WorldWideScience

Sample records for building equitable health

  1. Building equitable health systems in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Latin America, primary health care (PHC) is often of poor quality and delivered unevenly. The region's segmented health systems make it difficult to provide equal access to services across multiple subsystems. To ensure more equitable health care and universal access to PHC in Latin America, health systems must be ...

  2. Towards building equitable health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons from case studies on operational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolhurst Rachel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published practical examples of how to bridge gaps between research, policy and practice in health systems research in Sub Saharan Africa are scarce. The aim of our study was to use a case study approach to analyse how and why different operational health research projects in Africa have contributed to health systems strengthening and promoted equity in health service provision. Methods Using case studies we have collated and analysed practical examples of operational research projects on health in Sub-Saharan Africa which demonstrate how the links between research, policy and action can be strengthened to build effective and pro-poor health systems. To ensure rigour, we selected the case studies using pre-defined criteria, mapped their characteristics systematically using a case study development framework, and analysed the research impact process of each case study using the RAPID framework for research-policy links. This process enabled analysis of common themes, successes and weaknesses. Results 3 operational research projects met our case study criteria: HIV counselling and testing services in Kenya; provision of TB services in grocery stores in Malawi; and community diagnostics for anaemia, TB and malaria in Nigeria. Political context and external influences: in each case study context there was a need for new knowledge and approaches to meet policy requirements for equitable service delivery. Collaboration between researchers and key policy players began at the inception of operational research cycles. Links: critical in these operational research projects was the development of partnerships for capacity building to support new services or new players in service delivery. Evidence: evidence was used to promote policy dialogue around equity in different ways throughout the research cycle, such as in determining the topic area and in development of indicators. Conclusion Building equitable health systems means

  3. EQUITABLE ACCESS TO HEALTH SERVICE IN BANYUWANGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusi Herawati Sunyoto Usman Mark Zuidgeest

    2012-06-01

    as indicators. Flowmap tool is used to analyze catchment area of each health facility using different transport modes choice:becak and public transport for poor group and motorcycle and car for non-poor group with different travel time within 30, 60 and more than 60 minutes. It is concluded that there was an accessibility difference between poor and non-poor group. The accessibility to the health facilities of poor group was lower than non-poor group. This condition occurred because the government policy of equitable access to health service facility did not pay attention to accessibility of poor group.

  4. delivering equitable health care in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    poor logistical support of services. Individuals may be discour- aged from seekinc medical care due to misdiagnosis, delays in receiving treatment and interaction with health providers“. This is clearly an inequitable situation with the majority of the popu- lation being unable to access effective health services. Inadequate ...

  5. Health financing: Who pays for equitable health systems? | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-10-24

    Oct 24, 2012 ... Countries rich and poor face difficult choices in funding quality health care for their citizens. Financing determines who can access care, what services are provided, and what costs are paid directly by users. For industrialized nations, some form of prepaid healthcare plan is the norm: their struggle today is ...

  6. Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Malawi has high rates of maternal mortality despite concerted efforts to increase the rate of births at health facilities. In response, the Ministry of Health implemented a Standards-Based Management and Recognition for Reproductive Health initiative to improve the quality of health services. Similar initiatives have proven ...

  7. Toward More Equitable Primary Health Care in Argentina and Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving primary health care for everyone requires an effort that extends beyond the formal health sector. This project will examine the value of intersectoral collaborations at the primary healthcare level to generate practical guidance and a theoretical understanding of how these arrangements can influence health equity ...

  8. No magic pill Pursuing universal health coverage through equitable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-10-25

    Oct 25, 2012 ... For more than 10 years, researchers supported by IDRC have been working with health reformers in low- and middle-income countries. Focusing on governance, equity, and the effective integration of health systems, they have much to contribute to current efforts to extend universal health coverage.

  9. Canadian initiative leading the way for equitable health systems and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Reflecting Canada's sustained commitment to improving maternal and child health, IDRC in partnership with Global Affairs Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research launched a new $36 ... Read more on the results of the Africa Health Systems Initiative in the following journal supplements:.

  10. Toward More Equitable Primary Health Care in Argentina and Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Findings will be integrated into course curricula for a master's in health systems and services management and a certificate in intersectoral primary health care ... in the developing world continue to face obstacles that limit their ability to establish careers and become leaders in the fields of science, technology, engineering, ...

  11. How Should Organizations Promote Equitable Distribution of Benefits from Technological Innovation in Health Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambisan, Satish; Nambisan, Priya

    2017-11-01

    Technological innovations typically benefit those who have good access to and an understanding of the underlying technologies. As such, technology-centered health care innovations are likely to preferentially benefit users of privileged socioeconomic backgrounds. Which policies and strategies should health care organizations adopt to promote equitable distribution of the benefits from technological innovations? In this essay, we draw on two important concepts-co-creation (the joint creation of value by multiple parties such as a company and its customers) and digitalization (the application of new digital technologies and the ensuing changes in sociotechnical structures and relationships)-and propose a set of policies and strategies that health care organizations could adopt to ensure that benefits from technological innovations are more equitably distributed among all target populations, including resource-poor communities and individuals. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Canadian initiative leading the way for equitable health systems and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 avr. 2016 ... Read this series of articles to learn more about actual applications and experiences relating to systems thinking in health, particularly in low- and ... Liens entre recherche et politiques : L'atelier sur l'Afrique de l'Ouest a mis en évidence l'importance d'utiliser les données probantes pour améliorer la santé ...

  13. Building equitable health systems in Latin America | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Leishmaniose : maladie sans frontières. Une mouche porteuse d'un parasite mortel hante la jungle des chutes d'Iguazu, qui marque la triple frontière entre le Brésil, l'Argentine et le. Voir davantageLeishmaniose : maladie sans frontières ...

  14. To reduce urban disparities in health, strengthen and enforce equitably environmental and consumer laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kenneth; Ramos, Rose Marie; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2009-11-01

    While observers agree that reducing disparities in health is an important health priority for the USA, there is little agreement and no comprehensive plan to achieve this goal. In this commentary, we make the case for reducing the disproportionate exposure to environmental and consumer hazards as a promising strategy for reducing health disparities. Exposures to environmental risks such as air pollution, lead, and hazardous wastes and to consumer products such as tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy food have been identified as significant threats to health and important contributors to disparities in health. Strengthening the regulations that prevent exposure to these harmful substances and enforcing these rules equitably could bring benefits to the population as a whole and especially to the disenfranchised, primarily urban, populations that are most exposed. The current policy environment may present a window of opportunity for pursuing this strategy.

  15. Promoting equitable global health research: a policy analysis of the Canadian funding landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Katrina; Walters, Dylan; Campbell, Sandy; Hatfield, Jennifer

    2017-08-29

    Recognising radical shifts in the global health research (GHR) environment, participants in a 2013 deliberative dialogue called for careful consideration of equity-centred principles that should inform Canadian funding polices. This study examined the existing funding structures and policies of Canadian and international funders to inform the future design of a responsive GHR funding landscape. We used a three-pronged analytical framework to review the ideas, interests and institutions implicated in publically accessible documents relevant to GHR funding. These data included published literature and organisational documents (e.g. strategic plans, progress reports, granting policies) from Canadian and other comparator funders. We then used a deliberative approach to develop recommendations with the research team, advisors, industry informants and low- and middle-income country (LMIC) partners. In Canada, major GHR funders invest an estimated CA$90 M per annum; however, the post-2008 re-organization of funding structures and policies resulted in an uncoordinated and inefficient Canadian strategy. Australia, Denmark, the European Union, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America invest proportionately more in GHR than Canada. Each of these countries has a national strategic plan for global health, some of which have dedicated benchmarks for GHR funding and policy to allow funds to be held by partners outside of Canada. Key constraints to equitable GHR funding included (1) funding policies that restrict financial and cost burden aspects of partnering for GHR in LMICs; and (2) challenges associated with the development of effective governance mechanisms. There were, however, some Canadian innovations in funding research that demonstrated both unconventional and equitable approaches to supporting GHR in Canada and abroad. Among the most promising were found in the International Development Research Centre and the (no longer active) Global Health

  16. Privately funded quality health care in India: a sustainable and equitable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samandar, R; Kleefield, S; Hammel, J; Mehta, M; Crone, R

    2001-08-01

    As the cost and degree of training necessary to provide state of the art health care has increased throughout the world, the present challenge in health care is to establish institutions that are financially sound and responsive to the dynamic needs of the communities in which they exist. As public funds have diminished, the role of the private sector in estabhshing innovative health care institutions has increased. This paper reviews the case of the LV Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI), an ophthalmologic institute in Hyderabad, India, that is financially sound and medically vital. With an annual budget of US$3 million, 180 000 patients are seen and 23 000 surgeries are performed at the Institute and its satellites each year. The Institute provides patient care at a ratio of 1:1 non-paying to paying patients through fee cross-subsidization. The Institute uses a combination of financial modalities, including donations, grants and fees to administer its non-patient care programs. Non-clinical programs of the Institute include a paramedical training program and a fellowship in ophthalmology, an internationally accredited eye bank for the preservation of corneal tissues, a rural out-reach and education program, a basic science and epidemiology program that directs health policy activities of the Institute and a rehabilitation program for patients with incurable visual deficits. To evaluate its effectiveness, LVPEI uses quality improvement measures, including patient surveys, post-operative outcomes studies and service utlization reviews. This case report of a privately-funded medical institution describes a successful model through which high-quality, equitable health care can be provided in a developing country. The LVPEI's active program of quality management, its academic commitment and programmatic relevance to the needs of its community should be modularized and replicated to establish equitable, efficient and effective health care institutions in the developing world.

  17. Human Rights and the Political Economy of Universal Health Care: Designing Equitable Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiger, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Health system financing is a critical factor in securing universal health care and achieving equity in access and payment. The human rights framework offers valuable guidance for designing a financing strategy that meets these goals. This article presents a rights-based approach to health care financing developed by the human right to health care movement in the United States. Grounded in a human rights analysis of private, market-based health insurance, advocates make the case for public financing through progressive taxation. Financing mechanisms are measured against the twin goals of guaranteeing access to care and advancing economic equity. The added focus on the redistributive potential of health care financing recasts health reform as an economic policy intervention that can help fulfill broader economic and social rights obligations. Based on a review of recent universal health care reform efforts in the state of Vermont, this article reports on a rights-based public financing plan and model, which includes a new business tax directed against wage disparities. The modeling results suggest that a health system financed through equitable taxation could produce significant redistributive effects, thus increasing economic equity while generating sufficient funds to provide comprehensive health care as a universal public good.

  18. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go undetected...

  19. Smart Growth and Equitable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page discusses how smart growth, environmental justice, and equitable development can improve communities and provide economic, environmental, health, and social benefits to underserved communities.

  20. Does more equitable governance lead to more equitable health care? A case study based on the implementation of health reform in Aboriginal health Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret; Sabanovic, Hana; La Brooy, Camille; Lock, Mark; Lusher, Dean; Brown, Larry

    2014-12-01

    There is growing evidence that providing increased voice to vulnerable or disenfranchised populations is important to improving health equity. In this paper we will examine the engagement of Aboriginal community members and community controlled organisations in local governance reforms associated with the Aboriginal Health National Partnership Agreements (AHNPA) in Australia and its impact on the uptake of health assessments. The sample included qualitative and quantitative responses from 188 people involved in regional governance in Aboriginal health. The study included data on the uptake of Aboriginal health assessments from July 2008 to December 2012. The study population was 83190 in 2008/9, 856986 in 2009/10, 88256 in 2010/11 and 90903 in 2011/12. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between organisations within forums and the regional uptake of Aboriginal health assessments. The independent variables included before and after the AHNPA, state, remoteness, level of representation from Aboriginal organisations and links between Aboriginal and mainstream organisations. The introduction of the AHNPA was associated with a shift in power from central government to regional forums. This shift has enabled Aboriginal people a much greater voice in governance. The results of the analyses show that improvements in the uptake of health assessments were associated with stronger links between Aboriginal organisations and between mainstream organisations working with Aboriginal organisations. Higher levels of community representation were also associated with improved uptake of health assessments in the AHNPA. The findings suggest that the incorporation of Aboriginal community and community controlled organisations in regional planning plays an important role in improving health equity. This study makes an important contribution to understanding the processes through which the incorporation of disadvantaged groups into governance might contribute to

  1. Consolidating the social health insurance schemes in China: towards an equitable and efficient health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingyue; Fang, Hai; Liu, Xiaoyun; Yuan, Beibei; Xu, Jin

    2015-10-10

    Fragmentation in social health insurance schemes is an important factor for inequitable access to health care and financial protection for people covered by different health insurance schemes in China. To fulfil its commitment of universal health coverage by 2020, the Chinese Government needs to prioritise addressing this issue. After analysing the situation of fragmentation, this Review summarises efforts to consolidate health insurance schemes both in China and internationally. Rural migrants, elderly people, and those with non-communicable diseases in China will greatly benefit from consolidation of the existing health insurance schemes with extended funding pools, thereby narrowing the disparities among health insurance schemes in fund level and benefit package. Political commitments, institutional innovations, and a feasible implementation plan are the major elements needed for success in consolidation. Achievement of universal health coverage in China needs systemic strategies including consolidation of the social health insurance schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Private health insurance systems, constitution and the right to receive an equitable health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga F, Alejandra

    2013-04-01

    This paper analyzes the constitutional problems that the private health system has faced as a result of the recent decisions of the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court of Chile in defense of the right to health care and nondiscrimination. It also reviews the comparative literature on health systems that have been successful in the task of reconciling the demands of equity and efficiency in the delivery of health care in the private health sector, in accordance with the constitutional principles of equality and nondiscrimination.

  3. Health financing reform in Uganda: How equitable is the proposed National Health Insurance scheme?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem Juliet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda is proposing introduction of the National Health Insurance scheme (NHIS in a phased manner with the view to obtaining additional funding for the health sector and promoting financial risk protection. In this paper, we have assessed the proposed NHIS from an equity perspective, exploring the extent to which NHIS would improve existing disparities in the health sector. Methods We reviewed the proposed design and other relevant documents that enhanced our understanding of contextual issues. We used the Kutzin and fair financing frameworks to critically assess the impact of NHIS on overall equity in financing in Uganda. Results The introduction of NHIS is being proposed against the backdrop of inequalities in the distribution of health system inputs between rural and urban areas, different levels of care and geographic areas. In this assessment, we find that gradual implementation of NHIS will result in low coverage initially, which might pose a challenge for effective management of the scheme. The process for accreditation of service providers during the first phase is not explicit on how it will ensure that a two-tier service provision arrangement does not emerge to cater for different types of patients. If the proposed fee-for-service mechanism of reimbursing providers is pursued, utilisation patterns will determine how resources are allocated. This implies that equity in resource allocation will be determined by the distribution of accredited providers, and checks put in place to prohibit frivolous use. The current design does not explicitly mention how these two issues will be tackled. Lastly, there is no clarity on how the NHIS will fit into, and integrate within existing financing mechanisms. Conclusion Under the current NHIS design, the initial low coverage in the first years will inhibit optimal achievement of the important equity characteristics of pooling, cross-subsidisation and financial protection. Depending

  4. Promoting an equitable and supportive school climate in high schools: the role of school organizational health and staff burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiani, Jessika H; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Mendelson, Tamar

    2014-12-01

    In response to persistent racial disparities in academic and behavioral outcomes between Black and White students, equitable school climate has drawn attention as a potential target for school reform. This study examined differences in Black and White students' experiences of school climate and explored whether indicators of school organizational health and staff burnout moderated differences in students' school experiences by race. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling with a sample of 18,397 Black students (n=6228) and White students (n=12,169) and 2391 school staff in 53 schools, we found a consistent pattern of racial inequalities, such that Black students reported less positive experiences than White students across three indicators of school climate (caring γ=-0.08, pschool organizational health and student-reported school climate (e.g., staff affiliation and student-perceived equity, γ=0.07, pschool organizational health indicators were more strongly associated with positive perceptions of school climate among White students than Black students, translating into greater racial disparities in perceived school climate at schools with greater organizational health (e.g., supportive leadership by race on student-perceived engagement, γ=-0.03, p=.042). We also found negative associations between staff-reported burnout and students' experience of equity, such that the racial gap was smaller in schools with high ratings of burnout (γ=0.04, p=.002). These findings have implications for educators and education researchers interested in promoting school social contexts that equitably support student engagement and success. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards an equitable healthcare in China: evaluating the productive efficiency of community health centers in Jiangsu Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lulin; Xu, Xinglong; Antwi, Henry Asante; Wang, Linna

    2017-05-25

    While the demand for the health service keeps escalating at the grass root or rural areas of China, a substantial portion of healthcare resources remains stagnant in the more developed cities and this has entrenched health inequity in many parts of China. At its conception, the Deepening Health Care Reform in 2012 China was intended to flush out these discrepancies and promote a more equitable and efficient distribution of health resources. Nearly half a decade of this reform, there are uncertainties as to whether the attainment of the objectives of the reform is in sight. We divided Jiangsu Province into 3 zones according to the level of economic and social development i.e. developed, developing, and undeveloped areas. Using a hybrid of Panel data analysis and an augmented Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), we model human resources, capital inputs of Community Health Centers to comprehensively determine the technical and scale efficiency of community health resources in 3 zones in Jiangsu Province. We sampled data and analysed efficiency and productivity growth of 75 Community Health Centers in 13 cities of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2015, which shows that a significant productive growth among Community Health Centers between 2011 and 2015. Mirroring the behavior of Community Health Centers, technological progress was the underlying force for the growth and the deterioration in efficiency change was found. This can be credited partly to the Deepening Health Care Reform measures aimed at improving technology availability in health centers in sub-urban areas. The regional summary of the DEA result shows that the stage of economic development and the efficiency performance of hospital did not necessarily go hand in hand among the 3 zones of Jiangsu. The government of China in general and Jiangsu province in particular could improve the efficiency of health resources allocation by improving the community health service system, rationalizing the allocation of health

  6. Equitable Distribution of Public Hospitals According to Health Needs in Malaysia: Does It Exist or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw Chien, Gan; Chee-Khoon, Chan; Wai, Victor Hoe Chee; Ng, Chiu Wan

    2015-11-01

    The goal of ensuring geographic equity of health care can be achieved if the geographic distribution of health care services is according to the health needs. This study aims to examine whether acute Ministry of Health hospital beds are distributed according to population health needs in various states within Peninsular Malaysia. The health needs of each state are indicated by the crude death rate. Comparisons of the share of hospital beds to that of population with differential health needs were assessed using concentration curve and index. In most years between 1995 and 2010, the distribution of hospital beds in Peninsular Malaysia were concentrated among states with higher health needs. This is in line with the principle of vertical equity and could be one advantage of a central federal government that can allocate health care resources to prioritize states with higher health care needs. © 2015 APJPH.

  7. Mental health policy in Kenya -an integrated approach to scaling up equitable care for poor populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Rachel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most donor and development agency attention is focussed on communicable diseases in Kenya, the importance of non-communicable diseases including mental health and mental illness is increasingly apparent, both in their own right and because of their influence on health, education and social goals. Mental illness is common but the specialist service is extremely sparse and primary care is struggling to cope with major health demands. Non health sectors e.g. education, prisons, police, community development, gender and children, regional administration and local government have significant concerns about mental health, but general health programmes have been surprisingly slow to appreciate the significance of mental health for physical health targets. Despite a people centred post colonial health delivery system, poverty and global social changes have seriously undermined equity. This project sought to meet these challenges, aiming to introduce sustainable mental health policy and implementation across the country, within the context of extremely scarce resources. Methods A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning, sustained intersectoral policy dialogue at national and regional level; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of at each level (national, regional, district and primary care; development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at national, regional, district and local levels; public education; and integration of mental health into health management systems. Results The programme has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, annual operational plans, mental health policy guidelines

  8. Are green cities healthy and equitable? Unpacking the relationship between health, green space and gentrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Helen V S; Garcia Lamarca, Melisa; Connolly, James J T; Anguelovski, Isabelle

    2017-11-01

    While access and exposure to green spaces has been shown to be beneficial for the health of urban residents, interventions focused on augmenting such access may also catalyse gentrification processes, also known as green gentrification. Drawing from the fields of public health, urban planning and environmental justice, we argue that public health and epidemiology researchers should rely on a more dynamic model of community that accounts for the potential unintended social consequences of upstream health interventions. In our example of green gentrification, the health benefits of greening can only be fully understood relative to the social and political environments in which inequities persist. We point to two key questions regarding the health benefits of newly added green space: Who benefits in the short and long term from greening interventions in lower income or minority neighbourhoods undergoing processes of revitalisation? And, can green cities be both healthy and just? We propose the Green Gentrification and Health Equity model which provides a framework for understanding and testing whether gentrification associated with green space may modify the effect of exposure to green space on health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Assessing the relevance of indicators in tracking social determinants and progress toward equitable population health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasella, Davide; Machado, Daiane Borges; Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeirrer; Paim, Jairnilson; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Lima, Diana; Magno, Laio; Pedrana, Leo; Medina, Maria Guadalupe; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the social determinants of health (SDH) and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare have been widely recognized but not previously studied in the context of universal healthcare coverage (UHC) in Brazil and other developing countries. To evaluate a set of proposed indicators of SDH and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare - proposed by the SDH unit of the World Health Organization - with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in moving toward equitable population health and UHC in Brazil. This study had a mixed methodology, combining a quantitative analysis of secondary data from governmental sources with a qualitative study comprising two focus group discussions and six key informant interviews. The set of indicators tested covered a broad range of dimensions classified by three different domains: environment quality; accountability and inclusion; and livelihood and skills. Indicators were stratified according to income quintiles, urbanization, race, and geographical region. Overall, the indicators were adequate for tracking progress in terms of the SDH, equity, gender, and human rights in Brazil. Stratifications showed inequalities. The qualitative analysis revealed that many of the indicators were well known and already used by policymakers and health sector managers, whereas others were considered less useful in the Brazilian context. Monitoring and evaluation practices have been developed in Brazil, and the set of indicators assessed in this study could further improve these practices, especially from a health equity perspective. Socioeconomic inequalities have been reduced in Brazil in the last decade, but there is still much work to be done in relation to addressing the SDH.

  10. Ending LGBT invisibility in health care: the first step in ensuring equitable care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makadon, Harvey J

    2011-04-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals experience health care disparities that will be eliminated only if clinicians elicit information about sexual orientation and gender identity from their patients through thoughtful, nonjudgmental discussion and history-taking.

  11. How equitable are community health worker programmes and which programme features influence equity of community health worker services? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Rosalind; Gomez, Woedem; Theobald, Sally; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2016-05-20

    Community health workers (CHWs) are uniquely placed to link communities with the health system, playing a role in improving the reach of health systems and bringing health services closer to hard-to-reach and marginalised groups. A systematic review was conducted to determine the extent of equity of CHW programmes and to identify intervention design factors which influence equity of health outcomes. In accordance with our published protocol, we systematically searched eight databases from 2004 to 2014 for quantitative and qualitative studies which assessed access, utilisation, quality or community empowerment following introduction of a CHW programme according to equity stratifiers (place of residence, gender, socio-economic position and disability). Thirty four papers met inclusion criteria. A thematic framework was applied and data extracted and managed, prior to charting and thematic analysis. To our knowledge this is the first systematic review that describes the extent of equity within CHW programmes and identifies CHW intervention design features which influence equity. CHW programmes were found to promote equity of access and utilisation for community health by reducing inequities relating to place of residence, gender, education and socio-economic position. CHWs can also contribute towards more equitable uptake of referrals at health facility level. There was no clear evidence for equitable quality of services provided by CHWs and limited information regarding the role of the CHW in generating community empowerment to respond to social determinants of health. Factors promoting greater equity of CHW services include recruitment of most poor community members as CHWs, close proximity of services to households, pre-existing social relationship with CHW, provision of home-based services, free service delivery, targeting of poor households, strengthened referral to facility, sensitisation and mobilisation of community. However, if CHW programmes are not well

  12. Striving to make eHealth equitable and accountable in Bangladesh ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-11

    Oct 11, 2017 ... Information and communication technologies (ICTs) could help deliver quality, affordable healthcare to the most vulnerable populations. Research in Bangladesh has shown, however, that to be effective, new tools must be backed by locally-relevant frameworks that integrate issues of health equity, ...

  13. Building Better Health

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    can be found in Fixing Health Systems, by Don de Savigny, Harun Kasale. Conrad. Mbuya, and Graham Reid. The book describes the Tanzania Essential Health. Interventions Project — its origins, impact, important lessons, observations, and recommendations for decision-makers and policy analysts. The full text of the.

  14. Building Better Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    The aim of this book is to provide a comprehensive model of preventative medicine for communities to reduce disease, dis- ability and premature death throughout the life cycle. The au- thor, C. David Jenkins is an internationally recognised re- searcher, health worker and Professor of Preventative Medi- cine and ...

  15. Dampness in buildings and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Blomquist, G.; Gyntelberg, F.

    2001-01-01

    Several epidemiological investigations concerning indoor environments have indicated that "dampness" in buildings is associated to health effects such as respiratory symptoms, asthma and allergy The aim of the present interdisciplinary review is to evaluate this association as shown in the epidem......Several epidemiological investigations concerning indoor environments have indicated that "dampness" in buildings is associated to health effects such as respiratory symptoms, asthma and allergy The aim of the present interdisciplinary review is to evaluate this association as shown...... in the epidemiological literature. A literature search identified 590 peer-reviewed articles of which 61 have been the foundation for this review. The review shows that "dampness" in buildings appears to increase the risk for health effects in the airways, such as cough, wheeze and asthma. Relative risks...... are in the range of OR 1.4-2.2. There also seems to be an association between "dampness" and other symptoms Such as tiredness, headache and airways infections. It is concluded that the evidence for a causal association between "dampness" and health effects is strong. However, the mechanisms are unknown. Several...

  16. 'Expanding your mind': the process of constructing gender-equitable masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in reproductive health or gender training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Virgilio Mariano Salazar; Goicolea, Isabel; Edin, Kerstin; Ohman, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Traditional forms of masculinity strongly influence men's and women's wellbeing. This study has two aims: (i) to explore notions of various forms of masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in programs addressing sexual health, reproductive health, and/or gender equality and (ii) to find out how these young men perceive their involvement in actions aimed at reducing violence against women (VAW). A qualitative grounded theory study. Data were collected through six focus groups and two in-depth interviews with altogether 62 young men. Our analysis showed that the informants experienced a process of change, labeled 'Expanding your mind', in which we identified four interrelated subcategories: The apprentice, The responsible/respectful man, The proactive peer educator, and 'The feminist man'. The process showed how an increased awareness of gender inequities facilitated the emergence of values (respect and responsibility) and behavior (thoughtful action) that contributed to increase the informant's critical thinking and agency at individual, social, and political levels. The process was influenced by individual and external factors. Multiple progressive masculinities can emerge from programs challenging patriarchy in this Latin American setting. The masculinities identified in this study show a range of attitudes and behaviors; however, all lean toward more equitable gender relations. The results suggest that learning about sexual and reproductive health does not directly imply developing more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors or a greater willingness to prevent VAW. It is paramount that interventions to challenge machismo in this setting continue and are expanded to reach more young men.

  17. Women health extension workers: Capacities, opportunities and challenges to use eHealth to strengthen equitable health systems in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusabe-Richards, John N; Tesfaye, Hayley Teshome; Mekonnen, Jarso; Kea, Aschenaki; Theobald, Sally; Datiko, Daniel G

    2016-12-27

    This study assesses the feasibility of female health extension workers (HEWs) using eHealth within their core duties, supporting both the design and capacity building for an eHealth system project focussed initially on tuberculosis, maternal child health, and gender equity. Health extension workers, Health Centre Heads, District Health Officers, Zonal Health Department and Regional Health Bureau representatives in Southern Ethiopia. The study was undertaken in Southern Ethiopia with three districts in Sidama zone (population of 3.5 million) and one district in Gedeo zone (control zone with similar health service coverage and population density). Mixed method baseline data collection was undertaken, using quantitative questionnaires (n = 57) and purposively sampled qualitative face-to-face semi-structured interviews (n = 10) and focus group discussions (n = 3). Themes were identified relating to HEW commitment and role, supervision, and performance management. The Health Management Information System (HMIS) was seen as important by all participants, but with challenges of information quality, accuracy, reliability and timeliness. Participants' perceptions varied by group regarding the purpose and benefits of HMIS as well as the potential of an eHealth system. Mobile phones were used regularly by all participants. eHealth technology presents a new opportunity for the Ethiopian health system to improve data quality and community health. Front-line female HEWs are a critical bridge between communities and health systems. Empowering HEWs, supporting them and responding to the challenges they face will be an important part of ensuring the sustainability and responsiveness of eHealth strategies. Findings have informed the subsequent eHealth technology design and implementation, capacity strengthening approach, supervision, and performance management approach.

  18. Good collaborative practice: reforming capacity building governance of international health research partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Claire Leonie; Shaw, David; Sprumont, Dominique; Sankoh, Osman; Tanner, Marcel; Elger, Bernice

    2018-01-08

    In line with the policy objectives of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, this commentary seeks to examine the extent to which provisions of international health research guidance promote capacity building and equitable partnerships in global health research. Our evaluation finds that governance of collaborative research partnerships, and in particular capacity building, in resource-constrained settings is limited but has improved with the implementation guidance of the International Ethical Guidelines for Health-related Research Involving Humans by The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) (2016). However, more clarity is needed in national legislation, industry and ethics guidelines, and regulatory provisions to address the structural inequities and power imbalances inherent in international health research partnerships. Most notably, ethical partnership governance is not supported by the principal industry ethics guidelines - the International Conference on Harmonization Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceutical for Human Use (ICH) Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP). Given the strategic value of ICH-GCP guidelines in defining the role and responsibility of global health research partners, we conclude that such governance should stipulate the minimal requirements for creating an equitable environment of inclusion, mutual learning, transparency and accountability. Procedurally, this can be supported by i) shared research agenda setting with local leadership, ii) capacity assessments, and iii) construction of a memorandum of understanding (MoU). Moreover, the requirement of capacity building needs to be coordinated amongst partners to support good collaborative practice and deliver on the public health goals of the research enterprise; improving local conditions of health and reducing global health inequality. In this respect, and in order to develop consistency between sources of research governance, ICH

  19. ‘Expanding your mind’: the process of constructing gender-equitable masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in reproductive health or gender training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Virgilio Mariano Salazar; Goicolea, Isabel; Edin, Kerstin; Öhman, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional forms of masculinity strongly influence men's and women's wellbeing. Objective This study has two aims: (i) to explore notions of various forms of masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in programs addressing sexual health, reproductive health, and/or gender equality and (ii) to find out how these young men perceive their involvement in actions aimed at reducing violence against women (VAW). Design A qualitative grounded theory study. Data were collected through six focus groups and two in-depth interviews with altogether 62 young men. Results Our analysis showed that the informants experienced a process of change, labeled ‘Expanding your mind’, in which we identified four interrelated subcategories: The apprentice, The responsible/respectful man, The proactive peer educator, and ‘The feminist man’. The process showed how an increased awareness of gender inequities facilitated the emergence of values (respect and responsibility) and behavior (thoughtful action) that contributed to increase the informant's critical thinking and agency at individual, social, and political levels. The process was influenced by individual and external factors. Conclusions Multiple progressive masculinities can emerge from programs challenging patriarchy in this Latin American setting. The masculinities identified in this study show a range of attitudes and behaviors; however, all lean toward more equitable gender relations. The results suggest that learning about sexual and reproductive health does not directly imply developing more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors or a greater willingness to prevent VAW. It is paramount that interventions to challenge machismo in this setting continue and are expanded to reach more young men. PMID:22870066

  20. ‘Expanding your mind’: the process of constructing gender-equitable masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in reproductive health or gender training programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Mariano Salazar Torres

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional forms of masculinity strongly influence men's and women's wellbeing. Objective: This study has two aims: (i to explore notions of various forms of masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in programs addressing sexual health, reproductive health, and/or gender equality and (ii to find out how these young men perceive their involvement in actions aimed at reducing violence against women (VAW. Design: A qualitative grounded theory study. Data were collected through six focus groups and two in-depth interviews with altogether 62 young men. Results: Our analysis showed that the informants experienced a process of change, labeled ‘Expanding your mind’, in which we identified four interrelated subcategories: The apprentice, The responsible/respectful man, The proactive peer educator, and ‘The feminist man’. The process showed how an increased awareness of gender inequities facilitated the emergence of values (respect and responsibility and behavior (thoughtful action that contributed to increase the informant's critical thinking and agency at individual, social, and political levels. The process was influenced by individual and external factors. Conclusions: Multiple progressive masculinities can emerge from programs challenging patriarchy in this Latin American setting. The masculinities identified in this study show a range of attitudes and behaviors; however, all lean toward more equitable gender relations. The results suggest that learning about sexual and reproductive health does not directly imply developing more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors or a greater willingness to prevent VAW. It is paramount that interventions to challenge machismo in this setting continue and are expanded to reach more young men.

  1. Digital technology use among disadvantaged Australians: implications for equitable consumer participation in digitally-mediated communication and information exchange with health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lareen; Biedrzycki, Kate; Baum, Fran

    2012-05-01

    To present research findings on access to, and use of, digital information and communication technologies (ICTs) by Australians from lower income and disadvantaged backgrounds to determine implications for equitable consumer access to digitally-mediated health services and information. Focus groups were held in 2008-09 with 80 residents from lower income and disadvantaged backgrounds in South Australia, predominantly of working- and family-formation age (25 to 55 years). Qualitative analysis was conducted on a-priori and emergent themes to describe dominant categories. Access to, and use of, computers, the Internet and mobile phones varied considerably in extent, frequency and quality within and across groups due to differences in abilities, resources and life experience. Barriers and facilitators included English literacy (including for native speakers), technological literacy, education, income, housing situation, social connection, health status, employment status, and trust. Many people gained ICT skills by trial and error or help from friends, and only a few from formal programs, resulting in varied skills. The considerable variation in ICT access and use within lower income and disadvantaged groups must be acknowledged and accommodated by health initiatives and services when delivering digitally-mediated consumer-provider interaction, online health information, or online self-management of health conditions. If services require consumers to participate in a digitally-mediated communication exchange, then we suggest they might support skills and technology acquisition, or provide non-ICT alternatives, in order to avoid exacerbating health inequities.

  2. Buildings and Health. Educational campaign for healthy buildings. Educational material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    In recent years health and comfort problems associated with the indoor climate have come to constitute a problem in Sweden. To come to grips with this a nationwide educational campaign on Buildings and Health is being run. It is directed to those involved in planning, project design, construction and management of buildings. The objective is to convey a body of knowledge to the many occupational and professional groups in the construction sector on how to avoid indoor climate problems in homes, schools, offices and other workplaces. The campaign is being run by the Swedish National Board of Housing and Planning and the Swedish Council for Building Research, in co-operation with various organizations and companies in the construction industry, and with municipalities and authorities. The knowledge which is being disseminated through the campaign is summarized in this compendium. figs., tabs.

  3. Designing for health in school buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Jensen, Bjarne Bruun; Larsen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the kinds of knowledge practitioners use when planning and designing for health in school buildings. Methods: Twelve semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with architects, teachers and officials to investigate use of knowledge in the making of school buildings...

  4. Dampness in Buildings and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Rode, Carsten; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    1999-01-01

    . The main themes are:· Continued research in human perception of indoor air quality, especially by identification of the factors that may cause annoyance to the occupants. Such annoyances may be emissions from materials or biological activity, and is often linked to the dampness of buildings.· Studies...

  5. CASE STUDY: Building better health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-13

    Jan 13, 2011 ... The TEHIP 'Spark': Planning and Managing Health Resources at the District Level A case study by IDRC's Evaluation Unit details how TEHIP has influenced public policy and decision-making in Tanzania's health sector. Building Better Health A short video on the importance of community involvement to ...

  6. Influence of health rights discourses and community organizing on equitable access to health: the case of HIV, tuberculosis and cancer in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Clara; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2013-05-17

    The right to health is recognized as a fundamental human right. Social participation is implied in the fulfillment of health rights since Alma Ata posited its relevance for successful health programs, although a wide range of interpretations has been observed for this term. While Peruvian law recognizes community and social participation in health, it was the GFATM requirement of mixed public-civil society participation in Country Coordination Mechanisms (CCM) for proposal submission what effectively led to formal community involvement in the national response to HIV and, to a lesser extent, tuberculosis. This has not been the case, however, for other chronic diseases in Peru. This study aims to describe and compare the role of health rights discourse and community involvement in the national response to HIV, tuberculosis and cancer. Key health policy documents were identified and analyzed. In-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders, representatives of civil society organizations (CSO), and leaders of organizations of people affected by HIV, cancer and tuberculosis. A health rights discourse, well established in the HIV field, is expanding to general health discussions and to the tuberculosis (TB) field in particular. Both HIV and TB programs have National Multisectoral Strategic Plans and recognize participation of affected communities' organizations. Similar mechanisms are non-existent for cancer or other disease-focused programs, although other affected patients are starting some organization efforts. Interviewees agreed that reaching the achievements of HIV mobilization is difficult for other diseases, since the HIV response was modeled based on a global movement with strong networks and advocacy mechanisms, eventually succeeding in the establishment of financial sources like the GFATM. Nevertheless, organizations linked to cancer and other diseases are building a National Patient Network to defend health rights. There are new efforts to promote and

  7. Building National Health Research Information Systems (COHRED ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-03-27

    The focus will thus be on quality control, maintenance and documenting utilization. Mali currently has very little information ... Outputs. Reports. Building National Health Research Information System - COHRED : health research web; final technical report for the period March 27, 2008 - September 27, 2009. Download PDF.

  8. Capacity building in public health nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review capacity building in public health nutrition (PHN), the need for which has been stressed for many years by a range of academics, national and international organisations. Although great strides have been made worldwide in the science of nutrition, there remain many problems of undernutrition and increasingly of obesity and related chronic diseases. The main emphasis in capacity building has been on the nutrition and health workforce, but the causes of these health problems are multifactorial and require collaboration across sectors in their solution. This means that PHN capacity building has to go beyond basic nutrition and beyond the immediate health workforce to policy makers in other sectors. The present paper provides examples of capacity building activities by various organisations, including universities, industry and international agencies. Examples of web-based courses are given including an introduction to the e-Nutrition Academy. The scope is international but with a special focus on Africa. In conclusion, there remains a great need for capacity building in PHN but the advent of the internet has revolutionised the possibilities.

  9. Organizational Capacity Building for Sexual Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa G.; Dean, Randa; Balakumar, Kavitha; Stevens, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    We present an organizational capacity building program that is a systemic approach to training professionals, creating organizational policies and practices, and enhancing the physical environment with materials about sexual and reproductive health. The evaluation of four different organizations showed increases over six months in: staff reports…

  10. Corrigendum: How Positive Emotions Build Physical Health

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Kok, B. E., Coffey, K. A., Cohn, M. A., Catalino, L. I., Vacharkulksemsuk, T., Algoe, S. B., . . . Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). How positive emotions build physical health: Perceived positive social connections account for the upward spiral between positive emotions and vagal tone. Psychological Science, 24, 1123?1132. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797612470827)

  11. Occupational safety & health administration. Building partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, R M

    1996-10-01

    1. The Office of Occupational Health Nursing, within the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA), actively advocates for workers and occupational health nurses. 2. Although an enforcement agency by law, OSHA has and is in the process of building bridges to the regulated community through its cooperative development of programs intended to enhance employer efforts for improving and maintaining employee health and workplace safety. 3. OSHA's service of consultation is geared toward the small employer seeking assistance in the recognition and correction of workplace hazards, while improving worksite health and safety programs. Voluntary Protection Programs participation, the recognition of exemplary larger employers, often leads to improvements in employee safety motivation while improving product quality, worker productivity, and corporate profits. 4. OSHA produces a wealth of publications, pamphlets, audiovisual, computer access programs and other documents designed to ease compliance while providing a foundation to the understanding of workplace health and safety.

  12. 7 CFR 1400.8 - Equitable treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable treatment. 1400.8 Section 1400.8... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS General Provisions § 1400.8 Equitable treatment. (a... Administrator deems necessary to provide fair and equitable treatment to such person or legal entity. (b...

  13. Building consensus on key priorities for rural health care in South Africa using the Delphi technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije Versteeg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is currently undergoing major health system restructuring in an attempt to improve health outcomes and reduce inequities in access. Such inequities exist between private and public health care and within the public health system itself. Experience shows that rural health care can be disadvantaged in policy formulation despite good intentions. The objective of this study was to identify the major challenges and priority interventions for rural health care provision in South Africa thereby contributing to pro-rural health policy dialogue. Methods: The Delphi technique was used to develop consensus on a list of statements that was generated through interviews and literature review. A panel of rural health practitioners and other stakeholders was asked to indicate their level of agreement with these statements and to rank the top challenges in and interventions required for rural health care. Results: Response rates ranged from 83% in the first round (n=44 to 64% in the final round (n=34. The top five priorities were aligned to three of the WHO health system building blocks: human resources for health (HRH, governance, and finance. Specifically, the panel identified a need to focus on recruitment and support of rural health professionals, the employment of managers with sufficient and appropriate skills, a rural-friendly national HRH plan, and equitable funding formulae. Conclusion: Specific policies and strategies are required to address the greatest rural health care challenges and to ensure improved access to quality health care in rural South Africa. In addition, a change in organisational climate and a concerted effort to make a career in rural health appealing to health care workers and adequate funding for rural health care provision are essential.

  14. Building consensus on key priorities for rural health care in South Africa using the Delphi technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Marije; du Toit, Lilo; Couper, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Background South Africa is currently undergoing major health system restructuring in an attempt to improve health outcomes and reduce inequities in access. Such inequities exist between private and public health care and within the public health system itself. Experience shows that rural health care can be disadvantaged in policy formulation despite good intentions. The objective of this study was to identify the major challenges and priority interventions for rural health care provision in South Africa thereby contributing to pro-rural health policy dialogue. Methods The Delphi technique was used to develop consensus on a list of statements that was generated through interviews and literature review. A panel of rural health practitioners and other stakeholders was asked to indicate their level of agreement with these statements and to rank the top challenges in and interventions required for rural health care. Results Response rates ranged from 83% in the first round (n=44) to 64% in the final round (n=34). The top five priorities were aligned to three of the WHO health system building blocks: human resources for health (HRH), governance, and finance. Specifically, the panel identified a need to focus on recruitment and support of rural health professionals, the employment of managers with sufficient and appropriate skills, a rural-friendly national HRH plan, and equitable funding formulae. Conclusion Specific policies and strategies are required to address the greatest rural health care challenges and to ensure improved access to quality health care in rural South Africa. In addition, a change in organisational climate and a concerted effort to make a career in rural health appealing to health care workers and adequate funding for rural health care provision are essential. PMID:23364081

  15. Principles in wireless building health monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentaris, F. P.; Makris, J. P.; Stonham, J.; Vallianatos, F.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring the structural state of a building is essential for the safety of the people who work, live, visit or just use it as well as for the civil protection of urban areas. Many factors can affect the state of the health of a structure, namely man made, like mistakes in the construction, traffic, heavy loads on the structures, explosions, environmental impacts like wind loads, humidity, chemical reactions, temperature changes and saltiness, and natural hazards like earthquakes and landslides. Monitoring the health of a structure provides the ability to anticipate structural failures and secure the safe use of buildings especially those of public services. This work reviews the state of the art and the challenges of a wireless Structural Health Monitoring (WiSHM). Literature review reveals that although there is significant evolution in wireless structural health monitoring, in many cases, monitoring by itself is not enough to predict when a structure becomes inappropriate and/or unsafe for use, and the damage or low durability of a structure cannot be revealed (Chintalapudi, et al., 2006; Ramos, Aguilar, & Lourenço, 2011). Several features and specifications of WiSHM like wireless sensor networking, reliability and autonomy of sensors, algorithms of data transmission and analysis should still be evolved and improved in order to increase the predictive effectiveness of the SHM (Jinping Ou & Hui Li, 2010; Lu & Loh, 2010) . Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by the ARCHEMEDES III Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union in the framework of the project entitled «Interdisciplinary Multi-Scale Research of Earthquake Physics and Seismotectonics at the front of the Hellenic Arc (IMPACT-ARC) ».

  16. Challenges of Capacity Building in Multisector Community Health Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Christianson, Jon B.; Hearld, Larry R.; Hurley, Robert; Scanlon, Dennis P.

    2010-01-01

    Capacity building is often described as fundamental to the success of health alliances, yet there are few evaluations that provide alliances with clear guidance on the challenges related to capacity building. This article attempts to identify potential challenges of capacity building in multistakeholder health alliances. The study uses a multiple…

  17. Occupant comfort and health in green and conventional university buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, A; Miller, L; Dorsey, J A

    2014-01-01

    Green building standards are significantly impacting modern construction practices. The resulting structures are more energy efficient, but their impact on occupant health has not been widely studied. To investigate a range of indoor environment and ergonomic issues in green buildings. Retrospective post-occupancy evaluation survey of 319 occupants in two Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified buildings and one conventional building on a Canadian University campus. Results show that working in the LEED buildings was a generally positive experience for their health, performance, and satisfaction. However, the LEED buildings did not always receive the highest ratings for environmental conditions or for health and productivity. Respondents indicated a range of concerns with thermal conditions, office lighting, noise and their overall workstation designs and these were not always better in the green buildings. These results highlight the need for better integration of ergonomic design into green buildings and into the LEED rating system, and these implications are discussed.

  18. Spectral partitioning in equitable graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucca, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Graph partitioning problems emerge in a wide variety of complex systems, ranging from biology to finance, but can be rigorously analyzed and solved only for a few graph ensembles. Here, an ensemble of equitable graphs, i.e., random graphs with a block-regular structure, is studied, for which analytical results can be obtained. In particular, the spectral density of this ensemble is computed exactly for a modular and bipartite structure. Kesten-McKay's law for random regular graphs is found analytically to apply also for modular and bipartite structures when blocks are homogeneous. An exact solution to graph partitioning for two equal-sized communities is proposed and verified numerically, and a conjecture on the absence of an efficient recovery detectability transition in equitable graphs is suggested. A final discussion summarizes results and outlines their relevance for the solution of graph partitioning problems in other graph ensembles, in particular for the study of detectability thresholds and resolution limits in stochastic block models.

  19. The role of higher education in equitable human development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peercy, Chavanne; Svenson, Nanette

    2016-04-01

    As developing countries continue to battle poverty despite strong economic growth, understanding the relationship between equity and human development becomes increasingly important. In this context, equity is not equivalent to equality for any specific outcome such as health status, education or income. It is an objective ideal whereby people's achievements are increasingly dependent upon personal effort, choice and initiative rather than predetermined characteristics such as race, gender and socioeconomic background. As such, equity becomes an issue of moral equality based on the belief that people should be treated as equals, with equal access to life chances. This ideal pursues equal access to public services, infrastructure and rights for all citizens, including the right to education. While evidence suggests that education builds healthier, richer, more equitable societies, research on this has focused predominantly on primary and secondary schooling. The authors of this paper begin with an extensive review of existing research and relevant literature. In the second part of their article, they then report on their own study which furthers the discussion by exploring connections between tertiary education and development using equity as a reflection of human development - a holistic extension of economic development. After extracting relevant data from a number of available world reports by the United Nations, the World Bank and other organisations, they carried out a cross-national statistical analysis designed to examine the relationship between tertiary enrolment levels and a composite equity variable. Their results indicate a strong association between higher post-secondary education levels and higher levels of social equity.

  20. Building Canadian Support for Global Health Research - Phase III ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008. Key activities will include mobilizing Canadian investment in global health research, building global health research capacity in Canada and LMICs, translating research into action, nurturing partnerships between researchers in Canada ...

  1. On equitable coloring of corona of wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vernold Vivin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of equitable colorability was introduced by Meyer in $1973$ \\cite{meyer}. In this paper we obtain interesting results regarding the equitable chromatic number $\\chi_{=}$ for the corona graph of a simple graph with a wheel graph $G\\circ W_n$. Some extensions into $l$-corona products are also determined.

  2. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detmer Don E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries. The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin

  3. The advent of equitation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul D

    2007-11-01

    The lengthy association of humans with horses has established traditional equestrian techniques that have served military and transport needs well. Although effective, these techniques have by-passed the research findings of modern psychologists, who developed the fundamentals of learning theory. That said, the pools of equestrian debate are far from stagnant. The latest wave of horse whisperers has offered some refinements and some novel interpretations of the motivation of horses undergoing training. Additionally, the Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) has introduced the concept of the 'happy equine athlete' and, in the light of the hyperflexion (Rollkür) debate, recently examined the possible effects of some novel dressage modalities on equine 'happiness'. However, many still question the welfare of the ridden horse since it is largely trained using negative reinforcement, has to respond to pressure-based signals and is seldom asked to work for positive rewards. Science holds tremendous promise for removing emotiveness from the horse-riding welfare debate by establishing how much rein tension is too much; how much contact is neutral; how contact can be measured; how discomfort can be measured; how pain can be measured; and how learned helplessness manifests in horses. These are some of the topics addressed by equitation science, an emerging discipline that combines learning theory, physics and ethology to examine the salience and efficacy of horse-training techniques.

  4. Building Successful Partnerships in Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Sue; Dale, Helen; Gabler, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Health literacy, the ability to obtain and understand information and services to make good health decisions, has received much attention recently. Literacy is a stronger predictor of health status than age, income, race, ethnicity, employment status, or educational level. Inadequate health literacy costs the United States an estimated $100-$236…

  5. Evolving protocols for research in equitation science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierard, M.; Hall, C.; Konig von Borstel, U.; Averis, A.; Hawson, L.; Mclean, A.; Nevison, C.; Visser, E.K.; McGreevy, P.

    2015-01-01

    Within the emerging discipline of Equitation Science, the application of consistent methodology, including robust objective measures, is required for sound scientific evaluation. This report aims to provide an evaluation of current methodology and to propose some initial guidelines for future

  6. African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building and Dissemination. As African countries move toward universal health coverage, it is clear there is a shortage of African experts with applied research skills in health financing such as fiscal space analysis, needs-based resource allocation methods, and ...

  7. Building better health care leadership for Canada: implementing evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denis, Jean-Louis; Sullivan, Terrence James

    2011-01-01

    ... of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund for our publishing activities. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Building better health care leadership for Canada: imple...

  8. [Moisture and mold damages of buildings in relation to health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkanen, Juha; Lampi, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    Moisture damages of buildings increase respiratory symptoms and the risk of development of new cases of asthma. Scientific evidence of possible other health effects of moisture damages is scanty but they cause plenty of concern. The management of indoor air problems is further hampered by the lack of health-based limit values. Patients having symptoms from indoor air present a challenge to the doctor, because our ability to apply scientific data to an individual building or patient is very limited Although the factors increasing asthma and respiratory symptoms in buildings with moisture damage are not known in detail, every attempt should be made to prevent and correct the moisture damages.

  9. 1 Challenges and opportunities in building health research capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Capacity building is considered a priority for health research institutions in developing countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. However, in many countries including Tanzania, much emphasis has been directed towards human resources for health with the total exclusion of human.

  10. Building Research Excellence in Wildlife and Human Health in Sri ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building national scientific capacity for wildlife health management-a capacity currently lacking-could reduce the economic and public health impacts of ... Afin que les entreprises puissent mener leurs activités plus efficacement au sein de la chaîne de valeur mondiale, elles doivent acquérir des connaissances sur les ...

  11. Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2005, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has been financing the master's program in health and population at the Institut supérieure des sciences de la population (ISSP), Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. However, after ...

  12. Building-related health impacts in European and Chinese cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuomisto, Jouni T; Niittynen, Marjo; Pärjälä, Erkki

    2015-01-01

    consumption of buildings. In addition, the model should be usable for policy comparisons by non-health experts on city level with city-specific data, it should give guidance on the particular climate mitigation questions but at the same time increase understanding on the related health impacts and the model...... should follow the building stock in time, make comparisons between scenarios, propagate uncertainties, and scale to different levels of detail. We tested The functionalities of the model in two case cities, namely Kuopio and Basel. We estimated the health and climate impacts of two actual policies...... planned or implemented in the cities. The assessed policies were replacement of peat with wood chips in co-generation of district heat and power, and improved energy efficiency of buildings achieved by renovations. RESULTS: Health impacts were not large in the two cities, but also clear differences...

  13. Governance for Equity in Health Systems

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    GEHS

    Governance for Equity in Health Systems (GEHS) program is leading the way in strengthening governance for equitable health systems to improve health outcomes in. LMICs. Building on a strong foundation and demonstrated results, GEHS in this third programming phase (2011-2016) will apply a sharper governance and ...

  14. Building National eHealth Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassilakopoulou, Polyxeni; Grisot, Miria; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the introduction of public e-health platforms at the national level in three Scandinavian countries. Specifically, we investigate these initaitives with a focus on understanding how inclusiveness was pursued in relation to the political orientation of platform developmen...

  15. Building National Health Research Information Systems (COHRED ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The focus will thus be on quality control, maintenance and documenting utilization. Mali currently has very little information on health research, and will therefore need to concentrate its efforts on data collection. The challenges and lessons learned during the two experiences will be documented for the benefit of other ...

  16. Capacity Building in Global Mental Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, Graham; Cooper, Sara; Van Bortel, Tine; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Lund, Crick

    2012-01-01

    Research-generated information about mental disorders is crucial in order to establish the health needs in a given setting, to propose culturally apt and cost-effective individual and collective interventions, to investigate their implementation, and to explore the obstacles that prevent recommended strategies from being implemented. Yet the capacity to undertake such research in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited. This article describes two methods that have proved successful in strengthening, or that have the potential to strengthen, mental health research capacity in low-resource settings. We identify the central challenges to be faced, review current programs offering training and mentorship, and summarize the key lessons learned. A structured approach is proposed for the career development of research staff at every career stage, to be accompanied by performance monitoring and support. A case example from the Mental Health and Poverty Project in sub-Saharan Africa illustrates how this approach can be put into practice—in particular, by focusing upon training in core transferrable research skills. (harv rev psychiatry 2012;20:13–24.) PMID:22335179

  17. Equity in Health and Health Financing: Building and Strengthening ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Three IDRC-sponsored regional networks are separately investigating inequities in health, health financing and health delivery. The networks are: Strategies for Health Insurance for Equity in Less Developed Countries - SHIELD (103457), Equity in Asia-Pacific Health Systems - EQUITAP (105231), and the Latin American ...

  18. Equity in Health and Health Financing: Building and Strengthening ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Equity in health is a pressing global concern. Disparities in health status and access to health care within and across countries are both a cause and a consequence of social inequality. Access to health services continues to be largely determined by socioeconomic factors, and financial protection against catastrophic health ...

  19. Equitable research: a bridge too far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Leon

    2017-06-01

    This paper is written in response to Angela Chapman and Allan Feldman's research study, "Cultivation of science identity through authentic science in an urban high school". I utilize this forum piece to extend the call for "awakening a dialogue" that critically assesses the effectiveness of current K-12 science education research in addressing the needs of populations of color. I take the opportunity to first discuss elements of what an equitable research focus might look like. I finish by critiquing and ultimately commending the authors on the degree to which they succeed in demonstrating an equitable approach to the design and carrying out of their study.

