exit aperture, with the exit aperture having a perimeter that includes multiple projections extending in an aft direction. Aft portions of individual neighboring projections are spaced apart from each other by a gap, and a geometric feature of the multiple can change in a monotonic manner along at least a portion of the perimeter.

  16. Exit, punishment and rewards in commons dilemmas: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giangiacomo Bravo

    Full Text Available Commons dilemmas are interaction situations where a common good is provided or exploited by a group of individuals so that optimal collective outcomes clash with private interests. Although in these situations, social norms and institutions exist that might help individuals to cooperate, little is known about the interaction effects between positive and negative incentives and exit options by individuals. We performed a modified public good game experiment to examine the effect of exit, rewards and punishment, as well as the interplay between exit and rewards and punishment. We found that punishment had a stronger effect than rewards on cooperation if considered by itself, whereas rewards had a stronger effect when combined with voluntary participation. This can be explained in terms of the 'framing effect', i.e., as the combination of exit and rewards might induce people to attach higher expected payoffs to cooperative strategies and expect better behaviour from others.

  17. Exit, punishment and rewards in commons dilemmas: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Giangiacomo; Squazzoni, Flaminio

    2013-01-01

    Commons dilemmas are interaction situations where a common good is provided or exploited by a group of individuals so that optimal collective outcomes clash with private interests. Although in these situations, social norms and institutions exist that might help individuals to cooperate, little is known about the interaction effects between positive and negative incentives and exit options by individuals. We performed a modified public good game experiment to examine the effect of exit, rewards and punishment, as well as the interplay between exit and rewards and punishment. We found that punishment had a stronger effect than rewards on cooperation if considered by itself, whereas rewards had a stronger effect when combined with voluntary participation. This can be explained in terms of the 'framing effect', i.e., as the combination of exit and rewards might induce people to attach higher expected payoffs to cooperative strategies and expect better behaviour from others.

  18. Direct exit-wave reconstruction from a single defocused image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A J; Martin, A V; D'Alfonso, A J; Putkunz, C T; Allen, L J

    2011-01-01

    We propose a direct, non-iterative method for the exact recovery of the complex wave in the exit-surface plane of a coherently illuminated object from a single defocused image. The method is applicable for a wide range of illumination conditions. The defocus range is subject to certain conditions, which if satisfied allow the complex exit-surface wave to be directly recovered by solving a set of linear equations. These linear equations, whose coefficients depend on the incident illumination, are obtained by analyzing the autocorrelation function of an auxiliary wave which is related to the exit-surface wave in a simple way. This autocorrelation is constructed by taking the inverse Fourier transform of the defocused image. We present an experimental proof of concept by recovering the exit-surface wave of a microfiber illuminated by a plane wave formed using a HeNe laser.

  19. Understanding human queuing behaviour at exits: an empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoum, A. U. Kemloh; Liao, W.

    2017-01-01

    The choice of the exit to egress from a facility plays a fundamental role in pedestrian modelling and simulation. Yet, empirical evidence for backing up simulation is scarce. In this contribution, we present three new groups of experiments that we conducted in different geometries. We varied parameters such as the width of the doors, the initial location and number of pedestrians which in turn affected their perception of the environment. We extracted and analysed relevant indicators such as distance to the exits and density levels. The results put in evidence the fact that pedestrians use time-dependent information to optimize their exit choice, and that, in congested states, a load balancing over the exits occurs. We propose a minimal modelling approach that covers those situations, especially the cases where the geometry does not show a symmetrical configuration. Most of the models try to achieve the load balancing by simulating the system and solving optimization problems. We show statistically and by simulation that a linear model based on the distance to the exits and the density levels around the exit can be an efficient dynamical alternative. PMID:28280588

  20. A Modified EXIT-to-ECMO with Optional Reservoir Circuit for Use during an EXIT Procedure Requiring Thoracic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Gregory S.; Connor, Kevin R.; Toutenel, Nathalia A.; Gottlieb, Danielle; Fynn-Thompson, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: A 34 year old mother with a history of polyhydraminos and premature rupture of membranes presented for an ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure to deliver her 34 week gestation fetus. The fetus had been diagnosed with a large cervical mass which significantly extended into the right chest. The mass compressed and deviated the airway and major neck vessels posteriorly. Imaging also revealed possible tumor involvement with the superior vena cava and right atrium. The plan was for potential extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) during the EXIT procedure (EXIT-to-ECMO) and the potential for traditional cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for mediastinal tumor resection. A Modified EXIT-To-ECMO with Optional Reservoir (METEOR) circuit was devised to satisfy both therapies. A fetal airway could not be established during the EXIT procedure and so the EXIT-to-ECMO strategy was utilized. The fetus was then delivered and transferred to an adjoining operating room (OR). Traditional cardiopulmonary bypass with a cardiotomy venous reservoir (CVR) was utilized during the establishment of an airway, tumor biopsy and partial resection. The patient was eventually transitioned to our institution's standard ECMO circuit and then transferred to the intensive care unit. The patient was weaned from ECMO on day of life (DOL) eight and had a successful tumor resection on DOL 11. The patient required hospitalization for numerous interventions including cardiac surgery at 4 months of age. She was discharged to home at 5 months of age. PMID:27134307

  1. Mitotic Exit Control as an Evolved Complex System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosl, W; Li, R

    2005-04-25

    The exit from mitosis is the last critical decision a cell has to make during a division cycle. A complex regulatory system has evolved to evaluate the success of mitotic events and control this decision. Whereas outstanding genetic work in yeast has led to rapid discovery of a large number of interacting genes involved in the control of mitotic exit, it has also become increasingly difficult to comprehend the logic and mechanistic features embedded in the complex molecular network. Our view is that this difficulty stems in part from the attempt to explain mitotic exit control using concepts from traditional top-down engineering design, and that exciting new results from evolutionary engineering design applied to networks and electronic circuits may lend better insights. We focus on four particularly intriguing features of the mitotic exit control system: the two-stepped release of Cdc14; the self-activating nature of Tem1 GTPase; the spatial sensor associated with the spindle pole body; and the extensive redundancy in the mitotic exit network. We attempt to examine these design features from the perspective of evolutionary design and complex system engineering.

  2. Crossing the Border: Molecular Control of Motor Axon Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Bravo-Ambrosio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms heavily rely on the function of motor circuits for their survival and for adapting to ever-changing environments. Unique among central nervous system (CNS neurons, motor neurons (MNs project their axons out of the CNS. Once in the periphery, motor axons navigate along highly stereotyped trajectories, often at considerable distances from their cell bodies, to innervate appropriate muscle targets. A key decision made by pathfinding motor axons is whether to exit the CNS through dorsal or ventral motor exit points (MEPs. In contrast to the major advances made in understanding the mechanisms that regulate the specification of MN subtypes and the innervation of limb muscles, remarkably little is known about how MN axons project out of the CNS. Nevertheless, a limited number of studies, mainly in Drosophila, have identified transcription factors, and in some cases candidate downstream effector molecules, that are required for motor axons to exit the spinal cord. Notably, specialized neural crest cell derivatives, referred to as Boundary Cap (BC cells, pre-figure and demarcate MEPs in vertebrates. Surprisingly, however, BC cells are not required for MN axon exit, but rather restrict MN cell bodies from ectopically migrating along their axons out of the CNS. Here, we describe the small set of studies that have addressed motor axon exit in Drosophila and vertebrates, and discuss our fragmentary knowledge of the mechanisms, which guide motor axons out of the CNS.

  3. 29 CFR 1910.36 - Design and construction requirements for exit routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... your workplace, consult NFPA 101-2000, Life Safety Code. (c) Exit discharge. (1) Each exit discharge... materials used to separate an exit from other parts of the workplace must have a one-hour fire resistance-rating if the exit connects three or fewer stories and a two-hour fire resistance-rating if the...

  4. Gas turbine combustor exit piece with hinged connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charron, Richard C.; Pankey, William W.

    2016-04-26

    An exit piece (66) with an inlet throat (67) that conducts a combustion gas flow (36A) in a path (82) from a combustor (63) to an annular chamber (68) that feeds the first blade section (37) of a gas turbine (26). The exit piece further includes an outlet portion (69) that forms a circumferential segment of the annular chamber. The outlet portion interconnects with adjacent outlet portions by hinges (78A, 78B, 80A, 80B). Each hinge may have a hinge axis (82A, 82B) parallel to a centerline (21) of the turbine. Respective gas flows (36A) are configured by an assembly (60) of the exit pieces to converge on the feed chamber (68) into a uniform helical flow that drives the first blade section with minimal circumferential variations in force.

  5. Exits from Temporary Jobs in Europe: A Competing Risks Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Addio, Anna Christina; Rosholm, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We study transitions out of temporary jobs using the waves 1994-1999 of the European Community Household Panel applying a discrete time duration model. Specifically, we use a multinomial logitmodel distinguishing between exits into permanent employment and non-employment. Two different specificat......We study transitions out of temporary jobs using the waves 1994-1999 of the European Community Household Panel applying a discrete time duration model. Specifically, we use a multinomial logitmodel distinguishing between exits into permanent employment and non-employment. Two different...... as a whole, very short contracts provide higher chances of labour market exclusion especially for men. We discuss potential implications of our findings....

  6. EXIT Chart Analysis of Binary Message-Passing Decoders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lechner, Gottfried; Pedersen, Troels; Kramer, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Binary message-passing decoders for LDPC codes are analyzed using EXIT charts. For the analysis, the variable node decoder performs all computations in the L-value domain. For the special case of a hard decision channel, this leads to the well know Gallager B algorithm, while the analysis can...... be extended to channels with larger output alphabets. By increasing the output alphabet from hard decisions to four symbols, a gain of more than 1.0 dB is achieved using optimized codes. For this code optimization, the mixing property of EXIT functions has to be modified to the case of binary message-passing...

  7. 14 CFR 29.809 - Emergency exit arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... self-supporting slide or equivalent, and must be designed to meet the following requirements: (1) It... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo... rotorcraft emergency exit must have an approved slide as stated in paragraph (g) of this section, or...

  8. After exit: Academic achievement patterns of former English language learners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester J. de Jong

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available With few exceptions, accountability systems for programs for English language learners (ELLs have focused on the achievement patterns of ELLs who are still considered “limited English proficient” and program evaluations have been unable to answer the question whether ELLs actually catch up with English proficient peers after attending a bilingual or English as a Second Language (ESL program. Disaggregating data for former ELLs can therefore provide important information for long-term district and program accountability. The study was concerned with the achievement patterns in English language arts, Math, and Science of former ELLs who attended a bilingual and a English as a Second Language (ESL program. It also explored whether length of program participation and grade level exited played a significant role in predicting academic achievement patterns for these exited students. Results indicate that 4th grade students more closely paralleled non- ELL students’ achievement patterns than 8th grade students, particularly for the BE students. While length of program participation is not a significant predictor of former ELLs’ academic success, exit grade does emerge as an important variable to take into consideration in setting exit guidelines.

  9. SEC16 in COPII coat dynamics at ER exit sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, Joep; Rabouille, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the first step in protein transport through the secretory pathway, is mediated by coatomer protein II (COPII)-coated vesicles at ER exit sites. COPII coat assembly on the ER is well understood and the conserved large hydrophilic protein Sec16 clear

  10. Control of the mitotic exit network during meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attner, Michelle A; Amon, Angelika

    2012-08-01

    The mitotic exit network (MEN) is an essential GTPase signaling pathway that triggers exit from mitosis in budding yeast. We show here that during meiosis, the MEN is dispensable for exit from meiosis I but contributes to the timely exit from meiosis II. Consistent with a role for the MEN during meiosis II, we find that the signaling pathway is active only during meiosis II. Our analysis further shows that MEN signaling is modulated during meiosis in several key ways. Whereas binding of MEN components to spindle pole bodies (SPBs) is necessary for MEN signaling during mitosis, during meiosis MEN signaling occurs off SPBs and does not require the SPB recruitment factor Nud1. Furthermore, unlike during mitosis, MEN signaling is controlled through the regulated interaction between the MEN kinase Dbf20 and its activating subunit Mob1. Our data lead to the conclusion that a pathway essential for vegetative growth is largely dispensable for the specialized meiotic divisions and provide insights into how cell cycle regulatory pathways are modulated to accommodate different modes of cell division.

  11. Embracing the Exit: Assessment, Trust, and the Teaching of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Historically, the Composition Program at Eastern Washington University (EWU), a comprehensive university in Cheney, WA, required a single essay sample from each composition student as the final exit exam; in practice, a student passed or failed the course based on an in-class argumentative essay, written in three consecutive class periods. Such a…

  12. Congenital Cervical Teratoma: Anaesthetic Management (The EXIT Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruh Bilgin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT is a procedure performed during caesarean section with preservation of fetal-placental circulation, which allows the safe handling of fetal airways with risk of airways obstruction. This report aimed at describing a case of anaesthesia for EXIT in a fetus with cervical teratoma. A 30-year-old woman, 70 kg, 160 cm, gravida 2, para 1, was followed because of polyhydramniosis diagnosed at 24 weeks′ gestation. During a routine ultrasonographic examination at 35 weeks′ gestation, it was noticed that the fetus had a tumoral mass on the anterior neck, the mass had cystic and calcified components and with a size of was 10 x 6 x5 cm. The patient with physical status ASA I, was submitted to caesarean section under general anaesthesia with mechanically controlled ventilation for exutero intrapartum treatment (EXIT. Anaesthesia was induced in rapid sequence with fentanyl, propofol and rocuronium and was maintained with isoflurane in 2.5 at 3 % in O 2 and N 2 O (50%. After hysterotomy, fetus was partially released assuring uterus-placental circulation, followed by fetal laryngoscopy and tracheal intuba-tion. The infant was intubated with an uncuffed, size 2.5 endotracheal tube. Excision of the mass was performed under general anaesthesia. After surgical intervention, on the fourth postoperative day, the infant was extubated and the newborn was discharged to the pediatric neonatal unit and on the seventh day postoperatively to home without complications. Major recommendations for EXIT are maternal-fetal safety, uterine relaxation to maintain uterine volume and uterus-placental circulation, and fetal immobility to help airway handling. We report one case of cervical teratoma managed successfully with EXIT procedure.

  13. “Thanks for Using Me”: An Exploration of Exit Strategy in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary James Morrison MSc

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines, through a synthesis of the literature and excerpts from a qualitative case study, the concept of exit strategy, specifically its relation to vulnerable populations (e.g., overweight adolescent boys and potential impact on the researcher-participant relationship. The quality and duration of the researcher-participant relationship, along with rapport and trust building, are potential indicators for negotiated closure (i.e., exit strategy. Reframing this relationship as “participant-researcher” resituates vulnerable participants as foremost in such relationships. Given what is potentially at stake for participants in qualitative research, there is a moral and ethical imperative to enter into the dialogue of closure. Otherwise, participants may unwittingly serve as a means to an end, that is, as objects in the enterprise of qualitative research. Researchers, research supervisors, and human subject ethics committees are urged to establish protocols to guide how research relationships are ended within the context of qualitative methods, particularly with respect to vulnerable populations.

  14. British Exit from the EU: Legal and Political Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    on their debate character, i.e. the degree to which individual contributions engage with each other. The inaugural Debate Section forthcoming soon is entitled, “British Exit from the EU: Legal and Political Implications”, edited by Graham Butler, Mads Dagnis Jensen and Holly Snaith. The reality of an EU Member...... to the three editors of Graham Butler, Mads Dagnis Jensen, and Holly Snaith, the Debate Section includes contributions from Paul James Cardwell, Adam Łazowski, Daniela Annette Kroll, Dirk Leuffen, and Tim Oliver, that each delivers sharp compact contributions on different perspectives of ‘Brexit’, and wider...... issues of differentiated integration in Europe. British Exit from the EU: Legal and Political Implications  Edited by Graham Butler, Mads Dagnis Jensen, and Holly Snaith  Journal of European Public Policy, 2016, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp. 1278-1328. 1. ‘Slow change may pull us apart’: debating a British...

  15. Calcium Signaling and Meiotic Exit at Fertilization in Xenopus Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Tokmakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is a universal messenger that mediates egg activation at fertilization in all sexually reproducing species studied. However, signaling pathways leading to calcium generation and the mechanisms of calcium-induced exit from meiotic arrest vary substantially among species. Here, we review the pathways of calcium signaling and the mechanisms of meiotic exit at fertilization in the eggs of the established developmental model, African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. We also discuss calcium involvement in the early fertilization-induced events in Xenopus egg, such as membrane depolarization, the increase in intracellular pH, cortical granule exocytosis, cortical contraction, contraction wave, cortical rotation, reformation of the nuclear envelope, sperm chromatin decondensation and sister chromatid segregation.

  16. Composite Control of Precalciner Exit Temperature in Cement Rotary Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晨; 诸静

    2003-01-01

    A composite control strategy for the precalciner exit temperature in cement kiln is introduced based on a mathematical model. In this model, the raw meal flow, coal powder flow and wind flow are taken as three input variables, the clinker fow and exit teperature of cement kiln are output variables, and other influencing factors are considered as disturbance. A composite control system is synthesied by integrating self-learning PID, fuzzy and feedforward function into a combined controller, and the arithmetics for the self-learning PID controller, fuzzy controller and feedforward controller are elaborated respectively. The control strategy has been realized by software in real practice at cement factory. Application results show that the composite control technology is superior to the general PID control in control effect, and is suitable to the industrial process control with slow parameter variation, nonlinearity and uncertainty.

  17. Customer Protest: Exit, Voice or Negative Word of Mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solvang, B. K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the three forms of protest the propensity of word of mouth (WOM seems to be the most common, and the most exclusive form of protest seems to be exit. The propensity for voice lies in between. The costs linked to voice influence the propensity for WOM. The customers seem to do an evaluation between the three forms of protest, yet the rational picture of the customers should be moderated.Leaders should improve their treatment of the customers making complaints. The more they can treat customer complaints in an orderly and nice way the less informal negative word of mouth activity they will experience and they will reduce the exit propensity and lead the customers to the complain organisation. They should also ensure that their customers feel they get equal treatment by the staff.

  18. Graceful Exit and Energy Conditions in String Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Brustein, Ram; Brustein, Ram; Madden, Richard

    1997-01-01

    String cosmology solutions are examined in a generalized phase-space including sources representing arbitrary corrections to lowest order string-dilaton-gravity effective action. We find a set of necessary conditions for a graceful exit transition from a dilaton-driven inflationary phase to a radiation dominated era. We show that sources allowing such a transition have to violate energy conditions similar to those appearing in singularity theorems of general relativity. Since familiar classical sources, excepting spatial curvature, obey these energy conditions we conclude that a generic graceful exit in string cosmology requires a new effective phase of matter. Our results clarify and generalize previous analyses and enable us to critically reexamine proposed non-singular cosmologies.

  19. Entrance, exit, and reentrance of one shot with a shotgun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmann, C; Hougen, H P

    1999-01-01

    The case being reported is one of a homicidal shotgun fatality with an unusual wound pattern. A 34-year-old man was shot at close range with a 12-gauge shotgun armed with No. 5 birdshot ammunition. The shot entered the left axillary region, exited through the left infraclavicular region, and ther......The case being reported is one of a homicidal shotgun fatality with an unusual wound pattern. A 34-year-old man was shot at close range with a 12-gauge shotgun armed with No. 5 birdshot ammunition. The shot entered the left axillary region, exited through the left infraclavicular region......, and thereafter penetrated the left side of the neck, causing tearing of the left common carotid artery and the right internal carotid artery. The entrance wound in the axilla was larger than the other wounds, and before autopsy it was believed that the shotgun had been fired twice, causing one wound in the neck...

  20. Simulation of stochastic diffusion via first exit times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötstedt, Per; Meinecke, Lina

    2015-11-01

    In molecular biology it is of interest to simulate diffusion stochastically. In the mesoscopic model we partition a biological cell into unstructured subvolumes. In each subvolume the number of molecules is recorded at each time step and molecules can jump between neighboring subvolumes to model diffusion. The jump rates can be computed by discretizing the diffusion equation on that unstructured mesh. If the mesh is of poor quality, due to a complicated cell geometry, standard discretization methods can generate negative jump coefficients, which no longer allows the interpretation as the probability to jump between the subvolumes. We propose a method based on the mean first exit time of a molecule from a subvolume, which guarantees positive jump coefficients. Two approaches to exit times, a global and a local one, are presented and tested in simulations on meshes of different quality in two and three dimensions.

  1. How extremist experiences become valuable knowledge in EXIT programmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Wilchen

    2015-01-01

    ’s engagement in a social practice alters his/her basis for reflection, allowing an alternative sense of identity to emerge. The reformulation of the individual’s past involved in this process, the article argues, is a requirement for their extremist experiences to become useable knowledge in an organisation...... like EXIT aimed at helping others leave what they have come to view as a destructive and anti-democratic lifestyle....

  2. Peritonitis associated with exit site and tunnel infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, B; Bernardini, J; Piraino, B

    1996-09-01

    We reviewed all episodes of peritonitis associated with exit site and/or tunnel infection (n = 87; rate, 0.1/yr; 13% of all peritonitis episodes) occurring from 1979 to 1995. The exit site or tunnel infection was diagnosed at the time or shortly after the patient presented with peritonitis in 66% of the episodes. In the other one third the exit site or tunnel infection was diagnosed a median of 40 days prior to the development of peritonitis. Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 52% of episodes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the next most common organism. In 63 (72%) of the episodes the catheter was removed to resolve the infection at a median of 8 days (range, 0 to 226 days) from the onset of peritonitis. Catheter removal after 5 days predominately for refractory peritonitis (n = 23; median time to removal, 8 days) or relapsing peritonitis (n = 11; median time to catheter removal, 103 days). Patients with relapsing peritonitis suffered two to four episodes prior to removal of the catheter. Patients with peritonitis associated with tunnel infection were more likely to lose their catheter than patients with peritonitis associated with exit site infection (86% v 58%), while Staphylococcus epidermidis infections were less likely to result in catheter loss compared with all other organisms (15% v 82%). After a protocol to reduce S aureus catheter infections was implemented in 1990, the rate of catheter-related peritonitis decreased from 0.14/yr to 0.05/yr due to a decrease in S aureus episodes. We conclude that peritonitis episodes associated with a tunnel infection infrequently resolve without catheter removal. Delayed catheter removal in such circumstances often results in refractory or relapsing peritonitis. Therefore, catheter removal should be done promptly. Antibiotic prophylaxis for S aureus can reduce catheter-related peritonitis.

  3. Exit Options in Corporate Finance: Liquidity versus Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Aghion, Philippe; Bolton, Patrick; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a first study of the optimal design of active monitors' exit options in a problem involving a demand for liquidity and costly monitoring of the issuer. Optimal incentives to monitor the issuer may involve restricting the monitor's right to sell her claims on the firm's cash-flow early. But the monitor will then require a liquidity premium for holding such an illiquid claim. In general, therefore, there will be a trade off between incentives and liquidity. The paper highlig...

  4. First exit times of harmonically trapped particles: a didactic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2015-01-01

    We revise the classical problem of characterizing first exit times of a harmonically trapped particle whose motion is described by a one- or multidimensional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. We start by recalling the main derivation steps of a propagator using Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations. The mean exit time, the moment-generating function and the survival probability are then expressed through confluent hypergeometric functions and thoroughly analyzed. We also present a rapidly converging series representation of confluent hypergeometric functions that is particularly well suited for numerical computation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the governing Fokker-Planck operator. We discuss several applications of first exit times, such as the detection of time intervals during which motor proteins exert a constant force onto a tracer in optical tweezers single-particle tracking experiments; adhesion bond dissociation under mechanical stress; characterization of active periods of trend-following and mean-reverting strategies in algorithmic trading on stock markets; relation to the distribution of first crossing times of a moving boundary by Brownian motion. Some extensions are described, including diffusion under quadratic double-well potential and anomalous diffusion.

  5. Discrete element crowd model for pedestrian evacuation through an exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lin; Jian, Ma; Siuming, Lo

    2016-03-01

    A series of accidents caused by crowds within the last decades evoked a lot of scientific interest in modeling the movement of pedestrian crowds. Based on the discrete element method, a granular dynamic model, in which the human body is simplified as a self-driven sphere, is proposed to simulate the characteristics of crowd flow through an exit. In this model, the repulsive force among people is considered to have an anisotropic feature, and the physical contact force due to body deformation is quantified by the Hertz contact model. The movement of the human body is simulated by applying the second Newton’s law. The crowd flow through an exit at different desired velocities is studied and simulation results indicated that crowd flow exhibits three distinct states, i.e., smooth state, transition state and phase separation state. In the simulation, the clogging phenomenon occurs more easily when the desired velocity is high and the exit may as a result be totally blocked at a desired velocity of 1.6 m/s or above, leading to faster-to-frozen effect. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71473207, 51178445, and 71103148), the Research Grant Council, Government of Hong Kong, China (Grant No. CityU119011), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2682014CX103 and 2682014RC05).

  6. Discrete Element Crowd Model for Pedestrian Evacuation Through an Exit

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Peng; Lo, Siuming

    2016-01-01

    A series of accidents caused by crowd within the last decades evoked a lot of scientific interest in modeling the movement of pedestrian crowds. Based on discrete element method, a granular dynamic model, in which human body is simplified as self-driven sphere, is proposed to simulate the characteristics of crowd flow through an exit. In this model, the repulsive force among people is considered to have an anisotropic feature, and the physical contact force due to body deformation is quantified by the Hertz contact model. The movement of human body is simulated by applying the second Newton's law. The crowd flow through an exit at different desired velocities is studied and simulation results indicated that crowd flow exhibits three distinct states, i.e., smooth state, transition state and phase separation state. In the simulation, clogging phenomenon occurs more easily when the velocity of desired is high and the exit may as a result be totally blocked at a desired velocity of 1.6m/s or above, leading to fas...

  7. Suicidal cyanide ingestion as detailed in Final Exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cina, S J; Raso, D S; Conradi, S E

    1994-11-01

    Final Exit is an "informational aid" advocating the practice of active euthanasia and describing the proper method for the foolproof commission of suicide. Although it has been directed toward assisting the terminally ill patient who desires to terminate suffering, it has been suggested that the widespread availability of this book may result in its abuse. Specifically, there is growing concern that "do-it-yourself suicide manuals" could bring about the fruition of suicidal ideations that are relatively common among mentally ill patients and impressionable adolescents. Described is the suicidal ingestion of cyanide by a physically healthy 30-year-old man. His diary, found next to the body, contains a recipe for suicide copied verbatim from Derek Humphry's Final Exit. Although the decedent's history, the scene investigation, and the external examination strongly suggest an underlying psychiatric disorder, postmortem examination disclosed minimal underlying physical disease. This case graphically illustrates the abuse potential of this literary genre. To our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind to appear in the literature. We recommend that forensic pathologists and medical investigators familiarize themselves with the methods of suicide described in Final Exit.

  8. Geometric Approaches for Reducing Burr Formation in Planar Milling by Avoiding Tool Exits

    OpenAIRE

    Dornfeld, David; Chu, Chih-Hsing

    2005-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for reducing milling exit burrs is to prevent the tool from exiting the workpiece. Exit here refers the condition in which a cutting edge is moving out of the workpiece while removing material. Only entrance burrs can occur under this circumstance, which are usually considered burr-free. This study proposes a set of geometric algorithms for avoiding tool exits in planar milling. Two distinct approaches are developed for tool path planning of 2-D polygons. The...

  9. 49 CFR 571.217 - Standard No. 217; Bus emergency exits and window retention and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... centerline. Post and roof bow panel space means the area between two adjacent post and roof bows. Push-out... two side emergency exit doors shall be located, in whole or in part, within the same post and roof bow panel space. (b) Emergency roof exit. (1) Each emergency roof exit shall be hinged on its forward...

  10. Exit times for a class of random walks: exact distribution results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    the exit possible has a Laplace transform which is a rational function. The expected exit time is also determined and the paper concludes with exact distribution results concerning exits from bounded intervals. The proofs use simple martingale techniques together with some classical expansions...

  11. The Effect of Family on the Job Exits of Young Adults: A Competing Risk Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsberg, Judy; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Event history analysis and a competing risk model of occupational attainment indicate that, for men, marriage and children at job entry have negative effects on job exits; for women, they negatively affect exits to attend school but positively affect exits for other reasons, suggesting that young women with children may consider parenting their…

  12. Experimental Study on the Effect of Exit Geometric Configurations on Hydrodynamics in CFB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Qiao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The exit configurations of CFB strongly influence the bulk density profile and the internal circulation of the bed material, which is called the end effect. This study analyzes the influence of three exit geometries and two narrowed exit geometries on hydrodynamics. Experiments indicate that the exit with the projected roof in CFB may be used as a separator and the projected height has a maximum. Narrowing the bed cross section near the bed exit zone is a simple and effective way to enhance the internal circulation and reduce the circulation of bed material simultaneously.

  13. A predictive theory of intentions to exit street-level prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Andrea N

    2012-10-01

    Street-level prostitution is notoriously difficult to escape and rarely do women exit prostitution on their first attempt or without experiencing serious negative consequences to their physical or mental health. Unfortunately, few theories exist that explain the exiting process and those that do exist are difficult to test quantitatively. This article applies the integrative model of behavioral prediction to examine intentions to exit prostitution through attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy beliefs that underlie a woman's intention to exit prostitution. Constructs unique prostitution--agency and societal context--enhance the model. This theory may explain and predict an exit from street-level prostitution.

  14. Frontal MRI findings associated with impairment on the Executive Interview (EXIT25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, D R; Rauch, R; Román, G C; Cordes, J A; Polk, M J

    2001-01-01

    We examined the association between the Executive Interview (EXIT25), a bedside measure of executive control, and regional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pathology among 52 consecutive geriatric patients presenting to a university dementia assessment clinic. Left frontal (p QED]. The EXIT25's associations with right hemisphere lesions did not persist after adjusting for left frontal lesions. Left posterior lesions did not significantly affect the EXIT25. Similarly, left frontal circuit pathology worsened EXIT25 scores (p < .05). Pathology in left anterior subcortical structures showed a trend (p = .052). EXIT25 scores were not affected by right subcortical pathology, nor by pathology in either hippocampus. We conclude that the EXIT25 is specifically affected by frontal system MRI lesions, particularly on the left. This conclusion is consistent with earlier functional neuroimaging studies associating EXIT25 performance with left mesiofrontal perfusion.

  15. Improved social force model based on exit selection for microscopic pedestrian simulation in subway station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勋; 李海鹰; 孟令云; 许心越; 陈旭

    2015-01-01

    An improved social force model based on exit selection is proposed to simulate pedestrians’ microscopic behaviors in subway station. The modification lies in considering three factors of spatial distance, occupant density and exit width. In addition, the problem of pedestrians selecting exit frequently is solved as follows: not changing to other exits in the affected area of one exit, using the probability of remaining preceding exit and invoking function of exit selection after several simulation steps. Pedestrians in subway station have some special characteristics, such as explicit destinations, different familiarities with subway station. Finally, Beijing Zoo Subway Station is taken as an example and the feasibility of the model results is verified through the comparison of the actual data and simulation data. The simulation results show that the improved model can depict the microscopic behaviors of pedestrians in subway station.

  16. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING MONETARY AND FISCAL EXIT STRATEGIES FROM THE CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA VASILESCU

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis and all unusual monetary and fiscal policy reactions have stressed the importance to be given to understand macroeconomic consequences of policy interventions and their interactions. This profound crisis has led to both nonstandard policy actions of various authorities around the globe, but it has also revealed limitations of traditional modeling tools to guide policymakers’ actions until nowadays. The delicate state of governments’ accounts in many countries is a consequence of the strong fiscal policy reactions, giving rise to risks of a potential fiscal crisis. Issues regarding monetary and fiscal policy decisions interactions are, therefore, the key element for successful exit strategies from the crisis.

  17. UV laser spectroscopic measurements in jet engine combustion exit flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley, J.A. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Laser diagnostic measurements, which are excited with a narrowband krypton fluoride laser, have been made at the exit of a jet engine combustor. Spectra of Raman scattering and laser induced fluorescence were measured with a 0.5 meter spectrograph equipped with a diode array detector. For these demonstration tests, the combustor was operated at two flow rates including conditions corresponding to the 90 percent power level, with jet fuel and methane. Nitrogen Raman spectra are free of band interference. However, the signal levels are lower than expected. Sources of signal losses are discussed. 27 refs.

  18. Measurements of temperature profiles at the exit of small rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, M; Harshbarger, F C

    1966-02-01

    The sodium line reversal technique was used to determine the reversal temperature profile across the exit of small rockets. Measurements were made on one 73-kg thrust rocket, and two 23-kg thrust rockets with different injectors. The large rocket showed little variation of reversal temperature across the plume. However, the 23-kg rockets both showed a large decrease of reversal temperature from the axis to the edge of the plume. In addition, the sodium line reversal technique of temperature measurement was compared with an infrared technique developed in these laboratories.

  19. The Right of Exit in the Context of Multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria D'Ávila Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2015v36n71p155 The terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in the United States provoked heated discussions about the need to limit and control the performance of some cultural minorities, as well as to create mechanisms to protect members of these minorities against the decisions taken by the group. In this context, this paper aims to analyze the possibilities and limits of the right of exit in the context of Multiculturalism. To this end, a literature research was performed in national and foreign doctrine. After analyzing the data, it was found that the right to exit is a valuable mechanism for protecting members of cultural minorities, however, there are situations, especially in cases where the values of the group are internalized by the members, in which this right is insufficient and should be supplemented by other human rights.

  20. Conservation of extrusion as an exit mechanism for Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuck, Meghan; Sherrid, Ashley; Suchland, Robert; Ellis, Tisha; Hybiske, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Chlamydiae exit via membrane-encased extrusion or through lysis of the host cell. Extrusions are novel, pathogen-containing structures that confer infectious advantages to Chlamydia, and are hypothesized to promote cell-to-cell spread, dissemination to distant tissues and facilitate immune evasion. The extrusion phenomenon has been characterized for several Chlamydia trachomatis serovars, but a thorough investigation of extrusion for additional clinically relevant C. trachomatis strains and Chlamydia species has yet to be performed. The key parameters investigated in this study were: (i) the conservation of extrusion across the Chlamydia genus, (ii) the functional requirement for candidate Chlamydia genes in extrusion formation i.e. IncA and CT228 and (iii) extrusion-mediated uptake, and consequent survival of Chlamydia inside macrophages. Inclusion morphology was characterized by live fluorescence microscopy, using an inverted GFP strategy, at early and mid-stages of infection. Enriched extrusions were used to infect bone marrow-derived macrophages, and bacterial viability was measured following macrophage engulfment. Our results demonstrate that extrusion is highly conserved across chlamydiae, including ocular, STD and LGV biovars and divergent Chlamydia species. Consequently, this exit mechanism for Chlamydia may fulfill common advantages important for pathogenesis.

  1. Competitive electricity markets, prices and generator entry and exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, Robert George

    The electric power industry in the United States is quickly being deregulated and restructured. In the past, new electric generation capacity was added by regulated utilities to meet forecasted demand levels and maintain reserve margins. With competitive wholesale generation, investment will be the responsibility of independent private investors. Electricity prices will assume the coordinating function which has until recently been the responsibility of regulatory agencies. Competitive prices will provide the entry and exit signals for generators in the future. Competitive electricity markets have a distinctive price formation process, and thus require a specialized price model. A mean-reverting price process with stochastic jumps is proposed as an appropriate long-run price process for annual electricity prices. This price process is used to develop an analytic real options model for private investment decisions. The required recursive infinite series solutions have not been widely used for real option models. Entry thresholds and asset values for competitive wholesale electricity markets, and exit decisions for plants with significant retirement costs (i.e. nuclear power plants), are examined. The proposed model results in significantly lower trigger prices for both entry and exit decisions, and higher asset values, when compared with other standard models. The model is used to show that the incentives for retiring a nuclear plant are very sensitive to the treatment of decommissioning costs (e.g. if plant owners do not face full decommissioning costs, retirement decisions may be economically premature.) An econometric model of short-run price behavior is estimated by the method of maximum likelihood using daily electricity prices from markets in the USA and Australia. The model specifies two mean reverting price processes with stochastic Markov switching between the regimes, which allows discontinuous jumps in electricity prices. Econometric tests show that a two

  2. Maximum forces sustained during various methods of exiting commercial tractors, trailers and trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, F A; Cotnam, J P

    2000-02-01

    Many commercial vehicles have steps and grab-rails to assist the driver in safely entering/exiting the vehicle. However, many drivers do not use these aids. The purpose of this study was to compare impact forces experienced during various exit methods from commercial equipment. The study investigated impact forces of ten male subjects while exiting two tractors, a step-van, a box-trailer, and a cube-van. The results showed that exiting from cab-level or trailer-level resulted in impact forces as high as 12 times the subject's body weight; whereas, fully utilizing the steps and grab-rails resulted in impact forces less than two times body weight. An approach that emphasizes optimal design of entry/exit aids coupled with driver training and education is expected to minimize exit-related injuries.

