WorldWideScience

Sample records for building equitable health

  1. Introduction: priority setting, equitable access and public involvement in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weale, Albert; Kieslich, Katharina; Littlejohns, Peter; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Tumilty, Emma; Weerasuriya, Krisantha; Whitty, Jennifer A

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue on improving equitable access to health care through increased public and patient involvement (PPI) in prioritization decisions by discussing the conceptualization, scope and rationales of PPI in priority setting that inform the special issue. Design/methodology/approach - The paper employs a mixed-methods approach in that it provides a literature review and a conceptual discussion of the common themes emerging in the field of PPI and health priority setting. Findings - The special issue focuses on public participation that is collective in character, in the sense that the participation relates to a social, not personal, decision and is relevant to whole groups of people and not single individuals. It is aimed at influencing a decision on public policy or legal rules. The rationales for public participation can be found in democratic theory, especially as they relate to the social and political values of legitimacy and representation. Originality/value - The paper builds on previous definitions of public participation by underlining its collective character. In doing so, it develops the work by Parry, Moyser and Day by arguing that, in light of the empirical evidence presented in this issue, public participatory activities such as protests and demonstrations should no longer be labelled unconventional, but should instead be labelled as "contestatory participation". This is to better reflect a situation in which these modes of participation have become more conventional in many parts of the world. PMID:27468772

  2. Introduction: priority setting, equitable access and public involvement in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weale, Albert; Kieslich, Katharina; Littlejohns, Peter; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Tumilty, Emma; Weerasuriya, Krisantha; Whitty, Jennifer A

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue on improving equitable access to health care through increased public and patient involvement (PPI) in prioritization decisions by discussing the conceptualization, scope and rationales of PPI in priority setting that inform the special issue. Design/methodology/approach - The paper employs a mixed-methods approach in that it provides a literature review and a conceptual discussion of the common themes emerging in the field of PPI and health priority setting. Findings - The special issue focuses on public participation that is collective in character, in the sense that the participation relates to a social, not personal, decision and is relevant to whole groups of people and not single individuals. It is aimed at influencing a decision on public policy or legal rules. The rationales for public participation can be found in democratic theory, especially as they relate to the social and political values of legitimacy and representation. Originality/value - The paper builds on previous definitions of public participation by underlining its collective character. In doing so, it develops the work by Parry, Moyser and Day by arguing that, in light of the empirical evidence presented in this issue, public participatory activities such as protests and demonstrations should no longer be labelled unconventional, but should instead be labelled as "contestatory participation". This is to better reflect a situation in which these modes of participation have become more conventional in many parts of the world.

  3. Avoiding Unintended Bias: Strategies for Providing More Equitable Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryn, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that unintentional bias on the part of physicians can influence the way they treat patients from certain racial and ethnic groups. Most physicians are unaware that they hold such biases, which can unknowingly contribute to inequalities in health care delivery. This article explains why a person's thoughts and behaviors may not align, and provides strategies for preventing implicit biases from interfering with patient care. PMID:27089675

  4. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go...

  5. Professional practice and innovation: Chronic disease, geographic location and socioeconomic disadvantage as obstacles to equitable access to e-health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung Hoon; Sunderland, Naomi; Kendall, Elizabeth; Gudes, Ori; Henniker, Garth

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent public attention to e-health as a solution to rising healthcare costs and an ageing population, there have been relatively few studies examining the geographical pattern of e-health usage. This paper argues for an equitable approach to e-health and attention to the way in which e-health initiatives can produce locational health inequalities, particularly in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. In this paper, we use a case study to demonstrate geographical variation in Internet accessibility, Internet status and prevalence of chronic diseases within a small district. There are significant disparities in access to health information within socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The most vulnerable people in these areas are likely to have limited availability of, or access to Internet healthcare resources. They are also more likely to have complex chronic diseases and, therefore, be in greatest need of these resources. This case study demonstrates the importance of an equitable approach to e-health information technologies and telecommunications infrastructure. PMID:20577021

  6. Promoting an equitable and supportive school climate in high schools: the role of school organizational health and staff burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiani, Jessika H; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Mendelson, Tamar

    2014-12-01

    In response to persistent racial disparities in academic and behavioral outcomes between Black and White students, equitable school climate has drawn attention as a potential target for school reform. This study examined differences in Black and White students' experiences of school climate and explored whether indicators of school organizational health and staff burnout moderated differences in students' school experiences by race. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling with a sample of 18,397 Black students (n=6228) and White students (n=12,169) and 2391 school staff in 53 schools, we found a consistent pattern of racial inequalities, such that Black students reported less positive experiences than White students across three indicators of school climate (caring γ=-0.08, porganizational health and student-reported school climate (e.g., staff affiliation and student-perceived equity, γ=0.07, porganizational health indicators were more strongly associated with positive perceptions of school climate among White students than Black students, translating into greater racial disparities in perceived school climate at schools with greater organizational health (e.g., supportive leadership by race on student-perceived engagement, γ=-0.03, p=.042). We also found negative associations between staff-reported burnout and students' experience of equity, such that the racial gap was smaller in schools with high ratings of burnout (γ=0.04, p=.002). These findings have implications for educators and education researchers interested in promoting school social contexts that equitably support student engagement and success.

  7. Health financing reform in Uganda: How equitable is the proposed National Health Insurance scheme?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem Juliet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda is proposing introduction of the National Health Insurance scheme (NHIS in a phased manner with the view to obtaining additional funding for the health sector and promoting financial risk protection. In this paper, we have assessed the proposed NHIS from an equity perspective, exploring the extent to which NHIS would improve existing disparities in the health sector. Methods We reviewed the proposed design and other relevant documents that enhanced our understanding of contextual issues. We used the Kutzin and fair financing frameworks to critically assess the impact of NHIS on overall equity in financing in Uganda. Results The introduction of NHIS is being proposed against the backdrop of inequalities in the distribution of health system inputs between rural and urban areas, different levels of care and geographic areas. In this assessment, we find that gradual implementation of NHIS will result in low coverage initially, which might pose a challenge for effective management of the scheme. The process for accreditation of service providers during the first phase is not explicit on how it will ensure that a two-tier service provision arrangement does not emerge to cater for different types of patients. If the proposed fee-for-service mechanism of reimbursing providers is pursued, utilisation patterns will determine how resources are allocated. This implies that equity in resource allocation will be determined by the distribution of accredited providers, and checks put in place to prohibit frivolous use. The current design does not explicitly mention how these two issues will be tackled. Lastly, there is no clarity on how the NHIS will fit into, and integrate within existing financing mechanisms. Conclusion Under the current NHIS design, the initial low coverage in the first years will inhibit optimal achievement of the important equity characteristics of pooling, cross-subsidisation and financial protection. Depending

  8. Negotiating equitable access to influenza vaccines: global health diplomacy and the controversies surrounding avian influenza H5N1 and pandemic influenza H1N1.

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, David P.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the PLoS Medicine series on Global Health Diplomacy, David Fidler provides a case study of the difficult negotiations to increase equitable access to vaccines for highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) and pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1).

  9. Equitable rationing of highly specialised health care services for children: a perspective from South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Landman, W A; Henley, L D

    1999-01-01

    The principles of equality and equity, respectively in the Bill of Rights and the white paper on health, provide the moral and legal foundations for future health care for children in South Africa. However, given extreme health care need and scarce resources, the government faces formidable obstacles if it hopes to achieve a just allocation of public health care resources, especially among children in need of highly specialised health care. In this regard, there is a dearth of moral analysis ...

  10. Critical cultural competence for culturally diverse workforces: toward equitable and peaceful health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Adel F; Rondney, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we argue that attaining equity, and therefore peace in health care delivery, necessitates that nursing and other health care professions more carefully attend to the sociocultural context in which health care is delivered. That sociocultural context includes culturally diverse patients, families, and communities, as well as health care providers who are themselves culturally diverse. We draw on findings from Almutairi's doctoral research with health care providers in Saudi Arabia to argue for what he has identified as critical cultural competence for health care providers. In so doing, we explicate the complexity of cultural and linguistic issues and power relations induced by race, class, and gender that can contribute to vulnerabilities for health care providers and recipients alike. PMID:23907302

  11. Mental health policy in Kenya -an integrated approach to scaling up equitable care for poor populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Rachel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most donor and development agency attention is focussed on communicable diseases in Kenya, the importance of non-communicable diseases including mental health and mental illness is increasingly apparent, both in their own right and because of their influence on health, education and social goals. Mental illness is common but the specialist service is extremely sparse and primary care is struggling to cope with major health demands. Non health sectors e.g. education, prisons, police, community development, gender and children, regional administration and local government have significant concerns about mental health, but general health programmes have been surprisingly slow to appreciate the significance of mental health for physical health targets. Despite a people centred post colonial health delivery system, poverty and global social changes have seriously undermined equity. This project sought to meet these challenges, aiming to introduce sustainable mental health policy and implementation across the country, within the context of extremely scarce resources. Methods A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning, sustained intersectoral policy dialogue at national and regional level; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of at each level (national, regional, district and primary care; development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at national, regional, district and local levels; public education; and integration of mental health into health management systems. Results The programme has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, annual operational plans, mental health policy guidelines

  12. Does harmonization of payment mechanisms enhance equitable health outcomes in delivery of emergency medical services in Thailand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Tansirisithikul, Rassamee

    2015-12-01

    There are different reimbursement rates by the various insurance schemes in Thailand, which include the Universal Coverage scheme (UCS), civil servant medical benefit scheme (CSMBS) and social security scheme (SSS). Hence, there are concerns about inequitable care standards. Harmonization of the rates of emergency medical services has been started since April 2012. This study analyzed the impact of harmonization on clinical outcomes in private hospitals. Analysis of 22 900 records of the dataset accrued from April 2012 to June 2013 using multiple logistic modelling revealed that beneficiaries under UCS were the worst off [Odds ratio 2.56 95% of confidence interval: 2.35 to 2.80 for non-trauma and 2.19 (1.59-3.0) for trauma, corresponding to 21.26 and 25.09% of bad outcomes, respectively] in terms of not improved or dead outcomes at discharge compared with those under the CSMBS (8.45 and 12.78%, respectively) controlling for age, sex, hospital location, triage priority code, length of stays and adjusted Relative weight (RW) score. Using propensity score, matching analysis found the outcome rates of not improved including dead were highest in UCS 26.27% for trauma and 21.26% for non-trauma patients. Payment mechanism alone is inadequate to ensure equitable distribution of health outcomes in provision of emergency medical care by private providers in urban settings across the country. A secondary finding was that patients accessing hospital services directly showed better improvement or lower in-hospital mortality compared with access through formal pre-hospital means (P < 0.001). Plausible explanations have been discussed with policy implications and recommendations for further studies. PMID:25797471

  13. Towards health-equitable globalisation : rights, regulation and redistribution : final report to the Commission on Social Determinants of Health.

    OpenAIRE

    Labonté, Ronald; Blouin, Chantal; Chopra, Mickey; Lee, Kelley; Packer, Corinne; Rowson, Mike; Schrecker, Ted; WOODWARD, David; et al.

    2007-01-01

    Globalisation, in a broad sense, holds considerable potential for improving human health, while presenting many challenges. At base, the key challenge for the Commission is to understand how globalisation affects people’s access to social determinants of health (SDH) and, given an explicit concern with equity, how that access is distributed. The approach taken by the Globalisation Knowledge Network (GKN) to assist with this task emphasized the economic aspects of globalisation ...

  14. Dampness in buildings and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Blomquist, G.; Gyntelberg, F.;

    2001-01-01

    in the epidemiological literature. A literature search identified 590 peer-reviewed articles of which 61 have been the foundation for this review. The review shows that "dampness" in buildings appears to increase the risk for health effects in the airways, such as cough, wheeze and asthma. Relative risks......Several epidemiological investigations concerning indoor environments have indicated that "dampness" in buildings is associated to health effects such as respiratory symptoms, asthma and allergy The aim of the present interdisciplinary review is to evaluate this association as shown...

  15. ‘Expanding your mind’: the process of constructing gender-equitable masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in reproductive health or gender training programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Mariano Salazar Torres

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional forms of masculinity strongly influence men's and women's wellbeing. Objective: This study has two aims: (i to explore notions of various forms of masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in programs addressing sexual health, reproductive health, and/or gender equality and (ii to find out how these young men perceive their involvement in actions aimed at reducing violence against women (VAW. Design: A qualitative grounded theory study. Data were collected through six focus groups and two in-depth interviews with altogether 62 young men. Results: Our analysis showed that the informants experienced a process of change, labeled ‘Expanding your mind’, in which we identified four interrelated subcategories: The apprentice, The responsible/respectful man, The proactive peer educator, and ‘The feminist man’. The process showed how an increased awareness of gender inequities facilitated the emergence of values (respect and responsibility and behavior (thoughtful action that contributed to increase the informant's critical thinking and agency at individual, social, and political levels. The process was influenced by individual and external factors. Conclusions: Multiple progressive masculinities can emerge from programs challenging patriarchy in this Latin American setting. The masculinities identified in this study show a range of attitudes and behaviors; however, all lean toward more equitable gender relations. The results suggest that learning about sexual and reproductive health does not directly imply developing more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors or a greater willingness to prevent VAW. It is paramount that interventions to challenge machismo in this setting continue and are expanded to reach more young men.

  16. Dampness in Buildings and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Rode, Carsten; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf;

    1999-01-01

    on air distribution in indoor spaces. Particularly, using CFD models, it should be possible to study the local conditions in the vicinity of the human body.· Modelling and experimental investigation of humidity transfer and energy consumption in buildings. The research aims at establishing complete...... of the factors that influence the well being of occupants in the indoor climate. The perspective of this knowledge should be widened such that it will be possible to carry out an integral optimisation of a high indoor air quality in durable, low energy consuming buildings.While located at DTU, the centre...... modelling capabilities of the hygrothermal conditions in buildings with their spaces, building materials, furnishing, activity of occupants, and influence from exterior conditions....

  17. Designing for health in school buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Jensen, Bjarne Bruun; Larsen, Kristian;

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the kinds of knowledge practitioners use when planning and designing for health in school buildings. Methods: Twelve semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with architects, teachers and officials to investigate use of knowledge in the making of school buildings...

  18. Buildings and Health. Educational campaign for healthy buildings. Educational material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    In recent years health and comfort problems associated with the indoor climate have come to constitute a problem in Sweden. To come to grips with this a nationwide educational campaign on Buildings and Health is being run. It is directed to those involved in planning, project design, construction and management of buildings. The objective is to convey a body of knowledge to the many occupational and professional groups in the construction sector on how to avoid indoor climate problems in homes, schools, offices and other workplaces. The campaign is being run by the Swedish National Board of Housing and Planning and the Swedish Council for Building Research, in co-operation with various organizations and companies in the construction industry, and with municipalities and authorities. The knowledge which is being disseminated through the campaign is summarized in this compendium. figs., tabs.