  20. Do active design buildings change health behaviour and workplace perceptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, L; Dhillon, H M; Chau, J Y; Hespe, D; Bauman, A E

    2016-07-01

    Occupying new, active design office buildings designed for health promotion and connectivity provides an opportunity to evaluate indoor environment effects on healthy behaviour, sedentariness and workplace perceptions. To determine if moving to a health-promoting building changed workplace physical activity, sedentary behaviour, workplace perceptions and productivity. Participants from four locations at the University of Sydney, Australia, relocated into a new active design building. After consent, participants completed an online questionnaire 2 months before moving and 2 months after. Questions related to health behaviours (physical activity and sitting time), musculoskeletal issues, perceptions of the office environment, productivity and engagement. There were 34 participants (60% aged 25-45, 78% female, 84% employed full-time); 21 participants provided complete data. Results showed that after the move participants spent less work time sitting (83-70%; P design building appeared to have physical health-promoting effects on workers, but workers' perceptions about the new work environment varied. These results will inform future studies in other new buildings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Commentary: BESTTuna: Benefiting from Equitable and Sustainable Trans-boundary Tuna fisheries in the Western Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Bailey, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary we introduce the BESTTuna research programme which addresses the challenges of governing sustainable and equitable tuna fisheries in the Western Pacific. The research in this programme attempts to build an inter-disciplinary understanding of the complex social-ecological

  2. Building community resilience to climate change through public health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajayo, Rachael

    2012-04-01

    Nillumbik Shire Council, in partnership with La Trobe University, used the Municipal Public Health Planning process to develop an approach for building the resilience of local communities to climate-related stressors. The objective was to define an approach for building community resilience to climate change and to integrate this approach with the 'Environments for Health' framework. Key published papers and reports by leading experts the field were reviewed. Literature was selected based on its relevance to the subjects of community resilience and climate change and was derived from local and international publications, the vast majority published within the past two decades. Review of literature on community resilience revealed that four principal resource sets contribute to the capacity of communities to adapt in times of stress, these being: economic development; social capital; information and communication; and community competence. On the strength of findings, a framework for building each resilience resource set within each of the Environments for Health was constructed. This paper introduces the newly constructed 'Community Resilience Framework', which describes how each one of the four resilience resource sets can be developed within social, built, natural and economic environments. The Community Resilience Framework defines an approach for simultaneously creating supportive environments for health and increasing community capacity for adaptation to climate-related stressors. As such, it can be used by Municipal Public Health Planners as a guide in building community resilience to climate change.

  3. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidel, James [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)

    2014-12-22

    The grant objectives of the DOE grant funded project have been successfully completed. The Human Health Building (HHB) was constructed and opened for occupancy for the Fall 2012 semester of Oakland University. As with any large construction project, some issues arose which all were overcome to deliver the project on budget and on time. The facility design is a geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid building utilizing both desiccant dehumidification and variable refrigerant flow heat pumps. It is a cooling dominant building with a 400 ton cooling design day load, and 150 ton heating load on a design day. A 256 vertical borehole (320 ft depth) ground source heat pump array is located south of the building under the existing parking lot. The temperature swing and performance over 2013 through 2015 shows the ground loop is well sized, and may even have excess capacity for a future building to the north (planned lab facility). The HHB achieve a US Green Building Counsel LEED Platinum rating by collecting 52 of the total 69 available LEED points for the New Construction v.2 scoring checklist. Being Oakland's first geothermal project, we were very pleased with the building outcome and performance with the energy consumption approximately 1/2 of the campus average facility, on a square foot basis.

  4. Towards an Equitable Development of Telecommunications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Present and future equitable development of telecommunications services calls for an immediate development of an indigenous telecommunications technology capability in order to effectively and efficiently utilizes the services provided by the country's presently imported telecommunications systems while at the same time ...

  5. towards an equitable development of telecommunications services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1980-03-01

    Mar 1, 1980 ... Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering. University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. (Original manuscript received August 8, 1979 and in revised from March 20, 1980). ABSTRACT. Present and future equitable development of telecommunications services calls for an immediate development of an ...

  6. 7 CFR 760.106 - Equitable relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with the FCIA (7 U.S.C. 1501-1524) or (ii) Application closing date for NAP. (b) Equitable relief will not be granted to participants in instances of: (1) A scheme or device that had the effect or intent of defeating the purposes of a program of insurance, NAP, or any other program administered under...

  7. Learning from doing the EquitAble project: Content, context, process, and impact of a multi-country research project on vulnerable populations in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac MacLachlan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ‘EquitAble’ project carried out content analyses of policies and collected and analysed qualitative and quantitative data concerning access to health services in Sudan, Malawi, Namibia and South Africa. Our particular concern was to address the situation of people with disabilities, although not in isolation from other marginalised or vulnerable groups.Objectives: This article reports on the content, context, process and impact of project EquitAble, funded by the European Commission Seventh Research Framework Programme, which brought together researchers from Ireland, Norway, South Africa, Namibia, Sudan and Malawi.Method: After the 4-year project ended in February 2013, all members of the consortium were asked to anonymously complete a bespoke questionnaire designed by the coordinating team. The purpose of the questionnaire was to capture the views of those who collaborated on the research project in relation to issues of content, context, process and impact of the EquitAble project.Results: Our results indicated some of the successes and challenges encountered by our consortium.Conclusion: We identified contextual and process learning points, factors often not discussed in papers, which typically focus on the reporting of the ‘content’ of results.

  8. Occupational safety and health issues associated with green building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Ustailieva, E.

    2013-01-01

    This e-fact provides information on the work-related risk factors and the occupational safety and health (OSH) issues associated the planning and construction of green buildings, their maintenance, renovation (retrofitting), demolition, on-site waste collection. Some of these OSH risks are new

  9. Achieving Health SDG 3 in Africa through NGO Capacity Building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... for Advocacy in Child and Family Health Project (PACFaH) mainstreams capacity building as an effective implementation strategy for 8 indigenous NGOs to ... represent a shift away from the old aid architecture of the MDGs. Unlike the ... the social accountability models anchoring the. MDG period. The new ...

  10. Multicriteria analysis of health, comfort and energy efficiency in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulet, C.A.; Flourentzou, F.; Foradini, F.; Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C.; Aizlewood, C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to comply with sustainable development policy, the minimum that buildings should achieve are a healthy, comfortable and energy-efficient environment. Criteria for individually assessing each of the many criteria are known: the occupant's perceived health; the provided thermal, visual and

  11. Health sciences libraries building survey, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Logan

    2010-04-01

    A survey was conducted of health sciences libraries to obtain information about newer buildings, additions, remodeling, and renovations. An online survey was developed, and announcements of survey availability posted to three major email discussion lists: Medical Library Association (MLA), Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL), and MEDLIB-L. Previous discussions of library building projects on email discussion lists, a literature review, personal communications, and the author's consulting experiences identified additional projects. Seventy-eight health sciences library building projects at seventy-three institutions are reported. Twenty-two are newer facilities built within the last ten years; two are space expansions; forty-five are renovation projects; and nine are combinations of new and renovated space. Six institutions report multiple or ongoing renovation projects during the last ten years. The survey results confirm a continuing migration from print-based to digitally based collections and reveal trends in library space design. Some health sciences libraries report loss of space as they move toward creating space for "community" building. Libraries are becoming more proactive in using or retooling space for concentration, collaboration, contemplation, communication, and socialization. All are moving toward a clearer operational vision of the library as the institution's information nexus and not merely as a physical location with print collections.

  12. Global mental health: transformative capacity building in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime C. Sapag

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health is increasingly recognised as integral to good public health, but this area continues to lack sufficient planning, resources, and global strategy. It is a pressing concern in Latin America, where social determinants of health aggravate existing inequities in access to health services. Nicaragua faces serious mental health needs and challenges. One key strategy for addressing gaps in mental health services is building capacity at the primary healthcare and system levels. Objective: Using the framework of best practice literature, this article analyses the four-year collaborative process between the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua in León (UNAN-León and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH in Canada, which is aimed at improving mental healthcare in Nicaragua. Design: Based on a critical analysis of evaluation reports, key documents, and discussion among partners, the central steps of the collaboration are analysed and main successes and challenges identified. Results: A participatory needs assessment identified local strengths and weaknesses, expected outcomes regarding competencies, and possible methodologies and recommendations for the development of a comprehensive capacity-building programme. The partners delivered two international workshops on mental health and addiction with an emphasis on primary healthcare. More recently, an innovative Diploma and Master programme was launched to foster interprofessional leadership and effective action to address mental health and addiction needs. Collaborative activities have taken place in Nicaragua and Canada. Discussion: To date, international collaboration between Nicaragua and CAMH has been successful in achieving the jointly defined goals. The process has led to mutual knowledge sharing, strong networking, and extensive educational opportunities. Evidence of effective and respectful global health capacity building is provided. Lessons learned and

  13. Building sustainable health and education partnerships: stories from local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Growing health disparities have a negative impact on young people's educational achievement. Community schools that involve deep relationships with partners across multiple domains address these disparities by providing opportunities and services that promote healthy development of young people, and enable them to graduate from high school ready for college, technical school, on-the-job training, career, and citizenship. Results from Milwaukie High School, North Clackamas, OR; Oakland Unified School District, Oakland, CA; and Cincinnati Community Learning Centers, Cincinnati, OH were based on a review of local site documents, web-based information, interviews, and e-mail communication with key local actors. The schools and districts with strong health partnerships reflecting community schools strategy have shown improvements in attendance, academic performance, and increased access to mental, dental, vision, and health supports for their students. To build deep health-education partnerships and grow community schools, a working leadership and management infrastructure must be in place that uses quality data, focuses on results, and facilitates professional development across sectors. The leadership infrastructure of community school initiatives offers a prototype on which others can build. Moreover, as leaders build cross-sector relationships, a clear definition of what scaling up means is essential for subsequent long-term systemic change. © 2015 Institute for Educational Leadership. Journal of School Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American School Health Association.

  14. Dampness in buildings and health. Building characteristics as predictors for dampness in 8681 Swedish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagerhed, L.; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Questionnaire data on 8681 dwellings included in the Swedish study "Dampness in Buildings and Health" have been analysed for associations between dampness indicators, perceptions of indoor air quality and building characteristics such as time of construction, type of ventilation and type...... of foundation. Visible mold or damp stains were reported in 1.3 and 1.6% of single-family and multi-family houses respectively, dampness connected to the floor in 6.5 and 13.9% and condensation on windows in 12.5 and 16.9%. "Stuffy air" was reported in 22.3 and 42.8%, "Moldy odor" in 3.9 and 5.8% and perception...... of "Dry air" in 17.3 and 33.7% respectively. Older buildings and the use of natural ventilation were associated with increased frequency of dampness indicators as well as to increased frequencies of complaints on bad indoor air quality....

  15. Building health: an epidemiological study of "sick building syndrome" in the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmot, A F; Eley, J; Stafford, M; Stansfeld, S A; Warwick, E; Marmot, M G

    2006-04-01

    Sick building syndrome (SBS) is described as a group of symptoms attributed to the physical environment of specific buildings. Isolating particular environmental features responsible for the symptoms has proved difficult. This study explores the role and significance of the physical and psychosocial work environment in explaining SBS. Cross sectional data on the physical environment of a selection of buildings were added to individual data from the Whitehall II study--an ongoing health survey of office based civil servants. A self-report questionnaire was used to capture 10 symptoms of the SBS and psychosocial work stress. In total, 4052 participants aged 42-62 years working in 44 buildings were included in this study. No significant relation was found between most aspects of the physical work environment and symptom prevalence, adjusted for age, sex, and employment grade. Positive (non-significant) relations were found only with airborne bacteria, inhalable dust, dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, and having some control over the local physical environment. Greater effects were found with features of the psychosocial work environment including high job demands and low support. Only psychosocial work characteristics and control over the physical environment were independently associated with symptoms in the multivariate analysis. The physical environment of office buildings appears to be less important than features of the psychosocial work environment in explaining differences in the prevalence of symptoms.

  16. Building health: an epidemiological study of “sick building syndrome” in the Whitehall II study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmot, A F; Eley, J; Stafford, M; Stansfeld, S A; Warwick, E; Marmot, M G

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Sick building syndrome (SBS) is described as a group of symptoms attributed to the physical environment of specific buildings. Isolating particular environmental features responsible for the symptoms has proved difficult. This study explores the role and significance of the physical and psychosocial work environment in explaining SBS. Methods Cross sectional data on the physical environment of a selection of buildings were added to individual data from the Whitehall II study—an ongoing health survey of office based civil servants. A self‐report questionnaire was used to capture 10 symptoms of the SBS and psychosocial work stress. In total, 4052 participants aged 42–62 years working in 44 buildings were included in this study. Results No significant relation was found between most aspects of the physical work environment and symptom prevalence, adjusted for age, sex, and employment grade. Positive (non‐significant) relations were found only with airborne bacteria, inhalable dust, dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, and having some control over the local physical environment. Greater effects were found with features of the psychosocial work environment including high job demands and low support. Only psychosocial work characteristics and control over the physical environment were independently associated with symptoms in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions The physical environment of office buildings appears to be less important than features of the psychosocial work environment in explaining differences in the prevalence of symptoms. PMID:16556750

  17. Building health research systems to achieve better health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Block Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health research systems can link knowledge generation with practical concerns to improve health and health equity. Interest in health research, and in how health research systems should best be organised, is moving up the agenda of bodies such as the World Health Organisation. Pioneering health research systems, for example those in Canada and the UK, show that progress is possible. However, radical steps are required to achieve this. Such steps should be based on evidence not anecdotes. Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS provides a vehicle for the publication of research, and informed opinion, on a range of topics related to the organisation of health research systems and the enormous benefits that can be achieved. Following the Mexico ministerial summit on health research, WHO has been identifying ways in which it could itself improve the use of research evidence. The results from this activity are soon to be published as a series of articles in HARPS. This editorial provides an account of some of these recent key developments in health research systems but places them in the context of a distinguished tradition of debate about the role of science in society. It also identifies some of the main issues on which 'research on health research' has already been conducted and published, in some cases in HARPS. Finding and retaining adequate financial and human resources to conduct health research is a major problem, especially in low and middle income countries where the need is often greatest. Research ethics and agenda-setting that responds to the demands of the public are issues of growing concern. Innovative and collaborative ways are being found to organise the conduct and utilisation of research so as to inform policy, and improve health and health equity. This is crucial, not least to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals. But much more progress is needed. The editorial ends by listing a wide range of topics

  18. Building public health capacity in Madhya Pradesh through academic partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Anjali; Negandhi, Himanshu; Zodpey, Sanjay; Vyas, Nidhi; Agnani, Manohar

    2014-01-01

    Engaging in partnerships is a strategic means of achieving objectives common to each partner. The Post Graduate Diploma in Public Health Management (PGDPHM) partners in consultation with the government and aims to strengthen the public health managerial capacity. This case study examines the PGDPHM program conducted jointly by the Public Health Foundation of India and the Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP) at the State Institute of Health Management and Communication, Gwalior, which is the apex training and research institute of the state government for health professionals. This is an example of collaborative partnership between an academic institution and the Department of Public Health and Family Welfare, GoMP. PGDPHM is a 1-year, fully residential course with a strong component of field-based project work, and aims to bridge the gap in public health managerial capacity of the health system through training of health professionals. The program is uniquely designed in the context of the National Rural Health Mission and uses a multidisciplinary approach with a focus on inter-professional education. The curriculum is competency driven and health systems connected and the pedagogy uses a problem-solving approach with multidisciplinary faculty from different programs and practice backgrounds that bring rich field experience to the classroom. This case study presents the successful example of the interface between academia and the health system and of common goals achieved through this partnership for building capacity of health professionals in the state of Madhya Pradesh over the past 3 years. PMID:25128807

  19. Building public health capacity in Madhya Pradesh through academic partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Tiwari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Engaging in partnerships is a strategic means of achieving objectives common to each partner. The Post Graduate Diploma in Public Health Management (PGDPHM partners in consultation with the government and aims to strengthen the public health managerial capacity. This case study examines the PGDPHM program conducted jointly by the Public Health Foundation of India and the Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP at the State Institute of Health Management and Communication, Gwalior, which is the apex training and research institute of the state government for health professionals. This is an example of collaborative partnership between an academic institution and the Department of Public Health and Family Welfare, GoMP. PGDPHM is a 1-year, fully residential course with a strong component of field-based project work, and aims to bridge the gap in public health managerial capacity of the health system through training of health professionals. The program is uniquely designed in the context of the National Rural Health Mission and uses a multidisciplinary approach with a focus on inter-professional education. The curriculum is competency driven and health systems connected and the pedagogy uses a problem-solving approach with multidisciplinary faculty from different programs and practice backgrounds that bring rich field experience to the classroom. This case study presents the successful example of the interface between academia and the health system and of common goals achieved through this partnership for building capacity of health professionals in the state of Madhya Pradesh over the past 3 years.

  20. [Health impact assessment of building and investment projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriene, B

    2003-02-01

    For regional planning and approval procedures for building projects of a certain order of magnitude and power rating according to the German Federal Act on the Prevention of Emissions with Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the German public health departments, acting as public authorities, increasingly perform health impact assessments (HIA). The amended Act on Environmental Impact Assessment, the Decree on industrial plants which require approval (4th Federal Decree on Emission Prevention) and the Health Service Acts of the Federal States of Germany form the legal basis for the assessment of health issues with regard to approval procedures for building and investment projects. In the framework of the "Action Programme for the Environment and Health", the present article aims at making this process binding and to ensure responsibility and general involvement of the Public Health departments in all German Federal States. Future criteria, basic principles and procedures for single-case testing as well as assessment standards should meet these requirements. The Federal Ministry for the Environment and the Federal Ministry for Health should agree on Health Impact Assessment (HIA ) as well as on the relaxant stipulations in their procedures and general administrative regulations for implementing the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA). Current EIA procedures focus on urban development and road construction, industrial investment projects, intensive animal husbandry plants, waste incineration plants, and wind energy farms. This paper illustrates examples meeting with varying degrees of public acceptance. However, being involved in the regional planning procedure for the project "Extension of the federal motorway A 14 from Magdeburg to Schwerin", the Public Health Service also shares global responsibility for health and climate protection. Demands for shortest routing conflict with objectives of environmental protection which should be given long

  1. What is health resilience and how can we build it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Katharine; Donato, Darrin; Lurie, Nicole

    2015-03-18

    Whether a community is in the path of a natural disaster, the target of an act of terror, or simply striving to meet the demands of increasingly dense urban populations, a community resilience paradigm can help communities and individuals not just to mitigate damage and heal, but to thrive. This article discusses experiences from recent, large-scale disasters to explore how community resilience might serve as a sustainable paradigm for organizing public health and medical preparedness, response, and recovery. By strengthening health systems, meeting the needs of vulnerable populations, and promoting organizational competence, social connectedness, and psychological health, community resilience encourages actions that build preparedness, promote strong day-to-day systems, and address the underlying social determinants of health. Thus, community resilience resonates with a wide array of stakeholders, particularly those whose work routinely addresses health, wellness, or societal well-being.

  2. Bringing interdisciplinary and multicultural team building to health care education: the downstate team-building initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Joanie Mayer; Lugassy, Daniel; Meyer, Rina; Jeanty, Freida; Myers, Stephanie; Jones, Sadie; Bradley, Joann; Mitchell, Rena; Cramer, Eva

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the Downstate Team-Building Initiative (DTBI), a model multicultural and interdisciplinary health care team-building program for health professions students. A total of 65 students representing seven health disciplines participated in DTBI's first three years (one cohort per year since implementation). During the 18-session curriculum, students self-evaluated their group's progress through Tuckman's four team-development stages (FORMING, STORMING, NORMING, PERFORMING) on an 11-point scale. Students completed matched pre- and postintervention program evaluations assessing five variables: interdisciplinary understanding, interdisciplinary attitudes, teamwork skills, multicultural skills, and team atmosphere. After participation, students completed narrative follow-up questionnaires investigating impact one and two years after program completion. Each year's team development curve followed a similar logarithmic trajectory. Cohort 1 remained in team development stage 3 (NORMING) while Cohorts 2 and 3 advanced into the final stage-PERFORMING. A total of 34 matched pre- and postintervention evaluations showed significant change in all major variables: Team atmosphere and group teamwork skills improved most (48% and 44%, respectively). Interdisciplinary understanding improved 42%. Individual multicultural skills (defined by ability to address racism, homophobia, and sexism) started at the highest baseline and improved the least (13%). Group multicultural skills improved 36%. Of 23 responses to the follow-up surveys, 22 (96%) stated DTBI was a meaningful educational experience applicable to their current clinical surroundings. DTBI successfully united students across health discipline, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, gender, and sexual orientation into functioning teams. The model represents an effective approach to teaching health care team building and demonstrates benefits in both preclinical and clinical years of training.

  3. Building Collaborative Health Promotion Partnerships: The Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton C. Addison

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Building Collaborative Health Promotion Partnerships: The Jackson Heart Study. Background: Building a collaborative health promotion partnership that effectively employs principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR involves many dimensions. To ensure that changes would be long-lasting, it is imperative that partnerships be configured to include groups of diverse community representatives who can develop a vision for long-term change. This project sought to enumerate processes used by the Jackson Heart Study (JHS Community Outreach Center (CORC to create strong, viable partnerships that produce lasting change. Methods: JHS CORC joined with community representatives to initiate programs that evolved into comprehensive strategies for addressing health disparities and the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This collaboration was made possible by first promoting an understanding of the need for combined effort, the desire to interact with other community partners, and the vision to establish an effective governance structure. Results: The partnership between JHS CORC and the community has empowered and inspired community members to provide leadership to other health promotion projects. Conclusion: Academic institutions must reach out to local community groups and together address local health issues that affect the community. When a community understands the need for change to respond to negative health conditions, formalizing this type of collaboration is a step in the right direction.

  4. Equity in Health and Health Financing: Building and Strengthening ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impact of maternal and child health private expenditure on poverty and inequity in Bangladesh : Bangladesh facility efficiency survey 2011; technical report A. Download PDF ... lives and livelihoods. Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South.

  5. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  6. Community capacity building and health promotion in a globalized world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeburn, John; Akerman, Marco; Chuengsatiansup, Komatra; Mejia, Fanny; Oladepo, Oladimeji

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, community capacity building (CCB) is seen as part of a long-standing health promotion tradition involving community action in health promotion. The conceptual context of the term CCB is presented, and compared with other community approaches. The usage of the term is variable. It is submitted that its common features are (i) the concepts of capacity and empowerment (versus disease and deficiency), (ii) bottom-up, community-determined agendas and actions and (iii) processes for developing competence. A brief literature review looks at some of the main contributions from the 1990 s on, which reveal an emphasis on building competencies, the measurement of community capacity and the attempt to break CCB down into operational components. Academic research on the impact of CCB on health is lacking, but multiple case studies documented in the 'grey literature' suggest CCB is highly effective, as does research in related areas, such as community empowerment. Five contemporary case studies submitted by the contributing authors show both the range and efficacy of CCB applications. The concluding synthesis and recommendations say that what is needed for health promotion in a globalized world is a balance between global macro (policy, regulatory, etc.) actions and those of the human and local scale represented by CCB. It is concluded that action centred on empowered and capable communities, in synergistic collaboration with other key players, may be the most powerful instrument available for the future of health promotion in a globalized world.

  7. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter buildings without unusual hazards and with environmental and air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely associated with host factors than with environmental conditions. We concluded from the experience of this study that building-related health complaints should be investigated at the work-area level and not at a building-wide level. An occupant-centric medical evaluation should guide environmental investigations, especially when screening results of building indoor environmental and air quality measurements show that the building and its work areas are within regulatory standards and industry

  8. PERCEPTION OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION WORKERS TOWARDS SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. CHE HASSAN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is known as one of the most hazardous activities. Therefore, safety on the job site is an important aspect with respect to the overall safety in construction. This paper assesses the safety level perception of the construction building workers towards safety, health and environment on a construction job site in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The above study was carried out by choosing 5 selected large building construction projects and 5 small building construction projects respectively in and around Kuala Lumpur area. In the present study, an exhaustive survey was carried out in these 10 project site areas using a standard checklist and a detailed developed questionnaire. The checklist comprised 17 divisions of safety measurements which are considered and perceived to be important from the safety point of view and was assessed based on the score obtained. The questionnaire comprised the general information with 36 safety attitude statements on a 1-5 Likert scale which was distributed to 100 construction workers. The results of the checklist show the difference of safety levels between the large and small projects. The study revealed that the large projects shown a high and consistent level in safety while the small projects shown a low and varied safety levels. The relationship between the factors can be obtained from the questionnaire. They are organizational commitment, factor influencing communication among workmates, worker related factors, personal role and supervisors’ role factors, obstacles to safety and safe behavior factors and management commitment at all levels in line with the management structure and risk taking behavioral factors. The findings of the present study revealed invaluable indications to the construction managers especially in improving the construction workers’ attitude towards safety, health and environment and hence good safety culture in the building construction industries.

  9. Neuroplasticity and Clinical Practice: Building Brain Power for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Shaffer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this review is on driving neuroplasticity in a positive direction using evidence-based interventions that also have the potential to improve general health. One goal is to provide an overview of the many ways new neuroscience can inform treatment protocols to empower and motivate clients to make the lifestyle choices that could help build brain power and could increase adherence to healthy lifestyle changes that have also been associated with simultaneously enhancing vigorous longevity, health, happiness and wellness. Another goal is to explore the use of a focus in clinical practice on helping clients appreciate this new evidence and use evolving neuroscience in establishing individualized goals, designing strategies for achieving them and increasing treatment compliance. The timing is urgent for such interventions with goals of enhancing brain health across the lifespan and improving statistics on dementia worldwide.

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES How equitable is the scaling up of HIV service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To assess the extent of inequalities in availability and utilisation of HIV services across South Africa. Design. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting. Three districts ... School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape. Vera Scott, MB ... The implementation of an equitable HIV service in. South Africa is a ...

  11. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: health research and capacity building in disease-endemic countries for helminthiases control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Y Osei-Atweneboana

    Full Text Available Capacity building in health research generally, and helminthiasis research particularly, is pivotal to the implementation of the research and development agenda for the control and elimination of human helminthiases that has been proposed thematically in the preceding reviews of this collection. Since helminth infections affect human populations particularly in marginalised and low-income regions of the world, they belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases, and their alleviation through research, policy, and practice is a sine qua non condition for the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Current efforts supporting research capacity building specifically for the control of helminthiases have been devised and funded, almost in their entirety, by international donor agencies, major funding bodies, and academic institutions from the developed world, contributing to the creation of (not always equitable North-South "partnerships". There is an urgent need to shift this paradigm in disease-endemic countries (DECs by refocusing political will, and harnessing unshakeable commitment by the countries' governments, towards health research and capacity building policies to ensure long-term investment in combating and sustaining the control and eventual elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. This paper discusses the challenges confronting capacity building for parasitic disease research in DECs, describes current capacity building strategies with particular reference to neglected tropical diseases and human helminthiases, and outlines recommendations to redress the balance of alliances and partnerships for health research between the developed countries of

  12. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  13. Perceived health and comfort in relation to energy use and building characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulet, C.A.; Johner, N.; Foradini, F.; Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C.; Oliveira Fernandes, E.; Müller, B.; Aizlewood, C.

    2006-01-01

    Within the European research project Health Optimisation Protocol for Energy-efficient Building (HOPE), 96 apartment buildings and 64 office buildings (of which approximately 75% have been designed to be energy-efficient) were investigated. The building characteristics were assessed according to a

  14. Four centuries on from Bacon: progress in building health research systems to improve health systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2014-09-23

    In 1627, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis described a utopian society in which an embryonic research system contributed to meeting the needs of the society. In this editorial, we use some of the aspirations described in New Atlantis to provide a context within which to consider recent progress in building health research systems to improve health systems and population health. In particular, we reflect on efforts to build research capacity, link research to policy, identify the wider impacts made by the science, and generally build fully functioning research systems to address the needs identified. In 2014, Health Research Policy and Systems has continued to publish one-off papers and article collections covering a range of these issues in both high income countries and low- and middle-income countries. Analysis of these contributions, in the context of some earlier ones, is brought together to identify achievements, challenges and possible ways forward. We show how 2014 is likely to be a pivotal year in the development of ways to assess the impact of health research on policies, practice, health systems, population health, and economic benefits.We demonstrate how the increasing focus on health research systems will contribute to realising the hopes expressed in the World Health Report, 2013, namely that all nations would take a systematic approach to evaluating the outputs and applications resulting from their research investment.

  15. A framework to evaluate research capacity building in health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jo

    2005-01-01

    Background Building research capacity in health services has been recognised internationally as important in order to produce a sound evidence base for decision-making in policy and practice. Activities to increase research capacity for, within, and by practice include initiatives to support individuals and teams, organisations and networks. Little has been discussed or concluded about how to measure the effectiveness of research capacity building (RCB) Discussion This article attempts to develop the debate on measuring RCB. It highlights that traditional outcomes of publications in peer reviewed journals and successful grant applications may be important outcomes to measure, but they may not address all the relevant issues to highlight progress, especially amongst novice researchers. They do not capture factors that contribute to developing an environment to support capacity development, or on measuring the usefulness or the 'social impact' of research, or on professional outcomes. The paper suggests a framework for planning change and measuring progress, based on six principles of RCB, which have been generated through the analysis of the literature, policy documents, empirical studies, and the experience of one Research and Development Support Unit in the UK. These principles are that RCB should: develop skills and confidence, support linkages and partnerships, ensure the research is 'close to practice', develop appropriate dissemination, invest in infrastructure, and build elements of sustainability and continuity. It is suggested that each principle operates at individual, team, organisation and supra-organisational levels. Some criteria for measuring progress are also given. Summary This paper highlights the need to identify ways of measuring RCB. It points out the limitations of current measurements that exist in the literature, and proposes a framework for measuring progress, which may form the basis of comparison of RCB activities. In this way it could

  16. A framework to evaluate research capacity building in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Jo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Building research capacity in health services has been recognised internationally as important in order to produce a sound evidence base for decision-making in policy and practice. Activities to increase research capacity for, within, and by practice include initiatives to support individuals and teams, organisations and networks. Little has been discussed or concluded about how to measure the effectiveness of research capacity building (RCB Discussion This article attempts to develop the debate on measuring RCB. It highlights that traditional outcomes of publications in peer reviewed journals and successful grant applications may be important outcomes to measure, but they may not address all the relevant issues to highlight progress, especially amongst novice researchers. They do not capture factors that contribute to developing an environment to support capacity development, or on measuring the usefulness or the 'social impact' of research, or on professional outcomes. The paper suggests a framework for planning change and measuring progress, based on six principles of RCB, which have been generated through the analysis of the literature, policy documents, empirical studies, and the experience of one Research and Development Support Unit in the UK. These principles are that RCB should: develop skills and confidence, support linkages and partnerships, ensure the research is 'close to practice', develop appropriate dissemination, invest in infrastructure, and build elements of sustainability and continuity. It is suggested that each principle operates at individual, team, organisation and supra-organisational levels. Some criteria for measuring progress are also given. Summary This paper highlights the need to identify ways of measuring RCB. It points out the limitations of current measurements that exist in the literature, and proposes a framework for measuring progress, which may form the basis of comparison of RCB

  17. 20 CFR 222.34 - Relationship resulting from equitable adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... adoption. 222.34 Section 222.34 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... equitable adoption. In many States, where a legal adoption proceeding was defective under State law or where a contemplated legal adoption was not completed, a claimant may be considered to be an equitably...

  18. Equitability, mutual information, and the maximal information coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Justin B; Atwal, Gurinder S

    2014-03-04

    How should one quantify the strength of association between two random variables without bias for relationships of a specific form? Despite its conceptual simplicity, this notion of statistical "equitability" has yet to receive a definitive mathematical formalization. Here we argue that equitability is properly formalized by a self-consistency condition closely related to Data Processing Inequality. Mutual information, a fundamental quantity in information theory, is shown to satisfy this equitability criterion. These findings are at odds with the recent work of Reshef et al. [Reshef DN, et al. (2011) Science 334(6062):1518-1524], which proposed an alternative definition of equitability and introduced a new statistic, the "maximal information coefficient" (MIC), said to satisfy equitability in contradistinction to mutual information. These conclusions, however, were supported only with limited simulation evidence, not with mathematical arguments. Upon revisiting these claims, we prove that the mathematical definition of equitability proposed by Reshef et al. cannot be satisfied by any (nontrivial) dependence measure. We also identify artifacts in the reported simulation evidence. When these artifacts are removed, estimates of mutual information are found to be more equitable than estimates of MIC. Mutual information is also observed to have consistently higher statistical power than MIC. We conclude that estimating mutual information provides a natural (and often practical) way to equitably quantify statistical associations in large datasets.

  19. [Community health building: the safe community promotion experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Lu

    2011-02-01

    Safety and health promotion at the community level involves special concerns and approaches. A community may develop into a safe community or healthy city depending on the focus of relevant promotion efforts. Neither area nor population size should be factors affecting an initial decision to start safe community or healthy city programs. However, one should consider the diversity of issues that may have the potential impact on people with different gender and age or on different environments and situations, and whether a planned program is sustainable. While safe communities and healthy cities may be linked to international networks, the qualifications for joining such networks differ. The Healthy City Alliance emphasizes outcome measures and the International Safe Community Network emphasizes the appropriateness of sustainability mechanisms. While Taiwan communities are eligible for designation as international safe communities, they may are eligible for associate membership only in the Healthy City Alliance. The author has the following recommendations with regard to sustainability in community health building in Taiwan: 1) The relevant infrastructure must involve both public and private sectors; 2) The community should try to receive financial support from diverse sources; 3) involve significant numbers of active volunteers; and 4) charge local health centers with data collection and analysis responsibilities.

  20. HealthMpowerment.org: Building Community through a Mobile-Optimized, Online Health Promotion Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Pike, Emily C.; LeGrand, Sara; Baltierra, Nina; Rucker, Alvin Justin; Wilson, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background: Both young Black men who have sex with men as well as young Black transgender women (YBMSM/TW) continue to experience a significant increase in HIV incidence. HealthMpowerment.org (HMP) is a mobile phone-optimized, online intervention for both YBMSM/TW to build community and facilitate supportive relationships. Methods: To assess the…

  1. Local health rules and building regulations: a survey on local hygiene and building regulations in Italian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Marco; Signorelli, Carlo; Buffoli, Maddalena; Rebecchi, Andrea; Capolongo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    WHO has highlighted the need to strengthen the relationship between health and built environment factors, such as inappropriate housing conditions. Local Health Rules (LHRs) and Building Regulations (BRs) are tools which provide safety and building hygiene in construction practices. Currently the Italian Government is considering to establish a National Building Regulation and, related to the following purpose, this paper presents a survey on the status of adoption and updating of LHRs and BRs in Italian municipalities. The current Italian state of LHRs, BRs and Municipal Development Plans (MDPs) have been examined by a survey considering a sample of about 550 cities, with different demo graphic and geographic features, starting from the previous research work by Signorelli et al. (1999). The analysis underlines a serious shortage of updated LHRs, especially in small and medium-sized municipalities whereas BRs and MDPs are widespread. Only 30% of them are previously approved and validated by Local Health Authorities. Starting from a survey, the present scenario of Building Regulations requires the introduction of further performance guidelines instead of normative ones and, therefore, the current actions to give rise to a National Building Regulation could be integrated by building hygiene contents of LHRs.

  2. Health and safety conditions of building maintenance sites in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    Euros and other moisture-related respiratory diseases cost between 12 and 23 ... Additional information relating to the function of building, the the part building from which sample was taken, and age of buildings were also collected. The samples were sealed in sterile containers before transportation to laboratory. Structured ...

  3. European project HOPE (Health Optimization Protocol for Energy-efficient Buildings)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Cox, C.W.J.; Maroni, M.; Boschi, N.; Raw, G.; Roulet, C.A.; Foradini, F.

    2003-01-01

    In January 2002, a new European project named HOPE (Health Optimization Protocol for Energy-efficient Buildings) started with 14 participants from nine European countries. The final goal of the project is to provide the means to increase the number of energy-efficient buildings, i.e. buildings that

  4. Igualdad, equidad, solidaridad Equality, equitableness and solidarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Fernández Enguita

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Se propone descomponer la idea inespecífica de igualdad o, mejor, justicia distributiva, en las más específicas de igualdad estricta, equidad (acorde con la contribución o el esfuerzo, excelencia (incentivos a las aportaciones extraordinarias y solidaridad (compensación para los discapacitados. Estos son los criterios de justicia de la sociedad actual - aunque no haya acuerdo sobre como alcanzarlos - y la escuela no necesita inventar otros sino adaptarlos a su contexto. Por otra parte, se diferencia entre las desigualdades intracomunitarias - clase, género y etnia - y las intercomunitarias - entre países, entre comunidades, entre nacionales e inmigrantes.This paper suggests to decompose the unspecific idea of equality or, rather, of distributive justice, into the more specific ideas of strict equality, equitableness (according to contribution or effort, excellence (incentives for extraordinary contributions and solidarity (compensation for the disabled. These are the criteria of justice in modern society - even though there is no agreement on how to reach them. School need not make up any new ones but adapt those to its own context. Besides, a distinction is made between intracommunity - class, gender and ethnicity - and intercommunity inequalities - between countries, communities and between nationals and immigrants.

  5. Capacity building for global health diplomacy: Thailand’s experience of trade and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiprayoon, Suriwan; Smith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A rapid expansion of trade liberalization in Thailand during the 1990s raised a critical question for policy transparency from various stakeholders. Particular attention was paid to a bilateral trade negotiation between Thailand and USA concerned with the impact of the ‘Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Rights (TRIPS) plus’ provisions on access to medicines. Other trade liberalization effects on health were also concerning health actors. In response, a number of interagency committees were established to engage with trade negotiations. In this respect, Thailand is often cited as a positive example of a country that has proactively sought, and achieved, trade and health policy coherence. This article investigates this relationship in more depth and suggests lessons for wider study and application of global health diplomacy (GHD). This study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 people involved in trade-related health negotiations, together with observation of 9 meetings concerning trade-related health issues. Capacity to engage with trade negotiations appears to have been developed by health actors through several stages; starting from the Individual (I) understanding of trade effects on health, through Nodes (N) that establish the mechanisms to enhance health interests, Networks (N) to advocate for health within these negotiations, and an Enabling environment (E) to retain health officials and further strengthen their capacities to deal with trade-related health issues. This INNE model seems to have worked well in Thailand. However, other contextual factors are also significant. This article suggests that, in building capacity in GHD, it is essential to educate both health and non-health actors on global health issues and to use a combination of formal and informal mechanisms to participate in GHD. And in developing sustainable capacity in GHD, it requires long term commitment and strong leadership from both health and non-health sectors. PMID

  6. Capacity building for global health diplomacy: Thailand's experience of trade and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiprayoon, Suriwan; Smith, Richard

    2015-11-01

    A rapid expansion of trade liberalization in Thailand during the 1990s raised a critical question for policy transparency from various stakeholders. Particular attention was paid to a bilateral trade negotiation between Thailand and USA concerned with the impact of the 'Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Rights (TRIPS) plus' provisions on access to medicines. Other trade liberalization effects on health were also concerning health actors. In response, a number of interagency committees were established to engage with trade negotiations. In this respect, Thailand is often cited as a positive example of a country that has proactively sought, and achieved, trade and health policy coherence. This article investigates this relationship in more depth and suggests lessons for wider study and application of global health diplomacy (GHD). This study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 people involved in trade-related health negotiations, together with observation of 9 meetings concerning trade-related health issues. Capacity to engage with trade negotiations appears to have been developed by health actors through several stages; starting from the Individual (I) understanding of trade effects on health, through Nodes (N) that establish the mechanisms to enhance health interests, Networks (N) to advocate for health within these negotiations, and an Enabling environment (E) to retain health officials and further strengthen their capacities to deal with trade-related health issues. This INNE model seems to have worked well in Thailand. However, other contextual factors are also significant. This article suggests that, in building capacity in GHD, it is essential to educate both health and non-health actors on global health issues and to use a combination of formal and informal mechanisms to participate in GHD. And in developing sustainable capacity in GHD, it requires long term commitment and strong leadership from both health and non-health sectors. Published by

  7. [A methodology for the evaluation of the health related and environmental characteristics of building products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupetit, F

    2008-02-01

    A global methodology for the evaluation of the environmental and health-related characteristics of building products is presented. This methodology is based on environmental product declaration according to the NF P 01-010 standard for the environmental part and on specific tests for the characterization of the potential health-related impact of building products (emissions of volatile organic compounds and formaldehyde in indoor air, odour emissions, aptitude for growth of micro-organisms: moulds and bacteria, natural radioactive emissions). This methodology can be used either by: *Manufacturers for the communication on the environmental and health-related properties of their building products, *End users, consumers, retailers, building owners and architects wishing to introduce environmental and health-related criteria in their selection procedure of building products, e.g. for "green building" construction.

  8. Building Paths to Health Careers | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Building Paths to Health Careers Past Issues / Spring 2012 Table of Contents Donald ... organ systems, diseases, and healthcare concepts and health career pathways to high school students enrolled in after ...

  9. Environmental Perceptions and Health before and after Relocation to a Green Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Spengler, John; Vallarino, Jose; Santanam, Suresh; Satish, Usha; Allen, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Green buildings are designed to have low environmental impacts and improved occupant health and well-being. Improvements to the built environment including ventilation, lighting, and materials have resulted in improved indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in green buildings, but the evidence around occupant health is currently centered around environmental perceptions and self-reported health. To investigate the objective impact of green buildings on health, we tracked IEQ, self-reported health, and heart rate in 30 participants from green and conventional buildings for two weeks. 24 participants were then selected to be relocated to the Syracuse Center of Excellence, a LEED platinum building, for six workdays. While they were there, ventilation, CO2, and volatile organic compound (VOC) levels were changed on different days to match the IEQ of conventional, green, and green+ (green with increased ventilation) buildings. Participants reported improved air quality, odors, thermal comfort, ergonomics, noise and lighting and fewer health symptoms in green buildings prior to relocation. After relocation, participants consistently reported fewer symptoms during the green building conditions compared to the conventional one, yet symptom counts were more closely associated with environmental perceptions than with measured IEQ. On average, participants had 4.7 times the odds of reporting a lack of air movement, 1.4 more symptoms (p-value = 0.019) and a 2 bpm higher heart rate (p-value buildings is driven by both environmental perceptions and physiological pathways.

  10. Building global health through a center-without-walls: the Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermund, Sten H; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Khedkar, Sheetal; Jia, Yujiang; Etherington, Carol; Vergara, Alfredo

    2008-02-01

    The Institute for Global Health at Vanderbilt enables the expansion and coordination of global health research, service, and training, reflecting the university's commitment to improve health services and outcomes in resource-limited settings. Global health encompasses both prevention via public health and treatment via medical care, all nested within a broader community-development context. This has fostered university-wide collaborations to address education, business/economics, engineering, nursing, and language training, among others. The institute is a natural facilitator for team building and has been especially helpful in organizing institutional responses to global health solicitations from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and other funding agencies. This center-without-walls philosophy nurtures noncompetitive partnerships among and within departments and schools. With extramural support from the NIH and from endowment and developmental investments from the school of medicine, the institute funds new pilot projects to nurture global educational and research exchanges related to health and development. Vanderbilt's newest programs are a CDC-supported HIV/AIDS service initiative in Africa and an overseas research training program for health science graduate students and clinical fellows. New opportunities are available for Vanderbilt students, staff, and faculty to work abroad in partnership with international health projects through a number of Tennessee institutions now networked with the institute. A center-without-walls may be a model for institutions contemplating strategic investments to better organize service and teaching opportunities abroad, and to achieve greater successes in leveraging extramural support for overseas and domestic work focused on tropical medicine and global health.

  11. Adoption of Smart Structures for Prevention of Health Hazards in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Ayodeji; Aigbavboa, Clinton; Ngema, Wiseman

    2017-11-01

    The importance of building quality to the health and well-being of occupants and surrounding neighbors cannot be overemphasized. Smart structures were construed to proffer solution to various issues of sustainable development including social factors that is concerned with health and safety of people. Based on existing literature materials on building quality, smart structures and general aspect of sustainable developments, this study examined the benefits of smart structures in the prevention of various health issues in infrastructural buildings, which has been a concern for stakeholders in the architecture, engineering and construction industry. The criterion for indoor environmental quality was adopted and various health and bodily issues related to building quality were explained. The adoption of smart structure concept will help to manage physical, chemical, biological and psychological factors of building with a view to enhancing better quality of life of occupants.

  12. Building health impact assessment capacity as a lever for healthy public policy in urban planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jenny L; Kemp, Lynn A

    2007-01-01

    Building capacity to improve health through applying health impact assessment (HIA) increases the range of people, organisations and communities who are able to address health problems and, in particular, the problems that arise out of social inequity and social exclusion. To achieve this, a range of strategies is required across the areas of organisational development, workforce development, resource allocation, leadership and partnerships. A conceptual framework to guide understanding of capacity building evolved during a three-year capacity building project that supported the implementation of HIA. This is also applicable to the broader agenda of healthy public policy.

  13. Putting Management Capacity Building at the Forefront of Health Systems Strengthening: Comment on "Management Matters: A Leverage Point for Health Systems Strengthening in Global Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Valerie A; Bertrand, Jane

    2015-10-26

    The current limited focus on management in global health activities is highly problematic given the amounts of financial and human resources that are pouring into health system strengthening interventions and the complexity of clinical operations across settings. By ensuring that public health and healthcare practitioners in domestic and international settings receive management training in their educational programs and that we build management capacity among individuals already in the health workforce, we can begin to prepare for more effective health systems strengthening efforts. Rigorous evaluation of health systems strengthening and the impact of management capacity building is crucial to building evidence for the field. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  14. Capacity Building in Rural Mental Health in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Samar; Johnson, Lyn

    2002-01-01

    A distance education program in mental health was delivered to 31 rural health professionals in Western Australia who dealt with mentally ill patients at the primary level. Evaluation on completion and 4 months postprogram indicated that participants learned mental health management regimes, developed mental health assessment skills, improved…

  15. Sociology of health care reform: building on research and analysis to improve health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanic, David; McAlpine, Donna D

    2010-01-01

    Health reform efforts in the United States have focused on resolving some of the fundamental irrationalities of the system whereby costs and services utilization are often not linked to improved patient outcomes. Sociologists have contributed to these efforts by documenting the extent of problems and by confronting central questions around issues of accountability, reimbursement, and rationing that must be addressed in order to achieve meaningful reform that controls costs, expands access, and improves quality. Major reform rarely occurs without "paying off" powerful interests, a particularly difficult challenge in the context of a large and growing deficit. Central to achieving increased coverage and access, high quality, and cost control is change in reimbursement arrangements, increased accountability for both costs and outcomes, and criteria for rationing based on the evidence and accepted as legitimate by all stakeholders. Consensus about health reform requires trust. The traditional trust patients have in physicians provides an important base on which to build.

  16. Health and safety conditions of building maintenance sites in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research assessed the safety of the environmental conditions of timber buildings as maintenance sites from cultivable microorganisms under various climatic conditions in Nigeria. Several site illnesses leading to poor work and reduced productivity on construction sites have been attributed to unidentified ...

  17. Achieving health SDG 3 in Africa through NGO capacity building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (PACFaH) mainstreams capacity building as an effective implementation strategy for 8 indigenous NGOs to deliver on - policy; budgetary; legislative; and administrative advocacy in four issue areas: 1) family planning; 2) nutrition; 3) routine immunization; and 4) reduction of under-5 deaths from diarrhea and pneumonia.

  18. Building on the diversity and multiculturalism of health professional women around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Sally

    2010-05-01

    This article is based a presentation delivered to the Fifth Annual Building Global Alliances Symposium, "The Challenges of Migration for Health Professional Women," convened by CGFNS International, Philadelphia, PA, December 8, 2008.

  19. Methodology developed for the energy-productive diagnosis and evaluation in health buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, I.; Discoli, C.; Rosenfeld, E. [Instituto de Estudios del Habitat (IDEHAB), Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-07-01

    The public health network in Argentina consists of a wide variety of buildings presenting a complex system of services and structures. In order to modulate and study the energy behaviour of each type of health facility, a database of Energy-Productive Building Modules (Modulos Edilicios Energeticos Productivos: MEEP) was built. This involved evaluating the interactions among physical spaces, building envelope, infrastructure, and equipment usage with the energy consumption, for each specialty service provided in the most common buildings present in the health service network. The MEEP database enables investigators to: (i) Obtain detailed information on each facility. (ii) Identify variables critical to an energy consumption perspective. (iii) Detect areas of over consumption and/or inadequate infrastructure. (iv) Gather essential reference material for the design of health facilities and other similar sectors. The information of each MEEP can be summarized in typological charts. (author)

  20. African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As African countries move toward universal health coverage, it is clear there is a shortage of African experts with applied research skills in health financing such as fiscal space analysis, needs-based resource allocation methods, and benefit incidence analysis of the equity impact of health ... Project Leader. Chris Atim ...

  1. Bridging Grant : Building Canadian Support for Global Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to supporting research for global health equity. The CCGHR provides a networking and action platform for the Canadian global health research community and partners in low- and middle-income countries. This grant will ...

  2. Building Global Health Research Competencies at the Undergraduate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Hecker, Kent G.; Jensen, Ashley E.

    2009-01-01

    Faculty from the University of Calgary's bachelor of health sciences (BHSc) Global Health Program argue for the development of "global health research competencies" to prepare students for international placements in low- and middle-income countries. These competencies include the ability to define and describe (a) how to use the concept…

  3. Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... civic engagement where it is lacking. Based on the national studies, a regional analysis will be generated and published in the Global Health Governance journal. The project will promote stakeholder inclusion and engagement around health and the SDGs and provide the basis for the design of the Think Health Initiative.

  4. Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Based on the national studies, a regional analysis will also be generated and published in the Global Health Governance journal. The project will promote stakeholder inclusion and engagement around health and the SDGs, including through the evolution of the Think_SDG network and the design of the Think Health ...

  5. Organizational change--key to capacity building and effective health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heward, Sue; Hutchins, Cheryl; Keleher, Helen

    2007-06-01

    Contemporary health promotion is now a well-defined discipline with a strong (albeit diverse) theoretical base, proven technologies (based on program planning) for addressing complex social problems, processes to guide practice and a body of evidence of efficacy and increasingly, effectiveness. Health promotion has evolved principally within the health sector where it is frequently considered optional rather than core business. To maximize effectiveness, quality health promotion technologies and practices need to be adopted as core business by the health sector and by organizations in other sectors. It has proven difficult to develop the infrastructure, workforce and resource base needed to ensure the routine introduction of high-quality health promotion into organizations. Recognizing these problems, this paper explores the use of organizational theory and practice in building the capacity of organizations to design, deliver and evaluate health promotion effectively and efficiently. The paper argues that organizational change is an essential but under-recognized function for the sustainability of health promotion practice and a necessary component of capacity-building frameworks. The interdependence of quality health promotion with organizational change is discussed in this paper through three case studies. While each focused on different aspects of health promotion development, the centrality of organizational change in each of them was striking. This paper draws out elements of organizational change to demonstrate that health promotion specialists and practitioners, wherever they are located, should be building organizational change into both their practice and capacity-building frameworks because without it, effectiveness and sustainability are at risk.

  6. Leveraging design thinking to build sustainable mobile health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Molly; Gorski, Irena; Mehta, Khanjan

    Mobile health, or mHealth, technology has the potential to improve health care access in the developing world. However, the majority of mHealth projects do not expand beyond the pilot stage. A core reason why is because they do not account for the individual needs and wants of those involved. A collaborative approach is needed to integrate the perspectives of all stakeholders into the design and operation of mHealth endeavours. Design thinking is a methodology used to develop and evaluate novel concepts for systems. With roots in participatory processes and self-determined pathways, design thinking provides a compelling framework to understand and apply the needs of diverse stakeholders to mHealth project development through a highly iterative process. The methodology presented in this article provides a structured approach to apply design thinking principles to assess the feasibility of novel mHealth endeavours during early conceptualisation.

  7. The Impact of Working in a Green Certified Building on Cognitive Function and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Satish, Usha; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye; Vallarino, Jose; Coull, Brent; Spengler, John D; Allen, Joseph G

    2017-03-01

    Thirty years of public health research have demonstrated that improved indoor environmental quality is associated with better health outcomes. Recent research has demonstrated an impact of the indoor environment on cognitive function. We recruited 109 participants from 10 high-performing buildings (i.e. buildings surpassing the ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 ventilation requirement and with low total volatile organic compound concentrations) in five U.S. cities. In each city, buildings were matched by week of assessment, tenant, type of worker and work functions. A key distinction between the matched buildings was whether they had achieved green certification. Workers were administered a cognitive function test of higher order decision-making performance twice during the same week while indoor environmental quality parameters were monitored. Workers in green certified buildings scored 26.4% (95% CI: [12.8%, 39.7%]) higher on cognitive function tests, controlling for annual earnings, job category and level of schooling, and had 30% fewer sick building symptoms than those in non-certified buildings. These outcomes may be partially explained by IEQ factors, including thermal conditions and lighting, but the findings suggest that the benefits of green certification standards go beyond measureable IEQ factors. We describe a holistic "buildingomics" approach for examining the complexity of factors in a building that influence human health.

  8. Four Lessons Learned From School Nurses in New Jersey About Building a Culture of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Robert

    2017-11-01

    Building a Culture of Health will give all members of our society the opportunity to lead healthier lives. To achieve this aim, more stakeholders in the community-residents, elected officials, community-based nonprofits, law enforcement, and schools-need to be engaged in addressing the health challenges in our communities. Moreover, all community stakeholders have to think and act "upstream" by addressing the social determinants of health in their communities. Discussed in this article are some of the lessons that are being learned from the "upstream" actions of school nurses in New Jersey about building a Culture of Health.

  9. Building bridges between health economics research and public policy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrand, Thierry; Dourgnon, Paul

    2010-12-01

    The Institut de Recherche et Documentation en Economie de la Santé (IRDES) Workshop on Applied Health Economics and Policy Evaluation aims at disseminating health economic research's newest findings and enhancing the community's capacity to address issues that are relevant to public policy. The 2010 program consisted of 16 articles covering a vast range of topics, such as health insurance, social health inequalities and health services research. While most of the articles embedded theoretical material, all had to include empirical material in order to favor more applied and practical discussions and results. The 2010 workshop is to be the first of a series of annual workshops in Paris gathering together researchers on health economics and policy evaluation. The next workshop is to be held at IRDES in June 2011.