  3. Spanish exit polls. Sampling error or nonresponse bias?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavía, Jose M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Countless examples of misleading forecasts on behalf of both pre-election and exit polls can be found all over the world. Non-representative samples due to differential nonresponse have been claimed as being the main reason for inaccurate exit-poll projections. In real inference problems, it is seldom possible to compare estimates and true values. Electoral forecasts are an exception. Comparisons between estimates and final outcomes can be carried out once votes have been tallied. In this paper, we examine the raw data collected in seven exit polls conducted in Spain and test the likelihood that the data collected in each sampled voting location can be considered as a random sample of actual results. Knowing the answer to this is relevant for both electoral analysts and forecasters as, if the hypothesis is rejected, the shortcomings of the collected data would need amending. Analysts could improve the quality of their computations by implementing local correction strategies. We find strong evidence of nonsampling error in Spanish exit polls and evidence that the political context matters. Nonresponse bias is larger in polarized elections and in a climate of fearExiste un gran número de ejemplos de predicciones inexactas obtenidas a partir tanto de encuestas pre-electorales como de encuestas a pie de urna a lo largo del mundo. La presencia de tasas de no-respuesta diferencial entre distintos tipos de electores ha sido la principal razón esgrimida para justificar las proyecciones erróneas en las encuestas a pie de urna. En problemas de inferencia rara vez es posible comparar estimaciones y valores reales. Las predicciones electorales son una excepción. La comparación entre estimaciones y resultados finales puede realizarse una vez los votos han sido contabilizados. En este trabajo, examinamos los datos brutos recogidos en siete encuestas a pie de urna realizadas en España y testamos la hipótesis de que los datos recolectados en cada punto

  4. A Model of Graceful Exit in String Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Brustein, Ram; Brustein, Ram; Madden, Richard

    1998-01-01

    We construct, for the first time, a model of graceful exit transition from a dilaton-driven inflationary phase to a decelerated Friedman-Robertson-Walker era. Exploiting a demonstration that classical corrections can stabilize a high curvature string phase while the evolution is still in the weakly coupled regime, we show that if additional terms of the type that may result from quantum corrections to the string effective action exist, and induce violation of the null energy condition, then evolution towards a decelerated Friedman-Robertson-Walker phase is possible. We also observe that stabilizing the dilaton at a fixed value, either by capture in a potential minimum or by radiation production, may require that these quantum corrections are turned off, perhaps by non-perturbative effects or higher order contributions which overturn the null energy condition violation.

  5. Predicting NCLEX-PN success with the HESI Exit Exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anne; Willson, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Surveys were mailed to directors of 72 randomly selected practical nursing (PN) schools that administered Elsevier's HESI Exit Exam for Practical Nurses (E2-PN) during the 2006-2007 academic year. Data were collected regarding students' NCLEX-PN outcomes and the schools' benchmarking and remediation policies. The first version of the E2-PN was 99.48% accurate in predicting NCLEX-PN success. Versions two and three of the E2-PN, which were administered to students who were remediated because they did not achieve the faculty-designated benchmark, were also highly accurate in predicting NCLEX-PN success. Most faculties set 850 as their school's E2-PN benchmark, and 73% of the respondents required remediation for students who did not achieve the benchmark score. The most frequently cited remediation strategy was tutoring.

  6. Destruction and Reallocation of Skills Following Large Company Exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Olesen, Thomas Roslyng

    What happens to redundant skills and workers when a large company closes down in a region? The knowledge embodied in firms is lost when firms exit. However, the skills, competences and knowledge embodied in the displaced employees are suddenly released and can become channels of knowledge transfer...... for other firms that hire them. This process can be very disruptive. For instance, when a large, old and well-renowned company closes down displacing thousands of workers over a short period of time, then it may be a shock to the regional economy and lead to unemployment and skill destruction. The question...... then becomes: under which conditions are the redundant workers and their skills reallocated to productive use elsewhere in the regional economy and when do the workers find a job where their specific skills are less valuable to the new employer and the worker must start over acquiring new skills, that is...

  7. Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building Materials Sub-council of CCPIT is the other sub-council in construction field. CCPIT Building Materials Sub-council (CCPITBM), as well as CCOIC Build-ing Materials Chamber of Commerce, is au-thorized by CCPIT and state administration of building materials industry in 1992. CCPITBM is a sub-organization of CCPIT and CCOIC.

  8. Regional Innovation System Strengthening Program (SIDa as an Exit Strategy National Community Development Program (PNPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Narutomo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the PNPM program and follow the program with SIDA Strengthening Program. The research method used is a qualitative method approach of this research through the evaluation research design that builds on the CIPP evaluation model (Context-Input-Process-Product. Since the failure of theories and models of development are too glorifies growth, makes many people turn to focus on people development, which includes requiring optimization of local resources, participation, and empowerment. Since then, "empowerment" which was introduced in Indonesia has been anesthetized and made many hopes among many parties. In 2007 started the National Program for Community Empowerment (PNPM which continue Kecamatan Development Program (KDP. PNPM 2014 which is part of the United Indonesia Cabinet Volume 2 is going to end. For that we need to look for an exit strategy program that can maintain sustainability of PNPM. Regional Innovation Systems Strengthening Program (SIDA is a program of the whole process in one system to foster innovation made between government institutions, local governments, research institutions, educational institutions, innovation support institutions, businesses, and communities in areas that have been implemented since the 2012 SIDA program is an empowerment program as well, both to the public and even empowering to all elements such as academia, private industry, government and society.

  9. Door locking and exit security measures on acute psychiatric admission wards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.L.I.; Bowers, L.; Haglund, K.; Muir-Cochrane, E.; Simpson, A.; Merwe, M. van der

    2011-01-01

    Locking the exit doors of psychiatric wards is believed to reduce the risk of patients absconding. The aims of the study were to investigate both the prevalence of door locking and other exit security measures on UK admission wards, as well as whether door locking appears to be effective in keeping

  10. Visual Barriers to Prevent Ambulatory ALzheimer's Patients from Exiting through an Emergency Door.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Kevan H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Conducted study on Alzheimer's unit to test seven different visual barrier conditions for reducing patient exits. Findings indicated that exiting was eliminated under two conditions. Results suggest visual agnosia, the inability to interpret what the eye sees, may be used as tool in managing wandering behavior of Alzheimer's patients. (Author/NB)

  11. The EXIT for Prenatally Diagnosed Cervical Cystic Teratoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Cansaran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT is a procedure performed during caesarean section while on fetal-placental circulation. We present a prenatally diagnosed cervical cystic mass causing tracheal compression which was managed successfully with the EXIT procedure.

  12. Thermal regime, predation danger and the early marine exit of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katinic, P.J.; Patterson, D.A.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Marine exit timing of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations on the Haida Gwaii Archipelago, British Columbia, Canada, is described, with specific focus on Copper Creek. Marine exit in Copper Creek occurs¿>¿130¿days prior to spawning, one of the longest adult freshwater residence periods r

  13. Farm growth and exit: consequences of EU dairy policy reform for Dutch dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.H.M.; Ooms, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse farm growth and exit and its interaction in Dutch dairy farming as consequences of the 2003 CAP reform and 2008 CAP Health Check. Results indicate that the decision to exit dairy farming is largely determined by household characteristics as age and the size of

  14. Non-lytic, actin-based exit of intracellular parasites from C. elegans intestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Kathleen A; Szumowski, Suzannah C; Troemel, Emily R

    2011-09-01

    The intestine is a common site for invasion by intracellular pathogens, but little is known about how pathogens restructure and exit intestinal cells in vivo. The natural microsporidian parasite N. parisii invades intestinal cells of the nematode C. elegans, progresses through its life cycle, and then exits cells in a transmissible spore form. Here we show that N. parisii causes rearrangements of host actin inside intestinal cells as part of a novel parasite exit strategy. First, we show that N. parisii infection causes ectopic localization of the normally apical-restricted actin to the basolateral side of intestinal cells, where it often forms network-like structures. Soon after this actin relocalization, we find that gaps appear in the terminal web, a conserved cytoskeletal structure that could present a barrier to exit. Reducing actin expression creates terminal web gaps in the absence of infection, suggesting that infection-induced actin relocalization triggers gap formation. We show that terminal web gaps form at a distinct stage of infection, precisely timed to precede spore exit, and that all contagious animals exhibit gaps. Interestingly, we find that while perturbations in actin can create these gaps, actin is not required for infection progression or spore formation, but actin is required for spore exit. Finally, we show that despite large numbers of spores exiting intestinal cells, this exit does not cause cell lysis. These results provide insight into parasite manipulation of the host cytoskeleton and non-lytic escape from intestinal cells in vivo.

  15. Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2011-01-01

    Economic theories predict that women are more likely to exit the labor force if their partners' earnings are higher and if their own wage rate is lower. In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,254) and discrete-time event-history analysis to show that wives' relative wages are more predictive of their exit than are…

  16. Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Mundy, Michael B.

    2015-07-21

    Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application, including: identifying a subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer to execute the parallel application; selecting one compute node in the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer as a job leader compute node; initiating execution of the parallel application on the subset of compute nodes; receiving an exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes, where the exit status for each compute node includes information describing execution of some portion of the parallel application by the compute node; aggregating each exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes; and sending an aggregated exit status for the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer.

  17. Dropped out or pushed out? Insurance market exit and provider market power in Medicare Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelech, Daria

    2016-11-30

    This paper explores how provider and insurer market power affect which markets an insurer chooses to operate in. A 2011 policy change required that certain private insurance plans in Medicare form provider networks de novo; in response, insurers cancelled two-thirds of the affected plans. Using detailed data on pre-policy provider and insurer market structure, I compare markets where insurers built networks to those they exited. Overall, insurers in the most concentrated hospital and physician markets were 9 and 13 percentage points more likely to exit, respectively, than those in the least concentrated markets. Conversely, insurers with more market power were less likely to exit than those with less, and an insurer's market power had the largest effect on exit in concentrated hospital markets. These findings suggest that concentrated provider markets contribute to insurer exit and that insurers with less market power have more difficulty surviving in concentrated provider markets.

  18. LTE1 promotes exit from mitosis by multiple mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Jill E; Campbell, Ian W; Joyce, Kelsey; Whalen, Jenna; Seshan, Anupama; Amon, Angelika

    2016-12-15

    In budding yeast, alignment of the anaphase spindle along the mother-bud axis is crucial for maintaining genome integrity. If the anaphase spindle becomes misaligned in the mother cell compartment, cells arrest in anaphase because the mitotic exit network (MEN), an essential Ras-like GTPase signaling cascade, is inhibited by the spindle position checkpoint (SPoC). Distinct localization patterns of MEN and SPoC components mediate MEN inhibition. Most components of the MEN localize to spindle pole bodies. If the spindle becomes mispositioned in the mother cell compartment, cells arrest in anaphase due to inhibition of the MEN by the mother cell-restricted SPoC kinase Kin4. Here we show that a bud-localized activating signal is necessary for full MEN activation. We identify Lte1 as this signal and show that Lte1 activates the MEN in at least two ways. It inhibits small amounts of Kin4 that are present in the bud via its central domain. An additional MEN-activating function of Lte1 is mediated by its N- and C-terminal GEF domains, which, we propose, directly activate the MEN GTPase Tem1. We conclude that control of the MEN by spindle position is exerted by both negative and positive regulatory elements that control the pathway's GTPase activity.

  19. POD- Mapping and analysis of hydroturbine exit flow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Morten; Finstad, Pal Henrik

    2012-11-01

    Pairwise radial dynamic measurements of the swirling draft tube flow have been made at the 25 MW Svorka power plant in Surnadal operating at 48% load at 6 radial and 7 angular positions. The data is analyzed with traditional methods as well as with POD. The measurements were made in the turbine draft tube/exit flow in an axial measurement plane about 1200mm downstream the turbine runner. The draft tube diameter in the measurement plane is about 1300mm. The flow rate during measurements was close to 5.8m3/s. Two probes were used; both of length Le=700 mm and made of stainless steel with an outer diameter of Do=20 mm and inner diameter Di=4mm. At the end of each probe a full bridge cylindrical KULITE xcl152, 0-3.5, was mounted. 90 seconds samples at 10 kS/s were taken. The POD analysis largely follows that of Tutkun et al. (see e.g. AIAA J., 45,5,2008). The analysis shows that 26% of the pressure pulsation energy can be addressed to azimuthal mode 1. The work has been supported by Energy Norway.

  20. OPERATORS ON CORNER MANIFOLDS WITH EXIT TO INFINITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Calvo; B. W. Schulze

    2006-01-01

    We study (pseudo-)differential operators on a manifold with edge Z,locally modelled on a wedge with model cone that has itself a base manifold W with smooth edge Y. The typical operators A are corner degenerate in a specific way. They (σψ (A), σ∧ (A), σ∧ (A)), where σψ is the interior symbol and σ∧ (A)(y, η), (y, η) ∈ T*Y\\0,weighted Sobolev spaces on the infinite cone with base W. Since such a cone has edges with exit to infinity, the calculus has the problem to understand the behaviour of operators on a manifold of that kind.We show the continuity of corner-degenerate operators in weighted edge Sobolev spaces, and we investigate the ellipticity of edge symbols of second generation. Starting from parameter-dependent elliptic families of edge operators of first generation, we obtain the Fredholm property of higher edge symbols on the corresponding singular infinite model cone.

  1. Core compressor exit stage study. 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdsall, E. A.; Canal, E., Jr.; Lyons, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of aspect ratio on the performance of core compressor exit stages was demonstrated using two three stage, highly loaded, core compressors. Aspect ratio was identified as having a strong influence on compressors endwall loss. Both compressors simulated the last three stages of an advanced eight stage core compressor and were designed with the same 0.915 hub/tip ratio, 4.30 kg/sec (9.47 1bm/sec) inlet corrected flow, and 167 m/sec (547 ft/sec) corrected mean wheel speed. The first compressor had an aspect ratio of 0.81 and an overall pressure ratio of 1.357 at a design adiabatic efficiency of 88.3% with an average diffusion factor or 0.529. The aspect ratio of the second compressor was 1.22 with an overall pressure ratio of 1.324 at a design adiabatic efficiency of 88.7% with an average diffusion factor of 0.491.

  2. Mean Exit Time and Survival Probability within the CTRW Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Montero, M; Montero, Miquel; Masoliver, Jaume

    2006-01-01

    An intense research on financial market microstructure is presently in progress. Continuous time random walks (CTRWs) are general models capable to capture the small-scale properties that high frequency data series show. The use of CTRW models in the analysis of financial problems is quite recent and their potentials have not been fully developed. Here we present two (closely related) applications of great interest in risk control. In the first place, we will review the problem of modelling the behaviour of the mean exit time (MET) of a process out of a given region of fixed size. The surveyed stochastic processes are the cumulative returns of asset prices. The link between the value of the MET and the timescale of the market fluctuations of a certain degree is crystal clear. In this sense, MET value may help, for instance, in deciding the optimal time horizon for the investment. The MET is, however, one among the statistics of a distribution of bigger interest: the survival probability (SP), the likelihood t...

  3. Exiting Lepušićeva: Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Dolenec

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article “Exiting Lepušićeva?” Kasapović engages once again with the very important issue of critical evaluation of the development of political science in Croatia, with a particular focus on the status of comparative politics within the discipline. The author takes an outside perspective in the approach to the analysis of the reasons why Croatia can rarely be found in international comparative studies, and inquires into the reasons why political scientists abroad, involved in large-scale international research programs, rarely include Croatia as one of their case studies? In addition to Kasapović’s argument, I begin by summing up the main problems, and afterwards I argue that the development of empirical political science in Croatia takes place in the absence of a comprehensive Science and research policy on the national level, but also in the context of insufficient concern of the scientists themselves for the conditions of knowledge production and the mechanisms of reproduction of the discipline.

  4. Inflation with a graceful exit in a random landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Pedro, Francisco G

    2016-01-01

    We develop a stochastic description of small-field inflationary histories with a graceful exit in a random potential whose Hessian is a Gaussian random matrix as a model of the unstructured part of the string landscape. The dynamical evolution in such a random potential from a small-field inflation region towards a viable late-time de Sitter (dS) minimum maps to the dynamics of Dyson Brownian motion describing the relaxation of non-equilibrium eigenvalue spectra in random matrix theory. We analytically compute the relaxation probability in a saddle point approximation of the partition function of the eigenvalue distribution of the Wigner ensemble describing the mass matrices of the critical points. When applied to small-field inflation in the landscape, this leads to an exponentially strong bias against small-field ranges and an upper bound $N\\ll 10$ on the number of light fields $N$ participating during inflation from the non-observation of negative spatial curvature.

  5. Compact Fixed-exit UHV DCM for XAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickers, K.; Brüggmann, U.; Drube, W.; Herrmann, M.; Heuer, J.; Welter, E.; Schulte-Schrepping, H.; Schulz-Ritter, H.

    2007-01-01

    A double-crystal, UHV-compatible monochromator for XAFS applications at bending magnet beamlines has been designed. It uses two crystal sets, Si(111) and (311), on a common central rotation axis driven by an ex-vacuo goniometer. All mechanical and electrical components are mounted on a 400 mm UHV flange which is attached to a compact vacuum chamber. The first crystals are water cooled using connector- and bellowless tubing through the fluidic sealed feedthrough of the central rotation. The first crystal set is mounted off-axis and can be translated vertically to keep the fixed exit condition. The second crystal set uses small crystals of the same size as the first. In order to accept the reflected beam of the first crystal at small Bragg angles, it is tangentially translated along the beam. The angle can be varied from 5° to 55.5° resulting in a total energy range 2.4 - 43.4 keV for Si(111)/(311). Crystal sets are interchangeable by translating the vacuum chamber. Angle encoding is achieved by a Renishaw incremental optical encoder in vacuo.

  6. Persuasive Ways to Change Entrance Use of Buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de Johannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Teeuw, Wouter B.

    2014-01-01

    People tend to use the same door every time they enter and exit a building. When certain entrances are widely preferred over others, congestion can occur. This paper describes two interventions to persuade visitors to use another entrance. The first intervention used sensory deprivation (darkness),

  7. GUTKA-A MALIGNANT ENTITY SEEKS BENIGN EXIT IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Tobacco and its products have been a household entit y since a long time specially in Indian houses either as a pride to be snuffed thr ough the pipes or the traditional hookahs by the rajas maharajas, or if not through the smoke it took place in many untowardly customs and rituals associated. It has spread through the subcon tinent, and even to the other countries. Promoted by a slick and many- tentacled advertising campaign, gutka, an indigenous form of smokeless tobacco, has become a fixture in the mout hs of millions of Indians over the last two decades. But what has prompted particular concern her e is the way that in the last 10 years, gutka as portable as chewing gum and sometimes as sw eet as candy has found its way into the mouths of Indian children. Out of fad and style quo tient, it made its way in exchange of mere money in pockets of many turning into one of the maj or concerns for health problems particularly in India. Various social workers and he alth professionals have urged for ban of tobacco products, especially the gutka as it is the n eed of the hour to stop chewing to avoid future regret of oral health. In that context, gove rnment too is starting a ban of sale and supply of such products considering the youth in terms of its addiction and child labour associated. However, with the increasing awareness regarding it s pros and cons, alarming many of this fad, it’s slowly and gradually making its way to exit to create smiles with disease and addiction free life to man

  8. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  9. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  10. Market entry and exit by biotech and device companies funded by venture capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawton R; Housman, Michael G; Robinson, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Start-up companies in the biotechnology and medical device sectors are important sources of health care innovation. This paper describes the role of venture capital in supporting these companies and charts the growth in venture capital financial support. The paper then uses longitudinal data to describe market entry and exit by these companies. Similar factors are associated with entry and exit in the two sectors. Entries and exits in one sector also appear to influence entry in the other. These findings have important implications for developing innovative technologies and ensuring competitive markets in the life sciences.

  11. Static performance of an axisymmetric nozzle with post-exit vanes for multiaxis thrust vectoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Mason, Mary L.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the flow-turning capability and the nozzle internal performance of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle with post-exit vanes installed for multiaxis thrust vectoring. The effects of vane curvature, vane location relative to the nozzle exit, number of vanes, and vane deflection angle were determined. A comparison of the post-exit-vane thrust-vectoring concept with other thrust-vectoring concepts is provided. All tests were conducted with no external flow, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.6 to 6.0.

  12. Can exit prizes induce lame ducks to shirk less? Experimental evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Helland

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Elected representatives serving their final period face only weak incentives to provide costly effort. However, overlapping generations (OLG models suggest that exit prizes sustained by trigger strategies can induce representatives in their final period to provide such effort. We evaluate this hypothesis using a simple OLG public good experiment, the central treatment being whether exit prizes are permitted. We find that a significantly higher number of subjects in their final period contribute when exit prizes are permitted. However, this result does not originate from use of trigger strategies. More likely explanations include gift-exchange and focal-point effects.

  13. Mean Exit Time and Escape Probability for a Tumor Growth System under Non-Gaussian Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Jian; Gao, Ting; Kan, Xingye; Duan, Jinqiao

    2011-01-01

    Effects of non-Gaussian $\\alpha-$stable L\\'evy noise on the Gompertz tumor growth model are quantified by considering the mean exit time and escape probability of the cancer cell density from inside a safe or benign domain. The mean exit time and escape probability problems are formulated in a differential-integral equation with a fractional Laplacian operator. Numerical simulations are conducted to evaluate how the mean exit time and escape probability vary or bifurcates when $\\alpha$ changes. Some bifurcation phenomena are observed and their impacts are discussed.

  14. Jet engine nozzle exit configurations, including projections oriented relative to pylons, and associated systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengle, Vinod G. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Nozzle exit configurations and associated systems and methods are disclosed. An aircraft system in accordance with one embodiment includes a jet engine exhaust nozzle having an internal flow surface and an exit aperture, with the exit aperture having a perimeter that includes multiple projections extending in an aft direction. Aft portions of individual neighboring projections are spaced apart from each other by a gap, and a geometric feature of the multiple can change in a monotonic manner along at least a portion of the perimeter. Projections near a support pylon and/or associated heat shield can have particular configurations, including greater flow immersion than other projections.

  15. 10 CFR 431.204 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption of illuminated exit signs. 431.204 Section 431.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Illuminated Exit Signs Test Procedures § 431.204 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit...

  16. Temporal and compartment-specific signals coordinate mitotic exit with spindle position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caydasi, Ayse Koca; Khmelinskii, Anton; Duenas-Sanchez, Rafael; Kurtulmus, Bahtiyar; Knop, Michael; Pereira, Gislene

    2017-01-24

    The spatiotemporal control of mitotic exit is crucial for faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis. In budding yeast, the mitotic exit network (MEN) drives cells out of mitosis, whereas the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) blocks MEN activity when the anaphase spindle is mispositioned. How the SPOC operates at a molecular level remains unclear. Here, we report novel insights into how mitotic signalling pathways orchestrate chromosome segregation in time and space. We establish that the key function of the central SPOC kinase, Kin4, is to counterbalance MEN activation by the cdc fourteen early anaphase release (FEAR) network in the mother cell compartment. Remarkably, Kin4 becomes dispensable for SPOC function in the absence of FEAR. Cells lacking both FEAR and Kin4 show that FEAR contributes to mitotic exit through regulation of the SPOC component Bfa1 and the MEN kinase Cdc15. Furthermore, we uncover controls that specifically promote mitotic exit in the daughter cell compartment.

  17. Exit, voice, and loyalty in the Italian public health service: macroeconomic and corporate implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Adelaide; Impagliazzo, Cira; Zoccoli, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses how customers of public health organizations can express their dissatisfaction for the services offered to them. The main aim is to evaluate the effects that possible dissatisfaction of Italian public health service customers can have on public health organizations. We adopted the methodological scheme developed by Hirschman with exit, voice, and loyalty, considering the macroeconomic and corporate implications that it causes for Italian public health organizations. The study investigated the effects developed by exit of the patients on the system of financing of local health authorities considering both the corporate level of analysis and the macroeconomic level. As a result, local health authority management is encouraged to pay greater attention to the exit phenomena through the adoption of tools that promote loyalty, such as the promotion of voice, even if exit is not promoting, at a macroeconomic level, considerable attention to this phenomenon.

  18. Siah regulation of Pard3A controls neuronal cell adhesion during germinal zone exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famulski, Jakub K; Trivedi, Niraj; Howell, Danielle; Yang, Yuan; Tong, Yiai; Gilbertson, Richard; Solecki, David J

    2010-12-24

    The brain's circuitry is established by directed migration and synaptogenesis of neurons during development. Although neurons mature and migrate in specific patterns, little is known about how neurons exit their germinal zone niche. We found that cerebellar granule neuron germinal zone exit is regulated by proteasomal degradation of Pard3A by the Seven in Absentia homolog (Siah) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Pard3A gain of function and Siah loss of function induce precocious radial migration. Time-lapse imaging using a probe to measure neuronal cell contact reveals that Pard3A promotes adhesive interactions needed for germinal zone exit by recruiting the epithelial tight junction adhesion molecule C to the neuronal cell surface. Our findings define a Siah-Pard3A signaling pathway that controls adhesion-dependent exit of neuronal progenitors or immature neurons from a germinal zone niche.

  19. MEN, destruction and separation: mechanistic links between mitotic exit and cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Foong May; Lim, Hong Hwa; Surana, Uttam

    2002-07-01

    Cellular events must be executed in a certain sequence during the cell division in order to maintain genome integrity and hence ensure a cell's survival. In M phase, for instance, chromosome segregation always precedes mitotic exit (characterized by mitotic kinase inactivation via cyclin destruction); this is then followed by cytokinesis. How do cells impose this strict order? Recent findings in budding yeast have suggested a mechanism whereby partitioning of chromosomes into the daughter cell is a prerequisite for the activation of mitotic exit network (MEN). So far, however, a regulatory scheme that would temporally link the initiation of cytokinesis to the execution of mitotic exit has not been determined. We propose that the requirement of MEN components for cytokinesis, their translocation to the mother-daughter neck and triggering of this translocation by inactivation of the mitotic kinase may be the three crucial elements that render initiation of cytokinesis dependent on mitotic exit.

  20. Determinants of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Entry and Exit in the Mid-2000s

    OpenAIRE

    James Mabli; Thomas Godfrey; Laura Castner; Stephen Tordella; Priscilla Foran

    2011-01-01

    This study looks at the factors associated with SNAP entry and exit from 2004 to 2006 by examining individual and family demographic and economic characteristics, as well as state economic measures and SNAP policies.

  1. NAD+ Is a Food Component That Promotes Exit from Dauer Diapause in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylenko, Mykola; Boland, Sebastian; Penkov, Sider; Sampaio, Julio L.; Lombardot, Benoit; Vorkel, Daniela; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Kurzchalia, Teymuras V.

    2016-01-01

    The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans adapts its development to the availability of food. When food is scarce and population density is high, worms enter a developmentally arrested non-feeding diapause stage specialized for long-term survival called the dauer larva. When food becomes available, they exit from the dauer stage, resume growth and reproduction. It has been postulated that compound(s) present in food, referred to as the “food signal”, promote exit from the dauer stage. In this study, we have identified NAD+ as a component of bacterial extract that promotes dauer exit. NAD+, when dissolved in alkaline medium, causes opening of the mouth and ingestion of food. We also show that to initiate exit from the dauer stage in response to NAD+ worms require production of serotonin. Thus, C. elegans can use redox cofactors produced by dietary organisms to sense food. PMID:27907064

  2. The effect of the introduction of an exit tube on the separation efficiency in a cyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cernecky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the analysis of the effect of introduction of an exit tube into the cylindrical part of a cyclone on the flow velocity, pressure losses and, above all, the separation efficiency. We made measurements and carried out CFD simulations for three levels of the exit tube introduction. The ratios of the depth of the exit tube introduction to the cyclone diameter (Hp/D were 0.4, 0.475 and 0.89 at three velocity settings of 8 m.s-1, 13 m.s-1 and 15 m.s-1. The Reynolds Stress Model (RSM, which was compatible with the experimental results, was used for numerical solutions. The efficiency of cyclone separation was explored on a sample of oak sawdust. The efficiency of cyclone separation increased with the geometric size of the particles, the inlet velocity and a deeper introduction of the exit tube.

  3. A farewell to the business: Championing exit and continuity in entrepreneurial family firms

    OpenAIRE

    Salvato, Carlo; Chirico, Francesco; Sharma, Pramodita

    2013-01-01

    What factors influence exit from the founder's business and subsequent entrepreneurial renewal in a generational family firm? Guided by this research question, we trace the development of the Italian Falck Group from its inception as a steel company in 1906 – ascension as the largest privately owned steel producer in Italy – losses in the 1970s and 1980s leading to business exit from steel industry in the 1990s – followed by successful entry in the renewable energy business. A combination...

  4. Fast Water Transport in CNTs: length dependence and entrane/exit effects

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, Jens Honore; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2011-01-01

    Superfast water transport in carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes has been reported in experimental studies. We use Molecular Dynamics simulations to elucidate the mechanisms of water entry, exit and transport in 2nm-diameter hydrophobic CNTs embedded in a hydrophilic membrane matrix. We demonstrate, for the first time, that under imposed pressures of the order of 1 bar, water entry into the CNT cavity and exit from the CNT end, can occur only on pre-wetted membranes. We conduct large scale simula...

  5. The probability of self-employment exit: An event history analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Debrulle, Jonas; Verbruggen, Marijke; Maes, Johan; Sels, Luc

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines demographic and career related determinants of the probability of self-employment survival and exit, separately for prior unemployed and prior employed individuals. Using data from a longitudinal panel of Belgian men and women for the period 1998 Q2 - 2007 Q4, we estimate discrete single and competing risks models. Our results indicate that 48% of the prior unemployed exit self-employment before the end of data collection, compared to 36% of the prior employed. Furthermore...

  6. FEAR but not MEN genes are required for exit from meiosis I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamieniecki, Rebecca J; Liu, Li; Dawson, Dean S

    2005-08-01

    Exit from mitosis is regulated by Cdc14, which plays an essential role in triggering cyclin-dependent kinase inactivation. Throughout most of the cell cycle, Cdc14 is sequestered in the nucleolus where it remains inactive. After the completion of anaphase, an essential signaling cascade, named the Mitotic Exit Network, or MEN, promotes Cdc14 release. Cdc14 is also released from the nucleolus in early anaphase by another, nonessential, pathway called FEAR (CdcFourteen Early Anaphase Release). Separase (Esp1), polo kinase (Cdc5), the kinetochore protein Slk19, and Spo12, whose molecular function remains unknown, have been identified as members of the FEAR pathway. In meiosis, mutations in CDC14 and its FEAR pathway regulators, CDC5, SLK19, and SPO12, all result it asci that contain only two diploid spores because of a defect in the ability to exit meiosis I. Thus although the FEAR pathway is dispensible for mitotic exit, it is essential for meiosis I exit. The way that the genes of the Mitotic Exit Network contribute to coordinating meiotic progression is less clear. Here, we explore this issue. Our results demonstrate that the orderly transition from meiosis I to meiosis II is accomplished by eliminating MEN function and using the FEAR pathway to modulate cyclin dependent kinase activity, in part through the actions of SIC1.

  7. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  8. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  9. Numerical analysis of two and three dimensional buoyancy driven water-exit of a circular cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshari Shahab

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the technology of underwater moving bodies, the need for developing the knowledge of surface effect interaction of free surface and underwater moving bodies is increased. Hence, the two-phase flow is a subject which is interesting for many researchers all around the world. In this paper, the non-linear free surface deformations which occur during the water-exit of a circular cylinder due to its buoyancy are solved using finite volume discretization based code, and using Volume of Fluid (VOF scheme for solving two phase flow. Dynamic mesh model is used to simulate dynamic motion of the cylinder. In addition, the effect of cylinder mass in presence of an external force is studied. Moreover, the oblique exit and entry of a circular cylinder with two exit angles is simulated. At last, water-exit of a circular cylinder in six degrees of freedom is simulated in 3D using parallel processing. The simulation errors of present work (using VOF method for maximum velocity and height of a circular cylinder are less than the corresponding errors of level set method reported by previous researchers. Oblique exit shows interesting results; formation of waves caused by exit of the cylinder, wave motion in horizontal direction and the air trapped between the waves are observable. In 3D simulation the visualization of water motion on the top surface of the cylinder and the free surface breaking on the front and back faces of the 3D cylinder at the exit phase are observed which cannot be seen in 2D simulation. Comparing the results, 3D simulation shows better agreement with experimental data, specially in the maximum height position of the cylinder.

  10. Security-Control Systems and Automation in Contemporary Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadet Aytıs

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the developing technology, major renovations related to the security control systems and to building automation applications on contemporary buildings have appeared. The main item of the control systems is the entry system with cards and passwords and this is applied almost in all the large contemporary buildings. The entry and exit to/from the carparking is getting to be as important as the entry and exit to/from the building. Thus, specific measures to stop the security system being already perforated in the parking are needed. Warning systems with a great range of different detectors against various dangers that run connected to the mainframe computers and that turn on the system in case of danger are taken into consideration. The fact of obtaining all comfort conditions desired in the contemporary high space buildings and functioning of the first-aid systems are fully realized by computers with the help of systems that are called “Building Automation System” (BAS. All inspection, energy saving and security controls are achieved through these systems. In the buildings where building automation systems are applied, trained personel is needed to keep the system running; and the training of the residents about the system gains more and more importance.

  11. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Manually Coded English (MCE) Natural Gestures Speech Speech Reading (Lip Reading) Even though American Sign Language (ASL) is not a building block, it is sometimes used together with one or more building blocks. Close Information For... Media Policy Makers File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  12. Thermal regime, predation danger and the early marine exit of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinic, P J; Patterson, D A; Ydenberg, R C

    2015-01-01

    Marine exit timing of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations on the Haida Gwaii Archipelago, British Columbia, Canada, is described, with specific focus on Copper Creek. Marine exit in Copper Creek occurs > 130 days prior to spawning, one of the longest adult freshwater residence periods recorded for any O. nerka population. Copper Creek presents an easy upstream migration, with mild water temperatures (7 to 14°  C), short distance (13·1 km) and low elevation gain (41 m) to the lake where fish hold prior to spawning. An energetic model estimates that Haida Gwaii has ever exceeded the presumed temperature threshold (19° C) for early marine exit. Although it is not impossible that the thermal tolerance of Copper Creek O.nerka is very low, the data presented here appear inconsistent with thermal avoidance as an explanation for the early marine exit timing in Copper Creek and in three other populations on the archipelago with early marine exit.

  13. Effects of the geometric orientations of the nozzle exit on the breakup of free liquid jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, V. N.; Murthy, Z. V. P. [Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Gujarat (India)

    2016-04-15

    Free liquid jets are produced through various geometric orientations of the nozzle exit. The breakup lengths of liquid jets under various geometric orientations of the nozzle exit were studied. Images of jets were captured using a high-speed camera with a maximum frame rate of 1000 frames per second and were analyzed to determine the dynamics between jets and breakup lengths. The breakup length of jets changes with the cut angle of the nozzle exit. In addition, adding polymer reduces the effect of the cut angle of the nozzle exit on the breakup length for an entire range of velocities. The effect of the cut angle on breakup length is predominant for aqueous solutions with surfactants. This work provides motivation for further computational research to study jet dynamics in a partially covered nozzle exit, such as the case in which the boundary conditions near the nozzle opening is more complex with the cut angle and its vertex position, which directly reflects liquid jet dynamics.

  14. D Topological Indoor Building Modeling Integrated with Open Street Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, A.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Boguslawski, P.

    2016-09-01

    Considering various fields of applications for building surveying and various demands, geometry representation of a building is the most crucial aspect of a building survey. The interiors of the buildings need to be described along with the relative locations of the rooms, corridors, doors and exits in many kinds of emergency response, such as fire, bombs, smoke, and pollution. Topological representation is a challenging task within the Geography Information Science (GIS) environment, as the data structures required to express these relationships are particularly difficult to develop. Even within the Computer Aided Design (CAD) community, the structures for expressing the relationships between adjacent building parts are complex and often incomplete. In this paper, an integration of 3D topological indoor building modeling in Dual Half Edge (DHE) data structure and outdoor navigation network from Open Street Map (OSM) is presented.

  15. Asymmetric Localization of Components and Regulators of the Mitotic Exit Network at Spindle Pole Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfone, Ilaria; Piatti, Simonetta

    2017-01-01

    Most proteins of the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN) and their upstream regulators localize at spindle pole bodies (SPBs) at least in some stages of the cell cycle. Studying the SPB localization of MEN factors has been extremely useful to elucidate their biological roles, organize them in a hierarchical pathway, and define their dynamics under different conditions.Recruitment to SPBs of the small GTPase Tem1 and the downstream kinases Cdc15 and Mob1/Dbf2 is thought to be essential for Cdc14 activation and mitotic exit, while that of the upstream Tem1 regulators (the Kin4 kinase and the GTPase activating protein Bub2-Bfa1) is important for MEN inhibition upon spindle mispositioning. Here, we describe the detailed fluorescence microscopy procedures that we use in our lab to analyze the localization at SPBs of Mitotic Exit Network (MEN) components tagged with GFP or HA epitopes.

  16. Peritonitis and catheter exit-site infection in patients on peritoneal dialysis at home1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abud, Ana Cristina Freire; Kusumota, Luciana; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Rodrigues, Flávia Fernanda Luchetti; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the complications related to peritonitis and catheter exit-site infections, in patients on peritoneal dialysis at home. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional study, carried out with 90 patients on peritoneal dialysis at home, in a municipality in the Northeast region of Brazil. For data collection, it was used two structured scripts and consultation on medical records. Descriptive analysis and comparison tests among independent groups were used, considering p<0.05 as level of statistical significance. Results: by comparing the frequency of peritonitis and the length of treatment, it was found that patients over two years of peritoneal dialysis were more likely to develop peritonitis (X²=6.39; p=0.01). The number of episodes of peritoneal catheter exit-site infection showed association with the length of treatment (U=224,000; p=0.015). Conclusion: peritonitis and catheter exit-site infection are associated with the length of treatment. PMID:26487141

  17. Hedgehog signaling acts with the temporal cascade to promote neuroblast cell cycle exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phing Chian Chai

    Full Text Available In Drosophila postembryonic neuroblasts, transition in gene expression programs of a cascade of transcription factors (also known as the temporal series acts together with the asymmetric division machinery to generate diverse neurons with distinct identities and regulate the end of neuroblast proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism of how this "temporal series" acts during development remains unclear. Here, we show that Hh signaling in the postembryonic brain is temporally regulated; excess (earlier onset of Hh signaling causes premature neuroblast cell cycle exit and under-proliferation, whereas loss of Hh signaling causes delayed cell cycle exit and excess proliferation. Moreover, the Hh pathway functions downstream of Castor but upstream of Grainyhead, two components of the temporal series, to schedule neuroblast cell cycle exit. Interestingly, hh is likely a target of Castor. Hence, Hh signaling provides a link between the temporal series and the asymmetric division machinery in scheduling the end of neurogenesis.