  19. Buildings' integral role in good health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As reported in last month's HEJ, the new Sustainable Development Strategy for the Health, Public Health and Social Care System for 2014-20 rightly emphasises the importance of the built environment to health and well-being. Chris Hall, the BRE's health sector lead, says this message 'stretches far beyond hospitals and healthcare buildings into the communities and homes that people live in'. Here he highlights some of the key elements relating to the current carbon efficiency of healthcare buildings, considers the impact of 'good' housing on health and preventing illness, and looks forward to a series of joint IHEEM and BRE 'Building Sustainable Development' mini-conference events planned in the run-up to October's Healthcare Estates 2014 event in response to the new Strategy, designed to share ideas and good practice on sustainable estates issues. The first takes place in London later this month (see panel below).

  20. Evaluation of a demonstration primary health care project in rural Guatemala: the influence of predisposing, enabling and need factors on immunization coverage, equitable use of health care services and application of treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Meredith P; Grembowski, David; Heagerty, Patrick; Lim, Stephen S; Mercer, Mary Anne

    2012-09-01

    In high- and low-resource settings, care is often provided inequitably, with more and higher-quality services being offered to those who need them less. We evaluated the influence of predisposing, enabling and need characteristics on immunization coverage and use of health services in a population-based primary health care model called the Inclusive Health Model in rural Guatemala. We also analyzed providers' application of treatment guidelines for children with pneumonia. A longitudinal cohort design was used from 2006 to 2009 to analyze data from the model's two demonstration sites. We found a significant positive association between families' health risk level and their use of health care services, with the model providing more services to those with greater need. Services are not provided differentially for those families with a higher or lower wealth level or selected sociodemographic characteristics. Distance from a clinic is significantly associated with lower service use, but this constraint decreases with time. Implementation of treatment guidelines does not vary with different provider characteristics. The Inclusive Health Care model's aim of offering care equitably to families living in its catchment area is reflected in these findings. This study offers an approach and conceptual model for tracking equity in service delivery that may be applicable in other settings.

  1. Community-based participatory research: a capacity-building approach for policy advocacy aimed at eliminating health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Barbara A; Coombe, Chris M; Cheezum, Rebecca R; Schulz, Amy J; McGranaghan, Robert J; Lichtenstein, Richard; Reyes, Angela G; Clement, Jaye; Burris, Akosua

    2010-11-01

    There have been increasing calls for community-academic partnerships to enhance the capacity of partners to engage in policy advocacy aimed at eliminating health disparities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a partnership approach that can facilitate capacity building and policy change through equitable engagement of diverse partners. Toward this end, the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center, a long-standing CBPR partnership, has conducted a policy training project. We describe CBPR and its relevance to health disparities; the interface between CBPR, policy advocacy, and health disparities; the rationale for capacity building to foster policy advocacy; and the process and outcomes of our policy advocacy training. We discuss lessons learned and implications for CBPR and policy advocacy to eliminate health disparities. PMID:20864728

  2. Building consensus on key priorities for rural health care in South Africa using the Delphi technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije Versteeg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is currently undergoing major health system restructuring in an attempt to improve health outcomes and reduce inequities in access. Such inequities exist between private and public health care and within the public health system itself. Experience shows that rural health care can be disadvantaged in policy formulation despite good intentions. The objective of this study was to identify the major challenges and priority interventions for rural health care provision in South Africa thereby contributing to pro-rural health policy dialogue. Methods: The Delphi technique was used to develop consensus on a list of statements that was generated through interviews and literature review. A panel of rural health practitioners and other stakeholders was asked to indicate their level of agreement with these statements and to rank the top challenges in and interventions required for rural health care. Results: Response rates ranged from 83% in the first round (n=44 to 64% in the final round (n=34. The top five priorities were aligned to three of the WHO health system building blocks: human resources for health (HRH, governance, and finance. Specifically, the panel identified a need to focus on recruitment and support of rural health professionals, the employment of managers with sufficient and appropriate skills, a rural-friendly national HRH plan, and equitable funding formulae. Conclusion: Specific policies and strategies are required to address the greatest rural health care challenges and to ensure improved access to quality health care in rural South Africa. In addition, a change in organisational climate and a concerted effort to make a career in rural health appealing to health care workers and adequate funding for rural health care provision are essential.

  3. 7 CFR 1400.8 - Equitable treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable treatment. 1400.8 Section 1400.8... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS General Provisions § 1400.8 Equitable treatment. (a... Administrator deems necessary to provide fair and equitable treatment to such person or legal entity....

  4. Strategies for gender-equitable HIV services in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Gita; David H Peters; Bollinger, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of HIV in rural India has the potential to heighten gender inequity in a context where women already suffer significant health disparities. Recent Indian health policies provide new opportunities to identify and implement gender-equitable rural HIV services. In this review, we adapt Mosley and Chen's conceptual framework of health to outline determinants for HIV health services utilization and outcomes. Examining the framework through a gender lens, we conduct a comprehensive li...

  5. Teaching Teachers to Build Equitable Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    Whether they are the outcome of global immigration trends, residential living patterns, or educational reform efforts such as detracking, heterogeneous classrooms pose considerable pedagogical challenges for educators. This article describes a systemic approach to restructuring the classroom with the goal of establishing and maintaining an…

  6. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detmer Don E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries. The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin

  7. The ANÌMO Decalogue for a Slow Medicine care: the general recommendations of the nurses of internal medicine for a sober, respectful and equitable care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Bordin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the lead of Slow Medicine, the Association of Nurses of Internal Medicine (ANÌMO saw the opportunity to build, through an analysis of the professional practice, an alliance between health professionals and citizens in order to support and facilitate informed choices. From this revision emerged The Decalogue, a document which summarizes the fundamental pillars of the slow nursing to guarantee a sober respectful and equitable care during the hospitalization.

  8. Can Sierra Leone maintain the equitable delivery of their Free Health Care Initiative? The case for more contextualised interventions: results of a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Vallières, Frédérique; Cassidy, Emma Louise; McAuliffe, Eilish; Gilmore, Brynne; Bangura, Allieu S.; Musa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2010, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation in Sierra Leone launched their Free Health Care Initiative (FHCI) for pregnant and lactating mothers and children under-5. Despite an increase in the update of services, the inequitable distribution of health services and health facilities remain important factors underlying the poor performance of health systems to deliver effective services. This study identifies current gaps in service delivery across two rural locations served by t...

  9. The role of higher education in equitable human development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peercy, Chavanne; Svenson, Nanette

    2016-04-01

    As developing countries continue to battle poverty despite strong economic growth, understanding the relationship between equity and human development becomes increasingly important. In this context, equity is not equivalent to equality for any specific outcome such as health status, education or income. It is an objective ideal whereby people's achievements are increasingly dependent upon personal effort, choice and initiative rather than predetermined characteristics such as race, gender and socioeconomic background. As such, equity becomes an issue of moral equality based on the belief that people should be treated as equals, with equal access to life chances. This ideal pursues equal access to public services, infrastructure and rights for all citizens, including the right to education. While evidence suggests that education builds healthier, richer, more equitable societies, research on this has focused predominantly on primary and secondary schooling. The authors of this paper begin with an extensive review of existing research and relevant literature. In the second part of their article, they then report on their own study which furthers the discussion by exploring connections between tertiary education and development using equity as a reflection of human development - a holistic extension of economic development. After extracting relevant data from a number of available world reports by the United Nations, the World Bank and other organisations, they carried out a cross-national statistical analysis designed to examine the relationship between tertiary enrolment levels and a composite equity variable. Their results indicate a strong association between higher post-secondary education levels and higher levels of social equity.

  10. Building codes: An often overlooked determinant of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, James; Pauls, Jake; Strobl, Linda

    2016-05-01

    Although the vast majority of the world's population spends most of their time in buildings, building codes are not often thought of as 'determinants of health'. The standards that govern the design, construction, and use of buildings affect our health, security, safety, and well-being. This is true for dwellings, schools, and universities, shopping centers, places of recreation, places of worship, health-care facilities, and workplaces. We urge proactive engagement by the global public health community in developing these codes, and in the design and implementation of health protection and health promotion activities intended to reduce the risk of injury, disability, and death, particularly when due to poor building code adoption/adaption, application, and enforcement. PMID:26935404

  11. The advent of equitation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul D

    2007-11-01

    The lengthy association of humans with horses has established traditional equestrian techniques that have served military and transport needs well. Although effective, these techniques have by-passed the research findings of modern psychologists, who developed the fundamentals of learning theory. That said, the pools of equestrian debate are far from stagnant. The latest wave of horse whisperers has offered some refinements and some novel interpretations of the motivation of horses undergoing training. Additionally, the Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) has introduced the concept of the 'happy equine athlete' and, in the light of the hyperflexion (Rollkür) debate, recently examined the possible effects of some novel dressage modalities on equine 'happiness'. However, many still question the welfare of the ridden horse since it is largely trained using negative reinforcement, has to respond to pressure-based signals and is seldom asked to work for positive rewards. Science holds tremendous promise for removing emotiveness from the horse-riding welfare debate by establishing how much rein tension is too much; how much contact is neutral; how contact can be measured; how discomfort can be measured; how pain can be measured; and how learned helplessness manifests in horses. These are some of the topics addressed by equitation science, an emerging discipline that combines learning theory, physics and ethology to examine the salience and efficacy of horse-training techniques. PMID:17157542

  12. The advent of equitation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul D

    2007-11-01

    The lengthy association of humans with horses has established traditional equestrian techniques that have served military and transport needs well. Although effective, these techniques have by-passed the research findings of modern psychologists, who developed the fundamentals of learning theory. That said, the pools of equestrian debate are far from stagnant. The latest wave of horse whisperers has offered some refinements and some novel interpretations of the motivation of horses undergoing training. Additionally, the Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) has introduced the concept of the 'happy equine athlete' and, in the light of the hyperflexion (Rollkür) debate, recently examined the possible effects of some novel dressage modalities on equine 'happiness'. However, many still question the welfare of the ridden horse since it is largely trained using negative reinforcement, has to respond to pressure-based signals and is seldom asked to work for positive rewards. Science holds tremendous promise for removing emotiveness from the horse-riding welfare debate by establishing how much rein tension is too much; how much contact is neutral; how contact can be measured; how discomfort can be measured; how pain can be measured; and how learned helplessness manifests in horses. These are some of the topics addressed by equitation science, an emerging discipline that combines learning theory, physics and ethology to examine the salience and efficacy of horse-training techniques.

  13. Building Successful Partnerships in Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Sue; Dale, Helen; Gabler, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Health literacy, the ability to obtain and understand information and services to make good health decisions, has received much attention recently. Literacy is a stronger predictor of health status than age, income, race, ethnicity, employment status, or educational level. Inadequate health literacy costs the United States an estimated $100-$236…

  14. PERCEPTION OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION WORKERS TOWARDS SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    C.R. CHE HASSAN; O.J. BASHA; W.H. WAN HANAFI

    2007-01-01

    The construction industry is known as one of the most hazardous activities. Therefore, safety on the job site is an important aspect with respect to the overall safety in construction. This paper assesses the safety level perception of the construction building workers towards safety, health and environment on a construction job site in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The above study was carried out by choosing 5 selected large building construction projects and 5 small building construction projects...

  15. Medical Education Capacity-Building Partnerships for Health Care Systems Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Tracy L; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Rastegar, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Health care workforce development is a key pillar of global health systems strengthening that requires investment in health care worker training institutions. This can be achieved by developing partnerships between training institutions in resource-limited and resource-rich areas and leveraging the unique expertise and opportunities both have to offer. To realize their full potential, however, these relationships must be equitable. In this article, we use a previously described global health ethics framework and our ten-year experience with the Makerere University-Yale University (MUYU) Collaboration to provide an example of an equity-focused global health education partnership. PMID:27437821

  16. Character Education: A Relationship with Building Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between the use of character education programming and school health. Measuring and improving school health is a process that supports social, emotional, ethical and civic education. Hoy, Tarter, and Kottkamp define this concept as a healthy school is one in which the institutional,…

  17. Sexual Health Promotion Programme: Participants' Perspectives on Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Brian; Daly, Louise; Sharek, Danika; De Vries, Jan; McCann, Edward; Higgins, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate a Health Service Executive (HSE) Foundation Programme in Sexual Health Promotion (FPSHP) with a specific emphasis on capacity building. Design: A mixed-method design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to collect the data. Setting: The FPSHP was delivered to staff working in…

  18. Motivators, enablers, and barriers to building allied health research capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Golenko X; Holden L; Pager S

    2012-01-01

    Susan Pager1, Libby Holden2, Xanthe Golenko21Queensland Health Metro South, 2School of Medicine, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaPurpose: A sound, scientific base of high quality research is needed to inform service planning and decision making and enable improved policy and practice. However, some areas of health practice, particularly many of the allied health areas, are generally considered to have a low evidence base. In order to successfully build research capacity in...

  19. Capacity building in global mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, Graham; Cooper, Sara; Bortel, Tine Van; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Lund, Crick

    2012-01-01

    Research-generated information about mental disorders is crucial in order to establish the health needs in a given setting, to propose culturally apt and cost-effective individual and collective interventions, to investigate their implementation, and to explore the obstacles that prevent recommended strategies from being implemented. Yet the capacity to undertake such research in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited. This article describes two methods that have proved successful in strengthening, or that have the potential to strengthen, mental health research capacity in low-resource settings. We identify the central challenges to be faced, review current programs offering training and mentorship, and summarize the key lessons learned. A structured approach is proposed for the career development of research staff at every career stage, to be accompanied by performance monitoring and support. A case example from the Mental Health and Poverty Project in sub-Saharan Africa illustrates how this approach can be put into practice-in particular, by focusing upon training in core transferrable research skills. PMID:22335179

  20. Building blocks for a wild animal health business case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Investment in wild animal health has not kept pace with investment in health programs for agriculture or people. Previous arguments of the inherent value of wildlife or the possible public health or economic consequences of fish or terrestrial wildlife diseases have failed to motivate sufficient, sustained funding. Wildlife health programs are often funded on an issue-by-issue basis, most often in response to diseases that have already emerged, rather than being funded to protect and promote the health of wild animals on an ongoing basis. We propose that one explanation for this situation is the lack of business cases that explains the value of wild animal health programs to funders. This paper proposes a set of building blocks that inform the creation of wildlife health business cases. The building blocks are a series of questions derived from a literature review, the experience of directors of two large national wildlife health programs and lessons learned in developing a draft business case for one of those programs. The six building blocks are: (1 Know what you are trying to achieve; (2 Describe your capabilities; (3 Identify factors critical to your success; (4 Describe the value you can bring to supporters; (5 Identify who needs your services and why; and (6 Share the plan.