  10. Building coalitions to promote women's health: the Philippine example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadiar, F M

    1995-01-01

    The formation and activities of a variety of Filipino women's groups working to protect women's reproductive rights are described in this article. Reproductive health was promoted and comprehensive services were provided in 1980 by the Women's Health Care Foundation (WHCF) and the Institute for Social Studies (ISSA) in the Philippines. In 1987 the state assured couples the right to determine their family size according to their religious beliefs and the demands of responsible parenthood, but conservative forces inserted a provision guaranteeing the equal rights of the unborn. Cory Aquino drafted an executive order in early 1987 that would have promoted only natural family planning had the WHCF and the ISSA not mobilized support against this order. The lobbyists vowed to be more vigilant about moves to curtail reproductive rights. A new organization was formed (WomanHealth Philippines), and the First National Convention of Health NGOs was implemented. WHCF and ISSA also helped to form other NGOs such as the Council for Family Planning, Health, and Welfare (PNGOC), which works to help smaller NGOs by sharing resources. Other NGOs working for reproductive health include BUKAS, the Remedios AIDS Foundation, the Legislative Agenda for Women, the Alliance for Women's Health, KALAKASAN, SIBOL, Women's Vote for Health and Family Planning, and Marching for Life Coalition. Cory Aquino stated support for family planning but allowed Catholic priorities to stifle the family planning program. The Secretary of Health in 1990 took over control of family planning. Later that year the Alliance for Women's Health was formed to assure protection of reproductive rights and the separation of church and state. The Alliance was active in senate and congressional public hearings on bills and resolutions relating to women's health and rights and effectively killed anti-woman bills. A National Steering Committee, comprised of the Alliance and seven other NGOs, participated in the Nairobi

  11. How the Spectre of Societal Homogeneity Undermines Equitable Healthcare for Refugees; Comment on “Defining and Acting on Global Health: The Case of Japan and the Refugee Crisis”

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Razum; Judith Wenner; Kayvan Bozorgmehr

    2017-01-01

    Recourse to a purported ideal of societal homogeneity has become common in the context of the refugee reception crisis – not only in Japan, as Leppold et al report, but also throughout Europe. Calls for societal homogeneity in Europe originate from populist movements as well as from some governments. Often, they go along with reduced social support for refugees and asylum seekers, for example in healthcare provision. The fundamental right to health is then reduced to a citizens’ right, grante...

  12. Building quality mHealth for low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Kate Michi; Pharaoh, Hamilton; Buckman, Reymound Yaw; Conradie, Hoffie; Karlen, Walter

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), community health care workers (CHCW) are the primary point of care for millions of people. Mobile phone health applications (mHealth app) are the preferred technology platform to deliver clinical support to CHCW. In LMIC, limited regulatory oversight exists to guide quality and safety for medical devices, including mHealth. During the development of a mHealth app to assist CHCW with patient assessment and clinical diagnosis in rural South Africa, we applied human-centred design (HCD) and a bioethics consultation. The HCD approach enabled us to develop a mHealth app that responded to the needs and capacities of CHCW. The bioethics consultation prompted early consideration of safety concerns, social implications of our mHealth app and our technology's impact on the CHCW-patient relationship. In this study, we found that combining a HCD approach with bioethics consultation improved the design quality and reduced safety concerns for our mHealth app.

  13. Capacity-building needs assessment of rural health managers: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There has been a renewed focus on leadership and governance within the South African health workforce as a key to strengthening the health system. Several studies have highlighted that managers feel poorly prepared for their role and responsibilities and argue for support and development for healthcare ...

  14. Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 avr. 2010 ... This grant will support the design of a module worth six credits (120 hours) within the master's program in health and population, and a scholarship program for some 40 students to specialize in health systems and policy analysis. This will prepare them to undertake critical and comparative analysis of ...

  15. Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will promote stakeholder inclusion and engagement around health and the SDGs, including through the evolution of the Think_SDG network and the design of the Think Health Initiative. ... Institution. Sustainable Development Policy Institute. Pays d' institution. Pakistan. Site internet. http://www.sdpi.org ...

  16. The role of schools of public health in capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulchinsky, Theodore H; Goodman, Julien

    2012-08-01

    Public health has been an enormously effective instrument for improving life expectancy and quality of life. Historically a sphere of governmental activity led by physicians and staffed by sanitarians and nurses, public health has evolved to become a multi-facetted field of societal activity. It engages many agencies and community action in reducing infectious and non-communicable diseases as well as many aspects of lifestyle and health equity. Education for an adequate professional workforce is one of its key functions. Schools of public health have fulfilled this role only partly even in developed countries, but in countries in transition and in low-income countries the problem is much more acute. We discuss the role of mentoring of new schools calling for strong public and private donor support for this as a key issue in global health.

  17. Building inclusive health innovation systems: lessons from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Abrol

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article presents an overview of the changes that are taking place within the public and private health innovation systems in India including delivery of medical care, pharmaceutical products, medical devices, and Indian traditional medicine. The nature of the flaws that exist in the health innovation system is pinpointed. The response by the government, the health, technology and medical institutions, and the evolving industry is addressed on a national level. The article also discusses how the alignment of policies and institutions was developed within the scope of national health innovation systems, and how the government and the industry are dealing with the challenges to integrate health system, industry, and social policy development processes.

  18. Maternal and child health in Israel: building lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lisa; Belmaker, Ilana; Somekh, Eli; Urkin, Jacob; Rudolf, Mary; Honovich, Mira; Bilenko, Natalya; Grossman, Zachi

    2017-06-24

    Israel is home to a child-oriented society that values strong family ties, universal child benefits, and free education for all children from 3 years of age to school grade 12. Alongside the universal health-care services that are guaranteed by the National Health Insurance Law and strong, community-based primary and preventive care services, these values have resulted in good maternal and child health. In 2015, infant and maternal mortality (3·1 deaths per 1000 livebirths and 2·0 deaths per 100 000 livebirths, respectively) were lower than the mean infant and maternal mortality of countries within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Israel has already exceeded the developed regions' Sustainable Development Goal 2030 targets for maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, and mortality in children younger than 5 years in all population groups. Yet these accomplishments are marred by Israel's high prevalence of child poverty (more than 30%), particularly among Arabs (63%) and ultra-Orthodox Jews (67%). Although infant mortality has improved in all subpopulations since Israel was founded in 1948, infant mortality among Arabs is still more than twice as high as among Jews. To address these disparities in health, the Israeli Ministry of Health has created a special division and has funded an intervention programme to reduce the infant mortality among Bedouin Arabs. Other interventions include targeted and culturally appropriate health-care programmes and services for communities with a high number of at-risk children and young adults, dental health service for all children up to 15 years, and improved collaboration between health, education, and welfare services. The challenges faced by the Israeli health-care system include a growing trend towards medicalisation of prenatal care, ensuring staff are trained to treat developmental, behavioural, and psychosocial issues in children and their families, securing sustainable funding for health

  19. Violation of the Morality of Resource Management and Equitable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I examined the ethicalmoral response to resource management as it affects principles guiding equitable distribution of power, services and burdens in a democratic system. Also examined were the consequences of unfair and unjust systems of management and distribution of power, human and natural ...

  20. Examining the Relationship between Creativity and Equitable Thinking in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Sarah R.; Kaufman, James C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the relationship between creativity and equitable thinking and the individual differences in personality, demographic, and experiential factors that influence both concepts as they affect each other. Given the nationwide push to increase equity in public schools, interventions beyond teaching about equity are becoming…

  1. Andrea Passoni, Giustizia come equità e socialismo liberale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo di Andrea Passoni, Giustizia come equità e socialismo liberale, appena pubblicato nell'archivio "Giuliano Marini", discute l’idea rawlsiana di socialismo liberale, allo scopo di dimostrare che può essere almeno parzialmente riempire di significato tramite la promozione e lo sviluppo di un’economia di mercato di tipo cooperativo.

  2. Leadership, institution building and pay-back of health systems research in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Block, Miguel Angel

    2009-09-30

    Health systems research is being increasingly called upon to support scaling up of disease control interventions and to support rapid health sector change. Yet research capacity building and pay-back take years or even decades to be demonstrated, while leadership and institution building are critical for their success. The case of Mexico can be illustrative for middle income countries and emerging economies striving to build health research systems. Historical reflection suggests the relationship between health sector reforms and economic crisis, on the one hand, and research capacity building and payback, on the other. Mexico's post-revolutionary background and its three health sector reforms are analyzed to identify the emphases given to health systems research. The first wave of health reform in the 1940s emphasized clinical and epidemiological research. Health systems research was not encouraged in a context of rapid economic development and an authoritarian regime. In contrast, health systems research was given a privileged place with the second wave of health reforms in the 1980s, which addressed health system coordination, decentralization and the universal right to health in a context of a deep economic crisis. The third wave of health reforms between 2003 and 2006 was based on the health system models proposed through research in the 90s. The credibility gained by research institutions was critical to ensure government uptake. Research influence can be traced through the role it played in defining a problem, in designing innovative insurance mechanisms and in establishing evaluation frameworks. It is argued that the Ministry of Health's budget increase of 56% between 2003 and 2006 and the reductions in inequity are pay-back to research investments since the 1980s.

  3. Leadership, institution building and pay-back of health systems research in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Block Miguel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems research is being increasingly called upon to support scaling up of disease control interventions and to support rapid health sector change. Yet research capacity building and pay-back take years or even decades to be demonstrated, while leadership and institution building are critical for their success. The case of Mexico can be illustrative for middle income countries and emerging economies striving to build health research systems. Methods Historical reflection suggests the relationship between health sector reforms and economic crisis, on the one hand, and research capacity building and payback, on the other. Mexico's post-revolutionary background and its three health sector reforms are analyzed to identify the emphases given to health systems research. Results The first wave of health reform in the 1940s emphasized clinical and epidemiological research. Health systems research was not encouraged in a context of rapid economic development and an authoritarian regime. In contrast, health systems research was given a privileged place with the second wave of health reforms in the 1980s, which addressed health system coordination, decentralization and the universal right to health in a context of a deep economic crisis. The third wave of health reforms between 2003 and 2006 was based on the health system models proposed through research in the 90s. The credibility gained by research institutions was critical to ensure government uptake. Research influence can be traced through the role it played in defining a problem, in designing innovative insurance mechanisms and in establishing evaluation frameworks. It is argued that the Ministry of Health's budget increase of 56% between 2003 and 2006 and the reductions in inequity are pay-back to research investments since the 1980s.

  4. Building policy leadership among HIV/AIDS health workers | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learn more: Read a journal article on the reliability of data collected by community health workers for policy and planning in Kenya. Read project summaries​ of the Teasdale-Corti Global Research Partnership Program (PDF, 275KB) ...

  5. Ergonomics on the Build Colombian Health of Workers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jairo Ernesto Luna García

    2014-01-01

    ... to the prevention of muscle-skeletal disorders, their contribution to the health of workers can be very important, in a setting of search of the labor and social welfare as a complement to the prevention of occupational risks.

  6. Symptoms of Sick Building Syndrome in Office Workers of Petroleum Industry Health Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Jafari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background­ and objectives : Research has consistently shown that air quality personal factors and work related factors were the most effective parameters for sick building syndrome. Several epidemiological studies have been carried out to show the prevalence of the sick building syndrome among the office workers but less attention has been paid to the relation of the sick building syndrome and the environmental parameters. In this work, the relationship between sick building symptoms and indoor environmental factors of two office buildings were studied. Methods: In this cross- sectional study, the sick building symptoms among two office building workers of Petroleum Industry Health Organization were examined. For this purpose, a validated questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of the sick building syndromes and the relationship between personal and environmental factors. Meantime, indoor environmental factors including noise, light, humidity, air velocity , temperature and CO2 concentration were measured with appropriate calibrated instrumentations. Results: The results revealed that there is a significant relationship between CO2 concentration as an air quality factor and some sick building symptoms including nausea, headache, nasal irritation, shortness of breath and dry throat. A significant relationship (P-Value < 0.05 was determined between the noise exposure and headache as well as dizziness. The light intensity had a significant impact (P-Value < 0.05 on dry skin, eye pain and malaise. Conclusion: Sick building symptoms among the women were higher than men. Environmental factors and indoor air quality had major impact on sick building symptoms in office buildings.

  7. Building diversity in a complex academic health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South-Paul, Jeannette E; Roth, Loren; Davis, Paula K; Chen, Terence; Roman, Anna; Murrell, Audrey; Pettigrew, Chenits; Castleberry-Singleton, Candi; Schuman, Joel

    2013-09-01

    For 30 years, the many diversity-related health sciences programs targeting the University of Pittsburgh undergraduate campus, school of medicine, schools of the health sciences, clinical practice plan, and medical center were run independently and remained separate within the academic health center (AHC). This lack of coordination hampered their overall effectiveness in promoting diversity and inclusion. In 2007, a group of faculty and administrators from the university and the medical center recognized the need to improve institutional diversity and to better address local health disparities. In this article, the authors describe the process of linking the efforts of these institutions in a way that would be successful locally and applicable to other academic environments. First, they engaged an independent consultant to conduct a study of the AHC's diversity climate, interviewing current and former faculty and trainees to define the problem and identify areas for improvement. Next, they created the Physician Inclusion Council to address the findings of this study and to coordinate future efforts with institutional leaders. Finally, they formed four working committees to address (1) communications and outreach, (2) cultural competency, (3) recruitment, and (4) mentoring and retention. These committees oversaw the strategic development and implementation of all diversity and inclusion efforts. Together these steps led to structural changes within the AHC and the improved allocation of resources that have positioned the University of Pittsburgh to achieve not only diversity but also inclusion and to continue to address the health disparities in the Pittsburgh community.

  8. Building Health Promotion into the Job of Home Care Aides: Transformation of the Workplace Health Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Yin, Lijuan; Lin, Ting-Ti

    2017-04-05

    Home care aides (HCAs), predominantly women, constitute one of the fastest growing occupations in the United States. HCAs work in clients' homes that lack typical workplace resources and benefits. This mixed-methods study examined how HCAs' work environment was transformed by a pilot workplace health promotion program that targeted clients as well as workers. The intervention started with training HCAs to deliver a gentle physical activity program to their older clients in a Medicaid-funded home care program. Older HCAs aged 50+ reported increased time doing the types of physical activity that they delivered to their clients (stretching or strengthening exercise) (p = 0.027). Almost all (98%) HCAs were satisfied with the program. These quantitative results were corroborated by qualitative data from open-ended survey questions and focus groups. HCAs described how they exercised with clients and how the psychosocial work environment changed with the program. Building physical activity into HCAs' job is feasible and can effectively promote HCAs' health, especially among older HCAs.

  9. Building Health Promotion into the Job of Home Care Aides: Transformation of the Workplace Health Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Muramatsu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Home care aides (HCAs, predominantly women, constitute one of the fastest growing occupations in the United States. HCAs work in clients’ homes that lack typical workplace resources and benefits. This mixed-methods study examined how HCAs’ work environment was transformed by a pilot workplace health promotion program that targeted clients as well as workers. The intervention started with training HCAs to deliver a gentle physical activity program to their older clients in a Medicaid-funded home care program. Older HCAs aged 50+ reported increased time doing the types of physical activity that they delivered to their clients (stretching or strengthening exercise (p = 0.027. Almost all (98% HCAs were satisfied with the program. These quantitative results were corroborated by qualitative data from open-ended survey questions and focus groups. HCAs described how they exercised with clients and how the psychosocial work environment changed with the program. Building physical activity into HCAs’ job is feasible and can effectively promote HCAs’ health, especially among older HCAs.

  10. Global Disease Detection-Achievements in Applied Public Health Research, Capacity Building, and Public Health Diplomacy, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Carol Y; Goryoka, Grace W; Henao, Olga L; Clarke, Kevin R; Salyer, Stephanie J; Montgomery, Joel M

    2017-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has established 10 Global Disease Detection (GDD) Program regional centers around the world that serve as centers of excellence for public health research on emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. The core activities of the GDD Program focus on applied public health research, surveillance, laboratory, public health informatics, and technical capacity building. During 2015-2016, program staff conducted 205 discrete projects on a range of topics, including acute respiratory illnesses, health systems strengthening, infectious diseases at the human-animal interface, and emerging infectious diseases. Projects incorporated multiple core activities, with technical capacity building being most prevalent. Collaborating with host countries to implement such projects promotes public health diplomacy. The GDD Program continues to work with countries to strengthen core capacities so that emerging diseases can be detected and stopped faster and closer to the source, thereby enhancing global health security.

  11. Building-related health problems: reflections on different symptom prevalence among pupils and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thörn, A

    1998-10-01

    The occurrence of non-specific symptoms among populations in modern buildings is common in the northern parts of the world, and is often called the Sick Building Syndrome. Many factors have been shown to be associated with the prevalence of such symptoms. Based on a case study of a primary school in subarctic Sweden, the complicated nature of building-related, non-specific symptoms is reviewed. Preventive and corrective actions in cases of sick buildings often fail. It is suggested that failures of such actions might depend on their predominant origin in biomedical models. The study therefore proposes that the combined and simultaneous use of biomedical and psychosocial models should be tried in the management of building-related health problems.

  12. Building International Genomics Collaboration for Global Health Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H Cui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome science and technologies are transforming life sciences globally in many ways, and becoming a highly desirable area for international collaboration to strengthen global health. The Genome Science Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is leveraging a long history of expertise in genomics research to assist multiple partner nations in advancing their genomics and bioinformatics capabilities. The capability development objectives focus on providing a molecular genomics-based scientific approach for pathogen detection, characterization, and biosurveillance applications. The general approaches include introduction of basic principles in genomics technologies, training on laboratory methodologies and bioinformatic analysis of resulting data, procurement and installation of next generation sequencing instruments, establishing bioinformatics software capabilities, and exploring collaborative applications of the genomics capabilities in public health. Genome centers have been established with public health and research institutions in the Republic of Georgia, Kingdom of Jordan, Uganda, and Gabon; broader collaborations in genomics applications have also been developed with research institutions in many other countries.

  13. How the Spectre of Societal Homogeneity Undermines Equitable Healthcare for Refugees; Comment on “Defining and Acting on Global Health: The Case of Japan and the Refugee Crisis”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Razum

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recourse to a purported ideal of societal homogeneity has become common in the context of the refugee reception crisis – not only in Japan, as Leppold et al report, but also throughout Europe. Calls for societal homogeneity in Europe originate from populist movements as well as from some governments. Often, they go along with reduced social support for refugees and asylum seekers, for example in healthcare provision. The fundamental right to health is then reduced to a citizens’ right, granted fully only to nationals. Germany, in spite of welcoming many refugees in 2015, is a case in point: entitlement and access to healthcare for asylum seekers are restricted during the first 15 months of their stay. We show that arguments brought forward to defend such restrictions do not hold, particularly not those which relate to maintaining societal homogeneity. European societies are not homogeneous, irrespective of migration. But as migration will continue, societies need to invest in what we call “globalization within.” Removing entitlement restrictions and access barriers to healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers is one important element thereof.

  14. A cost effective wireless structural health monitoring network for buildings in earthquake zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentaris, F. P.; Stonham, J.; Makris, J. P.

    2014-10-01

    The design, programming and implementation of a cost effective wireless structural health monitoring system (wSHMs) is presented, able to monitor the seismic and/or man-made acceleration in buildings. This system actually operates as a sensor network exploiting internet connections that commonly exist, aiming to monitor the structural health of the buildings being installed. Key-feature of wSHMs is that it can be implemented in Wide Area Network mode to cover many remote structures and buildings, on metropolitan scale. Acceleration data is able to send, in real time, from dozens of buildings of a broad metropolitan area, to a central database, where they are analyzed in order to depict possible structural damages or nonlinear characteristics and alert for non-appropriateness of specific structures.

  15. New ways of seeing: Health social work leadership and research capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Fiona; Bawden, Glenda

    2017-01-01

    Building research capacity amongst social work practitioners is critically important for leaders in the social work profession. To reverse an apparent reluctance to use evidence and engage in research, strong social work leadership in practice organisations is needed. The literature on leadership in health social work is relatively silent regarding research capacity building as a leadership attribute but it is argued in this paper that leadership is crucial. A programme of research capacity building and its outcomes in a health social work department is described, identifying key principles guiding its establishment and tasks undertaken. A transformational leadership style characterised this approach to research capacity building which delivered benefits to the staff and the service.

  16. Building an Enhanced Cadre of Community Health Workers to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project team will train community healthcare workers to improve how they assess and treat women and infants, and extend health care to rural areas. ... The program is a seven-year $36 million initiative funded by Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD), Canada's International Development Research ...

  17. Building policy leadership among HIV/AIDS health workers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Learn more: Read a journal article on the reliability of data collected by community health workers for policy and planning in Kenya. Read project summaries​ of the Teasdale-Corti Global Research Partnership Program (PDF, 275KB) ...

  18. Building maternal e-health in Vietnam | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-03-30

    Mar 30, 2015 ... Vietnam has made impressive strides in recent years in improving the health of mothers and children and in reducing deaths linked to pregnancy and childbirth. But in remote regions, maternal mortality rates are almost four times higher among ethnic minority groups. Census data shows that minority groups ...

  19. Building an Enhanced Cadre of Community Health Workers to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One woman dies in childbirth in Tanzania every hour. With such high rates of maternal and newborn mortality, this project will address the problem by giving community health workers greater skills to assess and treat women, while extending the healthcare system's reach to rural women and newborns. Rural obstacles to ...

  20. Building Capacity for Conducting HIV Prevention Trials in the Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Healthcare workers are a priority group for HIV prevention trials because they constitute a large relatively healthy group at risk from blood-borne diseases ... to participate in designing, implementing and evaluating programs aimed at reducing the transmission of HIV and other infectious diseases in health personnel.

  1. Towards a new procedure for identifying causes of health and comfort problems in office buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Fossati, S.; Mandin, C.; Cattaneo, A.; Carrer, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the European project OFFICAIR a procedure has been prepared for the inventory and identification of associations between possible characteristics of European modern offices (building, sources and events) and health and comfort of office workers, via a questionnaire and a checklist including environmental, physiological, psychological and social aspects. This procedure was applied in circa 160 office buildings in eight European countries (Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, France, Hungary, The...

  2. Building on research evidence to change health literacy policy and practice in England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowlands, Gillian; Berry, Jonathan; Protheroe, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    service, and industry perspectives. Suggested topics for action fell into four areas; improving health services, building health literacy skills in the population and workforce, recognizing the importance of public information developed outside the health arena, and funding for health literacy research......Background: Health literacy is important because of the high proportion of the population with skills below those needed to become and stay healthy, and the resultant negative impact on people’s lives. A recent study in England has shown that, as is true in other industrialized nations......, a significant proportion of people (43–61%) have literacy and numeracy skills below those needed to fully understand and use health materials. This paper describes a project designed to build on these findings with key stakeholders to develop an action plan to address a mismatch between population skills...

  3. Equitable Coloring of Graphs. Recent Theoretical Results and New Practical Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furmańczyk Hanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In many applications in sequencing and scheduling it is desirable to have an underlaying graph as equitably colored as possible. In this paper we survey recent theoretical results concerning conditions for equitable colorability of some graphs and recent theoretical results concerning the complexity of equitable coloring problem. Next, since the general coloring problem is strongly NP-hard, we report on practical experiments with some efficient polynomial-time algorithms for approximate equitable coloring of general graphs.

  4. Building inclusive health innovation systems: lessons from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrol, Dinesh; Sundararaman, T; Madhavan, Harilal; Joseph, K J

    2016-11-03

    This article presents an overview of the changes that are taking place within the public and private health innovation systems in India including delivery of medical care, pharmaceutical products, medical devices, and Indian traditional medicine. The nature of the flaws that exist in the health innovation system is pinpointed. The response by the government, the health, technology and medical institutions, and the evolving industry is addressed on a national level. The article also discusses how the alignment of policies and institutions was developed within the scope of national health innovation systems, and how the government and the industry are dealing with the challenges to integrate health system, industry, and social policy development processes. Resumo: O artigo apresenta um panorama das mudanças atualmente em curso dentro dos sistemas público e privado de inovação em saúde na Índia, incluindo a prestação de serviços médicos, produtos farmacêuticos, dispositivos médicos e medicina tradicional indiana. É destacada a natureza das falhas que existem nos sistemas de inovação em saúde. As respostas do governo, das instituições médicas, de saúde e tecnologia e indústrias envolvidas, são abordadas em nível nacional. O artigo também discute como foi desenvolvido o alinhamento de políticas e instituições no escopo dos sistemas nacionais de inovação em saúde, e como governo e indústria estão lidando com os desafios para integrar o sistema de saúde, a indústria e o desenvolvimento de políticas sociais.

  5. CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON URBAN LEVEL: CITIZEN HEALTH AND BUILDING ENERGY DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. José

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The future impacts of climate change on citizen health and building energy demand have been researched considering two possible IPCC global climate scenarios: RCP 4.5 (stabilization emission scenario and RCP 8.5 (little effort to reduce emissions. The climate scenarios have been dynamically downscaled from 1° to 50 meters of spatial resolution over three European cities: Madrid, Milan and London. Air quality has also been simulated up to streets levels. Climate and air pollution information are used as input to the health impact and building energy demand assessment tools. The impacts are calculated as future (2030, 2050 and 2100 minus present (2011. The short term health impact assessment includes mortality and morbidity related with changes in the temperature and air pollution concentrations. The larger increase of costs of mortality and morbidity was noted in the increasing scenario (RCP8.5 for year 2100, because RCP 8.5 is characterized by temperature increments. Maps of the spatial distribution of the costs of the climate change have showed Building energy demand simulations have been achieved with the EnergyPlus model using specific prototype buildings based on ASHRAE 90.1 Prototype Building Modeling Specifications and urban climate information by each building. .The results show an increase in cooling demand with RCP 8.5 because future will be cooler that the present.

  6. Reorienting health services in the Northern Territory of Australia: a conceptual model for building health promotion capacity in the workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Jenni; Keleher, Helen

    2013-06-01

    Reorienting work practices to include health promotion and prevention is complex and requires specific strategies and interventions. This paper presents original research that used 'real-world' practice to demonstrate that knowledge gathered from practice is relevant for the development of practice-based evidence. The paper shows how practitioners can inform and influence improvements in health promotion practice. Practitioner-informed evidence necessarily incorporates qualitative research to capture the richness of their reflective experiences. Using a participatory action research (PAR) approach, the research question asked 'what are the core dimensions of building health promotion capacity in a primary health care workforce in a real-world setting?' PAR is a method in which the researcher operates in full collaboration with members of the organisation being studied for the purposes of achieving some kind of change, in this case to increase the amount of health promotion and prevention practice within this community health setting. The PAR process involved six reflection and action cycles over two years. Data collection processes included: survey; in-depth interviews; a training intervention; observations of practice; workplace diaries; and two nominal groups. The listen/reflect/act process enabled lessons from practice to inform future capacity-building processes. This research strengthened and supported the development of health promotion to inform 'better health' practices through respectful change processes based on research, practitioner-informed evidence, and capacity-building strategies. A conceptual model for building health promotion capacity in the primary health care workforce was informed by the PAR processes and recognised the importance of the determinants approach. Practitioner-informed evidence is the missing link in the evidence debate and provides the links between evidence and its translation to practice. New models of health promotion service

  7. Ergonomics on the Build Colombian Health of Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Ernesto Luna García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health of workers in Colombia traverses multiple challenges and difficulties, starting from the national, political and economic context, crossroads living social security system and the trends in the world of work. Faced with this situation, the ergonomics as a field of knowledge and action has multiple possibilities of contribution, which depend on not to see this disciplined reduced to a technical dimension, but encourage their contribution within a framework of action located and contextualized. Although it has emphasized the action of ergonomics in its contribu-tion to the prevention of muscle-skeletal disorders, their contribution to the health of workers can be very important, in a setting of search of the labor and social welfare as a complement to the prevention of occupational risks.

  8. Building policy capacities: an interactive approach for linking knowledge to action in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Alfred; Gelius, Peter

    2014-09-01

    This article outlines a theoretical framework for an interactive, research-driven approach to building policy capacities in health promotion. First, it illustrates how two important issues in the recent public health debate, capacity building and linking scientific knowledge to policy action, are connected to each other theoretically. It then introduces an international study on an interactive approach to capacity building in health promotion policy. The approach combines the ADEPT model of policy capacities with a co-operative planning process to foster the exchange of knowledge between policy-makers and researchers, thus improving intra- and inter-organizational capacities. A regional-level physical activity promotion project involving governmental and public-law institutions, NGOs and university researchers serves as a case study to illustrate the potential of the approach for capacity building. Analysis and comparison with a similar local-level project indicate that the approach provides an effective means of linking scientific knowledge to policy action and to planning concrete measures for capacity building in health promotion, but that it requires sufficiently long timelines and adequate resources to achieve adequate implementation and sustainability. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Building Connections While Conducting Qualitative Health Fieldwork in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Boggiano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are increasingly embarking on international qualitative health research projects, where unknown social structures and government systems make inquiry uniquely challenging. In this article, we document our experiences conducting two related studies on HIV/AIDS in Northern Vietnam. We describe how our research relied on harnessing the social capital of vital community stakeholders, such as key informants, interpreters, and host organizations, to effectively engage with government bodies on a macro level and with local communities on a microlevel. By highlighting our processes, pitfalls, and successes, we provide current and future scholars with strategies to use when conducting cross-national field research.

  10. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can conceivably be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. The health effects that could potentially arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, as well as irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. The results of this search are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 is a summary of the results of the literature search; Volume 2 is the complete results of the literature search and contains all references to the material reviewed. 16 tabs.

  11. Organizational leadership for building effective health care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Stephen H; Foster, Mary K; Shortell, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    The movement toward accountable care organizations and patient-centered medical homes will increase with implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA will therefore give further impetus to the growing importance of teams in health care. Teams typically involve 2 or more people embedded in a larger social system who differentiate their roles, share common goals, interact with each other, and perform tasks affecting others. Multiple team types fit within this definition, and they all need support from leadership to succeed. Teams have been invoked as a necessary tool to address the needs of patients with multiple chronic conditions and to address medical workforce shortages. Invoking teams, however, is much easier than making them function effectively, so we need to consider the implications of the growing emphasis on teams. Although the ACA will spur team development, organizational leadership must use what we know now to train, support, and incentivize team function. Meanwhile, we must also advance research regarding teams in health care to give those leaders more evidence to guide their work.

  12. Are Ontario Teachers Paid More Equitably? Do Local Variables Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Li

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Ontario’s education funding reform of 1998 made teacher salaries more equitable. It also examined whether selected local variables had the same influence on teacher salaries in 2001-02 as they did in 1995-96 before the reform. Average teacher salaries before the reform in 1995-96 and after the reform in 2001-02 among school boards and among census divisions were compared to see whether the variation in teacher salaries increased or decreased. A partial correlation analysis was conducted to examine the influence on teacher salaries from local variables, which were derived from a literature review. This study finds that (a teachers are paid more equitably today than before the reform, and (b local variables no longer really matter, as a result of the changed provincial funding formula.

  13. Species richness, equitability, and abundance of ants in disturbed landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J.H.; Krzysik, A.J.; Kovacic, D.A.; Duda, J.J.; Freeman, D.C.; Emlen, J.M.; Zak, J.C.; Long, W.R.; Wallace, M.P.; Chamberlin-Graham, C.; Nutter, J.P.; Balbach, H.E.

    2009-01-01

    Ants are used as indicators of environmental change in disturbed landscapes, often without adequate understanding of their response to disturbance. Ant communities in the southeastern United States displayed a hump-backed species richness curve against an index of landscape disturbance. Forty sites at Fort Benning, in west-central Georgia, covered a spectrum of habitat disturbance (military training and fire) in upland forest. Sites disturbed by military training had fewer trees, less canopy cover, more bare ground, and warmer, more compact soils with shallower A-horizons. We sampled ground-dwelling ants with pitfall traps, and measured 15 habitat variables related to vegetation and soil. Ant species richness was greatest with a relative disturbance of 43%, but equitability was greatest with no disturbance. Ant abundance was greatest with a relative disturbance of 85%. High species richness at intermediate disturbance was associated with greater within-site spatial heterogeneity. Species richness was also associated with intermediate values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a correlate of net primary productivity (NPP). Available NPP (the product of NDVI and the fraction of days that soil temperature exceeded 25 ??C), however, was positively correlated with species richness, though not with ant abundance. Species richness was unrelated to soil texture, total ground cover, and fire frequency. Ant species richness and equitability are potential state indicators of the soil arthropod community. Moreover, equitability can be used to monitor ecosystem change. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Equitable mitigation to achieve the Paris Agreement goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robiou Du Pont, Yann; Jeffery, M. Louise; Gütschow, Johannes; Rogelj, Joeri; Christoff, Peter; Meinshausen, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarks to guide countries in ratcheting-up ambition, climate finance, and support in an equitable manner are critical but not yet determined in the context of the Paris Agreement. We identify global cost-optimal mitigation scenarios consistent with the Paris Agreement goals and allocate their emissions dynamically to countries according to five equity approaches. At the national level, China's Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) is weaker than any of the five equity approaches, India's NDC is aligned with two, and the EU's and the USA's with three. Most developing countries' conditional (Intended) NDCs (INDCs) are more ambitious than the average of the five equity approaches under the 2 °C goal. If the G8 and China adopt the average of the five approaches, the gap between conditional INDCs and 2 °C-consistent pathways could be closed. For an equitable, cost-optimal achievement of the 1.5 °C target, emissions in 2030 are 21% lower (relative to 2010) than for 2 °C for the G8 and China combined, and 39% lower for remaining countries. Equitably limiting warming to 1.5 °C rather than 2 °C requires that individual countries achieve mitigation milestones, such as peaking or reaching net-zero emissions, around a decade earlier.

  15. Building policy-making capacity in the Ministry of Health: the Kazakhstan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanturidze, Tata; Adams, Orvill; Tokezhanov, Bolat; Naylor, Mike; Richardson, Erica

    2015-01-20

    Recent economic growth in Kazakhstan has been accompanied by slower improvements in population health and this has renewed impetus for health system reform. Strengthening strategic planning and policy-making capacity in the Ministry of Health has been identified as an important priority, particularly as the Ministry of Health is leading the health system reform process. The intervention was informed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) framework for capacity building which views capacity building as an ongoing process embedded in local institutions and practices. In response to local needs extra elements were included in the framework to tailor the capacity building programme according to the existing policy and budget cycles and respective competence requirements, and link it with transparent career development structures of the Ministry of Health. This aspect of the programme was informed by the institutional capability assessment model used by the United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) which was adapted to examine the specific organizational and individual competences of the Ministry of Health in Kazakhstan. There were clear successes in building capacity for policy making and strategic planning within the Ministry of Health in Kazakhstan, including better planned, more timely and in-depth responses to policy assignments. Embedding career development as a part of this process was more challenging. This case study highlights the importance of strong political will and high level support for capacity building in ensuring the sustainability of programmes. It also shows that capacity-building programmes need to ensure full engagement with all local stakeholders, or where this is not possible, programmes need to be targeted narrowly to those stakeholders who will benefit most, for the greatest impact to be achieved. In sum, high quality tailor-made capacity development programmes should be based on thorough needs assessment of individual and

  16. Building public health capacity in Afghanistan to implement the International Health Regulations: a role for security forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrétien, Jean-Paul; Yingst, Samuel L; Thompson, Donald

    2010-09-01

    The government of Afghanistan, with international partners and donors, has achieved substantial public health improvements during the past 8 years. But a critical gap remains: capacities to detect and respond to disease outbreaks that could constitute a public health emergency of international concern, as required by the International Health Regulations (IHR). The Afghan Ministry of Public Health seeks to build these capacities, but conflict and scarcity of resources hinder public health surveillance and response, diagnostic laboratory and clinical management capacity is limited, and massive international population movements could permit outbreaks to cross international borders. Several diseases covered by the IHR, such as polio, are endemic in Afghanistan, and risk of novel disease emergence may be elevated in some areas. The security forces of the United States and other countries with military presence in Afghanistan are potential partners for the government of Afghanistan in strengthening the public health capacity. They could extend specialized disease surveillance and response capabilities to the Afghan military and civilian sectors and could integrate surveillance and response capacity building into ongoing development programs, especially in insecure areas. The World Health Organization could provide the forum for coordinating military and civilian contributions to public health capacity strengthening in Afghanistan and could help ensure that international health sector development efforts address Afghan public health priorities in addition to IHR requirements.

  17. Cuba-guatemala cooperation: building viable models for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, Conner

    2009-07-01

    The intertwined history of Cuba and Guatemala goes back almost five centuries. In 1536, Friar Bartolom� de las Casas sailed from Cuba to Guatemala with material for his book, A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies, seared upon his conscience. Documenting atrocities against Cuba's indigenous populations, the book persuaded Guatemala's colonial powers to rewrite abusive labor laws that were killing the Maya; the book also earned De las Casas the nickname 'apostle of the Indians.' Over 300 years later, the apostle of Cuban independence, Jos� Mart�, cut his journalistic teeth in Guatemala, while Cuban poet Jos� Joaqu�n Palma authored Guatemala's national anthem. More recently, in the 1950s, Dr Ernesto ('Che') Guevara's time in the country solidified his belief in the need for radical social change a few years before he would join Fidel Castro's Rebel Army. And in 1998, Guatemala, like Cuba so many times before and since, was struck by a fierce, fatal hurricane, opening in its wake a new chapter in the countries' shared history. Hurricane Mitch took over 30,000 lives in Central America and is widely considered the deadliest hurricane to hit the Western Hemisphere in 200 years. The storm made landfall in Guatemala on October 26, 1998 killing 268 people and displacing 106,000. Losses were estimated at US$750 million, with 6,000 homes completely destroyed and another 20,000 damaged. Seven health centers and 48 rural health stations serving 50,000 people were affected.[1] Within days, a team of 19 Cuban doctors landed in Puerto San Jos� in the southern department of Escuintla to provide medical assistance. Working alongside Spanish, US, and Guatemalan relief workers, the Cuban contingent set broken bones, treated some 900 cases of cholera[2] and 14,000 of malaria,[3] evacuated pregnant women, and delivered babies. Implementing vector control, safeguarding food supplies, and providing potable water were other measures taken by the Cuban volunteers, who

  18. A Platform to Build Mobile Health Apps: The Personal Health Intervention Toolkit (PHIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, Randall Peter; Kizakevich, Paul Nicholas; Bakalov, Vesselina; Zhang, Yuying; Bryant, Stephanie Patrice; Hobbs, Maria Ann

    2015-06-01

    Personal Health Intervention Toolkit (PHIT) is an advanced cross-platform software framework targeted at personal self-help research on mobile devices. Following the subjective and objective measurement, assessment, and plan methodology for health assessment and intervention recommendations, the PHIT platform lets researchers quickly build mobile health research Android and iOS apps. They can (1) create complex data-collection instruments using a simple extensible markup language (XML) schema; (2) use Bluetooth wireless sensors; (3) create targeted self-help interventions based on collected data via XML-coded logic; (4) facilitate cross-study reuse from the library of existing instruments and interventions such as stress, anxiety, sleep quality, and substance abuse; and (5) monitor longitudinal intervention studies via daily upload to a Web-based dashboard portal. For physiological data, Bluetooth sensors collect real-time data with on-device processing. For example, using the BinarHeartSensor, the PHIT platform processes the heart rate data into heart rate variability measures, and plots these data as time-series waveforms. Subjective data instruments are user data-entry screens, comprising a series of forms with validation and processing logic. The PHIT instrument library consists of over 70 reusable instruments for various domains including cognitive, environmental, psychiatric, psychosocial, and substance abuse. Many are standardized instruments, such as the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, Patient Health Questionnaire-8, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. Autonomous instruments such as battery and global positioning system location support continuous background data collection. All data are acquired using a schedule appropriate to the app's deployment. The PHIT intelligent virtual advisor (iVA) is an expert system logic layer, which analyzes the data in real time on the device. This data analysis results in a tailored app of interventions

  19. The importance of building trust and tailoring interactions when meeting older adults' health literacy needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Charlotte; Ballinger, Claire; Nutbeam, Don; Adams, Jo

    2017-11-01

    Health literacy is the ability to access, understand and use health information. This study qualitatively explored the views and experiences of older adults with varying health literacy levels who had attended a falls clinic on their overall experience of the falls clinic, access to the service and provider-patient interaction. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine older adults using a falls clinic in England. Health literacy was assessed using the REALM and NVS-UK. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and interrogated using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Two superordinate themes emerged from the analysis: The importance of trust and relationship building to achieve effective communication with older adults; and the importance of tailoring education and healthcare to older adults' individual health literacy needs and preferences. The findings corroborate previous research emphasising the importance of face-to-face communication in responding to older adults' individual health literacy needs. Building trust in the relationship and tailoring communication to older adults' individual attributes and preferred learning styles is essential. Healthcare practitioners and managers should consider how service organisation and communication methods can enhance positive and effective relationships with patients. Improved training could support healthcare providers in meeting patients' personal communication needs. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitation professionals should be aware of their patients' individual health literacy needs and communication/learning preferences. It is important to build relationships and trust with older adults attending rehabilitation services. Further training for rehabilitation professionals could support them in meeting patients' personal communication needs.

  20. Equitable sampling of participants in biomedical research and clinical experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klajn-Tatić Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several aspects of the requirement to provide for an equitable sampling of research participants. On the one hand, equitable sampling implies that the scientific research objectives shall be the cornerstone for determining the groups and individuals to be selected and included as research participants, rather than some other properties which are unrelated to research objectives (such as the subjects' vulnerability or privileges]. On the other hand, groups and individuals should not be denied the opportunity to participate in scientific research without a solid scientific justification. The concept of equitable sampling also implies that groups and individuals that have borne the risks and burden of research should enjoy some benefit from the research. The unjustified and excessive inclusion of certain groups as research participants is equally unfair and inequitable as their unjustified and excessive exclusion from research. In many cases, the excessive inclusion of some groups is often based on the administrative availability of population rather than on the scientific rationale, which is considered unacceptable. In the British and American law, the sampling of research participants has to be a reflection of the multi-cultural society, which implies taking into account the participants' ethnicity, gender, disability, age and sexual orientation in the process of planning, executing and implementing the research plan. However, literature shows that the exclusion of some groups from participation in the research is not the most important issue in sampling but whether it concurrently implies the exclusion from the benefits stemming from the research results, which would be unfair. In addressing these issues, the literature differentiates between equitable sampling in terms of benefits from a quantitative research and equitable sampling in terms of benefits from a qualitative research. Generally, sampling in the quantitative research is

  1. Capacity building in human resources for health: The experience of the region of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godue, Charles; Cameron, Rick; Borrell, Rosa Maria

    2016-12-27

    Since the year 2003, most countries of the Region of the Americas have experienced sustained economic growth and inclusive development policies. In the health sector, achieving universal access became the overarching goal. However, the structural limitations of the health workforce represented a formidable obstacle to change. National Health Authorities were confronted with the challenge of developing critical capacities to redress entrenched inequalities in access to qualified health personnel. Under the auspices of the Pan American Health Organization, the Ministers of Health of the Region adopted, in September 2007, twenty regional goals for Human Resources for Health 2007-2015, aligned with the renewed strategy of Primary Health Care. Subsequently, a set of indicators and a methodology were developed to assess the goals and to monitor progress at the country level. Fifteen countries carried out a baseline assessment in 2009 or 2010 and conducted a second assessment in 2013. Although differences were noted across goals and between countries, the results suggested improvements in all twenty goals overall. The goals linked to the distribution of personnel, the management of migration, and the cooperation with education institutions appeared to be more resilient to change. The twenty Regional Goals for Human Resources for Health provided a common vision for action and a framework for cooperation within and among countries, and was a catalyst for change. Faced with evolving challenges, the countries should consider adopting a new shared agenda that builds on progress made and further supports intergovernmental policy alignment and capacity building in health workforce development, governance and management.

  2. Sharing Research Data to Improve Public Health: A Funder Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David; Littler, Katherine

    2015-07-01

    Through the Public Health Research Data Forum, global health research funders are working together to increase the availability of public health and epidemiology research data in ways that are equitable, ethical, and efficient. The Wellcome Trust funded the research reported in this special edition as a first step toward building an evidence base on the perspectives of research stakeholders in low- and middle-income countries on the benefits and challenges of sharing health research data. We hope this work will make a key contribution to discussions aimed at creating policy frameworks for data access at local, national, and regional levels that are sensitive to different contexts and ensure the benefits to research and health are realized in an equitable manner. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Hazard identification checklist: Occupational safety and health issues associated with green building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Ustailieva, E.

    2013-01-01

    This checklist accompanies the e-fact on the same topic and aims to help identify the potential hazards to workers’ safety and health associated with the planning and construction of green buildings, their maintenance, renovation (retrofitting), demolition, and on-site waste collection. It also

  4. Introduction: Building Global Alliances V: The Challenges of Migration For Health Professional Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Barbara L

    2010-05-01

    The following four articles are based on presentations delivered at Building Global Alliances V: The Challenges of Migration for Health Professional Women, held in Philadelphia on December 7-8, 2008 and hosted by CGFNS International (formerly the Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools).

  5. Beyond Learning Management Systems: Designing for Interprofessional Knowledge Building in the Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, Leila; Scardamalia, Marlene; Watt-Watson, Judy; Hunter, Judith; Bereiter, Carl

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines theoretical, pedagogical, and technological differences between two technologies that have been used in undergraduate interprofessional health sciences at the University of Toronto. One, a learning management system, WebCT 2.0, supports online coursework. The other, a Knowledge Building environment, Knowledge Forum 2.0,…

  6. Towards a new procedure for identifying causes of health and comfort problems in office buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Fossati, S.; Mandin, C.; Cattaneo, A.; Carrer, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the European project OFFICAIR a procedure has been prepared for the inventory and identification of associations between possible characteristics of European modern offices (building, sources and events) and health and comfort of office workers, via a questionnaire and a checklist including

  7. Building trust: The influence of mentoring behaviors on perceptions of health care managers' trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig-Palmer, Michelle M; Rathert, Cheryl; Porter, Tracy H

    In health care organizations, trust is critical for effective workplace relationships that ensure patient-centered outcomes. Although research has focused on trust in the relationship between patients and clinicians, less is known about what influences workers to trust their managers. An understanding is needed of the specific behaviors that influence health care workers' evaluations of their managers' trustworthiness. Mentoring research focuses on the developmental assistance that a more experienced worker provides to a less experienced worker. Building upon seminal research on mentoring functions, we argue that health care managers can build trust by providing informational (career-related) and interpersonal (psychosocial) support. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of health care managers' informational and interpersonal mentoring behaviors on workers' perceptions of their managers' trustworthiness and the mediating role of trustworthiness on trust in the managers. Surveys were completed during work hours by 315 health care workers at an acute care hospital and associated clinics in the Midwest. Results showed that managers' mentoring behaviors influenced worker perceptions of their managers' trustworthiness, in terms of ability, integrity, and benevolence. Ability partially mediated the relationship between informational mentoring and trust in managers, whereas integrity and benevolence partially mediated the relationship between interpersonal mentoring and trust in managers. Health care managers can actively build trust through mentoring behaviors that inspire positive assessments of managers' ability, integrity, and benevolence.

  8. Building Nursing and Midwifery Capacity Through Rwanda's Human Resources for Health Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwizeye, Glorieuse; Mukamana, Donatilla; Relf, Michael; Rosa, William; Kim, Mi Ja; Uwimana, Philomene; Ewing, Helen; Munyiginya, Paul; Pyburn, Renee; Lubimbi, Nanyombi; Collins, Anita; Soulé, Isabelle; Burke, Kelly; Niyokindi, Josette; Moreland, Patricia

    2017-05-01

    Global disparities in the quantity, distribution, and skills of health workers worldwide pose a threat to attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030 and deepens already existing global health inequities. Rwanda and other low-resource countries face a critical shortage of health professionals, particularly nurses and midwives. This article describes the Human Resources for Health (HRH) Program in Rwanda, a collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Rwanda and a U.S. consortium of academic institutions. The ultimate goal of the HRH Program is to strengthen health service delivery and to achieve health equity for the poor. The aim of this article is to highlight the HRH nursing and midwifery contributions to capacity building in academic and clinical educational programs throughout Rwanda. International academic partnerships need to align with the priorities of the host country, integrate the strengths of available resources, and encourage a collaborative environment of cultural humility and self-awareness for all participants.

  9. Capacity building in and for health promoting schools: results from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugglberger, Lisa; Dür, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    Research has shown that schools have problems reaching the aim of becoming health promoting for many different reasons and that capacity building in and for schools is needed to develop necessary resources. We use the concept of capacity building as an analytical tool to answer the question of how the implementation of health promotion (HP) in schools can be supported. As part of a wider qualitative study concerning capacity building in the Austrian school system 11 school heads were interviewed about their needs regarding the success of HP in schools. The interviews were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Schools can build several capacities themselves and are well informed about the requirements for implementing HP. The most important resource is institutionalisation of HP, which is not easy to reach. Concerning their environment, schools display a need for financial and human resources for HP, as well as knowledge management and quality control of HP service providers. Schools need support from their environment not only in building resources but also in taking the important step of institutionalising HP into their core and management processes. A concept of implementation, drawing attention to necessary but unforeseen capacities and resources, is needed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The UK, health and peace-building: the mysterious disappearance of Health as a Bridge for Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon; McInnes, Colin

    2006-01-01

    The problem of how to build peace in post-conflict societies continues to loom large for governments and development agencies worldwide. This article examines the involvement of the UK development community in the creation of the World Health Organization's 'Health as a Bridge for Peace' (HBP) programme. It argues that the new development policy context brought in by the United Kingdom Labour administration in 1997 appeared to provide fertile ground for health-sector initiatives such as these to become an important part of the UK's peace-building strategy, but that HBP in fact failed to take root. The role of individuals, the changing departmental focus of the Department for International Development (DFID), its relationship with WHO, and the absence of persuasive evidence for the efficacy of HBP are highlighted as being crucial in explaining the policy's mysterious disappearance.

  11. Using peer review to distribute group work marks equitably between medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alex R; Hartman, Mikael; Luo, Nan; Sng, Judy; Fong, Ngan Phoon; Lim, Wei Yen; Chen, Mark I-Cheng; Wong, Mee Lian; Rajaraman, Natarajan; Lee, Jeannette Jen-Mai; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat

    2017-09-20

    Although peer assessment has been used for evaluating performance of medical students and practicing doctors, it has not been studied as a method to distribute a common group work mark equitably to medical students working in large groups where tutors cannot observe all students constantly. The authors developed and evaluated a mathematical formulation whereby a common group mark could be distributed among group members using peer assessment of individual contributions to group work, maintaining inter-group variation in group work scores. This was motivated by community health projects undertaken by large groups of year four medical students at the National University of Singapore, and the new and old formulations are presented via application to 263 students in seven groups of 36 to 40 during the academic year 2012/2013. This novel formulation produced a less clustered mark distribution that rewarded students who contributed more to their team. Although collusion among some members to form a voting alliance and 'personal vendettas' were potential problems, the former was not detected and the latter had little impact on the overall grade a student received when working in a large group. The majority of students thought the new formulation was fairer. The new formulation is easy to implement and arguably awards grades more equitably in modules where group work is a major component.

  12. Gene expression of indoor fungal communities under damp building conditions: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Bridget; Dannemiller, Karen; Peccia, Jordan

    2018-03-03

    Dampness and visible mold growth in homes is associated with negative human health outcomes but causal relationships between fungal exposure and health are not well established. The purpose of this study was to determine if dampness in buildings impacts fungal community gene expression and how, in turn, gene expression may modulate human health impacts. A metatranscriptomic study was performed on house dust fungal communities to investigate the expression of genes and metabolic processes in chamber experiments at water activity levels of 0.5, 0.85 and 1.0. Fungi at water activities as low as 0.5 were metabolically active, focusing their transcriptional resources on primary processes essential for cell maintenance. Metabolic complexity increased with water activity where communities at 1.0 displayed more diverse secondary metabolic processes. Greater gene expression at increasing water activity has important implications for human health: fungal communities at 1.0 a w up-regulated a greater number of allergen, mycotoxin, and pathogenicity encoding genes versus communities at 0.85 and 0.5 a w . In damp buildings, fungi may display increases in secondary metabolic processes with the potential for greater per cell production of allergens, toxins, and pathogenicity. Assessments in wet versus dry buildings that do not account for this elevated health impact may not accurately reflect exposure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. The political undertones of building national health research systems – reflections from The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch Paul

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In developing countries building national health research systems is a movement similar to a political leadership contest. Increasingly, political campaigns to select leaders depend less on ideologies and political messages and more on promising change that will promptly improve the quality of life of the voters. In this process the benefits and risks of every action and statement made by the candidates are carefully assessed. Approaches currently promoted to strengthen health research within ministries of health in developing countries place emphasis on implementing logical steps towards building national health research systems including developing a national health research policy and strategic plan, conducting a situational analysis of research in the country, setting a national health research agenda, establishing research ethics and scientific committees, and building human and institutional capacity for health research management and conduct. Although these processes have successfully improved the standards of health research in some settings, many developing countries struggle to get the process going. One reason is that this approach does not deal with basic questions posed within a ministry of health, namely, "What is the political benefit of the ministry assuming control of the process?" and "What are the political implications for the ministry if another institution spearheads the process?" Seen from the perspective of non-governmental organizations, academic institutions and donors trying to support the processes of strengthening national health research systems, one of the foremost activities that needs to be undertaken is to analyze the political context of national health research and, on that basis, plan and implement appropriate political health research advocacy initiatives. This includes the development of explicit messages on the political benefits to the leadership in the ministry of health of their role in the

  14. Using Green Building As A Model For Making Health Promotion Standard In The Built Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Matthew J; Worden, Kelly; Pyke, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The built environment-the constructed physical parts of the places where people live and work-is a powerful determinant of both individual and population health. Awareness of the link between place and health is growing within the public health sector and among built environment decision makers working in design, construction, policy, and both public and private finance. However, these decision makers lack the knowledge, tools, and capacity to ensure that health and well-being are routinely considered across all sectors of the built environment. The green building industry has successfully established environmental sustainability as a normative part of built environment practice, policy making, and investment. We explore the value of this industry's experience as a template for promoting health and well-being in the built environment. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Building-related health impacts in European and Chinese cities: a scalable assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Jouni T; Niittynen, Marjo; Pärjälä, Erkki; Asikainen, Arja; Perez, Laura; Trüeb, Stephan; Jantunen, Matti; Künzli, Nino; Sabel, Clive E

    2015-12-14

    Public health is often affected by societal decisions that are not primarily about health. Climate change mitigation requires intensive actions to minimise greenhouse gas emissions in the future. Many of these actions take place in cities due to their traffic, buildings, and energy consumption. Active climate mitigation policies will also, aside of their long term global impacts, have short term local impacts, both positive and negative, on public health. Our main objective was to develop a generic open impact model to estimate health impacts of emissions due to heat and power consumption of buildings. In addition, the model should be usable for policy comparisons by non-health experts on city level with city-specific data, it should give guidance on the particular climate mitigation questions but at the same time increase understanding on the related health impacts and the model should follow the building stock in time, make comparisons between scenarios, propagate uncertainties, and scale to different levels of detail. We tested The functionalities of the model in two case cities, namely Kuopio and Basel. We estimated the health and climate impacts of two actual policies planned or implemented in the cities. The assessed policies were replacement of peat with wood chips in co-generation of district heat and power, and improved energy efficiency of buildings achieved by renovations. Health impacts were not large in the two cities, but also clear differences in implementation and predictability between the two tested policies were seen. Renovation policies can improve the energy efficiency of buildings and reduce greenhouse gas emissions significantly, but this requires systematic policy sustained for decades. In contrast, fuel changes in large district heating facilities may have rapid and large impacts on emissions. However, the life cycle impacts of different fuels is somewhat an open question. In conclusion, we were able to develop a practical model for city

  16. Energy savings, emission reductions, and health co-benefits of the green building movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P, MacNaughton; X, Cao; J, Buonocore; J, Cedeno-Laurent; J, Spengler; A, Bernstein; J, Allen

    2018-01-30

    Buildings consume nearly 40% of primary energy production globally. Certified green buildings substantially reduce energy consumption on a per square foot basis and they also focus on indoor environmental quality. However, the co-benefits to health through reductions in energy and concomitant reductions in air pollution have not been examined.We calculated year by year LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification rates in six countries (the United States, China, India, Brazil, Germany, and Turkey) and then used data from the Green Building Information Gateway (GBIG) to estimate energy savings in each country each year. Of the green building rating schemes, LEED accounts for 32% of green-certified floor space and publically reports energy efficiency data. We employed Harvard's Co-BE Calculator to determine pollutant emissions reductions by country accounting for transient energy mixes and baseline energy use intensities. Co-BE applies the social cost of carbon and the social cost of atmospheric release to translate these reductions into health benefits. Based on modeled energy use, LEED-certified buildings saved $7.5B in energy costs and averted 33MT of CO 2 , 51 kt of SO 2 , 38 kt of NO x , and 10 kt of PM 2.5 from entering the atmosphere, which amounts to $5.8B (lower limit = $2.3B, upper limit = $9.1B) in climate and health co-benefits from 2000 to 2016 in the six countries investigated. The U.S. health benefits derive from avoiding an estimated 172-405 premature deaths, 171 hospital admissions, 11,000 asthma exacerbations, 54,000 respiratory symptoms, 21,000 lost days of work, and 16,000 lost days of school. Because the climate and health benefits are nearly equivalent to the energy savings for green buildings in the United States, and up to 10 times higher in developing countries, they provide an important and previously unquantified societal value. Future analyses should consider these co-benefits when weighing policy

  17. Building better connections: the National Library of Medicine and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Betsy L

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the expansion of the public health programs and services of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) in the 1990s and provides the context in which NLM's public health outreach programs arose and exist today. Although NLM has always had collections and services relevant to public health, the US public health workforce made relatively little use of the library's information services and programs in the twentieth century. In the 1990s, intensified emphases on outreach to health professionals, building national information infrastructure, and promoting health data standards provided NLM with new opportunities to reach the public health community. A seminal conference cosponsored by NLM in 1995 produced an agenda for improving public health access to and use of advanced information technology and electronic information services. NLM actively pursued this agenda by developing new services and outreach programs and promoting public health informatics initiatives. Historical analysis is presented. NLM took advantage of a propitious environment to increase visibility and understanding of public health information challenges and opportunities. The library helped create partnerships that produced new information services, outreach initiatives, informatics innovations, and health data policies that benefit the public health workforce and the diverse populations it serves.