  18. Impact of a standardized test package on exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homard, Catherine M

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this ex post facto correlational study was to compare exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN(®) pass rates of baccalaureate nursing students who differed in level of participation in a standardized test package. Three cohort groups emerged as a standardized test package was introduced: (a) students who did not participate in a standardized test package; (b) students with two semesters of a standardized test package; and (c) students with four semesters of a standardized test package. Benner's novice-to-expert theory framed the study in the belief that students best acquire knowledge and skills through practice and reflection. Students participating in four semesters of a standardized test package demonstrated higher exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN pass rates compared with students who did not participate in this package. This study's results could inform nurse educators about strategies to facilitate nursing student success on exit examinations and the NCLEX-RN.

  19. Toxic shock syndrome in two CAPD patients with Staphylococcus aureus exit-site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altiparmak, Mehmet R; Demirel, Hande; Mert, Ali; Serdengecti, Kamil; Ataman, Rezzan

    2003-01-01

    Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is an illness defined by the occurrence of fever, rash, hypotension, multiple organ system dysfunction, and desquamation. Nonmenstrual TSS is often associated with surgical or nonsurgical cutaneous infections, which are rarely purulent or inflamed (Reingold AL, et al. Nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome: a review of 130 cases. Ann Intern Med 1982; 96:871-4). Toxic shock syndrome associated with peritoneal exit-site infection but without peritonitis is extremely unusual (Sherbotie JR, et al. Toxic shock syndrome with Staphylococcus aureus exit-site infection in a patient on peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 1990; 15:80-3). We describe 2 patients that met the Centers for Disease Control case definition of TSS secondary to a peritoneal dialysis catheter exit-site infection with signs of mild inflammation and growth of Staphylococcus aureus, but with no evidence of peritonitis.

  20. Building Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow

    2009-01-01

    The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion proje

  1. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for cell cycle exit in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Bandura

    Full Text Available The coordination of cell proliferation and differentiation is crucial for proper development. In particular, robust mechanisms exist to ensure that cells permanently exit the cell cycle upon terminal differentiation, and these include restraining the activities of both the E2F/DP transcription factor and Cyclin/Cdk kinases. However, the full complement of mechanisms necessary to restrain E2F/DP and Cyclin/Cdk activities in differentiating cells are not known. Here, we have performed a genetic screen in Drosophila melanogaster, designed to identify genes required for cell cycle exit. This screen utilized a PCNA-miniwhite(+ reporter that is highly E2F-responsive and results in a darker red eye color when crossed into genetic backgrounds that delay cell cycle exit. Mutation of Hsp83, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Hsp90, results in increased E2F-dependent transcription and ectopic cell proliferation in pupal tissues at a time when neighboring wild-type cells are postmitotic. Further, these Hsp83 mutant cells have increased Cyclin/Cdk activity and accumulate proteins normally targeted for proteolysis by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C, suggesting that APC/C function is inhibited. Indeed, reducing the gene dosage of an inhibitor of Cdh1/Fzr, an activating subunit of the APC/C that is required for timely cell cycle exit, can genetically suppress the Hsp83 cell cycle exit phenotype. Based on these data, we propose that Cdh1/Fzr is a client protein of Hsp83. Our results reveal that Hsp83 plays a heretofore unappreciated role in promoting APC/C function during cell cycle exit and suggest a mechanism by which Hsp90 inhibition could promote genomic instability and carcinogenesis.

  2. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for cell cycle exit in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Jennifer L; Jiang, Huaqi; Nickerson, Derek W; Edgar, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The coordination of cell proliferation and differentiation is crucial for proper development. In particular, robust mechanisms exist to ensure that cells permanently exit the cell cycle upon terminal differentiation, and these include restraining the activities of both the E2F/DP transcription factor and Cyclin/Cdk kinases. However, the full complement of mechanisms necessary to restrain E2F/DP and Cyclin/Cdk activities in differentiating cells are not known. Here, we have performed a genetic screen in Drosophila melanogaster, designed to identify genes required for cell cycle exit. This screen utilized a PCNA-miniwhite(+) reporter that is highly E2F-responsive and results in a darker red eye color when crossed into genetic backgrounds that delay cell cycle exit. Mutation of Hsp83, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Hsp90, results in increased E2F-dependent transcription and ectopic cell proliferation in pupal tissues at a time when neighboring wild-type cells are postmitotic. Further, these Hsp83 mutant cells have increased Cyclin/Cdk activity and accumulate proteins normally targeted for proteolysis by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), suggesting that APC/C function is inhibited. Indeed, reducing the gene dosage of an inhibitor of Cdh1/Fzr, an activating subunit of the APC/C that is required for timely cell cycle exit, can genetically suppress the Hsp83 cell cycle exit phenotype. Based on these data, we propose that Cdh1/Fzr is a client protein of Hsp83. Our results reveal that Hsp83 plays a heretofore unappreciated role in promoting APC/C function during cell cycle exit and suggest a mechanism by which Hsp90 inhibition could promote genomic instability and carcinogenesis.

  3. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings....

  4. Efficiency, Leverage and Exit: The Role of Information Asymmetry in Concentrated Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siyahhan, Baran

    This paper develops a real options model of imperfect competition with asymmetric information that analyzes firms’ exit decisions. Optimal exit decision is linked to firm characteristics such as financial leverage and efficiency. The model shows that informational asymmetries can lead more...... efficient and less leveraged firms to leave the product market prematurely. It also demonstrates how firm efficiency can increase debt capacity relative to rival firms. The model also has implications for firm risk and asset returns. Specifically, the paper shows that, when there is information asymmetry...... among rivals, rival actions can have a ”news effect” that change a firm’s dynamic risk structure....

  5. Efficiency, Leverage and Exit: The Role of Information Asymmetry in Concentrated Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siyahhan, Baran

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a real options model of imperfect competition with asymmetric information that analyzes firms’ exit decisions. Optimal exit decision is linked to firm characteristics such as financial leverage and efficiency. The model shows that informational asymmetries can lead more...... efficient and less leveraged firms to leave the product market prematurely. It also demonstrates how firm efficiency can increase debt capacity relative to rival firms. The model also has implications for firm risk and asset returns. Specifically, the paper shows that, when there is information asymmetry...

  6. Efficiency, Leverage and Exit: The Role of Information Asymmetry in Concentrated Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siyahhan, Baran

    This paper develops a real options model of imperfect competition with asymmetric information that analyzes firms’ exit decisions. Optimal exit decision is linked to firm characteristics such as financial leverage and efficiency. The model shows that informational asymmetries can lead more...... efficient and less leveraged firms to leave the product market prematurely. It also demonstrates how firm efficiency can increase debt capacity relative to rival firms. The model also has implications for firm risk and asset returns. Specifically, the paper shows that, when there is information asymmetry...

  7. Sar1-GTPase-dependent ER exit of KATP channels revealed by a mutation causing congenital hyperinsulinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taneja, Tarvinder K; Mankouri, Jamel; Karnik, Rucha;

    2009-01-01

    caused by one such mutation in Kir6.2, E282K. The study led to the discovery that Kir6.2 contains a di-acidic ER exit signal, (280)DLE(282), which promotes concentration of the channel into COPII-enriched ER exit sites prior to ER export via a process that requires Sar1-GTPase. The E282K mutation...... together, we conclude that surface expression of K(ATP) channels is critically dependent on the Sar1-GTPase-dependent ER exit mechanism and abrogation of the di-acidic ER exit signal leads to CHI....

  8. Our Buildings, Ourselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodman, David Malin; Lenssen, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    Reviews in detail environmental impacts associated with buildings. Discusses building construction, internal environments, building life spans, building materials, protection from climate, and amenities. (LZ)

  9. Gate C – Works on the Building 42

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Due to works being carried out on the new building 42, lorries transporting concrete will be entering and exiting the site via entrance C (during entrance C opening hours and between July and December 2009). The lorries have PRIORITY over other vehicles, please adapt your speed in consequence. We thank you in advance for your patience and vigilance when using this entrance. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  10. A fuzzy-theory-based behavioral model for studying pedestrian evacuation from a single-exit room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Libi; Song, Weiguo; Lo, Siuming

    2016-08-01

    Many mass events in recent years have highlighted the importance of research on pedestrian evacuation dynamics. A number of models have been developed to analyze crowd behavior under evacuation situations. However, few focus on pedestrians' decision-making with respect to uncertainty, vagueness and imprecision. In this paper, a discrete evacuation model defined on the cellular space is proposed according to the fuzzy theory which is able to describe imprecise and subjective information. Pedestrians' percept information and various characteristics are regarded as fuzzy input. Then fuzzy inference systems with rule bases, which resemble human reasoning, are established to obtain fuzzy output that decides pedestrians' movement direction. This model is tested in two scenarios, namely in a single-exit room with and without obstacles. Simulation results reproduce some classic dynamics phenomena discovered in real building evacuation situations, and are consistent with those in other models and experiments. It is hoped that this study will enrich movement rules and approaches in traditional cellular automaton models for evacuation dynamics.

  11. The Exit Distribution for Smart Kinetic Walk with Symmetric and Asymmetric Transition Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yan

    2017-03-01

    It has been proved that the distribution of the point where the smart kinetic walk (SKW) exits a domain converges in distribution to harmonic measure on the hexagonal lattice. For other lattices, it is believed that this result still holds, and there is good numerical evidence to support this conjecture. Here we examine the effect of the symmetry and asymmetry of the transition probability on each step of the SKW on the square lattice and test if the exit distribution converges in distribution to harmonic measure as well. From our simulations, the limiting exit distribution of the SKW with a non-uniform but symmetric transition probability as the lattice spacing goes to zero is the harmonic measure. This result does not hold for asymmetric transition probability. We are also interested in the difference between the SKW with symmetric transition probability exit distribution and harmonic measure. Our simulations provide strong support for a explicit conjecture about this first order difference. The explicit formula for the conjecture will be given below.

  12. Exploring Work and Development Options to Reduce Early Labour Force Exit of Mature Aged Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Early labour force exit is a significant challenge associated with the ageing workforce in Australia and many other developed countries. A reduction and increased flexibility of work hours has been suggested to improve labour force participation of the mature aged cohort. However, little is known about mature aged workers' aspirations for…

  13. The Entrance and Exit Effects in Small Electrochemical Filter-Press Reactors Used in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Ferrer, Angel; Gonzalez-Garcia, Jose; Saez, Veronica; Exposito, Eduardo; Sanchez-Sanchez, Carlos M.; Mantiel, Vicente; Walsh, Frank C.; Aldaz, Antonio; Walsh, Frank C.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed to examine the entrance and exit effects in small electrochemical filter-press reactors used in the laboratory is presented. The single compartment of the filter-press reactor is filled with different turbulence promoters to study their influence as compared to the empty configuration.

  14. Groningen orthopaedic exit strategy : Validation of a support program after total hip or knee arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Horn, Jim R.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Stevens, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Validation of the program theory of the Groningen orthopaedic exit strategy (GOES), a theory-driven program aiming to improve the rehabilitation of total hip and knee arthroplasty patients after shortened hospital stay. First part of the program theory is the action theory, hypothesising

  15. Why Do Some Employees Fall into and Fail to Exit a Job-Lock Situation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Huysse-Gaytandjieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have paid little attention to the employees’ ability to exit a job-lock situation and factors that determine this ability. It remains unclear why some employees who experience job lock are able to exit this state while others remain in job lock. We use longitudinal data to identify employees who have fallen in the state of job lock and their subsequent behavior—exiting or remaining in job lock. By use of a first-order Markov transition models, we analyze the relevance of sociodemographic features, employment, occupational, sectoral, and contextual factors, as well as personality characteristics in explaining the transition or its absence. Overall the results show that both demographic factors and work-related aspects increase the likelihood that an employee enters the long-term job lock state (especially for older, married, full-time employed, those in a craft occupation and governmental sector, and in a region with high unemployment. Mental health problems and personality characteristics (low peak-end self-esteem and decisional procrastination have a significant effect on the probability to stay in long-term job lock. On the contrary, having a managerial, service, or associate occupation, working in the private sector, and having promotion opportunities increase the chance of an exit from the state of job lock.

  16. "Now My Old Self Is Thin": Stigma Exits after Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Ellen M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I employ a structural symbolic interaction framework to examine the processes by which persons can exit a stigmatized identity. Using the empirical example of weight loss, I analyze how individuals evolve from an identity as "fat" and stigmatized to one that is "normal" with respect to weight and free from identification with…

  17. On a mean field game optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in human crowds

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The understanding of fast exit and evacuation situations in crowd motion research has received a lot of scientific interest in the last decades. Security issues in larger facilities, like shopping malls, sports centers, or festivals necessitate a better understanding of the major driving forces in crowd dynamics. In this paper we present an optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in pedestrian crowds. The model is formulated in the framework of mean field games and based on a parabolic optimal control problem. We consider the case of a large human crowd trying to exit a room as fast as possible. The motion of every pedestrian is determined by minimizing a cost functional, which depends on his/her position and velocity, the overall density of people, and the time to exit. This microscopic setup leads in a mean-field formulation to a nonlinear macroscopic optimal control problem, which raises challenging questions for the analysis and numerical simulations.We discuss different aspects of the mathematical modeling and illustrate them with various computational results. ©2013 IEEE.

  18. Inhibition of the mitotic exit network in response to damaged telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio-Santiago, Mauricio; de Los Santos-Velázquez, Ana Isabel; Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    When chromosomal DNA is damaged, progression through the cell cycle is halted to provide the cells with time to repair the genetic material before it is distributed between the mother and daughter cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this cell cycle arrest occurs at the G2/M transition. However, it is also necessary to restrain exit from mitosis by maintaining Bfa1-Bub2, the inhibitor of the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN), in an active state. While the role of Bfa1 and Bub2 in the inhibition of mitotic exit when the spindle is not properly aligned and the spindle position checkpoint is activated has been extensively studied, the mechanism by which these proteins prevent MEN function after DNA damage is still unclear. Here, we propose that the inhibition of the MEN is specifically required when telomeres are damaged but it is not necessary to face all types of chromosomal DNA damage, which is in agreement with previous data in mammals suggesting the existence of a putative telomere-specific DNA damage response that inhibits mitotic exit. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mechanism of MEN inhibition when telomeres are damaged relies on the Rad53-dependent inhibition of Bfa1 phosphorylation by the Polo-like kinase Cdc5, establishing a new key role of this kinase in regulating cell cycle progression.

  19. Inhibition of the mitotic exit network in response to damaged telomeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Valerio-Santiago

    Full Text Available When chromosomal DNA is damaged, progression through the cell cycle is halted to provide the cells with time to repair the genetic material before it is distributed between the mother and daughter cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this cell cycle arrest occurs at the G2/M transition. However, it is also necessary to restrain exit from mitosis by maintaining Bfa1-Bub2, the inhibitor of the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN, in an active state. While the role of Bfa1 and Bub2 in the inhibition of mitotic exit when the spindle is not properly aligned and the spindle position checkpoint is activated has been extensively studied, the mechanism by which these proteins prevent MEN function after DNA damage is still unclear. Here, we propose that the inhibition of the MEN is specifically required when telomeres are damaged but it is not necessary to face all types of chromosomal DNA damage, which is in agreement with previous data in mammals suggesting the existence of a putative telomere-specific DNA damage response that inhibits mitotic exit. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mechanism of MEN inhibition when telomeres are damaged relies on the Rad53-dependent inhibition of Bfa1 phosphorylation by the Polo-like kinase Cdc5, establishing a new key role of this kinase in regulating cell cycle progression.

  20. Fast Water Transport in CNTs: length dependence and entrane/exit effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Jens Honore; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    Superfast water transport in carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes has been reported in experimental studies. We use Molecular Dynamics simulations to elucidate the mechanisms of water entry, exit and transport in 2nm-diameter hydrophobic CNTs embedded in a hydrophilic membrane matrix. We demonstrate, ...

  1. Student Nurse Attrition: Use of an Exit-Interview Procedure To Determine Students' Leaving Reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossop, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Attrition from a nursing program in Wales was studied through exit interviews with 105 students who left from 1996-1999. Academic difficulties, wrong career choice, and family, health, and financial problems were key reasons. Almost half had at least two reasons for leaving, suggesting a complex interplay of factors. (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  2. Comparing Virtual Reference Exit Survey Results and Transcript Analysis: A Model for Service Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joanne B.; MacKenzie, James C.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses virtual reference transcripts for which patrons completed exit surveys to seek any correlations between user and librarian satisfaction within virtual reference transactions. By analyzing transcripts with a focus on three elements-technology performance, preferred reference practices, and the demonstrated communication levels of…

  3. 77 FR 19132 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Bus Emergency Exits and Window Retention and Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... rating (GVWR) greater than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) (``large school buses''). The standard... does not have any significant impact on the quality of the human environment. Executive Order 13132... open the exit. Each release mechanism shall operate without the use of remote controls or tools,...

  4. The Effects of the Specialization of Private Equity Firms on their Exit Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigamonti, Damiana; Cefis, Elena; Meoli, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how industry and stage specialization of Private Equity (PE) firms affect the likelihood to exit investments by means of trade sales, Initial Public Offerings (IPOs), or Secondary Buyouts (SBOs). Our empirical analysis relies on competing risks models. Using a sample of 818 Leverag...

  5. Rational Entrepreneurship in Local China: Exit Plus Voice for Preferential Tax Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zhu (Ze); G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); B. Krug (Barbara)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBearing the legacy from central-planned system, the tax system in local China still lacks transparency and, in many cases, the liabilities of firms, especially those with extensive influences, are subject to negotiation despite the new tax-reform 1994. Applying Hirschman’s Exit-Voice the

  6. Large Deviations Theorems for Empirical Measures in Freidlin-Wentzell Exit Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Mikami, Toshio

    1991-01-01

    We consider the jump-type Markov processes which are small random perturbations of dynamical systems and their empirical processes. We prove large deviations theorems for empirical measures which are marginal measures of empirical processes at the exit time of Markov processes from a bounded domain in a $d$-dimensional Euclidean space $\\mathscr{R}^d$.

  7. Exit and Failure of Credit Unions in Brazil: A Risk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Leonel de Carvalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the factors that affect the market exit of Brazilian singular credit unions from 1995 to 2009; it also identifies and lists the determinants of various types of market exits and analyzes whether profitability is a significant factor for credit union survival. This study was conducted with accounting data provided by the Central Bank of Brazil, which derives only from individual cooperatives, i.e. singular credit unions. Quarterly financial statements from these credit unions that were active from 1995 to the second quarter of 2009 were employed, totaling 71,325 observations for 1,929 credit unions. Based on survival and the model of competing risks (such as the Cox, Exponential, Weibull, Gompertz, and Competing Risk models, the results show that there is no statistical evidence to ensure a correlation between profitability and credit union survival. The results also suggest that the size of credit unions plays a key role in their survival and longevity and that their funding and investment management are related to their survival and risk of market exit. In conclusion, the results confirm the initial idea that the duality inherent to credit unions - cooperative principles versus economic efficiency - might influence the stability, survival, and longevity of these institutions. Such results may also imply that a credit union embracing the rationale of a private bank will become more estranged from its members, something which will hinder its future operations and increase the likelihood of its exit from the market.

  8. Voice, exit and efficacy: dealing with perceived neighbourhood decline without moving out

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Land, M.; Doff, W.

    2010-01-01

    Residents of deprived urban neighbourhoods with a changing population often experience an increase in insecurity. If they judge the change as decline, they are likely to become less satisfied with their residential situation and exhibit coping tactics. This paper combines Hirschman’s Exit, Voice and

  9. 76 FR 54732 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Field Representative/Decennial Field Staff Exit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... collects data on the reasons interviewers voluntarily quit their jobs with the Census Bureau. The BC-1294... have done, or can do, to influence interviewers not to leave their jobs. The exit questionnaire seeks... automation and the influence of pay and other working conditions on turnover. As the environment in...

  10. The effect of nozzle-exit-channel shape on resultant fiber diameter in melt-electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilirad, Ahmad; Ko, Junghyuk; Rukosuyev, Maxym V.; Lee, Jason K.; Lee, Patrick C.; Jun, Martin B. G.

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, electrospinning using a molten poly (ε-caprolactone) resin has gained attention for creating fibrous tissue scaffolds. The topography and diameter control of such electrospun microfibers is an important issue for their different applications in tissue engineering. Charge density, initial nozzle-exit-channel cross-sectional area, nozzle to collector distance, viscosity, and processing temperature are the most important input parameters that affect the final electrospun fiber diameters. In this paper we will show that the effect of nozzle-exit-channel shape is as important as the other effective parameters in a resultant fiber diameter. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of nozzle-exit-channel shapes on a resultant fiber diameter have not been studied before. Comparing rectangular and circular nozzles with almost the same exit-channel cross-sectional areas in a similar processing condition showed that using a rectangular nozzle resulted in decreasing final fiber diameter up to 50%. Furthermore, the effect of processing temperature on the final fiber topography was investigated.

  11. Income Mobility and Exits from Poverty of American Children, 1970-1992. JCPR Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Peter; Danziger, Sheldon

    This longitudinal study investigated two issues regarding child poverty dynamics: whether long-run transitions out of poverty have changed and whether the events associated with exits from poverty have changed over time. The study contrasted mobility patterns of young children over the 1970s with patterns over the 1980s, examining which poor…

  12. Ethnic variations in immigrant poverty exit and female employment: the missing link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Despite widespread interest in poverty among recent immigrants and female immigrant employment, research on the link between the two is limited. This study evaluates the effect of recently arrived immigrant women's employment on the exit from family poverty and considers the implications for ethnic differences in poverty exit. It uses the bivariate probit model and the Fairlie decomposition technique to analyze data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC), a nationally representative survey of immigrants arriving in Canada, 2000-2001. Results show that the employment of recently arrived immigrant women makes a notable contribution to lifting families out of poverty. Moreover, the wide ethnic variations in the probability of exit from poverty between European and non-European groups are partially explained by the lower employment rates among non-European women. The results suggest that the equal earner/female breadwinner model applies to low-income recent immigrant families in general, but the male breadwinner model explains the low probability of poverty exit among select non-European groups whose female employment rates are notably low.

  13. Causal Factors Attributed to Student Success on the California High School Exit Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nikita A.

    2011-01-01

    American students are failing to demonstrate expected competency on basic skills taught in schools. The educational system needs a major overhaul to address declines in scholarly engagement. The State Board of Education (SBE) designed the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) to give some merit to the high school diploma. Minorities and…

  14. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  15. Distinct adaptor proteins assist exit of Kre2-family proteins from the yeast ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Noda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Svp26 protein of S. cerevisiae is an ER- and Golgi-localized integral membrane protein with 4 potential membrane-spanning domains. It functions as an adaptor protein that facilitates the ER exit of Ktr3, a mannosyltransferase required for biosynthesis of O-linked oligosaccharides, and the ER exit of Mnn2 and Mnn5, mannosyltransferases, which participate in the biosynthesis of N-linked oligosaccharides. Ktr3 belongs to the Kre2 family, which consists of 9 members of type-II membrane proteins sharing sequence similarities. In this report, we examined all Kre2 family members and found that the Golgi localizations of two others, Kre2 and Ktr1, were dependent on Svp26 by immunofluorescence microscopy and cell fractionations in sucrose density gradients. We show that Svp26 functions in facilitating the ER exit of Kre2 and Ktr1 by an in vitro COPII budding assay. Golgi localization of Ktr4 was not dependent on Svp26. Screening null mutants of the genes encoding abundant COPII membrane proteins for those showing mislocalization of Ktr4 in the ER revealed that Erv41 and Erv46 are required for the correct Golgi localization of Ktr4. We provide biochemical evidence that the Erv41-Erv46 complex functions as an adaptor protein for ER exit of Ktr4. This is the first demonstration of the molecular function of this evolutionally conserved protein complex. The domain switching experiments show that the lumenal domain of Ktr4 is responsible for recognition by the Erv41-Erv46 complex. Thus, ER exit of Kre2-family proteins is dependent on distinct adaptor proteins and our results provide new insights into the traffic of Kre2-family mannosyltransferases.

  16. Effect of Entry/Exit Length on Flow Distribution in the Test Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Byeong Il; Jang, Beom Jun; Kim, Hong Ju; Kim, Kanghoon; Nahm, Kee Yil; Park, Sang Weon [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In data analysis, the geometric information within the heated section of the rod bundle is important because the CHF occurs in the heated section. To ensure a constant geometry and to prevent adverse flow effects, it is required to extend the same geometry beyond the heated section of rod bundle geometry. Regarding to evaluate the validity of inlet boundary condition of subchannel analysis code, the effect of the entry and exit length on the flow distribution is evaluated under the various inlet flow conditions which could be produced without flow distributor or strainer. To evaluate the validation of the inlet and outlet boundary conditions used in the subchannel analysis code, a study on the effect of the entry and exit length on the flow distribution is conducted. Even though the non-uniform flow is entered inside the test bundle, the flow gets more saturated by the simple supports and frictions. Through the code calculation under various flow conditions, it is concluded that the flow is to be fully developed flow over about 40∼80 inches of the entry length. If the exit length is about 30∼40 inches, the effect of the exit pressure can be negligible. The entry and exit length in this paper is calculated based on only rod bundles and simple supports. By installing the flow distributors or strainer, these lengths can get shorter and the flow difference between the subchannels become smaller. This study could be very useful in order to confirm the validation of the boundary conditions used in the subchannel analysis code.

  17. Numerical identification of blade exit angle effect on the performance for a multistage centrifugal pump impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babayigit Osman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, single and multistage centrifugal pumps are widely used in industrial and mining enterprises. One of the most important components of a centrifugal pump is the impeller. The performance characteristics are related to the pump comprising the head and the overall efficiency rely a great deal on the impeller geometry. In this work, effects of blade exit angle change on hydraulic efficiency of a multi stage pump impeller are investigated via Ansys-Fluent computational fluid dynamics software for constant width impeller entrance and exit gates, blade numbers and blade thickness. Firstly, the flow volume of a centrifugal pump impeller is generated and then mesh structure is formed for the full impeller flow volume. Secondly, rotational periodic flow model are adopted in order to examine the effect of periodic flow assumption on the performance predictions. Corresponding to the available experimental data, inlet mass flow rate, outlet static pressure and rotation of impeller are taken as 0.02m3s-1, 450 kPa and 2950 rpm, respectively for the water fluid. No slip boundary condition is exposed to all solid of surface in the flow volume. The continuity and Navier-Stokes equations with the k-ε turbulence model and the standard wall functions are used. During the study, numerical analyses are conducted for the blade exit angle values of 18°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°. In consequence of the performed analyses, it is determined that hydraulic efficiency of the pump impeller value is changed between 81.0-84.6%. The most convenient blade exit angle that yields 84.6% hydraulic efficiency at is 18°. The obtained results show that the blade exit angle range has an impact on the centrifugal pump performance describing the pump head and the hydraulic efficiency.

  18. An Eclectic Approach to Loyalty-Promoting Instruments in Corporate Law: Revisiting Hirschman's Model of Exit, Voice, and Loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Bootsma (Bart)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This essay analyses the shareholder role in corporate governance in terms of Albert Hirschman's Exit, Voice, and Loyalty. The term 'exit' is embedded in a law & economics framework, while 'voice' relates to a corporate constitutional framework. The essay takes an eclect

  19. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which......, which gives the book a challenging contribution to the existing body of knowledge....

  20. Building Sandcastles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø; Korsgaard, Steffen; Shumar, Wes

    of entrepreneurship education. Our theoretical and methodological approach builds on Actor-Network Theory. The empirical settings of our study consist of two entrepreneurship courses which differ in terms of temporal extension and physical setting. Data is collected using observation and interview techniques. Our...

  1. Building Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, Mary J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Defines school-business partnerships and reviews changes in such partnerships over the past 25 years. Provides steps to building effective partnerships for school-to-work activities: review the school's mission; select partners that will bring strength to the relationship; set clearly defined, realistic goals; maintain the partnership; and…

  2. Building Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Cabinet是种十分吸引人却很简单的衬线字体,是由一名匿名字体设计师专门为Building Letters最新的资金筹集活动所设计的。这个Building Letters包中包含一个CDROM,有32种字体,以及一本专门设计的杂志和两张由Eboy和Emigre所设计的海报。字体光盘样例是由世界顶级的字体设计师们设计的.

  3. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...... Belgrade), Leo Pekkala (Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media/MEKU), Julie Uldam (Network on Civic Engagement and Social Innovation) and Gabriella Velics (Community Media Forum Europe)....

  4. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  5. No Exit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the weeks following the collapse of Lehman Brothers last September the number of euro banknotes in circulation suddenly increased. Fears about the rickety state of banks had made many people mistrustful of keeping money on deposit.Far safer to keep cash stuffed under a mattress. The more discriminating hoarders, it was said, were careful to squirrel away banknotes with serial numbers prefixed by the letter "X", indicating currency issued in Germany. Notes with "U"(French) or "P" (Dutch) prefix were also fine, but those with a "Y" or an "S", issued by Greece and Italy, were shunned.

  6. Effect of Exit Geometry of Tail Pipe on the Performance of Pulse Jet Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshihiro NAKANO; Shigeru MATSUO; Kenbu TERAMOTO; Toshiaki SETOGUCHI

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of geometries of tube open end on the shock, compression and expansion waves propagating in the tube was investigated numerically and experimentally. One of them is a conventional straight shock tube with an open end. The other has a divergent tail tube at the exit. Applying a divergent tail tube (flare tube) to an open end shock tube, the period of one-cycle process could be shortened and the pressure behind the expansion wave produced at the exit of the shock tube could be lowered much more below the atmospheric pressure than that produced in the straight tube. The results suggested that the intake air into the engine was significantly increased by applying a flare tube instead of a straight tube.

  7. Radiation degradation of aromatic pollutants exit in wastewater and ph dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Takriti, S

    2002-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the degradation of phenol (hydroxybenzene), resorcinol (1,3 dihydroxybenzen) and hydroquinone (1,4 dihydroxybenzen) exit in waste water was investigated. The concentrations of these pollutants as well as the irradiated solution ph were studied. The results showed that the phenol is very resistance against the radiation doses comparing the other phenol compounds. Phenol was also a product of radiolysis of resorcinol and hydroquinone. On the other hand, the acid phase of the irradiation sample increased the degradation rate of pollutants. Spectrophotometer (UV-VIS) and chromatography (HPLC) were used to monitor the analysis of the radiation product solution. The results illustrated the existing of many substances such as organic alcohol, aldehyde, ketone and acidic functional groups as a final radiation products. The degradation of benzene, monochlorobenzene (CB) and 1,2 dichlorobenzene (1,2 DCB) exit in waste water by gamma irradiation was investigated. The effect of the irradi...

  8. An analytical expression for the exit probability of the q-voter model in one dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Timpanaro, André Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present in this paper an approximation that is able to give an analytical expression for the exit probability of the $q$-voter model in one dimension. This expression gives a better fit for the more recent data about simulations in large networks, and as such, departs from the expression $\\frac{\\rho^q}{\\rho^q + (1-\\rho)^q}$ found in papers that investigated small networks only. The approximation consists in assuming a large separation on the time scales at which active groups of agents convince inactive ones and the time taken in the competition between active groups. Some interesting findings are that for $q=2$ we still have $\\frac{\\rho^2}{\\rho^2 + (1-\\rho)^2}$ as the exit probability and for large values of $q$ the difference between the result and $\\frac{\\rho^q}{\\rho^q + (1-\\rho)^q}$ becomes negligible (the difference is maximum for $q=5$ and 6)

  9. Beta decay of 252Cf on the way to scission from the exit point

    CERN Document Server

    Pomorski, K; Quentin, P

    2015-01-01

    Upon increasing significantly the nuclear elongation, the beta-decay energy grows. This paper investigates within a simple yet partly microscopic approach, the transition rate of the beta decay of the 252Cf nucleus on the way to scission from the exit point for a spontaneous fission process. A rather crude classical approximation is made for the corresponding damped collective motion assumed to be one dimensional. Given these assumptions, we only aim in this paper at providing the order of magnitudes of such a phenomenon. At each deformation the energy available for beta decay, is determined from such a dynamical treatment. Then, for a given elongation, transition rates for the allowed (Fermi) beta decay are calculated from pair correlated wave functions obtained within a macroscopic-microscopic approach and then integrated over the time corresponding to the whole descent from exit to scission. The results are presented as a function of the damping factor (inverse of the characteristic damping time) in use in...

  10. Fast Water Transport in CNTs: length dependence and entrane/exit effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Jens; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2011-11-01

    Superfast water transport in carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes has been reported in experimental studies. We use Molecular Dynamics simulations to elucidate the mechanisms of water entry, exit and transport in 2 nm -diameter hydrophobic CNTs embedded in a hydrophilic membrane matrix. We demonstrate, for the first time, that under imposed pressures of the order of 1 bar, water entry into the CNT cavity and exit from the CNT end, can occur only on pre-wetted membranes. We conduct large scale simulations for up to 500 nm long CNTs and observe a previously unseen dependence of the flow enhancement rates on the CNT length. We relate the present findings to past computational and experimental studies, we discuss previous continuum assessments for this flow and propose underlying physical mechanisms.

  11. Observation of Strong Reflection of Electron Waves Exiting a Ballistic Channel at Low Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Canute I.; Liu, Changze; Campbell, Jason P.; Ryan, Jason T.; Southwick, Richard G.; Gundlach, David; Oates, Anthony S.; Huang, Ru; Cheung, Kin. P.

    2016-01-01

    Wave scattering by a potential step is a ubiquitous concept. Thus, it is surprising that theoretical treatments of ballistic transport in nanoscale devices, from quantum point contacts to ballistic transistors, assume no reflection even when the potential step is encountered upon exiting the device. Experiments so far seem to support this even if it is not clear why. Here we report clear evidence of coherent reflection when electron wave exits the channel of a nanoscale transistor and when the electron energy is low. The observed behavior is well described by a simple rectangular potential barrier model which the Schrodinger's equation can be solved exactly. We can explain why reflection is not observed in most situations but cannot be ignored in some important situations. Our experiment also represents a direct measurement of electron injection velocity - a critical quantity in nanoscale transistors that is widely considered not measurable. PMID:27882264

  12. A study of the usefulness of the HESI Exit Exam in predicting NCLEX-RN failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurlock, Darrell R; Hunt, Linda A

    2008-04-01

    Schools of nursing across the country are implementing progression policies that prohibit students from graduating or from taking the nursing licensure examination, sometimes based solely on a single predictive test score. In addition, little empirical evidence exists that supports progression policies as effective in increasing a school's NCLEX-RN pass rates. This article reports on a study conducted when one school did not achieve the results they expected after implementing a progression policy. With use of logistic regression, diagnostic indexes, and other methods, reasons for the disparity between expected and observed NCLEX-RN pass rates were examined. Results revealed that the Health Education Systems, Inc. (HESI) Exit Exam was not able to accurately predict NCLEX-RN outcomes for graduates and, further, that progression policies that allow retest after retest so as to achieve a minimum score on the HESI Exit Exam are not supported empirically. Conclusions and suggestions for schools using or considering progression policies are provided.

  13. Regional discrimination and propagation of local rearrangements along the ribosomal exit tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianli; Deutsch, Carol

    2014-12-12

    All proteins, from bacteria to man, are made in the ribosome and are elongated, one residue at a time, at the peptidyl transferase center. This growing peptide chain wends its way through the ribosomal tunnel to the exit port, ~100Å from the peptidyl transferase center. We have identified locations in the tunnel that sense and respond to single side chains of the nascent peptide to induce local conformational changes. Moreover, side-chain sterics and rearrangements deep in the tunnel influence the disposition of residues 45Å away at the exit port and are consistent with side-chain-induced axial retraction of the peptide backbone. These coupled responses are neither haphazard nor uniform along the tunnel. Rather, they are confined to discriminating zones in the tunnel and are sequence specific. Such discerning communication may contribute to folding events and mechanisms governing sequence-specific signaling between different regions of the tunnel during translation.

  14. Microsimulations of Arching, Clogging, and Bursty Exit Phenomena in Crowd Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente G

    2015-01-01

    We present in this paper the behavior of an artificial agent who is a member of a crowd. The behavior is based on the social comparison theory, as well as the trajectory mapping towards an agent's goal considering the agent's field of vision. The crowd of artificial agents were able to exhibit arching, clogging, and bursty exit rates. We were also able to observe a new phenomenon we called double arching, which happens towards the end of the simulation, and whose onset is exhibited by a "calm" density graph within the exit passage. The density graph is usually bursty at this area. Because of these exhibited phenomena, we can use these agents with high confidence to perform microsimulation studies for modeling the behavior of humans and objects in very realistic ways.

  15. Exit strategies of Pharmaceutical multinational companies from Portugal and the successful implementation of new Portuguese companies

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Catarina Quelhas dos Santos da Costa

    2014-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics In 2001 and 2004, two multinational companies (MNC) of the pharmaceutical industry, respectively Bayer and Janssen, left its manufacture operations in Portugal. From its exit, other two Portuguese small and medium enterprises (SME) were born: Bluepharma and Lusomedicamenta. These companies have been highly successful due to the representativ...