  1. Learning from doing the EquitAble project: Content, context, process, and impact of a multi-country research project on vulnerable populations in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac MacLachlan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ‘EquitAble’ project carried out content analyses of policies and collected and analysed qualitative and quantitative data concerning access to health services in Sudan, Malawi, Namibia and South Africa. Our particular concern was to address the situation of people with disabilities, although not in isolation from other marginalised or vulnerable groups.Objectives: This article reports on the content, context, process and impact of project EquitAble, funded by the European Commission Seventh Research Framework Programme, which brought together researchers from Ireland, Norway, South Africa, Namibia, Sudan and Malawi.Method: After the 4-year project ended in February 2013, all members of the consortium were asked to anonymously complete a bespoke questionnaire designed by the coordinating team. The purpose of the questionnaire was to capture the views of those who collaborated on the research project in relation to issues of content, context, process and impact of the EquitAble project.Results: Our results indicated some of the successes and challenges encountered by our consortium.Conclusion: We identified contextual and process learning points, factors often not discussed in papers, which typically focus on the reporting of the ‘content’ of results.

  2. Building health research systems to achieve better health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Block Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health research systems can link knowledge generation with practical concerns to improve health and health equity. Interest in health research, and in how health research systems should best be organised, is moving up the agenda of bodies such as the World Health Organisation. Pioneering health research systems, for example those in Canada and the UK, show that progress is possible. However, radical steps are required to achieve this. Such steps should be based on evidence not anecdotes. Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS provides a vehicle for the publication of research, and informed opinion, on a range of topics related to the organisation of health research systems and the enormous benefits that can be achieved. Following the Mexico ministerial summit on health research, WHO has been identifying ways in which it could itself improve the use of research evidence. The results from this activity are soon to be published as a series of articles in HARPS. This editorial provides an account of some of these recent key developments in health research systems but places them in the context of a distinguished tradition of debate about the role of science in society. It also identifies some of the main issues on which 'research on health research' has already been conducted and published, in some cases in HARPS. Finding and retaining adequate financial and human resources to conduct health research is a major problem, especially in low and middle income countries where the need is often greatest. Research ethics and agenda-setting that responds to the demands of the public are issues of growing concern. Innovative and collaborative ways are being found to organise the conduct and utilisation of research so as to inform policy, and improve health and health equity. This is crucial, not least to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals. But much more progress is needed. The editorial ends by listing a wide range of topics

  3. Building health research systems to achieve better health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, Stephen R; González Block, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    Health research systems can link knowledge generation with practical concerns to improve health and health equity. Interest in health research, and in how health research systems should best be organised, is moving up the agenda of bodies such as the World Health Organisation. Pioneering health research systems, for example those in Canada and the UK, show that progress is possible. However, radical steps are required to achieve this. Such steps should be based on evidence not anecdotes. Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS) provides a vehicle for the publication of research, and informed opinion, on a range of topics related to the organisation of health research systems and the enormous benefits that can be achieved. Following the Mexico ministerial summit on health research, WHO has been identifying ways in which it could itself improve the use of research evidence. The results from this activity are soon to be published as a series of articles in HARPS. This editorial provides an account of some of these recent key developments in health research systems but places them in the context of a distinguished tradition of debate about the role of science in society. It also identifies some of the main issues on which 'research on health research' has already been conducted and published, in some cases in HARPS. Finding and retaining adequate financial and human resources to conduct health research is a major problem, especially in low and middle income countries where the need is often greatest. Research ethics and agenda-setting that responds to the demands of the public are issues of growing concern. Innovative and collaborative ways are being found to organise the conduct and utilisation of research so as to inform policy, and improve health and health equity. This is crucial, not least to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals. But much more progress is needed. The editorial ends by listing a wide range of topics related to the above

  4. Multicriteria analysis of health, comfort and energy efficiency in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulet, C.A.; Flourentzou, F.; Foradini, F.; Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C.; Aizlewood, C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to comply with sustainable development policy, the minimum that buildings should achieve are a healthy, comfortable and energy-efficient environment. Criteria for individually assessing each of the many criteria are known: the occupant's perceived health; the provided thermal, visual and ac

  5. Health sciences libraries building survey, 1999–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Logan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A survey was conducted of health sciences libraries to obtain information about newer buildings, additions, remodeling, and renovations. Method: An online survey was developed, and announcements of survey availability posted to three major email discussion lists: Medical Library Association (MLA), Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL), and MEDLIB-L. Previous discussions of library building projects on email discussion lists, a literature review, personal communications, and the author's consulting experiences identified additional projects. Results: Seventy-eight health sciences library building projects at seventy-three institutions are reported. Twenty-two are newer facilities built within the last ten years; two are space expansions; forty-five are renovation projects; and nine are combinations of new and renovated space. Six institutions report multiple or ongoing renovation projects during the last ten years. Conclusions: The survey results confirm a continuing migration from print-based to digitally based collections and reveal trends in library space design. Some health sciences libraries report loss of space as they move toward creating space for “community” building. Libraries are becoming more proactive in using or retooling space for concentration, collaboration, contemplation, communication, and socialization. All are moving toward a clearer operational vision of the library as the institution's information nexus and not merely as a physical location with print collections. PMID:20428277

  6. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidel, James [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)

    2014-12-22

    The grant objectives of the DOE grant funded project have been successfully completed. The Human Health Building (HHB) was constructed and opened for occupancy for the Fall 2012 semester of Oakland University. As with any large construction project, some issues arose which all were overcome to deliver the project on budget and on time. The facility design is a geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid building utilizing both desiccant dehumidification and variable refrigerant flow heat pumps. It is a cooling dominant building with a 400 ton cooling design day load, and 150 ton heating load on a design day. A 256 vertical borehole (320 ft depth) ground source heat pump array is located south of the building under the existing parking lot. The temperature swing and performance over 2013 through 2015 shows the ground loop is well sized, and may even have excess capacity for a future building to the north (planned lab facility). The HHB achieve a US Green Building Counsel LEED Platinum rating by collecting 52 of the total 69 available LEED points for the New Construction v.2 scoring checklist. Being Oakland's first geothermal project, we were very pleased with the building outcome and performance with the energy consumption approximately 1/2 of the campus average facility, on a square foot basis.

  7. [Health impact assessment of building and investment projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriene, B

    2003-02-01

    For regional planning and approval procedures for building projects of a certain order of magnitude and power rating according to the German Federal Act on the Prevention of Emissions with Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the German public health departments, acting as public authorities, increasingly perform health impact assessments (HIA). The amended Act on Environmental Impact Assessment, the Decree on industrial plants which require approval (4th Federal Decree on Emission Prevention) and the Health Service Acts of the Federal States of Germany form the legal basis for the assessment of health issues with regard to approval procedures for building and investment projects. In the framework of the "Action Programme for the Environment and Health", the present article aims at making this process binding and to ensure responsibility and general involvement of the Public Health departments in all German Federal States. Future criteria, basic principles and procedures for single-case testing as well as assessment standards should meet these requirements. The Federal Ministry for the Environment and the Federal Ministry for Health should agree on Health Impact Assessment (HIA ) as well as on the relaxant stipulations in their procedures and general administrative regulations for implementing the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA). Current EIA procedures focus on urban development and road construction, industrial investment projects, intensive animal husbandry plants, waste incineration plants, and wind energy farms. This paper illustrates examples meeting with varying degrees of public acceptance. However, being involved in the regional planning procedure for the project "Extension of the federal motorway A 14 from Magdeburg to Schwerin", the Public Health Service also shares global responsibility for health and climate protection. Demands for shortest routing conflict with objectives of environmental protection which should be given long

  8. Dampness in buildings and health. Building characteristics as predictors for dampness in 8681 Swedish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagerhed, L.; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Questionnaire data on 8681 dwellings included in the Swedish study "Dampness in Buildings and Health" have been analysed for associations between dampness indicators, perceptions of indoor air quality and building characteristics such as time of construction, type of ventilation and type of found...... of "Dry air" in 17.3 and 33.7% respectively. Older buildings and the use of natural ventilation were associated with increased frequency of dampness indicators as well as to increased frequencies of complaints on bad indoor air quality.......Questionnaire data on 8681 dwellings included in the Swedish study "Dampness in Buildings and Health" have been analysed for associations between dampness indicators, perceptions of indoor air quality and building characteristics such as time of construction, type of ventilation and type...... of foundation. Visible mold or damp stains were reported in 1.3 and 1.6% of single-family and multi-family houses respectively, dampness connected to the floor in 6.5 and 13.9% and condensation on windows in 12.5 and 16.9%. "Stuffy air" was reported in 22.3 and 42.8%, "Moldy odor" in 3.9 and 5.8% and perception...

  9. Building Collaborative Health Promotion Partnerships: The Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton C. Addison

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Building Collaborative Health Promotion Partnerships: The Jackson Heart Study. Background: Building a collaborative health promotion partnership that effectively employs principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR involves many dimensions. To ensure that changes would be long-lasting, it is imperative that partnerships be configured to include groups of diverse community representatives who can develop a vision for long-term change. This project sought to enumerate processes used by the Jackson Heart Study (JHS Community Outreach Center (CORC to create strong, viable partnerships that produce lasting change. Methods: JHS CORC joined with community representatives to initiate programs that evolved into comprehensive strategies for addressing health disparities and the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This collaboration was made possible by first promoting an understanding of the need for combined effort, the desire to interact with other community partners, and the vision to establish an effective governance structure. Results: The partnership between JHS CORC and the community has empowered and inspired community members to provide leadership to other health promotion projects. Conclusion: Academic institutions must reach out to local community groups and together address local health issues that affect the community. When a community understands the need for change to respond to negative health conditions, formalizing this type of collaboration is a step in the right direction.

  10. Building Community Capacity for Health Promotion in a Hispanic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sotomayor, PhD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Latino Education Project (LEP is conducting a multilevel Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH 2010 diabetes prevention project in Nueces County, one of 12 counties located in the Coastal Bend area of south Texas. Nueces County is characterized by high levels of poverty and diabetes-related complications and disability. The LEP chose a community capacity-building approach to diabetes prevention and health promotion to help midlife and elderly Latinos increase their ability to prevent, control, and manage diabetes and associated disabilities. In each intervention conducted through the LEP, project workers emphasize the importance of building community health-promotion capacity and recognize the important role that local leaders play in this process. Community-wide health forums, coalitions, and partnership development are key elements in promoting organizational development. These activities increase the social participation necessary for effective community building and problem solving. The use of study circles, or Ollas del Buen Comer, are one of the key approaches used to reinforce health-related culture, language-specific needs, and the lifestyle of participants in relation to the environment.Participation of community lay health educators, promotores de salud, is crucial to achieve project goals because of the leadership they provide in their communities. Promotores are helpful in one-on-one interactions, and they are crucial in creating environmental changes necessary to reduce the prevalence of risk factors associated with diabetes and other chronic diseases. Some of the tasks required for promotores to be effective in this REACH 2010 project are the focus of this discussion.

  11. Occupational safety and health issues associated with green building

    OpenAIRE

    Terwoert, J.; Ustailieva, E.

    2013-01-01

    This e-fact provides information on the work-related risk factors and the occupational safety and health (OSH) issues associated the planning and construction of green buildings, their maintenance, renovation (retrofitting), demolition, on-site waste collection. Some of these OSH risks are new compared with traditional construction sites and are associated with new green materials, technologies or design. Other risks are well-known to the construction sector but they arise in new situations o...

  12. Building a sustainable Academic Health Department: the South Carolina model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lillian Upton; Waddell, Lisa; Kyle, Joseph; Hand, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Given the limited resources available to public health, it is critical that university programs complement the development needs of agencies. Unfortunately, academic and practice public health entities have long been challenged in building sustainable collaborations that support practice-based research, teaching, and service. The academic health department concept offers a promising solution. In South Carolina, the partners started their academic health department program with a small grant that expanded into a dynamic infrastructure that supports innovative professional exchange and development programs. This article provides a background and describes the key elements of the South Carolina model: joint leadership, a multicomponent memorandum of agreement, and a shared professional development mission. The combination of these elements allows the partners to leverage resources and deftly respond to challenges and opportunities, ultimately fostering the sustainability of the collaboration.

  13. Neuroplasticity and Clinical Practice: Building Brain Power for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this review is on driving neuroplasticity in a positive direction using evidence-based interventions that also have the potential to improve general health. One goal is to provide an overview of the many ways new neuroscience can inform treatment protocols to empower and motivate clients to make the lifestyle choices that could help build brain power and could increase adherence to healthy lifestyle changes that have also been associated with simultaneously enhancing vigorous longevity, health, happiness, and wellness. Another goal is to explore the use of a focus in clinical practice on helping clients appreciate this new evidence and use evolving neuroscience in establishing individualized goals, designing strategies for achieving them and increasing treatment compliance. The timing is urgent for such interventions with goals of enhancing brain health across the lifespan and improving statistics on dementia worldwide. PMID:27507957

  14. Neuroplasticity and Clinical Practice: Building Brain Power for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this review is on driving neuroplasticity in a positive direction using evidence-based interventions that also have the potential to improve general health. One goal is to provide an overview of the many ways new neuroscience can inform treatment protocols to empower and motivate clients to make the lifestyle choices that could help build brain power and could increase adherence to healthy lifestyle changes that have also been associated with simultaneously enhancing vigorous longevity, health, happiness, and wellness. Another goal is to explore the use of a focus in clinical practice on helping clients appreciate this new evidence and use evolving neuroscience in establishing individualized goals, designing strategies for achieving them and increasing treatment compliance. The timing is urgent for such interventions with goals of enhancing brain health across the lifespan and improving statistics on dementia worldwide.