  18. Building a regional health equity movement: the grantmaking model of a local health department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Nashira; Patterson, Meghan; Boen, Courtney; Gowler, Rebekah; Norman, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The Boston Public Health Commission's Center for Health Equity and Social Justice provides grant funding, training, and technical assistance to 15 organizations and coalitions across New England to develop, implement, and evaluate community-based policy and systems change strategies that address social determinants of health and reduce racial and ethnic health inequities. This article describes Boston Public Health Commission's health equity framework, theory of change regarding the elimination of racial and ethnic health inequities, and current grantmaking model. To conclude, the authors evaluate the grant model and offer lessons learned from providing multiyear regional grants to promote health equity.

  19. Equitable benefit-sharing or self-interest?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiderska, Krystyna

    2010-09-15

    A legally binding protocol on access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing is to be adopted by the 193 governments that are party to the Convention on Biological Diversity in October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan. The protocol aims to ensure that the benefits derived from the use of genetic resources are shared fairly and equitably with biodiversity-rich but financially poor countries. This could help reverse the rapid loss of biodiversity and genetic resources. But unless governments make some major progress in their final negotiating session, the protocol will make little difference.

  20. Building Interdisciplinary Research Capacity: a Key Challenge for Ecological Approaches in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay P. Galway

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The shortcomings of public health research informed by reductionist and fragmented biomedical approaches and the emergence of wicked problems are fueling a renewed interest in ecological approaches in public health. Despite the central role of interdisciplinarity in the context of ecological approaches in public health research, inadequate attention has been given to the specific challenge of doing interdisciplinary research in practice. As a result, important knowledge gaps exist with regards to the practice of interdisciplinary research. We argue that explicit attention towards the challenge of doing interdisciplinary research is critical in order to effectively apply ecological approaches to public health issues. This paper draws on our experiences developing and conducting an interdisciplinary research project exploring the links among climate change, water, and health to highlight five specific insights which we see as relevant to building capacity for interdisciplinary research specifically, and which have particular relevance to addressing the integrative challenges demanded by ecological approaches to address public health issues. These lessons include: (i the need for frameworks that facilitate integration; (ii emphasize learning-by-doing; (iii the benefits of examining issues at multiple scales; (iv make the implicit, explicit; and (v the need for reflective practice. By synthesizing and sharing experiences gained by engaging in interdisciplinary inquiries using an ecological approach, this paper responds to a growing need to build interdisciplinary research capacity as a means for advancing the ecological public health agenda more broadly.

  1. Building a competent health manager at district level: a grounded theory study from Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetui, Moses; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Ekirpa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; Coe, Anna-Britt

    2016-11-21

    Health systems in low-income countries are often characterized by poor health outcomes. While many reasons have been advanced to explain the persistently poor outcomes, management of the system has been found to play a key role. According to a WHO framework, the management of health systems is central to its ability to deliver needed health services. In this study, we examined how district managers in a rural setting in Uganda perceived existing approaches to strengthening management so as to provide a pragmatic and synergistic model for improving management capacity building. Twenty-two interviews were conducted with district level administrative and political managers, district level health managers and health facility managers to understand their perceptions and definitions of management and capacity building. Kathy Charmaz's constructive approach to grounded theory informed the data analysis process. An interative, dynamic and complex model with three sub-process of building a competent health manager was developed. A competent manager was understood as one who knew his/her roles, was well informed and was empowered to execute management functions. Professionalizing health managers which was viewed as the foundation, the use of engaging learning approaches as the inside contents and having a supportive work environment the frame of the model were the sub-processes involved in the model. The sub-processes were interconnected although the respondents agreed that having a supportive work environment was more time and effort intensive relative to the other two sub-processes. The model developed in our study makes four central contributions to enhance the WHO framework and the existing literature. First, it emphasizes management capacity building as an iterative, dynamic and complex process rather than a set of characteristics of competent managers. Second, our model suggests the need for professionalization of health managers at different levels of the health

  2. Promoting Healthy Workplaces by Building Cultures of Health and Applying Strategic Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Karen; Goetzel, Ron Z; Roemer, Enid C; Prasad, Aishwarya; Freundlich, Naomi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to identify key success elements of employer-sponsored health promotion (wellness) programs. We conducted an updated literature review, held discussions with subject matter experts, and visited nine companies with exemplary programs to examine current best and promising practices in workplace health promotion programs. Best practices include establishing a culture of health and using strategic communications. Key elements that contribute to a culture of health are leadership commitment, social and physical environmental support, and employee involvement. Strategic communications are designed to educate, motivate, market offerings, and build trust. They are tailored and targeted, multichanneled, bidirectional, with optimum timing, frequency, and placement. Increased efforts are needed to disseminate lessons learned from employers who have built cultures of health and excellent communications strategies and apply these insights more broadly in workplace settings.

  3. The political undertones of building national health research systems - reflections from the Gambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Ayo; Anya, Samuel E.; Bloch, Paul

    2009-01-01

    capacity for health research management and conduct. Although these processes have successfully improved the standards of health research in some settings, many developing countries struggle to get the process going. One reason is that this approach does not deal with basic questions posed within...... initiatives. This includes the development of explicit messages on the political benefits to the leadership in the ministry of health of their role in the conduct, management and dissemination of health research within the country. Civil society organizations, with links to both government and non......In developing countries building national health research systems is a movement similar to a political leadership contest. Increasingly, political campaigns to select leaders depend less on ideologies and political messages and more on promising change that will promptly improve the quality of life...

  4. Using the World Health Organization health system building blocks through survey of healthcare professionals to determine the performance of public healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyazewal, Tsegahun

    2017-01-01

    Acknowledging the health system strengthening agenda, the World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated a health systems framework that describes health systems in terms of six building blocks. This study aimed to determine the current status of the six WHO health system building blocks in public healthcare facilities in Ethiopia. A quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted in five public hospitals in central Ethiopia which were in a post-reform period. A self-administered, structured questionnaire which covered the WHO's six health system building blocks was used to collect data on healthcare professionals who consented. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. The overall performance of the public hospitals was 60% when weighed against the WHO building blocks which, in this procedure, needed a minimum of 80% score. For each building block, performance scores were: information 53%, health workforce 55%, medical products and technologies 58%, leadership and governance 61%, healthcare financing 62%, and service delivery 69%. There existed a significant difference in performance among the hospitals (p building blocks are useful for assessing the process of strengthening health systems in Ethiopia. The six blocks allow identifying different improvement opportunities in each one of the hospitals. There was no contradiction between the indicators of the WHO building blocks and the health sustainable development goal (SDG) objectives. However, such SDG objectives should not be a substitute for strategies to strengthen health systems.

  5. Reaching consensus: a review on sexual health training modules for professional capacity building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Karimian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional capacity building (PCB is the focus point in health-related subjects.The present study was conducted to systematically review the existing sexual health training modules for health care providers.Methods: The following keywords were used to search: training, education, professional capacity, practitioner, sexual health, skill education, module, course, package and curriculum.The term MESH is referred to Medical Subject Headings and the following databases were investigated: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, The Cochrane Library and Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID,Magiran, and Iranmedex. All articles from 1980 to 2015 were extracted. Online modules were excluded. Considering that lesson plan was the basis of instruction, the modules were selected based on the characteristics of the lesson plans.Results: A total number of 38 published training modules in the field of sexuality we redetermined. In total, more than half of the modules (58% were designed for medical doctor sand allied health professionals and the remaining (42% were for nurses and midwives. Almost all the modules (97% were introduced and utilized in developed countries, and only 3% were disseminated in developing countries.Conclusion: There are invaluable modules to build professional capacity in the field of sexual health. As a number of modules have been designed for nurses and midwifes, as the first-line health care providers, the use of these groups in sexual counseling and empowerment for sexual health is essential. No sexual health training program was designed in Iran. Therefore, designing such modules according to Iranian culture is strongly recommended.

  6. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Jeff; Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-08-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall.

  7. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-01-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  8. Health and safety consequences of medical isotope processing at the Hanford Site 325 building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, D. L.

    1997-11-19

    Potential activities associated with medical isotope processing at the Hanford Site 325 Building laboratory and hot cell facilities are evaluated to assess the health and safety consequences if these activities are to be implemented as part of a combined tritium and medical isotope production mission for the Fast Flux Text Facility (FFTF). The types of activities included in this analysis are unloading irradiated isotope production assemblies at the 325 Building, recovery and dissolution of the target materials, separation of the product isotopes as required, and preparation of the isotopes for shipment to commercial distributors who supply isotopes to the medical conunuriity. Possible consequences to members of the public and to workers from both radiological and non-radiological hazards are considered in this evaluation. Section 2 of this docinnent describes the assumptions and methods used for the health and safety consequences analysis, section 3 presents the results of the analysis, and section 4 summarizes the results and conclusions from the analysis.

  9. The modern forms of organization of recreational health-building work with a population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondar A.S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The modern forms of organization are studied recreational health-building employments. Organization of employments in the clubs of fitness, visit of complex sporting buildings is presented. The analysis of publications in which authors examine the features of development of industry of fitness in market conditions is resulted. A questionnaire in which 1500 habitants of city took part in age 18-75 years is conducted. It is set that among polled most popular are clubs of fitness of middle level, where the cost of subscription is made by 20-50 dollars of the USA on a month. It is set that clubs of fitness visit mainly people of middle ages with the purpose of the complex making healthy, maintainance of beautiful physical form and attractive exterior. It is marked that to date clubs of fitness must be oriented mainly on health direction and to satisfy the psychological and social necessities of clients.

  10. Healthy Buildings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Deborah

    Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas,…

  11. Growing partners: building a community-academic partnership to address health disparities in rural North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Molly; Kearney, William; Smith, Tosha; Jones, Carson; Kearney-Powell, Arconstar; Ammerman, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) holds tremendous promise for addressing public health disparities. As such, there is a need for academic institutions to build lasting partnerships with community organizations. Herein we have described the process of establishing a relationship between a research university and a Black church in rural North Carolina. We then discuss Harvest of Hope, the church-based pilot garden project that emerged from that partnership. The partnership began with a third-party effort to connect research universities with Black churches to address health disparities. Building this academic-community partnership included collaborating to determine research questions and programming priorities. Other aspects of the partnership included applying for funding together and building consensus on study budget and aims. The academic partners were responsible for administrative details and the community partners led programming and were largely responsible for participant recruitment. The community and academic partners collaborated to design and implement Harvest of Hope, a church-based pilot garden project involving 44 youth and adults. Community and academic partners shared responsibility for study design, recruitment, programming, and reporting of results. The successful operation of the Harvest of Hope project gave rise to a larger National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study, Faith, Farming and the Future (F3) involving 4 churches and 60 youth. Both projects were CBPR efforts to improve healthy food access and reducing chronic disease. This partnership continues to expand as we develop additional CBPR projects targeting physical activity, healthy eating, and environmental justice, among others. Benefits of the partnership include increased community ownership and cultural appropriateness of interventions. Challenges include managing expectations of diverse parties and adequate communication. Lessons learned and strategies for building

  12. Does Integrating Family Planning into HIV Services Improve Gender Equitable Attitudes? Results from a Cluster Randomized Trial in Nyanza, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmann, Sara J; Rocca, Corinne H; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Grossman, Daniel; Cohen, Craig R

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated whether integrating family planning (FP) services into HIV care was associated with gender equitable attitudes among HIV-positive adults in western Kenya. Surveys were conducted with 480 women and 480 men obtaining HIV services from 18 clinics 1 year after the sites were randomized to integrated FP/HIV services (N = 12) or standard referral for FP (N = 6). We used multivariable regression, with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering, to assess whether gender attitudes (range 0-12) were associated with integrated care and with contraceptive use. Men at intervention sites had stronger gender equitable attitudes than those at control sites (adjusted mean difference in scores = 0.89, 95 % CI 0.03-1.74). Among women, attitudes did not differ by study arm. Gender equitable attitudes were not associated with contraceptive use among men (AOR = 1.06, 95 % CI 0.93-1.21) or women (AOR = 1.03, 95 % CI 0.94-1.13). Further work is needed to understand how integrating FP into HIV care affects gender relations, and how improved gender equity among men might be leveraged to improve contraceptive use and other reproductive health outcomes.

  13. Claim Your Space: Leadership Development as a Research Capacity Building Goal in Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Williams, Natasha; Zizi, Freddy; Okuyemi, Kolawole

    2016-04-01

    As the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) rises in settings with an equally high burden of infectious diseases in the Global South, a new sense of urgency has developed around research capacity building to promote more effective and sustainable public health and health care systems. In 2010, NCDs accounted for more than 2.06 million deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Available evidence suggests that the number of people in sub-Saharan Africa with hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, will increase by 68% from 75 million in 2008 to 126 million in 2025. Furthermore, about 27.5 million people currently live with diabetes in Africa, and it is estimated that 49.7 million people living with diabetes will reside in Africa by 2030. It is therefore necessary to centralize leadership as a key aspect of research capacity building and strengthening in the Global South in ways that enables researchers to claim their spaces in their own locations. We believe that building capacity for transformative leadership in research will lead to the development of effective and appropriate responses to the multiple burdens of NCDs that coexist with infectious diseases in Africa and the rest of the Global South. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  14. Building a socially accountable health professions school: towards unity for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelen, Charles

    2004-07-01

    In many countries, health systems suffer from fragmentation as different health activities conducted by different stakeholders are poorly coordinated, resulting in a mitigated performance to improve quality, equity, relevance and cost-effectiveness in health care. The impact on health would be enhanced if main stakeholders such as health professional schools, service organizations, professional associations, health policy bodies and the general public shared a common vision on how to best meet people's priority health needs. An approach initiated by WHO in 1999 and developed by The Network: Towards Unity for Health endeavours to create a unity of purpose and action among these stakeholders. This article comments on challenges and opportunities in implementing this approach whose pillars are integration and partnerships. The conditions for each stakeholder to become more socially accountable and the role of a teacher, researcher, manager or community representative in contributing to this process are discussed.

  15. The value of building health promotion capacities within communities: evidence from a maternal health intervention in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, Ellen; Fiorentino, Renée; Barry, Mamadou Saidou; Diallo, Moustapha

    2015-09-01

    This article presents results from a study that explored the association between community capacity for maternal health promotion and women's use of preventive and curative maternal health services. Implemented in the Republic of Guinea, the intervention aimed to build the capacity of community-level committees to heighten awareness about maternal health risks and to promote use of professional maternal health services throughout pregnancy and childbirth. Data were collected through a population-based survey. A total of 2335 women of reproductive age were interviewed, including 878 with a live birth or stillbirth since the launch of the intervention. An index of community capacity was created to explore the effect of living in a community with strong community-level resources and support for maternal health. Other composite variables were created to measure the content of women's antenatal counselling and their individual exposure to maternal health promotion activities at the community level. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the effect of community capacity and individual exposure variables on women's use of antenatal care (ANC) (≥4 visits), institutional delivery, and care for complications. Our results show that women living in communities with a high score on the Community Capacity Index were more than twice as likely as women in communities with low score to attend at least four ANC visits, to deliver in a health facility, and to seek care for perceived complications. Building the capacity of community-level cadres to promote maternity care-seeking by women in their villages is an important complement to facility-level interventions to increase the availability, quality and utilization of essential health services. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  16. Structural control and health monitoring of building structures with unknown ground excitations: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Xu, You-Lin; Zhan, Sheng; Huang, Qin

    2017-03-01

    When health monitoring system and vibration control system both are required for a building structure, it will be beneficial and cost-effective to integrate these two systems together for creating a smart building structure. Recently, on the basis of extended Kalman filter (EKF), a time-domain integrated approach was proposed for the identification of structural parameters of the controlled buildings with unknown ground excitations. The identified physical parameters and structural state vectors were then utilized to determine the control force for vibration suppression. In this paper, the possibility of establishing such a smart building structure with the function of simultaneous damage detection and vibration suppression was explored experimentally. A five-story shear building structure equipped with three magneto-rheological (MR) dampers was built. Four additional columns were added to the building model, and several damage scenarios were then simulated by symmetrically cutting off these columns in certain stories. Two sets of earthquakes, i.e. Kobe earthquake and Northridge earthquake, were considered as seismic input and assumed to be unknown during the tests. The structural parameters and the unknown ground excitations were identified during the tests by using the proposed identification method with the measured control forces. Based on the identified structural parameters and system states, a switching control law was employed to adjust the current applied to the MR dampers for the purpose of vibration attenuation. The experimental results show that the presented approach is capable of satisfactorily identifying structural damages and unknown excitations on one hand and significantly mitigating the structural vibration on the other hand.

  17. Are we ready to build health systems that consider the climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Susannah; Van Belle, Sara; Hammer, Michael

    2014-04-01

    At last, climate change does appear to have entered mainstream consciousness. In the scientific community, the climate change debate has shifted from focusing on establishing the truth of the claim that climate change is a reality to warming public opinion to the cause and acknowledging that climate change will have far-reaching effects on how we build, organize and manage climate-responsive social systems including health care systems. There is particular urgency to the debate for health services and systems in low income countries where some of the worst effects of climate change will be felt and where health systems are already over-stretched due to long-term lack of investment, a double burden of disease (preventive and non-communicable), a crisis in human resources and governance deficiencies. Despite the urgency, the health care systems development community appears insular in its interests and actions, and a clear leader that could coordinate the activities of different researchers, research bodies, policy makers and international organizations across relevant sectors including disaster management, climate and health care systems, has yet to emerge. This essay considers the political landscape, possible leaders and why it is necessary for health systems' professionals to move beyond the health sector in order to secure support for health and health care systems development in a post-Millennium Development Goals development framework that is defined by climate change.

  18. Building a Pediatric Oral Health Training Curriculum for Community Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Molly; Frese, William; Lumsden, Christie; Sandoval, Anna

    2017-06-16

    Community health workers (CHWs) are a promising approach to oral health promotion in high-risk populations. This article describes the process of creating a pediatric oral health CHW training curriculum. Existing curricula were identified through outreach efforts to experts in the oral health and CHW fields, as well as PubMed and Google searches. After coding basic information, curricula were mapped to define oral health domains. Then group discussion was employed to determine final curriculum contents. United States. Curricula were included if they addressed oral health, were in English or Spanish, involved US populations, did not target dental clinicians, and whether sufficient data could be obtained. Curricula were evaluated for delivery format, number of hours, target audience, inclusion of CHWs, completeness, and oral health content. Eighteen unique curricula were identified; 14 (78%) were CHW specific. Pathologic factors, caries formation, toothbrushing basics, flossing, nutrition, sugar-sweetened beverages, oral health recommendations, baby bottle tooth decay, fluoride treatments, and fluoride were covered to some extent in 75% of curricula. More than half did not mention types of teeth, oral health during pregnancy, antifluoride, cultural humility, and special needs populations. After comparing CHW curricula with non-CHW curricula, the original 26 oral health domains were condensed into 10 CHW training domains. Using existing evidence and expert insight, an oral health CHW training curriculum outline was created that emphasizes behaviors, social support, and navigation assistance to promote preventive oral health behaviors in families of young children. This has implications beyond oral health. CHW programs are expanding to address the social determinants of health. The process of creating this curriculum and its basic elements can be applied to other disease areas. Clearly defined trainings that are made publicly available, such as this one, support

  19. Building company health promotion capacity: a unique collaboration between Cargill and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jason E; Hersey, James C; Isenberg, Karen L; Lynch, Christina M; Majestic, Elizabeth

    2009-04-01

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) helps protect the health and safety of all people. The workplace can be used to reach millions of workers and their families with programs, policies, and benefits that promote health. We describe a CDC-led project to build Cargill's workplace health promotion capacity and identify the importance of a company liaison in the public-private relationship. The project goals were to engage diverse Cargill personnel, conduct a workplace health assessment, aid in the development of a workplace health program action plan, and develop Cargill's internal capacity using knowledge and skill-building. CDC partnered with Cargill on a workplace health promotion project to build Cargill's capacity. A multicomponent assessment was conducted to determine priority employee health issues, stakeholder meetings were held to engage and educate Cargill management and employees, and technical assistance was provided regularly between CDC and Cargill. Identifying a company liaison to work with an external assessment team is critical to building capacity for a successful workplace health project. This relationship creates an understanding of company culture and operations, facilitates access to key stakeholders and data, and provides opportunities to enhance capacity and sustainability. Employers undertaking workplace health promotion projects should identify a senior-level person to serve as the company health leader or liaison and who can devote the time necessary to build trusting relationships with partners to ensure project success. This person is valuable in facilitating communications, data collection, logistical support, troubleshooting, and influencing employer workplace health practices.

  20. Continuing Education Effects on Cultural Competence Knowledge and Skills Building among Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla B. Hall

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Racial and ethnic minority health data from a national perspective indicates there is much to learn in the public health workforce about the ongoing health disparities crisis. This suggests a level of urgency to assist our public health professionals in obtaining specific skills sets that will assist them in working better with vulnerable populations. The purpose of this research is to assess cultural competence knowledge and programmatic skill sets, utilizing an explorational case study, of individuals employed within an urban public health department. In order to effectively evaluate these constructs, a quantitative research approach was employed to examine participants’ knowledge and competencies of the subject matter. This data was further analyzed to determine if continuing education participation and training was correlated to the levels of culturally competent practice engagement and self-reported confidence. In addition, researchers obtained data on the availability of employer sponsored training opportunities. The data suggested when health professionals engage in cultural competence education, their level of awareness of unique characteristics between ethnic and racial minorities increased. Those who exhibited the healthiest behaviors, as it relates to effectively working with diverse populations, had a heightened sense of knowledge related to culture and healthcare services. Continuing education in cultural competence is an essential strategy for improving public health employees’ effectiveness in working with diverse clients and reducing racial and ethnic health disparities. As the finding illustrated, training programs must incorporate educational components which foster skill building to enable subsequent culturally appropriate clinical interactions.

  1. Building capacity in a health sciences library to support global health projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Mellanye; Swogger, Susan; McGraw, Kathleen A

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes how a large, academic health sciences library built capacity for supporting global health at its university and discusses related outcomes. Lean budgets require prioritization and organizational strategy. A committee, with leadership responsibilities assigned to one librarian, guided strategic planning and the pursuit of collaborative, global health outreach activities. A website features case studies and videos of user stories to promote how library partnerships successfully contributed to global health projects. Collaborative partnerships were formed through outreach activities and from follow-up to reference questions. The committee and a librarian's dedicated time established the library's commitment to help the university carry out its ambitious global agenda.

  2. Building capacity in a health sciences library to support global health projects*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Mellanye; Swogger, Susan; McGraw, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how a large, academic health sciences library built capacity for supporting global health at its university and discusses related outcomes. Lean budgets require prioritization and organizational strategy. A committee, with leadership responsibilities assigned to one librarian, guided strategic planning and the pursuit of collaborative, global health outreach activities. A website features case studies and videos of user stories to promote how library partnerships successfully contributed to global health projects. Collaborative partnerships were formed through outreach activities and from follow-up to reference questions. The committee and a librarian's dedicated time established the library's commitment to help the university carry out its ambitious global agenda. PMID:24860264

  3. Building health research systems: WHO is generating global perspectives, and who's celebrating national successes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2016-12-28

    In 2016, England's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) celebrated its tenth anniversary as an innovative national health research system with a focus on meeting patients' needs. This provides a good opportunity to reflect on how the creation of the NIHR has greatly enhanced important work, started in 1991, to develop a health research system in England that is embedded in the National Health Service.In 2004, WHO identified a range of functions that a national health research system should undertake to improve the health of populations. Health Research Policy and Systems (HRPS) has taken particular interest in the pioneering developments in the English health research system, where the comprehensive approach has covered most, if not all, of the functions identified by WHO. Furthermore, several significant recent developments in thinking about health research are relevant for the NIHR and have informed accounts of its achievements. These include recognition of the need to combat waste in health research, which had been identified as a global problem in successive papers in the Lancet, and an increasing emphasis on demonstrating impact. Here, pioneering evaluation of United Kingdom research, conducted through the impact case studies of the Research Excellence Framework, is particularly important. Analyses informed by these and other approaches identified many aspects of NIHR's progress in combating waste, building and sustaining research capacity, creating centres of research excellence linked to leading healthcare institutions, developing research networks, involving patients and others in identifying research needs, and producing and adopting research findings that are improving health outcomes.The NIHR's overall success, and an analysis of the remaining problems, might have lessons for other systems, notwithstanding important advances in many countries, as described in papers in HRPS and elsewhere. WHO's recently established Global Observatory for Health

  4. School Mental Health: The Impact of State and Local Capacity-Building Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a growing number of collaborative partnerships between schools and community-based organizations to expand school mental health (SMH service capacity in the United States, there have been relatively few systematic initiatives focused on key strategies for large-scale SMH capacity building with state and local education systems. Based on a framework of ten critical factors for capacity building, as well as existing best practices, two case studies were utilized to develop a replicable capacity-building model to advance interagency SMH development. Seventy education and mental health stakeholders from two selected states participated in baseline assessments of skill com-petency and critical factor implementation followed by two-day trainings (one in each state; 29 (41% of the participants also completed a six month follow-up assessment. Targeted competencies increased significantly for participants from both states, with large effect sizes (d = 2.05 and 2.56, from pre- to post-training. Participant reports of critical factor implementation increased significantly for one of the two states (t[15] = -6.40, p < .001, d = 1.77. Results inform specific training recommendations for stakeholders and collaborative teams, as well as policy implications to support future development of SMH service capacity.

  5. Capacity building for long-term community-academic health partnership outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M Kathryn; Felix, Holly C; Cottoms, Naomi; Olson, Mary; Shelby, Beatrice; Huff, Anna; Colley, Dianne; Sparks, Carla; McKindra, Freeman

    2013-01-01

    Too often, populations experiencing the greatest burden of disease and disparities in health outcomes are left out of or ineffectively involved in academic-led efforts to address issues that impact them the most. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach increasingly being used to address these issues, but the science of CBPR is still viewed by many as a nascent field. Important to the development of the science of CBPR is documentation of the partnership process, particularly capacity building activities important to establishing the CBPR research infrastructure. This paper uses a CBPR Logic Model as a structure for documenting partnership capacity building activities of a long-term community-academic partnership addressing public health issues in Arkansas, U.S. Illustrative activities, programs, and experiences are described for each of the model's four constructs: context, group dynamics, interventions, and outcomes. Lessons learned through this process were: capacity building is required by both academic and community partners; shared activities provide a common base of experiences and expectations; and creating a common language facilitates dialogue about difficult issues. Development of community partnerships with one institutional unit promoted community engagement institution-wide, enhanced individual and partnership capacity, and increased opportunity to address priority issues.

  6. School-Based Health Centers in an Era of Health Care Reform: Building on History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeton, Victoria; Soleimanpour, Samira; Brindis, Claire D.

    2013-01-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide a variety of health care services to youth in a convenient and accessible environment. Over the past 40 years, the growth of SBHCs evolved from various public health needs to the development of a specific collaborative model of care that is sensitive to the unique needs of children and youth, as well as to vulnerable populations facing significant barriers to access. The SBHC model of health care comprises of on-school site health care delivery by an interdisciplinary team of health professionals, which can include primary care and mental health clinicians. Research has demonstrated the SBHCs’ impacts on delivering preventive care, such as immunizations; managing chronic illnesses, such as asthma, obesity, and mental health conditions; providing reproductive health services for adolescents; and even improving youths’ academic performance. Although evaluation of the SBHC model of care has been complicated, results have thus far demonstrated increased access to care, improved health and education outcomes, and high levels of satisfaction. Despite their proven success, SBHCs have consistently faced challenges in securing adequate funding for operations and developing effective financial systems for billing and reimbursement. Implementation of health care reform (The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act [P.L. 111-148]) will profoundly affect the health care access and outcomes of children and youth, particularly vulnerable populations. The inclusion of funding for SBHCs in this legislation is momentous, as there continues to be increased demand and limited funding for affordable services. To better understand how this model of care has and could further help promote the health of our nation’s youth, a review is presented of the history and growth of SBHCs and the literature demonstrating their impacts. It may not be feasible for SBHCs to be established in every school campus in the country. However, the lessons

  7. Building Service Delivery Networks: Partnership Evolution Among Children's Behavioral Health Agencies in Response to New Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunger, Alicia C; Doogan, Nathan J; Cao, Yiwen

    2014-12-01

    Meeting the complex needs of youth with behavioral health problems requires a coordinated network of community-based agencies. Although fiscal scarcity or retrenchment can limit coordinated services, munificence can stimulate service delivery partnerships as agencies expand programs, hire staff, and spend more time coordinating services. This study examines the 2-year evolution of referral and staff expertise sharing networks in response to substantial new funding for services within a regional network of children's mental health organizations. Quantitative network survey data were collected from directors of 22 nonprofit organizations that receive funding from a county government-based behavioral health service fund. Both referral and staff expertise sharing networks changed over time, but results of a stochastic actor-oriented model of network dynamics suggest the nature of this change varies for these networks. Agencies with higher numbers of referral and staff expertise sharing partners tend to maintain these ties and/or develop new relationships over the 2 years. Agencies tend to refer to agencies they trust, but trust was not associated with staff expertise sharing ties. However, agencies maintain or form staff expertise sharing ties with referral partners, or with organizations that provide similar services. In addition, agencies tend to reciprocate staff expertise sharing, but not referrals. Findings suggest that during periods of resource munificence and service expansion, behavioral health organizations build service delivery partnerships in complex ways that build upon prior collaborative history and coordinate services among similar types of providers. Referral partnerships can pave the way for future information sharing relationships.

  8. Assessing equitable care for Indigenous and Afrodescendant women in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Arachu; Savage, Virginia; Kaufman, Hannah

    2015-08-01

    To identify and understand the barriers to equitable care within health care settings that women of ethnic minorities encounter in Latin America and to examine possible strategies for mitigating the issues. This was a comprehensive review of the literature from 2000-2015 available from the online databases PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, and SciELO in Spanish, English, and Portuguese, using a keyword search that included the Region and country names. Health provider discrimination against Indigenous and Afrodescendant women is a primary barrier to quality health care access in Latin America. Discrimination is driven by biases against ethnic minority populations, women, and the poor in general. Discriminatory practices can manifest as patient-blaming, purposeful neglect, verbal or physical abuse, disregard for traditional beliefs, and the non-use of Indigenous languages for patient communication. These obstacles prevent delivery of appropriate and timely clinical care, and also produce fear of shame, abuse, or ineffective treatment, which, in addition to financial barriers, deter women from seeking care. To ensure optimal health outcomes among Indigenous and Afrodescendant women in Latin America, the issue of discrimination in health care settings needs to be understood and addressed as a key driver of inequitable health outcomes. Strategies that target provider behavior alone have limited impact because they do not address women's needs and the context of socioeconomic inequality in which intra-hospital relations are built.

  9. Evaluation of Capacity-Building Program of District Health Managers in India: A Contextualized Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, N. S.; Marchal, Bruno; Kegels, Guy; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Performance of local health services managers at district level is crucial to ensure that health services are of good quality and cater to the health needs of the population in the area. In many low- and middle-income countries, health services managers are poorly equipped with public health management capacities needed for planning and managing their local health system. In the south Indian Tumkur district, a consortium of five non-governmental organizations partnered with the state government to organize a capacity-building program for health managers. The program consisted of a mix of periodic contact classes, mentoring and assignments and was spread over 30 months. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework in the form of a refined program theory to understand how such a capacity-building program could bring about organizational change. A well-formulated program theory enables an understanding of how interventions could bring about improvements and an evaluation of the intervention. In the refined program theory of the intervention, we identified various factors at individual, institutional, and environmental levels that could interact with the hypothesized mechanisms of organizational change, such as staff’s perceived self-efficacy and commitment to their organizations. Based on this program theory, we formulated context–mechanism–outcome configurations that can be used to evaluate the intervention and, more specifically, to understand what worked, for whom and under what conditions. We discuss the application of program theory development in conducting a realist evaluation. Realist evaluation embraces principles of systems thinking by providing a method for understanding how elements of the system interact with one another in producing a given outcome. PMID:25121081

  10. Building interdisciplinary leadership skills among health practitioners in the 21st century: an innovative training model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti eNegandhi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transformational learning is the focus of 21st century global educational reforms. In India there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners, and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing and public health institutions partnered in this endeavour. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in inter-professional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were: self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team-building, innovation and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised of a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning.

  11. Evaluation of capacity-building program of district health managers in India: a contextualized theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, N S; Marchal, Bruno; Kegels, Guy; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Performance of local health services managers at district level is crucial to ensure that health services are of good quality and cater to the health needs of the population in the area. In many low- and middle-income countries, health services managers are poorly equipped with public health management capacities needed for planning and managing their local health system. In the south Indian Tumkur district, a consortium of five non-governmental organizations partnered with the state government to organize a capacity-building program for health managers. The program consisted of a mix of periodic contact classes, mentoring and assignments and was spread over 30 months. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework in the form of a refined program theory to understand how such a capacity-building program could bring about organizational change. A well-formulated program theory enables an understanding of how interventions could bring about improvements and an evaluation of the intervention. In the refined program theory of the intervention, we identified various factors at individual, institutional, and environmental levels that could interact with the hypothesized mechanisms of organizational change, such as staff's perceived self-efficacy and commitment to their organizations. Based on this program theory, we formulated context-mechanism-outcome configurations that can be used to evaluate the intervention and, more specifically, to understand what worked, for whom and under what conditions. We discuss the application of program theory development in conducting a realist evaluation. Realist evaluation embraces principles of systems thinking by providing a method for understanding how elements of the system interact with one another in producing a given outcome.

  12. Equitable Written Assessments for English Language Learners: How Scaffolding Helps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marcelle A.; Menon, Deepika; Sinha, Somnath; Promyod, Nattida; Wissehr, Cathy; Halverson, Kristy L.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of the use of scaffolds in written classroom assessments through the voices of both native English speakers and English language learners from two middle schools. Students responded to assessment tasks in writing, by speaking aloud using think aloud protocols, and by reflecting in a post-assessment interview. The classroom assessment tasks were designed to engage students in scientific sense making and multifaceted language use, as recommended by the Next Generation Science Standards. Data analyses showed that both groups benefitted from the use of scaffolds. The findings revealed specific ways that modifications were supportive in helping students to comprehend, visualize and organize thinking, and elicit responses. This study offers a model for both sensitizing teachers and strengthening their strategies for scaffolding assessments equitably.

  13. Service learning: a vehicle for building health equity and eliminating health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Samantha; de Zapien, Jill; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette; Rosales, Cecilia; Bergsma, Lynda; Taren, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    Service learning (SL) is a form of community-centered experiential education that places emerging health professionals in community-generated service projects and provides structured opportunities for reflection on the broader social, economic, and political contexts of health. We describe the elements and impact of five distinct week-long intensive SL courses focused on the context of urban, rural, border, and indigenous health contexts. Students involved in these SL courses demonstrated a commitment to community-engaged scholarship and practice in both their student and professional lives. SL is directly in line with the core public health value of social justice and serves as a venue to strengthen community-campus partnerships in addressing health disparities through sustained collaboration and action in vulnerable communities.

  14. Effect of renovating an office building on occupants' comfort and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan; Brohus, H.; Hyldgaard, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    with a low-emitting vinyl floor material; the other part of the building was kept unchanged, serving as a control. A comprehensive indoor climate investigation was performed before and after the intervention. Over a 2-week period, the occupants completed a daily questionnaire regarding their comfort...... and health. Physiological examinations of eyes, nose and lungs were performed on each occupant. Physical, chemical and sensory measurements were performed before and after the intervention. The renewal of the flooring material was performed after a sensory test of alternative solutions in the laboratory....... Before the floor material was installed in the office building, a full-scale exposure experiment was performed in the laboratory. The new ventilation strategy and renovation of the HVAC system were selected on the basis of laboratory experiments on a full-scale mock-up of a cellular office. The severity...

  15. [Municipal Monitoring Panel: Bases for building a health service management tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Sylvia Christina de Andrade; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    To describe and critically analyze the steps taken and the technical references used to build the São Paulo City Health Department Monitoring Panel, highlighting its potentials and limits for the decision-making process. This was a qualitative study based on analysis of official documents and semi-structured interviews with key informants. The data was submitted to thematic analysis aimed at understanding the technical choices and paths taken to build the Panel. The Panel provides numerical and graphical reports applying four statistical analysis models, thus facilitating access to information and data analysis by different management levels. The Panel provides analysis options for different management levels, thus strengthening decentralized decisions. It is a streamlined and appropriate monitoring strategy as well as being able to be used in different management contexts and territory sizes.

  16. Structural Health Monitoring of Tall Buildings with Numerical Integrator and Convex-Concave Hull Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Thenozhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An important objective of health monitoring systems for tall buildings is to diagnose the state of the building and to evaluate its possible damage. In this paper, we use our prototype to evaluate our data-mining approach for the fault monitoring. The offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques are combined effectively to solve common problems in numerical integration of acceleration signals in real-time applications. The integration accuracy is improved compared with other numerical integrators. Then we introduce a novel method for support vector machine (SVM classification, called convex-concave hull. We use the Jarvis march method to decide the concave (nonconvex hull for the inseparable points. Finally the vertices of the convex-concave hull are applied for SVM training.

  17. Building healthy communities: establishing health and wellness metrics for use within the real estate industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Matthew J; Pickell, Sarah Gauche; Pyke, Christopher R; Jutte, Douglas P

    2014-11-01

    It is increasingly well recognized that the design and operation of the communities in which people live, work, learn, and play significantly influence their health. However, within the real estate industry, the health impacts of transportation, community development, and other construction projects, both positive and negative, continue to operate largely as economic externalities: unmeasured, unregulated, and for the most part unconsidered. This lack of transparency limits communities' ability to efficiently advocate for real estate investment that best promotes their health and well-being. It also limits market incentives for innovation within the real estate industry by making it more difficult for developers that successfully target health behaviors and outcomes in their projects to differentiate themselves competitively. In this article we outline the need for actionable, community-relevant, practical, and valuable metrics jointly developed by the health care and real estate sectors to better evaluate and optimize the "performance" of real estate development projects from a population health perspective. Potential templates for implementation, including the successful introduction of sustainability metrics by the green building movement, and preliminary data from selected case-study projects are also discussed. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. Framework for building primary care capacity to address the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andrew D; Bloch, Gary

    2017-11-01

    Family physicians have long understood that social factors influence the health of individuals and communities; however, most primary care organizations have yet to develop the capacity to specifically address these social determinants of health (SDOH). To support SDOH interventions and foster an organizational culture in which addressing SDOH is considered part of high-quality primary care. An academic family health team in Toronto, Ont, established a committee comprising a diverse group of health professionals focused on the SDOH. The committee analyzes how social factors affect patients and supports the development and implementation of interventions. The committee's current interventions include the following: collecting and analyzing detailed sociodemographic data to identify health inequities; launching an income security health promotion service; establishing a medical-legal partnership; implementing a child literacy program in its clinics; and developing an advocacy and service program to improve access to decent work. Each intervention includes a rigorous evaluation plan to assess implementation and effect. Next steps include developing tools to enable organizations to "move upstream" and adopt a health equity approach to all work, including joining in advocacy. Primary care providers are well situated to address SDOH. This article provides a framework that can assist every large primary care organization in establishing a similar committee dedicated to SDOH, which could help build a network across Canada to share lessons learned and support joint advocacy. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  19. Building interdisciplinary teamwork among allied health students through live clinical case simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Janet R; Rathsack, Christi; Downs, David; Jorgensen, Kathy; Karges, Joy R; Nelson, Debralee

    2008-01-01

    A limited, yet growing, body of research suggests that health care students educated in interdisciplinary teamwork may become more collaborative professionals in the workplace, which, in turn, may foster more productive and satisfied health care professionals. Researchers also have identified lower mortality and morbidity rates, fewer hospitalizations, decreased costs, and improved function by patients among significant health benefits of interdisciplinary teamwork, especially when it is applied to underserved and geriatric populations. Such positive outcomes have prompted medical schools and accreditation boards of many allied health professions to add interdisciplinary education into their training requirements. Meeting these requirements has challenged universities, where there are multiple allied health programs and limited time, faculty, and financial resources to coordinate interdisciplinary education. The challenges have been magnified by insufficient research on the most effective methods to educate university students about interdisciplinary teamwork. This article presents the background, evolution, and key building blocks of one such method: a simulation-based workshop designed at our university over 7 years to educate its allied health students about various health professions through shared learning, interaction, and collaboration.

  20. [From health promoting school perspectives to discuss the building of school-community partnership].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chun; Huang, Song-Yuan; Wu, Fei-Lin

    2005-06-01

    In the wake of the WHO's health promotion campaign health promotion schools have gained currency in Europe and the United States. The Department of Education in Taiwan has proposed a "school health promotion program" and the Department of Health a "program to build healthy schools" The goal of these programs was to create a holistic environment for school health and put the concepts of "school-family-community partnership" into practice. Although difficulties, such as school-centered perspectives, ambiguous definitions of "community" and shortage of funding, human resources and long-term planning impeded the program, this article, based on literature and practical experience, presents the "school-community model" and the strategies that it applied to organize the school-community health promotion committee to plan long-term programs and to assess the needs and resources of schools and communities on a collaborative basis. It contends, furthermore, that integrating community services into curriculums in order to enable students to appreciate the meaning of partnership, and involving the community in the planning process, can achieve the goal of effectively promoting the health of both the school and the community.

  1. Building Community Disaster Resilience: Perspectives From a Large Urban County Department of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Jonathan E.; Chandra, Anita; Williams, Malcolm; Eisenman, David; Wells, Kenneth B.; Law, Grace Y.; Fogleman, Stella; Magaña, Aizita

    2013-01-01

    An emerging approach to public health emergency preparedness and response, community resilience encompasses individual preparedness as well as establishing a supportive social context in communities to withstand and recover from disasters. We examine why building community resilience has become a key component of national policy across multiple federal agencies and discuss the core principles embodied in community resilience theory—specifically, the focus on incorporating equity and social justice considerations in preparedness planning and response. We also examine the challenges of integrating community resilience with traditional public health practices and the importance of developing metrics for evaluation and strategic planning purposes. Using the example of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project, we discuss our experience and perspective from a large urban county to better understand how to implement a community resilience framework in public health practice. PMID:23678937

  2. Building community disaster resilience: perspectives from a large urban county department of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plough, Alonzo; Fielding, Jonathan E; Chandra, Anita; Williams, Malcolm; Eisenman, David; Wells, Kenneth B; Law, Grace Y; Fogleman, Stella; Magaña, Aizita

    2013-07-01

    An emerging approach to public health emergency preparedness and response, community resilience encompasses individual preparedness as well as establishing a supportive social context in communities to withstand and recover from disasters. We examine why building community resilience has become a key component of national policy across multiple federal agencies and discuss the core principles embodied in community resilience theory-specifically, the focus on incorporating equity and social justice considerations in preparedness planning and response. We also examine the challenges of integrating community resilience with traditional public health practices and the importance of developing metrics for evaluation and strategic planning purposes. Using the example of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project, we discuss our experience and perspective from a large urban county to better understand how to implement a community resilience framework in public health practice.

  3. 20 CFR 219.40 - Evidence of relationship by equitable adoption-child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of relationship by equitable adoption-child. 219.40 Section 219.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... relationship by equitable adoption—child. (a) Preferred evidence. If the claimant is a person who claims to be...

  4. Making the Business Case for Energy Savings Plus Health: Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for School Building Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Savings Plus Health Guide equips school districts to integrate indoor air quality protections into school energy efficiency retrofits and other building upgrade projects. This page describes the business case for energy savings in schools.

  5. Service learning: a vehicle for building health equity and eliminating health disparities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabo, Samantha; de Zapien, Jill; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette; Rosales, Cecilia; Bergsma, Lynda; Taren, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Service learning (SL) is a form of community-centered experiential education that places emerging health professionals in community-generated service projects and provides structured opportunities for reflection...

  6. Economic, Environmental and Health Implications of Enhanced Ventilation in Office Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Pegues, James; Satish, Usha; Santanam, Suresh; Spengler, John; Allen, Joseph

    2015-11-18

    Current building ventilation standards are based on acceptable minimums. Three decades of research demonstrates the human health benefits of increased ventilation above these minimums. Recent research also shows the benefits on human decision-making performance in office workers, which translates to increased productivity. However, adoption of enhanced ventilation strategies is lagging. We sought to evaluate two of the perceived potential barriers to more widespread adoption-Economic and environmental costs. We estimated the energy consumption and associated per building occupant costs for office buildings in seven U.S. cities, representing different climate zones for three ventilation scenarios (standard practice (20 cfm/person), 30% enhanced ventilation, and 40 cfm/person) and four different heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system strategies (Variable Air Volume (VAV) with reheat and a Fan Coil Unit (FCU), both with and without an energy recovery ventilator). We also estimated emissions of greenhouse gases associated with this increased energy usage, and, for comparison, converted this to the equivalent number of vehicles using greenhouse gas equivalencies. Lastly, we paired results from our previous research on cognitive function and ventilation with labor statistics to estimate the economic benefit of increased productivity associated with increasing ventilation rates. Doubling the ventilation rate from the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers minimum cost less than $40 per person per year in all climate zones investigated. Using an energy recovery ventilation system significantly reduced energy costs, and in some scenarios led to a net savings. At the highest ventilation rate, adding an ERV essentially neutralized the environmental impact of enhanced ventilation (0.03 additional cars on the road per building across all cities). The same change in ventilation improved the performance of workers by 8

  7. Occupational health and safety: Designing and building with MACBETH a value risk-matrix for evaluating health and safety risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D. F.; Oliveira, M. D.; Costa, C. A. Bana e.

    2015-05-01

    Risk matrices (RMs) are commonly used to evaluate health and safety risks. Nonetheless, they violate some theoretical principles that compromise their feasibility and use. This study describes how multiple criteria decision analysis methods have been used to improve the design and the deployment of RMs to evaluate health and safety risks at the Occupational Health and Safety Unit (OHSU) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. ‘Value risk-matrices’ (VRMs) are built with the MACBETH approach in four modelling steps: a) structuring risk impacts, involving the construction of descriptors of impact that link risk events with health impacts and are informed by scientific evidence; b) generating a value measurement scale of risk impacts, by applying the MACBETH-Choquet procedure; c) building a system for eliciting subjective probabilities that makes use of a numerical probability scale that was constructed with MACBETH qualitative judgments on likelihood; d) and defining a classification colouring scheme for the VRM. A VRM built with OHSU members was implemented in a decision support system which will be used by OHSU members to evaluate health and safety risks and to identify risk mitigation actions.

  8. Carework and caring: A path to gender equitable practices among men in South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewkes Rachel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between men who engage in carework and commitment to gender equity. The context of the study was that gender inequitable masculinities create vulnerability for men and women to HIV and other health concerns. Interventions are being developed to work with masculinity and to 'change men'. Researchers now face a challenge of identifying change in men, especially in domains of their lives beyond relations with women. Engagement in carework is one suggested indicator of more gender equitable practice. Methods A qualitative approach was used. 20 men in three South African locations (Durban, Pretoria/Johannesburg, Mthatha who were identified as engaging in carework were interviewed. The men came from different backgrounds and varied in terms of age, race and socio-economic status. A semi-structured approach was used in the interviews. Results Men were engaged in different forms of carework and their motivations to be involved differed. Some men did carework out of necessity. Poverty, associated with illness in the family and a lack of resources propelled some men into carework. Other men saw carework as part of a commitment to making a better world. 'Care' interpreted as a functional activity was not enough to either create or signify support for gender equity. Only when care had an emotional resonance did it relate to gender equity commitment. Conclusions Engagement in carework precipitated a process of identity and value transformation in some men suggesting that support for carework still deserves to be a goal of interventions to 'change men'. Changing the gender of carework contributes to a more equitable gender division of labour and challenges gender stereotypes. Interventions that promote caring also advance gender equity.

  9. Carework and caring: A path to gender equitable practices among men in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Robert; Jewkes, Rachel

    2011-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between men who engage in carework and commitment to gender equity. The context of the study was that gender inequitable masculinities create vulnerability for men and women to HIV and other health concerns. Interventions are being developed to work with masculinity and to 'change men'. Researchers now face a challenge of identifying change in men, especially in domains of their lives beyond relations with women. Engagement in carework is one suggested indicator of more gender equitable practice. A qualitative approach was used. 20 men in three South African locations (Durban, Pretoria/Johannesburg, Mthatha) who were identified as engaging in carework were interviewed. The men came from different backgrounds and varied in terms of age, race and socio-economic status. A semi-structured approach was used in the interviews. Men were engaged in different forms of carework and their motivations to be involved differed. Some men did carework out of necessity. Poverty, associated with illness in the family and a lack of resources propelled some men into carework. Other men saw carework as part of a commitment to making a better world. 'Care' interpreted as a functional activity was not enough to either create or signify support for gender equity. Only when care had an emotional resonance did it relate to gender equity commitment. Engagement in carework precipitated a process of identity and value transformation in some men suggesting that support for carework still deserves to be a goal of interventions to 'change men'. Changing the gender of carework contributes to a more equitable gender division of labour and challenges gender stereotypes. Interventions that promote caring also advance gender equity.

  10. Carework and caring: A path to gender equitable practices among men in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between men who engage in carework and commitment to gender equity. The context of the study was that gender inequitable masculinities create vulnerability for men and women to HIV and other health concerns. Interventions are being developed to work with masculinity and to 'change men'. Researchers now face a challenge of identifying change in men, especially in domains of their lives beyond relations with women. Engagement in carework is one suggested indicator of more gender equitable practice. Methods A qualitative approach was used. 20 men in three South African locations (Durban, Pretoria/Johannesburg, Mthatha) who were identified as engaging in carework were interviewed. The men came from different backgrounds and varied in terms of age, race and socio-economic status. A semi-structured approach was used in the interviews. Results Men were engaged in different forms of carework and their motivations to be involved differed. Some men did carework out of necessity. Poverty, associated with illness in the family and a lack of resources propelled some men into carework. Other men saw carework as part of a commitment to making a better world. 'Care' interpreted as a functional activity was not enough to either create or signify support for gender equity. Only when care had an emotional resonance did it relate to gender equity commitment. Conclusions Engagement in carework precipitated a process of identity and value transformation in some men suggesting that support for carework still deserves to be a goal of interventions to 'change men'. Changing the gender of carework contributes to a more equitable gender division of labour and challenges gender stereotypes. Interventions that promote caring also advance gender equity. PMID:21549020

  11. Building Geographic Information System Capacity in Local Health Departments: Lessons From a North Carolina Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Silva, Jennifer M.; Overstreet Galeano, M. Alicia; Brown, Jeffrey P.; Campbell, Douglas S.; Coley, Evelyn; Cowan, Christopher S.; Harvell, Dianne; Lassiter, Jenny; Parks, Jerry L.; Sandelé, Wanda

    2005-01-01

    State government, university, and local health department (LHD) partners collaborated to build the geographic information system (GIS) capacity of 5 LHDs in North Carolina. Project elements included procuring hardware and software, conducting individualized and group training, developing data layers, guiding the project development process, coordinating participation in technical conferences, providing ongoing project consultation, and evaluating project milestones. The project provided health department personnel with the skills and resources required to use sophisticated information management systems, particularly those that address spatial dimensions of public health practice. This capacity-building project helped LHDs incorporate GIS technology into daily operations, resulting in improved time and cost efficiency. Keys to success included (1) methods training rooted in problems specific to the LHD, (2) required project identification by LHD staff with associated timelines for development, (3) ongoing technical support as staff returned to home offices after training, (4) subgrants to LHDs to ease hardware and software resource constraints, (5) networks of relationships among LHDs and other professional GIS users, and (6) senior LHD leadership who supported the professional development activities being undertaken by staff. PMID:16257950

  12. Building Capacity to Use Earth Observations in Decision Making for Climate, Health, Agriculture and Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A. W.; Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    In order to fill the gaps existing in climate and public health, agriculture, natural disasters knowledge and practices, the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) has developed a Curriculum for Best Practices in Climate Information. This Curriculum builds on the experience of 10 years courses on 'Climate Information' and captures lessons and experiences from different tailored trainings that have been implemented in many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this presentation, we will provide examples of training activities we have developed to bring remote sensing products to monitor climatic and environmental information into decision processes that benefited users such as the World Health Organization, Ministries of Health, Ministries of Agriculture, Universities, Research Centers such as CIFOR and FIOCRUZ. The framework developed by IRI to provide capacity building is based on the IDEAS framework: Innovation (research) Around climate impacts, evaluation of interventions, and the value of climate information in reducing risks and maximizing opportunities Demonstration E.g. in-country GFCS projects in Tanzania and Malawi - or El Nino work in Ethiopia Education Academic and professional training efforts Advocacy This might focus on communication of variability and change? We are WHO collaborating center so are engaged through RBM/Global Malaria Programme Service ENACTS and Data library key to this. Country data better quality than NASA as incorporates all relevant station data and NASA products. This presentation will demonstrate how the IDEAS framework has been implemented and lessons learned.

  13. Beyond Learning Management Systems: Designing for Interprofessional Knowledge Building in the Health Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Lax

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines theoretical, pedagogical, and technological differences between two technologies that have been used in undergraduate interprofessional health sciences at the University of Toronto. One, a learning management system, WebCT 2.0, supports online coursework. The other, a Knowledge Building environment, Knowledge Forum 2.0, supports the collaborative work of knowledge-creating communities. Seventy students from six health science programs (Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing, Occupational Therapy, Pharmacy and Physical Therapy participated online in a 5-day initiative to advance understanding of core principles and professional roles in pain assessment and management. Knowledge Forum functioned well as a learning management system but to preserve comparability between the two technologies its full resources were not brought into play. In this paper we examine three distinctive affordances of Knowledge Forum that have implications for health sciences education: (1 supports for Knowledge Building discourse as distinct from standard threaded discourse; (2 integration of sociocognitive functions as distinct from an assortment of separate tools; and (3 resources for multidimensional social and cognitive assessment that go beyond common participation indicators and instructor-designed quizzes and analyses. We argue that these design characteristics have the potential to open educational pathways that traditional learning management systems leave closed.