  16. Study of the avalanche to streamer transition in the glass RPC exited by UV light

    CERN Document Server

    Ammosov, V; Kulemzin, A; Semak, A A; Sviridov, Yu; Zaetz, V G; Sviridov, Yu.

    2002-01-01

    A small glass RPC filled with Ar/Isob./Freon mixture has been exposed to a UV laser light. Avalanche and streamer regimes of discharge were reached in a fixed region of the RPC exited by the UV. A dependence of avalanche to streamer transition process on the laser beam intensity and on the applied high voltage was studied. Two types of the streamer signal have been observed. Using a CCD TV camera, pictures on multi-streamer propagation over RPC were obtained.

  17. Exit and voice: a game-theoretic analysis of customer complaint management

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Pinghan

    2013-01-01

    We develop a multi-agent communication model with participation decisions to address the customer complaining behavior and the corresponding management policy. Privately informed customers choose among costly complain, keep silence, and exit, and a firm decides complaining barriers and whether to undertake a corrective action. It is shown that customers truthfully complain only under a moderate complaining barrier. The observed low complaint/dissatisfaction ratio and costly complaint arise as...

  18. Graceful exit from inflation for minimally coupled Bianchi A scalar field models

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Florian

    2013-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of Bianchi A scalar field models which undergo inflation. The main question is under which conditions does inflation come to an end and is succeeded by a decelerated epoch. This so-called "graceful exit" from inflation is an important ingredient in the standard model of cosmology, but is, at this stage, only understood for restricted classes of solutions. We present new results obtained by a combination of analytical and numerical techniques.

  19. Peritonitis and catheter exit-site infection in patients on peritoneal dialysis at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Freire Abud

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the complications related to peritonitis and catheter exit-site infections, in patients on peritoneal dialysis at home.Method: quantitative and cross-sectional study, carried out with 90 patients on peritoneal dialysis at home, in a municipality in the Northeast region of Brazil. For data collection, it was used two structured scripts and consultation on medical records. Descriptive analysis and comparison tests among independent groups were used, considering p<0.05 as level of statistical significance.Results: by comparing the frequency of peritonitis and the length of treatment, it was found that patients over two years of peritoneal dialysis were more likely to develop peritonitis (X²=6.39; p=0.01. The number of episodes of peritoneal catheter exit-site infection showed association with the length of treatment (U=224,000; p=0.015.Conclusion: peritonitis and catheter exit-site infection are associated with the length of treatment.

  20. Chk2 prevents mitotic exit when the majority of kinetochores are unattached.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsalaki, Eleni; Zachos, George

    2014-05-12

    The spindle checkpoint delays exit from mitosis in cells with spindle defects. In this paper, we show that Chk2 is required to delay anaphase onset when microtubules are completely depolymerized but not in the presence of relatively few unattached kinetochores. Mitotic exit in Chk2-deficient cells correlates with reduced levels of Mps1 protein and increased Cdk1-tyrosine 15 inhibitory phosphorylation. Chk2 localizes to kinetochores and is also required for Aurora B-serine 331 phosphorylation in nocodazole or unperturbed early prometaphase. Serine 331 phosphorylation contributed to prometaphase accumulation in nocodazole after partial Mps1 inhibition and was required for spindle checkpoint establishment at the beginning of mitosis. In addition, expression of a phosphomimetic S331E mutant Aurora B rescued chromosome alignment or segregation in Chk2-deficient cells. We propose that Chk2 stabilizes Mps1 and phosphorylates Aurora B-serine 331 to prevent mitotic exit when most kinetochores are unattached. These results highlight mechanisms of an essential function of Chk2 in mitosis.

  1. Structural insights into E. coli porphobilinogen deaminase during synthesis and exit of 1-hydroxymethylbilane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Bung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD catalyzes the formation of 1-hydroxymethylbilane (HMB, a crucial intermediate in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, through a step-wise polymerization of four molecules of porphobilinogen (PBG, using a unique dipyrromethane (DPM cofactor. Structural and biochemical studies have suggested residues with catalytic importance, but their specific role in the mechanism and the dynamic behavior of the protein with respect to the growing pyrrole chain remains unknown. Molecular dynamics simulations of the protein through the different stages of pyrrole chain elongation suggested that the compactness of the overall protein decreases progressively with addition of each pyrrole ring. Essential dynamics showed that domains move apart while the cofactor turn region moves towards the second domain, thus creating space for the pyrrole rings added at each stage. Residues of the flexible active site loop play a significant role in its modulation. Steered molecular dynamics was performed to predict the exit mechanism of HMB from PBGD at the end of the catalytic cycle. Based on the force profile and minimal structural changes the proposed path for the exit of HMB is through the space between the domains flanking the active site loop. Residues reported as catalytically important, also play an important role in the exit of HMB. Further, upon removal of HMB, the structure of PBGD gradually relaxes to resemble its initial stage structure, indicating its readiness to resume a new catalytic cycle.

  2. Timely Endocytosis of Cytokinetic Enzymes Prevents Premature Spindle Breakage during Mitotic Exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheen Fei Chin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinesis requires the spatio-temporal coordination of membrane deposition and primary septum (PS formation at the division site to drive acto-myosin ring (AMR constriction. It has been demonstrated that AMR constriction invariably occurs only after the mitotic spindle disassembly. It has also been established that Chitin Synthase II (Chs2p neck localization precedes mitotic spindle disassembly during mitotic exit. As AMR constriction depends upon PS formation, the question arises as to how chitin deposition is regulated so as to prevent premature AMR constriction and mitotic spindle breakage. In this study, we propose that cells regulate the coordination between spindle disassembly and AMR constriction via timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes, Chs2p, Chs3p, and Fks1p. Inhibition of endocytosis leads to over accumulation of cytokinetic enzymes during mitotic exit, which accelerates the constriction of the AMR, and causes spindle breakage that eventually could contribute to monopolar spindle formation in the subsequent round of cell division. Intriguingly, the mitotic spindle breakage observed in endocytosis mutants can be rescued either by deleting or inhibiting the activities of, CHS2, CHS3 and FKS1, which are involved in septum formation. The findings from our study highlight the importance of timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes at the division site in safeguarding mitotic spindle integrity during mitotic exit.

  3. Modeling Film-Coolant Flow Characteristics at the Exit of Shower-Head Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vijay K.; Gaugler, R. E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The coolant flow characteristics at the hole exits of a film-cooled blade are derived from an earlier analysis where the hole pipes and coolant plenum were also discretized. The blade chosen is the VKI rotor with three staggered rows of shower-head holes. The present analysis applies these flow characteristics at the shower-head hole exits. A multi-block three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code with Wilcox's k-omega model is used to compute the heat transfer coefficient on the film-cooled turbine blade. A reasonably good comparison with the experimental data as well as with the more complete earlier analysis where the hole pipes and coolant plenum were also gridded is obtained. If the 1/7th power law is assumed for the coolant flow characteristics at the hole exits, considerable differences in the heat transfer coefficient on the blade surface, specially in the leading-edge region, are observed even though the span-averaged values of h (heat transfer coefficient based on T(sub o)-T(sub w)) match well with the experimental data. This calls for span-resolved experimental data near film-cooling holes on a blade for better validation of the code.

  4. Nur1 dephosphorylation confers positive feedback to mitotic exit phosphatase activation in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Godfrey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Substrate dephosphorylation by the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk-opposing phosphatase, Cdc14, is vital for many events during budding yeast mitotic exit. Cdc14 is sequestered in the nucleolus through inhibitory binding to Net1, from which it is released in anaphase following Net1 phosphorylation. Initial Net1 phosphorylation depends on Cdk itself, in conjunction with proteins of the Cdc14 Early Anaphase Release (FEAR network. Later on, the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN signaling cascade maintains Cdc14 release. An important unresolved question is how Cdc14 activity can increase in early anaphase, while Cdk activity, that is required for Net1 phosphorylation, decreases and the MEN is not yet active. Here we show that the nuclear rim protein Nur1 interacts with Net1 and, in its Cdk phosphorylated form, inhibits Cdc14 release. Nur1 is dephosphorylated by Cdc14 in early anaphase, relieving the inhibition and promoting further Cdc14 release. Nur1 dephosphorylation thus describes a positive feedback loop in Cdc14 phosphatase activation during mitotic exit, required for faithful chromosome segregation and completion of the cell division cycle.

  5. Pitx2 expression promotes p21 expression and cell cycle exit in neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldring, Nina; Joseph, Bertrand; Hermanson, Ola; Kioussi, Chrissa

    2012-11-01

    Cortical development is a complex process that involves many events including proliferation, cell cycle exit and differentiation that need to be appropriately synchronized. Neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from embryonic cortex are characterized by their ability of self-renewal under continued maintenance of multipotency. Cell cycle progression and arrest during development is regulated by numerous factors, including cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases and their inhibitors. In this study, we exogenously expressed the homeodomain transcription factor Pitx2, usually expressed in postmitotic progenitors and neurons of the embryonic cortex, in NSCs with low expression of endogenous Pitx2. We found that Pitx2 expression induced a rapid decrease in proliferation associated with an accumulation of NSCs in G1 phase. A search for potential cell cycle inhibitors responsible for such cell cycle exit of NSCs revealed that Pitx2 expression caused a rapid and dramatic (≉20-fold) increase in expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (WAF1/Cip1). In addition, Pitx2 bound directly to the p21 promoter as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in NSCs. Surprisingly, Pitx2 expression was not associated with an increase in differentiation markers, but instead the expression of nestin, associated with undifferentiated NSCs, was maintained. Our results suggest that Pitx2 promotes p21 expression and induces cell cycle exit in neural progenitors.

  6. Utilized friction when entering and exiting a dry and wet bathtub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Flynn, Jim; Mang, Daniel W; Chimich, Dennis D; Gardiner, John C

    2010-04-01

    Bathtubs and showers are a common source of unintentional slips and falls. The goal of this study was to quantify the friction used by barefoot subjects entering and exiting a typical bathtub/shower enclosure under dry and wet conditions. Sixty subjects (30F, 30M) from three age groups (20-30 years, 40-50 years, 60-70 years) entered and exited a slip-resistant bathtub using six movement patterns (three entering and three exiting the tub) simulating actual use. Force plates installed in the tub floor and the slip-resistant deck outside the tub measured ground reaction forces, from which utilized friction and double support times were calculated. Overall, utilized friction varied from 0.102 to 0.442 (0.235+/-0.057) and was 0.058+/-0.040 lower in wet than dry conditions across all movement patterns (p0.14). Double support times were longer in older subjects than in both young and middle-aged subjects for all movement patterns (p<0.0009) and longer under wet than dry conditions for all entry movements (p<0.0001). These data suggest that subjects regard the wet condition as more hazardous than the dry condition and adapt their utilized friction accordingly. These data also show that older subjects are more cautious than young subjects when confronted with the dual tasks of stepping over the tub's apron and transitioning to a surface perceived to be more slippery.

  7. Exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for graduating medical students: the Canadian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason; Pambrun, Chantale

    2015-05-01

    Physicians in every medical and surgical field must be able to use pathology concepts and skills in their practice: for example, they must order and interpret the correct laboratory tests, they must use their understanding of pathogenesis to diagnose and treat, and they must work with the laboratory to care for their patients. These important concepts and skills may be ignored by medical schools and even national/international organizations setting graduation expectations for medical students. There is an evolving international consensus about the importance of exit competencies for medical school graduates, which define the measurable or observable behaviors each graduate must be able to demonstrate. The Canadian Association of Pathologists (CAP) Education Group set out to establish the basic competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine which should be expected of every medical graduate: not competencies for pathologists, but for medical graduates who intend to enter any residency program. We defined 4 targets for pathology and laboratory medicine exit competencies: that they represent only measurable behaviors, that they be clinically focused, that they be generalizable to every medical graduate, and that the final competency document be user-friendly. A set of competencies was developed iteratively and underwent final revision at the 2012 CAP annual meeting. These competencies were subsequently endorsed by the CAP executive and the Canadian Leadership Council on Laboratory Medicine. This clinically focused consensus document provides the first comprehensive list of exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for undergraduate medical education.

  8. A Reconfigurable Functional Unit with Conditional Execution for Multi-Exit Custom Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Hamid; Mehdipour, Farhad; Inoue, Koji; Murakami, Kazuaki

    Encapsulating critical computation subgraphs as application-specific instruction set extensions is an effective technique to enhance the performance of embedded processors. However, the addition of custom functional units to the base processor is required to support the execution of these custom instructions. Although automated tools have been developed to reduce the long design time needed to produce a new extensible processor for each application, short time-to-market, significant non-recurring engineering and design costs are issues. To address these concerns, we introduce an adaptive extensible processor in which custom instructions are generated and added after chip-fabrication. To support this feature, custom functional units (CFUs) are replaced by a reconfigurable functional unit (RFU). The proposed RFU is based on a matrix of functional units which is multi-cycle with the capability of conditional execution. A quantitative approach is utilized to propose an efficient architecture for the RFU and fix its constraints. To generate more effective custom instructions, they are extended over basic blocks and hence, multiple exits custom instructions are proposed. Conditional execution has been added to the RFU to support the multi-exit feature of custom instructions. Experimental results show that multi-exit custom instructions enhance the performance by an average of 67% compared to custom instructions limited to one basic block. A maximum speedup of 4.7, compared to a general embedded processor, and an average speedup of 1.85 was achieved on MiBench benchmark suite.

  9. To fish or not to fish: factors at multiple scales affecting artisanal fishers' readiness to exit a declining fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M Daw

    Full Text Available Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and

  10. MYCELIUM BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Jondelius, Olof

    2015-01-01

    This work is looking in to what possibilites and restrictions comes with using mycelium as a building material for a small house. It includes reasoning around solutions for some of the problems and presenting some ideas of how to use some of the materials properties in your favor. A general background of why we need to start look in to alternative materials for all petroleum materials are presented. Det här arbetet har varit inriktat på att se vilka möjligheter samt begränsningar det skul...

  11. An alternative way of understanding exit, voice and loyalty: the case of informal payments for health care in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nissim; Filc, Dani

    2017-01-01

    This study examines Hirschman's model of exit, voice and loyalty with regard to informal payments in the Israeli healthcare system. Based on a national survey, we investigate the extent of "black" payments, its characteristics and its correlated factors. We find that informal payments do exist in Israel-although it seems that there has been a decline in the phenomenon. Contrary to the literature, we find no relationship between the option of voice or dissatisfaction with healthcare services and informal payments. However, we do find a negative correlation between trust and the use of such payments. This finding is consistent with Hirschman's insight that a lack of loyalty may lead people to strategies of exit. We suggest that given the fact that health care in Israel is a public service, the exit option may actually be a quasi-exit behavior. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Phosphatase 1 Nuclear Targeting Subunit Is an Essential Regulator of M-phase Entry, Maintenance, and Exit*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Laura A.; Wang, Ling; Wu, Lan; Peng, Aimin

    2014-01-01

    Mitotic progression is regulated largely through dynamic and reversible protein phosphorylation that is modulated by opposing actions of protein kinases and phosphatases. In this study, we show that phosphatase 1 nuclear targeting subunit (Pnuts) functions as a master regulator of mitosis by modulating protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Overexpression of Pnuts in Xenopus egg extracts inhibited both mitotic and meiotic exit. Immunodepletion of Pnuts from egg extracts revealed its essential functions in mitotic entry and maintenance. The level of Pnuts oscillates during the cell cycle and peaks in mitosis. Pnuts destruction during M-phase exit is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-targeted ubiquitination and proteolysis, and conserved destruction motifs of Pnuts. Disruption of Pnuts degradation delayed M-phase exit, suggesting it as an important mechanism to permit M-phase exit. PMID:25002584

  13. Emperor penguins adjust swim speed according to the above-water height of ice holes through which they exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsufumi; Ponganis, Paul J; Habara, Yoshiaki; Naito, Yasuhiko

    2005-07-01

    Emperor penguins leap from the water onto the sea ice. Their ability to reach above-water height depends critically on initial vertical speed of their leaping, assuming that the kinetic energy is converted to gravitational potential energy. We deliberately changed the above-water heights of ice hole exits, in order to examine whether penguins adjusted swim speed in accordance with the above-water height of the ice. Penguins were maintained in a corral on the fast ice in Antarctica, and voluntarily dived through two artificial ice holes. Data loggers were deployed on the penguins to monitor under water behavior. Nine instrumented penguins performed 386 leaps from the holes during experiments. The maximum swim speeds within 1 s before the exits through the holes correlated significantly with the above-water height of the holes. Penguins adopted higher speed to exit through the higher holes than through the lower holes. Speeds of some failed exits were lower than the theoretical minimum values to reach a given height. Penguins failed to exit onto the sea ice in a total of 37 of the trials. There was no preference to use lower holes after they failed to exit through the higher holes. Rather, swim speed was increased for subsequent attempts after failed leaps. These data demonstrated that penguins apparently recognized the above-water height of holes and adopted speeds greater than the minimal vertical speeds to reach the exit height. It is likely, especially in the case of higher holes (>40 cm), that they chose minimum speeds to exit through the holes to avoid excess energy for swimming before leaping. However, some exceptionally high speeds were recorded when they directly exited onto the ice from lower depths. In those cases, birds could increase swim speed without strokes for the final seconds before exit and they only increased the steepness of their body angles as they surfaced, which indicates that the speed required for leaps by emperor penguins were aided by

  14. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency improvement......This paper deals with the energy consumption of existing owner-occupied detached houses and the question of how they can be energy renovated. Data on the age of the Danish housing stock, and its energy consumption is presented. Research on the potential for energy reductions in the Danish housing...... sector is discussed, and it is shown that there is a huge potential for reductions. It is a well-known problem that even if there are relevant technical means and even if it is economically feasible, the majority of house owners do not energy renovate their homes. This paper intends to address what can...

  15. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...

  16. Exit blade geometry and part-load performance of small axial flow propeller turbines: An experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Punit; Nestmann, Franz [Institute for Water and River Basin Management (IWG), University of Karlsruhe, Kaiser Str. 12, D 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    A detailed experimental investigation of the effects of exit blade geometry on the part-load performance of low-head, axial flow propeller turbines is presented. Even as these turbines find important applications in small-scale energy generation using micro-hydro, the relationship between the layout of blade profile, geometry and turbine performance continues to be poorly characterized. The experimental results presented here help understand the relationship between exit tip angle, discharge through the turbine, shaft power, and efficiency. The modification was implemented on two different propeller runners and it was found that the power and efficiency gains from decreasing the exit tip angle could be explained by a theoretical model presented here based on classical theory of turbomachines. In particular, the focus is on the behaviour of internal parameters like the runner loss coefficient, relative flow angle at exit, mean axial flow velocity and net tangential flow velocity. The study concluded that the effects of exit tip modification were significant. The introspective discussion on the theoretical model's limitation and test facility suggests wider and continued experimentation pertaining to the internal parameters like inlet vortex profile and exit swirl profile. It also recommends thorough validation of the model and its improvement so that it can be made capable for accurate characterization of blade geometric effects. (author)

  17. Probing the longitudinal momentum spread of the electron wave packet at the tunnel exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Pfeiffer, Adrian; Cirelli, Claudio; S. Landsman, Alexandra;

    2012-01-01

    We present an ellipticity resolved study of momentum distributions arising from strong-field ionization of Helium at constant intensity. The influence of the ion potential on the departing electron is considered within a semi-classical model consisting of an initial tunneling step and subsequent...... classical propagation. We find that the momentum distribution can be explained by the presence of a longitudinal momentum spread of the electron at the exit from the tunnel. Our combined experimental and theoretical study provides an estimate of this momentum spread....

  18. Probing the longitudinal momentum spread of the electron wave packet at the tunnel exit

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Adrian N; Landsman, Alexandra S; Smolarski, Mathias; Dimitrovski, Darko; Madsen, Lars B; Keller, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    We present an ellipticity resolved study of momentum distributions arising from strong-field ionization of Helium at constant intensity. The influence of the ion potential on the departing electron is considered within a semi-classical model consisting of an initial tunneling step and subsequent classical propagation. We find that the momentum distribution can be explained by the presence of a longitudinal momentum spread of the electron at the exit from the tunnel. Our combined experimental and theoretical study provides an estimate of this momentum spread.

  19. Exiting RCRA Subtitle C regulation data for supporting a new regulatory path for immobilized mixed debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C.L. [Jetseal, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carson, S.D.; Cheng, Wu-Ching [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents analytical and empirical data that provide technical support for the position that mixed debris (debris contaminated with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) treated by immobilization in accordance with 40 CFR 268.45 can exit RCRA Subtitle C requirements at the time the treatment is complete. Pathways analyses and risk assessments of low-level waste and RCRA mixed waste disposal facilities show that these two types of facilities provide equivalent long-term (> 100 years) performance and protection of human health and the environment. A proposed two-tier approach for waste form performance criteria is discussed.

  20. Computer modeling of fan-exit-splitter spacing effects on F100 response to distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M.; Murdoch, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    The distortion response of the F100(3) engine was effected by the fan exit splitter configuration. The sensitivity for a proximate splitter fan is calculated to be slightly greater than a remote splitter configuration with identical airfoils. Predicted response was based upon a multiple segment parallel compressor Model modified to include a bypass ratio representation that effects the performance characteristics of the last rotor and intermediate case struts. The predicted distortion response required an accurate definition of row pre- and post-stall undistorted operation.

  1. Influence of exit impedance on finite difference solutions of transient acoustic mode propagation in ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    The cutoff mode instability problem associated with a transient finite difference solution to the wave equation is explained. The steady-state impedance boundary condition is found to produce acoustic reflections during the initial transient, which cause finite instabilities in the cutoff modes. The stability problem is resolved by extending the duct length to prevent transient reflections. Numerical calculations are presented at forcing frequencies above, below, and nearly at the cutoff frequency, and exit impedance models are presented for use in the practical design of turbofan inlets.

  2. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  3. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  4. Environmental Assessment for Demolition and Disposal of Base Buildings and Facilities on Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-26

    Brown-Berry et al. 1998). Bats have been recorded roosting in both occupied and unoccupied buildings, hangars and test stands, including a maternal ...trucks should be required to exit the site via an access point where a gravel pad or grizzly has been installed.  Stockpiles of soil or other fine...exclusion methods are deemed necessary. 1. If a building is found to support a maternity colony, the proponent/contractor shall make every effort to

  5. Dense water cascading, bottom currents and sediment wave formation at the exit of the Bari canyon (Southern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, Leonardo; Miserocchi, Stefano; Boldrin, Alfredo; Turchetto, Margherita; Foglini, Federica; Trincardi, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    The dense water forming in the North Adriatic (NAdDW) spreading southward along the Italian continental shelf, sinks in the Southern Adriatic basin through particular cascading events. Such events are seasonal, occurring specially in April, with variable intensity. These phenomena control the water mass mixing, the deep ocean ventilation, the behaviour of deep ecosystems, the formation of complex erosive and depositional bedforms and the abyssal export and burial of nutrients and carbon. Because of the NadDW formation is linked to climate factors (frequency, duration and size of Bura winds), the temporal variations of the NadDW dispersion into the Southern Adriatic allow to make inferences of the impact of recent climate changes on the ecosystems of the deep Mediterranean Sea. Previous research projects (EuroStrataform, HERMES) acquired a large data set of bathymetric, side-scan sonar (TOBI) and Chirp sonar profiles, which were used to build detailed morpho-bathymetric maps of the Southern Adriatic margin. There, the seabed is extremely complex, characterized by a large variety of bedforms (sediment waves, erosive scours, longitudinal furrows and giant comet marks). A branch of the cascading NAdDW is confined and accelerated through the Bari canyon where it produces a strong current capable of reaching down-slope velocities greater than 60 cm s-1 near the bottom at ~600 m of water depth, eroding the canyon thalweg and entraining large amounts of fine-grained sediment. At the exit of the canyon, in water depth greater than 800 m, the current becomes less confined, spreads laterally and generates an 80-km2-wide field of mud waves; these bedforms migrate up current and show amplitudes up to 50 m and wavelengths of about 1 km. Cruise IMPACT-09 of RV Urania was carried out in the Southern Adriatic Sea from 17-30 March 2009 with main scope of studying the impact of NadDW cascading events on the deep ecosystems of the Southern Adriatic. Experiments planned in the cruise

  6. Role for non-proteolytic control of M-phase-promoting factor activity at M-phase exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo D'Angiolella

    Full Text Available M-phase Promoting Factor (MPF; the cyclin B-cdk 1 complex is activated at M-phase onset by removal of inhibitory phosphorylation of cdk1 at thr-14 and tyr-15. At M-phase exit, MPF is destroyed by ubiquitin-dependent cyclin proteolysis. Thus, control of MPF activity via inhibitory phosphorylation is believed to be particularly crucial in regulating transition into, rather than out of, M-phase. Using the in vitro cell cycle system derived form Xenopus eggs, here we show, however, that inhibitory phosphorylation of cdk1 contributes to control MPF activity during M-phase exit. By sampling extracts at very short intervals during both meiotic and mitotic exit, we found that cyclin B1-associated cdk1 underwent transient inhibitory phosphorylation at tyr-15 and that cyclin B1-cdk1 activity fell more rapidly than the cyclin B1 content. Inhibitory phosphorylation of MPF correlated with phosphorylation changes of cdc25C, the MPF phosphatase, and physical interaction of cdk1 with wee1, the MPF kinase, during M-phase exit. MPF down-regulation required Ca(++/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA activities at meiosis and mitosis exit, respectively. Treatment of M-phase extracts with a mutant cyclin B1-cdk1AF complex, refractory to inhibition by phosphorylation, impaired binding of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C to its co-activator Cdc20 and altered M-phase exit. Thus, timely M-phase exit requires a tight coupling of proteolysis-dependent and proteolysis-independent mechanisms of MPF inactivation.

  7. Measuring the temperature of high-luminous exitance surfaces with infrared thermography in LED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Indika U.; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2016-09-01

    Recently, light-emitting diode (LED) lighting systems have become popular due to their increased system performance. LED lighting system performance is affected by heat; therefore, it is important to know the temperature of a target surface or bulk medium in the LED system. In-situ temperature measurements of a surface or bulk medium using intrusive methods cause measurement errors. Typically, thermocouples are used in these applications to measure the temperatures of the various components in an LED system. This practice leads to significant errors, specifically when measuring surfaces with high-luminous exitance. In the experimental study presented in this paper, an infrared camera was used as an alternative to temperature probes in measuring LED surfaces with high-luminous exitance. Infrared thermography is a promising method because it does not respond to the visible radiation spectrum in the range of 0.38 to 0.78 micrometers. Usually, infrared thermography equipment is designed to operate either in the 3 to 5 micrometer or the 7 to 14 micrometer wavelength bands. To characterize the LED primary lens, the surface emissivity of the LED phosphor surface, the temperature dependence of the surface emissivity, the temperature of the target surface compared to the surrounding temperature, the field of view of the target, and the aim angle to the target surface need to be investigated, because these factors could contribute towards experimental errors. In this study, the effects of the above-stated parameters on the accuracy of the measured surface temperature were analyzed and reported.

  8. PP1-mediated moesin dephosphorylation couples polar relaxation to mitotic exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunda, Patricia; Rodrigues, Nelio T L; Moeendarbary, Emadaldin; Liu, Tao; Ivetic, Aleksandar; Charras, Guillaume; Baum, Buzz

    2012-02-01

    Animal cells undergo dramatic actin-dependent changes in shape as they progress through mitosis; they round up upon mitotic entry and elongate during chromosome segregation before dividing into two [1-3]. Moesin, the sole Drosophila ERM-family protein [4], plays a critical role in this process, through the construction of a stiff, rounded metaphase cortex [5-7]. At mitotic exit, this rigid cortex must be dismantled to allow for anaphase elongation and cytokinesis through the loss of the active pool of phospho-Thr559moesin from cell poles. Here, in an RNA interference (RNAi) screen for phosphatases involved in the temporal and spatial control of moesin, we identify PP1-87B RNAi as having elevated p-moesin levels and reduced cortical compliance. In mitosis, RNAi-induced depletion of PP1-87B or depletion of a conserved noncatalytic PP1 phosphatase subunit Sds22 leads to defects in p-moesin clearance from cell poles at anaphase, a delay in anaphase elongation, together with defects in bipolar anaphase relaxation and cytokinesis. Importantly, similar cortical defects are seen at anaphase following the expression of a constitutively active, phosphomimetic version of moesin. These data reveal a new role for the PP1-87B/Sds22 phosphatase, an important regulator of the metaphase-anaphase transition, in coupling moesin-dependent cell shape changes to mitotic exit.

  9. EXITE/IPC observations of SN1987A and southern targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1991-01-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Telescope Experiment (EXITE) was developed to a flight-ready status and conducted two flights (May 18, 1988, and May 8-10, 1989) from Alice Springs, Australia, as part of the campaigns to observe the supernova SN1987A. The basic operation of the detector and gondola systems in the laboratory was tested on the first flight and found to meet expected performance values. A bizarre 'balloon tape' insulation problem, however, prevented normal telescope pointing on the first flight so no data on SN1987A or other targets were obtained. Following a successful second EXITE flight from Ft. Sumner, NM, in October 1988, the experiment was flown again on a successful 30 hour flight as part of the final 1989 supernova campaign. A second x-ray imaging experiment from MSFC was also flown (piggy-back) for this third flight. Good data were obtained on the supernova and a variety of high priority galactic targets, and final analysis is still in progress. Preliminary results from this flight are presented.

  10. Pocket proteins critically regulate cell cycle exit of the trabecular myocardium and the ventricular conduction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Park

    2013-07-01

    During development, the ventricular conduction system (VCS arises from the trabecular or spongy myocardium. VCS and trabecular myocytes proliferate at a significantly slower rate than compact zone myocardial cells, establishing a transmural cell cycle gradient. The molecular determinants of VCS/trabecular myocyte cell cycle arrest are not known. Given the importance of pocket proteins (Rb, p107 and p130 in mediating G0/G1 arrest in many cell types, we examined the role of this gene family in regulating cell cycle exit of the trabecular myocardium and ventricular conduction system. Using a combinatorial knockout strategy, we found that graded loss of pocket proteins results in a spectrum of heart and lung defects. p107/p130 double knockout (dKO hearts manifest dysregulated proliferation within the compact myocardium and trabecular bases, while the remaining trabecular region cell cycle exits normally. Consequently, dKO hearts exhibit defective cardiac compaction, septal hyperplasia and biventricular outflow tract obstruction, while the VCS appears relatively normal. Loss of all three pocket proteins (3KO is necessary to completely disrupt the transmural cell cycle gradient. 3KO hearts exhibit massive overgrowth of the trabecular myocardium and ventricular conduction system, which leads to fetal heart failure and death. Hearts carrying a single pocket protein allele are able to maintain the transmural cell cycle gradient. These results demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of trabecular and conduction myocytes to pocket protein function during ventricular chamber development.

  11. A preliminary study of mental and physical practice on the kayak wet exit skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, M; Mahoney, C; Wardrop, J

    2001-06-01

    Outdoor activities and high-risk water sports often create anxiety in participants who feel concern about danger. Relaxation and imagery, often used to enhance training, can improve performance of skills in a variety of sports. The aim of this study was to establish whether Mental Practice, Physical Practice, Combined Mental and Physical Practice, or No Practice would affect the acquisition of skill for a kayak wet exit. 60 postprimary girls aged 11-16 yr., competent swimmers but without previous experience in kayaking, gave their informed consent to be in the study. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of the four experimental groups. Following their practice periods, each group performed three kayak wet exit attempts (unseen by others); these were videotaped for later analysis by an observer. The participant and an independent observer, who was blind to the allocation of practice group, then used a 6-point rating scale to assess each performance. Participants' and the observer's ratings were analysed by separate Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance which indicated a significant practice effect. Subsequent chi-squared tests indicated significantly different distributions of groups, showing Physical Practice superior to No Practice and Mental Practice. While physical practice remained effective in improving technique, combinations of mental and physical practice were better than no practice.

  12. Effect of velocity and temperature distribution at the hole exit on film cooling of turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vijay K.; Gaugler, Raymond E.

    1995-01-01

    An existing three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code, modified to include film cooling considerations, has been used to study the effect of coolant velocity and temperature distribution at the hole exit on the heat transfer coefficient on three-film-cooled turbine blades, namely, the C3X vane, the VKI rotor, and the ACE rotor. Results are also compared with the experimental data for all the blades. Moreover, Mayle's transition criterion, Forest's model for augmentation of leading edge heat transfer due to freestream turbulence, and Crawford's model for augmentation of eddy viscosity due to film cooling are used. Use of Mayle's and Forest's models is relevant only for the ACE rotor due to the absence of showerhead cooling on this rotor. It is found that, in some cases, the effect of distribution of coolant velocity and temperature at the hole exit can be as much as 60% on the heat transfer coefficient at the blade suction surface, and 50% at the pressure surface. Also, different effects are observed on the pressure and suction surface depending upon the blade as well as upon the hole shape, conical or cylindrical.

  13. Heterochronic misexpression of Ascl1 in the Atoh7 retinal cell lineage blocks cell cycle exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Robert B; Riesenberg, Amy N; Quinn, Malgorzata; Brzezinski, Joseph A; Glaser, Tom; Brown, Nadean L

    2013-05-01

    Retinal neurons and glia arise from a common progenitor pool in a temporal order, with retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) appearing first, and Müller glia last. The transcription factors Atoh7/Math5 and Ascl1/Mash1 represent divergent bHLH clades, and exhibit distinct spatial and temporal retinal expression patterns, with little overlap during early development. Here, we tested the ability of Ascl1 to change the fate of cells in the Atoh7 lineage when misexpressed from the Atoh7 locus, using an Ascl1-IRES-DsRed2 knock-in allele. In Atoh7(Ascl1KI/+) and Atoh7(Ascl1KI/Ascl1KI) embryos, ectopic Ascl1 delayed cell cycle exit and differentiation, even in cells coexpressing Atoh7. The heterozygous retinas recovered, and eventually produced a normal complement of RGCs, while homozygous substitution of Ascl1 for Atoh7 did not promote postnatal retinal fates precociously, nor rescue Atoh7 mutant phenotypes. However, our analyses revealed two unexpected findings. First, ectopic Ascl1 disrupted cell cycle progression within the marked Atoh7 lineage, but also nonautonomously in other retinal cells. Second, the size of the Atoh7 retinal lineage was unaffected, supporting the idea of a compensatory shift of the non-proliferative cohort to maintain lineage size. Overall, we conclude that Ascl1 acts dominantly to block cell cycle exit, but is incapable of redirecting the fates of early RPCs.

  14. Long noncoding RNA PANDA and scaffold-attachment-factor SAFA control senescence entry and exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvvula, Pavan Kumar; Desetty, Rohini Devi; Pineau, Pascal; Marchio, Agnés; Moon, Anne; Dejean, Anne; Bischof, Oliver

    2014-11-19

    Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest that limits the proliferation of pre-cancerous cells. Here we demonstrate that scaffold-attachment-factor A (SAFA) and the long noncoding RNA PANDA differentially interact with polycomb repressive complexes (PRC1 and PRC2) and the transcription factor NF-YA to either promote or suppress senescence. In proliferating cells, SAFA and PANDA recruit PRC complexes to repress the transcription of senescence-promoting genes. Conversely, the loss of SAFA-PANDA-PRC interactions allows expression of the senescence programme. Accordingly, we find that depleting either SAFA or PANDA in proliferating cells induces senescence. However, in senescent cells where PANDA sequesters transcription factor NF-YA and limits the expression of NF-YA-E2F-coregulated proliferation-promoting genes, PANDA depletion leads to an exit from senescence. Together, our results demonstrate that PANDA confines cells to their existing proliferative state and that modulating its level of expression can cause entry or exit from senescence.

  15. Structure of the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase TrzD Reveals Product Exit Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Asim K.; Aukema, Kelly G.; Elias, Mikael; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2017-03-27

    Cyanuric acid hydrolases are of industrial importance because of their use in aquatic recreational facilities to remove cyanuric acid, a stabilizer for the chlorine. Degradation of excess cyanuric acid is necessary to maintain chlorine disinfection in the waters. Cyanuric acid hydrolase opens the cyanuric acid ring hydrolytically and subsequent decarboxylation produces carbon dioxide and biuret. In the present study, we report the X-ray structure of TrzD, a cyanuric acid hydrolase from Acidovorax citrulli. The crystal structure at 2.19 Å resolution shows a large displacement of the catalytic lysine (Lys163) in domain 2 away from the active site core, whereas the two other active site lysines from the two other domains are not able to move. The lysine displacement is proposed here to open up a channel for product release. Consistent with that, the structure also showed two molecules of the co-product, carbon dioxide, one in the active site and another trapped in the proposed exit channel. Previous data indicated that the domain 2 lysine residue plays a role in activating an adjacent serine residue carrying out nucleophilic attack, opening the cyanuric acid ring, and the mobile lysine guides products through the exit channel.

  16. Experimental study of pedestrian inflow in a room with a separate entrance and exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Song, Weiguo; Fu, Libi; Fang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Pedestrian inflow process frequently occurs in various pedestrian facilities in our daily life. Great importance should be attached to the study of this process. In this paper, we explore the pedestrian inflow process in a room with a separate entrance and exit. Two kinds of experiments are conducted: experiment 1 has no inactive persons and primarily focuses on analyzing the features of the normal pedestrian inflow process and analyzing the representative spatial parameters in the steady state, while experiment 2 involves the influence of the inactive persons. In order to quantitatively discuss the distribution of pedestrians in the steady state, we adopt several analytical methods, such as the Voronoi diagram method, proxemics, and point pattern analysis. Some features of the inflow process are captured. The distribution of pedestrians in the steady state is not uniform. The proxemics and attraction to the exit are both considered to affect pedestrians' distribution in the inflow process. The presence of inactive persons may have an impact on both the inflow and outflow processes. Practical suggestions are provided for the managers of pedestrian facilities.