  15. Neuroplasticity and Clinical Practice: Building Brain Power for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this review is on driving neuroplasticity in a positive direction using evidence-based interventions that also have the potential to improve general health. One goal is to provide an overview of the many ways new neuroscience can inform treatment protocols to empower and motivate clients to make the lifestyle choices that could help build brain power and could increase adherence to healthy lifestyle changes that have also been associated with simultaneously enhancing vigorous longevity, health, happiness, and wellness. Another goal is to explore the use of a focus in clinical practice on helping clients appreciate this new evidence and use evolving neuroscience in establishing individualized goals, designing strategies for achieving them and increasing treatment compliance. The timing is urgent for such interventions with goals of enhancing brain health across the lifespan and improving statistics on dementia worldwide. PMID:27507957

  16. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs

  18. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: health research and capacity building in disease-endemic countries for helminthiases control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Lustigman, Sara; Prichard, Roger K; Boatin, Boakye A; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Capacity building in health research generally, and helminthiasis research particularly, is pivotal to the implementation of the research and development agenda for the control and elimination of human helminthiases that has been proposed thematically in the preceding reviews of this collection. Since helminth infections affect human populations particularly in marginalised and low-income regions of the world, they belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases, and their alleviation through research, policy, and practice is a sine qua non condition for the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Current efforts supporting research capacity building specifically for the control of helminthiases have been devised and funded, almost in their entirety, by international donor agencies, major funding bodies, and academic institutions from the developed world, contributing to the creation of (not always equitable) North-South "partnerships". There is an urgent need to shift this paradigm in disease-endemic countries (DECs) by refocusing political will, and harnessing unshakeable commitment by the countries' governments, towards health research and capacity building policies to ensure long-term investment in combating and sustaining the control and eventual elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. This paper discusses the challenges confronting capacity building for parasitic disease research in DECs, describes current capacity building strategies with particular reference to neglected tropical diseases and human helminthiases, and outlines recommendations to redress the balance of alliances and partnerships for health research between the developed countries of the "North" and

  19. PERCEPTION OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION WORKERS TOWARDS SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. CHE HASSAN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is known as one of the most hazardous activities. Therefore, safety on the job site is an important aspect with respect to the overall safety in construction. This paper assesses the safety level perception of the construction building workers towards safety, health and environment on a construction job site in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The above study was carried out by choosing 5 selected large building construction projects and 5 small building construction projects respectively in and around Kuala Lumpur area. In the present study, an exhaustive survey was carried out in these 10 project site areas using a standard checklist and a detailed developed questionnaire. The checklist comprised 17 divisions of safety measurements which are considered and perceived to be important from the safety point of view and was assessed based on the score obtained. The questionnaire comprised the general information with 36 safety attitude statements on a 1-5 Likert scale which was distributed to 100 construction workers. The results of the checklist show the difference of safety levels between the large and small projects. The study revealed that the large projects shown a high and consistent level in safety while the small projects shown a low and varied safety levels. The relationship between the factors can be obtained from the questionnaire. They are organizational commitment, factor influencing communication among workmates, worker related factors, personal role and supervisors’ role factors, obstacles to safety and safe behavior factors and management commitment at all levels in line with the management structure and risk taking behavioral factors. The findings of the present study revealed invaluable indications to the construction managers especially in improving the construction workers’ attitude towards safety, health and environment and hence good safety culture in the building construction industries.

  20. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter conditions, or together, were hierarchically associated with the following: increased absence, increased presenteeism (presence at work but at reduced capacity), and increase in reported symptom-days, including symptoms not related to respiratory disease. We found that in buildings without unusual hazards and with environmental and air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely associated with host factors than with environmental conditions. We concluded from the experience of this study that building-related health complaints should be investigated at the work-area level and not at a building

  1. An equitable way to pay for universal coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasell, E

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a way to finance universal health care coverage that preserves much of the current financing system and replaces funds obtained from regressive sources with revenue from more progressive ones. New funding would be needed for 24 percent of health expenditures and would be raised through an increase in the federal personal income tax. Premiums are eliminated since their cost is the same to everyone regardless of income. Cost sharing and out-of-pocket spending for medically necessary services are also abolished. In a more equitably financed system, employers would pay a new payroll tax that raised the same amount of money they currently spend for employee health insurance premiums; this would require a payroll tax of about 7 percent. Revenue from an increase in federal personal income taxes would replace household out-of-pocket expenditures for medically necessary services and payments for insurance premiums. For the average, middle-income family, the tax increase would total $731 in 1998. In exchange for the tax increase, no American or American employer would need to buy health insurance or face out-of-pocket charges for any medically indicated health care.

  2. Perceived health and comfort in relation to energy use and building characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulet, C.A.; Johner, N.; Foradini, F.; Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C.; Oliveira Fernandes, E.; Müller, B.; Aizlewood, C.

    2006-01-01

    Within the European research project Health Optimisation Protocol for Energy-efficient Building (HOPE), 96 apartment buildings and 64 office buildings (of which approximately 75% have been designed to be energy-efficient) were investigated. The building characteristics were assessed according to a c

  3. Capacity building for global health diplomacy: Thailand's experience of trade and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiprayoon, Suriwan; Smith, Richard

    2015-11-01

    A rapid expansion of trade liberalization in Thailand during the 1990s raised a critical question for policy transparency from various stakeholders. Particular attention was paid to a bilateral trade negotiation between Thailand and USA concerned with the impact of the 'Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Rights (TRIPS) plus' provisions on access to medicines. Other trade liberalization effects on health were also concerning health actors. In response, a number of interagency committees were established to engage with trade negotiations. In this respect, Thailand is often cited as a positive example of a country that has proactively sought, and achieved, trade and health policy coherence. This article investigates this relationship in more depth and suggests lessons for wider study and application of global health diplomacy (GHD). This study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 people involved in trade-related health negotiations, together with observation of 9 meetings concerning trade-related health issues. Capacity to engage with trade negotiations appears to have been developed by health actors through several stages; starting from the Individual (I) understanding of trade effects on health, through Nodes (N) that establish the mechanisms to enhance health interests, Networks (N) to advocate for health within these negotiations, and an Enabling environment (E) to retain health officials and further strengthen their capacities to deal with trade-related health issues. This INNE model seems to have worked well in Thailand. However, other contextual factors are also significant. This article suggests that, in building capacity in GHD, it is essential to educate both health and non-health actors on global health issues and to use a combination of formal and informal mechanisms to participate in GHD. And in developing sustainable capacity in GHD, it requires long term commitment and strong leadership from both health and non-health sectors. PMID:25339636

  4. Capacity building for global health diplomacy: Thailand's experience of trade and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiprayoon, Suriwan; Smith, Richard

    2015-11-01

    A rapid expansion of trade liberalization in Thailand during the 1990s raised a critical question for policy transparency from various stakeholders. Particular attention was paid to a bilateral trade negotiation between Thailand and USA concerned with the impact of the 'Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Rights (TRIPS) plus' provisions on access to medicines. Other trade liberalization effects on health were also concerning health actors. In response, a number of interagency committees were established to engage with trade negotiations. In this respect, Thailand is often cited as a positive example of a country that has proactively sought, and achieved, trade and health policy coherence. This article investigates this relationship in more depth and suggests lessons for wider study and application of global health diplomacy (GHD). This study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 people involved in trade-related health negotiations, together with observation of 9 meetings concerning trade-related health issues. Capacity to engage with trade negotiations appears to have been developed by health actors through several stages; starting from the Individual (I) understanding of trade effects on health, through Nodes (N) that establish the mechanisms to enhance health interests, Networks (N) to advocate for health within these negotiations, and an Enabling environment (E) to retain health officials and further strengthen their capacities to deal with trade-related health issues. This INNE model seems to have worked well in Thailand. However, other contextual factors are also significant. This article suggests that, in building capacity in GHD, it is essential to educate both health and non-health actors on global health issues and to use a combination of formal and informal mechanisms to participate in GHD. And in developing sustainable capacity in GHD, it requires long term commitment and strong leadership from both health and non-health sectors.

  5. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely associated with host factors than with environmental conditions. We concluded from the experience of this study that building-related health complaints should be investigated at the work-area level and not at a building-wide level. An occupant-centric medical evaluation should guide environmental investigations, especially when screening results of building indoor environmental and air quality measurements show that the building and its work areas are within regulatory standards and industry guidelines.

  6. 20 CFR 222.34 - Relationship resulting from equitable adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.34 Relationship resulting from... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship resulting from equitable... adopted child. A claimant will have the relationship of an equitably adopted child for annuity and...

  7. Two-out degree equitable domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sahal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An equitable domination has interesting application in the contextof social networks. In a network, nodes with nearly equal capacitymay interact with each other in a better way. In the societypersons with nearly equal status, tend to be friendly. In thispaper, we introduce new variant of equitable domination of agraph. Basic properties and some interesting results have beenobtained.

  8. A framework to evaluate research capacity building in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Jo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Building research capacity in health services has been recognised internationally as important in order to produce a sound evidence base for decision-making in policy and practice. Activities to increase research capacity for, within, and by practice include initiatives to support individuals and teams, organisations and networks. Little has been discussed or concluded about how to measure the effectiveness of research capacity building (RCB Discussion This article attempts to develop the debate on measuring RCB. It highlights that traditional outcomes of publications in peer reviewed journals and successful grant applications may be important outcomes to measure, but they may not address all the relevant issues to highlight progress, especially amongst novice researchers. They do not capture factors that contribute to developing an environment to support capacity development, or on measuring the usefulness or the 'social impact' of research, or on professional outcomes. The paper suggests a framework for planning change and measuring progress, based on six principles of RCB, which have been generated through the analysis of the literature, policy documents, empirical studies, and the experience of one Research and Development Support Unit in the UK. These principles are that RCB should: develop skills and confidence, support linkages and partnerships, ensure the research is 'close to practice', develop appropriate dissemination, invest in infrastructure, and build elements of sustainability and continuity. It is suggested that each principle operates at individual, team, organisation and supra-organisational levels. Some criteria for measuring progress are also given. Summary This paper highlights the need to identify ways of measuring RCB. It points out the limitations of current measurements that exist in the literature, and proposes a framework for measuring progress, which may form the basis of comparison of RCB

  9. Vertex Distinguishing Equitable Total Chromatic Number of Join Graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-wen Wang; Li-hong Yan; Zhong-fu Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A vertex distinguishing equitable total coloring of graph G is a proper total coloring of graph G such that any two distinct vertices' coloring sets are not identical and the difference of the elements colored by any two colors is not more than 1. In this paper we shall give vertex distinguishing equitable total chromatic number of join graphs Pn∨Pn, Cn∨Cn, and prove that they satisfy conjecture 3, namely, the chromatic numbers of vertex distinguishing total and vertex distinguishing equitable total are the same for join graphs Pn∨Pn and Cn∨Cn.

  10. Delivery of affordable and equitable cancer care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramesh, C S; Badwe, Rajendra A; Borthakur, Bibhuti B; Chandra, Madhu; Raj, Elluswami Hemanth; Kannan, T; Kalwar, Ashok; Kapoor, Sanjay; Malhotra, Hemant; Nayak, Sukdev; Rath, Goura K; Sagar, T G; Sebastian, Paul; Sarin, Rajiv; Shanta, V; Sharma, Suresh C; Shukla, Shilin; Vijayakumar, Manavalan; Vijaykumar, D K; Aggarwal, Ajay; Purushotham, Arnie; Sullivan, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The delivery of affordable and equitable cancer care is one of India's greatest public health challenges. Public expenditure on cancer in India remains below US$10 per person (compared with more than US$100 per person in high-income countries), and overall public expenditure on health care is still only slightly above 1% of gross domestic product. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for more than three-quarters of cancer expenditures in India, are one of the greatest threats to patients and families, and a cancer diagnosis is increasingly responsible for catastrophic expenditures that negatively affect not only the patient but also the welfare and education of several generations of their family. We explore the complex nature of cancer care systems across India, from state to government levels, and address the crucial issues of infrastructure, manpower shortages, and the pressing need to develop cross-state solutions to prevention and early detection of cancer, in addition to governance of the largely unregulated private sector and the cost of new technologies and drugs. We discuss the role of public insurance schemes, the need to develop new political mandates and authority to set priorities, the necessity to greatly improve the quality of care, and the drive to understand and deliver cost-effective cancer care programmes. PMID:24731888

  11. Building global health through a center-without-walls: the Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermund, Sten H; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Khedkar, Sheetal; Jia, Yujiang; Etherington, Carol; Vergara, Alfredo

    2008-02-01

    The Institute for Global Health at Vanderbilt enables the expansion and coordination of global health research, service, and training, reflecting the university's commitment to improve health services and outcomes in resource-limited settings. Global health encompasses both prevention via public health and treatment via medical care, all nested within a broader community-development context. This has fostered university-wide collaborations to address education, business/economics, engineering, nursing, and language training, among others. The institute is a natural facilitator for team building and has been especially helpful in organizing institutional responses to global health solicitations from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and other funding agencies. This center-without-walls philosophy nurtures noncompetitive partnerships among and within departments and schools. With extramural support from the NIH and from endowment and developmental investments from the school of medicine, the institute funds new pilot projects to nurture global educational and research exchanges related to health and development. Vanderbilt's newest programs are a CDC-supported HIV/AIDS service initiative in Africa and an overseas research training program for health science graduate students and clinical fellows. New opportunities are available for Vanderbilt students, staff, and faculty to work abroad in partnership with international health projects through a number of Tennessee institutions now networked with the institute. A center-without-walls may be a model for institutions contemplating strategic investments to better organize service and teaching opportunities abroad, and to achieve greater successes in leveraging extramural support for overseas and domestic work focused on tropical medicine and global health.

  12. Building global health through a center-without-walls: the Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermund, Sten H; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Khedkar, Sheetal; Jia, Yujiang; Etherington, Carol; Vergara, Alfredo

    2008-02-01

    The Institute for Global Health at Vanderbilt enables the expansion and coordination of global health research, service, and training, reflecting the university's commitment to improve health services and outcomes in resource-limited settings. Global health encompasses both prevention via public health and treatment via medical care, all nested within a broader community-development context. This has fostered university-wide collaborations to address education, business/economics, engineering, nursing, and language training, among others. The institute is a natural facilitator for team building and has been especially helpful in organizing institutional responses to global health solicitations from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and other funding agencies. This center-without-walls philosophy nurtures noncompetitive partnerships among and within departments and schools. With extramural support from the NIH and from endowment and developmental investments from the school of medicine, the institute funds new pilot projects to nurture global educational and research exchanges related to health and development. Vanderbilt's newest programs are a CDC-supported HIV/AIDS service initiative in Africa and an overseas research training program for health science graduate students and clinical fellows. New opportunities are available for Vanderbilt students, staff, and faculty to work abroad in partnership with international health projects through a number of Tennessee institutions now networked with the institute. A center-without-walls may be a model for institutions contemplating strategic investments to better organize service and teaching opportunities abroad, and to achieve greater successes in leveraging extramural support for overseas and domestic work focused on tropical medicine and global health. PMID:18303361

  13. European project HOPE (Health Optimization Protocol for Energy-efficient Buildings)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Cox, C.W.J.; Maroni, M.; Boschi, N.; Raw, G.; Roulet, C.A.; Foradini, F.

    2003-01-01

    In January 2002, a new European project named HOPE (Health Optimization Protocol for Energy-efficient Buildings) started with 14 participants from nine European countries. The final goal of the project is to provide the means to increase the number of energy-efficient buildings, i.e. buildings that

  14. Putting Management Capacity Building at the Forefront of Health Systems Strengthening: Comment on "Management Matters: A Leverage Point for Health Systems Strengthening in Global Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Valerie A; Bertrand, Jane

    2016-02-01

    The current limited focus on management in global health activities is highly problematic given the amounts of financial and human resources that are pouring into health system strengthening interventions and the complexity of clinical operations across settings. By ensuring that public health and healthcare practitioners in domestic and international settings receive management training in their educational programs and that we build management capacity among individuals already in the health workforce, we can begin to prepare for more effective health systems strengthening efforts. Rigorous evaluation of health systems strengthening and the impact of management capacity building is crucial to building evidence for the field. PMID:26927402

  15. Prospects for equitable growth in rural sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Hazell, Peter B.

    1988-01-01

    Improving agricultural technology equitably in Africa has been difficult in the past because of the vast differences, as well as weak institutions and infrastructure in its many regions. However, the prospects for equitable growth are good for several reasons. The distribution of land has not deteriorated, and there are few landless people in Africa. Technical packages do not favor large farms over small ones, and Africa's social institutions support people with a safety net for sources of in...