  14. Building Economic Security Today: making the health-wealth connection in Contra Costa county's maternal and child health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Padmini; Dailey, Dawn E; Young, Maria-Elena D; Lam, Carrie; Pies, Cheri

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, maternal and child health professionals have been seeking approaches to integrating the Life Course Perspective and social determinants of health into their work. In this article, we describe how community input, staff feedback, and evidence from the field that the connection between wealth and health should be addressed compelled the Contra Costa Family, Maternal and Child Health (FMCH) Programs Life Course Initiative to launch Building Economic Security Today (BEST). BEST utilizes innovative strategies to reduce inequities in health outcomes for low-income Contra Costa families by improving their financial security and stability. FMCH Programs' Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC) conducted BEST financial education classes, and its Medically Vulnerable Infant Program (MVIP) instituted BEST financial assessments during public health nurse home visits. Educational and referral resources were also developed and distributed to all clients. The classes at WIC increased clients' awareness of financial issues and confidence that they could improve their financial situations. WIC clients and staff also gained knowledge about financial resources in the community. MVIP's financial assessments offered clients a new and needed perspective on their financial situations, as well as support around the financial and psychological stresses of caring for a child with special health care needs. BEST offered FMCH Programs staff opportunities to engage in non-traditional, cross-sector partnerships, and gain new knowledge and skills to address a pressing social determinant of health. We learned the value of flexible timelines, maintaining a long view for creating change, and challenging the traditional paradigm of maternal and child health.

  15. Building capacity for evidence informed decision making in public health: a case study of organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirson, Leslea; Ciliska, Donna; Dobbins, Maureen; Mowat, David

    2012-02-20

    Core competencies for public health in Canada require proficiency in evidence informed decision making (EIDM). However, decision makers often lack access to information, many workers lack knowledge and skills to conduct systematic literature reviews, and public health settings typically lack infrastructure to support EIDM activities. This research was conducted to explore and describe critical factors and dynamics in the early implementation of one public health unit's strategic initiative to develop capacity to make EIDM standard practice. This qualitative case study was conducted in one public health unit in Ontario, Canada between 2008 and 2010. In-depth information was gathered from two sets of semi-structured interviews and focus groups (n = 27) with 70 members of the health unit, and through a review of 137 documents. Thematic analysis was used to code the key informant and document data. The critical factors and dynamics for building EIDM capacity at an organizational level included: clear vision and strong leadership, workforce and skills development, ability to access research (library services), fiscal investments, acquisition and development of technological resources, a knowledge management strategy, effective communication, a receptive organizational culture, and a focus on change management. With leadership, planning, commitment and substantial investments, a public health department has made significant progress, within the first two years of a 10-year initiative, towards achieving its goal of becoming an evidence informed decision making organization.

  16. Concept mapping as an approach for expert-guided model building: The example of health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soellner, Renate; Lenartz, Norbert; Rudinger, Georg

    2017-02-01

    Concept mapping served as the starting point for the aim of capturing the comprehensive structure of the construct of 'health literacy.' Ideas about health literacy were generated by 99 experts and resulted in 105 statements that were subsequently organized by 27 experts in an unstructured card sorting. Multidimensional scaling was applied to the sorting data and a two and three-dimensional solution was computed. The three dimensional solution was used in subsequent cluster analysis and resulted in a concept map of nine "clusters": (1) self-regulation, (2) self-perception, (3) proactive approach to health, (4) basic literacy and numeracy skills, (5) information appraisal, (6) information search, (7) health care system knowledge and acting, (8) communication and cooperation, and (9) beneficial personality traits. Subsequently, this concept map served as a starting point for developing a "qualitative" structural model of health literacy and a questionnaire for the measurement of health literacy. On the basis of questionnaire data, a "quantitative" structural model was created by first applying exploratory factor analyses (EFA) and then cross-validating the model with confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). Concept mapping proved to be a highly valuable tool for the process of model building up to translational research in the "real world". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interdisciplinary research career development: building interdisciplinary research careers in women's health program best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Steven E; Bodurtha, Joann; Nagel, Joan D

    2011-11-01

    The Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Institutes and Centers and the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) have sponsored an interdisciplinary research career development program in five funding cycles since 2000 through a K12 mechanism titled "Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health (BIRCWH)." As of 2010, 407 scholars have been supported in interdisciplinary women's health research and a total of 63 BIRCWH program awards have been made to 41 institutions across the U.S. In an effort to share practical approaches to interdisciplinary research training, currently funded BIRCWH sites were invited to submit 300-word bullet-point style summaries describing their best practices in interdisciplinary research training following a common format with an emphasis on practices that are innovative, can be reproduced in other places, and advance women's health research. Twenty-six program narratives provide unique perspectives along with common elements and themes in interdisciplinary research training best practices.

  18. Social Network and Health Researchers and Professionals Mobility in Africa: Lessons Learned from AFRICA BUILD Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, S T; Anne, A; Khalifa, A; Bosomprah, S; Caroline, F; Cuzin-Kihl, A K; Ingelbeen, B; Ramirez-Robles, M; Sangare, M; Niang, M; Bagayoko, C O

    2015-01-01

    Promote mobility between South-South and South-North for improving level of researchers, staff and students through a platform. The methodology is based a filling of a questionnaire about offer or demand. Material is composed a computer connected Internet. we registered about 203 demands and 31 offers from partners.43 mobilities were executed completely. The results indicate a real need of mobility for researchers and health professionals in Africa. The important number of mobility demands made by external researchers and professionals (from outside the AFRICA BUILD Consortium) may be constrained by the difficulty to find adequate funding.

  19. One Health/EcoHealth capacity building programs in South and South East Asia: a mixed method rapid systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pranab; Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh; Joseph, Jessy; Kakkar, Manish

    2017-09-29

    Although One Health (OH) or EcoHealth (EH) have been acknowledged to provide comprehensive and holistic approaches to study complex problems, like zoonoses and emerging infectious diseases, there remains multiple challenges in implementing them in a problem-solving paradigm. One of the most commonly encountered barriers, especially in low- and middle-income countries, is limited capacity to undertake OH/EH inquiries. A rapid review was undertaken to conduct a situation analysis of the existing OH/EH capacity building programs, with a focused analysis of those programs with extensive OH engagement, to help map the current efforts in this area. A listing of the OH/EH projects/initiatives implemented in South Asia (SA) and South East Asia (SEA) was done, followed by analysis of documents related to the projects, available from peer-reviewed or grey literature sources. Quantitative data was extracted using a data extraction format, and a free listing of qualitative themes was undertaken. In SEA, 13 unique OH/EH projects, with 37 capacity building programs, were identified. In contrast, in SA, the numbers were 8 and 11 respectively. In SA, programs were oriented to develop careers in program management, whereas, in SEA, the emphasis was on research. Two thirds of the programs in SEA had extensive OH engagement, whereas only one third of those in SA did. The target for the SEA programs was wider, including a population more representative of OH stakes. SEA program themes reveal utilization of multiple approaches, usually in shorter terms, and are growing towards integration with the traditional curricula. Such convergence of themes was lacking in SA programs. In both regions, the programs were driven by external donor agencies, with minimal local buy-in. There is limited investment in research capacity building in both SA and SEA. The situation appears to be more stark in SA, whilst SEA has been able to use the systematic investment and support to develop the OH

  20. Health Promotion for Adolescent Childhood Leukemia Survivors: Building on Prevention Science and eHealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Diane L.; Lindemulder, Susan J.; Goldberg, Linn; Stadler, Diane D.; Smith, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Teenage survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased morbidity likely due to their prior multicomponent treatment. Habits established in adolescence can impact individuals’ subsequent adult behaviors. Accordingly, healthy lifestyles, avoiding harmful actions, and appropriate disease surveillance are of heightened importance among teenage survivors. We review the findings from prevention science and their relevance to heath promotion. The capabilities and current uses of eHealth components including e-learning, serious video games, exergaming, behavior tracking, individual messaging, and social networking are briefly presented. The health promotion needs of adolescent survivors are aligned with those eHealth aspects to propose a new paradigm to enhance the wellbeing of adolescent ALL survivors. PMID:23109253

  1. Strengthening health promotion in hospitals with capacity building: a Taiwanese case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chiachi Bonnie; Chen, Michael S; Chien, Sou-Hsin; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Wang, Ying Wei; Chu, Cordia Ming-Yeuk

    2015-09-01

    Organizational capacity building for health promotion (HP) is beneficial to the effective implementation of HP in organizational settings. The World Health Organization (WHO) Health Promoting Hospitals' (HPHs) initiative encourages hospitals to promote the health of their stakeholders by developing organizational capacity. This study analyzes an application case of one hospital of the HPH initiative in Taiwan, characterizes actions aiming at building organizational support to strengthen health gains and identifies facilitators of and barriers to the implementation of the HP in this hospital. Case study methodology was used with a triangulation of various sources; thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative information. This study found a positive impact of the HPH initiative on the case hospital, such as more support from leadership, a fine-tuned HP mission and strategy, cultivated pro-HP habits of physical activities, a supportive intramural structure, an HP-inclusive system, improved management practices and enhanced staff participation. Transformational and transactional enablers are of equal importance in implementing HPH. However, it was also found that the case hospital encountered more transactional barriers than transformational ones. This hospital was hindered by insufficient support from external environments, leadership with limited autonomy and authority, a preference for ideals over professionalism, insufficient participation by physicians, a lack of manpower and time, a merit system with limited stimulating effect, ineffective management practices in weak central project management, a lack of integration, insufficient communication and an inability to inculcate the staff on the importance of HP, and inadequate staff participation. Several implications for other hospitals are suggested. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. True North: Building Imaginary Worlds with the Revised Canadian (CADTH Guidelines for Health Technology Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Langley

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In March 2017 the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH released the 4th edition of their Guidelines for the Economic Evaluation of Health Technologies: Canada. These guidelines, which were first published and revised for a 3rd edition in 2006 are intended to help decision makers, health systems leaders and policy makers make well-informed decisions. They are designed, apparently, to support best practice in conducting health technology assessments in Canada. The purpose of this commentary is to consider whether or not the evidence standards proposed and the consequent modeled claims for economic effectiveness meet the standards of normal science: are the CADTH standards capable of generating claims for competing products that are credible, evaluable and replicable? The review argues that the standards proposed by CADTH do not meet the standards expected in normal science. Technical sophistication in building reference case imaginary worlds is not a substitute for claims that are experimentally evaluable or capable of assessment through systematic observation. There is no way of judging whether imaginary claims are right or even if they are wrong. CADTH is not alone in setting standards that fail to meet the standards of normal science. Recent commentaries on formulary submission guidelines in a number of other countries, to include Ireland, the Netherlands, France, Australia, the UK and New Zealand conclude that they are subject to the same criticism. If the CADTH guidelines were never intended to support feedback to health system decision makers, then this should be made clear. If not, then consideration should be given to withdrawing the guidelines to ensure they conform to these standards. Hopefully, future versions of the CADTH guidelines will address this issue and focus on a rigorous research program of claims assessment and feedback and not the building of imaginary worlds.   Type:  Commentary

  3. Health impacts due to personal exposure to fine particles caused by insulation of residential buildings in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, Alexandra; Hurley, J. Fintan; Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Friedrich, Rainer

    2014-02-01

    The insulation of residential buildings affects human exposure to fine particles. According to current EU guidelines, insulation is regulated for energy saving reasons. As buildings become tighter, the air exchange rate is reduced and, thus, the indoor concentration of pollutants is increased if there are significant indoor sources. While usually the effects of heat insulation and increase of the air-tightness of buildings on greenhouse gas emissions are highlighted, the negative impacts on human health due to higher indoor concentrations are not addressed. Thus, we investigated these impacts using scenarios in three European countries, i. e. Czech Republic, Switzerland and Greece. The assessment was based on modelling the human exposure to fine particles originating from sources of particles within outdoor and indoor air, including environmental tobacco smoke. Exposure response relationships were derived to link (adverse) health effects to the exposure. Furthermore, probable values for the parameters influencing the infiltration of fine particles into residential buildings were modelled. Results show that the insulation and increase of the air-tightness of residential buildings leads to an overall increase of the mean population exposure - and consequently adverse health effects - in all considered countries (ranging for health effects from 0.4% in Czech Republic to 11.8% in Greece for 100% insulated buildings) due to an accumulation of particles indoors, especially from environmental tobacco smoke. Considering only the emission reductions in outdoor air (omitting changes in infiltration parameters) leads to a decrease of adverse health effects. This study highlights the importance of ensuring a sufficient air exchange rate when insulating buildings, e. g. by prescribing heat ventilation and air conditioning systems in new buildings and information campaigns on good airing practice in renovated buildings. It also shows that assessing policy measures based on the

  4. Building capacity for Health Impact Assessment: Training outcomes from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchter, Joseph [Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutt, Candace, E-mail: awr8@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity, 4770 Buford Highway MS/F-77, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Satariano, William A. [University of California Berkeley, School of Public Health, Division of Community Health and Human Development, Berkeley, CA (United States); Seto, Edmund [University of Washington, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Despite the continued growth of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the US, there is little research on HIA capacity-building. A comprehensive study of longer-term training outcomes may reveal opportunities for improving capacity building activities and HIA practice. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with HIA trainees in the United States to assess their outcomes and needs. Using a training evaluation framework, we measured outcomes across a spectrum of reaction, learning, behavior and results. Results: From 2006 to 2012, four organizations trained over 2200 people in at least 75 in-person HIA trainings in 29 states. We interviewed 48 trainees, selected both randomly and purposefully. The mean duration between training and interview was 3.4 years. Trainees reported that their training objectives were met, especially when relevant case-studies were used. They established new collaborations at the trainings and maintained them. Training appeared to catalyze more holistic thinking and practice, including a range of HIA-related activities. Many trainees disseminated what they learned and engaged in components of HIA, even without dedicated funding. Going forward, trainees need assistance with quantitative methods, project management, community engagement, framing recommendations, and evaluation. Conclusions: The research revealed opportunities for a range of HIA stakeholders to refine and coordinate training resources, apply a competency framework and leverage complimentary workforce development efforts, and sensitize and build the capacity of communities. - Highlights: • We interviewed HIA trainees in the United States to assess longer-term outcomes. • Training appeared to catalyze a range of beneficial partnerships and activities. • Trainees reported outstanding needs for specific skills and competencies. • There are various opportunities to improve training and capacity-building.

  5. Telemental Health Training, Team Building, and Workforce Development in Cultural Context: The Hawaii Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicata, Daniel; Schroepfer, Amanda; Unten, Tim; Agoha, Ruby; Helm, Susana; Fukuda, Michael; Ulrich, Daniel; Michels, Stanton

    2016-04-01

    The goal of the University of Hawaii (UH) child and adolescent psychiatry telemental health (TMH) program is to train child and adolescent psychiatry fellows to provide behavioral health services for the children of Hawaii and the Pacific Islands in the cultural context of their rural communities using interactive videoteleconferencing (IVTC). The training experience balances learning objectives with community service. Learning objectives include: Understanding mental health disparities in rural communities, leveraging community resources in ongoing treatment, providing culturally effective care, and improving health care access and delivery through TMH service research and evaluation. We describe the UH experience. Several UH faculty are experienced with IVTC technology. They are triple-board trained, are recognized for their research in program evaluation and mental health disparities, and are committed to serving Hawaii's rural communities. We demonstrate the role of TMH in linking children and their families living in rural communities with multiple mental health treatment providers. The service-learning curriculum and a unique collaboration with Mayo Clinic provide the opportunity to examine the role of TMH in global service, and training, education, and research. TMH provides direct services to patients and consultation on Hawaii Island and Maui County. The collaboration with the Mayo Clinic brings further consultation in complex diagnostics, pharmacogenomics, and cross-cultural psychiatry. A curriculum provides trainees experience with IVTC with the goal of potential recruitment to underserved rural communities. The TMH program at UH is unique in its team building and workforce development by joining multiple entities through IVTC and translating expertise from the Mayo Clinic to rural communities, and strengthening collaboration with local child and adolescent psychiatrists, and primary care and other mental health providers. The UH psychiatry program is a

  6. Building a Human Health Risk Assessment Ontology (RsO): A Proposed Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Thomas E; Feng, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade the health and environmental research communities have made significant progress in collecting and improving access to genomic, toxicology, exposure, health, and disease data useful to health risk assessment. One of the barriers to applying these growing volumes of information in fields such as risk assessment is the lack of informatics tools to organize, curate, and evaluate thousands of journal publications and hundreds of databases to provide new insights on relationships among exposure, hazard, and disease burden. Many fields are developing ontologies as a way of organizing and analyzing large amounts of complex information from multiple scientific disciplines. Ontologies include a vocabulary of terms and concepts with defined logical relationships to each other. Building from the recently published exposure ontology and other relevant health and environmental ontologies, this article proposes an ontology for health risk assessment (RsO) that provides a structural framework for organizing risk assessment information and methods. The RsO is anchored by eight major concepts that were either identified by exploratory curations of the risk literature or the exposure-ontology working group as key for describing the risk assessment domain. These concepts are: (1) stressor, (2) receptor, (3) outcome, (4) exposure event, (5) dose-response approach, (6) dose-response metric, (7) uncertainty, and (8) measure of risk. We illustrate the utility of these concepts for the RsO with example curations of published risk assessments for ionizing radiation, arsenic in drinking water, and persistent pollutants in salmon. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Health research capacity building in Georgia: a case-based needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, A; Chitashvili, T; Djibuti, M; Ridge, L; Chyun, D

    2017-06-01

    Research capacity building in the health sciences in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has typically focused on bench-science capacity, but research examining health service delivery and health workforce is equally necessary to determine the best ways to deliver care. The Republic of Georgia, formerly a part of the Soviet Union, has multiple issues within its healthcare system that would benefit from expended research capacity, but the current research environment needs to be explored prior to examining research-focused activities. The purpose of this project was to conduct a needs assessment focused on developing research capacity in the Republic of Georgia with an emphasis on workforce and network development. A case study approach guided by a needs assessment format. We conducted in-country, informal, semi-structured interviews in English with key informants and focus groups with faculty, students, and representatives of local non-governmental organizations. Purposive and snowball sampling approaches were used to recruit participants, with key informant interviews scheduled prior to arrival in country. Documents relevant to research capacity building were also included. Interview results were coded via content analysis. Final results were organized into a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threat) analysis format, with the report shared with participants. There is widespread interest among students and faculty in Georgia around building research capacity. Lack of funding was identified by many informants as a barrier to research. Many critical research skills, such as proposal development, qualitative research skills, and statistical analysis, were reported as very limited. Participants expressed concerns about the ethics of research, with some suggesting that research is undertaken to punish or 'expose' subjects. However, students and faculty are highly motivated to improve their skills, are open to a variety of learning modalities, and have

  8. Are Biophilic-Designed Site Office Buildings Linked to Health Benefits and High Performing Occupants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Gray

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from interviews and observations of site workers. Preliminary data indicates a strong positive effect from incorporating aspects of biophilic design to boost productivity, ameliorate stress, enhance well-being, foster a collaborative work environment and promote workplace satisfaction, thus contributing towards a high performance workspace. The longitudinal study spanning over two years will track human-plant interactions in a biophilic influenced space, whilst also assessing the concomitant cognitive, social, psychological and physical health benefits for workers.

  9. Sharing State Mental Health Data for Research: Building Toward Ongoing Learning in Mental Health Care Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David A; Rupp, Agnes

    2015-09-01

    With the rise of "big data," the opportunities to use administrative and clinical data to evaluate impact of state level program initiatives are greatly expanded. The National Institute of Mental Health has in recent years supported research studies pooling data across states to address state-relevant questions. This commentary summarizes these activities and describes future platforms that may enhance ongoing work in this area.

  10. Building customer capital through knowledge management processes in the health care context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sandra S; Lin, Carol Yuh-Yun

    2007-01-01

    Customer capital is a value generated and an asset developed from customer relationships. Successfully managing these relationships is enhanced by knowledge management (KM) infrastructure that captures and transfers customer-related knowledge. The execution of such a system relies on the vision and determination of the top management team (TMT). The health care industry in today's knowledge economy encounters similar challenges of consumerism as its business sector. Developing customer capital is critical for hospitals to remain competitive in the market. This study aims to provide taxonomy for cultivating market-based organizational learning that leads to building of customer capital and attaining desirable financial performance in health care. With the advancement of technology, the KM system plays an important moderating role in the entire process. The customer capital issue has not been fully explored either in the business or the health care industry. The exploratory nature of such a pursuit calls for a qualitative approach. This study examines the proposed taxonomy with the case hospital. The lessons learned also are reflected with three US-based health networks. The TMT incorporated the knowledge process of conceptualization and transformation in their organizational mission. The market-oriented learning approach promoted by TMT helps with the accumulation and sharing of knowledge that prepares the hospital for the dynamics in the marketplace. Their key knowledge advancement relies on both the professional arena and the feedback of customers. The institutionalization of the KM system and organizational culture expands the hospital's customer capital. The implication is twofold: (1) the TMT is imperative for the success of building customer capital through KM process; and (2) the team effort should be enhanced with a learning culture and sharing spirit, in particular, active nurse participation in decision making and frontline staff's role in providing a

  11. Country ownership and capacity building: the next buzzwords in health systems strengthening or a truly new approach to development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jessica; Bryant, Malcolm

    2012-07-20

    During the last decade, donor governments and international agencies have increasingly emphasized the importance of building the capacity of indigenous health care organizations as part of strengthening health systems and ensuring sustainability. In 2009, the U.S. Global Health Initiative made country ownership and capacity building keystones of U.S. health development assistance, and yet there is still a lack of consensus on how to define either of these terms, or how to implement "country owned capacity building". Concepts around capacity building have been well developed in the for-profit business sector, but remain less well defined in the non-profit and social sectors in low and middle-income countries. Historically, capacity building in developing countries has been externally driven, related to project implementation, and often resulted in disempowerment of local organizations rather than local ownership. Despite the expenditure of millions of dollars, there is no consensus on how to conduct capacity building, nor have there been rigorous evaluations of capacity building efforts. To shift to a new paradigm of country owned capacity building, donor assistance needs to be inclusive in the planning process and create true partnerships to conduct organizational assessments, analyze challenges to organizational success, prioritize addressing challenges, and implement appropriate activities to build new capacity in overcoming challenges. Before further investments are made, a solid evidence base should be established concerning what works and what doesn't work to build capacity. Country-owned capacity building is a relatively new concept that requires further theoretical exploration. Documents such as The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness detail the principles of country ownership to which partner and donor countries should commit, but do not identify the specific mechanisms to carry out these principles. More evidence as to how country-owned capacity

  12. Exploring pathways for building trust in vaccination and strengthening health system resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Ozawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trust is critical to generate and maintain demand for vaccines in low and middle income countries. However, there is little documentation on how health system insufficiencies affect trust in vaccination and the process of re-building trust once it has been compromised. We reflect on how disruptions to immunizations systems can affect trust in vaccination and can compromise vaccine utilization. We then explore key pathways for overcoming system vulnerabilities in order to restore trust, to strengthen the resilience of health systems and communities, and to promote vaccine utilization. Methods Utilizing secondary data and a review of the literature, we developed a causal loop diagram (CLD to map the determinants of building trust in immunizations. Using the CLD, we devised three scenarios to illustrate common vulnerabilities that compromise trust and pathways to strengthen trust and utilization of vaccines, specifically looking at weak health systems, harmful communication channels, and role of social capital. Spill-over effects, interactions and other dynamics in the CLD were then examined to assess leverage points to counter these vulnerabilities. Results Trust in vaccination arises from the interactions among experiences with the health system, the various forms of communication and social capital – both external and internal to communities. When experiencing system-wide shocks such as the case in Ebola-affected countries, distrust is reinforced by feedback between the health and immunization systems where distrust often lingers even after systems are restored and spills over beyond vaccination in the broader health system. Vaccine myths or anti-vaccine movements reinforce distrust. Social capital – the collective value of social networks of community members – plays a central role in increasing levels of trust. Conclusions Trust is important, yet underexplored, in the context of vaccine utilization. Using a CLD to

  13. Health and Wellbeing of Occupants in Highly Energy Efficient Buildings: A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Tappler, Peter; Munoz, Ute; Damberger, Bernhard; Wanka, Anna; Kundi, Michael; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2017-03-19

    Passive houses and other highly energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, ventilation systems in such houses are regarded with a certain degree of skepticism by parts of the public due to alleged negative health effects. Within a quasi-experimental field study, we investigated if occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) experience different health, wellbeing and housing satisfaction outcomes and if associations with indoor air quality exist. We investigated 123 modern homes (test group: with mechanical ventilation; control group: naturally ventilated) built in the years 2010 to 2012 in the same geographic area and price range. Interviews of occupants based on standardized questionnaires and measurements of indoor air quality parameters were conducted twice (three months after moving in and one year later). In total, 575 interviews were performed (respondents' mean age 37.9 ± 9 years in the test group, 37.7 ± 9 years in the control group). Occupants of the test group rated their overall health status and that of their children not significantly higher than occupants of the control group at both time points. Adult occupants of the test group reported dry eyes statistically significantly more frequently compared to the control group (19.4% vs. 12.5%). Inhabitants of energy-efficient, mechanically ventilated homes rated the quality of indoor air and climate significantly higher. Self-reported health improved more frequently in the mechanically ventilated new homes (p = 0.005). Almost no other significant differences between housing types and measuring time points were observed concerning health and wellbeing or housing satisfaction. Associations between vegetative symptoms (dizziness, nausea, headaches) and formaldehyde concentrations as well as between CO₂ levels and perceived stale air were observed. However, both associations were independent of the type of ventilation. In summary, occupants of the

  14. Building flexibility and managing complexity in community mental health: lessons learned in a large urban centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Saab, Dima; Francombe Pridham, Kate; Aery, Anjana; Nakhost, Arash

    2018-01-24

    Across many jurisdictions, adults with complex mental health and social needs face challenges accessing appropriate supports due to system fragmentation and strict eligibility criteria of existing services. To support this underserviced population, Toronto's local health authority launched two novel community mental health models in 2014, inspired by Flexible Assertive Community Team principles. This study explores service user and provider perspectives on the acceptability of these services, and lessons learned during early implementation. We purposively sampled 49 stakeholders (staff, physicians, service users, health systems stakeholders) and conducted 17 semi-structured qualitative interviews and 5 focus groups between October 23, 2014 and March 2, 2015, exploring stakeholder perspectives on the newly launched team based models, as well as activities and strategies employed to support early implementation. Interviews and focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings revealed wide-ranging endorsement for the two team-based models' success in engaging the target population of adults with complex service needs. Implementation strengths included the broad recognition of existing service gaps, the use of interdisciplinary teams and experienced service providers, broad partnerships and collaboration among various service sectors, training and team building activities. Emerging challenges included lack of complementary support services such as suitable housing, organizational contexts reluctant to embrace change and risk associated with complexity, as well as limited service provider and organizational capacity to deliver evidence-based interventions. Findings identified implementation drivers at the practitioner, program, and system levels, specific to the implementation of community mental health interventions for adults with complex health and social needs. These can inform future efforts to address the health

  15. Developing Preservice Teachers' Expertise in Equitable Assessment for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2014-04-01

    This study illustrated a pathway of growth that a preservice teacher might traverse when learning to use and develop equitable assessments (EA). The study is rare in that it looks at the development of preservice teachers' understanding and ability to design EA. I examined the understanding and implementation of EA of 23 secondary preservice teachers within two classes. The methods classes focused on the academic content area of science. Participants' journals, teaching philosophies, and inquiry-based science units served as data sources. Participants progressed from a simple view of EA as "fairness" to a more sophisticated view of EA, including: ways to increase fairness, the importance of challenging students, and using assessments for learning. Results also showed changes in preservice teachers' views of learners and the purpose of assessment. While understanding developed robustly, teachers' assessment plans in their units were not as strong. Teacher education programs need to place more emphasis on developing critical understanding of EA practices to meet the needs of diverse learners.

  16. Building service capacity within a regional district mental health service: recommendations from an Indigenous mental health symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Diann S; Hunter, Keith

    2006-01-01

    In response to recent developments within the mental health services of south-east Queensland, the Toowoomba District Mental Health Service (TDMHS) has developed a Model of Service Delivery, which outlines the range of services provided for consumers across their lifespan. Indigenous consumers of the TDMHS come from a wide area of communities in the surrounding shires (Rural, remote and metropolitan areas (RRMA) 4-7). It was recognised by the service that Indigenous mental health consumers have unique needs and, because of these needs, this area of service delivery required greater attention and further development. In December 2004, a symposium was organised by the service to bring together a range of speakers and delegates working in the area of Indigenous mental health to discuss issues and work towards developing strategies to enable the service to better meet the needs of Indigenous consumers in this region of south-east Queensland. The symposium program consisted of keynote speakers and invited papers and culminated with an afternoon workshop that collated the symposium's main issues and themes around building service capacity for Indigenous mental health consumers. The objective of the workshop was 'Identifying ways to meet Indigenous mental health needs'. This workshop gave the delegates a chance to reflect, discuss and brainstorm the major issues of concern relating to this question. A group facilitator guided the discussion and organised the delegates into groups to evaluate, debate and propose recommendations for each of the major issues that emerged. The feedback and discussion arising from the workshop is presented. Sixteen major themes emerged from the workshop. Seven of these were voted by the participants as being dominant and in greatest need of discussion: (1) communication; (2) cultural respect; (3) culturally appropriate clinical tools; (4) supportive management; (5) patient compliance; (6) career structure; and (7) empowerment. These seven

  17. Developing Evidence for Structural Approaches to Build a Culture of Health: A Perspective from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockenhaupt, Robin; Woodrum, Amy

    2015-01-01

    We believe that reframing the conversation to creating a culture around health rather than focusing on discrete actions or activities will capture national consciousness and enable us to make new progress as a nation. Thus, in 2014, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) announced a new vision to help build a "Culture of Health" to…

  18. Building a Leadership Culture for Environmental Health in a Nurse-Led Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanda L Demorest

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is the biggest global health threat of the 21st century (Costello et al., 2009. Temperature shifts caused by greenhouse gases have negative health impacts such as worsening of chronic diseases and increases in vector-borne diseases (American Public Health Association, 2016, which nurses are ethically responsible to address (American Nurses Association, 2015. At an interdisciplinary nurse-led clinic, staff were not prepared to assist patients in building resiliency related to the health impacts of climate change or to implement environmental sustainability in their workplace. Based on principles of partnership-based healthcare (Eisler & Potter, 2014, this project included Climate Conversations - sharing stories, values, and knowledge about climate change – (Minnesota Interfaith Power & Light, 2010 and evidence-based transformational leadership. The Nurses’ Environmental Awareness Tool (Schenk et al., 2015 was used to survey staff before and after they participated in behavioral interventions to incorporate environmental sustainability at their workplace. Compared to baseline, staffs’ knowledge of environmental sustainability increased significantly (pp

  19. Building a Common Pediatric Research Terminology for Accelerating Child Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, L. Charles; Forrest, Christopher B.; Padula, Michael A.; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal observational clinical data on pediatric patients in electronic format is becoming widely available. A new era of multi-institutional data networks that study pediatric diseases and outcomes across disparate health delivery models and care settings are also enabling an innovative collaborative rapid improvement paradigm called the Learning Health System. However, the potential alignment of routine clinical care, observational clinical research, pragmatic clinical trials, and health systems improvement requires a data infrastructure capable of combining information from systems and workflows that historically have been isolated from each other. Removing barriers to integrating and reusing data collected in different settings will permit new opportunities to develop a more complete picture of a patient’s care and to leverage data from related research studies. One key barrier is the lack of a common terminology that provides uniform definitions and descriptions of clinical observations and data. A well-characterized terminology ensures a common meaning and supports data reuse and integration. A common terminology allows studies to build upon previous findings and to reuse data collection tools and data management processes. We present the current state of terminology harmonization and describe a governance structure and mechanism for coordinating the development of a common pediatric research terminology that links to clinical terminologies and can be used to align existing terminologies. By reducing the barriers between clinical care and clinical research, a Learning Health System can leverage and reuse not only its own data resources but also broader extant data resources. PMID:24534404

  20. Child health and development record book: tool for relationship building between nurse and mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendon, Jill; Dignam, Denise

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the role and impact of the child health and development record book in New Zealand society since its inception. Nurses working in child health roles in New Zealand use child health and development record books to record advice and developmental characteristics of children as they grow. The book has been used since 1921, but there has been no exploration of how it has been used by nurses or mothers. Using an oral history approach, 35 participants ranging from 30 to 84 years of age were interviewed. Data were collected from November 2004 to December 2005, with follow-up interviews in 2006. The book plays an important role in the relationship between mother and nurse. It is used as a point of commonality that supports the efforts of both as they work toward establishing an effective relationship, as a tool of practice, and as a means of building strength within families. Mothers read, reflect upon and reminisce with child health and development record books for generations. Nurses must consider the ways in which they currently use these record books, remaining mindful of both the short-term and potential long-term impact their notes may have on mothers.

  1. Santa Fé: building a virtual city to develop a family health game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubelo, Rodrigo; Dahmer, Alessandra; Pinheiro, Luciana; Pinto, Maria E

    2013-01-01

    The current tendency of education in health is the use of new technologies like Virtual Reality. The course of UNASUS-UFCSPA specialization in family health was developed for health professionals that work in primary health care (PHC); in order to reach all Brazilian territory. Moodle is a platform where virtual activities are posted and evaluated. Santa Fé is a virtual city created in the Sketch up Pro, which aims to fit in specific clinical cases that involve matters of medicine, nursing and dentistry. The Software eAdventure was the tool used for the development of a game, offering interaction to the student with the Virtual City and the clinical cases, in the perspective of learning utilizing an entertainment method and evaluating individual performance of the students. The building of the city in the Sketch up Pro was successful and at low cost. The eAdventure was an efficient and intuitive tool, therefore, there was not necessarily a huge specific knowledge of technology or hardware with high speed processing and also speedy broad band internet for its use.

  2. Building the Future of Environmental Public Health Tracking: Proceedings and Recommendations of an Expert Panel Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary A; Baksh, Sheriza; Lam, Juleen; Resnick, Beth

    2017-06-01

    Since 2002, the national Environmental Health Tracking Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has provided vital support to state environmental public health efforts while simultaneously building a nationwide network of state, local, and academic partners to improve our nation’s capacity to understand and respond to environmental threats to public health. As part of program review and strategic planning, national thought leaders in environmental public health were convened to assess progress, identify gaps and challenges, and provide recommendations for enhancing the utility and impact of the Tracking Program. Several opportunities were identified. Chief among these was the need for continued and expanded CDC leadership to develop a coordinated Tracking Program agenda identifying specific scientific goals, data needs, and initiatives. Recommendations for future growth included expanded data availability and program coverage: i.e., making data available at the community scale and establishing tracking programs in all 50 states. Finally, a set of recommendations emphasizing communication to decision makers and the public was made that will be integral to the future utility and success of the Tracking Program.

  3. Building a common pediatric research terminology for accelerating child health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Michael G; Bailey, L Charles; Forrest, Christopher B; Padula, Michael A; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal observational clinical data on pediatric patients in electronic format is becoming widely available. A new era of multi-institutional data networks that study pediatric diseases and outcomes across disparate health delivery models and care settings are also enabling an innovative collaborative rapid improvement paradigm called the Learning Health System. However, the potential alignment of routine clinical care, observational clinical research, pragmatic clinical trials, and health systems improvement requires a data infrastructure capable of combining information from systems and workflows that historically have been isolated from each other. Removing barriers to integrating and reusing data collected in different settings will permit new opportunities to develop a more complete picture of a patient's care and to leverage data from related research studies. One key barrier is the lack of a common terminology that provides uniform definitions and descriptions of clinical observations and data. A well-characterized terminology ensures a common meaning and supports data reuse and integration. A common terminology allows studies to build upon previous findings and to reuse data collection tools and data management processes. We present the current state of terminology harmonization and describe a governance structure and mechanism for coordinating the development of a common pediatric research terminology that links to clinical terminologies and can be used to align existing terminologies. By reducing the barriers between clinical care and clinical research, a Learning Health System can leverage and reuse not only its own data resources but also broader extant data resources.

  4. Psychosocial support and resilience building among health workers in Sierra Leone: interrelations between coping skills, stress levels, and interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesel, Linda; Waller, Kathryn; Dowden, Justine; Fotso, Jean Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, a shortage of properly trained, supervised, motivated and equitably distributed health workers often hinder the delivery of lifesaving interventions. Various health workforce bottlenecks can be addressed by tackling well-being and interpersonal relationships of health workers with their colleagues and clients. This paper uses data from the Helping Health Workers Cope (HHWC) project in a rural district of Sierra Leone to achieve three objectives. First, we describe the effect of counseling and psychosocial training on coping skills, stress levels, and provider-provider and provider-client relationships. Second, we examine whether a change in coping skills is associated with a change in relationships. Finally, we qualitatively identify key ways through which the uptake of coping skills is linked to a change in relationships. The HHWC project was implemented from February 2012 to June 2013 in Kono district in the Eastern province of Sierra Leone, with the neighboring district of Tonkolili selected as the control site. The evaluation followed a mixed-methods approach, which included a quantitative survey, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health workers and clients. Mean values of the variables of interest were compared across sub-populations, and correlation analyses were performed between changes in coping skills, stress levels, and changes in relationships. Overall, the results demonstrate that the HHWC intervention had a positive effect on coping skills, stress levels and provider-provider and provider-client relationships. Furthermore, associations were observed between changes in coping skills and changes in relationships as well as changes in stress management skills and changes in relationships. Psychosocial education can have major impacts on health worker well-being and the quality of health care delivery. Integrating psychosocial counseling and training interventions into health worker pre-service and

  5. Dampness in buildings as a risk factor for health effects. European multidisciplinary review of the entire literature (EUROEXPO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2002-01-01

    reviewed articles 52 were excluded as they were judged as background papers or "non-informative" or "inconclusive" or the study did not present data on exposure, health effects or analysis of the association between exposure and health. The review group concluded that "dampness" in buildings is a risk......The scientific literature on health effects associated with "dampness" in buildings including literature between 1998 and 2000 has been reviewed by a European group (EUROEXPO). The group consisted of scientists with experience from medicine, epidemiology, toxicology and engineering. Of the 104...... factor for health effects such as cough, wheeze, asthma, general symptoms and airway infections among atopics and non-atopics, both in domestic and public environments. However, the literature is inconclusive in respect of causative agents in such buildings. Suggested causative agents are mites...

  6. Examining statewide capacity for school health and mental health promotion: a post hoc application of a district capacity-building framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Melissa A; Weston, Karen J; Blacksmith, Jennifer; Brophy, Chelsey

    2015-03-01

    Schools must possess a variety of capacities to effectively support comprehensive and coordinated school health promotion activities, and researchers have developed a district-level capacity-building framework specific to school health promotion. State-level school health coalitions often support such capacity-building efforts and should embed this work within a data-based, decision-making model. However, there is a lack of guidance for state school health coalitions on how they should collect and use data. This article uses a district-level capacity-building framework to interpret findings from a statewide coordinated school health needs/resource assessment in order to examine statewide capacity for school health promotion. Participants included school personnel (N = 643) from one state. Descriptive statistics were calculated for survey items, with further examination of subgroup differences among school administrators and nurses. Results were then interpreted via a post hoc application of a district-level capacity-building framework. Findings across districts revealed statewide strengths and gaps with regard to leadership and management capacities, internal and external supports, and an indicator of global capacity. Findings support the utility of using a common framework across local and state levels to align efforts and embed capacity-building activities within a data-driven, continuous improvement model. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  7. Country ownership and capacity building: the next buzzwords in health systems strengthening or a truly new approach to development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg Jessica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decade, donor governments and international agencies have increasingly emphasized the importance of building the capacity of indigenous health care organizations as part of strengthening health systems and ensuring sustainability. In 2009, the U.S. Global Health Initiative made country ownership and capacity building keystones of U.S. health development assistance, and yet there is still a lack of consensus on how to define either of these terms, or how to implement “country owned capacity building”. Discussion Concepts around capacity building have been well developed in the for-profit business sector, but remain less well defined in the non-profit and social sectors in low and middle-income countries. Historically, capacity building in developing countries has been externally driven, related to project implementation, and often resulted in disempowerment of local organizations rather than local ownership. Despite the expenditure of millions of dollars, there is no consensus on how to conduct capacity building, nor have there been rigorous evaluations of capacity building efforts. To shift to a new paradigm of country owned capacity building, donor assistance needs to be inclusive in the planning process and create true partnerships to conduct organizational assessments, analyze challenges to organizational success, prioritize addressing challenges, and implement appropriate activities to build new capacity in overcoming challenges. Before further investments are made, a solid evidence base should be established concerning what works and what doesn’t work to build capacity. Summary Country-owned capacity building is a relatively new concept that requires further theoretical exploration. Documents such as The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness detail the principles of country ownership to which partner and donor countries should commit, but do not identify the specific mechanisms to carry out these

  8. Building capacity for health promotion--a case study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kwok-Cho; Nutbeam, Don; Kong, Lingzhi; Wang, Ruotao; Yan, Jun

    2005-09-01

    During the period 1997-2000 a technical assistance project to build capacity for community-based health promotion was implemented in seven cities and one province in China. The technical assistance project formed part of a much larger World Bank supported program to improve disease prevention capabilities in China, commonly known as Health VII. The technical assistance project was funded by the Australian Agency for International Development. It was designed to develop capacity within the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the cities and province in the management of community-based health promotion projects, as well as supporting institutional development and public health policy reform. There are some relatively unique features of this technical assistance which helped shape its implementation and impact. It sought to provide the Chinese MOH and the cities and province with an introduction to comprehensive health promotion strategies, in contrast to the more limited information, education and communication strategies. The project was provided on a continuing basis over 3 years through a single institution, rather than as a series of ad hoc consultancies by individuals. Teaching and learning processes were developmental, leading progressively to a greater degree of local Chinese input and management to ensure sustainability and maintenance of technical support for the project. Based on this experience, this paper presents a model for capacity building projects of this type. It describes the education, training and planning activities that were the key inputs to the project, as well as the limited available evidence on the impact of the project. It describes how the project evolved over time to meet the changing needs of the participants, specifically how the content of the project shifted from a risk-factor orientation to a settings-based focus, and the delivery of the project moved from an expert-led approach to a more participatory, problem based learning approach. In

  9. Equity in international health research collaborations in Africa: Perceptions and expectations of African researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munung, Nchangwi Syntia; Mayosi, Bongani M; de Vries, Jantina

    2017-01-01

    Africa is currently host to a number of international genomics research and biobanking consortia, each with a mandate to advance genomics research and biobanking in Africa. Whilst most of these consortia promise to transform the way international health research is done in Africa, few have articulated exactly how they propose to go about this. In this paper, we report on a qualitative interviewing study in which we involved 17 genomics researchers in Africa. We describe their perceptions and expectations of international genomics research and biobanking initiatives in Africa. All interviewees were of the view that externally funded genomics research and biobanking initiatives in Africa, have played a critical role in building capacity for genomics research and biobanking in Africa and in providing an opportunity for researchers in Africa to collaborate and network with other researchers. Whilst the opportunity to collaborate was seen as a benefit, some interviewees stressed the importance of recognizing that these collaborations carry mutual benefits for all partners, including their collaborators in HICs. They also voiced two major concerns of being part of these collaborative initiatives: the possibility of exploitation of African researchers and the non-sustainability of research capacity building efforts. As a way of minimising exploitation, researchers in Africa recommended that genuine efforts be made to create transparent and equitable international health research partnerships. They suggested that this could be achieved through,: having rules of engagement, enabling African researchers to contribute to the design and conduct of international health projects in Africa, and mutual and respectful exchange of experience and capacity between research collaborators. These were identified as hallmarks to equitable international health research collaborations in Africa. Genomics research and biobanking initiatives in Africa such as H3Africa have gone some way in

  10. Research Equity: A Capacity Building Workshop of Research Methodology for Medical Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is a cornerstone for knowledge generation, which in turns requires capacity building for its tools and techniques. Despite having a vast infrastructure in India the research in medical science has been carried out in limited and focused institutions. In order to build the capacity in carrying out research activities a five-day planning workshop was conducted at state run medical college. Total 22 medical faculty members participated in the workshop with average public health experience of 12 years (range: 5–25 years. The knowledge was assessed objectively by multiple-choice questionnaire. The mean score increased from 6.7 to 7.9 from pre- to posttest. About seventy-percent participants showed improvement, whereas 21.0% showed deterioration in the knowledge and the rest showed the same score. Apart from knowledge skills also showed improvement as total 12 research projects were generated and eight were approved for funding by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, New Delhi. It can be concluded that a supportive environment for research can be built with the technical assistance.

  11. Global health public-private partnerships: IAVI, partnerships and capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlin, R; Chataway, J; Smith, J

    2007-01-01

    New developments in biotechnology and the need to overcome the lack of incentive for investment in vaccines for diseases affecting Africa have led to the promotion of product development public-private partnerships (PPP). Our work at the ESRC INNOGEN Research Centre assesses the way in which these collaborative mechanisms approach their mission of getting science to work for the poor and what they contribute to broader development objectives, particularly in relation to capacity building. Case study research of the International AIDS Vaccine initiative (IAVI) and their work on the ground in Africa and India has highlighted two legal related issues. First, by working as a PPP the organisation has changed the 'ownership' of science, making the process more flexible and emphasising a bottom-up dialogue process while advocating a private sector ethos. Second--whether intentionally or not--the partnership's emphasis on advocacy and communications has increased the importance of knowledge generation and management activities within the partnership and its availability to stakeholders. This paper attempts to ascertain the impact of these issues for the building of health research capacity.

  12. Building Company Health Promotion Capacity: A Unique Collaboration Between Cargill and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Jason E.; Hersey, James C.; Lynch, Christina M.; Isenberg, Karen L.; Majestic, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Background The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) helps protect the health and safety of all people. The workplace can be used to reach millions of workers and their families with programs, policies, and benefits that promote health. We describe a CDC-led project to build Cargill's workplace health promotion capacity and identify the importance of a company liaison in the public-private relationship. Context The project goals were to engage diverse Cargill personnel, conduct ...

  13. Health Benefits of Green Public Housing: Associations With Asthma Morbidity and Building-Related Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; MacNaughton, Piers; Kane, John; Bennett-Fripp, Mae; Spengler, John; Adamkiewicz, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations of several health outcomes with green and conventional low-income housing, where the prevalence of morbidities and environmental pollutants is elevated. Methods. We used questionnaires and a visual inspection to compare sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and asthma-related morbidity among residents in multifamily units in Boston, Massachusetts, between March 2012 and May 2013. Follow-up was approximately 1 year later. Results. Adults living in green units reported 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66, 2.05) fewer SBS symptoms than those living in conventional (control) homes (P < .001). Furthermore, asthmatic children living in green homes experienced substantially lower risk of asthma symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.12, 1.00), asthma attacks (OR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.11, 0.88), hospital visits (OR = 0.24; 95% CI = 0.06, 0.88), and asthma-related school absences (OR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.06, 0.74) than children living in conventional public housing. Conclusions. Participants living in green homes had improved health outcomes, which remained consistent over the study period. Green housing may provide a significant value in resource-poor settings where green construction or renovation could simultaneously reduce harmful indoor exposures, promote resident health, and reduce operational costs. PMID:26469661

  14. Systematic Consensus Building on Disaster Mental Health Services After the Great East Japan Earthquake by Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Maiko; Suzuki, Yuriko; Nakajima, Satomi; Asano, Keiko; Narisawa, Tomomi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2015-08-01

    We intended to build consensus on appropriate disaster mental health services among professionals working in the area affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake. We focused on the first 3 months after the disaster, divided into 3 phases: immediate aftermath, acute phase, and midphase. We adopted the Delphi process and asked our survey participants (n=115) to rate the appropriateness of specific mental health services in each phase and comment on them. We repeated this process 3 times, giving participants feedback on the results of the previous round. Through this process, we determined the criterion for positive consensus for each item as having the agreement of more than 80% of the participants. We found that the importance of acute psychiatric care and prescribing regular medication for psychiatric patients gained positive consensus in the immediate aftermath and acute phase. Counseling and psychoeducation after traumatic events or provision of information gained consensus in the acute phase and midphase, and screening of mental distress gained consensus in the midphase. Higher priority was given to continuous psychiatric services in the immediate aftermath and mental health activities in later phases.

  15. The Informatics Collaboratory: building an online community to support health care informatics students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, Diane J; Barton, Amy J; Howard, Audrey; Fields, Leeann; McCullar, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    For the past decade, the School of Nursing has examined the role of computer mediated communication and virtual environments in both health care and educational systems. This recent project, the I-Collaboratory, draws upon previous work and builds on recent studies examining the role of social presence in learning communities. The I-Collaboratory creates a virtual infrastructure to support a collaborative learning environment for Master level students in a web-based health care informatics program. This innovative and supportive environment allows students to learn through collaborative inter-actions and have access to a cadre of professionals associated with nursing, informatics and health care. This paper provides an introduction to the concept of a collaboratory and describes the set of principles derived from the literature that serve as a foundation. The process of selecting a web-based platform and the development of the online community based on the results of a need assessment is also detailed. The paper concludes with an outline of the online community components and the plans for evaluation.

  16. Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR): Towards Equitable Involvement of Community in Psychology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan E; Clifasefi, Seema L; Stanton, Joey; Straits, Kee J E; Gil-Kashiwabara, Eleanor; Rodriguez Espinosa, Patricia; Nicasio, Andel V; Andrasik, Michele P; Hawes, Starlyn M; Miller, Kimberly A; Nelson, Lonnie A; Orfaly, Victoria E; Duran, Bonnie M; Wallerstein, Nina

    2018-01-22

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) answers the call for more patient-centered, community-driven research approaches to address growing health disparities. CBPR is a collaborative research approach that equitably involves community members, researchers, and other stakeholders in the research process and recognizes the unique strengths that each bring. The aim of CBPR is to combine knowledge and action to create positive and lasting social change. With its origins in psychology, sociology, and critical pedagogy, CBPR has become a common research approach in the fields of public health, medicine, and nursing. Although it is well aligned with psychology's ethical principles and research aims, it has not been widely implemented in psychology research. The present article introduces CBPR to a general psychology audience while considering the unique aims of and challenges in conducting psychology research. In this article, we define CBPR principles, differentiate it from a more traditional psychology research approach, retrace its historical roots, provide concrete steps for its implementation, discuss its potential benefits, and explore practical and ethical challenges for its integration into psychology research. Finally, we provide a case study of CBPR in psychology to illustrate its key constructs and implementation. In sum, CBPR is a relevant, important, and promising research framework that may guide the implementation of more effective, culturally appropriate, socially just, and sustainable community-based psychology research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Equitable provision of social facilities for a range of settlements: guidelines and tools for integrated provision

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available looks at equitable provision of social facilities for a range of settlements and offers guidelines and tools for integrated provision that incorporates the 1) development of fully provisioned quality living environments, 2) improvement of access...

  18. eLearning for health system leadership and management capacity building: a protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor Car, Lorainne; Atun, Rifat

    2017-08-21

    Health leadership and management capacity are essential for health system strengthening and for attaining universal health coverage by optimising the existing human, technological and financial resources. However, in health systems, health leadership and management training is not widely available. The use of information technology for education (ie, eLearning) could help address this training gap by enabling flexible, efficient and scalable health leadership and management training. We present a protocol for a systematic review on the effectiveness of eLearning for health leadership and management capacity building in improving health system outcomes. We will follow the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. We will search for experimental studies focused on the use of any type of eLearning modality for health management and leadership capacity building in all types of health workforce cadres. The primary outcomes of interest will be health outcomes, financial risk protection and user satisfaction. In addition, secondary outcomes of interest include the attainment of health system objectives of improved equity, efficiency, effectiveness and responsiveness. We will search relevant databases of published and grey literature as well as clinical trials registries from 1990 onwards without language restrictions. Two review authors will screen references, extract data and perform risk of bias assessment independently. Contingent on the heterogeneity of the collated literature, we will perform either a meta-analysis or a narrative synthesis of the collated data. The systematic review will aim to inform policy makers, investors, health professionals, technologists and educators about the existing evidence, potential gaps in literature and the impact of eLearning for health leadership and management capacity building on health system outcomes. We will disseminate the review findings by publishing it as a peer-reviewed journal manuscript and conference abstracts. PROSPERO CRD

  19. Building capacity in health facility management: guiding principles for skills transfer in Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahn Bernice T

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management training is fundamental to developing human resources for health. Particularly as Liberia revives its health delivery system, facility and county health team managers are central to progress. Nevertheless, such management skills are rarely prioritized in health training, and sustained capacity building in this area is limited. We describe a health management delivery program in which a north and south institution collaborated to integrate classroom and field-based training in health management and to transfer the capacity for sustained management development in Liberia. Methods We developed and implemented a 6-month training program in health management skills (i.e. strategic problem solving, financial management, human resource management and leadership delivered by Yale University and Mother Patern College from Liberia, with support from the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Over three 6-month cycles, responsibility for course instruction was transferred from the north institution to the south institution. A self-administered survey was conducted of all participants completing the course to measure changes in self-rated management skills, the degree to which the course was helpful and met its stated objectives, and faculty members' responsiveness to participant needs as the transfer process occurred. Results Respondents (n = 93, response rate 95.9% reported substantial improvement in self-reported management skills, and rated the helpfulness of the course and the degree to which the course met its objectives highly. Levels of improvement and course ratings were similar over the three cohorts as the course was transferred to the south institution. We suggest a framework of five elements for implementing successful management training programs that can be transferred and sustained in resource-limited settings, including: 1 use a short-course format focusing on four key skill areas with practical tools; 2 include

  20. Modeled effects of an improved building insulation scenario in Europe on air pollution, health and societal costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Holst, Gitte Juel; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Europe a substantial share of the energy supply is used for domestic heating and cooling. The quality of building insulation thus significantly impacts air pollution. Objectives: To model the effects of an improved building insulation scenario in Europe on air pollution levels...... and the resulting effects on health and economy. Methods: Projected energy savings between 2005 and 2020 were calculated for an improved building insulation scenario and a business as usual scenario. The resulting changes in emissions (e.g. from power plants) were used in the Comprehensive Air-Quality Model...... with extensions. Mean annual changes in the main air pollutants were derived for each country. World Health Organization (WHO) and European Union (EU) data on populations and on impacts of pollutants were used to derive health effects and costs. Effects on indoor air quality were not assessed. Results: Projected...

  1. Towards an indicator system to assess equitable management in protected areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafra Calvo, Noelia; Pascual, U.; Brockington, D.

    2017-01-01

    Aichi Target 11 (AT11), adopted by 193 Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 2010, states that protected areas (PAs) must be equitably managed by 2020. However, significant challenges remain in terms of actual implementation of equitable management in PAs. These challenges...... of social equity in protected areas: recognition, procedure and distribution. The indicators target information on social equity regarding cultural identity, statutory and customary rights, knowledge diversity; free, prior and informed consent mechanisms, full participation and transparency in decision...