  17. Simulation study on the effect of pre-evacuation time and exit width on evacuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Guanquan; SUN Jinhua; WANG Qingsong; CHEN Sining

    2006-01-01

    Occupant pre-evacuation time is often oversimplified into an explicit value in evacuation calculation. In fact, it is not an explicit value but a random variable following some kind of probability distribution. In order to analyze the importance of pre-evacuation time in evacuation calculation, GridFlow evacuation model is utilized to study the effect of pre-evacuation time on evacuation under different occupant densities and exit widths in a single room scenario. The evacuation time calculated by using normal pre-evacuation distribution is compared with that calculated by explicit pre-evacuation time. Two faults are presented when pre-evacuation time is considered as an explicit value. The theory of congestion and queue is presented to analyze the calculation results. Moreover, this paper also presents probability distribution of the total evacuation time when the pre-evacuation time follows normal distribution. The results show that the evacuation time is dominated by pre-evacuation time and hardly dependent on occupant density when the mean pre- evacuation time is long. For long mean pre-evacua- tion time, low occupant density or wide exit, when pre-evacuation time follows normal distribution, the total evacuation time also follows normal distribution.

  18. Cdc7p-Dbf4p regulates mitotic exit by inhibiting Polo kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T Miller

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cdc7p-Dbf4p is a conserved protein kinase required for the initiation of DNA replication. The Dbf4p regulatory subunit binds Cdc7p and is essential for Cdc7p kinase activation, however, the N-terminal third of Dbf4p is dispensable for its essential replication activities. Here, we define a short N-terminal Dbf4p region that targets Cdc7p-Dbf4p kinase to Cdc5p, the single Polo kinase in budding yeast that regulates mitotic progression and cytokinesis. Dbf4p mediates an interaction with the Polo substrate-binding domain to inhibit its essential role during mitosis. Although Dbf4p does not inhibit Polo kinase activity, it nonetheless inhibits Polo-mediated activation of the mitotic exit network (MEN, presumably by altering Polo substrate targeting. In addition, although dbf4 mutants defective for interaction with Polo transit S-phase normally, they aberrantly segregate chromosomes following nuclear misorientation. Therefore, Cdc7p-Dbf4p prevents inappropriate exit from mitosis by inhibiting Polo kinase and functions in the spindle position checkpoint.

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of the exit from dormancy of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppée Jean-Yves

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishment of aspergillosis is depending upon the exit from dormancy and germination of the conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus in the lung. To gain an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the early steps of conidial germination, we undertook a transcriptomic analysis using macroarrays constructed with PCR fragments from > 3,000 genes (around one third of the annotated A. fumigatus genome. Results Major results of this analysis are the following: (i conidia stored pre-packaged mRNAs transcripts (27% of genes have transcripts in the resting conidia; (ii incubation at 37°C in a nutritive medium induced up- and down-regulation of genes: 19% of the total number of genes deposited on the array were up-regulated whereas 22% of the genes with pre-packaged mRNA in the resting conidia were down-regulated; (iii most modifications were seen during the first 30 min of germination whereas very little modification of gene expression occurred during the following hour; (iv one-year old conidia and one-week old conidia behaved similarly at transcriptional level. Conclusion Transcriptomic data indicate that the exit from dormancy is associated with a shift from a fermentative metabolism to a respiratory metabolism as well as a trend toward immediate protein synthesis.

  20. Phosphorylation of SCG10/stathmin-2 determines multipolar stage exit and neuronal migration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Nina; Zdrojewska, Justyna; Padzik, Artur; Komulainen, Emilia; Björkblom, Benny; Rannikko, Emmy; Tararuk, Tanya; Garcia-Frigola, Cristina; Sandholm, Jouko; Nguyen, Laurent; Kallunki, Tuula; Courtney, Michael J; Coffey, Eleanor T

    2011-03-01

    Cell migration is the consequence of the sum of positive and negative regulatory mechanisms. Although appropriate migration of neurons is a principal feature of brain development, the negative regulatory mechanisms remain obscure. We found that JNK1 was highly active in developing cortex and that selective inhibition of JNK in the cytoplasm markedly increased both the frequency of exit from the multipolar stage and radial migration rate and ultimately led to an ill-defined cellular organization. Moreover, regulation of multipolar-stage exit and radial migration in Jnk1(-/-) (also known as Mapk8) mice, resulted from consequential changes in phosphorylation of the microtubule regulator SCG10 (also called stathmin-2). Expression of an SCG10 mutant that mimics the JNK1-phosphorylated form restored normal migration in the brains of Jnk1(-/-) mouse embryos. These findings indicate that the phosphorylation of SCG10 by JNK1 is a fundamental mechanism that governs the transition from the multipolar stage and the rate of neuronal cell movement during cortical development.

  1. Last Glacial - Holocene stratigraphic development at the Marmara Sea exit of the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köprülü, Kerem; Alpar, Bedri; Vardar, Denizhan

    2016-03-01

    High resolution Chirp and Sparker data allowed definition and mapping of distinct seismic units in the shallow sediment record (~100 ms) acquired from the southern exit of the Bosphorus Strait; a dynamic depositional environment. The bottommost unit observed in the Chirp data (unit-3) is made up of marine-lacustrine sediments thinning seaward and onlaps the basement rocks which are represented by folded strata in the Sparker data, possibly lower to middle Pleistocene age. It is overlain by a series of prograding deposits along the shelf (unit-2) referring to sediment input from the northern sector depending on the water levels of the paleo Marmara lake's during MIS 3. The uppermost deposits (unit-1) close to the Bosphorus Strait were represented by three separate subunits, unlike to relatively thin drape of sediments observed at the other places in the surrounding regions. The detailed definition of these subunits deduced from the closely-spaced reflection profiles and available radiocarbon ages helped to explain the history of the latest stratigraphic development depending on the connections between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. In addition to the previously proposed major conduits, which controlled the sedimentary deposition at the southern exit of the Bosphorus, namely the Bosphorus Strait and Kurbağalıdere River, another submarine sedimentary pathway at the eastern bank of the strait's channel seems to have delivered sediments directly into the basin.

  2. 3D TOPOLOGICAL INDOOR BUILDING MODELING INTEGRATED WITH OPEN STREET MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering various fields of applications for building surveying and various demands, geometry representation of a building is the most crucial aspect of a building survey. The interiors of the buildings need to be described along with the relative locations of the rooms, corridors, doors and exits in many kinds of emergency response, such as fire, bombs, smoke, and pollution. Topological representation is a challenging task within the Geography Information Science (GIS environment, as the data structures required to express these relationships are particularly difficult to develop. Even within the Computer Aided Design (CAD community, the structures for expressing the relationships between adjacent building parts are complex and often incomplete. In this paper, an integration of 3D topological indoor building modeling in Dual Half Edge (DHE data structure and outdoor navigation network from Open Street Map (OSM is presented.

  3. Nuclear translocation of Cyclin B1 marks the restriction point for terminal cell cycle exit in G2 phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllers, Erik; Silva Cascales, Helena; Jaiswal, Himjyot; Saurin, Adrian T; Lindqvist, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Upon DNA damage, cell cycle progression is temporally blocked to avoid propagation of mutations. While transformed cells largely maintain the competence to recover from a cell cycle arrest, untransformed cells past the G1/S transition lose mitotic inducers, and thus the ability to resume cell division. This permanent cell cycle exit depends on p21, p53, and APC/C(Cdh1). However, when and how permanent cell cycle exit occurs remains unclear. Here, we have investigated the cell cycle response to DNA damage in single cells that express Cyclin B1 fused to eYFP at the endogenous locus. We find that upon DNA damage Cyclin B1-eYFP continues to accumulate up to a threshold level, which is reached only in G2 phase. Above this threshold, a p21 and p53-dependent nuclear translocation required for APC/C(Cdh1)-mediated Cyclin B1-eYFP degradation is initiated. Thus, cell cycle exit is decoupled from activation of the DNA damage response in a manner that correlates to Cyclin B1 levels, suggesting that G2 activities directly feed into the decision for cell cycle exit. Once Cyclin B1-eYFP nuclear translocation occurs, checkpoint inhibition can no longer promote mitotic entry or re-expression of mitotic inducers, suggesting that nuclear translocation of Cyclin B1 marks the restriction point for permanent cell cycle exit in G2 phase.

  4. Implementation of Cognitive-Behavioral Substance Abuse Treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Treatment Engagement and Abstinence at Treatment Exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetta Gouse

    Full Text Available This study documented the treatment cascade for engagement in care and abstinence at treatment exit as well as examined correlates of these outcomes for the first certified Matrix Model® substance abuse treatment site in Sub-Saharan Africa.This retrospective chart review conducted at a resource-limited community clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, assessed treatment readiness and substance use severity at treatment entry as correlates of the number of sessions attended and biologically confirmed abstinence at treatment exit among 986 clients who initiated treatment from 2009-2014. Sociodemographic and clinical correlates of treatment outcomes were examined using logistic regression, modeling treatment completion and abstinence at treatment exit separately.Of the 2,233 clients who completed screening, approximately 44% (n = 986 initiated treatment. Among those who initiated treatment, 45% completed at least four group sessions, 30% completed early recovery skills training (i.e., at least eight group sessions, and 13% completed the full 16-week program. Approximately half (54% of clients who provided a urine sample had negative urine toxicology results for any substance at treatment exit. Higher motivation at treatment entry was independently associated with greater odds of treatment completion and negative urine toxicology results at treatment exit.Findings provide initial support for the successful implementation the Matrix Model in a resource-limited setting. Motivational enhancement interventions could support treatment initiation, promote sustained engagement in treatment, and achieve better treatment outcomes.

  5. Effectiveness of a Batteryless and Wireless Wearable Sensor System for Identifying Bed and Chair Exits in Healthy Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Roberto Luis Shinmoto; Visvanathan, Renuka; Hoskins, Stephen; van den Hengel, Anton; Ranasinghe, Damith C

    2016-04-15

    Aging populations are increasing worldwide and strategies to minimize the impact of falls on older people need to be examined. Falls in hospitals are common and current hospital technological implementations use localized sensors on beds and chairs to alert caregivers of unsupervised patient ambulations; however, such systems have high false alarm rates. We investigate the recognition of bed and chair exits in real-time using a wireless wearable sensor worn by healthy older volunteers. Fourteen healthy older participants joined in supervised trials. They wore a batteryless, lightweight and wireless sensor over their attire and performed a set of broadly scripted activities. We developed a movement monitoring approach for the recognition of bed and chair exits based on a machine learning activity predictor. We investigated the effectiveness of our approach in generating bed and chair exit alerts in two possible clinical deployments (Room 1 and Room 2). The system obtained recall results above 93% (Room 2) and 94% (Room 1) for bed and chair exits, respectively. Precision was >78% and 67%, respectively, while F-score was >84% and 77% for bed and chair exits, respectively. This system has potential for real-time monitoring but further research in the final target population of older people is necessary.

  6. Effectiveness of a Batteryless and Wireless Wearable Sensor System for Identifying Bed and Chair Exits in Healthy Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Luis Shinmoto Torres

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aging populations are increasing worldwide and strategies to minimize the impact of falls on older people need to be examined. Falls in hospitals are common and current hospital technological implementations use localized sensors on beds and chairs to alert caregivers of unsupervised patient ambulations; however, such systems have high false alarm rates. We investigate the recognition of bed and chair exits in real-time using a wireless wearable sensor worn by healthy older volunteers. Fourteen healthy older participants joined in supervised trials. They wore a batteryless, lightweight and wireless sensor over their attire and performed a set of broadly scripted activities. We developed a movement monitoring approach for the recognition of bed and chair exits based on a machine learning activity predictor. We investigated the effectiveness of our approach in generating bed and chair exit alerts in two possible clinical deployments (Room 1 and Room 2. The system obtained recall results above 93% (Room 2 and 94% (Room 1 for bed and chair exits, respectively. Precision was >78% and 67%, respectively, while F-score was >84% and 77% for bed and chair exits, respectively. This system has potential for real-time monitoring but further research in the final target population of older people is necessary.

  7. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  8. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  9. Green building: sustainable building quality; Green Building: nachhaltige Gebaeudequalitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, R.

    2010-07-01

    This article takes a look at the 'Portikon' office building near Zurich, Switzerland, that meets the 'Minergie-P' very low energy consumption requirements. The author is of the opinion that the project can be seen as a reference project for sustainable building technology. The structure of the seven-storey building with a central atrium is described and discussed. The 'Minergie-P' energy concept is discussed, as are the 1,100 square meters of photovoltaic panels on the roof of the building. Heating energy is provided by Zurich's waste incineration plant nearby. Electro-biological aspects in the building are taken care of by appropriate earthing and shielding of cables. The building's facility management system and the installations used are briefly discussed.

  10. MO-E-BRB-04: Real-Time Exit-Fluence Delivery Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebers, J. [University of Virginia Health System (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Recent high profile reports of technical failures and human errors causing severe radiation- induced injuries and deaths come in support of the sustained efforts to ensure patient safety in the delivery of radiation treatments. In addition, highly conformal radiation therapies and escalated fraction doses mandate increased and sustained accuracy of the entire radiotherapy process. Consequently, and as a Result of AAPM and ASTRO led efforts patient specific quality assurance for specialized radiation treatments such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT and Arc Therapy had become a three-tier process: Pre-treatment, during treatment, and post treatment patient specific QA. Traditional patient QA consists of pre-treatment data transfer integrity dosimetric verifications and during-treatment geometric verifications. However, as treatment adaptation becomes closer to deployment in the clinics, during treatment validation via exit detectors had become a realistic QA option, permitting plan assessment in near real time. Post-treatment, machine logs allow comparisons of a range of mechanical parameters. A combination of these techniques could be used in evaluating inter-fraction, and intra-fraction delivery over a long time period such as an year, to evaluate the significant errors per site, per treatment technique. This type of data mining over longer periods of time provides the potential to recognize suboptimal radiation treatments, while allowing to identify systematic, possibly significant errors. This would allow creation of a data base of realized errors, small and large in dosimetry that could be for process or equipment improvement. This educational symposium will describe and review patient QA techniques, results, and strategies for patient specific quality assurance. Learning Objectives: review the goals of pre-treatment QA for various specialized procedures review methods and means for pre-treatment QA, limitations and tolerances review the scenarios where Varian/Tomo Log files

  11. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...... efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies....

  12. Danish building typologies and building stock analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    enough to meet the government’s plan to make Danish buildings free from use of fossil fuels by 2035. This will probably require around 50 % energy savings in the Danish building stock as a whole. However, the project has proven that dedicated engagement of locals can speed up market penetration...... energy savings in residential buildings. The intension with this analysis was to investigate the possible energy reduction in Denmark if the same approach had been taken for the entire Danish building stock. The report concludes that the ZeroHome initiative clearly results in energy savings, but far from...... for energy savings in the existing Building stock....

  13. A time-compressed simulated geomagnetic storm influences the nest-exiting flight angles of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, D M S; Corrêa, A A C; Vaillant, O S; de Melo, V Bandeira; Gouvêa, G S; Ferreira, C G; Ferreira, T A; Wajnberg, E

    2014-03-01

    Insects have been used as models for understanding animal orientation. It is well accepted that social insects such as honeybees and ants use different natural cues in their orientation mechanism. A magnetic sensitivity was suggested for the stingless bee Schwarziana quadripunctata, based on the observation of a surprising effect of a geomagnetic storm on the nest-exiting flight angles. Stimulated by this result, in this paper, the effects of a time-compressed simulated geomagnetic storm (TC-SGS) on the nest-exiting flight angles of another stingless bee, Tetragonisca angustula, are presented. Under an applied SGS, either on the horizontal or vertical component of the geomagnetic field, both nest-exiting flight angles, dip and azimuth, are statistically different from those under geomagnetic conditions. The angular dependence of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra of whole stingless bees shows the presence of organized magnetic nanoparticles in their bodies, which indicates this material as a possible magnetic detector.

  14. Building exploration with leeches Hirudo verbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch

    2015-08-01

    Safe evacuation of people from building and outdoor environments, and search and rescue operations, always will remain actual in course of all socio-technological developments. Modern facilities offer a range of automated systems to guide residents towards emergency exists. The systems are assumed to be infallible. But what if they fail? How occupants not familiar with a building layout will be looking for exits in case of very limited visibility where tactile sensing is the only way to assess the environment? Analogous models of human behaviour, and socio-dynamics in general, are provided to be fruitful ways to explore alternative, or would-be scenarios. Crowd, or a single person, dynamics could be imitated using particle systems, reaction-diffusion chemical medium, electro-magnetic fields, or social insects. Each type of analogous model offer unique insights on behavioural patterns of natural systems in constrained geometries. In this particular paper we have chosen leeches to analyse patterns of exploration. Reasons are two-fold. First, when deprived from other stimuli leeches change their behavioural modes in an automated regime in response to mechanical stimulation. Therefore leeches can give us invaluable information on how human beings might behave under stress and limited visibility. Second, leeches are ideal blueprints of future soft-bodied rescue robots. Leeches have modular nervous circuitry with a rich behavioral spectrum. Leeches are multi-functional, fault-tolerant with autonomous inter-segment coordination and adaptive decision-making. We aim to answer the question: how efficiently a real building can be explored and whether there any dependencies on the pathways of exploration and geometrical complexity of the building. In our case studies we use templates made on the floor plan of real building.

  15. A theory of germinal center B cell selection, division, and exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Mohr, Elodie; Pelletier, Nadége; Zhang, Yang; Victora, Gabriel D; Toellner, Kai-Michael

    2012-07-26

    High-affinity antibodies are generated in germinal centers in a process involving mutation and selection of B cells. Information processing in germinal center reactions has been investigated in a number of recent experiments. These have revealed cell migration patterns, asymmetric cell divisions, and cell-cell interaction characteristics, used here to develop a theory of germinal center B cell selection, division, and exit (the LEDA model). According to this model, B cells selected by T follicular helper cells on the basis of successful antigen processing always return to the dark zone for asymmetric division, and acquired antigen is inherited by one daughter cell only. Antigen-retaining B cells differentiate to plasma cells and leave the germinal center through the dark zone. This theory has implications for the functioning of germinal centers because compared to previous models, high-affinity antibodies appear one day earlier and the amount of derived plasma cells is considerably larger.

  16. Pedestrian dynamics with explicit sharing of exit choice during egress through a long corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Aravinda Ramakrishnan; Karan, Farshad Salimi Naneh; Chakraborty, Subhadeep

    2017-02-01

    The egress literature abounds with studies and models of emergency pedestrian evacuation behavior. Each model tries to incorporate more details and features of the crowd movement dynamics to improve its accuracy. This paper combines a relatively simple pedestrian motion model with a position dependent Voter model to study the effects of opinion sharing on crowd evacuation characteristics. Effect of the presence of leaders on the final outcome of the evacuation is studied in detail. An analytical solution for a simplified version of the egress dynamics with opinion exchange is presented, followed by a set of numerical simulations. Interesting findings about the effect of the strength of interaction between individuals, number and distribution of leaders and initial bias of the evacuees on the final distribution of evacuees over available exits, mean number of steps to evacuate, etc. are presented.

  17. Horizontal career changes as an alternative to premature exit from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, Paula; Zieschang, Hanna; Bräunig, Dietmar; Jahn, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    Certain workplaces are called jobs with limited tenure. Due to physical or psychosocial risk factors, often coupled with qualification mismatches, workers cannot grow old in them. That may lead to premature exit into retirement, to a period of drawing a work incapacity pension or to a long spell of unemployment. A horizontal career change, which enables the worker to move on to a less burdening workplace while preserving social status, is a possible solution. The objective of the "Horizontal career change-a new job opportunity for older employees" project is to develop a model of career changes for workers employed in jobs with limited tenure and to implement it in the form of an information- and communication technology-based tool. Possible applications range from individual career planning, through institutionalized vocational reintegration, to personnel development in small and medium-sized enterprises.

  18. Rho GTPases regulate PRK2/PKN2 to control entry into mitosis and exit from cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; Durgan, Joanne; Magalhaes, Ana; Hall, Alan

    2007-03-21

    Rho GTPases regulate multiple signal transduction pathways that influence many aspects of cell behaviour, including migration, morphology, polarity and cell cycle. Through their ability to control the assembly and organization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, Rho and Cdc42 make several key contributions during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle, including spindle assembly, spindle positioning, cleavage furrow contraction and abscission. We now report that PRK2/PKN2, a Ser/Thr kinase and Rho/Rac effector protein, is an essential regulator of both entry into mitosis and exit from cytokinesis in HeLa S3 cells. PRK2 is required for abscission of the midbody at the end of the cell division cycle and for phosphorylation and activation of Cdc25B, the phosphatase required for activation of mitotic cyclin/Cdk1 complexes at the G2/M transition. This reveals an additional step in the mammalian cell cycle controlled by Rho GTPases.

  19. CFD Analysis of Nozzle Exit Position Effect in Ejector Gas Removal System in Geothermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyo Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The single stage ejector is used to extract the Non CondensableGas (NCG in the condenser using the working principle of the Venturi tube. Three dimensional computational simulation of the ejector according to the operating conditions was conducted to determine the flow in the ejector. Motive steam entering through the convergent – divergent nozzle with increasing flow velocity so that the low pressure exist around the nozzle. Comparison is done also in a two dimensional simulation to know the differences occurring phenomena and flow inside ejector. Different simulation results obtained between two dimensional and three dimensional simulation. Reverse flow which occurs in the mixing chamber made the static pressure in the area has increased dramatically. Then the variation performed on Exit Nozzle Position (NXP to determine the changes of the flow of the NCG and the vacuum level of the ejector. Keywords: Ejector, NCG, CFD, Compressible flow.

  20. Characterization of Carbon Particulates in the Exit Flow of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Meyer, Marit E.; Agui, Juan H.; Berger, Gordon M.; Vijayakumar, R.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    The ISS presently recovers oxygen from crew respiration via a Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) that utilizes the Sabatier chemical process to reduce captured carbon dioxide to methane (CH4) and water. In order to recover more of the hydrogen from the methane and increase oxygen recovery, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is investigating a technology, plasma pyrolysis, to convert the methane to acetylene. The Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (or PPA), achieves 90% or greater conversion efficiency, but a small amount of solid carbon particulates are generated as a side product and must be filtered before the acetylene is removed and the hydrogen-rich gas stream is recycled back to the CRA. In this work, we present the experimental results of an initial characterization of the carbon particulates in the PPA exit gas stream. We also present several potential options to remove these carbon particulates via carbon traps and filters to minimize resupply mass and required downtime for regeneration.

  1. Flow of granular matter in a silo with multiple exit orifices: Jamming to mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Sandesh; Kunte, Amit; Doshi, Pankaj; Orpe, Ashish V.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the mixing characteristics of dry granular material while draining down a silo with multiple exit orifices. The mixing in the silo, which otherwise consists of noninteracting stagnant and flowing regions, is observed to improve significantly when the flow through specific orifices is stopped intermittently. This momentary stoppage of flow through the orifice is either controlled manually or is chosen by the system itself when the orifice width is small enough to cause spontaneous jamming and unjamming. We observe that the overall mixing behavior shows a systematic dependence on the frequency of closing and opening of specific orifices. In particular, the silo configuration employing random jamming and unjamming of any of the orifices shows early evidence of chaotic mixing. When operated in a multipass mode, the system exhibits a practical and efficient way of mixing particles.

  2. Dicer, a new regulator of pluripotency exit and LINE-1 elements in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodak, Maxime; Cirera-Salinas, Daniel; Yu, Jian; Ngondo, Richard P; Ciaudo, Constance

    2017-02-01

    A gene regulation network orchestrates processes ensuring the maintenance of cellular identity and genome integrity. Small RNAs generated by the RNAse III DICER have emerged as central players in this network. Moreover, deletion of Dicer in mice leads to early embryonic lethality. To better understand the underlying mechanisms leading to this phenotype, we generated Dicer-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Their detailed characterization revealed an impaired differentiation potential, and incapacity to exit from the pluripotency state. We also observed a strong accumulation of LINE-1 (L1s) transcripts, which was translated at protein level and led to an increased L1s retrotransposition. Our findings reveal Dicer as a new essential player that sustains mESCs self-renewal and genome integrity by controlling L1s regulation.

  3. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    ). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...

  4. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    ). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...

  5. Motivating signage prompts safety belt use among drivers exiting senior communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, B S; Cox, A B; Cox, D J

    2000-01-01

    Senior drivers are vulnerable to automobile crashes and subsequent injury and death. Safety belts reduce health risks associated with auto crashes. Therefore, it is important to encourage senior drivers to wear safety belts while driving. Using an AB design, replicated five times, we evaluated the short- and long-term effects of a sign with the message "BUCKLE UP, STAY SAFE" attached to a stop sign at the exits of five different senior communities. Safety belt use was stable during two pretreatment assessments averaged across the five sites and 250 drivers (72% and 68% usage), but significantly increased following installation of these signs (94% usage). Six months after installation of the signs, the effect persisted (88% usage). Use of such signs may be a cost-effective way of promoting safety belt use.

  6. Online case studies: HESI Exit Exam scores and NCLEX-RN outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anne; Rose, Gloria; Willson, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Using data obtained for the 7th HESI Exit Exam (E(2)) validity study, the value of Elsevier's online case studies in assisting students to prepare for the E(2) and the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) was investigated. Of the 137 randomly selected schools of nursing, 72 (52.55%) participated in the study. The student sample consisted of 4,383 students from associate degree, baccalaureate, and diploma schools of nursing. Findings indicated that the mean E(2) score and the NCLEX-RN pass rate were significantly higher for students attending schools that used the case studies than they were for students attending schools that did not use the case studies. Descriptive data indicated that the case studies were most often used for remediation and examination preparation.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF VISITOR MOTIVATION OF THE EXIT MUSIC FESTIVAL (THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana BLEŠIĆ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The decision to visit a festival or an event is a directed activity initiated by a wish to fulfil certain cultural need. Although motives only represent one of the variables describing visitor behaviour (besides learning, cultural conditioning and social influences, they form a crucial point that initiates decision making. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement instrument that can be used to measure the most significant festival motivators for visitors’ travels to music festivals. The paper delivers the results of a questionnaire research conducted during the 11th EXIT festival (Petrovaradin Fortress, Novi Sad, The Republic of Serbia in July 2011. The results were based on 566 questionnaires. The factor analysis generated three items: socialization; exploration of the festival programme and atmosphere; and perception of the festival and learning.

  8. The end-stage renal disease industry and exit strategies for nephrologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, John D

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to identify exit strategies for nephrologists under changing conditions in the dialysis market. The end-stage renal disease service provider market continues to be highly receptive to consolidation. Taking advantage of large economies of scale, large for-profit dialysis chains have surpassed independent operators in both number of clinics and total patients. With relatively low barriers to entry, new smaller clinics continue to open, serving a niche outside the larger chains. Additional competition comes in the form of medium players funded by venture capitalists with the added pressure of rapid growth and financial return. To ensure market power in both dialysis products and managed care negotiation leverage, medium and large service providers will continue to seek out attractive acquisition targets. For nephrologists to capitalize on investment, clinic and business preparation will continue to be the driving force for these divestitures.

  9. Educational Inequalities in Exit from Paid Employment among Dutch Workers: The Influence of Health, Lifestyle and Work.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan J W Robroek

    Full Text Available Individuals with lower socioeconomic status are at increased risk of involuntary exit from paid employment. To give sound advice for primary prevention in the workforce, insight is needed into the role of mediating factors between socioeconomic status and labour force participation. Therefore, it is aimed to investigate the influence of health status, lifestyle-related factors and work characteristics on educational differences in exit from paid employment.14,708 Dutch employees participated in a ten-year follow-up study during 1999-2008. At baseline, education, self-perceived health, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, sports, BMI and psychosocial (demands, control, rewards and physical work characteristics were measured by questionnaire. Employment status was ascertained monthly based on tax records. The relation between education, health, lifestyle, work-characteristics and exit from paid employment through disability benefits, unemployment, early retirement and economic inactivity was investigated by competing risks regression analyses. The mediating effects of these factors on educational differences in exit from paid employment were tested using a stepwise approach.Lower educated workers were more likely to exit paid employment through disability benefits (SHR:1.84, unemployment (SHR:1.74, and economic inactivity (SHR:1.53 but not due to early retirement (SHR:0.92. Poor or moderate health, an unhealthy lifestyle, and unfavourable work characteristics were associated with disability benefits and unemployment, and an unhealthy lifestyle with economic inactivity. Educational differences in disability benefits were explained for 40% by health, 31% by lifestyle, and 12% by work characteristics. For economic inactivity and unemployment, up to 14% and 21% of the educational differences could be explained, particularly by lifestyle-related factors.There are educational differences in exit from paid employment, which are partly mediated by health

  10. The mechanism of killing and exiting the protozoan host Acanthamoeba polyphaga by Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L Y; Kwaik, Y A

    2000-02-01

    The ability of Legionella pneumophila to cause legionnaires' disease is dependent on its capacity to replicate within cells in the alveolar spaces. The bacteria kill mammalian cells in two phases: induction of apoptosis during the early stages of infection, followed by an independent and rapid necrosis during later stages of the infection, mediated by a pore-forming activity. In the environment, L. pneumophila is a parasite of protozoa. The molecular mechanisms by which L. pneumophila kills the protozoan cells, after their exploitation for intracellular proliferation, are not known. In an effort to decipher these mechanisms, we have examined induction of both apoptosis and necrosis in the protozoan Acanthamoeba polyphaga upon infection by L. pneumophila. Our data show that, although A. polyphaga undergoes apoptosis following treatment with actinomycin D, L. pneumophila does not induce apoptosis in these cells. Instead, intracellular L. pneumophila induces necrotic death in A. polyphaga, which is mediated by the pore-forming activity. Mutants of L. pneumophila defective in expression of the pore-forming activity are indistinguishable from the parental strain in intracellular replication within A. polyphaga. The parental strain bacteria cause necrosis-mediated lysis of all the A. polyphaga cells within 48 h after infection, and all the intracellular bacteria are released into the tissue culture medium. In contrast, all cells infected by the mutants remain intact, and the intracellular bacteria are 'trapped' within A. polyphaga after the termination of intracellular replication. Failure to exit the host cell after termination of intracellular replication results in a gradual decline in the viability of the mutant strain bacteria within A. polyphaga starting 48h after infection. Our data show that the pore-forming activity of L. pneumophila is not required for intracellular bacterial replication within A. polyphaga but is required for killing and exiting the protozoan

  11. 1-40-keV fixed-exit monochromator for a wafer mapping TXRF facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Fabio; Apostolo, G.; Freund, Andreas K.; Mangiagalli, P.; Navizet, M.; Troxel, C. L.

    1998-12-01

    An industrial facility for the mapping of trace impurities on the surface of 300 mm Silicon wafers will be commissioned at the end of 1998. The elements to be detected range from Na to Hg with a target routine detection limit of 108 atoms/cm2. The monochromator of the facility plays a central role and fulfills the following requirements: ease of operations and fast tuning (one single motor); extended energy range (1 - 40 KeV covered by a fixed exit Si(111) channel cut and multilayer pair); smooth and reliable running (water cooling even in the powerful ESRF undulator beams at high energies). The mechanical structure of the monochromator is based on well-established concepts: an external goniometer transfers the main rotation to the in-vacuum plateau via a hollow differentially pumped feed-through. The optical arrangement shows some novelties: the plateau can be cooled either by water or liquid nitrogen and it holds the convex- concave machined Si(111) channel-cut for fixed exit performances. The shape of the machined surfaces of the crystal helps also on to spread the power density of the beam on the silicon surface. A set of two identical multilayers are also mounted on the plateau and the transition from the Si(111) crystal to the multilayer operation is performed by rotating the wafer main axis by about 180 degrees. The whole facility is centered around the three main components: the monochromator, the wafer handling robots and the two linear arrays of solid state fluorescence detectors.

  12. Cdc14 Early Anaphase Release, FEAR, Is Limited to the Nucleus and Dispensable for Efficient Mitotic Exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Yellman

    Full Text Available Cdc14 phosphatase is a key regulator of exit from mitosis, acting primarily through antagonism of cyclin-dependent kinase, and is also thought to be important for meiosis. Cdc14 is released from its sequestration site in the nucleolus in two stages, first by the non-essential Cdc Fourteen Early Anaphase Release (FEAR pathway and later by the essential Mitotic Exit Network (MEN, which drives efficient export of Cdc14 to the cytoplasm. We find that Cdc14 is confined to the nucleus during early mitotic anaphase release, and during its meiosis I release. Proteins whose degradation is directed by Cdc14 as a requirement for mitotic exit (e.g. the B-type cyclin, Clb2, remain stable during mitotic FEAR, a result consistent with Cdc14 being restricted to the nucleus and not participating directly in mitotic exit. Cdc14 released by the FEAR pathway has been proposed to have a wide variety of activities, all of which are thought to promote passage through anaphase. Proposed functions of FEAR include stabilization of anaphase spindles, resolution of the rDNA to allow its segregation, and priming of the MEN so that mitotic exit can occur promptly and efficiently. We tested the model for FEAR functions using the FEAR-deficient mutation net1-6cdk. Our cytological observations indicate that, contrary to the current model, FEAR is fully dispensable for timely progression through a series of anaphase landmarks and mitotic exit, although it is required for timely rDNA segregation. The net1-6cdk mutation suppresses temperature-sensitive mutations in MEN genes, suggesting that rather than activating mitotic exit, FEAR either inhibits the MEN or has no direct effect upon it. One interpretation of this result is that FEAR delays MEN activation to ensure that rDNA segregation occurs before mitotic exit. Our findings clarify the distinction between FEAR and MEN-dependent Cdc14 activities and will help guide emerging quantitative models of this cell cycle transition.

  13. Cdc14 Early Anaphase Release, FEAR, Is Limited to the Nucleus and Dispensable for Efficient Mitotic Exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellman, Christopher M; Roeder, G Shirleen

    2015-01-01

    Cdc14 phosphatase is a key regulator of exit from mitosis, acting primarily through antagonism of cyclin-dependent kinase, and is also thought to be important for meiosis. Cdc14 is released from its sequestration site in the nucleolus in two stages, first by the non-essential Cdc Fourteen Early Anaphase Release (FEAR) pathway and later by the essential Mitotic Exit Network (MEN), which drives efficient export of Cdc14 to the cytoplasm. We find that Cdc14 is confined to the nucleus during early mitotic anaphase release, and during its meiosis I release. Proteins whose degradation is directed by Cdc14 as a requirement for mitotic exit (e.g. the B-type cyclin, Clb2), remain stable during mitotic FEAR, a result consistent with Cdc14 being restricted to the nucleus and not participating directly in mitotic exit. Cdc14 released by the FEAR pathway has been proposed to have a wide variety of activities, all of which are thought to promote passage through anaphase. Proposed functions of FEAR include stabilization of anaphase spindles, resolution of the rDNA to allow its segregation, and priming of the MEN so that mitotic exit can occur promptly and efficiently. We tested the model for FEAR functions using the FEAR-deficient mutation net1-6cdk. Our cytological observations indicate that, contrary to the current model, FEAR is fully dispensable for timely progression through a series of anaphase landmarks and mitotic exit, although it is required for timely rDNA segregation. The net1-6cdk mutation suppresses temperature-sensitive mutations in MEN genes, suggesting that rather than activating mitotic exit, FEAR either inhibits the MEN or has no direct effect upon it. One interpretation of this result is that FEAR delays MEN activation to ensure that rDNA segregation occurs before mitotic exit. Our findings clarify the distinction between FEAR and MEN-dependent Cdc14 activities and will help guide emerging quantitative models of this cell cycle transition.

  14. Flow distribution measurements at the exit of bipolar plates in a PEM fuel cell stack; Messung der Stroemungsverteilung am Austritt der Bipolarplatten eines Brennstoffzellen-Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinner, Joachim; Willert, Christian [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany). Abt. Triebwerksmesstechnik; Schneider, Armin; Mack-Gardner, Andre [Adam Opel GmbH, Ruesselsheim (Germany). Alternative Propulsion Center Europe

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents two different experimental approaches which concentrate on capturing the flow distribution close to the anode exit header of a prototype 8-12 KW fuel cell stack operated with air at realistic flow rates. The first approach intends to visualize the penetration depth of millimeter-sized jets towards the exit manifold. The second one is focused on obtaining the exit jet velocity field downstream of the bipolar plate exit header across the entire stack height by repeated 2C-PIV measurements on densely spaced adjacent light sheet planes. An overview of the experimental setup and the data evaluation is given. (orig.)

  15. Global building physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote...... lecture and illustrates global relations to highlight some of the challenges that we see today....

  16. Global Building Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper......High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...

  17. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes and gives example on how Information and Communication, ICT, can and will enhance and support the building functional systems defined from client and end-user needs and requirements. The building systems may be derived from functional requirements on buildings such as usability...... and security on highest level with sub-systems definitions on lever levels. Building functional sub-systems may be defined for user comfort, indoor-climate, evacuation, space configuration, aesthetics, O&M etc. These building systems are supported by Information and Communication Technology, ICT, and building...... component systems that are accessed and integrated in the real world of building use in different contexts. The ICT systems may be physically or virtually embedded in the building. Already in 1982 AT&T established the 'intelligent buildings', IB, concept due to marketing reasons and the Informart building...