  16. Energy analysis and renovation proposal for the community health centre Fužine building

    OpenAIRE

    Strmljan, Eva

    2016-01-01

    European environmental policy demands a transition toward nearly zero-energy buildings. Its goal is to reduce energy consumption and increase the use of renewable energy sources. In the diploma thesis, different building energy parameters needed to evaluate energy efficiency are presented and calculated for the Community health Centre Fužine building. Firstly an analysis was carried out to determine whether the building complies with the c...

  17. Perceived health and comfort in relation to energy use and building characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, C.-A.; Johner, N. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Foradini, F. [E4Tech S., Lausanne (Switzerland); Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft (Netherlands); Oliveira Fernandes, E. De [IDMEC-FUEP, Porto (Portugal); Mueller, B. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Aizlewood, C. [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    Within the European research project Health Optimisation Protocol for Energy-efficient Building (HOPE), 96 apartment buildings and 64 office buildings (of which approximately 75% have been designed to be energy-efficient) were investigated. The building characteristics were assessed according to a checklist during a walk-through survey. Occupant questionnaires were used to determine satisfaction about comfort (thermal visual, acoustical and indoor air quality (IAQ)) and their health (Sick Building Syndrome and allergies). Building-averaged collected data are compared, looking for correlations between building characteristics on one hand, and perceived comfort and health on the other hand. Strong correlations are found between perceived IAQ, thermal, acoustic and lighting comfort, confirming results from other studies. Significant correlations between the perceived comfort and building related symptoms were also found, comfortable and healthier buildings being well distinct from uncomfortable ones. Differences of perceived comfort or health between low- and high-energy buildings show that it is possible to design buildings that are healthy, comfortable and energy efficient. (author)

  18. 75 FR 39994 - AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... COMMISSION AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application July 7, 2010. AGENCY... Act. APPLICANTS: AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company (``AXA Equitable''), Separate Account 45 of AXA... (``Separate Account FP'') (together, ``AXA Equitable Separate Accounts''), MONY Life Insurance Company...

  19. Capacity building in the health sector to improve care for child nutrition and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Aisha K; Rasheed, Muneera A; Daelmans, Bernadette; Manji, Sheila; Arnold, Caroline; Lingam, Raghu; Muskin, Joshua; Lucas, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions promoting healthy child growth and development depends upon the capacity of the health system to deliver a high-quality intervention. However, few health workers are trained in providing integrated early child-development services. Building capacity entails not only training the frontline worker, but also mobilizing knowledge and support to promote early child development across the health system. In this paper, we present the paradigm shift required to build effective partnerships between health workers and families in order to support children's health, growth, and development, the practical skills frontline health workers require to promote optimal caregiving, and the need for knowledge mobilization across multiple institutional levels to support frontline health workers. We present case studies illustrating challenges and success stories around capacity development. There is a need to galvanize increased commitment and resources to building capacity in health systems to deliver early child-development services.

  20. "We can move forward": challenging historical inequity in public health research in Solomon Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Speare Richard; Muse Alwin; Harrington Humpress; Fa'anuabae Chillion E; Asugeni Rowena; MacLaren David J; Redman-MacLaren Michelle L; Clough Alan R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In resource-poor countries, such as Solomon Islands, the research agenda on health is often dominated by researchers from resource-rich countries. New strategies are needed to empower local researchers to set directions for health research. This paper presents a process which seeks to enable a local and potentially more equitable research agenda at a remote hospital in Solomon Islands. Methods In preparation for a health research capacity-building workshop at Atoifi Advent...

  1. 从伦理学角度看灾后重建过程中卫生资源的公平性配置%Equitable allocation of health resources from the view of ethics in post-calamity reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安伟; 杜萍; 张鹭鹭

    2012-01-01

    近年来,地震、泥石流、洪水等重大自然灾害的侵袭,给我国经济和社会发展造成了巨大的损失.在灾后重建工作中,卫生系统占有举足轻重的地位,其核心是卫生资源的重新配置.卫生资源配置的水平和效果直接影响着重建效果和卫生服务水平.效率与公平是卫生资源配置的2个准则,如何在保证配置效率最大化的同时,坚持公平的价值取向和伦理诉求,实现包括健康权利、资源分布和制度保障等方面的公平性目标,需要从伦理学的角度进行深入思考.%In recent years, natural calamities such as earthquakes, debris flows and floods have caused great loss to the development of economy and society. In post-calamity reconstruction, the health system plays an extremely important role, particularly in the reallocation of health resources. The rationality and effectiveness of health resource allocation are directly associated with the efficiency of reconstruction and quality of medical sendees. Efficiency and equity are the two principles of health resource allocation. Further thoughts are deserved from the view of ethics concerning how to keep the value and ethical orientation of equity while maximizing the efficiency of health resource allocation and how to realize the equity goals in health rights, resource distribution and institutional guarantee.

  2. Building a culture of health: A new framework and measures for health and health care in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Matthew D; Plough, Alonzo

    2016-09-01

    For generations, Americans' health has been unequally influenced by income, education, ethnicity, and geography. Health care systems have operated largely apart from each other and from community life. The definition of health has been the "absence of illness," rather than the recognition that all aspects of our lives should support health. Today, a growing number of communities, regions, and states are working to redefine what it means to get and stay healthy by addressing the multiple determinants of health. The requirements of federal health care reform are changing who has access to care, how care is paid for and delivered, and how patients and providers interact. Coordinated efforts to promote wellness and prevent diseases are proliferating among a diverse set of stakeholders. These developments in health and in society present a window of opportunity for real societal transformation-a chance to catalyze a national movement that demands and supports a widely shared, multifaceted vision for a Culture of Health. To address this challenge, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation has embarked on a strategic direction to use the tools of a large national philanthropy to catalyze a social movement which we are calling Building a Culture of Health. This article presents the Foundation's new model for a Culture of Health, the trans-disciplinary research that developed a set of metrics that tie to the model, and the community engagement activities undertaken in the development of both the model and metrics. The model and associated metrics and extensive communication, in addition to partnership, and grant funding strategies, represent a culture change strategy being implemented over 20 years. Addressing underlying inequities in health affirming life conditions and improving social cohesion across diverse groups to take action to improve theses condition lay at the heart of this strategy. PMID:27405727

  3. Building a culture of health: A new framework and measures for health and health care in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Matthew D; Plough, Alonzo

    2016-09-01

    For generations, Americans' health has been unequally influenced by income, education, ethnicity, and geography. Health care systems have operated largely apart from each other and from community life. The definition of health has been the "absence of illness," rather than the recognition that all aspects of our lives should support health. Today, a growing number of communities, regions, and states are working to redefine what it means to get and stay healthy by addressing the multiple determinants of health. The requirements of federal health care reform are changing who has access to care, how care is paid for and delivered, and how patients and providers interact. Coordinated efforts to promote wellness and prevent diseases are proliferating among a diverse set of stakeholders. These developments in health and in society present a window of opportunity for real societal transformation-a chance to catalyze a national movement that demands and supports a widely shared, multifaceted vision for a Culture of Health. To address this challenge, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation has embarked on a strategic direction to use the tools of a large national philanthropy to catalyze a social movement which we are calling Building a Culture of Health. This article presents the Foundation's new model for a Culture of Health, the trans-disciplinary research that developed a set of metrics that tie to the model, and the community engagement activities undertaken in the development of both the model and metrics. The model and associated metrics and extensive communication, in addition to partnership, and grant funding strategies, represent a culture change strategy being implemented over 20 years. Addressing underlying inequities in health affirming life conditions and improving social cohesion across diverse groups to take action to improve theses condition lay at the heart of this strategy.

  4. Efficient and equitable HIV prevention: A case study of male circumcision in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verguet Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We determine efficient, equitable and mixed efficient-equitable allocations of a male circumcision (MC intervention reducing female to male HIV transmission in South Africa (SA, as a case study of an efficiency-equity framework for resource allocation in HIV prevention. Methods We present a mathematical model developed with epidemiological and cost data from the nine provinces of SA. The hypothetical one-year-long MC intervention with a budget of US$ 10 million targeted adult men 15–49 years of age in SA. The intervention was evaluated according to two criteria: an efficiency criterion, which focused on maximizing the number of HIV infections averted by the intervention, and an equity criterion (defined geographically, which focused on maximizing the chance that each male adult individual had access to the intervention regardless of his province. Results A purely efficient intervention would prevent 4,008 HIV infections over a year. In the meantime, a purely equitable intervention would avert 3,198 infections, which represents a 20% reduction in infection outcome as compared to the purely efficient scenario. A half efficient-half equitable scenario would prevent 3,749 infections, that is, a 6% reduction in infection outcome as compared to the purely efficient scenario. Conclusions This paper provides a framework for resource allocation in the health sector which incorporates a simple equity metric in addition to efficiency. In the specific context of SA with a MC intervention for the prevention of HIV, incorporation of geographical equity only slightly reduces the overall efficiency of the intervention.

  5. The new library building at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, D A; Bowden, V M; Olivier, E R

    1985-01-01

    The new University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Library opened in June 1983, replacing the 1968 library building. Planning a new library building provides an opportunity for the staff to rethink their philosophy of service. Of paramount concern and importance is the need to convey this philosophy to the architects. This paper describes the planning process and the building's external features, interior layouts, and accommodations for technology. Details of the move to the building are considered and various aspects of the building are reviewed. Images PMID:3995205

  6. Building Global Health Research Competencies at the Undergraduate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Hecker, Kent G.; Jensen, Ashley E.

    2009-01-01

    Faculty from the University of Calgary's bachelor of health sciences (BHSc) Global Health Program argue for the development of "global health research competencies" to prepare students for international placements in low- and middle-income countries. These competencies include the ability to define and describe (a) how to use the concept of health…

  7. Equitable Financial Evaluation Method for Public-Private Partnership Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Yongjian; LIU Xinping; WANG Shouqing

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility study of a public-private partnership (PPP) project is regarded as one of the critical factors for successful implementation,but unfortunately the common financial evaluation methods currently used only represent the benefits of the private sector.There is,therefore,an urgent need to develop an equitable financial evaluation method for PPP projects.This paper presents a comprehensive literature review that examines international practices.An equitable financial evaluation method was then developed taking into account the inherent characteristics of PPP projects using six separate indicators and Monte Carlo simulations.The result for a bridge project in Romania shows that the method combines the viewpoints of all the relevant stakeholders to achieve an equitable financial evaluation of PPP projects.

  8. Methodology developed for the energy-productive diagnosis and evaluation in health buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, I.; Discoli, C.; Rosenfeld, E. [Instituto de Estudios del Habitat (IDEHAB), Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-07-01

    The public health network in Argentina consists of a wide variety of buildings presenting a complex system of services and structures. In order to modulate and study the energy behaviour of each type of health facility, a database of Energy-Productive Building Modules (Modulos Edilicios Energeticos Productivos: MEEP) was built. This involved evaluating the interactions among physical spaces, building envelope, infrastructure, and equipment usage with the energy consumption, for each specialty service provided in the most common buildings present in the health service network. The MEEP database enables investigators to: (i) Obtain detailed information on each facility. (ii) Identify variables critical to an energy consumption perspective. (iii) Detect areas of over consumption and/or inadequate infrastructure. (iv) Gather essential reference material for the design of health facilities and other similar sectors. The information of each MEEP can be summarized in typological charts. (author)

  9. Building bridges between health economics research and public policy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrand, Thierry; Dourgnon, Paul

    2010-12-01

    The Institut de Recherche et Documentation en Economie de la Santé (IRDES) Workshop on Applied Health Economics and Policy Evaluation aims at disseminating health economic research's newest findings and enhancing the community's capacity to address issues that are relevant to public policy. The 2010 program consisted of 16 articles covering a vast range of topics, such as health insurance, social health inequalities and health services research. While most of the articles embedded theoretical material, all had to include empirical material in order to favor more applied and practical discussions and results. The 2010 workshop is to be the first of a series of annual workshops in Paris gathering together researchers on health economics and policy evaluation. The next workshop is to be held at IRDES in June 2011.

  10. Building better oral health: a dental home for all Texans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Poor oral health affects more than just the mouth. It can seriously compromise a person's general health, quality of life and life expectancy. Oral diseases can and do lead to systemic problems--damaging other parts of the body and resulting in the need for expensive emergency department visits, hospital stays and medications. The consequences of poor oral health, however, go far beyond damaging medical effects. Oral disease can also wreak economic havoc--keeping children out of school and adults home from work--not to mention lower productivity of workers in pain. Untreated oral diseases can also drive up health care costs in general. The good news is that with proper oral health care, both at home and in professional settings, many of the negative consequences associated with poor oral health can be prevented. The State of Texas has a unique and unprecedented opportunity to significantly increase access to oral health care for all Texans. Complying with the Frew agreement is a key priority. However, there are additional ways that Texas policymakers can improve the oral health of the state. In an effort to begin a constructive dialogue about improving the oral health of all Texans, the Texas Dental Association (TDA) with grant funding from the American Dental Association (ADA) commissioned an independent third-party report on the issue of access to oral health care in Texas modeled after the 2000 groundbreaking surgeon general's report, Oral Health in America. The TDA assembled a team of five nationally recognized dentists from both academia and private practice to oversee the project. The dentists (hereafter called the editorial review board or ERB) were asked to identify the state's most pressing issues, needs and challenges associated with improving the oral health of all Texans, with a special focus on the state's most vulnerable. The ERB looked carefully at the economic, medical and social consequences of untreated oral disease in Texas. It reviewed the

  11. Health profile of workers in a ship building and repair industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali R Lokhande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The modern ship building industry, which encompasses the ship yards and marine equipment manufacturing, is an important and strategic industry. The various activities in modern ship building, maintenance, and repair have to be carried out at heights, or in closed confined spaces along with the added risk of exposure to chemicals and metal fumes. These activities expose the workers to various health hazards. Aims: This study was carried out with an aim to assess the health profile of workers in the ship building industry and to assess the occupational health issues related to ship building. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study carried out on 100 randomly selected workers in a ship building yard in Mumbai, and their health profile was studied. Materials and Methods: The workers were enquired for history of co-morbidities, addictions and personal protective equipment use, health-related complaints, and were examined systemically as well as for bedside tests for hearing and detailed systemic examination as per the history or co-morbidity. Results: The important observations were those of prevalence of addictions (69%, irregular use of personal protective equipments (PPEs among 50% of paint workers, presence of hypertension (20%, overweight (53%, osteoarthritis (10%, hearing loss (25%, and poor self-care. Conclusions: Health education to the workers regarding occupational hazards and lifestyle diseases along with more emphasis on the use of PPEs with regular health examination needs reinforcement.