  2. Building equitable community-academic research collaborations: Learning together through tensions and contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Nichols

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the findings from a multi-method study of a community-university research alliance (Assets Coming Together for Youth that brings together multidisciplinary academics, graduate student research assistants, community stakeholders and youth research interns. The project undertook evaluative and reflexive research to better understand how these different partnership group members experienced the collaborative process. The article draws on focus group discussions with the four stakeholder groups, in-depth interviews with youth research interns and an online partnership assessment survey of partnership group members. Data highlight people’s ambivalence toward the partnership process. Despite a shared desire to collaborate, it is difficult to maintain a process that mobilises the outcomes of collaboration for the mutual benefit of all stakeholders. In this article, we explore three key factors that shape people’s perspectives on the partnership process: historical and institutional relations; structures for communicating across difference; and opportunities for learning. A close examination of these three factors suggests that ongoing opportunities for communication about, and learning from, people’s ambivalence (that is, uncertainty or hesitation supports a positive and productive partnership process. Keywords: Community-academic research, collaboration, process, equity, learning, youth

  3. [On the evaluation of health factors in high-rise buildings. 3. Sociological investigations and questioning of physicians about living in high-rise buildings (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisitzer, K; Möse, J R

    1981-01-01

    It can be rightly assumed that there are persons who evidently prefer to live in high-rise buildings. They should not be prevented from doing so as long as no evidence is produced that this preference neither does any serious harm to the people concerned nor causes any major risk of damage to the community. To our knowledge, accurate and sufficiently extensive empirical investigations have not yet been undertaken. One cannot help feeling that general shortcomings (e.g. inadequate town planning, housing planning, workmanship etc.) lead to a hunt for scapegoats. The high-rise building appears to be a rewarding object for such intentions. There is conclusive evidence that dwellings of good and poor quality exist. Both can be found in the detached single-family house and in the tower block. What has to be claimed is mainly a good location and good workmanship, for both are much more important than the type of the dwelling. The most striking deficiencies which were found in the high-rise buildings of Graz are mistaken selection of the location and poor workmanship. The improvement of the living conditions of a larger number of people will therefore depend more on the elimination of these shortcomings rather than on the promotion of certain types of dwelling. Subsequent to these sociological investigations, a physician questioned the general practitioners prevailingly attending to tenants of the high-rise buildings under study. There is no trend toward an increased incidence of objectively determinable diseases among the people living on the upper storeys of the high-rise buildings under review. This holds good for both the adults and the children. By contrast, the factor "noise" evidently influences health to some extent. The influence of this factor is partly so overrated that it outweighs, in particularly severe cases, any other adverse environmental condition.

  4. Leadership in strategic information (LSI) building skilled public health capacity in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Italia V; Zaidi, Irum; Scharff, Jennifer; Jones, Donna; Firew, Aynalem; Enquselassie, Fikre; Negash, Ashenafi; Deyessa, Negussie; Mitike, Getnet; Sunderland, Nadine; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-08-12

    In many developing countries, including Ethiopia, few have the skills to use data for effective decision making in public health. To address this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with two local Ethiopian organizations, developed a year long Leadership in Strategic Information (LSI) course to train government employees working in HIV to use data from strategic information sources. A process evaluation of the LSI course examined the impact of the training on trainees' skills and the strengths and weaknesses of the course. The evaluation consisted of surveys and focus groups. Trainees' skill sets increased in descriptive and analytic epidemiology, surveillance, and monitoring and evaluation (M and E). Data from the evaluation indicated that the course structure and the M and E module required revision in order to improve outcomes. Additionally, the first cohort had a high attrition rate. Overall, trainees and key stakeholders viewed LSI as important in building skilled capacity in public health in Ethiopia. The evaluation provided constructive insight in modifying the course to improve retention and better address trainees' learning needs. Subsequent course attrition rates decreased as a result of changes made based on evaluation findings.

  5. Leadership in strategic information (LSI) building skilled public health capacity in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In many developing countries, including Ethiopia, few have the skills to use data for effective decision making in public health. To address this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with two local Ethiopian organizations, developed a year long Leadership in Strategic Information (LSI) course to train government employees working in HIV to use data from strategic information sources. A process evaluation of the LSI course examined the impact of the training on trainees' skills and the strengths and weaknesses of the course. The evaluation consisted of surveys and focus groups. Findings Trainees' skill sets increased in descriptive and analytic epidemiology, surveillance, and monitoring and evaluation (M and E). Data from the evaluation indicated that the course structure and the M and E module required revision in order to improve outcomes. Additionally, the first cohort had a high attrition rate. Overall, trainees and key stakeholders viewed LSI as important in building skilled capacity in public health in Ethiopia. Conclusion The evaluation provided constructive insight in modifying the course to improve retention and better address trainees' learning needs. Subsequent course attrition rates decreased as a result of changes made based on evaluation findings. PMID:21838898

  6. Building a consensus on community health workers' scope of practice: lessons from New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, Sally E; Matos, Sergio; Hicks, April L; Campbell, Ayanna; Moore, Addison; Diaz, Diurka

    2012-10-01

    We evaluated efforts in New York to build a consensus between community health workers (CHWs) and employers on CHWs' scope of practice, training standards, and certification procedures. We conducted multiple-choice surveys in 2008 and 2010 with 226 CHWs and 44 employers. We compared CHWs' and employers' recommendations regarding 28 scope of practice elements. The participatory ranking method was used to identify consensus scope of practice recommendations. There was consensus on 5 scope of practice elements: outreach and community organizing, case management and care coordination, home visits, health education and coaching, and system navigation. For each element, 3 to 4 essential skills were identified, giving a total of 27 skills. These included all skills recommended in national CHW studies, along with 3 unique to New York: computer skills, participatory research methods, and time management. CHWs and employers in New York were in consensus on CHWs' scope of practice on virtually all of the detailed core competency skills. The CHW scope of practice recommendations of these groups can help other states refine their scope of practice elements.

  7. Building a Consensus on Community Health Workers’ Scope of Practice: Lessons From New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Sergio; Hicks, April L.; Campbell, Ayanna; Moore, Addison; Diaz, Diurka

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated efforts in New York to build a consensus between community health workers (CHWs) and employers on CHWs’ scope of practice, training standards, and certification procedures. Methods. We conducted multiple-choice surveys in 2008 and 2010 with 226 CHWs and 44 employers. We compared CHWs’ and employers’ recommendations regarding 28 scope of practice elements. The participatory ranking method was used to identify consensus scope of practice recommendations. Results. There was consensus on 5 scope of practice elements: outreach and community organizing, case management and care coordination, home visits, health education and coaching, and system navigation. For each element, 3 to 4 essential skills were identified, giving a total of 27 skills. These included all skills recommended in national CHW studies, along with 3 unique to New York: computer skills, participatory research methods, and time management. Conclusions. CHWs and employers in New York were in consensus on CHWs’ scope of practice on virtually all of the detailed core competency skills. The CHW scope of practice recommendations of these groups can help other states refine their scope of practice elements. PMID:22897548

  8. Leadership in strategic information (LSI building skilled public health capacity in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitike Getnet

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, including Ethiopia, few have the skills to use data for effective decision making in public health. To address this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, in collaboration with two local Ethiopian organizations, developed a year long Leadership in Strategic Information (LSI course to train government employees working in HIV to use data from strategic information sources. A process evaluation of the LSI course examined the impact of the training on trainees' skills and the strengths and weaknesses of the course. The evaluation consisted of surveys and focus groups. Findings Trainees' skill sets increased in descriptive and analytic epidemiology, surveillance, and monitoring and evaluation (M and E. Data from the evaluation indicated that the course structure and the M and E module required revision in order to improve outcomes. Additionally, the first cohort had a high attrition rate. Overall, trainees and key stakeholders viewed LSI as important in building skilled capacity in public health in Ethiopia. Conclusion The evaluation provided constructive insight in modifying the course to improve retention and better address trainees' learning needs. Subsequent course attrition rates decreased as a result of changes made based on evaluation findings.

  9. Educating for leadership: a programme designed to build a responsive health care culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Karyn; Henderson, Amanda; Trivella, Alison

    2010-01-01

    To describe a leadership programme that progressively builds nurses capacity from the commencement of their employment to assist with the development of 'others'. Such an approach ultimately contributes to the creation of a team responsive to changing health care needs. The literature supports the relationship between positive leadership attributes, good nursing care and patient outcomes. Despite this, nurses are not routinely encultured into effective leadership practices early in their career, but rather they are 'added on' at a later stage according to organizational need. The effective education of leadership practices in this programme is largely dependent on an inclusive and embedded approach to learning. This is achieved through targeting staff early, enhancing their responses to clinical interactions in a structured and supported approach, and challenging their beliefs about capacity to influence through leadership. Clinical leadership education needs to directly link with clinical areas to engage staff at the commencement of employment, and support them through their career trajectory, so that a systematic pathway of professional development is fostered. Clearly delineated progressive pathways for leadership development are essential to encourage lifelong reflection and learning that directly impacts on health care quality.

  10. Symptoms of Sick Building Syndrome in Office Workers of Petroleum Industry Health Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Jafari; Ali Asghar Khajevandi; Seyed Ali Mousavi Najarkola; Mohammad Amin Pourhoseingholi; Leila Omidi; Esmaeil Zarei

    2015-01-01

    Background­ and objectives : Research has consistently shown that air quality personal factors and work related factors were the most effective parameters for sick building syndrome. Several epidemiological studies have been carried out to show the prevalence of the sick building syndrome among the office workers but less attention has been paid to the relation of the sick building syndrome and the environmental parameters. In this work, the relationship between sick building symptoms and ind...

  11. Design and implementation of a structural health monitoring and alerting system for hospital buildings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Kalkan, Erol; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Friberg, Paul; Leith, W. K.; Banga, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the current progress in the development of a structural health monitoring and alerting system to meet the needs of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs to monitor hospital buildings instrumented in high and very high seismic hazard regions in the U.S. The system, using the measured vibration data, is primarily designed for post-earthquake condition assessment of the buildings. It has two essential components – sensing and analysis. The sensing component includes all necessary firmware and sensors to measure the response of the building; while the analysis component consists of several data processing modules integrated into an open source software package which compresses a large amount of measured data into useful information to assess the building’s condition before and after an event. The information can be used for a rapid building safety assessment, and to support decisions for necessary repairs, replacements, and other maintenance and rehabilitation measures.

  12. Privacy protection and public goods: building a genetic database for health research in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosseim, Patricia; Pullman, Daryl; Perrot-Daley, Astrid; Hodgkinson, Kathy; Street, Catherine; Rahman, Proton

    2013-01-01

    To provide a legal and ethical analysis of some of the implementation challenges faced by the Population Therapeutics Research Group (PTRG) at Memorial University (Canada), in using genealogical information offered by individuals for its genetics research database. This paper describes the unique historical and genetic characteristics of the Newfoundland and Labrador founder population, which gave rise to the opportunity for PTRG to build the Newfoundland Genealogy Database containing digitized records of all pre-confederation (1949) census records of the Newfoundland founder population. In addition to building the database, PTRG has developed the Heritability Analytics Infrastructure, a data management structure that stores genotype, phenotype, and pedigree information in a single database, and custom linkage software (KINNECT) to perform pedigree linkages on the genealogy database. A newly adopted legal regimen in Newfoundland and Labrador is discussed. It incorporates health privacy legislation with a unique research ethics statute governing the composition and activities of research ethics boards and, for the first time in Canada, elevating the status of national research ethics guidelines into law. The discussion looks at this integration of legal and ethical principles which provides a flexible and seamless framework for balancing the privacy rights and welfare interests of individuals, families, and larger societies in the creation and use of research data infrastructures as public goods. The complementary legal and ethical frameworks that now coexist in Newfoundland and Labrador provide the legislative authority, ethical legitimacy, and practical flexibility needed to find a workable balance between privacy interests and public goods. Such an approach may also be instructive for other jurisdictions as they seek to construct and use biobanks and related research platforms for genetic research.

  13. A strategic approach to public health workforce development and capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Hazel D; Myles, Ranell L; Spears-Jones, Crystal; Bishop-Cline, Audriene; Fenton, Kevin A

    2014-11-01

    In February 2010, CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD), and Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention (NCHHSTP) formally institutionalized workforce development and capacity building (WDCB) as one of six overarching goals in its 2010-2015 Strategic Plan. Annually, workforce team members finalize an action plan that lays the foundation for programs to be implemented for NCHHSTP's workforce that year. This paper describes selected WDCB programs implemented by NCHHSTP during the last 4 years in the three strategic goal areas: (1) attracting, recruiting, and retaining a diverse and sustainable workforce; (2) providing staff with development opportunities to ensure the effective and innovative delivery of NCHHSTP programs; and (3) continuously recognizing performance and achievements of staff and creating an atmosphere that promotes a healthy work-life balance. Programs have included but are not limited to an Ambassador Program for new hires, career development training for all staff, leadership and coaching for mid-level managers, and a Laboratory Workforce Development Initiative for laboratory scientists. Additionally, the paper discusses three overarching areas-employee communication, evaluation and continuous review to guide program development, and the implementation of key organizational and leadership structures to ensure accountability and continuity of programs. Since 2010, many lessons have been learned regarding strategic approaches to scaling up organization-wide public health workforce development and capacity building. Perhaps the most important is the value of ensuring the high-level strategic prioritization of this issue, demonstrating to staff and partners the importance of this imperative in achieving NCHHSTP's mission. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Effective vaccine safety systems in all countries: a challenge for more equitable access to immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Ananda; Black, Steve; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Carvalho, Sandra M Deotti; Dodoo, Alexander; Eskola, Juhani; Larson, Heidi; Shin, Sunheang; Olsson, Sten; Balakrishnan, Madhava Ram; Bellah, Ahmed; Lambach, Philipp; Maure, Christine; Wood, David; Zuber, Patrick; Akanmori, Bartholomew; Bravo, Pamela; Pombo, María; Langar, Houda; Pfeifer, Dina; Guichard, Stéphane; Diorditsa, Sergey; Hossain, Md Shafiqul; Sato, Yoshikuni

    2013-04-18

    Serious vaccine-associated adverse events are rare. To further minimize their occurrence and to provide adequate care to those affected, careful monitoring of immunization programs and case management is required. Unfounded vaccine safety concerns have the potential of seriously derailing effective immunization activities. To address these issues, vaccine pharmacovigilance systems have been developed in many industrialized countries. As new vaccine products become available to prevent new diseases in various parts of the world, the demand for effective pharmacovigilance systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is increasing. To help establish such systems in all countries, WHO developed the Global Vaccine Safety Blueprint in 2011. This strategic plan is based on an in-depth analysis of the vaccine safety landscape that involved many stakeholders. This analysis reviewed existing systems and international vaccine safety activities and assessed the financial resources required to operate them. The Blueprint sets three main strategic goals to optimize the safety of vaccines through effective use of pharmacovigilance principles and methods: to ensure minimal vaccine safety capacity in all countries; to provide enhanced capacity for specific circumstances; and to establish a global support network to assist national authorities with capacity building and crisis management. In early 2012, the Global Vaccine Safety Initiative (GVSI) was launched to bring together and explore synergies among on-going vaccine safety activities. The Global Vaccine Action Plan has identified the Blueprint as its vaccine safety strategy. There is an enormous opportunity to raise awareness for vaccine safety in LMIC and to garner support from a large number of stakeholders for the GVSI between now and 2020. Synergies and resource mobilization opportunities presented by the Decade of Vaccines can enhance monitoring and response to vaccine safety issues, thereby leading to more equitable

  15. Evaluation Capacity Building in the Context of Military Psychological Health: Utilizing Preskill and Boyle's Multidisciplinary Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Lara; Libretto, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    The need for evaluation capacity building (ECB) in military psychological health is apparent in light of the proliferation of newly developed, yet untested programs coupled with the lack of internal evaluation expertise. This study addresses these deficiencies by utilizing Preskill and Boyle's multidisciplinary ECB model within a post-traumatic…

  16. Building Social Capital Through a Peer-Led Community Health Workshop: A Pilot with the Bhutanese Refugee Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyojin; Rosenberg, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    Despite the high health and mental health care needs, resettled refugees often face cultural and linguistic challenges that hinder the access to appropriate and timely interventions and services. Additionally, such concepts as preventive health or mental health treatment are foreign to this population, which creates additional burdens to the refugee community that already have difficulty navigating a complex health care system in the U.S. To address multiple and complex gaps in health and mental health support for the refugee community, requested is an innovative approach that can convey culturally responsive and effective interventions for health promotion, such as peer-based health education. Few studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of peer-led community health interventions with refugee populations in the U.S. resettlement context. However, peer-led interventions have been shown to be effective when working with cultural minorities and interventions in an international context. Adopting a social capital framework, the current study conducted qualitative evaluation on the impact of a pilot peer-led community health workshop (CHW) in the Bhutanese refugee community. A hybrid thematic analysis of focus group discussion data revealed the improvement in health promotion outcomes and health practice, as well as perceived emotional health. The results also showed that the peer-led CHW provided a platform of community building and participation, while increasing a sense of community, sense of belonging and unity. The findings posit that a peer-led intervention model provides culturally responsive and effective tools for building social capital and promoting community health in the refugee community.

  17. RedeAmericas: building research capacity in young leaders for sustainable growth in community mental health services in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Pratt, C; Valencia, E; Conover, S; Fernández, R; Burrone, M S; Cavalcanti, M T; Lovisi, G; Rojas, G; Alvarado, R; Galea, S; Price, L N; Susser, E

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and initial accomplishments of a training program of young leaders in community mental health research as part of a Latin American initiative known as RedeAmericas. RedeAmericas was one of five regional 'Hubs' funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to improve community mental health care and build mental health research capacity in low- and middle-income countries. It included investigators in six Latin American cities - Santiago, Chile; Medellín, Colombia; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and Córdoba, Neuquén, and Buenos Aires in Argentina - working together with a team affiliated with the Global Mental Health program at Columbia University in New York City. One component of RedeAmericas was a capacity-building effort that included an Awardee program for early career researchers in the mental health field. We review the aims of this component, how it developed, and what was learned that would be useful for future capacity-building efforts, and also comment on future prospects for maintaining this type of effort.

  18. Infrastructures to Support Equitable STEM Learning across Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; Clark, Tiffany L.; Bevan, Bronwyn

    2016-01-01

    STEM learning is a process that unfolds through dynamic interactions over time and across settings. Formal education in schools is not the only--or necessarily the most significant--context for STEM learning. This paper outlines principles for building a diverse and connected ecosystem and the features of a STEM learning infrastructure to promote…

  19. High and equitable mass vitamin A supplementation coverage in Sierra Leone: a post-event coverage survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Mary H; Sesay, Fatmata F; Kamara, Habib I; Turay, Mohamed; Koroma, Aminata S; Blankenship, Jessica L; Katcher, Heather I

    2013-08-01

    In Sierra Leone, children ages 6-59 months receive twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation (VAS) through Maternal and Child Health Week (MCHW) events. VAS coverage in 2011 was calculated using government tally sheets of vitamin A capsule distribution and outdated population projections from the 2004 census. We conducted a national post-event coverage (PEC) survey to validate coverage and inform strategies to reach universal coverage of VAS in Sierra Leone. Immediately following the November 2011 MCHW event, we conducted a national PEC survey by interviewing caregivers with children ages 6-59 months using a randomized 30X30 cluster design (N = 900). We also interviewed one health worker and one community health worker in each cluster to determine their knowledge about VAS (N = 60). VAS coverage was 91.8% among children ages 6-59 months, which was lower than the 105.1% reported through tally sheets. Coverage was high and equitable among all districts and between age groups (98.5% for infants ages 6-11 months and 90.5% for children ages 12-59 months). Major reasons for not receiving VAS were that the child was out of the area (42.4%), the household was not visited by community health workers (28.0%), and the caretaker was not aware of the event (11.9%). Twice-yearly delivery of VAS through MCHW events achieved consistently high and equitable coverage in Sierra Leone. Universal coverage may be achieved through continued focus on communication and targeted outreach to hard-to-reach areas during the MCHWs.

  20. Building a learning health system using clinical registers: a non-technical introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovretveit, John; Nelson, Eugene; James, Brent

    2016-10-10

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe how clinical registers were designed and used to serve multiple purposes in three health systems, in order to contribute practical experience for building learning healthcare systems. Design/methodology/approach Case description and comparison of the development and use of clinical registries, drawing on participants' experience and published and unpublished research. Findings Clinical registers and new software systems enable fact-based decisions by patients, clinicians, and managers about better care, as well as new and more economical research. Designing systems to present the data for users' daily work appears to be the key to effective use of the potential afforded by digital data. Research limitations/implications The case descriptions draw on the experience of the authors who were involved in the development of the registers, as well as on published and unpublished research. There is limited data about outcomes for patients or cost-effectiveness. Practical implications The cases show the significant investments which are needed to make effective use of clinical register data. There are limited skills to design and apply the digital systems to make the best use of the systems and to reduce their disadvantages. More use can be made of digital data for quality improvement, patient empowerment and support, and for research. Social implications Patients can use their data combined with other data to self-manage their chronic conditions. There are challenges in designing and using systems so that those with lower health and computer literacy and incomes also benefit from these systems, otherwise the digital revolution may increase health inequalities. Originality/value The paper shows three real examples of clinical registers which have been developed as part of their host health systems' strategies to develop learning healthcare systems. The paper gives a simple non-technical introduction and overview for

  1. Assistive technology pricing in Australia: is it efficient and equitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Michael P; Verikios, George

    2017-02-06

    Objective To examine available systematically collected evidence regarding prices for assistive technology (AT; e.g. disability aids and equipment) in Australia with other comparable countries. Issues of appropriate AT pricing are coming to the fore as a consequence of efforts to move to consumer-centric purchasing decisions with the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) and also in the recent aged care reforms.Methods We identified and present three sets of AT price comparisons. Two comparisons were based solely on the lowest prices advertised on the internet, and one comparison examined recommended retail prices. Variables essential to ensuring accurate comparisons, as well as significant supply-chain issues were also examined and considered in the analyses.Results The first internet-only price comparison found that overall AT prices were 38% higher in Australia compared to other countries, but did not factor in shipping and other related costs that are essential to include given that most AT is imported. The second internet-only price comparison found that overall Australian prices were 24% lower when shipping and related costs were included. The recommended retail price comparisons found that Australian prices were between 14% and 27% lower. Prices for internet-only retailers (those with no bricks-and-mortar presence) are consistently lower for all products than those sold by retailers with actual shop-fronts. Further, there is no evidence of suppliers earning supranormal profits in Australia.Conclusions The results indicate that AT prices in Australia are efficient and equitable, with no significant indicators of market failure which would require government intervention. Efforts to reduce prices through the excessive use of large-scale government procurement programs are likely to reduce diversity and innovation in AT and raise AT prices over time. Open markets and competition with centralised tracking of purchases and providers to minimise possible

  2. Integrating Brazilian health information systems in order to support the building of data warehouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Miranda Freire

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionThis paper's aim is to develop a data warehouse from the integration of the files of three Brazilian health information systems concerned with the production of ambulatory and hospital procedures for cancer care, and cancer mortality. These systems do not have a unique patient identification, which makes their integration difficult even within a single system.MethodsData from the Brazilian Public Hospital Information System (SIH-SUS, the Oncology Module for the Outpatient Information System (APAC-ONCO and the Mortality Information System (SIM for the State of Rio de Janeiro, in the period from January 2000 to December 2004 were used. Each of the systems has the monthly data production compiled in dbase files (dbf. All the files pertaining to the same system were then read into a corresponding table in a MySQL Server 5.1. The SIH-SUS and APAC-ONCO tables were linked internally and with one another through record linkage methods. The APAC-ONCO table was linked to the SIM table. Afterwards a data warehouse was built using Pentaho and the MySQL database management system.ResultsThe sensitivities and specificities of the linkage processes were above 95% and close to 100% respectively. The data warehouse provided several analytical views that are accessed through the Pentaho Schema Workbench.ConclusionThis study presented a proposal for the integration of Brazilian Health Systems to support the building of data warehouses and provide information beyond those currently available with the individual systems.

  3. Building on mental health training for law enforcement: strengthening community partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jorien; Ahalt, Cyrus; Hagar, Randall; Arroyo, William

    2017-09-11

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the current state of law enforcement training related to the high number of interactions with persons with mental illness, and to recommend next steps in preparing law enforcement to effectively meet this challenge. Design/methodology/approach The authors reviewed the current literature on relevant law enforcement training programs, focusing primarily on crisis intervention team (CIT) training, and used the case example of California to identify opportunities to improve and enhance law enforcement preparedness for the challenge of responding to persons with mental illness. Findings Broad-based community partnerships working together to develop programs that meet the local needs of both those with mental illness and law enforcement, the availability of mental health treatment centers with no-refusal policies, and a coordinating person or agency to effectively liaise among stakeholders are critical enhancements to CIT training. Originality/value As increasing attention is paid to adverse interactions between police and vulnerable populations, this paper identifies policies that would build on existing training programs to improve police responses to persons with mental illness.

  4. Ultrasonic Lateral Displacement Sensor for Health Monitoring in Seismically Isolated Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuya, Iwao; Matsumoto, Fumiya; Ihara, Ikuo

    2015-07-13

    An ultrasonic lateral displacement sensor utilizing air-coupled ultrasound transducers is proposed. The normally-distributed far field of an ultrasound transducer in a lateral direction is taken advantage of for measuring lateral displacement. The measurement system is composed of several air-coupled ultrasound transducers as a receiver and several transmitters. The transmitters are immobilized at a fixed point, whereas the receiver set-up is separately arranged on the opposite side. In order to improve measurement accuracy, a correction method that utilizes polynomial approximation is introduced. The difference between the corrected lateral displacement and the reference displacement is estimated to be 0.2 mm at maximum for the two transmitters system. A good responsiveness is demonstrated by conducting a dynamic response experiment. When five transmitters are arranged, their measurement range is easily extended up to ±60 mm with an accuracy of 0.7 mm. In both cases, the fluctuations to the measurement ranges show less than 1%. These results indicate that the developed sensor system is useful for measuring relative lateral displacement of a seismically isolated building in the field of structural health monitoring.

  5. [Advances and challenges in building the national health research system in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagui, Martín; Espinoza, Manuel; Caballero, Patricia; Castilla, Teresa; Garro, Gladys; Yamaguchi, L Patricia; Mormontoy, Henry; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Velásquez, Aníbal; Cabezas, César

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the situational status of the National Health Research System of Peru (NHRS), the lessons learnt during the building process, the opportunities to improve it and the challenges. A description of the functions of the peruvian NHRS is done, in relation to governance, legal framework, research priorities, funding, creation and sustainability of resources and research production and utilization. It describes that in Peru we excert governance in research, we count with regulations, policy and research priorities, these last developed in the framework of a participatory, inclusive process. The conclusion reached is that the challenges of the peruvian NHRS are to consolidate the governance and to develop the mechanisms to articulate the stakeholders involved in research, to improve the resources allocation for research and innovation, to elaborate a plan for the development of human resources dedicated to research, to develop institutions and regional competences in order to perform research, and to link research in order to solve problems and make national research policies sustainable.

  6. Integrating Building Information Modeling and Health and Safety for Onsite Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganah, Abdulkadir; John, Godfaurd A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Health and safety (H&S) on a construction site can either make or break a contractor, if not properly managed. The usage of Building Information Modeling (BIM) for H&S on construction execution has the potential to augment practitioner understanding of their sites, and by so doing reduce the probability of accidents. This research explores BIM usage within the construction industry in relation to H&S communication. Methods In addition to an extensive literature review, a questionnaire survey was conducted to gather information on the embedment of H&S planning with the BIM environment for site practitioners. Results The analysis of responses indicated that BIM will enhance the current approach of H&S planning for construction site personnel. Conclusion From the survey, toolbox talk will have to be integrated with the BIM environment, because it is the predominantly used procedure for enhancing H&S issues within construction sites. The advantage is that personnel can visually understand H&S issues as work progresses during the toolbox talk onsite. PMID:25830069

  7. Integrating building information modeling and health and safety for onsite construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganah, Abdulkadir; John, Godfaurd A

    2015-03-01

    Health and safety (H&S) on a construction site can either make or break a contractor, if not properly managed. The usage of Building Information Modeling (BIM) for H&S on construction execution has the potential to augment practitioner understanding of their sites, and by so doing reduce the probability of accidents. This research explores BIM usage within the construction industry in relation to H&S communication. In addition to an extensive literature review, a questionnaire survey was conducted to gather information on the embedment of H&S planning with the BIM environment for site practitioners. The analysis of responses indicated that BIM will enhance the current approach of H&S planning for construction site personnel. From the survey, toolbox talk will have to be integrated with the BIM environment, because it is the predominantly used procedure for enhancing H&S issues within construction sites. The advantage is that personnel can visually understand H&S issues as work progresses during the toolbox talk onsite.

  8. Building the Capacity to Build Capacity in e-Health in Sub-Saharan Africa: The KwaZulu-Natal Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Sub-Saharan Africa has a disproportionate burden of disease and an extreme shortage of health workers. There are already too few doctors to train doctors in specialities and sub-specialties. E-health is seen as a possible solution through distance education, telemedicine, and computerized health information systems but there are few people trained in e-health. We describe 12 years of experience at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N) in education and training in postgraduate medical disciplines, medical informatics, and telemedicine. Medical Education: Videoconferencing of seminars and grand rounds to regional training hospitals commenced in 2001 and has grown to 40 h of interactive conferencing taking place weekly during academic terms involving over 33,000 participants in 2010. Videoconferenced sessions are directly recorded to DVD and DVDs are sent to other medical schools in Africa that do not have the infrastructure to directly connect. E-health Education: Students and academic staff were initially sent to the United States for training in medical informatics and workshops were held in South Africa for people from sub-Saharan Africa. This led to the development of postgraduate academic programs in medical informatics and telemedicine at UKZ-N. African students were then brought to UKZ-N for training. The model was changed from UKZ-N to students and staff based at their home universities with the aim of building capacity in the staff at partner institutions so that they can in time offer their own e-health academic programs. Conclusions: The need for capacity development in all aspects of e-health in sub-Saharan Africa is great and innovative solutions are required. PMID:22150714

  9. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Starling

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse’s cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare.

  10. University of Global Health Equity's Contribution to the Reduction of Education and Health Services Rationing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnes

    2017-05-29

    The inadequate supply of health workers and demand-side barriers due to clinical practice that heeds too little attention to cultural context are serious obstacles to achieving universal health coverage and the fulfillment of the human rights to health, especially for the poor and vulnerable living in remote rural areas. A number of strategies have been deployed to increase both the supply of healthcare workers and the demand for healthcare services. However, more can be done to improve service delivery as well as mitigate the geographic inequalities that exist in this field. To contribute to overcoming these barriers and increasing access to health services, especially for the most vulnerable, Partners In Health (PIH), a US non-governmental organization specializing in equitable health service delivery, has created the University of Global Health Equity (UGHE) in a remote rural district of Rwanda. The act of building this university in such a rural setting signals a commitment to create opportunities where there have traditionally been few. Furthermore, through its state-of-the-art educational approach in a rural setting and its focus on cultural competency, UGHE is contributing to progress in the quest for equitable access to quality health services. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  11. Veterinary public health capacity-building in India: a grim reflection of the developing world's underpreparedness to address zoonotic risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Manish; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kumar, Ashok; Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Sharma, Kavya; Bhatt, Purvi Mehta; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Veterinary public health (VPH) is ideally suited to promote convergence between human, animal and environmental sectors. Recent zoonotic and emerging infectious disease events have given rise to increasing calls for efforts to build global VPH capacities. However, even with their greater vulnerability to such events, including their economic and livelihood impacts, the response from low-and middle-income countries such as India has been suboptimal, thereby elevating global health risks. Addressing risks effectively at the human-animal interface in these countries will require a clear vision, consistent policies, strategic approach and sustained political commitment to reform and refine the current VPH capacity-building efforts. Only then can the discipline serve its goal of disease prevention, poverty alleviation and support for sustainable livelihoods through improvements in human and animal health.

  12. Transnational Strategies for the Promotion of Physical Activity and Active Aging: The World Health Organization Model of Consensus Building in International Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Schwingel, Andiara

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we focus our attention on an examination of the four-step process adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in its systematic campaign to promote physically active lifestyles by older adults across the 193 WHO member states. The four steps adopted by the WHO include (1) Building Consensus Among Professionals; (2) Educating the…

  13. Building integrated health systems in central and eastern Europe: an analysis of WHO and World Bank views and their relevance to health systems in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnoij, Diana M J; Klazinga, Niek S; van der Velden, Koos

    2003-09-01

    Two questions are addressed. i) What are the views on health and health systems as expressed in the World Development Report 2000/2001 of the WB and the World Health Report 2000 and Health 21 of the World Health Organization, and how compatible are those views? ii) To what extent will compliance of CEEC and NIS with the WHO and WB recommendations result in health systems that produce maximum health for all by adequately addressing the needs of their populations? The reports prepared by the World Bank and the World Health Organization were assessed against the theoretical framework of a needs-based public health approach. It is observed that the WHO and WB approaches are currently converging, although there remain differences in their respective focuses. The main merit of the WHO approach is its focus on performance and the systems approach towards health (care). The merit of the WB view is the integrated approach to health, education and poverty. It is argued that CEEC and NIS need to anticipate an ageing population and growing numbers of chronically ill. This calls for integrated health care systems and more integrated funding and payment systems. The recommendations provided in the WHR and the WDR with regard to integrated care and integrated financing remain rather abstract. Advisors of CEEC and NIS on health care reform and Western assistance projects should focus more on future needs, in order to avoid building health systems that consistently lag behind the needs of their populations.

  14. Louis Stokes Laboratories, Building 50, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland: Laboratories for the 21st Century Case Studies (Revision)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-03-01

    This case study was prepared by participants in the Laboratories for the 21st Century program, a joint endeavor of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. The goal of this program is to foster greater energy efficiency in new laboratory buildings for both the public and the private sectors. Retrofits of existing laboratories are also encouraged. The energy-efficient features of the new laboratories in Building 50 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, include extensive use of daylighting, variable-air-volume control of the ventilation air supply and exhaust air system, and a unique energy recovery system that makes use of large desiccant energy wheels. With nearly 300,000 gross square feet, the building is estimated to use much less energy than traditional research facilities consume because of its energy-efficient design and features.

  15. Louis Stokes Laboratories, Building 50, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland: Laboratories for the 21st Century Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2001-12-01

    This case study was prepared by participants in the Laboratories for the 21st Century program, a joint endeavor of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. The goal of this program is to foster greater energy efficiency in new laboratory buildings for both the public and the private sectors. Retrofits of existing laboratories are also encouraged. The energy-efficient features of the new laboratories in Building 50 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, include extensive use of daylighting, variable-air-volume control of the ventilation air supply and exhaust air system, and a unique energy recovery system that makes use of large desiccant energy wheels. With nearly 300,000 gross square feet, the building is estimated to use much less energy than traditional research facilities consume because of its energy-efficient design and features.

  16. Building Interdisciplinary Leadership Skills among Health Practitioners in the Twenty-First Century: An Innovative Training Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Quazi, Zahiruddin; Gaidhane, Abhay; Jayalakshmi N; Gijare, Meenakshi; Yeravdekar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning is the focus of twenty-first century global educational reforms. In India, there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing, and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing, and public health institutions partnered in this endeavor. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in interprofessional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team building, innovation, and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed, and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing, and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning.

  17. Building Interdisciplinary Leadership Skills among Health Practitioners in the Twenty-First Century: An Innovative Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Quazi, Zahiruddin; Gaidhane, Abhay; Jayalakshmi N.; Gijare, Meenakshi; Yeravdekar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning is the focus of twenty-first century global educational reforms. In India, there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing, and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing, and public health institutions partnered in this endeavor. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in interprofessional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team building, innovation, and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed, and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing, and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning. PMID:26501046

  18. State-building and human resources for health in fragile and conflict-affected states: exploring the linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Falisse, Jean-Benoit; Bertone, Maria Paola; Alonso-Garbayo, Alvaro; Martins, João S; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Pavignani, Enrico; Martineau, Tim

    2015-05-15

    Human resources for health are self-evidently critical to running a health service and system. There is, however, a wider set of social issues which is more rarely considered. One area which is hinted at in literature, particularly on fragile and conflict-affected states, but rarely examined in detail, is the contribution which health staff may or do play in relation to the wider state-building processes. This article aims to explore that relationship, developing a conceptual framework to understand what linkages might exist and looking for empirical evidence in the literature to support, refute or adapt those linkages. An open call for contributions to the article was launched through an online community. The group then developed a conceptual framework and explored a variety of literatures (political, economic, historical, public administration, conflict and health-related) to find theoretical and empirical evidence related to the linkages outlined in the framework. Three country case reports were also developed for Afghanistan, Burundi and Timor-Leste, using secondary sources and the knowledge of the group. We find that the empirical evidence for most of the linkages is not strong, which is not surprising, given the complexity of the relationships. Nevertheless, some of the posited relationships are plausible, especially between development of health cadres and a strengthened public administration, which in the long run underlies a number of state-building features. The reintegration of factional health staff post-conflict is also plausibly linked to reconciliation and peace-building. The role of medical staff as part of national elites may also be important. The concept of state-building itself is highly contested, with a rich vein of scepticism about the wisdom or feasibility of this as an external project. While recognizing the inherently political nature of these processes, systems and sub-systems, it remains the case that state-building does occur over time

  19. Building Capacity for Evidence-Based Public Health: Reconciling the Pulls of Practice and the Push of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Ross C; Fielding, Jonathan E; Green, Lawrence W

    2017-11-20

    Timely implementation of principles of evidence-based public health (EBPH) is critical for bridging the gap between discovery of new knowledge and its application. Public health organizations need sufficient capacity (the availability of resources, structures, and workforce to plan, deliver, and evaluate the preventive dose of an evidence-based intervention) to move science to practice. We review principles of EBPH, the importance of capacity building to advance evidence-based approaches, promising approaches for capacity building, and future areas for research and practice. Although there is general agreement among practitioners and scientists on the importance of EBPH, there is less clarity on the definition of evidence, how to find it, and how, when, and where to use it. Capacity for EBPH is needed among both individuals and organizations. Capacity can be strengthened via training, use of tools, technical assistance, assessment and feedback, peer networking, and incentives. Modest investments in EBPH capacity building will foster more effective public health practice. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 39 is April 1, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  20. A new direction for water management? Indigenous nation building as a strategy for river health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Hemming

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous involvement in Australian water management is conventionally driven by a top-down approach by nonIndigenous government agencies, that asks "how do we engage Indigenous people?" and has culminated in the ineffective "consult" and "service delivery" processes evident in mainstream water management planning. This is a hopeful paper that identifies the critical importance of a "nation-based" approach for effective Indigenous engagement in water planning and policy through the work undertaken by the Ngarrindjeri Regional Authority (NRA in the Murray Futures program. The NRA is an Indigenous government in the "settled-south" of Australia. Over past decades, the NRA has developed a range of political technologies that act as tools for redeveloping Ngarrindjeri Nationhood after colonial disempowerment and dispossession. These tools enable better collaboration with nonIndigenous governments, especially in natural resource management policy and practice. In turn, this has better enabled the NRA to exercise a decision-making and planning authority over the lands and waters in its jurisdiction, therefore, more effectively exercising its ongoing duty of care as Country. This paper presents a case study of the Sugar Shack Complex Management Plan, codeveloped by the NRA and the South Australian Government in 2015, to demonstrate the benefits that accrue when Indigenous nations are resourced as authorities responsible for reframing water management and planning approaches to facilitate the equitable collaboration of Indigenous and nonIndigenous worldviews. As a marker of the success of this strategy, the Ngarrindjeri Yarluwar-Ruwe Program, in partnership with the South Australian government, recently won the Australian Riverprize 2015 for delivering excellence in Australian river management.

  1. Mental health care reforms in Asia: the urgency of now: building a recovery-oriented, community mental health service in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Yueqin; Zhu, Shimin

    2013-07-01

    For the first time in history, China has a mental health legal framework. People in China can now expect a better life and more accessible, better-quality health care services for their loved ones. Development of a community mental health service (CMHS) is at a crossroads. In this new column on mental health reforms in Asia, the authors review the current state of the CMHS in China and propose four strategic directions for future development: building on the strengths of the "686 Project," the 2004 initiative that launched China's mental health reform; improving professional skills of the mental health workforce, especially for a recovery approach; empowering families and caregivers to support individuals with severe mental illness; and using information and communications technology to promote self-help and reduce the stigma associated with psychiatric disorders.

  2. Using the arts in teaching and learning: building student capacity for community-based work in health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Anne

    2008-03-01

    Perspectives have emerged within health psychology that focus on the social constitution of health and emphasize community development and social change strategies to reduce human suffering and improve quality of life. Education and training are needed to build student capacity in these areas. Our analysis, grounded in theoretical, empirical, and experiential evidences, suggests that the arts may play a leading role in building this student capacity for community research and action. Major themes are that the arts promote student understandings of the values, goals, and practices of community-based work and enable meaningful student roles in community-based partnerships. Narrative accounts of our use of creative writing, visual arts, poetry, film, and theater in classroom and community-based practice with students illustrate these themes.

  3. Revitalizing communities together: the shared values, goals, and work of education, urban planning, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison Klebanoff; Schuchter, Joseph W

    2013-04-01

    Inequities in education, the urban environment, and health co-exist and mutually reinforce each other. Educators, planners, and public health practitioners share commitments to place-based, participatory, youth-focused, and equitable work. They also have shared goals of building community resilience, social capital, and civic engagement. Interdisciplinary programs that embody these shared values and work towards these shared goals are emerging, including school-based health centers, full-service community schools, community health centers, Promise Neighborhoods, and Choice Neighborhoods. The intersection of these three fields represents an opportunity to intervene on social determinants of health. More collaborative research and practice across public health, education, and planning should build from the shared values identified to continue to address these common goals.

  4. Central African Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program: building and strengthening regional workforce capacity in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andze, Gervais Ondobo; Namsenmo, Abel; Illunga, Benoit Kebella; Kazambu, Ditu; Delissaint, Dieula; Kuaban, Christopher; Mbopi-Kéou, Francois-Xavier; Gabsa, Wilfred; Mulumba, Leopold; Bangamingo, Jean Pierre; Ngulefac, John; Dahlke, Melissa; Mukanga, David; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Central African Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (CAFELTP) is a 2-year public health leadership capacity building training program. It was established in October 2010 to enhance capacity for applied epidemiology and public health laboratory services in three countries: Cameroon, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The aim of the program is to develop a trained public health workforce to assure that acute public health events are detected, investigated, and responded to quickly and effectively. The program consists of 25% didactic and 75% practical training (field based activities). Although the program is still in its infancy, the residents have already responded to six outbreak investigations in the region, evaluated 18 public health surveillance systems and public health programs, and completed 18 management projects. Through these various activities, information is shared to understand similarities and differences in the region leading to new and innovative approaches in public health. The program provides opportunities for regional and international networking in field epidemiology and laboratory activities, and is particularly beneficial for countries that may not have the immediate resources to host an individual country program. Several of the trainees from the first cohort already hold leadership positions within the ministries of health and national laboratories, and will return to their assignments better equipped to face the public health challenges in the region. They bring with them knowledge, practical training, and experiences gained through the program to shape the future of the public health landscape in their countries.

  5. Building Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Marjane

    1994-01-01

    Describes how an initial $1,500 grant helped build a desperately needed health clinic on the Pine Ridge Reservation. Provides the history of the clinic, from its beginning as a small grant to its ultimate development into a $400,000 solar-heated health clinic with a staff of 9 people, including a full-time physician. (MAB)

  6. Advancing Public Health on the Changing Global Trade and Investment Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Gleeson, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Concerns regarding the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) have raised awareness about the negative public health impacts of trade and investment agreements. In the past decade, we have learned much about the implications of trade agreements for public health: reduced equity in access to health services; increased flows of unhealthy commodities; limits on access to medicines; and constrained policy space for health. Getting health on the trade agenda continues to prove challenging, despite some progress in moving towards policy coherence. Recent changes in trade and investment agendas highlight an opportunity for public health researchers and practitioners to engage in highly politicized debates about how future economic policy can protect and support equitable public health outcomes. To fulfil this opportunity, public health attention now needs to turn to strengthening policy coherence between trade and health, and identifying how solutions can be implemented. Key strategies include research agendas that address politics and power, and capacity building for both trade and health officials. PMID:28812819

  7. Building Local Infrastructure for Coordinated School Health Programs: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Ann D.; Coburn, Sheri; Knickelbein, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Coordinated school health programs (CSHPs) provide an organizational framework for school health practice by combining health education, health promotion, disease prevention, and access to health services in an integrated, systemic manner. This project examined the effects of a regional 2-year training program to increase local school districts'…

  8. Customer centered health care: why managed care organizations must capitalize on new technology to build brands and customer loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, D

    1998-01-01

    Now, more than ever, health care organizations are desperately trying to reach out to customers and establish stronger relationships that will generate increased loyalty and repeat business. As technology, like the Internet and related mediums, allow us to do a better job of managing information and communication, health care executives must invest the time and resources necessary to bring these new advances into the day-to-day operations of their businesses. Those that do will have a head start in building their brand and their customer loyalty.

  9. Low Cost Private Schooling in India: Is It Pro Poor and Equitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harma, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    India has seen an explosion in low-fee private (LFP) schooling aimed at the poorer strata of society, and this once-urban phenomenon has spread in the last decade to rural areas, with implications for equity due to the level of direct costs involved. This study explores whether or not LFP schooling in rural India is pro-poor and equitable, and…

  10. A Methodology for Equitable Performance Assessment and Presentation of Wave Energy Converters Based on Sea Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Pecher, Arthur; Margheritini, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a methodology for the analysis and presentation of data obtained from sea trials of wave energy converters (WEC). The equitable aspect of this methodology lies in its wide application, as any WEC at any scale or stage of development can be considered as long as the tests are p...

  11. Providing an Equitable Service to Bilingual Children in the UK: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Carol; Dodd, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Background: The UK is a multicultural, multilingual society and the majority of paediatric speech and language therapists in England have at least one bilingual child on their caseload. There are many imperatives driving the profession to provide an equitable service for bilingual children. Evidence is beginning to emerge, however, that bilingual…

  12. Equitable Education for All: Using a Comprehensive Instructional Model to Improve Preschool Teacher Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Abby G.; Curby, Timothy W.; Brown, Chavaughn A.; Trygstad, Kelly M.; Truong, Felicia R.

    2017-01-01

    The current study evaluates the effectiveness of a comprehensive instructional model, ("Every Child Ready"), as a vehicle to provide equitable education experiences for all children by compensating for gaps in teacher knowledge. The ECR instructional model addresses several challenges facing the early childhood landscape. Specifically,…

  13. Education in a Diverse Society Necessitates the Implementation of an Equitable Language Policy: The Russian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinagatullin, Ilghiz M.

    2013-01-01

    Russia's secondary school populations are becoming increasingly diverse in terms of ethnicity, culture, language, and religion. The growing diversity makes a considerable impact on the functions and goals of schools, the realization of which requires the implementation of an equitable language policy. In this article, I briefly represent Russia as…

  14. Demographic Inertia Revisited: An Immodest Proposal to Achieve Equitable Gender Representation among Faculty in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschke, Robyn; Laursen, Sandra; Nielsen, Joyce McCarl; Rankin, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Progress toward equitable gender representation among faculty in higher education has been "glacial" since the early 1970s (Glazer-Raymo, 1999; Lomperis, 1990; Trower & Chait, 2002). Women, who now make up a majority of undergraduate degree earners and approximately 46% of Ph.D. earners nationwide (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES],…

  15. Pluralism and Equitability: Multicultural Curriculum Strategies for Schools. NACCME Commissioned Research Paper No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzis, Mary; Cope, Bill

    This paper compares pluralistic and equitable approaches to sociocultural and language teaching in Australian schools. The pluralistic view of multiculturalism overemphasizes ethnic differences with the hope that appreciation and tolerance will follow. In fact, fostering feelings of difference may increase racism and cultural chauvinism. This…

  16. Keeping Kids Moving: How Equitable Transportation Policy Can Prevent Childhood Obesity--What It Is

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The nation faces an obesity crisis, especially among low-income children and children of color. Today, nearly one-third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, and physical inactivity is a leading cause of this epidemic. Equitable transportation policy that fosters healthy, opportunity-rich communities has a critical role to play in…

  17. 48 CFR 52.250-5 - SAFETY Act-Equitable Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... institutions of the United States. Block certification means SAFETY Act certification of a technology class... certification means a determination by DHS pursuant to 6 U.S.C. 442(d), as further delineated in 6 CFR 25.9... Act—Equitable Adjustment (FEB 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Act of terrorism means...

  18. University of Global Health Equity’s Contribution to the Reduction of Education and Health Services Rationing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Binagwaho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The inadequate supply of health workers and demand-side barriers due to clinical practice that heeds too little attention to cultural context are serious obstacles to achieving universal health coverage and the fulfillment of the human rights to health, especially for the poor and vulnerable living in remote rural areas. A number of strategies have been deployed to increase both the supply of healthcare workers and the demand for healthcare services. However, more can be done to improve service delivery as well as mitigate the geographic inequalities that exist in this field. To contribute to overcoming these barriers and increasing access to health services, especially for the most vulnerable, Partners In Health (PIH, a US non-governmental organization specializing in equitable health service delivery, has created the University of Global Health Equity (UGHE in a remote rural district of Rwanda. The act of building this university in such a rural setting signals a commitment to create opportunities where there have traditionally been few. Furthermore, through its state-of-the-art educational approach in a rural setting and its focus on cultural competency, UGHE is contributing to progress in the quest for equitable access to quality health services.

  19. The Role of Higher Education in Equitable Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peercy, Chavanne; Svenson, Nanette

    2016-01-01

    As developing countries continue to battle poverty despite strong economic growth, understanding the relationship between equity and human development becomes increasingly important. In this context, equity is not equivalent to equality for any specific outcome such as health status, education or income. It is an objective ideal whereby people's…

  20. planning for gender equitable services delivery in a decentralised ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sarah Ssali

    2. Presentation Plan. • Introduction. • Decentralisation. – Definition. – Rationale. – Assumptions. • Planning within Decentralised Systems. – Opportunities. – Challenges .... STDs and other infections. – HIV. – Basic Public health (Malaria, diarrhoea, pneumonia, etc). • Education concerns **:. – Low school enrollment.

  1. Health impact assessment from building life cycles and trace metals in coarse particulate matter in urban office environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Murnira; Latif, Mohd Talib; Mohamed, Ahmad Fariz

    2018-02-01

    This study intends to determine the health impacts from two office life cycles (St.1 and St.2) using life cycle assessment (LCA) and health risk assessment of indoor metals in coarse particulates (particulate matter with diameters of less than 10µm). The first building (St.1) is located in the city centre and the second building (St.2) is located within a new development 7km away from the city centre. All life cycle stages are considered and was analysed using SimaPro software. The trace metal concentrations were determined by inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Particle deposition in the human lung was estimated using the multiple-path particle dosimetry model (MPPD). The results showed that the total human health impact for St.1 (0.027 DALY m -2 ) was higher than St.2 (0.005 DALY m -2 ) for a 50-year lifespan, with the highest contribution from the operational phase. The potential health risk to indoor workers was quantified as a hazard quotient (HQ) for non-carcinogenic elements, where the total values for ingestion contact were 4.38E-08 (St.1) and 2.59E-08 (St.2) while for dermal contact the values were 5.12E-09 (St.1) and 2.58E-09 (St.2). For the carcinogenic risk, the values for dermal and ingestion routes for both St.1 and St.2 were lower than the acceptable limit which indicated no carcinogenic risk. Particle deposition for coarse particles in indoor workers was concentrated in the head, followed by the pulmonary region and tracheobronchial tract deposition. The results from this study showed that human health can be significantly affected by all the processes in office building life cycle, thus the minimisation of energy consumption and pollutant exposures are crucially required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. e-Health Research and Capacity Building in Latin America and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There is growing recognition that access to timely, accurate and appropriate information can help improve health outcomes. This has led to increased interest in the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in health systems, often referred to as eHealth or Health Information Systems (HIS). History has ...

  3. Up close and real: living and learning in a remote community builds students' cultural capabilities and understanding of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackrah, Rosalie D; Hall, Maeva; Fitzgerald, Kathryn; Thompson, Sandra C

    2017-07-06

    Rural and remote communities in Australia fare worse than their urban counterparts across major health indicators, with geographic isolation, restricted accessibility to health services, socioeconomic disadvantage, lifestyle and behavioural factors all implicated in poorer health outcomes. Health disparities, which are especially stark in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations, underscore the urgent need to build a culturally responsive and respectful rural health workforce. Allied health student placements in settings with high Aboriginal populations provide opportunities for the development of cultural capabilities and observation of the causes and impact of health disparities. A service learning pedagogy underpinned by strong campus-community partnerships can contribute to effective situated learning. Positive placement experiences can also encourage future rural practice alleviating workforce shortages. This article reports on the first stage of a proposed longitudinal investigation into the impact of remote placements on clinical practice and employment choices. In-depth interviews were undertaken with health science students and recent graduates from Australian universities who spent up to 4 weeks at the remote community of Mt. Magnet (Badimaya country) in Western Australia. Interviews, which occurred between two and 12 months following the placement were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed for patterns of meaning. Factors which contributed to positive professional, personal and socially responsive learning experiences were identified. These included pre-placement cultural training to build understanding of the local Aboriginal community, peer support, community engagement, cultural exchanges and interprofessional collaboration. Highlights were associated with relationship-building in the community and opportunities to apply insights into Aboriginal cultural ways to clinical and community practice. The role of the

  4. Financing equitable access to antiretroviral treatment in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Susan; McIntyre, Di

    2010-07-02

    While South Africa spends approximately 7.4% of GDP on healthcare, only 43% of these funds are spent in the public system, which is tasked with the provision of care to the majority of the population including a large proportion of those in need of antiretroviral treatment (ART). South Africa is currently debating the introduction of a National Health Insurance (NHI) system. Because such a universal health system could mean increased public healthcare funding and improved access to human resources, it could improve the sustainability of ART provision. This paper considers the minimum resources that would be required to achieve the proposed universal health system and contrasts these with the costs of scaled up access to ART between 2010 and 2020. The costs of ART and universal coverage (UC) are assessed through multiplying unit costs, utilization and estimates of the population in need during each year of the planning cycle. Costs are from the provider's perspective reflected in real 2007 prices. The annual costs of providing ART increase from US$1 billion in 2010 to US$3.6 billion in 2020. If increases in funding to public healthcare only keep pace with projected real GDP growth, then close to 30% of these resources would be required for ART by 2020. However, an increase in the public healthcare resource envelope from 3.2% to 5%-6% of GDP would be sufficient to finance both ART and other services under a universal system (if based on a largely public sector model) and the annual costs of ART would not exceed 15% of the universal health system budget. Responding to the HIV-epidemic is one of the many challenges currently facing South Africa. Whether this response becomes a "resource for democracy" or whether it undermines social cohesiveness within poor communities and between rich and poor communities will be partially determined by the steps that are taken during the next ten years. While the introduction of a universal system will be complex, it could generate a

  5. Supporting early career health investigators in Kenya: A qualitative study of HIV/AIDS research capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Joseph; Nduati, Ruth; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to transfer international health research training programs to sub-Saharan African institutions focus on developing cadres of local investigators who will lead such programs. Using a critical leadership theory framework, we conducted a qualitative study of one program to understand how collaborative training and research can support early career investigators in Kenya toward the program transfer goal. We used purposive sampling methods and a semi-structured protocol to conduct in-depth interviews with US (N = 5) and Kenyan (N = 5) independent investigators. Transcripts were coded using a two-step process, and then compared with each other to identify major themes. A limited local research environment, funding needs and research career mentorship were identified as major influences on early career researchers. Institutional demands on Kenyan faculty to teach rather than complete research restricted investigators' ability to develop research careers. This was coupled with lack of local funding to support research. Sustainable collaborations between Kenyan, US and other international investigators were perceived to mitigate these challenges and support early career investigators who would help build a robust local research environment for training. Mutually beneficial collaborations between Kenyan and US investigators developed during training mitigate these challenges and build a supportive research environment for training. In these collaborations, early career investigators learn how to navigate the complex international research environment to build local HIV research capacity. Shared and mutually beneficial resources within international research collaborations are required to support early career investigators and plans to transfer health research training to African institutions.