  18. Retrofitting Listed Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a case study where the energy demand for a listed building constructed in 1900 is reduced. Many older buildings are listed and have restrictions that include the entire building or that include only its exterior. For the building presented, only its exterior facade is listed...... of the local urban environment and therefore listed. The reduced energy demand, related to individual measures, is estimated and building physics requirements are addressed together with the economic options for evaluating the profitability....

  19. 47 CFR 64.1330 - State review of payphone entry and exit regulations and public interest payphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations and public interest payphones. 64.1330 Section 64.1330 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... its rules and policies to determine whether it has provided for public interest payphones consistent... Provision of Payphone Service § 64.1330 State review of payphone entry and exit regulations and...

  20. Closing the Academic Achievement Gap on the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) through Professional Learning Communities (PLC) Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenrostro, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of importance that DuFour's nine characteristics of highly effective schools have on closing the academic achievement gap on the California High School Exit Exam, as perceived by high school principals. The study also examined the strategies believed to be most important in…

  1. Educational inequalities in exit from paid employment among Dutch workers: The influence of health, lifestyle and work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); A. Rongen (Anne); C.H. Arts (Coos); Otten, F.W.H. (Ferdy W.H.); A. Burdorf (Alex); M. Schuring (Merel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground Individuals with lower socioeconomic status are at increased risk of involuntary exit from paid employment. To give sound advice for primary prevention in the workforce, insight is needed into the role of mediating factors between socioeconomic status and labour force particip

  2. Clearance of emergency exits for use by the elderly, a proposal for an addition to a Dutch standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, A.I.M.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.; Snijders, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    The maximum pulling and pushing forces of a sample of 750 persons between 20 and 30 and over 50 years of age are presented. Both forces were measured in a free standing position that was related to opening a heavy door, which makes it possible to use the information in a standard on emergency exits.

  3. Comparison of experimental hut entrance and exit behavior between Anopheles darlingi from the Cayo District, Belize, and Zungarococha, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Paige; Diaz Rodriguez, Gloria Alicia; Briceno, Ireneo; King, Russell; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P

    2013-12-01

    Anopheles darlingi is a major vector for malaria in Central and South America. Behavioral, ecological, genetic, and morphologic variability has been observed across its wide distribution. Recent studies have documented that 2 distinct genotypes exist for An. darlingi: a northern lineage (Belize, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, and Panama) and a southern lineage (Amazonia and southern Brazil). In order to determine if these genotypes exhibited different behavioral traits, entrance and exit movement patterns between 2 field populations of An. darlingi that represented each genotype were evaluated using experimental huts. The Belize population exhibited bimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. and 5:00-6:00 a.m. and peak exiting occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. The Peru population exhibited unimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 10:00-11:00 p.m. and peak exiting occurring between 11:00-12:00 a.m. with a secondary smaller peak at 2:30 a.m. Entrance and exit behavioral patterns were significantly different between the Belize and Peru populations of An. darlingi (log-rank [Mantel-Cox] P < 0.001). Information from the present study will be used in the future to determine if there is a correlation between genotype and host-seeking behavior and can be used in the present for regional vector risk assessment.

  4. The Fire-Alarm Game: Exit Training Using Negative and Positive Reinforcement under Varied Stimulus Conditions. Short Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holburn, C. Steven; Dougher, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques for training a severely retarded blind client to exit his living unit during a fire drill used a combination of negative and positive reinforcement. Following a shaping procedure, the client learned to leave his living unit from any internal point through generalization training and subsequent test probes. (Author/CL)

  5. Turbulent fluid-structure interaction of water-entry/exit of a rotating circular cylinder using SPH method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfarian, Jafar; Saghatchi, Roozbeh; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the two-dimensional (2D) water-entry and exit of a rotating circular cylinder using the Sub-Particle Scale (SPS) turbulence model of a Lagrangian particle-based Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations along with the continuity have been solved as the governing equations of the problem. The accuracy of the numerical code is verified using the case of water-entry and exit of a nonrotating circular cylinder. The numerical simulations of water-entry and exit of the rotating circular cylinder are performed at Froude numbers of 2, 5, 8, and specific gravities of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.75, rotating at the dimensionless rates of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75. The effect of governing parameters and vortex shedding behind the cylinder on the trajectory curves, velocity components in the flow field, and the deformation of free surface for both cases have been investigated in detail. It is seen that the rotation has a great effect on the curvature of the trajectory path and velocity components in water-entry and exit cases due to the interaction of imposed lift and drag forces with the inertia force.

  6. Positive feedback promotes mitotic exit via the APC/C-Cdh1-separase-Cdc14 axis in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Yuhki; Naoki, Koike; Suzuki, Asuka; Ushimaru, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    The mitotic inhibitor securin is degraded via the ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-Cdc20 after anaphase onset. This triggers activation of the mitotic protease separase and thereby sister chromatid separation. However, only a proportion of securin molecules are degraded at metaphase-anaphase transition and the remaining molecules are still present in anaphase. The roles of securin and separase in late mitosis remain elusive. Here, we show that securin still inhibits separase to repress mitotic exit in anaphase in budding yeast. APC/C-Cdh1-mediated securin degradation at telophase further liberated separase, which promotes Cdc14 release and mitotic exit. Separase executed these events via its proteolytic action and that in the Cdc14 early release (FEAR) network. Cdc14 release further activated APC/C-Cdh1 in the manner of a positive feedback loop. Thus, the positive feedback promotes mitotic exit via the APC/C-Cdh1-separase-Cdc14 axis. This study shows the importance of the two-step degradation mode of securin and the role of separase in mitotic exit.

  7. Closing the Academic Achievement Gap on the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) through Professional Learning Communities (PLC) Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenrostro, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of importance that DuFour's nine characteristics of highly effective schools have on closing the academic achievement gap on the California High School Exit Exam, as perceived by high school principals. The study also examined the strategies believed to be most important in developing…

  8. Using Hirschman's Concept of Exit, Voice, and Loyalty To Understand Public Response to the Charter School Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dan L.; Taylor-King, Sheila

    When consumers perceive a lessening in the value of any particular good or service provided by a free-market private enterprise, the likelihood of exit (that is, their choice of an alternative provider) is high. Parents of students enrolled in public schools, on the other hand, typically have not been able to choose an alternative service…

  9. Unexpected Up/Down asymmetry measured in axial radiation exiting high-temperature dynamic-hohlraum x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Lemke, R. W.; Mock, R. C.; Oliver, B. V.; Chandler, G. A.; Leeper, R. J.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Nash, T. J.; Ruiz, C. L.; Waisman, E. M.; Peterson, D. L.; Chrien, R. E.; Idzorek, G. C.; Watt, R. G.; Roderick, N. F.; Haines, M. G.

    2002-11-01

    A 10 TW radiation source has been developed on the 20-MA Z facility that produces a high-temperature ( 215 eV) x-ray pulse. The pulse is generated in the positive z-direction through a REH (radiation exit hole), primarily from the interior of a collapsing dynamic-hohlraum (DH) centered within a z-pinch [1]. By adding an identical REH at the bottom of the hohlraum, radiation generated in the negative z direction through the bottom offers the possibility of doubling the utility of the hohlraum. Because of the up/down symmetry of the DH about the mid-plane of the z-axis (aside from the power feed), a radiation pulse similar to that exiting the top-REH (anode) is expected leaving the bottom-REH (cathode). Measurements indicate, however, that the peak radiated power exiting the top-REH is 2±0.2 times that exiting the bottom-REH. In contrast, the total energy radiated from either REH is about the same. Detailed measurements of this unexpected asymmetry, apparently dependent on polarity, together with potential origins of the asymmetry are discussed. [1] T. W. L. Sanford, et al, in press, Phys. Plasmas 9, (Aug. 2002). *Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by the Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. The Effects of Intervention and Retention in High School Mathematics Courses on Passing the California High School Exit Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ellen Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Students who make adequate yearly progress in grade-level mathematics courses should expect to pass the mathematics portion of their high school exit exam on the first attempt. Expectation theory states that teachers' beliefs about their own students are an important factor in students' success. The purpose of this nonexperimental study was to…

  11. Immuno-electron tomography of ER exit sites reveals the existence of free COPII-coated transport carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeuschner, D.; Geerts, W.J.C.; Donselaar, E. van; Humbel, B.M.; Slot, J.W.; Koster, A.J.; Klumperman, J.

    2006-01-01

    Transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex requires assembly of the COPII coat complex at ER exit sites. Recent studies have raised the question as to whether in mammalian cells COPII coats give rise to COPIIcoated transport vesicles or instead form ER sub-domains that collec

  12. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... are going to consist of passive houses. The first sustainable buildings were built by their users, and the user – building interaction still play a decisive role for the performance of the present sustainable buildings. The users have to understand how the building functions. Urban design is essential...

  13. Importance of Building Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Banerjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non building structures. The main purpose of building codes are to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Building codes are generally intended to be applied by architects, engineers, constructors and regulators but are also used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, subcontractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers, tenants and others.

  14. Water exit pathways and proton pumping mechanism in B-type cytochrome c oxidase from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Longhua; Skjevik, Åge A; Han Du, Wen-Ge; Noodleman, Louis; Walker, Ross C; Götz, Andreas W

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a vital enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of molecular oxygen to water and pumps protons across mitochondrial and bacterial membranes. While proton uptake channels as well as water exit channels have been identified for A-type CcOs, the means by which water and protons exit B-type CcOs remain unclear. In this work, we investigate potential mechanisms for proton transport above the dinuclear center (DNC) in ba3-type CcO of Thermus thermophilus. Using long-time scale, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for several relevant protonation states, we identify a potential mechanism for proton transport that involves propionate A of the active site heme a3 and residues Asp372, His376 and Glu126(II), with residue His376 acting as the proton-loading site. The proposed proton transport process involves a rotation of residue His376 and is in line with experimental findings. We also demonstrate how the strength of the salt bridge between residues Arg225 and Asp287 depends on the protonation state and that this salt bridge is unlikely to act as a simple electrostatic gate that prevents proton backflow. We identify two water exit pathways that connect the water pool above the DNC to the outer P-side of the membrane, which can potentially also act as proton exit transport pathways. Importantly, these water exit pathways can be blocked by narrowing the entrance channel between residues Gln151(II) and Arg449/Arg450 or by obstructing the entrance through a conformational change of residue Tyr136, respectively, both of which seem to be affected by protonation of residue His376.

  15. Nicotinamide impairs entry into and exit from meiosis I in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepsamen, Angelique; Wu, Lindsay; Lau, Laurin; Listijono, Dave; Ledger, William; Sinclair, David; Homer, Hayden

    2015-01-01

    Following exit from meiosis I, mammalian oocytes immediately enter meiosis II without an intervening interphase, accompanied by rapid reassembly of a bipolar spindle that maintains condensed chromosomes in a metaphase configuration (metaphase II arrest). Here we study the effect of nicotinamide (NAM), a non-competitive pan-sirtuin inhibitor, during meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. Sirtuins are a family of seven NAD+-dependent deacetylases (Sirt1-7), which are involved in multiple cellular processes and are emerging as important regulators in oocytes and embryos. We found that NAM significantly delayed entry into meiosis I associated with delayed accumulation of the Cdk1 co-activator, cyclin B1. GVBD was also inhibited by the Sirt2-specific inhibitor, AGK2, and in a very similar pattern to NAM, supporting the notion that as in somatic cells, NAM inhibits sirtuins in oocytes. NAM did not affect subsequent spindle assembly, chromosome alignment or the timing of first polar body extrusion (PBE). Unexpectedly, however, in the majority of oocytes with a polar body, chromatin was decondensed and a nuclear structure was present. An identical phenotype was observed when flavopiridol was used to induce Cdk1 inactivation during late meiosis I prior to PBE, but not if Cdk1 was inactivated after PBE when metaphase II arrest was already established, altogether indicating that NAM impaired establishment rather than maintenance of metaphase II arrest. During meiosis I exit in NAM-treated medium, we found that cyclin B1 levels were lower and inhibitory Cdk1 phosphorylation was increased compared with controls. Although activation of the anaphase-promoting complex-Cdc20 (APC-Cdc20) occurred on-time in NAM-treated oocytes, Cdc20 levels were higher in very late meiosis I, pointing to exaggerated APC-Cdc20-mediated proteolysis as a reason for lower cyclin B1 levels. Collectively, therefore, our data indicate that by disrupting Cdk1 regulation, NAM impairs entry into meiosis I and

  16. Applied building physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hens, Hugo S L C

    2012-01-01

    The energy crises of the 1970s, persisting moisture problems, complaints about sick buildings, thermal, visual and olfactory discomfort, and the move towards more sustainability in building construction have pushed Building Physics to the forefront of building innovation. The societal pressure to diminish energy consumption in buildings without impairing usability acted as a trigger to activate the whole notion of performance based design and construction. As with all engineering sciences, Building Physics is oriented towards application, which is why, after a first book on fundamentals this s

  17. Exit from dormancy provokes DNA-damage-induced attrition in haematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Dagmar; Lier, Amelie; Geiselhart, Anja; Thalheimer, Frederic B; Huntscha, Sina; Sobotta, Mirko C; Moehrle, Bettina; Brocks, David; Bayindir, Irem; Kaschutnig, Paul; Muedder, Katja; Klein, Corinna; Jauch, Anna; Schroeder, Timm; Geiger, Hartmut; Dick, Tobias P; Holland-Letz, Tim; Schmezer, Peter; Lane, Steven W; Rieger, Michael A; Essers, Marieke A G; Williams, David A; Trumpp, Andreas; Milsom, Michael D

    2015-04-23

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are responsible for the lifelong production of blood cells. The accumulation of DNA damage in HSCs is a hallmark of ageing and is probably a major contributing factor in age-related tissue degeneration and malignant transformation. A number of accelerated ageing syndromes are associated with defective DNA repair and genomic instability, including the most common inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, Fanconi anaemia. However, the physiological source of DNA damage in HSCs from both normal and diseased individuals remains unclear. Here we show in mice that DNA damage is a direct consequence of inducing HSCs to exit their homeostatic quiescent state in response to conditions that model physiological stress, such as infection or chronic blood loss. Repeated activation of HSCs out of their dormant state provoked the attrition of normal HSCs and, in the case of mice with a non-functional Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway, led to a complete collapse of the haematopoietic system, which phenocopied the highly penetrant bone marrow failure seen in Fanconi anaemia patients. Our findings establish a novel link between physiological stress and DNA damage in normal HSCs and provide a mechanistic explanation for the universal accumulation of DNA damage in HSCs during ageing and the accelerated failure of the haematopoietic system in Fanconi anaemia patients.

  18. Bionic approach for the prevention of exit-site infections of percutaneous devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großhauser, Johannes; Reiter, Katja; Große-Siestrup, Christian; Kikhney, Judith; Kertzscher, Ulrich; Affeld, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    Exit-site infections remain one of the main complications for percutaneous devices, such as catheters for peritoneal dialysis or drivelines for ventricular assist devices. Many efforts have been made to create a biological seal, yet without long-term success. This study investigates a new kind of percutaneous device which is coated with an extricable polymeric membrane. The bionic approach applies the naturally outwards directed growth of skin structures to technology: by pulling the protective membrane it slowly grows out of the body and a developing sulcus is exposed to dry air and an infection is avoided. In a feasibility study this kind of device was shown to reduce the rate of infection. To further investigate these devices, they were implanted in the skin of goats and observed for a period of more than 500 days. The membranes were pulled with a force of up to 2 N and the resulting movement was recorded. When being pulled, the membranes moved 0.4-0.9 mm per week, showing that the application of a continuously acting, defined force on the protective membrane causes the desired slow movement.

  19. The Cell Wall Lipid PDIM Contributes to Phagosomal Escape and Host Cell Exit of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Jeff; Hughitt, V. Keith; Velikovsky, Carlos A.; Mariuzza, Roy A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is composed of unique lipids that are important for pathogenesis. Indeed, the first-ever genetic screen in M. tuberculosis identified genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of the cell wall lipid PDIM (phthiocerol dimycocerosates) as crucial for the survival of M. tuberculosis in mice. Here we show evidence for a novel molecular mechanism of the PDIM-mediated virulence in M. tuberculosis. We characterized the DNA interaction and the regulon of Rv3167c, a transcriptional repressor that is involved in virulence regulation of M. tuberculosis, and discovered that it controls the PDIM operon. A loss-of-function genetic approach showed that PDIM levels directly correlate with the capacity of M. tuberculosis to escape the phagosome and induce host cell necrosis and macroautophagy. In conclusion, our study attributes a novel role of the cell wall lipid PDIM in intracellular host cell modulation, which is important for host cell exit and dissemination of M. tuberculosis. PMID:28270579

  20. Application of composite materials to turbofan engine fan exit guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. T.

    1980-01-01

    A program was conducted by NASA with the JT9D engine manufacturer to develop a lightweight, cost effective, composite material fan exit guide vane design having satisfactory structural durability for commerical engine use. Based on the results of a previous company supported program, eight graphite/epoxy and graphite-glass/epoxy guide vane designs were evaluated and four were selected for fabrication and testing. Two commercial fabricators each fabricated 13 vanes. Fatigue tests were used to qualify the selected design configurations under nominally dry, 38 C (100 F) and fully wet and 60 C (140 F) environmental conditions. Cost estimates for a production rate of 1000 vanes per month ranged from 1.7 to 2.6 times the cost of an all aluminum vane. This cost is 50 to 80 percent less than the initial program target cost ratio which was 3 times the cost of an aluminum vane. Application to the JT9D commercial engine is projected to provide a weight savings of 236 N (53 lb) per engine.

  1. The Relation of Visual Signs In The Narrative Structure of MTV Exit Human Trafficking Campaign Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winny Gunarti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a violation of the human rights. One of the campaign to fight against this crime takes the form of a digital campaign that aired on television and internet.   This study discusses the narrative structure of human trafficking campaign video from non-profit organization MTV Exit in 2012. This video campaign combines art collage and graphic art in its narrative structure. Nonverbal visual elements displayed in the form of a digital photo collage with animated illustrations setting. We consider this video campaign quite interesting as it is visually inform the public about the importance of safe migration through the visual signs in the narrative structure. This study analyzes qualitatively the relation of nonverbal visual signs in the narrative collage and illustration. Denotative and connotative analysis with structural semiotics approach is needed to understand the meaning of visual signs in the context of humans as cultural beings in their communities. This study is expected to be a model example of visual communication campaigns that can foster public awareness of the issue of human trafficking, especially for young women and children as young generation.

  2. DNA exit ramps are revealed in the binding landscapes obtained from simulations in helical coordinates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacia Echeverria

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA molecules are highly charged semi-flexible polymers that are involved in a wide variety of dynamical processes such as transcription and replication. Characterizing the binding landscapes around DNA molecules is essential to understanding the energetics and kinetics of various biological processes. We present a curvilinear coordinate system that fully takes into account the helical symmetry of a DNA segment. The latter naturally allows to characterize the spatial organization and motions of ligands tracking the minor or major grooves, in a motion reminiscent of sliding. Using this approach, we performed umbrella sampling (US molecular dynamics (MD simulations to calculate the three-dimensional potentials of mean force (3D-PMFs for a Na+ cation and for methyl guanidinium, an arginine analog. The computed PMFs show that, even for small ligands, the free energy landscapes are complex. In general, energy barriers of up to ~5 kcal/mol were measured for removing the ligands from the minor groove, and of ~1.5 kcal/mol for sliding along the minor groove. We shed light on the way the minor groove geometry, defined mainly by the DNA sequence, shapes the binding landscape around DNA, providing heterogeneous environments for recognition by various ligands. For example, we identified the presence of dissociation points or "exit ramps" that naturally would terminate sliding. We discuss how our findings have important implications for understanding how proteins and ligands associate and slide along DNA.

  3. DNA exit ramps are revealed in the binding landscapes obtained from simulations in helical coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Ignacia; Papoian, Garegin A

    2015-02-01

    DNA molecules are highly charged semi-flexible polymers that are involved in a wide variety of dynamical processes such as transcription and replication. Characterizing the binding landscapes around DNA molecules is essential to understanding the energetics and kinetics of various biological processes. We present a curvilinear coordinate system that fully takes into account the helical symmetry of a DNA segment. The latter naturally allows to characterize the spatial organization and motions of ligands tracking the minor or major grooves, in a motion reminiscent of sliding. Using this approach, we performed umbrella sampling (US) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to calculate the three-dimensional potentials of mean force (3D-PMFs) for a Na+ cation and for methyl guanidinium, an arginine analog. The computed PMFs show that, even for small ligands, the free energy landscapes are complex. In general, energy barriers of up to ~5 kcal/mol were measured for removing the ligands from the minor groove, and of ~1.5 kcal/mol for sliding along the minor groove. We shed light on the way the minor groove geometry, defined mainly by the DNA sequence, shapes the binding landscape around DNA, providing heterogeneous environments for recognition by various ligands. For example, we identified the presence of dissociation points or "exit ramps" that naturally would terminate sliding. We discuss how our findings have important implications for understanding how proteins and ligands associate and slide along DNA.

  4. The role of MEN (mitosis exit network) proteins in the cytokinesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Javier; Castelao, Beatriz A; Gonzalez-Novo, Alberto; Sanchez-Perez, Miguel

    2005-03-01

    At the latest stages of their cell cycle, cells carry out crucial processes for the correct segregation of their genetic and cytoplasmic material. In this work, we provide evidence demonstrating that the cell cycle arrest of some MEN (mitosis exit network) mutants in the anaphase-telophase transition is bypassed. In addition, the ability of cdc15 diploid mutant strains to develop non-septated chains of cells, supported by nuclear division, is shown. This phenotype is also displayed by haploid cdc15 mutant strains when cell lysis is prevented by osmotic protection, and shared by other MEN mutants. By contrast, anaphase-telophase arrest is strictly observed in double MEN-FEAR (fourteen early anaphase release) mutants. In this context, the overexpression of a FEAR component, SPO12, in a MEN mutant background enhances the ability of MEN mutants to bypass cell cycle arrest. Taken together, these data suggest a critical role of Cdc15 and other MEN proteins in cytokinesis, allowing a new model for their cellular function to be proposed.

  5. Tbx3 Controls Dppa3 Levels and Exit from Pluripotency toward Mesoderm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Waghray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tbx3, a member of the T-box family, plays important roles in development, stem cells, nuclear reprogramming, and cancer. Loss of Tbx3 induces differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs. However, we show that mESCs exist in an alternate stable pluripotent state in the absence of Tbx3. In-depth transcriptome analysis of this mESC state reveals Dppa3 as a direct downstream target of Tbx3. Also, Tbx3 facilitates the cell fate transition from pluripotent cells to mesoderm progenitors by directly repressing Wnt pathway members required for differentiation. Wnt signaling regulates differentiation of mESCs into mesoderm progenitors and helps to maintain a naive pluripotent state. We show that Tbx3, a downstream target of Wnt signaling, fine tunes these divergent roles of Wnt signaling in mESCs. In conclusion, we identify a signaling-TF axis that controls the exit of mESCs from a self-renewing pluripotent state toward mesoderm differentiation.

  6. Mechanics of sequential jamming and unjamming phenomena in a multi-exit orifice silo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunte, Amit; Orpe, Ashish; Doshi, Pankaj

    2013-11-01

    We have investigated the flow of a two dimensional granular assembly draining through a flat bottomed silo having multiple exit orifices using DEM simulations. The width of the central orifice of the silo is fixed at 3 . 5 d which is small enough to cause jamming (or no-flow) through the orifice. Here d is the mean particle diameter. The width of the other nearby orifices is kept much more than 3 . 5 d , thus, ensuring continuous flow of particles through them. Interestingly, this continuous flow of particles in the vicinity interacts with the assembly of jammed particles above the central orifice causing rearrangements and ultimately unjamming the assembly leading to a smooth flow. During the entire drainage of the silo, the central orifice undergoes this sequence of jamming-unjamming event several times, the frequency of which depends on its proximity to the nearby orifices. We focus primarily on understanding this jamming-unjamming transition by investigating the contact force network and the normal force distributions. Our preliminary results show that the tails of the force distributions in the jammed region decay slower than those for the flowing regions. This qualitative behaviour is found to be independent of any prior rearrangement history. Department of Science and Technology, India, (Grant No. SR/S3/CE/037/2009).

  7. Non-Uniformity of the Combustor Exit Flow Temperature in Front of the Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błachnio Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Various types of damages to gas-turbine components, in particular to turbine blades, may occur in the course of gas turbine operation. The paper has been intended to discuss different forms of damages to the blades due to non-uniformity of the exit flow temperature. It has been shown that the overheating of blade material and thermal fatigue are the most common reasons for these damages. The paper presents results from numerical experiments with use of the computer model of the aero jet engine designed for simulations. The model has been purposefully modified to take account of the assumed non-homogeneity of the temperature field within the working agent at the turbine intake. It turned out that such non-homogeneity substantially affects dynamic and static properties of the engine considered as an object of control since it leads to a lag of the acceleration time and to increase in fuel consumption. The summarized simulation results demonstrate that the foregoing properties of a jet engine are subject to considerable deterioration in pace with gradual increase of the assumed non-homogeneity of the temperature field. The simulations made it possible to find out that variations of the temperature field nonhomogeneity within the working agent at the turbine intake lead to huge fluctuation of the turbine rpm for the idle run.

  8. Effects of the geometry of the exit of a tube in an oscillating flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Elia; Málaga, Carlos; Czitrom, Steven; Olvera, Arturo; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    The problem of optimizing the performance of a wave-driven seawater pump - comprising a resonant duct and an exhaust duct joined by a variable volume air-compression chamber - it is explored by studying oscillating flows at the exit of a tube. It is known that the performance of this pump depends on the geometry of the mouth of its intake tube. An inspection of the integral expression of the Navier-Stokes equation along a central streamline of this flow shows that changing the shape of the tube's mouth modifies only the inertia and energy losses terms because both depend on the flow field at the chosen streamline. These changes must be such that the integral relation is preserved. Therefore, by measuring the inertial term (known as added mass), the term for losses can be measured indirectly. We developed a method to measure the added mass for oscillating flows in tubes with different mouth shapes and compared these measurements with those obtained for a model of the flow through the pump. Our results suggest a way to find a criterion for choosing the geometry of the mouth of the tubes in order to minimize dissipation and improve efficiency of the pump. This work was supported by funds provided by DGAPA-UNAM (Project PAPITT-IN1188608).

  9. Predicting NCLEX success with the HESI Exit Exam: fourth annual validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibert, Ainslie T; Young, Anne; Adamson, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    The fourth annual validity study of the Health Education Systems, Inc. (HESI) Exit Exam was designed to examine not only the accuracy of the examination in predicting NCLEX success but also the degree of risk for failure of the licensure examination associated with specific scoring intervals. A descriptive comparative design was used to examine the data provided by schools of nursing regarding students' NCLEX outcomes in the 1999-2000 academic year. As in the 3 previous studies, the examination was found to be a highly accurate predictor of NCLEX success (98.46%). Each scoring interval was significantly different from each of the other scoring intervals (P = .001). In fact, for the combined group of registered nurse and practical nurse students, the percentage of students who failed the NCLEX more than doubled with each successively lower scoring interval. These findings provide the information faculties needed to make evidence-based decisions regarding students' risks for NCLEX failure. Additionally, frequency data were obtained from this survey regarding the use of the examination as a benchmark for progression and remediation, and these findings may also be useful to faculties that are considering establishing such programs.

  10. Predicting NCLEX-RN success with the HESI Exit Exam: eighth validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Rae; Young, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, Elsevier's HESI Exit Exam (E(2)) is being used to assess students' readiness for the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Seven previously conducted validity studies indicate that the E(2) is 96.36%-99.16% accurate in predicting NCLEX-RN success. Findings of this eighth validity study, which also investigated the predictive accuracy of repeat testing with parallel versions of the E(2), indicated that the E(2) is highly accurate (94.93%-98.32%) in predicting NCLEX-RN success for the initial testing and 2 retests. Of the 66 participating nursing programs, deans and directors from 43 (65.15%) of the programs reported implementing a policy that used E(2) scores as a benchmark for remediation. A score of 850 was the most common E(2) benchmark designated by faculties, and students who failed to achieve the faculty-designated E(2) benchmark score were required to retest with a parallel version of the E(2). Remediation resources used to assist students in achieving faculty-designated E(2) benchmark scores varied widely, with many programs employing multiple remediation methods.

  11. A third study on predicting NCLEX success with the HESI exit exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibert, Ainslie T; Young, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This was the third annual validity study designed to assess the accuracy of the HESI Exit Exam (E) in predicting NCLEX success for graduating registered and practical nursing students. As in year I (N = 2,725) and year II (N = 3,752), in year III (N = 6,277), the E was highly predictive of NCLEX success for associate degree nursing, bachelor of science nursing, diploma, and practical nursing students. Unlike previous years, in year III, monitoring was not a significant factor in the predictive accuracy of the E. NCLEX success of low-scoring E students, first examined in year II, was also examined in year III. As in year II, low-scoring E students were significantly more (P = .001) likely to fail the licensure examination than high-scoring E students. In year III, unlike year II, there was no significant difference in the pass rate of low-scoring E students who participated in a remediation program and those who did not. The authors recommended that a more definitive definition of remediation be used in future studies and that such studies focus on E implementation strategies and their relationship to NCLEX success.

  12. A Study of the Impulse Wave Discharged from the Exits of Two Parallel Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Hun Kweon; Heuy-Dong Kim; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Toshiyuki Aoki

    2003-01-01

    The twin impulse wave leads to very complicated flow fields, such as Mach stem, spherical waves, and vortex ring. The twin impulse wave discharged from the exits of the two tubes placed in parallel is investigated to understand the detailed flow physics associated with the twin impulse wave, compared with those in a single impulse wave. In the current study, the merging phenomena and propagation characteristics of the impulse waves are investigated using a shock tube experiment and by numerical computations. The Harten-Yee's total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme is used to solve the unsteady two-dimensional compressible Euler equations. The Mach number Ms of incident shock wave is changed below 1.5 and the distance between two-parallel tubes, L/d,is changed from 1.2 to 4.0. In the shock tube experiment, the twin impulse waves are visualized by a Schlieren optical system for the purpose of validation of computational work. The results obtained show that on the symmetric axis between two-parallel tubes, the peak pressure produced by the twin impulse waves and its location strongly depend upon the distance between two-parallel tubes, L/d and the incident shock Mach number,Ms. The predicted Schlieren images represent the measured twin-impulse wave with a good accuracy.

  13. Model Predictive Control of the Exit Part Temperature for an Austenitization Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari S. Ganesh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quench hardening is the process of strengthening and hardening ferrous metals and alloys by heating the material to a specific temperature to form austenite (austenitization, followed by rapid cooling (quenching in water, brine or oil to introduce a hardened phase called martensite. The material is then often tempered to increase toughness, as it may decrease from the quench hardening process. The austenitization process is highly energy-intensive and many of the industrial austenitization furnaces were built and equipped prior to the advent of advanced control strategies and thus use large, sub-optimal amounts of energy. The model computes the energy usage of the furnace and the part temperature profile as a function of time and position within the furnace under temperature feedback control. In this paper, the aforementioned model is used to simulate the furnace for a batch of forty parts under heuristic temperature set points suggested by the operators of the plant. A model predictive control (MPC system is then developed and deployed to control the the part temperature at the furnace exit thereby preventing the parts from overheating. An energy efficiency gain of 5.3 % was obtained under model predictive control compared to operation under heuristic temperature set points tracked by a regulatory control layer.

  14. Some Aspects of Exit of Ukraine’s Economy from the Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulyeyev Ivan P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of trends both in the global and Ukraine’s economy demonstrates a cyclic, non-linear character of these processes under conditions of absence of a unifying national idea in Ukraine, ignoring institutional features. Ukraine chose a catch-up model of development having not formed corresponding institutions, its own scientific and methodological base, the public-minded elite. The aim of the work is theoretical substantiation of institutional environment contributing to the exit of the economy, industry and business entities from the systemic social and economic crisis. It is necessary: to formulate the goal of the society, its main classes, its elite for a medium term; reconsider the fundamental values of the society; determine the main directions in the development of the economy, industry, social sphere; move from the catch-up strategy to the point advanced one; ensure reduction of the gap in income of extreme decile groups of the population; support fundamental science, education, health care; provide a total increase of the responsibility of managers at all levels on the basis of contracts, programs, roadmaps, monitoring their performance

  15. Building Design & Construction - Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-11-01

    Offers a brief history of green building; presents the results of a specially commissioned survey; and analyzes the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building.

  16. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  17. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  18. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go undetected...

  19. Building Services Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinzi, Michele; Romeo, Carlo; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2015-01-01

    This guideline on Building Services Systems is one of four guidelines produced by the School of the Future project. The other three guidelines cover: Building Construction Elements, Improved Indoor Environmental Quality and Concepts for Zero Emission Schools. This guideline consists...

  20. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically supp

  1. State Capitol Buildings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This shapefile will display the locations of the fifty state capitol buildings as well as the territorial capitol buildings for the US Virgin Islands, Guam, Northern...

  2. Comfort control in buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Maria del Mar; Rodriguez, Francisco de Asis

    2014-01-01

    This book describes both concepts and development of advanced comfort control systems in buildings, with significant energy saving, and attention to thermal, visual and indoor air quality. The concepts are proven through real tests in a bioclimatic building.

  3. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  4. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  5. An indoor augmented reality mobile application for simulation of building evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sharad; Jerripothula, Shanmukha

    2015-03-01

    Augmented Reality enables people to remain connected with the physical environment they are in, and invites them to look at the world from new and alternative perspectives. There has been an increasing interest in emergency evacuation applications for mobile devices. Nearly all the smart phones these days are Wi-Fi and GPS enabled. In this paper, we propose a novel emergency evacuation system that will help people to safely evacuate a building in case of an emergency situation. It will further enhance knowledge and understanding of where the exits are in the building and safety evacuation procedures. We have applied mobile augmented reality (mobile AR) to create an application with Unity 3D gaming engine. We show how the mobile AR application is able to display a 3D model of the building and animation of people evacuation using markers and web camera. The system gives a visual representation of a building in 3D space, allowing people to see where exits are in the building through the use of a smart phone or tablets. Pilot studies were conducted with the system showing its partial success and demonstrated the effectiveness of the application in emergency evacuation. Our computer vision methods give good results when the markers are closer to the camera, but accuracy decreases when the markers are far away from the camera.

  6. Building a case for building performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, David

    2001-01-01

    You have seen the facts before. Americans make up less than 5% of the world’s population, yet consume 25% of the earth’s resources and create 25% of the world’s greenhouse gases. We are also told that the construction and operation of buildings are major contributors to this problem, and that as building industry professionals we have a major responsibility to improve the performance of the buildings and environments that we create. Although a growing number of states and municipalit...

  7. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  8. Future Green Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, David; Lund, Henrik

    Efficient buildings are essential for an affordable Danish energy supply in 2050. The purpose of this report is to describe the contribution and role of the building sector in a 100% renewable energy future, as well as the transitions that are necessary in the building sector to support this chan...

  9. Building the ISS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石继忠; 李秀霞

    2007-01-01

    Have you seen people building houses?To build a house,you need workers.They use their hands,tools and machines to put everything together. Building the ISS is almost the same.The difference is that the workers are astronauts.They

  10. Building with Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Gilbert

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the early use of straw in Africa and Europe as a building material. Provides background information and a basic framework for the straw bale project, and recommends supervision for young students. Lists objectives for building a straw bale bench and provides the building instructions which consist of three sessions. Includes four…

  11. Making Smart Building Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how a positive partnership with the architect can help one who is inexperienced in building design and construction make smart building decisions. Tips address how to prevent change orders, what red flags to look for in a building project, what the administrator should expect from the architect to make the project run smoothly, and what…

  12. Controlling the intelligent building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    Companies will be able to locate in intelligent buildings that offer access to a variety of sophisticated communications equipment, at the heart of which are building controls that ensure a comfortable and safe working environment for the occupants. Future buildings will include advanced telephones or workstations with built-in building control sensors for temperature, light level, and security. Advanced telecommunication systems may have telephone cabinets with built-in control functions which eliminate the need for discrete control systems. The owners and tenants will both enjoy benefits if the controls are carefully selected and designed so that they integrate into a single building package.

  13. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  14. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  15. Nucleolar exit of RNF8 and BRCA1 in response to DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Mateo, Francesca; Franke, Kristin [Department of Cell Biology, Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (IBMB), CSIC, Barcelona Science Park, Helix Building, Baldiri Reixac 15-21, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Huen, Michael S.Y. [Department of Anatomy, Centre for Cancer Research, The University of Hong Kong, L1, Laboratory Block, 21 Sassoon Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Rodriguez, Manuel S. [Proteomics Unit, CIC bioGUNE CIBERehd, ProteoRed, Technology Park of Bizkaia, Building 801A, 48160 Derio (Spain); Plans, Vanessa [Department of Cell Biology, Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (IBMB), CSIC, Barcelona Science Park, Helix Building, Baldiri Reixac 15-21, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Thomson, Timothy M., E-mail: titbmc@ibmb.csic.es [Department of Cell Biology, Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (IBMB), CSIC, Barcelona Science Park, Helix Building, Baldiri Reixac 15-21, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-11-01

    The induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) elicits a plethora of responses that redirect many cellular functions to the vital task of repairing the injury, collectively known as the DNA damage response (DDR). We have found that, in the absence of DNA damage, the DSB repair factors RNF8 and BRCA1 are associated with the nucleolus. Shortly after exposure of cells to {gamma}-radiation, RNF8 and BRCA1 translocated from the nucleolus to damage foci, a traffic that was reverted several hours after the damage. RNF8 interacted through its FHA domain with the ribosomal protein RPSA, and knockdown of RPSA caused a depletion of nucleolar RNF8 and BRCA1, suggesting that the interaction of RNF8 with RPSA is critical for the nucleolar localization of these DDR factors. Knockdown of RPSA or RNF8 impaired bulk protein translation, as did {gamma}-irradiation, the latter being partially countered by overexpression of exogenous RNF8. Our results suggest that RNF8 and BRCA1 are anchored to the nucleolus through reversible interactions with RPSA and that, in addition to its known functions in DDR, RNF8 may play a role in protein synthesis, possibly linking the nucleolar exit of this factor to the attenuation of protein synthesis in response to DNA damage. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RNF8 and BRCA1 are associated with the nucleolus of undamaged cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upon {gamma}-radiation, RNF8 and BRCA1 are translocated from the nucleolus to damage foci. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ribosomal protein RPSA anchors RNF8 to the nucleolus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RNF8 may play previously unsuspected roles in protein synthesis.