  12. Public University Entry in Ghana: Is It Equitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

    2013-01-01

    Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the…

  13. CETA: Is It Equitable for Women? A Rand Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Sue E.; And Others

    A study assessed whether the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) equitably allocates its training, employment, occupational, and wage benefits by sex. To analyze the sex equity of CETA's resource distribution, researchers used data from the Continuous Longitudinal Manpower Survey (CLMS) for fiscal 1976, 1977, and 1978 CETA enrollees.…

  14. Claim Your Space: Leadership Development as a Research Capacity Building Goal in Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Williams, Natasha; Zizi, Freddy; Okuyemi, Kolawole

    2016-01-01

    As the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) rises in settings with an equally high burden of infectious diseases in the Global South, a new sense of urgency has developed around research capacity building to promote more effective and sustainable public health and health care systems. In 2010, NCDs accounted for more than 2.06 million deaths…

  15. Building associations between markers of environmental stressors and adverse human health impacts using frequent itemset mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building associations between markers of exposure and effect using frequent itemset mining The human-health impact of environmental contaminant exposures is unclear. While some exposure-effect relationships are well studied, health effects are unknown for the vast majority of the...

  16. Building on research evidence to change health literacy policy and practice in England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowlands, Gillian; Berry, Jonathan; Protheroe, Joanne;

    2015-01-01

    service, and industry perspectives. Suggested topics for action fell into four areas; improving health services, building health literacy skills in the population and workforce, recognizing the importance of public information developed outside the health arena, and funding for health literacy research......Background: Health literacy is important because of the high proportion of the population with skills below those needed to become and stay healthy, and the resultant negative impact on people’s lives. A recent study in England has shown that, as is true in other industrialized nations......, a significant proportion of people (43–61%) have literacy and numeracy skills below those needed to fully understand and use health materials. This paper describes a project designed to build on these findings with key stakeholders to develop an action plan to address a mismatch between population skills...

  17. Building diversity in a complex academic health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South-Paul, Jeannette E; Roth, Loren; Davis, Paula K; Chen, Terence; Roman, Anna; Murrell, Audrey; Pettigrew, Chenits; Castleberry-Singleton, Candi; Schuman, Joel

    2013-09-01

    For 30 years, the many diversity-related health sciences programs targeting the University of Pittsburgh undergraduate campus, school of medicine, schools of the health sciences, clinical practice plan, and medical center were run independently and remained separate within the academic health center (AHC). This lack of coordination hampered their overall effectiveness in promoting diversity and inclusion. In 2007, a group of faculty and administrators from the university and the medical center recognized the need to improve institutional diversity and to better address local health disparities. In this article, the authors describe the process of linking the efforts of these institutions in a way that would be successful locally and applicable to other academic environments. First, they engaged an independent consultant to conduct a study of the AHC's diversity climate, interviewing current and former faculty and trainees to define the problem and identify areas for improvement. Next, they created the Physician Inclusion Council to address the findings of this study and to coordinate future efforts with institutional leaders. Finally, they formed four working committees to address (1) communications and outreach, (2) cultural competency, (3) recruitment, and (4) mentoring and retention. These committees oversaw the strategic development and implementation of all diversity and inclusion efforts. Together these steps led to structural changes within the AHC and the improved allocation of resources that have positioned the University of Pittsburgh to achieve not only diversity but also inclusion and to continue to address the health disparities in the Pittsburgh community. PMID:23886998

  18. Copula Correlation: An Equitable Dependence Measure and Extension of Pearson's Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, A. Adam; Li, Yi

    2013-01-01

    In Science, Reshef et al. (2011) proposed the concept of equitability for measures of dependence between two random variables. To this end, they proposed a novel measure, the maximal information coefficient (MIC). Recently a PNAS paper (Kinney and Atwal, 2014) gave a mathematical definition for equitability. They proved that MIC in fact is not equitable, while a fundamental information theoretic measure, the mutual information (MI), is self-equitable. In this paper, we show that MI also does ...

  19. Equitable Coloring of Graphs. Recent Theoretical Results and New Practical Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furmańczyk Hanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In many applications in sequencing and scheduling it is desirable to have an underlaying graph as equitably colored as possible. In this paper we survey recent theoretical results concerning conditions for equitable colorability of some graphs and recent theoretical results concerning the complexity of equitable coloring problem. Next, since the general coloring problem is strongly NP-hard, we report on practical experiments with some efficient polynomial-time algorithms for approximate equitable coloring of general graphs.

  20. Building A Health Care Data Warehouse for Cancer Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama E.Sheta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents architecture for health care data warehouse specific to cancer diseases which could be used by executive managers, doctors, physicians and other health professionals to support the healthcare process. The data today existing in multi sources with different formats makes it necessary to have some techniques for data integration. Executive managers need access to Information so that decision makers can react in real time to changing needs. Information is one of the most factors to an organization success that executive managers or physicians would need to base their decisions on, during decisionmaking. A health care data warehouse is therefore necessary to integrate the different data sources into a central data repository and analysis this data.

  1. 78 FR 8601 - AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company, et al; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... COMMISSION AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company, et al; Notice of Application January 31, 2013. AGENCY... the Act from Section 17(a) of the Act. Applicants: AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company (``AXA... Equitable Life Insurance Company, 1290 Avenue of Americas, New York, New York 10104; Patricia Louie,...

  2. 77 FR 47070 - Withdrawal of the Commission Policy Statement on Monetary Equitable Remedies in Competition Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ...'n, Policy Statement on Monetary Equitable Remedies in Competition Cases, 68 FR 45,820 (Aug. 4, 2003.... Trade Comm'n, Policy Statement on Monetary Equitable Remedies in Competition Cases, 68 FR 45,820 (Aug. 4... Withdrawal of the Commission Policy Statement on Monetary Equitable Remedies in Competition Cases...

  3. Building Sustainable Health and Education Partnerships: Stories from Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing health disparities have a negative impact on young people's educational achievement. Community schools that involve deep relationships with partners across multiple domains address these disparities by providing opportunities and services that promote healthy development of young people, and enable them to graduate from high…

  4. A cost effective wireless structural health monitoring network for buildings in earthquake zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, programming and implementation of a cost effective wireless structural health monitoring system (wSHMs) is presented, able to monitor the seismic and/or man-made acceleration in buildings. This system actually operates as a sensor network exploiting internet connections that commonly exist, aiming to monitor the structural health of the buildings being installed. Key-feature of wSHMs is that it can be implemented in Wide Area Network mode to cover many remote structures and buildings, on metropolitan scale. Acceleration data is able to send, in real time, from dozens of buildings of a broad metropolitan area, to a central database, where they are analyzed in order to depict possible structural damages or nonlinear characteristics and alert for non-appropriateness of specific structures. (paper)

  5. Carolinas HealthCare attends to patients, amenities; builds business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T

    2000-01-01

    Carolinas HealthCare System has grown into a nearly two billion dollar entity by focusing on patient needs and amenities in its health care facilities. Growth of the system, the largest in North and South Carolina, is due in large part to Harry A. Nurkin, president and CEO, who started out with a run-down hospital for indigents. With the approval of the hospital board, Nurkin launched a marketing effort that included taking a lesson from the founders of the Holiday Inn hotel chain. He remodeled and developed facilities that are pleasing to patients and visitors, moved patient parking closer to the hospitals' front doors, taught key hospital personnel the basics about marketing, aligned the system with ABA and NFL teams and conducted an aggressive advertising program. PMID:11143133

  6. Building the occupational health team: keys to successful interdisciplinary collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Joy E

    2005-04-01

    Teamwork among occupational health and safety professionals, management, and employees is vital to solving today's complex problems cost-effectively. No single discipline can meet all the needs of workers and the workplace. However, teamwork can be time-consuming and difficult if attention is not given to the role of the team leader, the necessary skills of team members, and the importance of a supportive environment. Bringing team members together regularly to foster positive relationships and infuse them with the philosophy of strength in diversity is essential for teams to be sustained and work to be accomplished. By working in tandem, occupational health and safety professionals can become the model team in business and industry delivering on their promise of a safe and healthy workplace for America's work force. PMID:15853292

  7. Organizational Leadership For Building Effective Health Care Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Taplin, Stephen H.; Foster, Mary K.; Shortell, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    The movement toward accountable care organizations and patient-centered medical homes will increase with implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA will therefore give further impetus to the growing importance of teams in health care. Teams typically involve 2 or more people embedded in a larger social system who differentiate their roles, share common goals, interact with each other, and perform tasks affecting others. Multiple team types fit within this definition, and they al...

  8. A realist synthesis of the effect of social accountability interventions on health service providers’ and policymakers’ responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Lodenstein, Elsbet; Dieleman, Marjolein; Gerretsen, Barend; Broerse, Jacqueline EW

    2013-01-01

    Background Accountability has center stage in the current post-Millennium Development Goals (MDG) debate. One of the effective strategies for building equitable health systems and providing quality health services is the strengthening of citizen-driven or social accountability processes. The monitoring of actions and decisions of policymakers and providers by citizens is regarded as a right in itself but also as an alternative to weak administrative accountability mechanisms, in particular in...

  9. Building Connections While Conducting Qualitative Health Fieldwork in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Boggiano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are increasingly embarking on international qualitative health research projects, where unknown social structures and government systems make inquiry uniquely challenging. In this article, we document our experiences conducting two related studies on HIV/AIDS in Northern Vietnam. We describe how our research relied on harnessing the social capital of vital community stakeholders, such as key informants, interpreters, and host organizations, to effectively engage with government bodies on a macro level and with local communities on a microlevel. By highlighting our processes, pitfalls, and successes, we provide current and future scholars with strategies to use when conducting cross-national field research.

  10. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air quality can conceivably be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. The health effects that could potentially arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, as well as irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. The results of this search are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 is a summary of the results of the literature search; Volume 2 is the complete results of the literature search and contains all references to the material reviewed. 16 tabs

  11. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can conceivably be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. The health effects that could potentially arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, as well as irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. The results of this search are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 is a summary of the results of the literature search; Volume 2 is the complete results of the literature search and contains all references to the material reviewed. 16 tabs.

  12. Organizational leadership for building effective health care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Stephen H; Foster, Mary K; Shortell, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    The movement toward accountable care organizations and patient-centered medical homes will increase with implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA will therefore give further impetus to the growing importance of teams in health care. Teams typically involve 2 or more people embedded in a larger social system who differentiate their roles, share common goals, interact with each other, and perform tasks affecting others. Multiple team types fit within this definition, and they all need support from leadership to succeed. Teams have been invoked as a necessary tool to address the needs of patients with multiple chronic conditions and to address medical workforce shortages. Invoking teams, however, is much easier than making them function effectively, so we need to consider the implications of the growing emphasis on teams. Although the ACA will spur team development, organizational leadership must use what we know now to train, support, and incentivize team function. Meanwhile, we must also advance research regarding teams in health care to give those leaders more evidence to guide their work.

  13. Organizational leadership for building effective health care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Stephen H; Foster, Mary K; Shortell, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    The movement toward accountable care organizations and patient-centered medical homes will increase with implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA will therefore give further impetus to the growing importance of teams in health care. Teams typically involve 2 or more people embedded in a larger social system who differentiate their roles, share common goals, interact with each other, and perform tasks affecting others. Multiple team types fit within this definition, and they all need support from leadership to succeed. Teams have been invoked as a necessary tool to address the needs of patients with multiple chronic conditions and to address medical workforce shortages. Invoking teams, however, is much easier than making them function effectively, so we need to consider the implications of the growing emphasis on teams. Although the ACA will spur team development, organizational leadership must use what we know now to train, support, and incentivize team function. Meanwhile, we must also advance research regarding teams in health care to give those leaders more evidence to guide their work. PMID:23690329

  14. Equitable commerce: the mediaeval origins of American anarchism

    OpenAIRE

    Rodion Belkovich

    2013-01-01

    Traditional ideas sometimes turn into revolutionary ones because of changing circumstances in which they continue to exist. Their revolutionary appearance, however, might be intentionally accentuated by the new followers of these ideas. Consequently, a legitimate and respectable tradition of thought becomes marginal and ridiculed. It is an aim of the history of political thought then to reveal the true origins of these ideas. This paper focuses on one such case, namely, the equitable commerce...

  15. IMPEDIMENTS TO WOMEN’S EQUITABLE EMPLOYMENT: GLOBAL SCENARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Faisal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The ambivalent record of progress on issues of gender equality is reflective of the impediments to women’s equitable employment. This paper presents facts on global gender inequality in general, while specifically focusing on gender discrimination in the labour market and formal organisations. The Gender Mainstreaming strategy is presented as a viable option to overcome the obstacles restricting women from attaining their productive potential.

  16. IMPEDIMENTS TO WOMEN’S EQUITABLE EMPLOYMENT: GLOBAL SCENARIO

    OpenAIRE

    Farida Faisal

    2011-01-01

    The ambivalent record of progress on issues of gender equality is reflective of the impediments to women’s equitable employment. This paper presents facts on global gender inequality in general, while specifically focusing on gender discrimination in the labour market and formal organisations. The Gender Mainstreaming strategy is presented as a viable option to overcome the obstacles restricting women from attaining their productive potential.

  17. Instruments for an equitable management of shared waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra M. Petrescu-Mag

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Concepts of Integrated Water Resources and River Basins Management are considered as key points to the question of how conflict can be avoided and international waters be managed. Over the last fifty years, countries have been engaged in more than 500 conflictive events over water. Almost 90% were disagreements over infrastructure and water quantity allocation. The Convention on the NonnavigationalUses of International Watercourses (1997 provides an important template for cooperation and equitable transboundary water-sharing.

  18. National public health law: a role for WHO in capacity-building and promoting transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Sultan, Géraldine; Tsai, Feng-Jen; Anderson, Evan; Kastler, Florian; Sprumont, Dominique; Burris, Scott

    2016-07-01

    A robust health infrastructure in every country is the most effective long-term preparedness strategy for global health emergencies. This includes not only health systems and their human resources, but also countries' legal infrastructure for health: the laws and policies that empower, obligate and sometimes limit government and private action. The law is also an important tool in health promotion and protection. Public health professionals play important roles in health law - from the development of policies, through their enforcement, to the scientific evaluation of the health impact of laws. Member States are already mandated to communicate their national health laws and regulations to the World Health Organization (WHO). In this paper we propose that WHO has the authority and credibility to support capacity-building in the area of health law within Member States, and to make national laws easier to access, understand, monitor and evaluate. We believe a strong case can be made to donors for the funding of a public health law centre or unit, that has adequate staffing, is robustly networked with its regional counterparts and is integrated into the main work of WHO. The mission of the unit or centre would be to define and integrate scientific and legal expertise in public health law, both technical and programmatic, across the work of WHO, and to conduct and facilitate global health policy surveillance.