  6. New frontiers in building mental, emotional and behavioral health in children and youth: Introduction to the special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary E; Bruns, Eric J; Armstrong, Mary I; Hodges, Sharon; Hernandez, Mario

    2016-03-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; 2010) has had tremendous influence on behavioral health in the United States (Alker & Chester, 2015). Shortly after its passage, the editors of this special section became interested in examining the provisions of the ACA related to care for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in children and youth and synthesizing their implications in the context of other contemporary trends in children's behavioral health promotion. We first developed a white paper with the goal of increasing our own understanding of these issues and their possible influence on the status quo of designing, implementing, financing, and evaluating behavioral health services for children and their families. From our discussions came the idea of developing a special section in the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry featuring input from researchers who have been exploring these issues and who have tangible and relevant examples of "new frontiers" in building mental, emotional, and behavioral health for children and youth. The result is the current special section, the purpose of which is to highlight the importance of prevention in behavioral health and to explore examples of efforts that have used a broad public health approach to prevention and early intervention in mental, emotional, and substance use disorders in children and youth. Before introducing the seven articles in this special section, we describe in detail our foundational thinking about building mental, emotional, and behavioral health for children and youth, as expressed in our initial white paper on this topic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Closing the mental health gap in low-income settings by building research capacity: perspectives from Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetland, Annika C; Oquendo, Maria A; Sidat, Mohsin; Santos, Palmira F; Vermund, Sten H; Duarte, Cristiane S; Arbuckle, Melissa; Wainberg, Milton L

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide, accounting for 22.7% of all years lived with disability. Despite this global burden, fewer than 25% of affected individuals ever access mental health treatment; in low-income settings, access is much lower, although nonallopathic interventions through traditional healers are common in many venues. Three main barriers to reducing the gap between individuals who need mental health treatment and those who have access to it include stigma and lack of awareness, limited material and human resources, and insufficient research capacity. We argue that investment in dissemination and implementation research is critical to face these barriers. Dissemination and implementation research can improve mental health care in low-income settings by facilitating the adaptation of effective treatment interventions to new settings, particularly when adapting specialist-led interventions developed in high-resource countries to settings with few, if any, mental health professionals. Emerging evidence from other low-income settings suggests that lay providers can be trained to detect mental disorders and deliver basic psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions when supervised by an expert. We describe a new North-South and South-South research partnership between Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (Mozambique), Columbia University (United States), Vanderbilt University (United States), and Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Brazil), to build research capacity in Mozambique and other Portuguese-speaking African countries. Mozambique has both the political commitment and available resources for mental health, but inadequate research capacity and workforce limits the country's ability to assess local needs, adapt and test interventions, and identify implementation strategies that can be used to effectively bring evidence-based mental health interventions to scale within the public sector. Global training and

  8. Consumers' perspectives on national health insurance in South Africa: using a mobile health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimann, Edda; Stuttaford, Maria C

    2014-10-28

    Building an equitable health system is a cornerstone of the World Health Organization (WHO) health system building block framework. Public participation in any such reform process facilitates successful implementation. South Africa has embarked on a major reform in health policy that aims at redressing inequity and enabling all citizens to have equal access to efficient and quality health services. This research is based on a survey using Mxit as a mobile phone-based social media network. It was intended to encourage comments on the proposed National Health Insurance (NHI) and to raise awareness among South Africans about their rights to free and quality health care. Data were gathered by means of a public e-consultation, and following a qualitative approach, were then examined and grouped in a theme analysis. The WHO building blocks were used as the conceptual framework in analysis and discussion of the identified themes. Major themes are the improvement of service delivery and patient-centered health care, enhanced accessibility of health care providers, and better health service surveillance. Furthermore, health care users demand stronger outcome-based rather than rule-based indicators of the health system's governance. Intersectoral solidarity and collaboration between private and public health care providers are suggested. Respondents also propose a code of ethical values for health care professionals to address corruption in the health care system. It is noteworthy that measures for dealing with corruption or implementing ethical values are neither described in the WHO building blocks nor in the NHI. The policy makers of the new health system for South Africa should address the lack of trust in the health care system that this study has exposed. Furthermore, the study reveals discrepancies between the everyday lived reality of public health care consumers and the intended health policy reform.

  9. Building American public health: urban planning, architecture, and the quest for better health in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, Russ

    2012-01-01

    .... It highlights the work of tenement reformers, zoning advocates, modernist architects, new urbanists, and members of the new built environment and health movement, among others, to improve the health...

  10. The health implications of replacing common building materials with natural fibre reinforced composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the need for a non-chemical approach to the cultivation of fibre crops intended for building applications in South Africa. A case study considered four fibre crops – flax, industrial hemp, kenaf and sisal – that are currently...

  11. Integrating open-source technologies to build low-cost information systems for improved access to public health data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberle Mark W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective public health practice relies on the availability of public health data sources and assessment tools to convey information to investigators, practitioners, policy makers, and the general public. Emerging communication technologies on the Internet can deliver all components of the "who, what, when, and where" quartet more quickly than ever with a potentially higher level of quality and assurance, using new analysis and visualization tools. Open-source software provides the opportunity to build low-cost information systems allowing health departments with modest resources access to modern data analysis and visualization tools. In this paper, we integrate open-source technologies and public health data to create a web information system which is accessible to a wide audience through the Internet. Our web application, "EpiVue," was tested using two public health datasets from the Washington State Cancer Registry and Washington State Center for Health Statistics. A third dataset shows the extensibility and scalability of EpiVue in displaying gender-based longevity statistics over a twenty-year interval for 3,143 United States counties. In addition to providing an integrated visualization framework, EpiVue's highly interactive web environment empowers users by allowing them to upload their own geospatial public health data in either comma-separated text files or MS Excel™ spreadsheet files and visualize the geospatial datasets with Google Maps™.

  12. Building Resilience in Families, Communities, and Organizations: A Training Program in Global Mental Health and Psychosocial Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Jack; Simon, Winnifred

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the Summer Institute in Global Mental Health and Psychosocial Support, a brief immersion training program for mental health, health, and allied professionals who work with populations that have endured severe adversities and trauma, such as domestic and political violence, extreme poverty, armed conflict, epidemics, and natural disasters. The course taught participants to apply collaborative and contextually sensitive approaches to enhance social connectedness and resilience in families, communities, and organizations. This article presents core training principles and vignettes which illustrate how those engaging in such interventions must: (1) work in the context of a strong and supportive organization; (2) appreciate the complexity of the systems with which they are engaging; and (3) be open to the possibilities for healing and transformation. The program utilized a combination of didactic presentations, hands-on interactive exercises, case studies, and experiential approaches to organizational team building and staff stress management. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  13. Value-Added Clinical Systems Learning Roles for Medical Students That Transform Education and Health: A Guide for Building Partnerships Between Medical Schools and Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Jed D; Lucey, Catherine; Wolpaw, Terry; Chang, Anna

    2017-05-01

    To ensure physician readiness for practice and leadership in changing health systems, an emerging three-pillar framework for undergraduate medical education integrates the biomedical and clinical sciences with health systems science, which includes population health, health care policy, and interprofessional teamwork. However, the partnerships between medical schools and health systems that are commonplace today use health systems as a substrate for learning. Educators need to transform the relationship between medical schools and health systems. One opportunity is the design of authentic workplace roles for medical students to add relevance to medical education and patient care. Based on the experiences at two U.S. medical schools, the authors describe principles and strategies for meaningful medical school-health system partnerships to engage students in value-added clinical systems learning roles. In 2013, the schools began large-scale efforts to develop novel required longitudinal, authentic health systems science curricula in classrooms and workplaces for all first-year students. In designing the new medical school-health system partnerships, the authors combined two models in an intersecting manner-Kotter's change management and Kern's curriculum development steps. Mapped to this framework, they recommend strategies for building mutually beneficial medical school-health system partnerships, including developing a shared vision and strategy and identifying learning goals and objectives; empowering broad-based action and overcoming barriers in implementation; and generating short-term wins in implementation. Applying this framework can lead to value-added clinical systems learning roles for students, meaningful medical school-health system partnerships, and a generation of future physicians prepared to lead health systems change.

  14. Health in the service of state-building in fragile and conflict affected contexts: an additional challenge in the medical-humanitarian environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Mit; Derderian, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Global health policy and development aid trends also affect humanitarian health work. Reconstruction, rehabilitation and development initiatives start increasingly earlier after crisis, unleashing tensions between development and humanitarian paradigms. Recently, development aid shows specific interest in contexts affected by conflict and fragility, with increasing expectations for health interventions to demonstrate transformative potential, including towards more resilient health systems as a contribution to state-building agendas. Current drives towards state-building opportunities in health interventions is mainly based on political aspirations, with little conclusive evidence on linking state-building efforts to conflict prevention, neither on transformative effects of health systems support. Moreover, negative consequences are possible in such volatile environments. We explore how to anticipate, discuss and monitor potential negative effects of current state-building approaches on health interventions, including on humanitarian aid. Overriding health systems approaches might increase tension in fragile and conflict affected contexts, because at odds with goals typically associated with immediate emergency response to populations' needs. Especially in protracted crisis, quality and timeliness of humanitarian response can be compromised, with strain on impartiality, targeting the most vulnerable, prioritising direct health benefits and most effective strategies. State-building focus could shift health aid priorities away from sick people and disease. Precedence of state institutions support over immediate, effective health service delivery can reduce population level results. As consequence people might question health workers' intention to privilege health above political, ethnic or other alliances, altering health and humanitarian workers' perception. Particularly in conflict, neither health system nor state are impartial bystanders. In spite of scarce

  15. Advancing Public Health on the Changing Global Trade and Investment Agenda; Comment on “The Trans-Pacific Partnership: Is It Everything We Feared for Health?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Concerns regarding the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP have raised awareness about the negative public health impacts of trade and investment agreements. In the past decade, we have learned much about the implications of trade agreements for public health: reduced equity in access to health services; increased flows of unhealthy commodities; limits on access to medicines; and constrained policy space for health. Getting health on the trade agenda continues to prove challenging, despite some progress in moving towards policy coherence. Recent changes in trade and investment agendas highlight an opportunity for public health researchers and practitioners to engage in highly politicized debates about how future economic policy can protect and support equitable public health outcomes. To fulfil this opportunity, public health attention now needs to turn to strengthening policy coherence between trade and health, and identifying how solutions can be implemented. Key strategies include research agendas that address politics and power, and capacity building for both trade and health officials.

  16. Approach for Estimating Exposures and Incremental Health Effects from Lead Due to Renovation Repair and Painting Activities in Public and Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approach for Estimating Exposures and Incremental Health Effects from Lead Due to Renovation Repair and Painting Activities in Public and Commercial Buildings: links to documents at www.regulations.gov, links to PDFs related to Approach document

  17. Government Campuses, Feature class of building footprints of the Rock County Complex. Includes 911 Comm Center, Health Care Center, and Rock Haven., Published in 2005, Rock County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Government Campuses dataset current as of 2005. Feature class of building footprints of the Rock County Complex. Includes 911 Comm Center, Health Care Center, and...

  18. Building of the global movement for health equity: from Santiago to Rio and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmot, Michael; Allen, Jessica; Bell, Ruth; Goldblatt, Peter

    2012-01-14

    Health inequalities are present throughout the world, both within and between countries. The Commission on Social Determinants of Health drew attention to dramatic social gradients in health within most countries and made proposals for action. These inequalities are not inevitable. The purpose of this article is to report on activity that has taken place worldwide after the report by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. First, we summarise the global situation. Second, we summarise an interim report of the emerging findings from an independent review of social determinants and the health divide, which was commissioned by the WHO European region. The world conference on social determinants of health will be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in October, 2011. This summit provides an opportunity to galvanise support, prioritise action, and respond to the call by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health for social justice as a route to a fair distribution of health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Building Health System Capacity Through Implementation Research: Experience of INSPIRE-A Multi-country PMTCT Implementation Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman Owiredu, Morkor; Bellare, Nita B; Chakanyuka Musanhu, Christine C; Oyelade, Taiwo A; Thom, Ellen M; Bigirimana, Francoise; Anyaike, Chukwuma; Eliya, Michael T; Mushavi, Angela; Nyarko, Eugene A; Okello, David O; Zawaira, Felicitas R

    2017-06-01

    The INSPIRE-Integrating and Scaling Up PMTCT through Implementation REsearch-initiative was established as a model partnership of national prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) implementation research in 3 high HIV burden countries-Malawi, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. INSPIRE aimed to link local research groups with Ministries of Health (MOH), build local research capacity, and demonstrate that implementation research may contribute to improving health care delivery and respond to program challenges. We used a mixed methods approach to review capacity building activities, as experienced by health care workers, researchers, and trainers conducted in the 6 INSPIRE projects before and during study implementation. Between 2011 and 2016, over 3400 health care workers, research team members, and community members participated in INSPIRE activities. This included research prioritization exercises, proposal development, good clinical practice and research ethics training, data management and analysis workshops, and manuscript development. Health care workers in clinics and district health offices acknowledged the value of hosting implementation research projects and how the quality of services improved. Research teams acknowledged the opportunities that projects provided for personal development and the value of participating in a multicountry research network. INSPIRE provided an opportunity for African-led research in which researchers worked closely with national MOH to identify priority research questions and implement studies. Close partnerships between research teams and local implementers facilitated project responsiveness to local program issues. Consequently, processes and training needed for study implementation also improved local program management and service delivery. Additional benefits included improved data management, publications, and career development.

  20. Why We Need to Build a Culture of Health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2015-07-01

    The United States spends $2.7 trillion a year on health care, more than any other country by far, and yet the U.S. population is not healthy. In fact, the United States loses $227 billion in productivity each year because of poor health. This is not sustainable-and it is the reason behind the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Culture of Health initiative. Culture of Health means so much more than simply not being sick. It means embracing a definition of health as outlined by the World Health Organization-a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. And it means shifting the values-and the actions-in the United States so that health becomes a part of everything we do. Health is the bedrock of personal fulfillment. It is the backbone of prosperity and the key to creating a strong and competitive nation. With health, children can grow up making the most of life's opportunities. Businesses can rely on the vitality of workers to stay competitive, and the military can perform at its highest level. But there is no single way to cultivate health. This Commentary explores the principles behind the Culture of Health initiative and examines the role of academic medicine in achieving this vision. Different communities must come up with the approaches that serve them best. Only by working toward a common goal in unique ways will a true Culture of Health be attainable in the United States.

  1. The global role of health care delivery science: learning from variation to build health systems that avoid waste and harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulley, Albert G

    2013-09-01

    This paper addresses the fourth theme of the Indiana Global Health Research Working Conference, Clinical Effectiveness and Health Systems Research. It explores geographic variation in health care delivery and health outcomes as a source of learning how to achieve better health outcomes at lower cost. It focuses particularly on the relationship between investments made in capacities to deliver different health care services to a population and the value thereby created by that care for individual patients. The framing begins with the dramatic variation in per capita health care expenditures across the nations of the world, which is largely explained by variations in national wealth. The 1978 Declaration of Alma Ata is briefly noted as a response to such inequities with great promise that has not as yet been realized. This failure to realize the promise of Alma Ata grows in significance with the increasing momentum for universal health coverage that is emerging in the current global debate about post-2015 development goals. Drawing upon work done at Dartmouth over more than three decades, the framing then turns to within-country variations in per capita expenditures, utilization of different services, and health outcomes. A case is made for greater attention to the question of value by bringing better information to bear at both the population and individual levels. Specific opportunities to identify and reduce waste in health care, and the harm that is so often associated with it, are identified by learning from outcome variations and practice variations.

  2. Building Capacity Among Laity: A Faith-Based Health Ministry Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Judy A; Konda, Kurt; Ablah, Elizabeth

    2017-07-08

    A systematic review of topic-specific faith-based health programs determined that health outcomes can be improved though faith-based health interventions. A university research team, in partnership with the Kansas United Methodist Church and a United Methodist philanthropy, facilitated planning and development of a statewide initiative to increase the capacity of laity-led health ministry teams. The purpose of this paper is to describe the processes utilized to design and implement an initiative to increase capacity for laity-led comprehensive health ministry among Kansas United Methodist Church congregations and to share the key elements of the initiative.

  3. Probation as a setting for building well-being through integrated service provision: evaluating an Offender Health Trainer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooris, Mark; McArt, Dervla; Hurley, Margaret A; Baybutt, Michelle

    2013-07-01

    The NHS Health Trainer Programme was launched in England and Wales in 2005 with the aim of tackling health inequalities. While initially focusing on geographical communities, the initiative has extended its reach to particular population groups, such as offenders and their families, who experience high levels of physical and mental health needs and wider social exclusion. This paper reports on the evaluation of the Offender Health Trainer service delivered in probation settings in Bury, Rochdale and Oldham (Greater Manchester). This service has sought to improve the health of offenders, improve their access to mainstream services, and help reduce health inequalities - as well as facilitate rehabilitation and improve job prospects for ex-offenders through employment as health trainers. This evaluative research study aimed to explore the delivery of the Offender Health Trainer service and examine its impact on service users. The study design and limited time frame meant that the research was focused on the journeys of service users rather than on long-term outcomes. The evaluation used a mixed-methods approach, comprising two key elements: the interrogation and analysis of routinely collected quantitative data extracted from the National Health Trainer Data Collection Recording System (DCRS); and in-depth qualitative research using interviews and focus groups with clients and health trainers. The evaluation points to the overall success of the service in meeting its aims and impacting positively on the lives of offenders. It reveals promising trends in behaviour change and self-perceived health and well-being, articulating a rich narrative detailing how the service has helped probation clients tackle multiple interwoven problems and build hope and self-belief. Of particular importance was the health trainers' experience of the criminal justice system, which resonated with and inspired clients, developing trust and motivation to change. While the research inevitably

  4. Structural health monitoring of a reinforced concrete building during the severe typhoon Vicente in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuok, Sin-Chi; Yuen, Ka-Veng

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the structural performance of reinforced concrete building under the influence of severe typhoon. For this purpose, full-scale monitoring of a 22-story reinforced concrete building was conducted during the entire passage process of a severe typhoon "Vicente." Vicente was the eighth tropical storm developed in the Western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea in 2012. Moreover, it was the strongest and most devastating typhoon that struck Macao since 1999. The overall duration of the typhoon affected period that lasted more than 70 hours and the typhoon eye region covered Macao for around one hour. The wind and structural response measurements were acquired throughout the entire typhoon affected period. The wind characteristics were analyzed using the measured wind data including the wind speed and wind direction time histories. Besides, the structural response measurements of the monitored building were utilized for modal identification using the Bayesian spectral density approach. Detailed analysis of the field data and the typhoon generated effects on the structural performance are discussed.

  5. Building a Culture of Health Informatics Innovation and Entrepreneurship: A New Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa; Alshammari, Riyad; Almutairi, Mariam; Jamal, Amr; Alshoaib, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and innovation within the health informatics (HI) scientific community are relatively sluggish when compared to other disciplines such as computer science and engineering. Healthcare in general, and specifically, the health informatics scientific community needs to embrace more innovative and entrepreneurial practices. In this paper, we explore the concepts of innovation and entrepreneurship as they apply to the health informatics scientific community. We also outline several strategies to improve the culture of innovation and entrepreneurship within the health informatics scientific community such as: (I) incorporating innovation and entrepreneurship in health informatics education; (II) creating strong linkages with industry and healthcare organizations; (III) supporting national health innovation and entrepreneurship competitions; (IV) creating a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship within healthcare organizations; (V) developing health informatics policies that support innovation and entrepreneurship based on internationally recognized standards; and (VI) develop an health informatics entrepreneurship ecosystem. With these changes, we conclude that embracing health innovation and entrepreneurship may be more readily accepted over the long-term within the health informatics scientific community.

  6. Building Responsive Health Systems to Help Communities Affected by Migration: An International Delphi Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Pottie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Persons affected by migration require health systems that are responsive and adaptable to the needs of both disadvantaged migrants and non-migrant populations. The objective of this study is to support health systems for populations affected by migration. Materials and Methods: An international Delphi consensus process was used to identify policy approaches to improve health systems for populations affected by migration. Participants were leading migrant health experts from Americas, Europe, Middle East, Asia, and Australasia. We calculated average ranking scores and qualitatively analyzed open-ended questions. Results: Participants identified the following key areas as priorities for policy development: health inequities, system discrimination, migrant related health data, disadvantaged migrant sub-groups, and considerations for disadvantaged non-migrant populations. Highly ranked items to improve health systems were: Health Equity Impact Assessment, evidence based guidelines, and the International Organization for Migration annual reports. Discussion: Policy makers need tools, data and resources to address health systems challenges. Policies need to avoid preventable deaths of migrants and barriers to basic health services.

  7. Health, migration and border management: analysis and capacity-building at Europe's borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollings, Jennifer; Samuilova, Mariya; Petrova-Benedict, Roumyana

    2012-04-01

    Three key elements were analysed in Hungary, Poland and Slovakia as a basis for strengthening the capacity of staff and structures related to health, migration and border management: public health concerns linked to migration, health needs and rights of migrants and the occupational health of staff. This IOM project was implemented through an in-depth situation analysis as well as the development of training modules and public health guidelines. Findings indicate a paucity of existing data, gaps in the health care for migrants and few existing tools for border officials and health professionals. Sets of training modules were developed for each of these groups, including common modules on migration and the right to health and intercultural communication, as well as targeted health modules. The guidelines promote good practices in the context of border management and detention. The EU is working towards a common immigration policy and integrated border management; however, a harmonized approach to migration and health is still lacking. Further research and piloting of the developed materials is needed to fully establish an adaptable, common toolkit.

  8. A garage-building programme for the city of Vienna and resulting air quality. Related health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tvrdy, C.; Walter, R. [Inst. of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    Urban traffic influences air quality in cities considerably. This is particularly true for the medieval parts of the big European cities, which have not been designed for today s heavy traffic. A problem closely associated with city traffic, is the lack of parking lots, particularly for residents. In Vienna, the parking problem is tackled by the building of underground car parks. In the next years more than 50 large garages (>100 sites) are being planned. The main goal is the clearing of the beautiful old places and streets of Vienna from the bulk of parking vehicles and supplying the citizens with parking spaces in the neighbourhood. According to a recent decision of the City Council of Vienna the construction of `large garages` (>100 parking spaces) requires an official approval by various local authorities. Among them are those responsible for town design and architecture, for fire precaution and fire fighting, for city traffic, for planning and building and for environmental health. In this context the Institute of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna faced the task of establishing criteria for a health risk assessment linked with `large garages`. Health-risks may be caused by air pollution and noise. This presentation deals with the air pollution problem. Air pollution problems may occur due to traffic in and out of the garage, by insufficient ventilation systems and by construction failures. In the garage programme the health officers have to bring evidence that residents of the houses with underground car parks and residents in the close neighbourhood are not exposed to any health risk due to air pollution

  9. Toward a national core course in agricultural medicine and curriculum in agricultural safety and health: the "building capacity" consensus process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolphi, Josie M; Donham, Kelley J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The agricultural industry poses specific hazards and risks to its workers. Since the 1970s, the University of Iowa has been establishing programs to educate rural health care and safety professionals who in turn provide education and occupational health and safety services to farm families and farm workers. This program has been well established in the state of Iowa as a program of Iowa's Center for Agricultural Safety and Health (I-CASH). However, the National 1989 Agriculture at Risk Report indicated there was a great need for agricultural medicine training beyond Iowa's borders. In order to help meet this need, Building Capacity: A National Resource of Agricultural Medicine Professionals was initiated as a project of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health in 2006. Before the first phase of this project, a consensus process was conducted with a group of safety and health professionals to determine topics and learning objectives for the course. Over 300 students attended and matriculated the agricultural medicine course during first phase of the project (2007-2010). Beginning the second phase of the project (2012-2016), an expanded advisory committee (38 internationally recognized health and safety professionals) was convened to review the progress of the first phase, make recommendations for revisions to the required topics and competencies, and discuss updates to the second edition of the course textbook (Agricultural Medicine: Occupational and Environmental Health for the Health Professions). A formal consensus process was held and included an online survey and also a face-to-face meeting. The group was charged with the responsibility of developing the next version of this course by establishing best practices and setting an agenda with the long-term goal of developing a national course in agricultural medicine.

  10. Human Factors in Green Office Building Design: The Impact of Workplace Green Features on Health Perceptions in High-Rise High-Density Asian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about human factors in green building, which is imperative in high-rise high-density urban environments. This paper describes our attempts to explore the influence of workplace green features (such as green certification, ventilation mode, and building morphology on health perceptions (personal sensation, sensorial assumptions, healing performance based on a survey in Hong Kong and Singapore. The results validated the relationship between green features and health perceptions in the workplace environment. Remarkably, participants from the air-conditioned offices revealed significant higher concerns about health issues than those participants from the mixed-ventilated offices. The mixed-ventilation design performs as a bridge to connect the indoor environment and outdoor space, which enables people to have contact with nature. Additionally, the preferred building morphology of the workplace is the pattern of a building complex instead of a single building. The complex form integrates the configuration of courtyards, podium gardens, green terrace, public plaza, and other types of open spaces with the building clusters, which contributes to better health perceptions. This research contributes to the rationalization and optimization of passive climate-adaptive design strategies for green buildings in high-density tropical or subtropical cities.

  11. Building up careers in translational neuroscience and mental health research: Education and training in the Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapado-Castro, Marta; Pazos, Ángel; Fañanás, Lourdes; Bernardo, Miquel; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Leza, Juan Carlos; Berrocoso, Esther; de Arriba, Jose; Roldán, Laura; Sanjuán, Julio; Pérez, Victor; Haro, Josep M; Palomo, Tomás; Valdizan, Elsa M; Micó, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2015-01-01

    The number of large collaborative research networks in mental health is increasing. Training programs are an essential part of them. We critically review the specific implementation of a research training program in a translational Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health in order to inform the strategic integration of basic research into clinical practice to have a positive impact in the mental health system and society. Description of training activities, specific educational programs developed by the research network, and challenges on its implementation are examined. The Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health has focused on training through different activities which have led to the development of an interuniversity master's degree postgraduate program in mental health research, certified by the National Spanish Agency for Quality Evaluation and Accreditation. Consolidation of training programs within the Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health has considerably advanced the training of researchers to meet competency standards on research. The master's degree constitutes a unique opportunity to accomplish neuroscience and mental health research career-building within the official framework of university programs in Spain. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Community Engaged Leadership to Advance Health Equity and Build Healthier Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisha Holden

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Health is a human right. Equity in health implies that ideally everyone should have a fair opportunity to attain their full health potential and, more pragmatically, that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential. Addressing the multi-faceted health needs of ethnically and culturally diverse individuals in the United States is a complex issue that requires inventive strategies to reduce risk factors and buttress protective factors to promote greater well-being among individuals, families, and communities. With growing diversity concerning various ethnicities and nationalities; and with significant changes in the constellation of multiple of risk factors that can influence health outcomes, it is imperative that we delineate strategic efforts that encourage better access to primary care, focused community-based programs, multi-disciplinary clinical and translational research methodologies, and health policy advocacy initiatives that may improve individuals’ longevity and quality of life.

  13. Building on Our Knowledge of Racism, Mental Health, and Mental Health Practice: A Reaction to Thompson and Neville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Michael; Daniels, Judy

    1999-01-01

    Presents a reaction to Thompson and Neville's (1999) article, "Racism, Mental Health, and Mental Health Practice." Discusses the results of their own longitudinal study of the psychology of White racism to both promote and validate many of the theoretical claims that are presented in Thompson and Neville's article. (GCP)

  14. Building a Culture of Authentic Partnership: One Academic Health Center Model for Nursing Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Janie; Swartz, Colleen

    2017-09-01

    Senior nursing leaders from the University of Kentucky (UK) College of Nursing and UK HealthCare have explored the meaning of an authentic partnership. This article quantifies the tangible benefits and outcomes from this maturing academic nursing and clinical practice partnership. Benefits include inaugural academic nursing participation in health system governance, expanded integration of nursing research programs both in the college and in the health science center, and the development of collaborative strategies to address nursing workforce needs.

  15. Building a widespread public health education system for developing countries in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Many developing countries struggle to move their health care system into the information age. Millions of people in Africa do not have any access to online resources to satisfy their need for adequate individual health information. Access to high quality content available in public spots could have an immense impact on people's daily life. Our browser-based health education application might help to provide a better understanding of diseases for people in developing countries. We encourage other researchers to adopt our vision for a widespread public health education system in Africa.

  16. Building a culture of health: promoting healthy relationships and reducing teen dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Kristin

    2015-02-01

    Our society is faced with an epidemic of partner violence that has far-reaching consequences. As viewed through a public health lens, prevention of teen dating violence can thwart this epidemic from starting and spreading. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Culture of Health strategy aims to reduce negative outcomes and promotes overall well-being. This supplement affirms our dedication to a Culture of Health by generating an evidence base to prevent teen dating violence and promote healthy relationships across the life span. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Building a case for using technology: health literacy and patient education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassey, Margaret Z

    2007-01-01

    The interplay of a mobile population can affect the quality of patient outcomes and the economics of health care delivery significantly. Helping patients with limited English proficiency understand the basics of self-care for optimal health will continue to be a challenge in the delivery of the highest quality nursing care. Becoming familiar with high-quality, peer-reviewed, and reliable health education materials and Web sites is the responsibility of every health care provider so that patients receive culturally and linguistically appropriate resources to support healthy lifestyles and choices.

  18. Building Mobile Apps for Underrepresented Mental Health care Consumers: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ricky; Hastings, Julia F.; Keefe, Robert H.; Brownstein-Evans, Carol; Chan, Keith T.; Mullick, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    Cell phone mobile application (“app”) use has risen dramatically within the past several years. Many individuals access apps to address mental health issues. Unlike individuals from privileged backgrounds, individuals from oppressed backgrounds may rely on apps rather than costly mental health treatment. To date, very little research has been published evaluating mental health apps’ effectiveness. This paper focuses on three methods through which grounded theory can facilitate app development and evaluation for people underrepresented in mental health care. Recommendations are made to advance mobile app technology that will help clinicians provide effective treatment, and consumers to realize positive treatment outcomes. PMID:29056878

  19. Employee Attitude to Management Style : case: International equitable association Nigeria Limited.

    OpenAIRE

    Osondu, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to reveal employees’ attitudes to management style in International equitable association Limited, Aba, Nigeria (IEA). IEA is a soap and detergent manufacturing company. The company uses modern management styles to drive employee performance. This study set out to investigate employee attitudes to the various management styles in use at IEA. The study used a framework which shows that employee attitude is driven by the employee’s awareness, the employee’s application o...

  20. Towards a Fair and Equitable ABS Regime: Is Nagoya Leading us in the Right Direction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram De Jonge

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A historical overview of the concept of Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS suggests that ABS is all about compensation, i.e. a benefit sharing mechanism that provides one with compensation for allowing access to one’s resources. The principles of entitlement (based on sovereign rights and desert (based on contributions may then guide a fair and equitable sharing of the resources in question. Yet, the principles of need and equity appear equally important, as it is exactly because of the inequalities and neediness in the world that the demand for benefit sharing as a compensation mechanism has evolved. Unfortunately, we have to conclude that, for several reasons, the current bilateral exchange model of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD can never be fair and equitable. While the Multilateral System of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGR bypasses some of the main problems that frustrate fair and equitable benefit sharing under the CBD, it is currently being criticised for its weak benefit-sharing component. This article therefore proposes an alternative ABS regime based on the utilisation of resources instead of their exchange. One of the main advantages of such a model – apart from the fact that it does not depend on controlling the movement of plant genetic resources – is that it emphasises the responsibilities for benefit sharing on the user side. This article analyses whether the Nagoya Protocol is leading us in the right direction and, with the aforementioned principles of justice in mind, makes recommendations on how to realise a fair and equitable ABS regime.

  1. “A More Equitable Society”: The Politics of Global Fairness in Paralympic Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Leslie; Bantjes, Jason; Rall, Divan; Ferreira, Suzanne; Blauwet, Cheri; Derman, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The Paralympic Movement explicitly sets out to create a more equitable society and promote participation for all and fairness in disability sport. This is primarily achieved through the use of a range of interventions with less attention given to how economic factors may hinder access and achievement in Paralympic sport. We investigated how country-level economic variables influence the level of participation and achievement in the 2015 International Paralympic Committee (IPC) Athletics Champ...

  2. If you build it, they will come: unintended future uses of organised health data collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Kieran C; Christofides, Emily; Yen, Jeffery; Bentzen, Heidi Beate; Burke, Wylie; Hallowell, Nina; Koenig, Barbara A; Willison, Donald J

    2016-09-06

    Health research increasingly relies on organized collections of health data and biological samples. There are many types of sample and data collections that are used for health research, though these are collected for many purposes, not all of which are health-related. These collections exist under different jurisdictional and regulatory arrangements and include: 1) Population biobanks, cohort studies, and genome databases 2) Clinical and public health data 3) Direct-to-consumer genetic testing 4) Social media 5) Fitness trackers, health apps, and biometric data sensors Ethical, legal, and social challenges of such collections are well recognized, but there has been limited attention to the broader societal implications of the existence of these collections. Although health research conducted using these collections is broadly recognized as beneficent, secondary uses of these data and samples may be controversial. We examine both documented and hypothetical scenarios of secondary uses of health data and samples. In particular, we focus on the use of health data for purposes of: Forensic investigations Civil lawsuits Identification of victims of mass casualty events Denial of entry for border security and immigration Making health resource rationing decisions Facilitating human rights abuses in autocratic regimes Current safeguards relating to the use of health data and samples include research ethics oversight and privacy laws. These safeguards have a strong focus on informed consent and anonymization, which are aimed at the protection of the individual research subject. They are not intended to address broader societal implications of health data and sample collections. As such, existing arrangements are insufficient to protect against subversion of health databases for non-sanctioned secondary uses, or to provide guidance for reasonable but controversial secondary uses. We are concerned that existing debate in the scholarly literature and beyond has not

  3. Building Resilience against Climate Effects—A Novel Framework to Facilitate Climate Readiness in Public Health Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinucci, Gino D.; Luber, George; Uejio, Christopher K.; Saha, Shubhayu; Hess, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is anticipated to have several adverse health impacts. Managing these risks to public health requires an iterative approach. As with many risk management strategies related to climate change, using modeling to project impacts, engaging a wide range of stakeholders, and regularly updating models and risk management plans with new information—hallmarks of adaptive management—are considered central tenets of effective public health adaptation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has developed a framework, entitled Building Resilience Against Climate Effects, or BRACE, to facilitate this process for public health agencies. Its five steps are laid out here. Following the steps laid out in BRACE will enable an agency to use the best available science to project likely climate change health impacts in a given jurisdiction and prioritize interventions. Adopting BRACE will also reinforce public health’s established commitment to evidence-based practice and institutional learning, both of which will be central to successfully engaging the significant new challenges that climate change presents. PMID:24991665

  4. Building a rapid learning health care system for oncology: the regulatory framework of CancerLinQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilsky, Richard L; Michels, Dina L; Kearbey, Amy H; Yu, Peter Paul; Hudis, Clifford A

    2014-08-01

    Today is a time of unprecedented opportunity and challenge in health care generally and cancer care in particular. An explosion of scientific knowledge, the rapid introduction of new drugs and technologies, and the unprecedented escalation in the cost of health care challenge physicians to quickly assimilate new information and appropriately deploy new advances while also delivering efficient and high-quality care to a rapidly growing and aging patient population. At the same time, big data, with its potential to drive rapid understanding and innovation, promises to transform the health care industry, as it has many others already. CancerLinQ is an initiative of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and its Institute for Quality, developed to build on these opportunities and address these challenges by collecting information from the electronic health records of large numbers of patients with cancer. CancerLinQ is, first and foremost, a quality measurement and reporting system through which oncologists can harness the depth and power of their patients' clinical records and other data to improve the care they deliver. The development and deployment of CancerLinQ raises many important questions about the use of big data in health care. This article focuses on the US federal regulatory pathway by which CancerLinQ will accept patient records and the approach of ASCO toward stewardship of the information. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. Building Trust and Relationships Between Patients and Providers: An Essential Complement to Health Literacy in HIV Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Rose, Carol; Cuca, Yvette P; Webel, Allison R; Solís Báez, Solymar S; Holzemer, William L; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Sanzero Eller, Lucille; Reid, Paula; Johnson, Mallory O; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Reyes, Darcel; Nokes, Kathleen; Nicholas, Patrice K; Matshediso, Ellah; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Sabone, Motshedisi B; Ntsayagae, Esther I; Shaibu, Sheila; Corless, Inge B; Wantland, Dean; Lindgren, Teri

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is important for access to and quality of HIV care. While most models of health literacy acknowledge the importance of the patient-provider relationship to disease management, a more nuanced understanding of this relationship is needed. Thematic analysis from 28 focus groups with HIV-experienced patients (n = 135) and providers (n = 71) identified a long-term and trusting relationship as an essential part of HIV treatment over the continuum of HIV care. We found that trust and relationship building over time were important for patients with HIV as well as for their providers. An expanded definition of health literacy that includes gaining a patient's trust and engaging in a process of health education and information sharing over time could improve HIV care. Expanding clinical perspectives to include trust and the importance of the patient-provider relationship to a shared understanding of health literacy may improve patient experiences and engagement in care. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Building Competency in Infant Mental Health Practice: The Edith Cowan University Pregnancy to Parenthood Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matacz, Rochelle; Priddis, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a unique Australian infant mental health (IMH) service for families from pregnancy through to early parenthood (0-3 years) and training center for postgraduate clinical psychology students. The Australian Association for Infant Mental Health Incorporated, West Australia Branch (AAIMHI WA) "Competency Guidelines"®…

  7. Women's health in the medical school curriculum: Building support for the adoption of core competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinto, Barbara A; Hillard, Paula J Adams

    2002-09-01

    Local adoption of the Association of Professors in Gynecology and Obstetrics women's health care competencies for medical students must be preceded by significant institutional groundwork. Nationally developed guidelines play an important role in persuading teaching faculty of the importance of including women's health and in augmenting institution-specific efforts.

  8. Optum Labs: building a novel node in the learning health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul J; Shah, Nilay D; Dennen, Taylor; Bleicher, Paul A; Bleicher, Paul D; Crown, William H

    2014-07-01

    Unprecedented change in the US health care system is being driven by the rapid uptake of health information technology and national investments in multi-institution research networks comprising academic centers, health care delivery systems, and other health system components. An example of this changing landscape is Optum Labs, a novel network "node" that is bringing together new partners, data, and analytic techniques to implement research findings in health care practice. Optum Labs was founded in early 2013 by Mayo Clinic and Optum, a commercial data, infrastructure services, and care organization that is part of UnitedHealth Group. Optum Labs now has eleven collaborators and a database of deidentified information on more than 150 million people that is compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996. This article describes the early progress of Optum Labs. The combination of the diverse collaborator perspectives with rich data, including deep patient and provider information, is intended to reveal new insights about diseases, treatments, and patients' behavior to guide changes in practice. Practitioners' involvement in agenda setting and translation of findings into practical care innovations accelerates the implementation of research results. Furthermore, feedback loops from the clinic help Optum Labs expand on successes and give quick attention to challenges as they emerge. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. Fuzzified Data Based Neural Network Modeling for Health Assessment of Multistorey Shear Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Moyi Sahoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to propose identification methodologies for multistorey shear buildings using the powerful technique of Artificial Neural Network (ANN models which can handle fuzzified data. Identification with crisp data is known, and also neural network method has already been used by various researchers for this case. Here, the input and output data may be in fuzzified form. This is because in general we may not get the corresponding input and output values exactly (in crisp form, but we have only the uncertain information of the data. This uncertain data is assumed in terms of fuzzy number, and the corresponding problem of system identification is investigated.

  10. Building a health care workforce for the future: more physicians, professional reforms, and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Atul; Niecko-Najjum, Lidia M

    2013-11-01

    Traditionally, projections of US health care demand have been based upon a combination of existing trends in usage and idealized or expected delivery system changes. For example, 1990s health care demand projections were based upon an expectation that delivery models would move toward closed, tightly managed care networks and would greatly decrease the demand for subspecialty care. Today, however, a different equation is needed on which to base such projections. Realistic workforce planning must take into account the fact that expanded access to health care, a growing and aging population, increased comorbidity, and longer life expectancy will all increase the use of health care services per capita over the next few decades--at a time when the number of physicians per capita will begin to drop. New technologies and more aggressive screening may also change the equation. Strategies to address these increasing demands on the health system must include expanded physician training.

  11. Building Service Delivery Networks: Partnership Evolution Among Children’s Behavioral Health Agencies in Response to New Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunger, Alicia C.; Doogan, Nathan J.; Cao, Yiwen

    2014-01-01

    Meeting the complex needs of youth with behavioral health problems requires a coordinated network of community-based agencies. Although fiscal scarcity or retrenchment can limit coordinated services, munificence can stimulate service delivery partnerships as agencies expand programs, hire staff, and spend more time coordinating services. This study examines the 2-year evolution of referral and staff expertise sharing networks in response to substantial new funding for services within a regional network of children’s mental health organizations. Quantitative network survey data were collected from directors of 22 nonprofit organizations that receive funding from a county government-based behavioral health service fund. Both referral and staff expertise sharing networks changed over time, but results of a stochastic actor-oriented model of network dynamics suggest the nature of this change varies for these networks. Agencies with higher numbers of referral and staff expertise sharing partners tend to maintain these ties and/or develop new relationships over the 2 years. Agencies tend to refer to agencies they trust, but trust was not associated with staff expertise sharing ties. However, agencies maintain or form staff expertise sharing ties with referral partners, or with organizations that provide similar services. In addition, agencies tend to reciprocate staff expertise sharing, but not referrals. Findings suggest that during periods of resource munificence and service expansion, behavioral health organizations build service delivery partnerships in complex ways that build upon prior collaborative history and coordinate services among similar types of providers. Referral partnerships can pave the way for future information sharing relationships. PMID:25574359

  12. Building a framework for global health learning: an analysis of global health concentrations in Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Rita; Matthews, David; Bach, Paxton; Kherani, Irfan; Halpine, Mary; Meili, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    This study set out to explore the current state of global health concentrations in Canadian medical schools and to solicit feedback on the barriers and challenges to implementing rigorous global health concentration programs. A set of consensus guidelines for global health concentrations was drafted through consultation with student and faculty leaders across Canada between May 2011 and May 2012. Drawing on these guidelines, a formal survey was sent to prominent faculty at each of the 14 English-speaking Canadian medical schools. A thematic analysis of the results was then conducted. Overall, the guidelines were strongly endorsed. A majority of Canadian medical schools have programs in place to offer global health course work, extracurricular learning opportunities, local community service-learning, low-resource-setting clinical electives, predeparture training, and postreturn debriefing. Although student evaluation, global health mentorship, and knowledge translation projects were endorsed as important components, few schools had been successful in implementing them. Language training for global health remains contested. Other common critiques included a lack of time and resources, and difficulties in setting standards for student evaluation. The results suggest that these guidelines are appropriate and, at least for the major criteria, achievable. Although many Canadian schools offer individual components, the majority of schools have yet to develop formally structured concentration programs. By better articulating guidelines, a standardized framework can aid in the establishment and refinement of future programs.

  13. Evidence-Based Decision Making in Public Health: Capacity Building for Public Health Students at King Saud University in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfaa A. Wahabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation of research evidence into public health programs is lagging in Eastern Mediterranean Region. Graduate level public health curriculum at King Saud University (KSU, College of Medicine, Riyadh, is designed to equip students to integrate best available evidence in public health decision making. The objectives of study were to explore students’ opinion about the evidence based public health (EBPH courses and to survey the knowledge, opinion, and attitude of the students towards EBPH and perceived barriers for implementation of EBPH in decision making in public health. EBPH courses are designed based on a sequential framework. A survey was conducted at the completion of EBPH courses. Forty-five graduate students were invited to complete a validated self-administered questionnaire. It included questions about demography, opinion, and attitude towards EBPH and perceived barriers towards implementation of EBPH in the work environment. The response rate was 73%. Mean age of students was 30.1 (SD 2.3 years, and 51% were males. More than 80% had sound knowledge and could appreciate the importance of EBPH. The main perceived barriers to incorporate EBPH in decision making were lack of system of communication between researchers and policy makers and scarcity of research publications related to the public health problems.

  14. Evidence-Based Decision Making in Public Health: Capacity Building for Public Health Students at King Saud University in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahabi, Hayfaa A; Siddiqui, Amna Rehana; Mohamed, Ashry G; Al-Hazmi, Ali M; Zakaria, Nasriah; Al-Ansary, Lubna A

    2015-01-01

    Translation of research evidence into public health programs is lagging in Eastern Mediterranean Region. Graduate level public health curriculum at King Saud University (KSU), College of Medicine, Riyadh, is designed to equip students to integrate best available evidence in public health decision making. The objectives of study were to explore students' opinion about the evidence based public health (EBPH) courses and to survey the knowledge, opinion, and attitude of the students towards EBPH and perceived barriers for implementation of EBPH in decision making in public health. EBPH courses are designed based on a sequential framework. A survey was conducted at the completion of EBPH courses. Forty-five graduate students were invited to complete a validated self-administered questionnaire. It included questions about demography, opinion, and attitude towards EBPH and perceived barriers towards implementation of EBPH in the work environment. The response rate was 73%. Mean age of students was 30.1 (SD 2.3) years, and 51% were males. More than 80% had sound knowledge and could appreciate the importance of EBPH. The main perceived barriers to incorporate EBPH in decision making were lack of system of communication between researchers and policy makers and scarcity of research publications related to the public health problems.

  15. Systems thinking in practice: the current status of the six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening in three BHOMA intervention districts of Zambia: a baseline qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Bond, Virginia; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Mlewa, Susan; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Ayles, Helen

    2013-08-01

    The primary bottleneck to achieving the MDGs in low-income countries is health systems that are too fragile to deliver the volume and quality of services to those in need. Strong and effective health systems are increasingly considered a prerequisite to reducing the disease burden and to achieving the health MDGs. Zambia is one of the countries that are lagging behind in achieving millennium development targets. Several barriers have been identified as hindering the progress towards health related millennium development goals. Designing an intervention that addresses these barriers was crucial and so the Better Health Outcomes through Mentorship (BHOMA) project was designed to address the challenges in the Zambia's MOH using a system wide approach. We applied systems thinking approach to describe the baseline status of the Six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening. A qualitative study was conducted looking at the status of the Six WHO building blocks for health systems strengthening in three BHOMA districts. We conducted Focus group discussions with community members and In-depth Interviews with key informants. Data was analyzed using Nvivo version 9. The study showed that building block specific weaknesses had cross cutting effect in other health system building blocks which is an essential element of systems thinking. Challenges noted in service delivery were linked to human resources, medical supplies, information flow, governance and finance building blocks either directly or indirectly. Several barriers were identified as hindering access to health services by the local communities. These included supply side barriers: Shortage of qualified health workers, bad staff attitude, poor relationships between community and health staff, long waiting time, confidentiality and the gender of health workers. Demand side barriers: Long distance to health facility, cost of transport and cultural practices. Participating communities seemed to lack the capacity

  16. Utilizing the school health index to build collaboration between a university and an urban school district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S; Reed, Ernestine A; Thomas, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Insufficient attention has been paid to the process of conducting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's School Health Index (SHI) to promote collaboration between universities and urban school districts when developing adolescent health promotion initiatives. This article provides an overview of the real-world contextual challenges and opportunities this type of collaboration can pose. The SHI and selected collaboration principles were used to facilitate partnership and increase stakeholder buy-in, which led to developing and implementing an 8-year health promotion campaign. The focus on planning brought together key stakeholders to allow for health promotion programming to take place, despite the competing demands on the schools. The SHI allowed for input from stakeholders to develop campaign activities and inform school- and district-wide policy. Universities and school districts desiring to develop and implement school-based, adolescent health promotion programs should (1) identify the hierarchical structure of the school district, (2) establish credibility for the program and the university staff, (3) emphasize the benefits to all partners, (4) maintain a cooperative partnership with teachers and administrators, (5) appreciate the need for planning, and (6) provide as many resources as possible to aid an already overburdened school system. Promoting healthy behaviors among students is an important part of the fundamental mission of schools. The significance of collaboration using the SHI, with direct input from students, teachers, administrators, and university partners, is critical in the development of institutional support for implementation of adolescent health promotion initiatives. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  17. Building a Foundation to Reduce Health Inequities: Routine Collection of Sociodemographic Data in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andrew D; Glattstein-Young, Gabriela; Mohamed, Anthony; Bloch, Gary; Leung, Fok-Han; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    Detailed data on social determinants of health can facilitate the identification of inequities in access to health care. We report on a sociodemographic data collection tool used in a family medicine clinic. Four major health organizations in Toronto collaborated to identify a set of 14 questions that covered a range of social determinants of health. These were translated into 13 languages. This survey was self-administered using an electronic tablet to a convenience sample of 407 patients in the waiting room of a primary care clinic. Data were uploaded directly to the electronic medical record. The rate of valid responses provided for each question was high, ranging from 84% to 100%. The questions with the highest number of patients selecting "do not know" and "prefer not to answer" pertained to disabilities and income. Patients reported finding the process acceptable. In subsequent implementation across 5 clinics, 10,536 patients have been surveyed; only 724 (6.9%) declined to participate. Collecting data on social determinants of health through a self-administered survey, and linking them to a patient's chart, is feasible and acceptable. A modified survey is now administered to all patients. Such data are already being used to identify health inequities, develop novel interventions, and evaluate their impact on health outcomes. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  18. BUILDING A WORKFORCE COMPETENCY-BASED TRAINING PROGRAM IN INFANT/EARLY CHILDHOOD MENTAL HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddis, Lynn E; Matacz, Rochelle; Weatherston, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article describes findings from a project conducted in Western Australia (Mental Health Commission WA, 2015) that investigated the education and training needs of the Infant/Early Childhood Mental Health (I/ECMH) workforce. We examined international training programs and models of delivery in infant mental health, including a review of the current training available in Australia. Data collected from over 60 interviews were analyzed, and a staged delivery model for I/ECMH training and supervision that aligned with the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health (2014) Competency Guidelines was recommended. These findings led to the purchase of the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health (2014) for use in Western Australia. In a very short time, use of the Michigan Competency Framework by the Australian Association for Infant Mental Health West Australian Branch Incorporated has begun to change the training and education opportunities for upskilling the infant and early childhood workforce in Western Australia. It has resulted in a map to guide and develop training in the I/ECMH field for individual practitioners and professionals as well as for workplaces that will ultimately benefit Western Australian infants, young children, and their families during the perinatal period and in the early years. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Climate Change Adopted Building Envelope as A Protector of Human Health in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, Krystyna

    2017-10-01

    Recently, an expanded understanding of building performance acknowledges that all forces acting on buildings (climate, energies, information, and human agents) are not static and fixed, but rather mutable and transient. With the use of parametric and multi-criteria optimization digital tools, buildings’ envelopes can be designed to respond to various requirements. This paper explores the possibilities of architectural design to benefit human conditions, which encompasses mental well-being, environmental quality of life during the Climate Change era. The first part of the paper defines the main factors (such as: lack of green nature and sunlight, noise and pollution) which are influencing the formation of psychological disorder in big cities. The negative impact of these factors is constantly increasing in the time of Climate Change progressing. The second part presents results of the research program undertaken at West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin by author. The program goes on to attempt to solve the problem through architectural design. This study highlights a social problem, such as mental well-being, resulting from urbanization or effects of the climate change, and serves as a useful background for further research on the possibilities of redefining sustainable and human friendly design.

  20. Evaluation of health factors in high-rise buildings. 1. Behaviour of some environmental factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moese, J.R.; Raber, J.; Grill, D.; Koeck, M.

    1981-01-01

    None of the test series carried out with completely different parameters (summation measurements of different type for SO2, fluorine, chlorides as well as germ counts for air) have indicated that the people living on the higher floors of tower blocks are exposed to a greater burden than those living on lower floors. On the contrary, the chloride analyses and also ther germ counts made on the balconies showed that such tower blocks are exposed to dust and dirt swirling up from the streets from the second up to the sixth floor (max. pollution on the third floor). In the stairwell, the highest germ count was made on the ground floor, as was to be expected. Needless to say, these results apply only to the conditions prevailing here. Somewhat different results may be obtained in other places, under different conditions regarding location and building structure. However, the results clearly show that the assumption that the upper storeys of high-rise buildings are exposed to a higher burden cannot be generally valid with respect to the parameters used. This is the least that our results indicate.

  1. Building Data and Information Capacity in Environmental Public Health: A Best-Worst Scaling Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallar, Lauren E; Sargeant, Jan M; McEwen, Scott A; Mercer, Nicola J; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2017-06-16

    Environmental public health practitioners rely on information technology (IT) to maintain and improve environmental health. However, current systems have limited capacity. A better understanding of the importance of IT features is needed to enhance data and information capacity. (1) Rank IT features according to the percentage of respondents who rated them as essential to an information management system and (2) quantify the relative importance of a subset of these features using best-worst scaling. Information technology features were initially identified from a previously published systematic review of software evaluation criteria and a list of software options from a private corporation specializing in inspection software. Duplicates and features unrelated to environmental public health were removed. The condensed list was refined by a working group of environmental public health management to a final list of 57 IT features. The essentialness of features was electronically rated by environmental public health managers. Features where 50% to 80% of respondents rated them as essential (n = 26) were subsequently evaluated using best-worst scaling. Ontario, Canada. Environmental public health professionals in local public health. Importance scores of IT features. The majority of IT features (47/57) were considered essential to an information management system by at least half of the respondents (n = 52). The highest-rated features were delivery to printer, software encryption capability, and software maintenance services. Of the 26 features evaluated in the best-worst scaling exercise, the most important features were orientation to all practice areas, off-line capability, and ability to view past inspection reports and results. The development of a single, unified environmental public health information management system that fulfills the reporting and functionality needs of system users is recommended. This system should be implemented by all public health units

  2. Arts, health & wellbeing: reflections on a national seminar series and building a UK research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Theo; Parr, Hester; Atkinson, Sarah; Daykin, Norma; Clift, Stephen; De Nora, Tia; Hacking, Sue; Camic, Paul M; Joss, Tim; White, Mike; Hogan, Susan J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An account is provided of a UK national seminar series on Arts, Health and Wellbeing funded by the Economic and Social Research Council during 2012–13. Four seminars were organised addressing current issues and challenges facing the field. Details of the programme and its outputs are available online. A central concern of the seminar programme was to provide a foundation for creating a UK national network for researchers in the field to help promote evidence-based policy and practice. With funding from Lankelly Chase Foundation, and the support of the Royal Society for Public Health, a Special interest Group for Arts, Health and Wellbeing was launched in 2015. PMID:28163778

  3. Evaluating capacity-building for mental health system strengthening in low- and middle-income countries for service users and caregivers, service planners and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, C; Semrau, M; Alem, A; Abayneh, S; Abdulmalik, J; Docrat, S; Evans-Lacko, S; Gureje, O; Jordans, M; Lempp, H; Mugisha, J; Petersen, I; Shidhaye, R; Thornicroft, G

    2018-02-01

    Efforts to support the scale-up of integrated mental health care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) need to focus on building human resource capacity in health system strengthening, as well as in the direct provision of mental health care. In a companion editorial, we describe a range of capacity-building activities that are being implemented by a multi-country research consortium (Emerald: Emerging mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries) for (1) service users and caregivers, (2) service planners and policy-makers and (3) researchers in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda). In this paper, we focus on the methodology being used to evaluate the impact of capacity-building in these three target groups. We first review the evidence base for approaches to evaluation of capacity-building, highlighting the gaps in this area. We then describe the adaptation of best practice for the Emerald capacity-building evaluation. The resulting mixed method evaluation framework was tailored to each target group and to each country context. We identified a need to expand the evidence base on indicators of successful capacity-building across the different target groups. To address this, we developed an evaluation plan to measure the adequacy and usefulness of quantitative capacity-building indicators when compared with qualitative evaluation. We argue that evaluation needs to be an integral part of capacity-building activities and that expertise needs to be built in methods of evaluation. The Emerald evaluation provides a potential model for capacity-building evaluation across key stakeholder groups and promises to extend understanding of useful indicators of success.