  16. Welfare Reform and Labor Force Exit by Young, Low-Skilled Single Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Lincoln H

    2016-04-01

    While the labor market woes of low-skilled male workers in the United States over the past several decades have been well documented, the academic literature identifying causal factors leading to declines in labor force participation (LFP) by young, low-skilled males remains scant. To address this gap, I use the timing and characteristics of welfare-reform policies implemented during the 1990s and fixed-effects, instrumental variable regression modeling to show that policies seeking to increase LFP rates for low-skilled single mothers inadvertently led to labor force exit by young, low-skilled single males. Using data from the Current Population Survey and a bundle of work inducements enacted by states throughout the 1990s as exogenous variation in a quasi-experimental design, I find that the roughly 10 percentage point increase in LFP for low-skilled single mothers facilitated by welfare reform resulted in a statistically significant 2.8 percentage point decline in LFP for young, low-skilled single males. After conducting a series of robustness checks, I conclude that this result is driven entirely by white males, who responded to welfare-reform policies with a 3.7 percentage point decline in labor supply. Young black males, as well as other groups of potentially affected workers, appear to be uninfluenced by the labor supply response of less-educated single mothers to welfare reform. Impacts on young, single white males are large and economically significant, suggesting that nearly 150,000 males departed the formal labor market in response to directed welfare-reform policies.

  17. Electrochemistry suggests proton access from the exit site to the binuclear center in Paracoccus denitrificans cytochrome c oxidase pathway variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas; Melin, Frédéric; Richter, Oliver-M H; Ludwig, Bernd; Kannt, Aimo; Müller, Hanne; Michel, Hartmut; Hellwig, Petra

    2015-02-27

    Two different pathways through which protons access cytochrome c oxidase operate during oxygen reduction from the mitochondrial matrix, or the bacterial cytoplasm. Here, we use electrocatalytic current measurements to follow oxygen reduction coupled to proton uptake in cytochrome c oxidase isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans. Wild type enzyme and site-specific variants with defects in both proton uptake pathways (K354M, D124N and K354M/D124N) were immobilized on gold nanoparticles, and oxygen reduction was probed electrochemically in the presence of varying concentrations of Zn(2+) ions, which are known to inhibit both the entry and the exit proton pathways in the enzyme. Our data suggest that under these conditions substrate protons gain access to the oxygen reduction site via the exit pathway.

  18. Control of Collection Efficiency for Axial Flow Cyclone Dust Collectors with Fixed Guide Vanes and with Funnel Shaped Exit Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira Ogawa; Masaru Arakawa

    2006-01-01

    The experimental result of the collection efficiency of the axial flow cyclone with the fixed guide vanes is lower than that with the tangential inlet pipe to the cyclone body due to the weak angular momentum transfer given by flowing through the guide vanes. However, one of the interesting points is the control of the collection efficiency depended on the funnel shaped exit pipes. The collection efficiencies for these funnel shaped exit pipes are depended on the Froude number. Then, in this paper, the experimental results of the pressure drop and also the collection efficiency using the fly-ash particles and also the comparison of the calculated results of the collection efficiency with the experimental results are described in detail.

  19. Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase is stabilized in mitosis by phosphorylation and is partially degraded upon mitotic exit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badouel, Caroline; Chartrain, Isabelle; Blot, Joelle [CNRS UMR 6061 Genetique et Developpement, Universite de Rennes 1, IFR140 GFAS, Faculte de medecine, 2 avenue du Professeur Leon Bernard, CS 34317, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Tassan, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jean-pierre.tassan@univ-rennes1.fr [CNRS UMR 6061 Genetique et Developpement, Universite de Rennes 1, IFR140 GFAS, Faculte de medecine, 2 avenue du Professeur Leon Bernard, CS 34317, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2010-08-01

    MELK (maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase) is a cell cycle dependent protein kinase involved in diverse cell processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and mRNA processing. Noticeably, MELK expression is increased in cancerous tissues, upon cell transformation and in mitotically-blocked cells. The question of how MELK protein level is controlled is therefore important. Here, we show that MELK protein is restricted to proliferating cells derived from either cancer or normal tissues and that MELK protein level is severely decreased concomitantly with other cell cycle proteins in cells which exit the cell cycle. Moreover, we demonstrate in human HeLa cells and Xenopus embryos that approximately half of MELK protein is degraded upon mitotic exit whereas another half remains stable during interphase. We show that the stability of MELK protein in M-phase is dependent on its phosphorylation state.

  20. In vitro data support the investigation of vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for PD-associated Pseudomonas exit site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Christine F; Ash, Oliver; Chakera, Aron

    2017-02-01

    Peritoneal dialysis exit site infections caused by Pseudomonas spp. are difficult to treat and can lead to peritonitis and/or modality failure. Effective alternative or adjunct non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents could improve treatment as well as reduce the use of antibiotics and contribute to a reduction in antibiotic selection pressure and the further development of antibiotic resistance. Vinegar is popularly promoted as a topical antimicrobial agent and has been recommended as an adjunct treatment for Pseudomonas exit site infections in PD patients. Systematic empirical data on the susceptibility of pseudomonads to vinegar are lacking. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility to vinegar of 57 isolates of Pseudomonas. The MICs and MBCs of four vinegars were determined for clinical, environmental and/or reference isolates of P. aeruginosa (n = 34), P. fluorescens (n = 11) and P. putida (n = 12) using a broth microdilution method. The MIC90 and MBC90 were also determined for each species. The MIC90 of all four vinegars against P. aeruginosa was 2% (vol/vol). The MBC90 was 8%. The MIC90 s for P. fluorescens and P. putida were also 2%. The MIC90 s were 4%. Dilutions of vinegar recommended for the treatment of Pseudomonas exit site infections have in vitro activity against these notoriously resistant bacteria. In light of increasing rates of antibiotic resistance and the need to reduce antibiotic selection pressure as part of good antibiotic stewardship, the efficacy of vinegar, or its active constituent acetic acid, for the treatment of Pseudomonas exit site infections should be investigated further.

  1. The Influence of Psychographic Variables on the Theory of Exit, Voice, and Loyalty of Customer Complaints Behaviour in Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preko Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses Customer Complaints Behaviour (CCB using psychographic factors and the Theory of Exit, Voice and Loyalty. Prior studies on the continent of Africa have explored customer dissatisfaction, service failure, complaints handling and complaint attitudes, but not in association with psychographic factors. This research gap is addressed with a new conceptual understanding that integrates psychographic variables and the Theory of Exit, Voice and Loyalty in a single study. In total, 171 valid questionnaires were gathered from customers of two public banks in Accra chosen randomly, and a convenience sampling method was used for the respondents. This study has revealed that assertiveness, conservatism, attitude towards complaints, sense of justice, service attribute significantly influence the theory of Exit, Voice and Loyalty of CCB. What is more, the findings have also shown that there is a statistical difference between complainers and non-complainers. Complainers are more likely to stay loyal, and are less likely to voice out or leave their bankers. We suggest that banks should not only center CCB strategies towards complainers, but should also take into account non-complainers as they are equally important to businesses.

  2. Green building performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, N. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A system for labelling buildings in a manner similar to product labelling already well established with respect to goods and materials in general, was proposed. The system envisaged would differ from existing labelling systems in that it would follow the principles incorporated into `Green Building Challenge `98`, (GBC`98) The GBC`98 is a two-year process of international building performance assessment, whose goal is to inform the international community of scientists, designers and builders about advances in green building performance. GBC`98 also aims to test and demonstrate an improved method for measuring building performance, establish international benchmarks for building performance while respecting regional and technical diversity, showcase `best-practice` examples of green buildings around the world, document successful elements in individual green buildings and offer direction to participating countries in the development of regionally sensitive assessment models. The genesis of GBC`98, its potential applications as a second generation tool for eco-labeling of buildings was summarized, along with a review of existing building performance assessment systems. 4 refs.

  3. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...... building operation as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using 'green accounting', by applying policies for sustainability etc. The paper is based on case studies...

  4. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  5. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  6. Coxsackievirus B exits the host cell in shed microvesicles displaying autophagosomal markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Robinson

    2014-04-01

    iodixanol gradient fractions consistent with membrane association. The preferential detection of the lipidated form of LC3 protein (LC3 II in released EMVs harboring infectious virus suggests that the autophagy pathway plays a crucial role in microvesicle shedding and virus release, similar to a process previously described as autophagosome-mediated exit without lysis (AWOL observed during poliovirus replication. Through the use of this novel recombinant virus which provides more dynamic information from static fluorescent images, we hope to gain a better understanding of CVB3 tropism, intracellular membrane reorganization, and virus-associated microvesicle dissemination within the host.

  7. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  8. Building valve amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Building Valve Amplifiers is a unique hands-on guide for anyone working with tube audio equipment--as an electronics hobbyist, audiophile or audio engineer. This 2nd Edition builds on the success of the first with technology and technique revisions throughout and, significantly, a major new self-build project, worked through step-by-step, which puts into practice the principles and techniques introduced throughout the book. Particular attention has been paid to answering questions commonly asked by newcomers to the world of the valve, whether audio enthusiasts tackling their first build or

  9. Symptoms of angina pectoris increase the probability of disability pension and premature exit from the workforce even in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lasse; Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Hvelplund, Anders

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate probabilities of disability pension (DP) and premature exit from the workforce (PEW) in patients with stable angina symptoms and no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) at angiography compared with obstructive CAD and asymptomatic reference individuals.......To evaluate probabilities of disability pension (DP) and premature exit from the workforce (PEW) in patients with stable angina symptoms and no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) at angiography compared with obstructive CAD and asymptomatic reference individuals....

  10. The influence of the stagnation zone on the fluid dynamics at the nozzle exit of a confined and submerged impinging jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Nicholas; Stafford, Jason; Conway, Ciaran; Punch, Jeff; Walsh, Edmond

    2016-02-01

    Low profile impinging jets provide a means to achieve high heat transfer coefficients while occupying a small quantity of space. Consequently, they are found in many engineering applications such as electronics cooling, annealing of metals, food processing, and others. This paper investigates the influence of the stagnation zone fluid dynamics on the nozzle exit flow condition of a low profile, submerged, and confined impinging water jet. The jet was geometrically constrained to a round, 16-mm diameter, square-edged nozzle at a jet exit to target surface spacing ( H/ D) that varied between 0.25 flow regimes is the main focus of this paper; however, laminar flow data are also presented between 1350 measurement facility was designed and commissioned to utilise particle image velocimetry in order to quantitatively measure the fluid dynamics both before and after the jet exits its nozzle. The velocity profiles are normalised with the mean velocity across the nozzle exit, and turbulence statistics are also presented. The primary objective of this paper is to present accurate flow profiles across the nozzle exit of an impinging jet confined to a low H/ D, with a view to guide the boundary conditions chosen for numerical simulations confined to similar constraints. The results revealed in this paper suggest that the fluid dynamics in the stagnation zone strongly influences the nozzle exit velocity profile at confinement heights between 0 0.5—where D is the inner diameter of the jet—in order to minimise modelling uncertainty.

  11. Buildings behaving badly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, Jillian; Papyrakis, Elissaios; Beukering, van Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Heating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe’s energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for residential building

  12. Heat loss from Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...... project for calculations in the SESAM model....

  13. Reusing Old Manufacturing Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an interesting design challenge for students, one that will certainly let them integrate subject matter and get a sense of pride for doing something useful in their own community. The author would be willing to bet that the average town or city has some old red brick manufacturing building(s) that have seen much better days.…

  14. Dancing building prevents collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, R.

    2007-01-01

    In future, anybody caught inside a building during an earthquake need no longer fear the roof collapsing on them. Thanks to the use of composite materials, all the building will do is dance along, riding the waves of the earthquake. At least, according to Professor Ir. Adriaan Beukers of the Aerospa

  15. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  16. Behavioral Strategies: Building Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Charles J.

    Using a construction building analogy, this guide provides a plan for building a system of behavior strategies. These strategies are designed to assist behavior analysts of contracted provider agencies in the construction and maintenance of procedures which will help monitor and reduce the frequency of problematic behaviors in individuals with…

  17. Building: Food for thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraïm Rodríguez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sculpture presented by Efraïm Rodríguez for the conference is titled “pequeño arquitecto” (The Little Architect, a figure which represents a child building a tower with pieces of classical children’s block building toys; the child itself is built out of the same sculpted materials.

  18. Building a Better Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  19. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  20. Buildings behaving badly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, Jillian; Papyrakis, Elissaios; Beukering, van Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Heating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe’s energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for residential building

  1. Technical Management for Buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Vairo, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of an 'instrument' for the optimization of the functionality and conservation of tertiary buildings. This technique has several different names: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Central Control and Monitoring System (CCMS) in English, and Gestion Technique du Bâtiment' (GTB) or Gestion Technique Centralisée (GTC) in French. With this technique it is possible to manage all the functions of a building, it is a modern instrument that introduces the concept of 'automation' in the operation of buildings using computerized procedures, earlier reserved for industrial processes. The system is structured with different automation levels with a distributed intelligence, each level characterized by a communication system (Fieldbus for the lowest and Ethernet for the highest level). In order to apply the BAS to CERN buildings it is necessary to evaluate the advantages, the CERN requirements and the integration with the several existing control and automation systems.

  2. CERN's newest building

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    With a growing number of users looking for offices, the shortage of space has become acute, particularly for physicists. Building 42, inaugurated on Friday 11 February, offers almost 300 new work-spaces and a particularly pleasant working environment.   Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research (left), Rolf Heuer , CERN Director-General (centre), and Mark Muller, President of the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and Head of the Department of Construction and Information Technology (right) at the opening of Building 42 on 11 February, 2011.   Construction work for the new Building 42 began in January 2009, thanks to support from the Swiss foundation FIPOI (Fondation des immeubles pour les organisations internationales). After two years of work, the building, an extension of Building 40, is ready to accommodate physicists from around the world who have come to work on the LHC. "We had more than 25 external contractors working...

  3. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  4. Do personality traits assessed on medical school admission predict exit performance? A UK-wide longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, R K; Dowell, J; Ayansina, D; Cleland, J A

    2016-10-04

    Traditional methods of assessing personality traits in medical school selection have been heavily criticised. To address this at the point of selection, "non-cognitive" tests were included in the UK Clinical Aptitude Test, the most widely-used aptitude test in UK medical education (UKCAT: http://www.ukcat.ac.uk/ ). We examined the predictive validity of these non-cognitive traits with performance during and on exit from medical school. We sampled all students graduating in 2013 from the 30 UKCAT consortium medical schools. Analysis included: candidate demographics, UKCAT non-cognitive scores, medical school performance data-the Educational Performance Measure (EPM) and national exit situational judgement test (SJT) outcomes. We examined the relationships between these variables and SJT and EPM scores. Multilevel modelling was used to assess the relationships adjusting for confounders. The 3343 students who had taken the UKCAT non-cognitive tests and had both EPM and SJT data were entered into the analysis. There were four types of non-cognitive test: (1) libertariancommunitarian, (2) NACE-narcissism, aloofness, confidence and empathy, (3) MEARS-self-esteem, optimism, control, self-discipline, emotional-nondefensiveness (END) and faking, (4) an abridged version of 1 and 2 combined. Multilevel regression showed that, after correcting for demographic factors, END predicted SJT and EPM decile. Aloofness and empathy in NACE were predictive of SJT score. This is the first large-scale study examining the relationship between performance on non-cognitive selection tests and medical school exit assessments. The predictive validity of these tests was limited, and the relationships revealed do not fit neatly with theoretical expectations. This study does not support their use in selection.

  5. Effects of Generational Competition and Substitution on Late Labour Participation and Labour Market Exit from a Multilevel Perspective*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Henriette Engelhardt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effects of demographic, economic and labour market structures on labour market participation and on the transition to inactivity (exit for older males in eleven European countries. Theoretically, our analysis is guided by considerations of intragenerational competition and intergenerational substitution. Following Easterlin’s hypothesis that intragenerational competition rises with cohort size, we assume a negative effect of cohort size on labour market participation and a positive effect on early exit from the labour market. Taking into account that different cohorts are substitutes at least to a certain extent, we assume that the probability of an early exit will be reduced by a high intergenerational exchange ratio in favour of older workers. Thus, labour market participation is infl uenced by the populations’ age structure both when entering the labour force and during the career. Moreover, low shares of graduates in older cohorts are expected to reduce older workers’ chances of labour market participation. In addition to demographic structures, general economic conditions, such as per capita GDP and its development over time, act both to further and to hamper the employment of older workers. Additionally, labour market structures, such as unemployment rates, the extent of part-time work or the amount of service jobs infl uence individual participation and the transition to inactivity. To test these hypotheses, we use merged data from the fi rst two waves of SHARE and macro-level indicators from Eurostat. We estimate a two-level random-intercept logit model which allows us to determine the share of variance in international late careers that can be attributed to countryspecifi c factors and can quantify the relative impact of specifi c socio-demographic and socio-economic backgrounds. Our results imply that cross-national variance in labour market participation is mainly driven by the instance of long

  6. Effects of Generational Competition and Substitution on Late Labour Participation and Labour Market Exit from a Multilevel Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Engelhardt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effects of demographic, economic and labour market structures on labour market participation and on the transition to inactivity (exit for older males in eleven European countries. Theoretically, our analysis is guided by considerations of intragenerational competition and intergenerational substitution. Following Easterlin’s hypothesis that intragenerational competition rises with cohort size, we assume a negative effect of cohort size on labour market participation and a positive effect on early exit from the labour market. Taking into account that different cohorts are substitutes at least to a certain extent, we assume that the probability of an early exit will be reduced by a high intergenerational exchange ratio in favour of older workers. Thus, labour market participation is influenced by the populations’ age structure both when entering the labour force and during the career. Moreover, low shares of graduates in older cohorts are expected to reduce older workers’ chances of labour market participation. In addition to demographic structures, general economic conditions, such as per capita GDP and its development over time, act both to further and to hamper the employment of older workers. Additionally, labour market structures, such as unemployment rates, the extent of part-time work or the amount of service jobs influence individual participation and the transition to inactivity. To test these hypotheses, we use merged data from the first two waves of SHARE and macro-level indicators from Eurostat. We estimate a two-level random-intercept logit model which allows us to determine the share of variance in international late careers that can be attributed to country-specific factors and can quantify the relative impact of specific socio-demographic and socio-economic backgrounds. Our results imply that cross-national variance in labour market participation is mainly driven by the instance of long

  7. Do changes in the labour market take families out of poverty? Determinants of exiting poverty in Brazilian metropolitan regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Flavia; Ribas, Rafael Perez Ribas

    2010-01-01

    Using survival models, we test whether short-term changes in the labour market affect poverty duration. Data are from the Brazilian Monthly Employment Survey. Such a monthly dataset permits more accurate estimations of events than using annual data, but its panel follows households for a short period. Then methods that control for both right- and left-censoring should be used. The results are as follows: households with zero income are not those with the lowest chances of exiting; changes in aggregate unemployment do not affect poverty duration; and increasing wages in the informal sector has a negative effect on poverty duration.

  8. One-Dimensional Simulation of the Pressure Wave near the Exit of a High-Speed Train Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇光; 朱克勤; 席葆树

    2001-01-01

    The one-dimensional (1-D) unsteady flow induced by a high-speed train entering a tunnel isnumerically studied by the method of characteristics. The tube area is dependent on time and distance. Theenergy equation used by Kage et al. is corrected to avoid the conflict with the isentropic assumption. Theeffect of the tunnel hood on the pressure wave is studied near the tunnel exit. Results show that the tunnel hoodis useful in reducing the peak value and the time derivative of the pressure wave.``

  9. Assisting victims of human trafficking: strategies to facilitate identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R

    2014-04-01

    Human trafficking is a pressing social justice concern. Social work is uniquely situated to address this problem. However, despite the profession's commitment to social justice, the scholarship to equip social workers to address this issue has been largely absent from professional discourse. To address this gap, this article helps social work practitioners to assist victims of human trafficking. After orienting readers to the scope and process of human trafficking, the topics of victim identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of psychological wellness are discussed. By equipping themselves in these three areas, practitioners can advance social justice on behalf of some of the most exploited people in the world.

  10. Knowledge formalization of intelligent building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.

  11. Building Software with Gradle

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Studer, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we will give an overview of the key concepts and main features of Gradle, the innovative build system that has become the de-facto standard in the enterprise. We will cover task declaration and task graph execution, incremental builds, multi-project builds, dependency management, applying plugins, extracting reusable build logic, bootstrapping a build, and using the Gradle daemon. By the end of this talk, you will have a good understanding of what makes Gradle so powerful yet easy to use. You will also understand why companies like Pivotal, LinkedIn, Google, and other giants with complex builds count on Gradle. About the speakers Etienne is leading the Tooling Team at Gradleware. He has been working as a developer, architect, project manager, and CTO over the past 15 years. He has spent most of his time building software products from the ground up and successfully shipping them to happy customers. He had ...

  12. Building Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Koukkari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D and standardization are thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the environmental methods. Other directions of research aim at performance-based design and methods to take regional and cultural aspects into account. In this paper, the perspectives of the sustainability assessment of a whole building are presented, based on a state of the art, feasibility study on performance analysis and the development of an extended life-cycle assessment for buildings. Using various tools, and based on the case studies of building sustainability assessment, environmental indicators were often shown to be of lesser importance than the other, soft ones. The first steps in the development of a building sustainability assessment method for Portuguese residential buildings will be presented and discussed in the end.

  13. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  14. Hazard Analysis on One—Room Building Fires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuDeming; FengChanggen

    1998-01-01

    First,a calculation method for available safety egress time (shortly called ASET) and requirement safety egress time (Shortly called RSET) in a one-room building fire is proposed and a model for predicting the death number caused by the fire is established in this paper,Then,numerical simulations are performed,and the following laws are discovered:(1)At the beginning of the fire,the smoke layer falls slowly;as the fire develops,it falls rapidly.(2) The hypotheses on the fire source,the combustion properties of the combustibles,and the width of the exit and the person number in the room are important factors which affect the death number in the fire.

  15. Building Social Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Building a web application that attracts and retains regular visitors is tricky enough, but creating a social application that encourages visitors to interact with one another requires careful planning. This book provides practical solutions to the tough questions you'll face when building an effective community site -- one that makes visitors feel like they've found a new home on the Web. If your company is ready to take part in the social web, this book will help you get started. Whether you're creating a new site from scratch or reworking an existing site, Building Social Web Applications

  16. Integrated Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    In the first half of the 20th century, HVAC systems and artificial lighting were developed to meet indoor comfort needs. Before the introduction of mechanical systems, climate - not building style or appearance - was the major determinant of building form. Comfort was achieved through passive means...... and architectural features built into the design. However, with the advent of new technologies, architects were no longer constrained by the need to ensure that buildings had ample daylighting, remained airy and cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Since HVAC systems and artificial lighting could satisfy...

  17. INL Green Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  18. Mycotoxins in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    as in future energy efficient buildings. It brings together different disciplinary points of view on indoor mold, ranging from physics and material science to microbiology and health sciences. The contents have been outlined according to three main issues: Fundamentals, particularly addressing the crucial...... for avoiding adverse health effects is the prevention (or minimization) of persistent dampness and microbial growth on interior surfaces and in building structures. This book aims to describe the fundamentals of indoor mold growth as a prerequisite to tackle mold growth in the existing building stock as well...

  19. Greek Exit from the Crisis—A Pressing and Much-Needed Public Service Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios Argyriades

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Greece is in a deep crisis; the worst in all of Europe and the worst experienced in 45 years. Greece is no stranger to crises, but most have been exogenous: the Second World War and the Cold War, for instance. Sadly, unlike these crises, the present one is home-made. The wounds that it has caused are largely self-inflicted. It is especially difficult to fathom the logic of strikes by public service unions—repeated, relentless and militant. They paralyzed the country, drove investors and tourists away and added to the burdens that the economy and the people have had to bear. These strikes, and some public servants’ attitudes in the face of the crisis itself, brought into sharp relief the serious capacity deficit in the Greek administrative system, which has been at the root of the problem the country is currently facing. This statement begs the question: how can that be? What, after 30 years of public service reform, presumed to modernize and help the country approximate the standards embedded in the Common European Administrative Space? The paper will suggest that the reforms of the 1980s were only superficially reforms to improve the effectiveness and quality of the Service. Like parallel changes in higher education, the principal objective was harnessing officialdom, and as many voters as possible, to the chariot of PASOK—the political party established by Andreas Papandreou—which effectively governed the country for most of the period in question. The lesson from this experience may be none other, in fact, than clear convincing proof that partisan concerns and institution-building seldom make a good combination. For Greece, in light of the crisis, effective integration in the EU remains a daunting challenge. It calls for bold reforms, but these must be undertaken with institution-building, the country’s general interest, and long term needs in mind.

  20. CDK inhibitors, p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}, participate in cell cycle exit of mammalian cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tane, Shoji; Ikenishi, Aiko; Okayama, Hitomi; Iwamoto, Noriko [School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Nakayama, Keiichi I. [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Takeuchi, Takashi, E-mail: takeuchi@med.tottori-u.ac.jp [School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Expression of p21 and p27 in the hearts showed a peak during postnatal stages. •p21 and p27 bound to cyclin E, cyclin A and CDK2 in the hearts at postnatal stages. •Cardiomyocytes in both KO mice showed failure in the cell cycle exit at G1-phase. •These data show the first apparent phenotypes in the hearts of Cip/Kip KO mice. -- Abstract: Mammalian cardiomyocytes actively proliferate during embryonic stages, following which cardiomyocytes exit their cell cycle after birth. The irreversible cell cycle exit inhibits cardiac regeneration by the proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes. Exactly how the cell cycle exit occurs remains largely unknown. Previously, we showed that cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities are inhibited before the CDKs levels decrease in postnatal stages. This result suggests that factors such as CDK inhibitors (CKIs) inhibit CDK activities, and contribute to the cell cycle exit. In the present study, we focused on a Cip/Kip family, which can inhibit cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities. Expression of p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} but not p57{sup Kip2} showed a peak around postnatal day 5, when cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities start to decrease. p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} bound to cyclin E, cyclin A and CDK2 at postnatal stages. Cell cycle distribution patterns of postnatal cardiomyocytes in p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} knockout mice showed failure in the cell cycle exit at G1-phase, and endoreplication. These results indicate that p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip} play important roles in the cell cycle exit of postnatal cardiomyocytes.

  1. Amuchina 10% solution, safe antiseptic for preventing infections of exit-site of Tenckhoff catheters, in the pediatric population of a dialysis program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Guevara, L; Castro-Vazquez, F; Aguilar-Kitsu, A; Morales-Nava, A; Rodriguez-Leyva, F; Sanchez-Barbosa, J L

    2007-01-01

    Although, decreasing in incidence with the disconnection systems, the first complication is still peritonitis in patients with chronic renal failure and the second is infection of Tenckhoff catheter exit-site. All efforts made to diminish the frequency of exit-site infection lower the possibility of peritonitis. The pediatric population is well-known to have a major risk of infectious complications, and making easy and safe the care of the exit-site will prevent the peritonitis that follows. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Amuchina 10% solution vs. pH neutral soap in children with chronic renal failure, on preventing exit-site infection. There were 60 patients who were assigned randomly to one of two groups. One group used Amuchina 10% solution for the daily cleaning of the exit-site, and the other used pH neutral soap, with 14 months of follow-up. Before the study they have to be free of infection for at least 30 days. All were taught by the same nurse how to clean their exit-site. Groups were almost identical in years, sex, and time on dialysis. We had nine infections in the soap group and none in the Amuchina 10% solution group, with an OR: 17 (p = 0.004). From these nine infections, the bacteria isolated were: 4 (13%) were caused by Pseudomona aeruginosa, 1 (3.3%) by Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-positive staphylococci in 2 (6.6%) and Serratia marcensens in 1 (3.3%). In conclusion, Amuchina 10% solution is effective in preventing infection on the exit-site, without any secondary topical reaction.

  2. Assessment of biological age and "quantity of health" of judoists-veterans at the exit stage from elite sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Perebeynos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the assessment of biological age and "quantity of health" of judoists-veterans that allows estimating the level of functionality of their organism at the exit stage from elite sport and to construct correctly their training and competitive processes. Material & Methods: the systemic-functional approach is applied. The biological age and "quantity of health" of judoists-veterans decided with the help of tests. The group of 28 men and 19 women – judoists-veterans is tested for this purpose. Results: it is proved that the research of biological age of veterans of judo at the exit stage from elite sport, continuing systematic trainings, is of great importance for sports medicine, physical therapy, gerontology, neurology, and also for professional selection in respect of age rationing of intellectual and exercise stresses, assessment of influence of the motive mode on the rate of aging; the carried-out tests allowed to estimate "quantity of health" of judoists-veterans, giving the idea of the level of functionality of their organism. Conclusions: it is proved that judo classes, the correct and positive image of life positively influence health of judoists-veterans.

  3. A simple analytical method to estimate all exit parameters of a cross-flow air dehumidifier using liquid desiccant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuoni, M M

    2014-03-01

    The dehumidifier is a key component in liquid desiccant air-conditioning systems. Analytical solutions have more advantages than numerical solutions in studying the dehumidifier performance parameters. This paper presents the performance results of exit parameters from an analytical model of an adiabatic cross-flow liquid desiccant air dehumidifier. Calcium chloride is used as desiccant material in this investigation. A program performing the analytical solution is developed using the engineering equation solver software. Good accuracy has been found between analytical solution and reliable experimental results with a maximum deviation of +6.63% and -5.65% in the moisture removal rate. The method developed here can be used in the quick prediction of the dehumidifier performance. The exit parameters from the dehumidifier are evaluated under the effects of variables such as air temperature and humidity, desiccant temperature and concentration, and air to desiccant flow rates. The results show that hot humid air and desiccant concentration have the greatest impact on the performance of the dehumidifier. The moisture removal rate is decreased with increasing both air inlet temperature and desiccant temperature while increases with increasing air to solution mass ratio, inlet desiccant concentration, and inlet air humidity ratio.

  4. Metadynamics simulations reveal a Na+ independent exiting path of galactose for the inward-facing conformation of vSGLT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Bisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-Galactose Transporter (SGLT is a secondary active symporter which accumulates sugars into cells by using the electrochemical gradient of Na+ across the membrane. Previous computational studies provided insights into the release process of the two ligands (galactose and sodium ion into the cytoplasm from the inward-facing conformation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose transporter (vSGLT. Several aspects of the transport mechanism of this symporter remain to be clarified: (i a detailed kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the exit path of the two ligands is still lacking; (ii contradictory conclusions have been drawn concerning the gating role of Y263; (iii the role of Na+ in modulating the release path of galactose is not clear. In this work, we use bias-exchange metadynamics simulations to characterize the free energy profile of the galactose and Na+ release processes toward the intracellular side. Surprisingly, we find that the exit of Na+ and galactose is non-concerted as the cooperativity between the two ligands is associated to a transition that is not rate limiting. The dissociation barriers are of the order of 11-12 kcal/mol for both the ion and the substrate, in line with kinetic information concerning this type of transporters. On the basis of these results we propose a branched six-state alternating access mechanism, which may be shared also by other members of the LeuT-fold transporters.

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Exit of Golgi-resident Defective for SREBP Cleavage (Dsc) E3 Ligase Complex Requires Its Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, Sumana; Espenshade, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Layers of quality control ensure proper protein folding and complex formation prior to exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. The fission yeast Dsc E3 ligase is a Golgi-localized complex required for sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factor activation that shows architectural similarity to endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation E3 ligases. The Dsc E3 ligase consists of five integral membrane proteins (Dsc1-Dsc5) and functionally interacts with the conserved AAA-ATPase Cdc48. Utilizing an in vitro ubiquitination assay, we demonstrated that Dsc1 has ubiquitin E3 ligase activity that requires the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc4. Mutations that specifically block Dsc1-Ubc4 interaction prevent SREBP cleavage, indicating that SREBP activation requires Dsc E3 ligase activity. Surprisingly, Golgi localization of the Dsc E3 ligase complex also requires Dsc1 E3 ligase activity. Analysis of Dsc E3 ligase complex formation, glycosylation, and localization indicated that Dsc1 E3 ligase activity is specifically required for endoplasmic reticulum exit of the complex. These results define enzyme activity-dependent sorting as an autoregulatory mechanism for protein trafficking.

  6. Lte1 promotes mitotic exit by controlling the localization of the spindle position checkpoint kinase Kin4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Jill E; Chan, Leon Y; Amon, Angelika

    2011-08-02

    For a daughter cell to receive a complete genomic complement, it is essential that the mitotic spindle be positioned accurately within the cell. In budding yeast, a signaling system known as the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) monitors spindle position and regulates the activity of the mitotic exit network (MEN), a GTPase signaling pathway that promotes exit from mitosis. The protein kinase Kin4 is a central component of the spindle position checkpoint. Kin4 primarily localizes to the mother cell and associates with spindle pole bodies (SPBs) located in the mother cell to inhibit MEN signaling. In contrast, the kinase does not associate with the SPB in the bud. Thus, only when a MEN bearing SPB leaves the mother cell and the spindle is accurately positioned along the mother-bud axis can MEN signaling occur and cell division proceed. Here, we describe a mechanism ensuring that Kin4 only associates with mother cell-located SPBs. The bud-localized MEN regulator Lte1, whose molecular function has long been unclear, prevents Kin4 that escapes into the bud from associating with SPBs in the daughter cell.

  7. Conjugates of amino acids and peptides with 5-o-mycaminosyltylonolide and their interaction with the ribosomal exit tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, Anna; Makarov, Gennady; Tereshchenkov, Andrey; Korshunova, Galina; Sumbatyan, Nataliya; Golovin, Andrey; Svetlov, Maxim; Bogdanov, Alexey

    2013-11-20

    During protein synthesis the nascent polypeptide chain (NC) extends through the ribosomal exit tunnel (NPET). Also, the large group of macrolide antibiotics binds in the nascent peptide exit tunnel. In some cases interaction of NC with NPET leads to the ribosome stalling, a significant event in regulation of translation. In other cases NC-ribosome interactions lead to pauses in translation that play an important role in cotranslational folding of polypeptides emerging from the ribosome. The precise mechanism of NC recognition in NPET as well as factors that determine NC conformation in the ribosomal tunnel are unknown. A number of derivatives of the macrolide antibiotic 5-O-mycaminosyltylonolide (OMT) containing N-acylated amino acid or peptide residues were synthesized in order to study potential sites of NC-NPET interactions. The target compounds were prepared by conjugation of protected amino acids and peptides with the C23 hydroxyl group of the macrolide. These OMT derivatives showed high although varying abilities to inhibit the firefly luciferase synthesis in vitro. Three glycil-containing derivatives appeared to be strong inhibitors of translation, more potent than parental OMT. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of complexes of tylosin, OMT, and some of OMT derivatives with the large ribosomal subunit of E. coli illuminated a plausible reason for the high inhibitory activity of Boc-Gly-OMT. In addition, the MD study detected a new putative site of interaction of the nascent polypeptide chain with the NPET walls.

  8. Numerical study on the electron-wall interaction in a Hall thruster with segmented electrodes placed at the channel exit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Shao-Wei; E Peng; Duan Ping; Xu Dian-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Electron-wall interaction is always recognized as an important physical problem because of its remarkable influences on thruster discharge and performance.Based on existing theories,an electrode is predicted to weaken electron-wall interaction due to its low secondary electron emission characteristic.In this paper,the electron-wall interaction in an Aton-type Hall thruster with low-emissive electrodes placed near the exit of discharge channel is studied by a fully kinetic particle-incell method.The results show that the electron-wall interaction in the region of segmented electrode is indeed weakened,but it is significantly enhanced in the remaining region of discharge channel.It is mainly caused by electrode conductive property which makes equipotential lines convex toward channel exit and even parallel to wall surface in near-wall region; this convex equipotential configuration results in significant physical effects such as repelling electrons,which causes the electrons to move toward the channel center,and the electrons emitted from electrodes to be remarkably accelerated,thereby increasing electron temperature in the discharge channel,etc.Furthermore,the results also indicate that the discharge current in the segmented electrode case is larger than in the non-segmented electrode case,which is qualitatively in accordance with previous experimental results.