  19. National public health law: a role for WHO in capacity-building and promoting transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Feng-jen; Anderson, Evan; Kastler, Florian; Sprumont,, Dominique; Burris, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A robust health infrastructure in every country is the most effective long-term preparedness strategy for global health emergencies. This includes not only health systems and their human resources, but also countries’ legal infrastructure for health: the laws and policies that empower, obligate and sometimes limit government and private action. The law is also an important tool in health promotion and protection. Public health professionals play important roles in health law – from the development of policies, through their enforcement, to the scientific evaluation of the health impact of laws. Member States are already mandated to communicate their national health laws and regulations to the World Health Organization (WHO). In this paper we propose that WHO has the authority and credibility to support capacity-building in the area of health law within Member States, and to make national laws easier to access, understand, monitor and evaluate. We believe a strong case can be made to donors for the funding of a public health law centre or unit, that has adequate staffing, is robustly networked with its regional counterparts and is integrated into the main work of WHO. The mission of the unit or centre would be to define and integrate scientific and legal expertise in public health law, both technical and programmatic, across the work of WHO, and to conduct and facilitate global health policy surveillance. PMID:27429492

  20. National public health law: a role for WHO in capacity-building and promoting transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Sultan, Géraldine; Tsai, Feng-Jen; Anderson, Evan; Kastler, Florian; Sprumont, Dominique; Burris, Scott

    2016-07-01

    A robust health infrastructure in every country is the most effective long-term preparedness strategy for global health emergencies. This includes not only health systems and their human resources, but also countries' legal infrastructure for health: the laws and policies that empower, obligate and sometimes limit government and private action. The law is also an important tool in health promotion and protection. Public health professionals play important roles in health law - from the development of policies, through their enforcement, to the scientific evaluation of the health impact of laws. Member States are already mandated to communicate their national health laws and regulations to the World Health Organization (WHO). In this paper we propose that WHO has the authority and credibility to support capacity-building in the area of health law within Member States, and to make national laws easier to access, understand, monitor and evaluate. We believe a strong case can be made to donors for the funding of a public health law centre or unit, that has adequate staffing, is robustly networked with its regional counterparts and is integrated into the main work of WHO. The mission of the unit or centre would be to define and integrate scientific and legal expertise in public health law, both technical and programmatic, across the work of WHO, and to conduct and facilitate global health policy surveillance. PMID:27429492

  1. Species richness, equitability, and abundance of ants in disturbed landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J.H.; Krzysik, A.J.; Kovacic, D.A.; Duda, J.J.; Freeman, D.C.; Emlen, J.M.; Zak, J.C.; Long, W.R.; Wallace, M.P.; Chamberlin-Graham, C.; Nutter, J.P.; Balbach, H.E.

    2009-01-01

    Ants are used as indicators of environmental change in disturbed landscapes, often without adequate understanding of their response to disturbance. Ant communities in the southeastern United States displayed a hump-backed species richness curve against an index of landscape disturbance. Forty sites at Fort Benning, in west-central Georgia, covered a spectrum of habitat disturbance (military training and fire) in upland forest. Sites disturbed by military training had fewer trees, less canopy cover, more bare ground, and warmer, more compact soils with shallower A-horizons. We sampled ground-dwelling ants with pitfall traps, and measured 15 habitat variables related to vegetation and soil. Ant species richness was greatest with a relative disturbance of 43%, but equitability was greatest with no disturbance. Ant abundance was greatest with a relative disturbance of 85%. High species richness at intermediate disturbance was associated with greater within-site spatial heterogeneity. Species richness was also associated with intermediate values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a correlate of net primary productivity (NPP). Available NPP (the product of NDVI and the fraction of days that soil temperature exceeded 25 ??C), however, was positively correlated with species richness, though not with ant abundance. Species richness was unrelated to soil texture, total ground cover, and fire frequency. Ant species richness and equitability are potential state indicators of the soil arthropod community. Moreover, equitability can be used to monitor ecosystem change. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Implementing change in health professions education: stakeholder analysis and coalition building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Karyn D; Resnik, Cheryl D; Wu, Jennifer J; Roey, Steven C

    2007-01-01

    The challenges facing the health sciences education fields are more evident than ever. Professional health sciences educators have more demands on their time, more knowledge to manage, and ever-dwindling sources of financial support. Change is often necessary to either keep programs viable or meet the changing needs of health education. This article outlines a simple but powerful three-step tool to help educators become successful agents of change. Through the application of principles well known and widely used in business management, readers will understand the concepts behind stakeholder analysis and coalition building. These concepts are part of a powerful tool kit that educators need in order to become effective agents of change in the health sciences environment. Using the example of curriculum change at a school of veterinary medicine, we will outline the three steps involved, from stakeholder identification and analysis to building and managing coalitions for change. PMID:17446631

  3. Dissemination of an Electronic Manual to Build Capacity for Implementing Farmers’ Markets with Community Health Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Guest, M. Aaron; Freedman, Darcy; Alia, Kassandra A.; Brandt, Heather M.; Friedman, Daniela B.

    2015-01-01

    Community-university partnerships can lend themselves to the development of tools that encourage and promote future community health development. The electronic manual, “Building Farmacies,” describes an approach for developing capacity and sustaining a community health center-based farmers’ market that emerged through a community-university partnership. Manual development was guided by the Knowledge to Action Framework and experiences developing a multi-vendor, produce-only farmers’ market a...

  4. Building cooperation through health initiatives: an Arab and Israeli case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skinner Harvey A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ongoing conflict in the Middle East poses a major threat to health and security. A project screening Arab and Israeli newborns for hearing loss provided an opportunity to evaluate ways for building cooperation. The aims of this study were to: a examine what attracted Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian participants to the project, b describe challenges they faced, and c draw lessons learned for guiding cross-border health initiatives. Methods A case study method was used involving 12 key informants stratified by country (3 Israeli, 3 Jordanian, 3 Palestinian, 3 Canadian. In-depth interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using an inductive qualitative approach to derive key themes. Results Major reasons for getting involved included: concern over an important health problem, curiosity about neighbors and opportunities for professional advancement. Participants were attracted to prospects for opening the dialogue, building relationships and facilitating cooperation in the region. The political situation was a major challenge that delayed implementation of the project and placed participants under social pressure. Among lessons learned, fostering personal relationships was viewed as critical for success of this initiative. Conclusion Arab and Israeli health professionals were prepared to get involved for two types of reasons: a Project Level: opportunity to address a significant health issue (e.g. congenital hearing loss while enhancing their professional careers, and b Meta Level: concern about taking positive steps for building cooperation in the region. We invite discussion about roles that health professionals can play in building "cooperation networks" for underpinning health security, conflict resolution and global health promotion.

  5. Addressing the "Global Health Tax" and "Wild Cards": Practical Challenges to Building Academic Careers in Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazuelos, Daniel; Dhillon, Ranu

    2016-01-01

    Among many possible benefits, global health efforts can expand the skills and experience of U.S. clinicians, improve health for communities in need, and generate innovations in care delivery with relevance everywhere. Yet, despite high rates of interest among students and medical trainees to include global health opportunities in their training, there is still no clear understanding of how this interest will translate into viable and sustained global health careers after graduation. Building on a growing conversation about how to support careers in academic global health, this Perspective describes the practical challenges faced by physicians pursuing these careers after they complete training. Writing from their perspective as junior faculty at one U.S. academic health center with a dedicated focus on global health training, the authors describe a number of practical issues they have found to be critical both for their own career development and for the advice they provide their mentees. With a particular emphasis on the financial, personal, professional, and logistical challenges that young "expat" global health physicians in academic institutions face, they underscore the importance of finding ways to support these career paths, and propose possible solutions. Such investments would not only respond to the rational and moral imperatives of global health work and advance the mission of improving human health but also help to fully leverage the potential of what is already an unprecedented movement within academic medicine. PMID:26244256

  6. Beyond Learning Management Systems: Designing for Interprofessional Knowledge Building in the Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, Leila; Scardamalia, Marlene; Watt-Watson, Judy; Hunter, Judith; Bereiter, Carl

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines theoretical, pedagogical, and technological differences between two technologies that have been used in undergraduate interprofessional health sciences at the University of Toronto. One, a learning management system, WebCT 2.0, supports online coursework. The other, a Knowledge Building environment, Knowledge Forum 2.0,…

  7. Partnerships for vaccine development: building capacity to strengthen developing country health and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Hanlin, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Product Development Public-Private Partnerships (PDPs) are mechanisms used to incentivise health innovation for neglected diseases. PDPs undertaking clinical trial research in developing countries work – collaborate – at the interface of innovation and healthcare activities. Within the literature around innovation systems collaborative activity is deemed to build important organisational processes creating stronger institutions and enabling environments by increasing knowledge ...

  8. Hazard identification checklist: Occupational safety and health issues associated with green building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Ustailieva, E.

    2013-01-01

    This checklist accompanies the e-fact on the same topic and aims to help identify the potential hazards to workers’ safety and health associated with the planning and construction of green buildings, their maintenance, renovation (retrofitting), demolition, and on-site waste collection. It also give

  9. The political undertones of building national health research systems – reflections from The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch Paul

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In developing countries building national health research systems is a movement similar to a political leadership contest. Increasingly, political campaigns to select leaders depend less on ideologies and political messages and more on promising change that will promptly improve the quality of life of the voters. In this process the benefits and risks of every action and statement made by the candidates are carefully assessed. Approaches currently promoted to strengthen health research within ministries of health in developing countries place emphasis on implementing logical steps towards building national health research systems including developing a national health research policy and strategic plan, conducting a situational analysis of research in the country, setting a national health research agenda, establishing research ethics and scientific committees, and building human and institutional capacity for health research management and conduct. Although these processes have successfully improved the standards of health research in some settings, many developing countries struggle to get the process going. One reason is that this approach does not deal with basic questions posed within a ministry of health, namely, "What is the political benefit of the ministry assuming control of the process?" and "What are the political implications for the ministry if another institution spearheads the process?" Seen from the perspective of non-governmental organizations, academic institutions and donors trying to support the processes of strengthening national health research systems, one of the foremost activities that needs to be undertaken is to analyze the political context of national health research and, on that basis, plan and implement appropriate political health research advocacy initiatives. This includes the development of explicit messages on the political benefits to the leadership in the ministry of health of their role in the

  10. The spectrum of needed e-Health capacity building--towards a conceptual framework for e-Health 'training'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Richard E; Mars, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    To ensure the benefits of e-Health are maximised, e-Health capacity building requires a formal and logical structure that describes broad areas that must be addressed. In this paper a Conceptual Framework for e-Health Training is derived that could guide well-thought-out and consistent development of future capacity building efforts. Consideration of e-health education needs is the mandate of the International Society for Telemedicine and eHealth (ISfTeH) Education Working Group. Through this Group a structured but generic 2 - 3 day telehealth training programme for healthcare professionals was developed and trialed, and the Group has been asked to develop a telehealth curriculum. Ongoing debate and feedback has made it clear that this is insufficient. In an effort to establish an Conceptual Framework for e-Health Training four aspects or levels of instruction are considered necessary at this time: 'education' of a small number of personnel leading to an academic graduate qualification (MSc, PhD); 'instruction' of a slightly larger number of personnel (e.g., to provide proficient network managers); 'teaching' of a still larger number of personnel in terms of the use of specific technologies, devices, and services; and 'awareness' of the general populace. Collectively this is referred to as e-health 'training'. If implemented in a coordinated and structured manner, such an approach would stimulate e-health growth and application globally. It would generate demand (awareness), allow that demand to be filled (teaching) and guided (instruction), with the focus on technologically appropriate and needs-based solutions (education). The Education Working Group intends to develop outlines of recommended instructional and informational content for training at each level. Here the four levels are highlighted and the terms, hierarchy, and descriptions of the Education Working Group's proposed approach to its Conceptual Framework for e-Health Training, are formalised.

  11. Mental health promotion in the health care setting: collaboration and engagement in the development of a mental health promotion capacity-building initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Michelle A; Rauscher, Alana B; Ardiles, Paola A; Griffin, Shannon L

    2014-01-01

    Health Compass is an innovative, multiphased project that aims to transform health care practice and shift organizational culture by building the capacity of Provincial Health Services Authority (PHSA) health care providers to further promote the mental health and well-being of patients and families accessing PHSA's health care services. Health Compass was developed within a health promotion framework, which involved collaboration and engagement with stakeholders across all partnering PHSA agencies. This approach led to the development of an educational and training resource that contributes to increased capacity for mental health promotion within the health care setting. Based on interviews with Health Compass' internal Project Team and findings from a Stakeholder Engagement Evaluation Report, this article outlines the participatory approach taken to develop the Health Compass Mental Health Promotion Resource and E-Learning Tool. A number of key facilitators for collaboration and engagement are discussed, which may be particularly applicable to the implementation of a mental health promotion program or initiative within a complex health care setting.

  12. [National health strategies in the world and its enlightenment to build healthy China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X M

    2016-08-01

    The national health strategy is a reflection of a country on overall value and development vision of national health, and conducting this strategy will enhance and promote national development and people's welfare. In the current situation of building Healthy China during the 13th Five-Year Plan, it is important to learn experiences in this area from developed countries. This article mainly presents detailed introduction of the formulation, the implementation and the characteristics of National Health Strategies from the United States, United Kingdom and Japan, and also presents suggestions for the construction of Healthy China. PMID:27539518

  13. Building blocks for reform: achieving universal coverage with private and public group health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Cathy; Davis, Karen; Collins, Sara R

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for universal health insurance that builds on the current U.S. mixed private-public system by expanding group coverage through private markets and publicly sponsored insurance. This Building Blocks approach includes a new national insurance "connector" that offers small businesses and individuals a structured choice of a Medicare-like public option and private plans. Other features include an individual mandate, required employer contributions, Medicaid/State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) expansion, and tax credits to assure affordability. The paper estimates coverage and costs, and assesses the approach. Our findings indicate that the framework could reach near-universal coverage with little net increase in national health spending. PMID:18474952

  14. Building Interdisciplinary Research Capacity: a Key Challenge for Ecological Approaches in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay P. Galway

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The shortcomings of public health research informed by reductionist and fragmented biomedical approaches and the emergence of wicked problems are fueling a renewed interest in ecological approaches in public health. Despite the central role of interdisciplinarity in the context of ecological approaches in public health research, inadequate attention has been given to the specific challenge of doing interdisciplinary research in practice. As a result, important knowledge gaps exist with regards to the practice of interdisciplinary research. We argue that explicit attention towards the challenge of doing interdisciplinary research is critical in order to effectively apply ecological approaches to public health issues. This paper draws on our experiences developing and conducting an interdisciplinary research project exploring the links among climate change, water, and health to highlight five specific insights which we see as relevant to building capacity for interdisciplinary research specifically, and which have particular relevance to addressing the integrative challenges demanded by ecological approaches to address public health issues. These lessons include: (i the need for frameworks that facilitate integration; (ii emphasize learning-by-doing; (iii the benefits of examining issues at multiple scales; (iv make the implicit, explicit; and (v the need for reflective practice. By synthesizing and sharing experiences gained by engaging in interdisciplinary inquiries using an ecological approach, this paper responds to a growing need to build interdisciplinary research capacity as a means for advancing the ecological public health agenda more broadly.