  4. Student internships with unions and workers: building the occupational health and safety movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Gail

    2013-01-01

    One of the most successful programs to recruit young professionals to the occupational safety and health field was launched more than 35 years ago, in 1976. Created by the Montefiore Medical Center's Department of Social Medicine collaborating with Tony Mazzocchi of the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union (OCAW), it placed medical, nursing, and public health students in summer internships with local unions to identify and solve health and safety problems in the workplace. The experience of working with and learning from workers about the complex interactions of political, economic, and scientific-technological issues surrounding workplace conditions inspired many students to enter and stay in our field. Many former interns went on to make important medical and scientific contributions directly linked to their union-based projects. Former interns are now among the leaders within the occupational health and safety community, holding key positions in leading academic institutions and governmental agencies.

  5. Health care logistics and space: accounting for the physical build environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Hartmann, Timo; Larqoque, C.; Himmelspach, J.; Pasupathy, R.; Rose, O.; Uhrmacher, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Planning and scheduling of health care processes has improved considerably using operations research techniques. Besides analytical and optimization tools, a substantial amount of sophisticated discrete event simulation tools supporting (re-)design of existing logistical processes in and around

  6. A look at the ASEAN-NDI: building a regional health R&D innovation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jaime C; Rebulanan, Carina L; Parungao, Nico Angelo C; Ramirez, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    Globally, there are growing efforts to address diseases through the advancement in health research and development (R&D), strengthening of regional cooperation in science and technology (particularly on product discovery and development), and implementation of the World Health Assembly Resolution 61.21 (WHA61.21) on the Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation, and Intellectual Property (GSPA-PHI). As such, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is responding to this through the establishment of the ASEAN-Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines Innovation (ASEAN-NDI). This is important in the ASEAN considering that infectious tropical diseases remain prevalent, emerging, and reemerging in the region. This paper looks into the evolution of the ASEAN-NDI from its inception in 2009, to how it is at present, and its plans to mitigate public health problems regionally and even globally.

  7. Building bridges to operationalise one health – A Sino-Swedish collaboration to tackle antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Cars

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a complex global health challenge. The recent Global Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance highlights the importance of adopting One Health approaches that can cross traditional disciplinary boundaries. We report on the early experiences of a multisectoral Sino-Swedish research project that aims to address gaps in our current knowledge and seeks to improve the situation through system-wide interventions. Our research project is investigating antibiotic use and resistance in a rural area of China through a combination of epidemiological, health systems and laboratory investigations. We reflect here on the challenges inherent in conducting long distance cross-disciplinary collaborations, having now completed data and sample collection for a baseline situation analysis. In particular, we recognise the importance of investing in aspects such as effective communication, shared conceptual frameworks and leadership. We suggest that our experiences will be instructive to others planning to develop similar international One Health collaborations.

  8. Building up user participation: councils and conferences in the Brazilian Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Maria Vargas Cortes

    Full Text Available The article discusses the literature that states that creating channels of participation in developing countries in general, and in Latin America in particular, is too difficult, due to the weakness of both the political institutions and the civil society. In the field of health, the initiatives to promote user participation would have supposedly resulted in failure. However, the Brazilian experience with health councils and conferences does not confirm such statements. The article also examines the historical origins, the creation of these fora and the politico-institutional role they play in the context of the Brazilian health system reform. Finally, the article analyzes the factors that determine the success of a participatory process in health councils and conferences.

  9. Report: Vapor Intrusion Health Risks at Bannister Federal Complex Not a Concern for Buildings 50 and 52, Unknown for Other Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #11-P-0048, January 5, 2011. Testing at Bannister Federal Complex in February 2010 revealed elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the soil vapor beneath the foundations of buildings 50 and 52.

  10. Building-related health symptoms and classroom indoor air quality: a survey of school teachers in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielb, C; Lin, S; Muscatiello, N; Hord, W; Rogers-Harrington, J; Healy, J

    2015-08-01

    Most previous research on indoor environments and health has studied school children or occupants in non-school settings. This investigation assessed building-related health symptoms and classroom characteristics via telephone survey of New York State school teachers. Participants were asked about 14 building-related symptoms and 23 classroom characteristics potentially related to poor indoor air quality (IAQ). Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between these symptoms and each classroom characteristic, controlling for potential confounders. About 500 teachers completed the survey. The most frequently reported classroom characteristics included open shelving (70.7%), food eaten in class (65.5%), dust (59.1%), and carpeting (46.9%). The most commonly reported symptoms included sinus problems (16.8%), headache (15.0%), allergies/congestion (14.8%), and throat irritation (14.6%). Experiencing one or more symptoms was associated most strongly with reported dust (relative risk (RR) = 3.67; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.62-5.13), dust reservoirs (RR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.72-2.65), paint odors (RR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.40-2.13), mold (RR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.39-2.11), and moldy odors (RR = 1.65 95% CI: 1.30-2.10). Stronger associations were found with increasing numbers of reported IAQ-related classroom characteristics. Similar results were found with having any building-related allergic/respiratory symptom. This research adds to the body of evidence underscoring the importance to occupant health of school IAQ. Teachers play an important role in educating children, and teacher well-being is important to this role. Health symptoms among New York teachers while at work are common and appear to be associated with numerous characteristics related to poor classroom IAQ. Improving school Indoor Air Quality may reduce sickness and absenteeism and improve teacher performance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mobile-based blended learning for capacity building of health providers in rural Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirmizi, Syeda Nateela; Khoja, Shariq; Patten, Scott; Yousafzai, Abdul Wahab; Scott, Richard E; Durrani, Hammad; Khoja, Wafa; Husyin, Nida

    2017-01-01

    Mobile-based blended learning initiative was launched in November 2014 in Badakshan province of Afghanistan by Tech4Life Enterprises, Aga Khan Health Service, Afghanistan (AKHS, A), and the University of Calgary, Canada. The goal of this initiative was to improve knowledge of health providers related to four major mental health problems, namely depression, psychosis, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and drug abuse. This paper presents the results of quasi-experimental study conducted in 4 intervention districts in Badakshan for improvement in the knowledge among health providers about depression. The results were compared with three control districts for the change in knowledge scores. Sixty-two health providers completed pre and post module questionnaires from case district, while 31 health providers did so from the control sites. Significant change was noticed in the case districts, where overall knowledge scores changed from 45% in pre-intervention test to 63% in post-intervention test. Overall background knowledge of pre to post module test scores changed from 30% to 40%, knowledge of symptoms showed correct responses raised from 25% to 44%, knowledge related to causes of depression from overall districts showed change from 22% to 51%, and treatment knowledge of depression improved from 29% to 35%. Average gain in scores among cases was 16.06, compared to 6.8 in controls. The study confirms that a blended Learning approach with multiple learning techniques for health providers in Badakshan, Afghanistan, enhanced their knowledge and offers an effective solution to overcome challenges in continuing education. Further research is needed to confirm that the gains in knowledge reported here translate into better practice and improved mental health.

  12. Building and Sustaining Strong Public Health Agencies: Determinants of Workforce Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshaban, Deena; Basurto-Dávila, Ricardo; Shih, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Workforce shortages have been identified as a priority for US public health agencies. Voluntary turnover results in loss of expertise and institutional knowledge as well as high costs to recruit and train replacement workers. To analyze patterns and predictors of voluntary turnover among public health workers. Descriptive analysis and linear probability regression models. Employees of state health agencies in the United States who participated in the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS). Intended retirement and voluntary departure; pay satisfaction; job satisfaction. Nearly 25% of workers reported plans to retire before 2020, and an additional 18% reported the intention to leave their current organization within 1 year. Four percent of staff are considering leaving their organization in the next year for a job at a different health department. There was significant heterogeneity by demographic, socioeconomic, and job characteristics. Areas such as administration/management, health education, health services, social services, and epidemiology may be particularly vulnerable to turnover. The strongest predictors of voluntary departure were pay and job satisfaction, which were associated with 9 (P salary levels, higher levels of education and longer work experience were associated with lower pay satisfaction, except for physicians, who were 11 percentage points (P = .02) more likely to be satisfied with their pay than employees with doctoral degrees. Several workplace characteristics related to relationships with supervisors, workplace environment, and employee motivation/morale were significantly associated with job satisfaction. Our findings suggest that public health agencies may face significant pressure from worker retirement and voluntary departures in coming years. Although retirement can be addressed through recruitment efforts, addressing other voluntary departures will require focusing on improving pay and job satisfaction.

  13. Building National Capacity for Child and Family Disaster Mental Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Houston, J Brian; Reyes, Gilbert; Steinberg, Alan M.; Robert S. Pynoos; FAIRBANK, JOHN A; Brymer, Melissa J.; Maida, Carl A

    2010-01-01

    Disaster mental health is a burgeoning field with numerous opportunities for professional involvement in preparedness, response, and recovery efforts. Research is essential to advance professional understanding of risk and protective factors associated with disaster outcomes; to develop an evidence base for acute, intermediate, and long-term mental health approaches to address child, adult, family, and community disaster-related needs; and to inform policy and guide national and local disaste...

  14. Building interdisciplinary leadership skills among health practitioners in the 21st century: an innovative training model

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti eNegandhi; Himanshu eNegandhi; Ritika eTiwari; Kavya eSharma; Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Zahiruddin eQuazi; Abhay eGaidhane; Jayalakshmi eN.; Meenakshi eGijare; Rajiv eYeravdekar

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning is the focus of 21st century global educational reforms. In India there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners, and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nur...

  15. Building coalitions to support women's health and rights in the United States: South Carolina and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Theresa

    2007-05-01

    There is a health care crisis in the United States and women, particularly low-income women and women of colour, are paying the price. The politicisation of pregnancy, sexuality and women's reproductive rights has created a uniquely contradictory situation in many states. Policymakers are working to control women's reproductive choices and sexuality, and restricting sex education, but doing little to address the overall lack of access to quality reproductive health care. This article describes a new reproductive rights advocacy model that was implemented starting in 2003 in two US states, South Carolina and Florida. In-depth research on the status of reproductive health and rights in each state, analysed by race, economic status, county and state policy initiatives relevant to women's health, showed that in both states access to contraception and abortion, cervical and breast cancer screening and treatment, HIV/AIDS-related care and pregnancy care were poor, with African American and Hispanic women faring even worse than white women. Implementing the advocacy model involved identifying and bringing together a diverse set of health care professionals, academics and activists who formed coalitions and are now working together and developing advocacy strategies in support of policies to improve access to reproductive health care and protect reproductive rights in both states.

  16. Implementing the ICF in Occupational Health; building a curriculum as an exemplary case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brouwer, Carin P M; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G P M; Heerkens, Yvonne F; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Kant, IJmert

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for a paradigm shift from post-diagnosis tertiary care towards maintenance and promotion of health across the lifespan, for healthcare in general and in occupational healthcare specifically. It is based on the assumption that the realization of this paradigm shift may be facilitated by teaching (future) occupational health professionals to use the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Describing the development of a an ICF based occupational health curriculum. Grafting a training trajectory in the ICF for educating the biopsychosocial health paradigm, onto a training trajectory in the Critical Appraisal of a Topic (CAT), a method for teaching evidence based practice skills. The development process of the training trajectories in the master program Work, Health, and Career at Maastricht University is described as an example of an intervention for shifting the paradigm in healthcare curricula. The expected results are a shift from the biomedical towards the biopsychosocial paradigm, a reductionist approach towards a more holistic view on cases, a reactive way of working towards a more proactive work style, and from using a merely quantifiable evidence base towards using a broad evidence base. Incorporating the biopsychosocial paradigm into the assessment and scientific reasoning skills of students is not only valuable in occupational healthcare but might be a valuable approach for all disciplines in healthcare for which contextual factors are important e.g. rehabilitation, psychiatry and nutritional science.

  17. An exploration of equitable science teaching practices for students with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marlene

    In this study, a mixed methods approach was used to gather descriptive exploratory information regarding the teaching of science to middle grades students with learning disabilities within a general education classroom. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' beliefs and their practices concerning providing equitable opportunities for students with learning disabilities in a general education science classroom. Equitable science teaching practices take into account each student's differences and uses those differences to inform instructional decisions and tailor teaching practices based on the student's individualized learning needs. Students with learning disabilities are similar to their non-disabled peers; however, they need some differentiation in instruction to perform to their highest potential achievement levels (Finson, Ormsbee, & Jensen, 2011). In the quantitative phase, the purpose of the study was to identify patterns in the beliefs of middle grades science teachers about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education classroom. In the qualitative phase, the purpose of the study was to present examples of instruction in the classrooms of science education reform-oriented middle grades science teachers. The quantitative phase of the study collected data from 274 sixth through eighth grade teachers in the State of Florida during the 2007--2008 school year using The Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities Inventory. Overall, the quantitative findings revealed that middle grades science teachers held positive beliefs about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education science classroom. The qualitative phase collected data from multiple sources (interviews, classroom observations, and artifacts) to develop two case studies of reform-oriented middle grades science teachers who were expected to provide equitable science teaching practices. Based on their responses to The

  18. Building Capacity of Occupational Therapy Practitioners to Address the Mental Health Needs of Children and Youth: A Mixed-Methods Study of Knowledge Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirjian, Louise; LaGuardia, Teri; Thompson-Repas, Karen; Conway, Carol; Michaud, Paula

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE. We explored the meaning and outcomes of a 6-mo building capacity process designed to promote knowledge translation of a public health approach to mental health among pediatric occupational therapy practitioners participating in a Community of Practice. METHOD. A one-group (N = 117) mixed-methods design using a pretest–posttest survey and qualitative analysis of written reflections was used to explore the meaning and outcomes of the building capacity process. RESULTS. Statistically significant improvements (p occupational therapy’s role in addressing children’s mental health. PMID:26565099

  19. Lessons learned while building a trauma-informed public behavioral health system in the City of Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S; Adams, Danielle R; Kratz, Hilary E; Jackson, Kamilah; Berkowitz, Steven; Zinny, Arturo; Cliggitt, Lauren Pilar; DeWitt, Kathryn L; Skriner, Laura; Evans, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to traumatic experiences among youth is a serious public health concern. A trauma-informed public behavioral health system that emphasizes core principles such as understanding trauma, promoting safety, supporting consumer autonomy, sharing power, and ensuring cultural competence, is needed to support traumatized youth and the providers who work with them. This article describes a case study of the creation and evaluation of a trauma-informed publicly funded behavioral health system for children and adolescents in the City of Philadelphia (the Philadelphia Alliance for Child Trauma Services; PACTS) using the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment (EPIS) as a guiding framework. We describe our evaluation of this effort with an emphasis on implementation determinants and outcomes. Implementation determinants include inner context factors, specifically therapist knowledge and attitudes (N=114) towards evidence-based practices. Implementation outcomes include rate of PTSD diagnoses in agencies over time, number of youth receiving TF-CBT over time, and penetration (i.e., number of youth receiving TF-CBT divided by the number of youth screening positive on trauma screening). We describe lessons learned from our experiences building a trauma-informed public behavioral health system in the hopes that this case study can guide other similar efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics: building on the 20-year history of a BCS Health peer review journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, Simon

    2015-02-12

    After 20-years as Informatics in Primary Care the journal is renamed Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics. The title was carefully selected to reflect that: (1) informatics provides the opportunity to innovate rather than simply automates; (2) implementing informatics solutions often results in unintended consequences, and many implementations fail and benefits and innovations may go unrecognised; (3) health informatics is a boundary spanning discipline and is by its very nature likely to give rise to innovation. Informatics is an innovative science, and informaticians need to innovate across professional and discipline boundaries.

  1. Combating Health Disparities in Cambodian American Communities: A CBPR Approach to Building Community Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, S Megan; Kong, Sengly; Kuoch, Theanvy; Schilling, Elizabeth A; An, Rasy; Blatz, Mary; Sorn, Rorng; Ung, Sivheng; Yan, Yorn; Scully, Mary; Fukuda, Seiya; Mordecai, Lorin

    2017-01-01

    Cambodian Americans have higher rates of health problems compared with the general U.S. A relatively modest community capacity for collecting data contributes to these disparities. To (1) further develop the Cambodian American community's capacity to design and conduct health research meaningful to their community via a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, (2) train and deploy bilingual community health workers (CHWs) to gather health-related data from their communities using mobile technology, and (3) measure the feasibility and effectiveness of our efforts. A CBPR approach was used to engage leaders of Cambodian American communities in six states to identify their research needs, develop a short community health survey administered by CHWs, and conduct the survey using iPads programmed in Khmer spoken-language format. Administrative logs and surveys of CHWs and leaders measured feasibility and effectiveness of the project. CHWs, leaders, and community members reported largely positive experiences with the community health survey, despite poor/inconsistent Internet connectivity. The institutional capacity of Cambodian American community-based organizations to collect health-related data in their own communities was strengthened. Our efforts proved to be both feasible and effective. The use of mobile technology with spoken format can be a valuable tool in accessing input from vulnerable community members, including persons who may not be literate in any language. Trained CHWs, backed by dedicated and experienced community leaders, are an asset to their communities. Together, they are uniquely placed to make important contributions to the well-being of their community.

  2. Building effective service linkages in primary mental health care: a narrative review part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jeffrey D; Perkins, David; Parker, Sharon; Holdsworth, Louise; Kelly, Brian; Roberts, Russell; Martinez, Lee; Fragar, Lyn

    2011-03-25

    Primary care services have not generally been effective in meeting mental health care needs. There is evidence that collaboration between primary care and specialist mental health services can improve clinical and organisational outcomes. It is not clear however what factors enable or hinder effective collaboration. The objective of this study was to examine the factors that enable effective collaboration between specialist mental health services and primary mental health care. A narrative and thematic review of English language papers published between 1998 and 2009. An expert reference group helped formulate strategies for policy makers. Studies of descriptive and qualitative design from Australia, New Zealand, UK, Europe, USA and Canada were included. Data were extracted on factors reported as enablers or barriers to development of service linkages. These were tabulated by theme at clinical and organisational levels and the inter-relationship between themes was explored. A thematic analysis of 30 papers found the most frequently cited group of factors was "partnership formation", specifically role clarity between health care workers. Other factor groups supporting clinical partnership formation were staff support, clinician attributes, clinic physical features and evaluation and feedback. At the organisational level a supportive institutional environment of leadership and change management was important. The expert reference group then proposed strategies for collaboration that would be seen as important, acceptable and feasible. Because of the variability of study types we did not exclude on quality and findings are weighted by the number of studies. Variability in local service contexts limits the generalisation of findings. The findings provide a framework for health planners to develop effective service linkages in primary mental health care. Our expert reference group proposed five areas of strategy for policy makers that address organisational level

  3. Building effective service linkages in primary mental health care: a narrative review part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Sharon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care services have not generally been effective in meeting mental health care needs. There is evidence that collaboration between primary care and specialist mental health services can improve clinical and organisational outcomes. It is not clear however what factors enable or hinder effective collaboration. The objective of this study was to examine the factors that enable effective collaboration between specialist mental health services and primary mental health care. Methods A narrative and thematic review of English language papers published between 1998 and 2009. An expert reference group helped formulate strategies for policy makers. Studies of descriptive and qualitative design from Australia, New Zealand, UK, Europe, USA and Canada were included. Data were extracted on factors reported as enablers or barriers to development of service linkages. These were tabulated by theme at clinical and organisational levels and the inter-relationship between themes was explored. Results A thematic analysis of 30 papers found the most frequently cited group of factors was "partnership formation", specifically role clarity between health care workers. Other factor groups supporting clinical partnership formation were staff support, clinician attributes, clinic physical features and evaluation and feedback. At the organisational level a supportive institutional environment of leadership and change management was important. The expert reference group then proposed strategies for collaboration that would be seen as important, acceptable and feasible. Because of the variability of study types we did not exclude on quality and findings are weighted by the number of studies. Variability in local service contexts limits the generalisation of findings. Conclusion The findings provide a framework for health planners to develop effective service linkages in primary mental health care. Our expert reference group proposed five areas of

  4. ASHA: Using Participatory Methods to Develop an Asset-building Mental Health Intervention for Bangladeshi Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasz, Alison; Raghavan, Sumithra; Patel, Viraj; Zaman, Moumita; Akhter, Laila; Kabita, Mahbhooba

    2015-01-01

    Common mental disorder (CMD) is highly prevalent among low-income immigrant women, yet few receive effective treatment. This underutilization is partly owing to a lack of conceptual synchrony between biopsychiatric theories underlying conventional mental treatments and explanatory models in community settings. The Action to Improve Self-esteem and Health through Asset building (ASHA) program is a depression intervention designed by and for South Asian women immigrants. ASHA helps women to build psychological, social, and financial assets. This paper describes the development and a preliminary pilot evaluation of the ASHA intervention. Researchers, clinicians, activists, and women from the Bronx Bangladeshi community collaboratively designed a depression intervention that would synchronize with local concepts of distress. In addition to providing mental health treatment, ASHA addresses social isolation and financial dependence. ASHA was evaluated in a pilot study described in this paper. Participants were assigned to intervention or delayed intervention (control) groups. Data collection at baseline and time 2 (6 months) included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and an indigenous measure of psychological and somatic distress. Eighty percent of intervention participants completed the 6-month program. After treatment, mean PHQ-9 scores in the intervention group decreased from 9.90 to 4.26 (p < .001). Participants saved an average of $10 per week. To date, participants have applied their skills and savings toward such activities as starting small businesses and enrolling in community college. ASHA was effective in improving depression and increasing financial independence. Using a culturally synchronous approach to psychological treatment may be effective in ameliorating distress in immigrant populations.

  5. Building Workforce Capacity Abroad While Strengthening Global Health Programs at Home: Participation of Seven Harvard-Affiliated Institutions in a Health Professional Training Initiative in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancedda, Corrado; Riviello, Robert; Wilson, Kim; Scott, Kirstin W; Tuteja, Meenu; Barrow, Jane R; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany; Bukhman, Gene; Scott, Jennifer; Milner, Danny; Raviola, Giuseppe; Weissman, Barbara; Smith, Stacy; Nuthulaganti, Tej; McClain, Craig D; Bierer, Barbara E; Farmer, Paul E; Becker, Anne E; Binagwaho, Agnes; Rhatigan, Joseph; Golan, David E

    2017-05-01

    A consortium of 22 U.S. academic institutions is currently participating in the Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program (HRH Program). Led by the Rwandan Ministry of Health and funded by both the U.S. Government and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the primary goal of this seven-year initiative is to help Rwanda train the number of health professionals necessary to reach the country's health workforce targets. Since 2012, the participating U.S. academic institutions have deployed faculty from a variety of health-related disciplines and clinical specialties to Rwanda. In this Article, the authors describe how U.S. academic institutions (focusing on the seven Harvard-affiliated institutions participating in the HRH Program-Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary) have also benefited: (1) by providing opportunities to their faculty and trainees to engage in global health activities; (2) by establishing long-term, academic partnerships and collaborations with Rwandan academic institutions; and (3) by building the administrative and mentorship capacity to support global health initiatives beyond the HRH Program. In doing this, the authors describe the seven Harvard-affiliated institutions' contributions to the HRH Program, summarize the benefits accrued by these institutions as a result of their participation in the program, describe the challenges they encountered in implementing the program, and outline potential solutions to these challenges that may inform similar future health professional training initiatives.

  6. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AI Syazwan,1 B Mohd Rafee,1 Hafizan Juahir,2 AZF Azman,1 AM Nizar,3 Z Izwyn,4 K Syahidatussyakirah,1 AA Muhaimin,5 MA Syafiq Yunos,6 AR Anita,1 J Muhamad Hanafiah,1 MS Shaharuddin,7 A Mohd Ibthisham,8 I Mohd Hasmadi,9 MN Mohamad Azhar,1 HS Azizan,1 I Zulfadhli,10 J Othman,11 M Rozalini,12 FT Kamarul131Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 2Department of Environmental Science/ Environmental Forensics Research Center (ENFORCE, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 3Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, 4Department of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Biomedical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 5Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 6Plant Assessment Technology (PAT, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 7Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 8Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 9Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 10Faculty of Built Environment and Architect, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 11Department of Counselor Education and Psychology Counseling, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 12Occupational Safety, Health and Environment Unit, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, 13ERALAB SDN. BHD. (Environmental Research and Analytical Laboratory Sdn. Bhd., Selangor, MALAYSIAPurpose: To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial

  7. Evaluation of a capacity building clinical educational model for oral health clinicians treating very young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J M; O'Halloran, K A; Butcher, J A; Hopcraft, M S; Arnold-Smith, T S; Calache, H

    2014-09-01

    There are significant levels of dental caries in Australian school-aged children, with children aged five years having a mean dmft of 1.3. It has also been identified that, in general, oral health clinicians lack confidence to treat very young children and this study aimed to increase capacity of public sector oral health clinicians to treat preschool children. An educational program was developed, implemented and evaluated for its capability to increase the confidence and knowledge of oral health clinicians and dental assistants in providing oral care for children aged 12 months to 5 years. In 2011 and 2012, the course was delivered to 36 clinicians (22 dentists, 12 dental therapists, and two oral health therapists) and showed increases in their confidence and knowledge for participants when providing dental procedures to preschool children. The educational program that was developed and implemented has met its objective of increasing the knowledge and confidence of practicing oral health clinicians and dental assistants in the management of preschool children. Strategies to further enhance the outcomes of this educational program have been proposed.

  8. "Live, Learn and Play": building strategic alliances between professional sports and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Antronette; Winfield, David; Larsen, Judi; Anderson, Michele; Jackson, Portia; Overton, Jeff; Wilson, Shawn; Rossum, Allen; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2009-10-01

    Public-private partnerships allow communities and corporate entities to pool resources to address a mission of relevance to their common constituency or consumer base. Collaborations between public health and professional sports may present unique opportunities to improve health outcomes related to physical activity since athletes are fitness icons, both for adults and children. There are many "win-win" opportunities, as sports venues regularly host huge numbers of spectators, offering food and entertainment, providing hours of exposure, and introducing new ideas for engaging fans in order to remain a competitive draw. In 2008, the San Diego Padres embarked on a communitywide fitness initiative, FriarFit, including incorporating 10-minute Instant Recess breaks during their Sunday homestand pre-game shows. Many lessons have been learned that may be useful to others mounting such initiatives, such as: there is more at stake in cost-benefit and risk-benefit assessment for sports executives, requiring greater caution and circumspection than is typical for public health projects; the core business of the corporate entity must be accommodated without undermining the health objectives; and health aims must be addressed in a way that is financially viable and delivers tangible value for profit-making concerns, in terms of marketing, revenues or brand enhancement.

  9. Wastewater Irrigation and Health

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada K1G 3H9 Email: pub@idrc.ca. Web: www.idrc.ca. IDRC is a Canadian public corporation that works in close collaboration with researchers from the developing world with the aim of building healthier, more equitable and more prosperous societies. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

  10. The Global Health Service Partnership: An Academic–Clinical Partnership to Build Nursing and Medical Capacity in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M. Stuart-Shor

    2017-07-01

    translation of evidence to practice through implementation science are included. Findings from the first 3 years of GHSP suggest that an innovative, locally tailored and culturally appropriate multi-country academic–clinical partnership program that addresses national health priorities is feasible and generated new knowledge and best practices relevant to capacity building for nursing and medical education. This in turn has implications for improving the health of populations who suffer a disproportionate burden of global disease.

  11. Groups 4 Health: Evidence that a social-identity intervention that builds and strengthens social group membership improves mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Dingle, Genevieve; Chang, Melissa Xue-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation and disconnection have profound negative effects on mental health, but there are few, if any, theoretically-derived interventions that directly target this problem. We evaluate a new intervention, Groups 4 Health (G4H), a manualized 5-module psychological intervention that targets the development and maintenance of social group relationships to treat psychological distress arising from social isolation. G4H was tested using a non-randomized control design. The program was delivered to young adults presenting with social isolation and affective disturbance. Primary outcome measures assessed mental health (depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and stress), well-being (life satisfaction, self-esteem) and social connectedness (loneliness, social functioning). Our secondary goal was to assess whether mechanisms of social identification were responsible for changes in outcomes. G4H was found to significantly improve mental health, well-being, and social connectedness on all measures, both on program completion and 6-month follow-up. In line with social identity theorizing, analysis also showed that improvements in depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness, and life satisfaction were underpinned by participants' increased identification both with their G4H group and with multiple groups. This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential value of G4H and its underlying mechanisms, but further examination is required in other populations to address issues of generalizability, and in randomized controlled trials to address its wider efficacy. Results of this pilot study confirm that G4H has the potential to reduce the negative health-related consequences of social disconnection. Future research will determine its utility in wider community contexts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. O desafio da política de atendimento à infância e à adolescência na construção de políticas públicas eqüitativas The challenge of health care provision for children and adolescents as part of equitable public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Magalhães de Mendonça

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisou a nova política social que se configurou pela assimilação da noção de proteção social integral com vistas à eqüidade. Os seus pressupostos marcaram a reforma social contida no texto constitucional de 1988 e nas leis regulamentadoras dos direitos assegurados ­ assistência social, saúde e educação públicas ­ nos anos 90. Mostrou-se que, no contexto precedente, a população jovem no Brasil apresentava situação de grande vulnerabilidade, em face da sua posição na estrutura social, reforçada pelo acesso diferenciado a bens e serviços públicos. A análise da política de atendimento para a infância e adolescência, que enfatizou a intersetorialidade e redefiniu os programas e ações sociais e de saúde, nos anos 90, não pretendeu ser conclusiva, mas apontou algumas tendências na reordenação da política de assistência pública para o população jovem pobre, compatíveis com alguns avanços dos indicadores sociais de vulnerabilidade na área da saúde, educação e trabalho na década. Contudo, considerou-se que essa reorientação renovou a tensão entre a focalização nos segmentos mais vulneráveis, com seletividade das ações a serem oferecidas e a universalização com integralidade da proteção social.The author analyzes the new social policy shaped by the assimilation of the notion of integral social protection with a view towards equity. The premises marked the social reform contained in the wording of the 1988 Constitution and in the laws regulating the respective rights during the 1990s, including public social assistance, health care, and education. The article demonstrates how, in the former context, Brazil's children and adolescents were subject to great vulnerability due to their position in the country's social structure, aggravated by differential access to public goods and services. An analysis of the health care policy for children and adolescents, emphasizing an inter

  13. Community organizing practices in a globalizing era: building power for health equity at the community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Paul W; Tesdahl, Eric A; Ayers, Jeanne F

    2014-01-01

    In the postindustrial era, global economic processes have constrained the ability of local agencies, service providers, and civic groups to respond to systemic challenges in public health. Community health psychology can benefit by focusing on interventions through mediating structures that develop innovative methods of leveraging power in the context of globalizing economic forces. Promising methods include careful analysis of power within targeted policy domains and developing strategic alliances with others, so as to exercise social power to affect policy change. The case of ISAIAH, an organizing group based in Minnesota, illustrates innovative avenues for intervention in the context of globalization.

  14. Academic collaborative centres for health promotion in the Netherlands: building bridges between research, policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, G.R.; Fransen, G.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    A logical and promising next step for the development of an effective infrastructure for health promotion in the Netherlands are Academic Collaborative Centres (ACCs). Their aims are to bridge the gap between research, policy and practice; make better use of available knowledge and strengthen the

  15. Health informatics and analytics - building a program to integrate business analytics across clinical and administrative disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Monica Chiarini; Deckard, Gloria J; Klein, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations must develop integrated health information systems to respond to the numerous government mandates driving the movement toward reimbursement models emphasizing value-based and accountable care. Success in this transition requires integrated data analytics, supported by the combination of health informatics, interoperability, business process design, and advanced decision support tools. This case study presents the development of a master's level cross- and multidisciplinary informatics program offered through a business school. The program provides students from diverse backgrounds with the knowledge, leadership, and practical application skills of health informatics, information systems, and data analytics that bridge the interests of clinical and nonclinical professionals. This case presents the actions taken and challenges encountered in navigating intra-university politics, specifying curriculum, recruiting the requisite interdisciplinary faculty, innovating the educational format, managing students with diverse educational and professional backgrounds, and balancing multiple accreditation agencies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Integrating Medical and Environmental Sociology with Environmental Health: Crossing Boundaries and Building Connections through Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phil

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the personal and professional processes of developing an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complex issues of environmental health in their community, political-economic, social science, and scientific contexts. This interdisciplinary approach includes a synthesis of research, policy work, and advocacy. To examine…

  17. Networked health sector governance and state-building legitimacy in conflict-affected fragile states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aembe, Bwimana

    2017-01-01

    State fragility in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has impacted the state’s ability to provide public services, as well as and the population’s experiences and perceptions of the state. For public health and for social welfare more broadly, the contributions of the state are weak

  18. Building the Bridge between Operations and Outcomes : Modelling and Evaluation of Health Service Provider Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Mahdavi (Mahdi)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The PhD research has two objectives: - To develop generally applicable operational models which allow developing the evidence base for health service operations in provider networks. - To contribute to the evidence base by validating the model through

  19. Building an Evidence-Based Mental Health Program for Children with History of Early Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupina, Maria; Vermeulen, Marlous; Moberg, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Adoption is a major intervention in a child's life, however internationally adopted (IA) children remain at risk for long-term neurodevelopmental and mental health issues due to the fact that most of them have a history of early adversity prior to their adoption. In the last 20 years, extensive research with this population has increased the…

  20. BUILDING TIES”: USE OF DIALOGUE IN PROMOTING HEALTH OF THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Aniceto Ferreira de Figueirêdo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe educational activities, developed with a group of the elderly in the city of Itaporanga-PB. These activities relate to the practice of health education for discussion of hypertension and diabetes, constituted by professionals in primary care of psychology, pharmacy, physiotherapy and social service core to support family health (NASF, along with the health teams family (FHS of the city. The groups were built by elderly between 68 and 75 years of both sexes, these being conducted in community centers, health facilities close to family. To implement these activities, were used: data projector, computer, stereo and CD player, blowing balls, sheets of paper, projection screen, speaker , microphone, chairs and tables. It was considered that were discussed pathologies that afflict this group, this action caused the service users could reflect not only on hypertension and diabetes, but also about themselves, about their daily lives through knowledge and practices shared that enabled their involvement with the care of the self and the production of life through a conscious and autonomous attitude .

  1. Building Research Partnerships with Health Care Organizations: The Scholar Award Model in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.; Robertson, Patricia; Allred, Kelly; Andrews, Diane; Waldrop, Julee

    2012-01-01

    In the current era of limited funding, researchers need strategic alliances to launch or sustain programs of research to significantly impact the nation's health. This article presents a collaborative model, the Scholar Award Model, which is based on a strategic alliance between a College of Nursing in a research-intensive university and a…

  2. Clinical and translational research capacity building needs in minority medical and health science Hispanic institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estapé-Garrastazu, Estela S; Noboa-Ramos, Carlamarie; De Jesús-Ojeda, Lizbelle; De Pedro-Serbiá, Zulmarie; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Camacho-Feliciano, Delia M

    2014-10-01

    A preliminary needs assessment was conducted among faculty and students of three minority medical and health science institutions comprising the Puerto Rico Clinical and Translational Research Consortium (PRCTRC). The Web-based survey was focused on evaluating the training interests in the clinical and translational research core areas and competencies developed by the National Institutes of Health-Clinical and Translational Sciences Award. The survey was the result of a team effort of three PRCTRC key function's leaderships: Multidisciplinary Training and Career Development, Tracking and Evaluation and Community Research and Engagement. The questionnaire included 45 items distributed across five content areas including demographics, research training needs, training activities coordination and knowledge about the services offered by the PRCTRC. Analysis of research needs includes a sample distribution according to professor, assistant/associate professor and graduate students. The thematic area with highest response rate among the three groups was: "Identify major clinical/public health problems and relevant translational research questions," with the competency "Identify basic and preclinical studies that are potential testable clinical research hypothesis." These preliminary results will guide the training and professional development of the new generation of clinical and translational researchers needed to eliminate health disparities. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Building the Diversity Bridge Abroad: The Journey to Implement Cultural Competent Health Care in Lausanne, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Alejandra; Paroz, Sophie; Dory, Elody; Green, Alexander; Vu, Francis; Bodenmann, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although the United States has been central in bringing cultural competency into the discussion of high-quality care, health systems all over the world are faced with the effects of global immigration and the widening disparities gap between socioeconomic classes. Lausanne University Hospital is one of five Swiss academic medical…

  4. Building National Capacity for Child and Family Disaster Mental Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Houston, J Brian; Reyes, Gilbert; Steinberg, Alan M; Pynoos, Robert S; Fairbank, John A; Brymer, Melissa J; Maida, Carl A

    2010-02-01

    Disaster mental health is a burgeoning field with numerous opportunities for professional involvement in preparedness, response, and recovery efforts. Research is essential to advance professional understanding of risk and protective factors associated with disaster outcomes; to develop an evidence base for acute, intermediate, and long-term mental health approaches to address child, adult, family, and community disaster-related needs; and to inform policy and guide national and local disaster preparedness, response, and recovery programs. To address the continued need for research in this field, we created the Child & Family Disaster Research Training & Education (DRT) program, which is focused specifically on enhancing national capacity to conduct disaster mental health research related to children, a population particularly vulnerable to disaster trauma. This paper describes the structure and organization of the DRT program, reviews the training curriculum, discusses implementation and evaluation of the program, and reviews obstacles encountered in establishing the program. Finally, key lessons learned are reviewed for the purpose of guiding replication of the DRT model to address other areas of community mental health.

  5. Importance of sale in brand building private health care institutions in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Željko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful development of private health institutions largely depends on the proper organization of the sales process and forecast the challenges that these institutions face in the market that has just begun. Defining the shape and segment sales process is a priority task for management of private health care system , because it is from them depends to what extent and how the specific health brand positioning in the market. This paper will try that, according to past experience, the basic guidelines for that prediction and to identify the role of sales in the level of achieving customer satisfaction and loyalty. Lacking the scientific literature dealing with this problem in our country will be partly compensated by the experience of international experts who have dealt with the same or similar issues . Also, by analyzing the results of empirical research that had previously been conducted in several medical institutions and companies in Belgrade will present attitudes , evaluations and expectations of patients on the one hand and the competent management structure of companies that organize health care of its employees as defined benefit, on the other hand.

  6. A chance for change : building an outcome monitoring feedback system for outpatient mental health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Kim de

    2012-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis was to develop an outcome monitoring feedback model for Dutch outpatient mental health care in the Netherlands and to test whether providing feedback to therapists and patients can improve treatment outcomes. Data on patient progress collected in outpatient centers

  7. Building Recipes and Understanding Nutrition for Cancer-Survivor Health (BRUNCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urowitz, Sara; Chiu, Winnie; Cockburn, Moira; Dunlop, Barbara; Fierini, Daniela; Himel, Danielle; Jones, Erin; Pulandiran, Menaka; Smith, James; Wiljer, David

    2012-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team from the health and culinary sectors developed and evaluated nutritious recipes for cancer-survivors to inform and support healthy eating post-cancer. Participants in the study indicated that they were likely to incorporate the recipes into their diets, and that it would help them change their eating habits. (Contains 1…

  8. Enhancing public health practice through a capacity-building educational programme: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Sharma, Kavya; Wild, Sarah; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-05-13

    The Post-Graduate Diploma in Public Health Management, launched by the Govt. of India under the aegis of the National Rural Health Mission in 2008, aims to enhance the managerial capabilities of public health professionals to improve the public health system. The Govt. of India invested enormous resources into this programme and requested an evaluation to understand the current processes, assess the graduates' work performance and identify areas for improvement. Quantitative telephone surveys as well as qualitative in-depth interviews were used. Graduates from the first three batches, their supervisors, peers and subordinates and faculty members were interviewed. Quantitative data were analysed using proportions, means and interpretative descriptions. Qualitative analyses involved transcription, translation, sorting, coding and filing into domains. Of the 363 graduates whose contact details were available, 138 could not be contacted. Two hundred twenty-three (223) graduates (61.43% of eligible participants) were interviewed by telephone; 52 in-depth interviews were conducted. Of the graduates who joined, 63.8% graduates were motivated to join the programme for career advancement and gaining public health knowledge. The content was theoretically good, informative and well-designed. Graduates expressed need for more practical and group work. After graduating, they reported being equipped with some new skills to implement programmes effectively. They reported that attitudes and healthcare delivery practices had improved; they had better self-esteem, increased confidence, better communication skills and implementation capacity. While they were able to apply some skills, they encountered some barriers, such as governance, placements, lack of support from the system and community, inadequate implementation authority and lack of planning by the state government. Incentives (both monetary and non-monetary) played a major role in motivating them to deliver public health

  9. Building the foundation for health system transformation: Oregon's Patient-Centered Primary Care Home program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissi, Jill Jamison; Gelmon, Sherril; Saulino, Evan; Merrithew, Nicole; Baker, Robin; Hatcher, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Health system reform is largely dependent upon the transformation of primary care in addition to the alignment of incentives that mediate the allocation of resources. The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) is a model of enhanced primary care that encourages coordination, patient-centered care, integration of public health services, and innovative methods for improving population health-all critical elements of health system reform. Because it changes the way primary care is organized and delivered, the PCMH model has been adopted as a foundational component of Oregon's health system transformation. This article presents insights drawn from an evaluation of the implementation of Oregon's Patient-Centered Primary Care Home (PCPCH) program and the adoption of the model by primary care providers. We used a mixed-methods approach consisting of 2 surveys of recognized PCPCH practices, qualitative document analysis, and key informant interviews. Evaluation research findings were triangulated with findings from PCPCH clinic site visits conducted as part of a regulatory verification process. Survey results describe a broad range of strategies and practices adopted by recognized PCPCH clinics within 6 defined core attributes: (1) access to care; (2) accountability; (3) comprehensive whole-person care; (4) continuity; (5) coordination and integration; and (6) person- and family-centered care. We also identify 4 key factors that influenced the conceptualization, development, and implementation of the PCPCH program: (1) support and motivations; (2) administrative barriers and resource constraints; (3) alignment of short- and long-term financial incentives; and (4) leadership and interpersonal relationships. This evaluation provides insights into the factors that influence implementation of a primary care home program as public policy; the strategies and challenges associated with implementation of the model; and the implications of both for other states that are engaged in

  10. Front-line worker engagement: greening health care, improving worker and patient health, and building better jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenven, Laura; Copeland, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Frontline workers have a great deal to contribute to improving environmental sustainability of their employers and the health of workers and patients. This article discusses a national project of the Healthcare Career Advancement Program, funded by the U.S. Department of Labor to support green jobs development. Implementation was accomplished through a labor/management collaboration between union locals and 11 employers in four regions throughout the United States. The project developed and implemented a model of training and education for environmental service workers and other frontline health-care workers in hospital settings that supported systems change and built new roles for these workers. It empowered them to contribute to triple bottom line outcomes in support of People (patients, workers, the community), Planet (environmental sustainability and a lower carbon footprint), and Profit (cost savings for the institutions). In the process workers more clearly articulated their important role as a part of the healthcare team and learned how they could contribute to improved patient and worker health and safety.

  11. Remaining missed opportunities of child survival in Peru: modelling mortality impact of universal and equitable coverage of proven interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Yvonne; Huicho, Luis; Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara

    2016-10-04

    Peru has made great improvements in reducing stunting and child mortality in the past decade, and has reached the Millennium Development Goals 1 and 4. The remaining challenges or missed opportunities for child survival needs to be identified and quantified, in order to guide the next steps to further improve child survival in Peru. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to project the mortality impact of proven interventions reaching every women and child in need, and the mortality impact of eliminating inequalities in coverage distribution between wealth quintiles and urban-rural residence. Our analyses quantified the remaining missed opportunities in Peru, where prioritizing scale-up of facility-based case management for all small and sick babies will be most effective in mortality reduction, compared to other evidenced-based interventions that prevent maternal and child deaths. Eliminating coverage disparities between the poorest quintiles and the richest will reduce under-five and neonatal mortality by 22.0 and 40.6 %, while eliminating coverage disparities between those living in rural and urban areas will reduce under-five and neonatal mortality by 29.3 and 45.2 %. This projected neonatal mortality reduction achieved by eliminating coverage disparities is almost comparable to that already achieved by Peru over the past decade. Although Peru has made great strides in improving child survival, further improvement in child health, especially in newborn health can be achieved if there is universal and equitable coverage of proven, quality health facility-based interventions. The magnitude of reduction in mortality will be similar to what has been achieved in the past decade. Strengthening health system to identify, understand, and direct resources to the poor and rural areas will ensure that Peru achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

  12. Reflections on the framing of 'health equity' in the National Primary Health Care Strategic Framework: a cause for celebration or concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A

    2014-04-01

    There has been a growing national and global focus on the need to address social determinants of health to better achieve equitable health outcomes. In Australia, this focus is now being embedded into state, territory and Commonwealth government health policies. In this paper I use the National Primary Health Care Strategic Framework as a case study to examine the way in which 'health equity' and other related terms have been framed within a current national health policy context. Using a critically reflective approach, I argue that primary health care and health promotion professionals need to capitalise on the inclusion of terms such as 'action on social determinants of health', 'health equity' and 'reducing inequity' through emerging national health policies, such as the National Primary Health Care Strategic Framework. Yet, there is also a need to proceed with caution. The way in which these terms are framed appears to deviate from the principles, values and ideologies on which they are historically based. The implications for contemporary health promotion practice in Australia are discussed. Primary health care and health promotion professionals working in both policy and practice contexts are encouraged to engage in critical reflective practice when interpreting and considering the implementation requirements of national health policies that incorporate a health equity focus. So what? To build health equity in Australia, primary health care and health promotion professionals will be required to engage in the skilful reframing of current primary health care policy discourses relating to health equity during health promotion planning, implementation and evaluation processes.

  13. Role of the Health Promotion Foundation in tobacco control and capacity building among healthcare professionals in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Janik-Koncewicz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the first summit of world tobacco control leaders in Central and Eastern Europe, held in 1990 in Kazimierz in Poland, the inadequate engagement of medical professionals in helping people to quit smoking was identified as one of the main problems of the region. The Health Promotion Foundation was established in 1992 to co-ordinate the anti-tobacco movement in Poland and to implement the resolutions of Kazimierz. The Foundation initiated actions to introduce anti-tobacco legislation in Poland passed by the Polish Parliament in 1995. It was one of the first legislative acts in the world to recommend tobacco dependence treatment. The Foundation also took active part in the preparation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and was one of the contributing authors of Article 14. The Foundation has also engaged in competence building among healthcare providers. It has trained thousands of Polish doctors and nurses using a core, nation-wide tool: the Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Tobacco Dependence. Finally, the Foundation engaged in activities to increase cessation drug availability, e.g. by conducting research, disseminating knowledge on, and promoting cytisine. Since the 1990s millions of Poles quit smoking, also thanks to the Foundation’s comprehensive activities. Further work is now focused on developing effective ways to engage greater numbers of medical doctors in the treatment of tobacco dependence and building innovative technologies supporting them and people who want to quit smoking.

  14. Structural health and dynamic behavior of residential buildings: field challenges in the rehab of damaged reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalhoub M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete buildings require special consideration under dynamic excitations due to their anisotropic material properties. Strain compatibility equations are used in concrete analysis and design with assumptions about the stress and strain field across member section and member length. However, these assumptions fall short of describing real life behavior when concrete elements deteriorate, age or undergo cyclic loading. This paper addresses the structural health of reinforced concrete buildings and proposes an analytical model to account for concrete damage through loss of bond. The proposed model relates steel loading that causes bond distress to design parameters such as development length and bar properties, and therefore could be complemented by field measurement. The paper proposes a diagnosis method and discusses the sustainability of the structure by assisting in a simplistic decision rule as to whether to perform minor fixes, major rehabilitation, or disposal. Emphasis is placed on the difference between reversible and irreversible effects of cyclic loading on structural behaviour, and draws a distinction between damage to the girder and damage to the column in the overall structural system. The model is compared to empirical results to address field challenges faced when the structure is subjected to severe conditions in its ambient environment, or to unusual loading. Deterioration in concrete causes alteration in its composite behavior with the reinforcing steel. This affects the fundamental period of the structure, and its response to seismic loading.

  15. Developing capacity-building activities for mental health system strengthening in low- and middle-income countries for service users and caregivers, service planners, and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, M; Alem, A; Abdulmalik, J; Docrat, S; Evans-Lacko, S; Gureje, O; Kigozi, F; Lempp, H; Lund, C; Petersen, I; Shidhaye, R; Thornicroft, G; Hanlon, C

    2018-02-01

    There is increasing international recognition of the need to build capacity to strengthen mental health systems. This is a fundamental goal of the 'Emerging mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries' (Emerald) programme, which is being implemented in six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda). This paper discusses Emerald's capacity-building approaches and outputs for three target groups in mental health system strengthening: (1) mental health service users and caregivers, (2) service planners and policy-makers, and (3) mental health researchers. When planning the capacity-building activities, the approach taken included a capabilities/skills matrix, needs assessments, a situational analysis, systematic reviews, qualitative interviews and stakeholder meetings, as well as the application of previous theory, evidence and experience. Each of the Emerald LMIC partners was found to have strengths in aspects of mental health system strengthening, which were complementary across the consortium. Furthermore, despite similarities across the countries, capacity-building interventions needed to be tailored to suit the specific needs of individual countries. The capacity-building outputs include three publicly and freely available short courses/workshops in mental health system strengthening for each of the target groups, 27 Masters-level modules (also open access), nine Emerald-linked PhD students, two MSc studentships, mentoring of post-doctoral/mid-level researchers, and ongoing collaboration and dialogue with the three groups. The approach taken by Emerald can provide a potential model for the development of capacity-building activities across the three target groups in LMICs.

  16. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan, Ai; Rafee, B Mohd; Juahir, Hafizan; Azman, Azf; Nizar, Am; Izwyn, Z; Syahidatussyakirah, K; Muhaimin, Aa; Yunos, Ma Syafiq; Anita, Ar; Hanafiah, J Muhamad; Shaharuddin, Ms; Ibthisham, A Mohd; Hasmadi, I Mohd; Azhar, Mn Mohamad; Azizan, Hs; Zulfadhli, I; Othman, J; Rozalini, M; Kamarul, Ft

    2012-01-01

    To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial workplace setting. A cross-sectional study based on a participatory occupational health program conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Malaysia) and Universiti Putra Malaysia. A modified version of the indoor environmental checklist published by the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, based on the literature and discussion with occupational health and safety professionals, was used in the evaluation process. Summated scores were given according to the cluster analysis and principal component analysis in the characterization of risk. Environmetric techniques was used to classify the risk of variables in the checklist. Identification of the possible source of item pollutants was also evaluated from a semiquantitative approach. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of factorial components into three clusters (high complaint, moderate-high complaint, moderate complaint), which were further analyzed by discriminant analysis. From this, 15 major variables that influence indoor air quality were determined. Principal component analysis of each cluster revealed that the main factors influencing the high complaint group were fungal-related problems, chemical indoor dispersion, detergent, renovation, thermal comfort, and location of fresh air intake. The moderate-high complaint group showed significant high loading on ventilation, air filters, and smoking-related activities. The moderate complaint group showed high loading on dampness, odor, and thermal comfort. This semiquantitative assessment, which graded risk from low to high based on the intensity of the problem, shows promising and reliable results. It should be used as an important tool in the preliminary assessment of indoor air quality and as a categorizing method for further IAQ

  17. Public health efforts to build a surveillance system for child maltreatment mortality: lessons learned for stakeholder engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucia Rojas; Gibbs, Deborah; Wetterhall, Scott; Schnitzer, Patricia G; Farris, Tonya; Crosby, Alex E; Leeb, Rebecca T

    2011-01-01

    Reducing the number of largely preventable and tragic deaths due to child maltreatment (CM) requires an understanding of the magnitude of and risk factors for fatal CM and targeted research, policy, and prevention efforts. Public health surveillance offers an opportunity to improve our understanding of the problem of CM. In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded state public health agencies in California, Michigan, and Oregon to implement a model approach for routine and sustainable CM surveillance and evaluated the experience of those efforts. We describe the experiences of 3 state health agencies in building collaborations and partnerships with multiple stakeholders for CM surveillance. Qualitative, structured key informant interviews were carried out during site visits as part of an evaluation of a CDC-funded project to implement a model approach to CM surveillance. Key informants included system stakeholders from state health agencies, law enforcement, child protective services, the medical community, and child welfare advocacy groups in the 3 funded states. Factors that facilitated stakeholder engagement for CM surveillance included the following: streamlining and coordinating the work of Child Death Review Teams (CDRTs); demonstrating the value of surveillance to non-public health partners; codifying relationships with participating agencies; and securing the commitment of decision-makers. Legislative mandates were helpful in bringing key stakeholders together, but it was not sufficient to ensure sustained engagement. The engagement process yielded multiple benefits for the stakeholders including a deeper appreciation of the complexity of defining CM; a greater understanding of risk factors for CM; and enhanced guidance for prevention and control efforts. States considering or currently undertaking CM surveillance can glean useful insights from the experiences of these 3 states and apply them to their own efforts to engage

  18. Institution-to-institution mentoring to build capacity in 24 local US health departments: best practices and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Maggie; Goldstein, Gail P; Sacks, Rachel; Lent, Megan; Van Wye, Gretchen

    2014-10-02

    Institutional mentoring may be a useful capacity-building model to support local health departments facing public health challenges. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a qualitative evaluation of an institutional mentoring program designed to increase capacity of health departments seeking to address chronic disease prevention. The mentoring program included 2 program models, a one-to-one model and a collaborative model, developed and implemented for 24 Communities Putting Prevention to Work grantee communities nationwide. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews to assess grantees' perspectives on the effectiveness of the mentoring program in supporting their work. Two interviews were conducted with key informants from each participating community. Three evaluators coded and analyzed data using ATLAS.ti software and using