  9. THE NITROGEN OXIDE CONCENTRATION DEPENDENCE ON HEAT LOSSES WITH EXIT SMOKE GASES OF HEAT-GENERATING PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sedaev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. The most significant heat losses are losses associated with exit gases. It is these losses that determine the scale of heat emissions into the plant air with fuel combustion products and reduce the environmental safety of the plant. Many of the derived methods for reducing the nitrogen oxide emission associated with gas purification systems provide a high degree of smoke gas purification, but these methods are based on the use of various chemicals, which sharply reduces their environmental and operational characteristics.Results. The suggested method of simultaneous purification and recycling of gaseous emissions of heat-generating plants differs profitably from the existing ones. Its application will improve tech-nical and economic and also environmental characteristics of heat-generating plants and will make the characteristics of the energy enterprise a closer match to those of waste-free, environmentally-friendly and profitable enterprises.Conclusions. The obtained results confirm the fact that reduction of heat losses with exit gases re-sults in a reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions. Therefore, an increase in environmental safety of a boiler unit can be achieved in tandem with one in heat efficiency.

  10. Nuclear energy - no thanks. The long way to the exit; Atomkraft - nein danke. Der lange Weg zum Ausstieg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternstein, Wolfgang

    2013-07-01

    The anti-nuclear movement is one of the most successful social movements of the recent history of Germany and firmly anchored in huge parts of the population. After a struggle lasting more than forty years it has nearly reached its aims: The exit from nuclear energy and a rethinking in direction of alternative energy concepts. Decisive for the nuclear exit of the Federal government were thereby less the nuclear accidents of Harrisburg (1979), Chernobyl (1986), and Fukushima (2011) but rather the decades-long, stubborn commitment of numerous citizens as well as of citizen's initiatives. ''Nuclear energy - no thanks.'' is the analysis of the citizen's movement from Wyhl until Gorleben. The nonviolent activist and peace researcher Sternstein was there from the beginning and reports about anger and indignation that has been condensed to the social movement with political objectives. Extremely helpful are thereby the methods and strategies of nonviolent actions described by him.

  11. View of Building 40

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    Recently opened at CERN is this striking building for physicists, constructed with the help of the Swiss 'Fondation des Immeubles pour les Organisations Internationales', which has over the years added several major edifices to the Geneva landscape

  12. Building Songs 10

    OpenAIRE

    Zla ba sgrol ma

    2009-01-01

    Male villagers sing a building song This collection presents forty-nine audio files including: several folk song genres; folktales and; local history from the Sman shad Valley of Sde dge county World Oral Literature Project

  13. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... or environmental thinking and this finds expression in new approaches to the design of building facades, roofs, atria. Another is that new software simulation tools have changed energy assumptions and hence building forms. In a fast evolving arena, the book shows how architects are reshaping their practices....... Branding via LEED and BREEAM has taken green ideas to China and other emerging economies. The globalization of sustainability and of architectural practice is an important strand of the new edition....

  14. Flight Research Building (Hangar)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Glenn Flight Research Building is located at the NASA Glenn Research Center with aircraft access to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The facility is...

  15. Municipal Building Energy Usage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set contains energy use data from 2009-2014 for 139 municipally operated buildings. Metrics include: Site & Source EUI, annual electricity, natural...

  16. Buildings Sector Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  17. Assessment of building sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Bragança, L.; Mateus, Ricardo; Koukkari, Heli

    2007-01-01

    The concept of sustainable building is usually related to environmental characteristics although the social, economics and cultural indicators of the life-cycle impacts are of substancial importance. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects; emphasizing the qualitative criteria only increases confusion. The R&D and standardization is thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the enviromental methods. Other directions of research are aiming at...

  18. Building Materials in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    Building in the artic requires special attention on the appropriateness of building materials. The harsh climate makes execution difficult and sets unusual requirements for the pure material properties. In addition, there is a lack of choice of good, natural building materials in the arctic....... This results in high transport costs. The building materials situation in Greenland may potentially be improved by intensifying the reuse of building materials or by promoting the local production of building materials....

  19. Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

  20. A highly conserved motif at the COOH terminus dictates endoplasmic reticulum exit and cell surface expression of NKCC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaarour, Nancy; Demaretz, Sylvie; Defontaine, Nadia; Mordasini, David; Laghmani, Kamel

    2009-08-01

    Mutations in the apically located Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter, NKCC2, lead to type I Bartter syndrome, a life-threatening kidney disorder, yet the mechanisms underlying the regulation of mutated NKCC2 proteins in renal cells have not been investigated. Here, we identified a trihydrophobic motif in the distal COOH terminus of NKCC2 that was required for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit and surface expression of the co-transporter. Indeed, microscopic confocal imaging showed that a naturally occurring mutation depriving NKCC2 of its distal COOH-terminal region results in the absence of cell surface expression. Biotinylation assays revealed that lack of cell surface expression was associated with abolition of mature complex-glycosylated NKCC2. Pulse-chase analysis demonstrated that the absence of mature protein was not caused by reduced synthesis or increased rates of degradation of mutant co-transporters. Co-immunolocalization experiments revealed that these mutants co-localized with the ER marker protein-disulfide isomerase, demonstrating that they are retained in the ER. Cell treatment with proteasome or lysosome inhibitors failed to restore the loss of complex-glycosylated NKCC2, further eliminating the possibility that mutant co-transporters were processed by the Golgi apparatus. Serial truncation of the NKCC2 COOH terminus, followed by site-directed mutagenesis, identified hydrophobic residues (1081)LLV(1083) as an ER exit signal necessary for maturation of NKCC2. Mutation of (1081)LLV(1083) to AAA within the context of the full-length protein prevented NKCC2 ER exit independently of the expression system. This trihydrophobic motif is highly conserved in the COOH-terminal tails of all members of the cation-chloride co-transporter family, and thus may function as a common motif mediating their transport from the ER to the cell surface. Taken together, these data are consistent with a model whereby naturally occurring premature terminations that interfere with

  1. Specifying a green building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, F.; McGregor, A. [Ove Arup and Partners, (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The concept of a `green` building is defined as a building that works with, rather than in spite of, the local climate to minimize fossil fuel consumption. It minimizes water consumption and waste. It uses construction materials that have a long life, are non-toxic, and which require minimum energy to produce, deliver to the building site and install. It is sufficiently flexible to permit successive changes without major construction work. With this definition as the background, this paper concentrates on the reduction of fossil fuel energy consumption in commercial buildings, and the various means available to achieve it, such as natural ventilation, thermal storage, control of solar gain, maximizing the use of daylight for illumination, and passive and active solar energy collection. Also discussed are some of the reasons why some buildings fail to satisfy owners and occupants. A strategy involving performance-based contracting, elements of value engineering and occupant education to assure energy efficiency and owner/occupants satisfaction is presented. 15 refs.

  2. Determining when a set of compute nodes participating in a barrier operation on a parallel computer are ready to exit the barrier operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A.

    2011-12-20

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for determining when a set of compute nodes participating in a barrier operation on a parallel computer are ready to exit the barrier operation that includes, for each compute node in the set: initializing a barrier counter with no counter underflow interrupt; configuring, upon entering the barrier operation, the barrier counter with a value in dependence upon a number of compute nodes in the set; broadcasting, by a DMA engine on the compute node to each of the other compute nodes upon entering the barrier operation, a barrier control packet; receiving, by the DMA engine from each of the other compute nodes, a barrier control packet; modifying, by the DMA engine, the value for the barrier counter in dependence upon each of the received barrier control packets; exiting the barrier operation if the value for the barrier counter matches the exit value.

  3. A firm-level dataset for analyzing entry, exit, employment and R&D expenditures in the UK: 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugur, Mehmet; Trushin, Eshref; Solomon, Edna

    2016-09-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled "Inverted-U relationship between R&D intensity and survival: Evidence on scale and complementarity effects in UK data" (Ugur et al., In press) [1]. It describes the trends in R&D expenditures, employment of R&D personnel and firm entry and exit rates in the UK from 1998 to 2012. We also provide statistics on net employment creation and net R&D investments due to firm entry and exits. In addition, we compute the correlation coefficients between entry and exit rates at the two digit industry level so as to examine whether the correlations are contemporaneous or inter-temporal. Finally, we provide information about the underlying dataset to which secure access is available through UK Data Service Archive 7716 at http://dx.doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-7716-1.

  4. SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

  5. Buildings for advanced technology

    CERN Document Server

    Teague, E; Murday, James

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the design and construction of buildings for nanoscale science and engineering research. The information provided in this book is useful for designing and constructing buildings for such advanced technologies as nanotechnology, nanoelectronics and biotechnology. The book outlines the technology challenges unique to each of the building environmental challenges outlined below and provides best practices and examples of engineering approaches to address them: • Establishing and maintaining critical environments: temperature, humidity, and pressure • Structural vibration isolation • Airborne vibration isolation (acoustic noise) • Isolation of mechanical equipment-generated vibration/acoustic noise • Cost-effective power conditioning • Grounding facilities for low electrical interference • Electromagnetic interference (EMI)/Radio frequency interference (RFI) isolation • Airborne particulate contamination • Airborne organic and chemical contamination • Environment, safety a...

  6. GREEN BUILDING CHALLENGE 2005

    OpenAIRE

    López de Asiaín, Jaime; Alvarez-Ude, Luis

    2005-01-01

    Green Building Challenge 2005 forma part d'un projecte de cooperació entre diferents països (més de 20 en l'actualitat) que té per objectiu el desenvolupament d'una metodologia d'avaluació del comportament ecològic dels edificis i els resultats se presentaran en una conferència internacional a celebrar a Tòquio (Japó) a la finals de l'any 2005: Sustainable Building 2005. Green Building Challenge 2005 forma parte de un proyecto de cooperación entre distintos países (más de 20 en la actualid...

  7. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  8. On building Information Warehouses

    CERN Document Server

    Laha, Arijit

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals of information management (IM) is supporting the knowledge workers in performing their works. In this paper we examine issues of relevance, linkage and provenance of information, as accessed and used by the knowledge workers. These are usually not adequately addressed in most of the IT based solutions for IM. Here we propose a non-conventional approach for building information systems for supporting the knowledge workers which addresses these issues. The approach leads to the ideas of building Information Warehouses (IW) and Knowledge work Support Systems (KwSS). Such systems can open up potential for building innovative applications of significant impact, including those capable of helping organizations in implementing processes for double-loop learning.

  9. Building information deduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Myrup Jensen, Morten; Beetz, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show...... of a model, differences in separate models or models from different point of time. Current BIM tools support both modes only in a rudimentary form. This paper discusses current modes of information query within and across BIM models, shows beneficial scenarios for building and planning practice through...... that in practice models are no longer solely observed as culmination of knowledge in a 3d representation of future built structures, but as a source of information in itself. Experienced users of BIM want to Find Information within a model or across a set of these and Compare models in order to evaluate states...

  10. CCR1, an enzyme required for lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, mediates cell proliferation exit for leaf development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jingshi; Luo, Dexian; Xu, Deyang;

    2015-01-01

    exit in leaves. CCR1 is expressed basipetally in the leaf, and ccr1 mutants exhibited multiple abnormalities, including increased cell proliferation. The ccr1 phenotypes are not due to the reduced lignin content, but instead are due to the dramatically increased level of ferulic acid (FeA......), an intermediate in lignin biosynthesis. FeA is known to have antioxidant activity, and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ccr1 were markedly reduced. We also characterized another double mutant in CAFFEIC ACID O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (comt) and CAFFEOYL CoA 3-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (ccoaomt), in which the FeA...... level was dramatically reduced. Cell proliferation in comt ccoaomt leaves was decreased, accompanied by elevated ROS levels, and the mutant phenotypes were partially rescued by treatment with FeA or another antioxidant (N-acetyl-L-cysteine). Taken together, our results suggest that CCR1, FeA and ROS...

  11. Postextrasystolic sinoatrial exit block in human sick sinus syndrome: demonstration by direct recording of sinus node electrograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseman, P; Berzin, B; Desry, D; Bauchart, J J; Reade, R; Leroy, O; Poncelet, P; Lekieffre, J; Thery, C

    1991-12-01

    Ten patients with sick sinus syndrome having repetitive sinus node electrograms during long postpacing pauses were studied during programmed atrial stimulation. Sinus node activity was recorded using a percutaneous catheter electrode. A sinus node electrogram was recorded before the return atrial beat in seven patients; it was similar to the sinus node electrogram observed during postpacing pauses and is clearly identified because sinoatrial conduction time was markedly prolonged following the atrial extra beat. Complete sinoatrial exit block occurred in four patients. (1) Sinus node electrograms were thus validated both during postpacing pauses and during programmed atrial stimulation in most patients with sick sinus syndrome. (2) Sinoatrial conduction time was markedly prolonged after one extrasystole, accounting for supracompensatory atrial return cycles. (3) If it were cumulative following multiple extrasystoles, this effect could constitute the electrophysiologic link between an abnormal response during programmed atrial stimulation and the complete sinoatrial block recorded during the pauses that follow rapid atrial pacing.

  12. lncRNA maturation to initiate heterochromatin formation in the nucleolus is required for exit from pluripotency in ESCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Nataša; Bär, Dominik; Leone, Sergio; Frommel, Sandra C; Weber, Fabienne A; Vollenweider, Eva; Ferrari, Elena; Ziegler, Urs; Kaech, Andres; Shakhova, Olga; Cinelli, Paolo; Santoro, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    The open chromatin of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) condenses into repressive heterochromatin as cells exit the pluripotent state. How the 3D genome organization is orchestrated and implicated in pluripotency and lineage specification is not understood. Here, we find that maturation of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) pRNA is required for establishment of heterochromatin at ribosomal RNA genes, the genetic component of nucleoli, and this process is inactivated in pluripotent ESCs. By using mature pRNA to tether heterochromatin at nucleoli of ESCs, we find that localized heterochromatin condensation of ribosomal RNA genes initiates establishment of highly condensed chromatin structures outside of the nucleolus. Moreover, we reveal that formation of such highly condensed, transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin promotes transcriptional activation of differentiation genes and loss of pluripotency. Our findings unravel the nucleolus as an active regulator of chromatin plasticity and pluripotency and challenge current views on heterochromatin regulation and function in ESCs.

  13. Development and applications of grazing exit micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, T.; Sato, Y.; Konishi, Y.; Ding, X.; Tsuji, K.

    2004-08-01

    A polycapillary X-ray lens is an effective optics to obtain a μm-size X-ray beam for micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-XRF). We developed a μ-XRF instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens, which also enabled us to perform Grazing Exit μ-XRF (GE-μ-XRF). The evaluated diameter of the primary X-ray beam was 48 μm at the focal distance of the X-ray lens. Use of this instrument enabled two-dimensional mapping of the elemental distributions during growth of the plant "Quinoa". The results of the mapping revealed elemental transition during growth. In addition, a small region of thin film was analyzed by GE-μ-XRF. We expect that GE-μ-XRF will become an effective method of estimating the film thickness of a small region.

  14. Development and applications of grazing exit micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, T.; Sato, Y.; Konishi, Y.; Ding, X.; Tsuji, K. E-mail: tsuji@a-chem.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp

    2004-08-31

    A polycapillary X-ray lens is an effective optics to obtain a {mu}m-size X-ray beam for micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry ({mu}-XRF). We developed a {mu}-XRF instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens, which also enabled us to perform Grazing Exit {mu}-XRF (GE-{mu}-XRF). The evaluated diameter of the primary X-ray beam was 48 {mu}m at the focal distance of the X-ray lens. Use of this instrument enabled two-dimensional mapping of the elemental distributions during growth of the plant 'Quinoa'. The results of the mapping revealed elemental transition during growth. In addition, a small region of thin film was analyzed by GE-{mu}-XRF. We expect that GE-{mu}-XRF will become an effective method of estimating the film thickness of a small region.

  15. [A way of helping "Mr. Minotaur" and "Ms. Ariadne" to exit from the multiple morbidity labyrinth: the "master problems"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabián, J L; Pérez Franco, B

    2016-01-01

    Multiple morbidity seems to be "infinite" and so is not easy to make useful decisions. A new concept is introduced: the "master problems", as a qualitative method to facilitate the exit from this maze of multiple morbidity. Metaphors from the art world have been used to teach this concept. These "master problems" generally remain hidden and can only "unravel" between the interstices of multiple morbidity, when the details of the system that defines the problem are explained. A problem with "energy" or a "master problem" is complex, multiple and dramatic or theatrical--everything in the clinical history history make us look into that particular question. It is what gives us a blow to the stomach, which causes our hearts to beat faster, that moves us on many levels, which has a high "density of emotions", human elements, social symbols, and opens solutions in a patient.

  16. A Study on the Effect of Exit Widths and Crowd Sizes in the Formation of Arch in Clogged Crowds

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente G

    2015-01-01

    The arching phenomenon is an emergent pattern formed by a $c$-sized crowd of intelligent, goal-oriented, autonomous, heterogeneous individuals moving towards a $w$-wide exit along a long $W$-wide corridor, where $W>w$. We collected empirical data from microsimulations to identify the combination effects of~$c$ and~$w$ to the time~$T$ of the onset of and the size~$S$ of the formation of the arch. The arch takes on the form of the perimeter of a half ellipse halved along the minor axis. We measured the~$S$ with respect to the lengths of the major~$M$ and minor~$m$ axes of the ellipse, respectively. The mathematical description of the formation of this phenomenon will be an important information in the design of walkways to control and easily direct the flow of large crowds, especially during panic egress conditions.

  17. A comparison of two nursing program exit exams that predict first-time NCLEX-RN outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, Lisa D; Mills, Andrew C

    2014-08-01

    This retrospective descriptive correlational study compared the predictive accuracy of the Health Education Systems, Inc, Exit Exam (Elsevier) and Assessment Technologies Institute's RN Comprehensive Predictor, both of which were administered to nursing students in an upper-division baccalaureate nursing program during their final semester of study. Using logistic regression analyses, it was determined that the two examinations were statistically significant but weak predictors of success on the RN licensure examination. The RN Comprehensive Predictor had a slightly better odds ratio; however, both examinations had similar sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy. Because the RN Comprehensive Predictor was included in the Assessment Technologies Institute's Comprehensive Assessment and Review Program already being used by the BSN program, based on the results of this study, the nursing faculty decided to use only the RN Comprehensive Predictor during its NCLEX-RN preparation course.

  18. Influence of selfish and polite behaviours on a pedestrian evacuation through a narrow exit: A quantitative characterisation

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolas, Alexandre; Kuperman, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    We study the influence of selfish vs. polite behaviours on the dynamics of a pedestrian evacuation through a narrow exit. To this end, experiments involving about 80 participants with distinct prescribed behaviours are performed; reinjection of participants into the setup allowed us to improve the statistics. Notwithstanding the fluctuations in the instantaneous flow rate, we find that a stationary regime is almost immediately reached. The average flow rate increases monotonically with the fraction c\\_s of vying (selfish) pedestrians, which corresponds to a "faster-is-faster" effect in our experimental conditions; it is also positively correlated with the average density of pedestrians in front of the door, up to nearly close-packing. At large c\\_s , the flow displays marked intermittency, with bursts of quasi-simultaneous escapes. In addition to these findings, we wonder whether the effect of cooperation is specific to systems of intelligent beings, or whether it can be reproduced by a purely mechanical surr...

  19. Carbon Efficient Building Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellervo Matilainen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the Finnish legislation have focused on energy use and especially on energy used for heating space in buildings. However, in many cases this does not lead to the optimal concept in respect to minimizing green house gases. This paper studies how CO2 emission levels are affected by different measures to reduce energy use in buildings. This paper presents two real apartment buildings with different options of energy efficiency and power sources. The calculations clearly show that in the future electricity and domestic hot water use will have high importance in respect to energy efficiency, and therefore also CO2 equivalent (eq emissions. The importance increases when the energy efficiency of the building increases. There are big differences between average Finnish production and individual power plants; CO2 eq emissions might nearly double depending on the energy source and the power plant type. Both a building with an efficient district heating as a power source, and a building with ground heat in addition to nuclear power electricity as a complimentary electricity source performed very similarly to each other in respect to CO2 eq emissions. However, it is dangerous to conclude that it is not important which energy source is chosen. If hypothetically, the use of district heating would dramatically drop, the primary energy factor and CO2 eq emissions from electricity would rise, which in turn would lead to the increase of the ground heat systems emissions. A problem in the yearly calculations is that the fact that it is very important, sometimes even crucial, when energy is needed, is always excluded.

  20. Climate Responsive Buildings in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, M.; Amato, A.; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work within the framework of the Annex44 of the International Energy Agency (IEA...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...

  1. ''Brexit means Brexit''. Also a British withdrawal of the EURATOM treaty?; ''Brexit means Brexit''. Exit auch fuer den EURATOM-Vertrag?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2016-08-15

    In a referendum on 23 June 2016, 51.9 % of the British voters decided to leave the EU. The question did not include explicitly the exit from the EURATOM Treaty (EAV). Since the 2009 Lisbon Treaty the Euratom Community is a supranational organisation of the new EU. This raises the question whether the exit of Britain from the EU also means an exit from the Euratom treaty.

  2. ADAM17 is critical for multipolar exit and radial migration of neuronal intermediate progenitor cells in mice cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingyu; Zhang, Zhengyu; Li, Zengmin; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Bin; Pan, Le; Ma, Zhixing; Zheng, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    The radial migration of neuronal progenitor cells is critical for the development of cerebral cortex layers. They go through a critical step transforming from multipolar to bipolar before outward migration. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) is a transmembrane protease which can process many substrates involved in cell-cell interaction, including Notch, ligands of EGFR, and some cell adhesion molecules. In this study, we used in utero electroporation to knock down or overexpress ADAM17 at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) in neuronal progenitor cells to examine the role of ADAM17 in cortical embryonic neurogenesis. Our results showed that the radial migration of ADAM17-knocked down cells were normal till E16.5 and reached the intermediate zone (IZ). Then most transfected cells stopped migration and stayed at the IZ to inner cortical plate (CP) layer at E18.5, and there was higher percentage of multipolar cells at IZ layer in the ADAM17-knocked down group compared to the cells in control group. Marker staining revealed that those ADAM17-knocked down cells differentiated normally from neural stem cells (NSCs) to neuronal intermediate progenitor cells (nIPCs) but did not differentiate into mature neurons. The migration and multipolar exit defects caused by ADAM17 knockdown could be partially rescued by over-expressing an shRNA resistant ADAM17, while overexpressing ADAM17 alone did not affect the radial migration. Taken together, our results showed for the first time that, ADAM17 is critical in regulating the multipolar-stage exit and radial migration of the nIPCs during telencephalon cortex development in mice.

  3. Building a Circular Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Heidi; Guldager Jensen, Kasper; Sommer, John

    2016-01-01

    of the circular strategies is not only in the future. Increased flexibility, optimized operation and maintenance, as well as a healthier building, is low-hanging fruit that can be harvested today. The project’s principles can be implemented in industrialized construction in a large scale today. That is proven......Natural resources are scarce and construction accounts for 40 percent of the material and energy consumption in Europe. This means that a switch to a circular future is necessary. ’Building a Circular Future’ maps out where we are, where we are going, and what is needed for this conversion to take...

  4. Architecture Building Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ Leading architectural design and engineering firm, Skidmore,Owings, & Merrill (SOM), is renowned for pushing the envelope, masterminding some of the world's most cutting edge and enduring structural masterpieces - America's tallest building, the Sears Tower,in the firm's home city of Chicago, the 88-story Jinmao Tower in Shanghai, and the Freedom Tower in New York City, successor to the fallen World Trade Center complex,are among the well known projects in its building portfolio. SOM's next high profile assignment, the Pearl River Tower, in Guangzhou is one no less worthy of this tradition.

  5. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from......Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...

  6. Ecology Beyond Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    As the designers of the WWf building in Zeist, The Netherslands a CO2-neutral, self-sufficient office complex, RAU has set the bar for sustainable research and design. Guesteditor Terri Peters visited the firm's studio in Amsterdam to talk to principal Thomas Rau. As Peters relates, Rau prefers t...... to put on the dwindling supply of raw materials rather than the immidiate problems of energy consumption for which there are solutions within reach. With the emphasis on a more far-reaching approach, he places buildings in a wider context of ecological thinking and systems....

  7. Building UIs with Wijmo

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuguang

    2013-01-01

    Written with an example-based approach, Building UIs with Wijmo leads you step by step through the implementation and customization of each library component and its associated resources. Reference tables of each configuration option, method, and event for each component are provided, alongside detailed explanations of how each widget is used.Building UIs with Wijmo is targeted at readers who are familiar with HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and jQuery, and have a basic understanding of web development. Although knowledge of jQuery UI is not mandatory, it would be a bonus as it is quite similar to Wijm

  8. Building the perfect PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This popular Build-It-Yourself (BIY) PC book covers everything you want to know about building your own system: Planning and picking out the right components, step-by-step instructions for assembling your perfect PC, and an insightful discussion of why you'd want to do it in the first place. Most big brand computers from HP, Dell and others use lower-quality components so they can meet their aggressive pricing targets. But component manufacturers also make high-quality parts that you can either purchase directly, or obtain through distributors and resellers. Consumers and corporations

  9. Religious building energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielvogel, L.G.; Rudin, A.

    1988-02-01

    The Interfaith Coalition on Energy (ICE) was organized in 1980 by the Philadelphia area religious community and, funded in 1982 by local private foundations and corporations, began an energy management program for religious buildings whose utility bills are paid by congregations. Since that time, ICE has completed on-site energy audits for 226 congregations with a total of 546 buildings. Each audit report contains a description of the facilities and their energy systems, a baseline year of energy data, a computation of energy use per square foot, and a list of recommendations to reduce energy costs in order of simple payback.

  10. Joints in steel buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel F. Valencia Clement

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Masonry and steel components used in constructing buildings are in a constant state of motion. Volumetric changes are produced by temperature variation and deformation resulting from static or dynamic loading and in some materials, such as masonry, due to moisture content. This article addresses means of determining when expansion and seismic joints are required and how to proportion and design appropriate joints, specifically in steel buildings. It does not cover the study of expansion joints in concrete structures, in masonry construction or in non-structural (architectural elements.

  11. Building theory through design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with a fundamental matter of concern in research through design: how can design work lead to the building of new theory? Controversy exists about the balance between theory and design work in research through design. While some researchers see theory production as the scientific...

  12. Building with History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel; Adams, Charlotte; Green, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on interdisciplinary research focusing on Durham University estate, we describe how buildings constructed as part of an eighteenth century transition to a high carbon coal-based economy, are used and understood by their current inhabitants. Applied heritage research has tended to focus...

  13. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  14. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  15. Building with Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  16. Building a Better CTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Geoffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    This article features the new Framework of Essential Skills of the K-12 CTO of the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN). This latest, version 2.0 iteration of the skills framework builds upon work the organization did earlier this decade. This time CoSN, a professional association for district technology leaders, reached out to a variety of…

  17. References on Sustainable Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This web site is developed with the aim to promote sustainable design and planning of buildings. Selected references including books, reports, audio/visual materials and journals are listed. Most of the materials can be found in the HKU Libraries. To facilitate retrieval, links are provided to the library catalogue system for further information and study.

  18. Rapid Building Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    U.S. Department of Energy DPW OMD Directorate of Public Works Operations Maintenance Division ECM energy conservation measure EEB Hub Energy... EEB Hub). 5 For this project, FirstFuel worked with 11 DoD installations across the country to identify buildings for remote audit

  19. Building for International Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    When completed next August, the LG Beijing Tower project is sureto be one of the most high-end buildings in Beijing. With a meticulous attention to detail, planners know the ins and outs of the city's business momentum.The LG Beijing Tower will utilize an integrated networking system to ensure safety,efficiency and comfort.

  20. Energy efficient building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  1. Fire Protection for Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  2. Building a Twig Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    In this classroom activity, students build a phylogeny for woody plant species based on the morphology of their twigs. Using any available twigs, students can practice the process of cladistics to test evolutionary hypotheses for real organisms. They identify homologous characters, determine polarity through outgroup comparison, and construct a…

  3. Customer loyalty building

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on the customer loyalty. It gives an example of CRM project which aims to build the loyalty of customers to some brand or product so the customer would return to the company and would be satisfied with all products and services he get.

  4. Building Resilience in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D., MS Ed, FAAP, a pediatrician specializing in adolescent medicine at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), has joined forces with the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to author A Parent’s Guide to Building Resilience in Children and Teens: Giving Your Child Roots ...

  5. Sustainable Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Charney

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The intended audience for this webliography is librarians, both in the sciences and in other disciplines, and others that are new to the field such as students and members of the general public who are interested in this topic. Sustainable building practitioners may find parts useful as well.

  6. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  7. Building Bridges to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Stephanie; Scott, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes a theme cycle called "Building Bridges to China" developed for third grade students that focuses on the similarities between the lives of children and families in China and the United States. Explains that the theme cycle addresses the National Geography Standards and three of the National Council for the Social Studies standards. (CMK)

  8. Scout: An Impact Analysis Tool for Building Energy-Efficiency Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Chioke; Langevin, Jared; Roth, Amir; Phelan, Patrick; Parker, Andrew; Ball, Brian; Brackney, Larry

    2016-08-26

    Evaluating the national impacts of candidate U.S. building energy-efficiency technologies has historically been difficult for organizations with large energy efficiency portfolios. In particular, normalizing results from technology-specific impact studies is time-consuming when those studies do not use comparable assumptions about the underlying building stock. To equitably evaluate its technology research, development, and deployment portfolio, the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Office has developed Scout, a software tool that quantitatively assesses the energy and CO2 impacts of building energy-efficiency measures on the national building stock. Scout efficiency measures improve upon the unit performance and/or lifetime operational costs of an equipment stock baseline that is determined from the U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook (AEO). Scout measures are characterized by a market entry and exit year, unit performance level, cost, and lifetime. To evaluate measures on a consistent basis, Scout uses EnergyPlus simulation on prototype building models to translate measure performance specifications to whole-building energy savings; these savings impacts are then extended to a national scale using floor area weighting factors. Scout represents evolution in the building stock over time using AEO projections for new construction, retrofit, and equipment replacements, and competes technologies within market segments under multiple adoption scenarios. Scout and its efficiency measures are open-source, as is the EnergyPlus whole building simulation framework that is used to evaluate measure performance. The program is currently under active development and will be formally released once an initial set of measures has been analyzed and reviewed.

  9. Government Buildings, Owned, government buildings, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Buildings, Owned dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'government buildings'....

  10. Development of two Danish building typologies for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present two Danish typologies for residential buildings developed in the EU-financed project TABULA. The building typologies focus on energy performance and can be used in the analyses of, e.g., political strategies for planning the future upgrading of the energy...... performance of the residential building stock. Overall, the typologies consist of two types of building models—real example models and average designed models. The main purpose of developing the building typologies was to establish a tool able to calculate different energy-saving scenarios for the entire...... residential building stock. To make such calculations of scenarios, similar average designed building models were established based on extracted average values from the Danish Energy Performance Certification Scheme database. The two building typologies had the same overall composition, i.e., three main...

  11. Data Analysis and Data-Driven Decision-Making Strategies Implemented by Elementary Teachers in Selected Exited Program Improvement Safe Harbor Schools in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to investigate and describe how elementary teachers in exited Program Improvement-Safe Harbor schools acquire student achievement data through assessments, the strategies and reflections utilized to make sense of the data to improve student achievement, ensure curriculum and instructional goals are aligned,…

  12. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Radial Gap and Impeller Blade Exit on Flow-Induced Vibration at the Blade-Passing Frequency in a Centrifugal Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Qutub

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been recognized that the pressure pulsation excited by rotor-stator interaction in large pumps is strongly influenced by the radial gap between impeller and volute diffusers/tongues and the geometry of impeller blade at exit. This fluid-structure interaction phenomenon, as manifested by the pressure pulsation, is the main cause of flow-induced vibrations at the blade-passing frequency. In the present investigation, the effects of the radial gap and flow rate on pressure fluctuations, vibration, and pump performance are investigated experimentally for two different impeller designs. One impeller has a V-shaped cut at the blade's exit, while the second has a straight exit (without the V-cut. The experimental findings showed that the high vibrations at the blade-passing frequency are primarily raised by high pressure pulsation due to improper gap design. The existence of V-cut at blades exit produces lower pressure fluctuations inside the pump while maintaining nearly the same performance. The selection of proper radial gap for a given impeller-volute combination results in an appreciable reduction in vibration levels.

  13. "You Can't Hustle All Your Life": An Exploratory Investigation of the Exit Process among Street-Level Prostituted Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, Rochelle L.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1998 and 1999, 43 street-level prostituted women were interviewed regarding their developmental experiences, including prostitution entry, maintenance, and exit attempts. Three years later, 18 of the original 43 participants were located and interviewed. This exploratory follow-up investigation focused on the women's life experiences…

  14. Entering and exiting behaviour of the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longiflocosa (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural houses of the sub-Andean region of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Raúl Hernando; Santamaría, Erika; Cabrera, Olga Lucia

    2017-01-01

    The present study identified the entering and exiting sites for Lutzomyia longiflocosa in rural houses of the sub-Andean region in Colombia. Entering sites were identified with sticky traps set up outside the bedrooms, around the eave openings, and with cage traps enclosing the slits in the doors and windows inside the bedrooms. Exiting sites were identified by releasing groups of females indoors. These females were blood fed and marked with fluorescent powders. Females were recaptured with the trap placement described above but set up on the opposite sides of the openings. In the entering experiment, a significantly higher number of females were captured in the sticky traps at the zone nearest the eave openings (n = 142) than those captured in the other zones of the trap (n = 52); similarly, a higher number of females were captured on the front side of the house (n = 105) than at the rear side (n = 37). Only two females were collected in the cage trap. In the exiting experiment, at the ceiling, the highest percentage (86.2%) of females was recaptured with sticky traps nearest the eave openings and on the front side of the house (70.0%). Seven females were collected in the cage trap. Lu. longiflocosa entered and exited houses primarily through the eave openings in a non-random pattern in relation to the sides of the house.

  15. Discussion on Law Perfection of Market Exit of China's Commercial Bank%论我国商业银行市场退出的法律完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于雷

    2011-01-01

    The market exit risk of the China's financial institutions highlighted in commercial banks. This paper compares the legal system status of market exit at domestic and foreign commercial banks, and found that there are still many shortcomings in China's legal system of market exit of commercial banks and made corresponding reasonable proposals, and thus to improve the supervision legal system to exit the market of commercial banks.%我国金融机构市场退出的风险突出表现在商业银行上.本文通过比较国内外商业银行市场退出法律制度现状,发现我国商业银行市场退出法律制度尚存在诸多的不足,并就此提出了相应的合理建议,进而完善商业银行市场退出监管法律体系.

  16. Why Do Nurses Change Jobs? (An Empirical Test of Determinants of Specific Nurse’s Post-­‐Exit Destinations)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.M.F. Homburg (Vincent); L. Valkenburg (Lucas)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Aim The aims of this paper are, first, to identify the determinants of the ‘intention to leave’ of nurses working at a general hospital, and, second, to provide recommendations for various stakeholders targeting prevention of premature leaving to various post-exit desti

  17. Entering and exiting behaviour of the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longiflocosa (Diptera: Psychodidae in rural houses of the sub-Andean region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Hernando Pardo

    Full Text Available The present study identified the entering and exiting sites for Lutzomyia longiflocosa in rural houses of the sub-Andean region in Colombia. Entering sites were identified with sticky traps set up outside the bedrooms, around the eave openings, and with cage traps enclosing the slits in the doors and windows inside the bedrooms. Exiting sites were identified by releasing groups of females indoors. These females were blood fed and marked with fluorescent powders. Females were recaptured with the trap placement described above but set up on the opposite sides of the openings. In the entering experiment, a significantly higher number of females were captured in the sticky traps at the zone nearest the eave openings (n = 142 than those captured in the other zones of the trap (n = 52; similarly, a higher number of females were captured on the front side of the house (n = 105 than at the rear side (n = 37. Only two females were collected in the cage trap. In the exiting experiment, at the ceiling, the highest percentage (86.2% of females was recaptured with sticky traps nearest the eave openings and on the front side of the house (70.0%. Seven females were collected in the cage trap. Lu. longiflocosa entered and exited houses primarily through the eave openings in a non-random pattern in relation to the sides of the house.

  18. Justifying the Use of a Second Language Oral Test as an Exit Test in Hong Kong: An Application of Assessment Use Argument Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yujie

    2013-01-01

    This study employed Bachman and Palmer's (2010) Assessment Use Argument framework to investigate to what extent the use of a second language oral test as an exit test in a Hong Kong university can be justified. It also aimed to help test developers of this oral test identify the most critical areas in the current test design that might need…

  19. Variation of the cold intermediate water in the Black Sea exit of the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus and its transfer through the strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Yuce

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The cold intermediate water (CIW, T < 8°C entering the Strait of Istanbul and its variation along the strait have been studied by using monthly conductivity-temperature-depth (CTDdata sets collected during the period from 1996 to 2000. In the northern exit of the strait, CIW is located between the seasonal thermocline and Mediterranean water originating from the lowerlayer of the Sea of Marmara. The thickness of CIW decreases fromApril to October. In the Strait of Istanbul, CIW is observedas a layer of temperature < 14$^{circ}$C. The thickness of thismodified cold intermediate water flowing southwards with the upper layer decreases, while its temperature increases along thestrait due to mixing with adjacent water. In the southern exit of the strait, the modified cold intermediate water is observed during the period from May to October. If CIW exists in the Black Sea exit region of the strait, modified cold water is found inthe Marmara exit region during the same period. The distribution of CIW in the Strait of Istanbul contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of the strait, especially in the summer months.

  20. The Relationship between Post Reach Exit Exam (E[superscript 2]) Failure Remediation and NCLEX-RN Success of Graduates of Baccalaureate Nursing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Patricia Gale

    2009-01-01

    An ex post facto study was conducted to determine whether any relationship exists between remediation post Reach Exit Exam (E[superscript 2]) failure and NCLEX-RN success of graduates of baccalaureate nursing programs. Data was gathered from responses to the seventh annual validity study (V7S) offered to deans and directors of nursing programs by…