  15. Revitalising primary healthcare requires an equitable global economic system - now more than ever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David; Baum, Fran E; Benos, Alexis; Legge, David

    2011-08-01

    The promised revitalisation of primary healthcare (PHC) is happening at a time when the contradictions and unfairness of the global economic system have become clear, suggesting that the current system is unsustainable. In the past two decades, one of the most significant impediments to the implementation of comprehensive PHC has been neoliberal economic policies and their imposition globally. This article questions what will be required for PHC to flourish. PHC incorporates five key principles: equitable provision of services, comprehensive care, intersectoral action, community involvement and appropriate technology. This article considers intersectoral action and comprehensiveness and their potential to be implemented in the current global environment. It highlights the constraints to intersectoral action through a case study of nutrition in the context of globalisation of the food chain. It also explores the challenges to implementing a comprehensive approach to health that are posed by neoliberal health sector reforms and donor practices. The paper concludes that even well-designed health systems based on PHC have little influence over the broader economic forces that shape their operation and their ability to improve health. Reforming these economic forces will require greater regulation of the national and global economic environment to emphasise people's health rather than private profit, and action to address climate change. Revitalisation of PHC and progress towards health equity are unlikely without strong regulation of the market. The further development and strengthening of social movements for health will be key to successful advocacy action. PMID:19955097

  16. Does Integrating Family Planning into HIV Services Improve Gender Equitable Attitudes? Results from a Cluster Randomized Trial in Nyanza, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmann, Sara J; Rocca, Corinne H; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Grossman, Daniel; Cohen, Craig R

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated whether integrating family planning (FP) services into HIV care was associated with gender equitable attitudes among HIV-positive adults in western Kenya. Surveys were conducted with 480 women and 480 men obtaining HIV services from 18 clinics 1 year after the sites were randomized to integrated FP/HIV services (N = 12) or standard referral for FP (N = 6). We used multivariable regression, with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering, to assess whether gender attitudes (range 0-12) were associated with integrated care and with contraceptive use. Men at intervention sites had stronger gender equitable attitudes than those at control sites (adjusted mean difference in scores = 0.89, 95 % CI 0.03-1.74). Among women, attitudes did not differ by study arm. Gender equitable attitudes were not associated with contraceptive use among men (AOR = 1.06, 95 % CI 0.93-1.21) or women (AOR = 1.03, 95 % CI 0.94-1.13). Further work is needed to understand how integrating FP into HIV care affects gender relations, and how improved gender equity among men might be leveraged to improve contraceptive use and other reproductive health outcomes. PMID:26837632

  17. Viewing equitable practices through the lens of intersecting identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Renée; Dsouza, Nikeetha; Quigley, Cassie

    2016-04-01

    This review explores Archer, Dawson, Seakins, and Wong's "Disorienting, fun or meaningful? Disadvantaged families' experiences of a science museum visit" by examining the analytic frameworks guiding this study. To expand on Archer et al.'s use of feminist post-structuralist theories of identity we draw from the theory of intersectionality to provide a more robust framework for analyzing barriers to engagement within an informal learning space. Our response to this work ends by exploring the types of solutions generated from an intersectionality framework—solutions aimed at transforming institutional programs and practices to create more equitable spaces for learning.

  18. Equitable benefit-sharing or self-interest?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiderska, Krystyna

    2010-09-15

    A legally binding protocol on access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing is to be adopted by the 193 governments that are party to the Convention on Biological Diversity in October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan. The protocol aims to ensure that the benefits derived from the use of genetic resources are shared fairly and equitably with biodiversity-rich but financially poor countries. This could help reverse the rapid loss of biodiversity and genetic resources. But unless governments make some major progress in their final negotiating session, the protocol will make little difference.

  19. Equitable Strong Edge Coloring of the Joins of Paths and Cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao WANG; Ming Ju LIU; De Ming LI

    2012-01-01

    For a proper edge coloring c of a graph G,if the sets of colors of adjacent vertices are distinct,the edge coloring c is called an adjacent strong edge coloring of G.Let ci be the number of edges colored by i.If |ci - cj| ≤ 1 for any two colors i and j,then c is an equitable edge coloring of G.The coloring c is an equitable adjacent strong edge coloring of G if it is both adjacent strong edge coloring and equitable edge coloring.The least number of colors of such a coloring c is called the equitable adjacent strong chromatic index of G.In this paper,we determine the equitable adjacent strong chromatic index of the joins of paths and cycles.Precisely,we show that the equitable adjacent strong chromatic index of the joins of paths and cycles is equal to the maximum degree plus one or two.

  20. Are we ready to build health systems that consider the climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Susannah; Van Belle, Sara; Hammer, Michael

    2014-04-01

    At last, climate change does appear to have entered mainstream consciousness. In the scientific community, the climate change debate has shifted from focusing on establishing the truth of the claim that climate change is a reality to warming public opinion to the cause and acknowledging that climate change will have far-reaching effects on how we build, organize and manage climate-responsive social systems including health care systems. There is particular urgency to the debate for health services and systems in low income countries where some of the worst effects of climate change will be felt and where health systems are already over-stretched due to long-term lack of investment, a double burden of disease (preventive and non-communicable), a crisis in human resources and governance deficiencies. Despite the urgency, the health care systems development community appears insular in its interests and actions, and a clear leader that could coordinate the activities of different researchers, research bodies, policy makers and international organizations across relevant sectors including disaster management, climate and health care systems, has yet to emerge. This essay considers the political landscape, possible leaders and why it is necessary for health systems' professionals to move beyond the health sector in order to secure support for health and health care systems development in a post-Millennium Development Goals development framework that is defined by climate change. PMID:24366158

  1. The modern forms of organization of recreational health-building work with a population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondar A.S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The modern forms of organization are studied recreational health-building employments. Organization of employments in the clubs of fitness, visit of complex sporting buildings is presented. The analysis of publications in which authors examine the features of development of industry of fitness in market conditions is resulted. A questionnaire in which 1500 habitants of city took part in age 18-75 years is conducted. It is set that among polled most popular are clubs of fitness of middle level, where the cost of subscription is made by 20-50 dollars of the USA on a month. It is set that clubs of fitness visit mainly people of middle ages with the purpose of the complex making healthy, maintainance of beautiful physical form and attractive exterior. It is marked that to date clubs of fitness must be oriented mainly on health direction and to satisfy the psychological and social necessities of clients.

  2. Are Biophilic-Designed Site Office Buildings Linked to Health Benefits and High Performing Occupants?

    OpenAIRE

    Tonia Gray; Carol Birrell

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from int...

  3. Structural Health Monitoring of a Tall Building during Construction with Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, D. S.; Ren, L.; Li, H. N.; Song, G. B.

    2012-01-01

    Fiber Bragg grating sensors demonstrate a great potential as a structural health monitoring tool for civil structures to ensure structural integrity, durability, and reliability. The advantages of applying fiber optic sensors to a tall building include their immunity to electromagnetic interference and their multiplexing ability to transfer optical signals over a long distance. In the work, fiber Bragg grating sensors, consisting of strain and temperature sensors, are applied to structural mo...

  4. Helping Hands in Haiti: Examining the Sustainable Strategies of Partners In Health and Build Change

    OpenAIRE

    Neiman, Andrew Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Much has been written on the negative aspects of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Haiti and elsewhere as organizations have been criticized for squandering donor funds, back room decision making and operations, and for creating a cycle of dependence between developing and developed countries. On the other hand, many NGOs have done good work in their respective nations. This paper examines the projects of two NGOs working in Haiti: Build Change and Partners In Health. Drawing on observ...

  5. Integrating Building Information Modeling and Health and Safety for Onsite Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Ganah, Abdulkadir; John, Godfaurd A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Health and safety (H&S) on a construction site can either make or break a contractor, if not properly managed. The usage of Building Information Modeling (BIM) for H&S on construction execution has the potential to augment practitioner understanding of their sites, and by so doing reduce the probability of accidents. This research explores BIM usage within the construction industry in relation to H&S communication. Methods In addition to an extensive literature review, a questionna...

  6. Hazard identification checklist: Occupational safety and health issues associated with green building

    OpenAIRE

    Terwoert, J.; Ustailieva, E.

    2013-01-01

    This checklist accompanies the e-fact on the same topic and aims to help identify the potential hazards to workers’ safety and health associated with the planning and construction of green buildings, their maintenance, renovation (retrofitting), demolition, and on-site waste collection. It also gives examples of preventive measures to address these hazards. Some of these OSH hazards are new compared with traditional construction sites and are associated with new green materials, technologies ...

  7. Occupational health and safety: Designing and building with MACBETH a value risk-matrix for evaluating health and safety risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D. F.; Oliveira, M. D.; Costa, C. A. Bana e.

    2015-05-01

    Risk matrices (RMs) are commonly used to evaluate health and safety risks. Nonetheless, they violate some theoretical principles that compromise their feasibility and use. This study describes how multiple criteria decision analysis methods have been used to improve the design and the deployment of RMs to evaluate health and safety risks at the Occupational Health and Safety Unit (OHSU) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. ‘Value risk-matrices’ (VRMs) are built with the MACBETH approach in four modelling steps: a) structuring risk impacts, involving the construction of descriptors of impact that link risk events with health impacts and are informed by scientific evidence; b) generating a value measurement scale of risk impacts, by applying the MACBETH-Choquet procedure; c) building a system for eliciting subjective probabilities that makes use of a numerical probability scale that was constructed with MACBETH qualitative judgments on likelihood; d) and defining a classification colouring scheme for the VRM. A VRM built with OHSU members was implemented in a decision support system which will be used by OHSU members to evaluate health and safety risks and to identify risk mitigation actions.

  8. Building Economic Security Today: making the health-wealth connection in Contra Costa county's maternal and child health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Padmini; Dailey, Dawn E; Young, Maria-Elena D; Lam, Carrie; Pies, Cheri

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, maternal and child health professionals have been seeking approaches to integrating the Life Course Perspective and social determinants of health into their work. In this article, we describe how community input, staff feedback, and evidence from the field that the connection between wealth and health should be addressed compelled the Contra Costa Family, Maternal and Child Health (FMCH) Programs Life Course Initiative to launch Building Economic Security Today (BEST). BEST utilizes innovative strategies to reduce inequities in health outcomes for low-income Contra Costa families by improving their financial security and stability. FMCH Programs' Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC) conducted BEST financial education classes, and its Medically Vulnerable Infant Program (MVIP) instituted BEST financial assessments during public health nurse home visits. Educational and referral resources were also developed and distributed to all clients. The classes at WIC increased clients' awareness of financial issues and confidence that they could improve their financial situations. WIC clients and staff also gained knowledge about financial resources in the community. MVIP's financial assessments offered clients a new and needed perspective on their financial situations, as well as support around the financial and psychological stresses of caring for a child with special health care needs. BEST offered FMCH Programs staff opportunities to engage in non-traditional, cross-sector partnerships, and gain new knowledge and skills to address a pressing social determinant of health. We learned the value of flexible timelines, maintaining a long view for creating change, and challenging the traditional paradigm of maternal and child health.

  9. Continuing Education Effects on Cultural Competence Knowledge and Skills Building among Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla B. Hall

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Racial and ethnic minority health data from a national perspective indicates there is much to learn in the public health workforce about the ongoing health disparities crisis. This suggests a level of urgency to assist our public health professionals in obtaining specific skills sets that will assist them in working better with vulnerable populations. The purpose of this research is to assess cultural competence knowledge and programmatic skill sets, utilizing an explorational case study, of individuals employed within an urban public health department. In order to effectively evaluate these constructs, a quantitative research approach was employed to examine participants’ knowledge and competencies of the subject matter. This data was further analyzed to determine if continuing education participation and training was correlated to the levels of culturally competent practice engagement and self-reported confidence. In addition, researchers obtained data on the availability of employer sponsored training opportunities. The data suggested when health professionals engage in cultural competence education, their level of awareness of unique characteristics between ethnic and racial minorities increased. Those who exhibited the healthiest behaviors, as it relates to effectively working with diverse populations, had a heightened sense of knowledge related to culture and healthcare services. Continuing education in cultural competence is an essential strategy for improving public health employees’ effectiveness in working with diverse clients and reducing racial and ethnic health disparities. As the finding illustrated, training programs must incorporate educational components which foster skill building to enable subsequent culturally appropriate clinical interactions.

  10. Building interdisciplinary leadership skills among health practitioners in the 21st century: an innovative training model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti eNegandhi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transformational learning is the focus of 21st century global educational reforms. In India there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners, and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing and public health institutions partnered in this endeavour. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in inter-professional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were: self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team-building, innovation and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised of a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning.

  11. Evaluation of capacity building programme of district health managers in India: a contextualised theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S ePrashanth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Performance of local health services managers at district level is crucial to ensure that health services are of good quality and cater to the health needs of the population in the area. In many Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC, health services managers are poorly equipped with public health management capacities needed for planning and managing their local health system. In the South Indian Tumkur district, a consortium of five non-governmental organisations partnered with the state government to organise a capacity-building program for health managers. The program consisted of a mix of periodic contact classes, mentoring and assignments and was spread over 30 months. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework in the form of a refined program theory to understand how such a capacity-building program could bring about organisational change. A well-formulated program theory enables an understanding of how interventions could bring about improvements and an evaluation of the intervention. In the refined program theory of the intervention, we identified various factors at ¬individual, institutional and environmental levels that could interact with the hypothesised mechanisms of organisational change, such as staff’s perceived self-efficacy and commitment to their organisations. Based on this program theory, we formulated context-mechanism-outcome configurations that can be used to evaluate the intervention and, more specifically, to understand what worked, for whom and under what conditions. We discuss the application of program theory development in conducting a realist evaluation. Realist evaluation embraces principles of systems thinking by providing a method for understanding how elements of the system interact with one another in producing a given outcome.

  12. How equitation science can elucidate and refine horsemanship techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Deborah; McGreevy, Paul; Waran, Natalie; McLean, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    the desired response. Learning theory and equine ethology, the fundamentals of the emerging discipline of equitation science, can be used to explain almost all the behaviour modification that goes on in these contexts and in conventional horsemanship. By measuring and evaluating what works and what does not, equitation science has the potential to have a unifying effect on traditional practices and developing branches of equitation. PMID:19394880

  13. How equitation science can elucidate and refine horsemanship techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Deborah; McGreevy, Paul; Waran, Natalie; McLean, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    the desired response. Learning theory and equine ethology, the fundamentals of the emerging discipline of equitation science, can be used to explain almost all the behaviour modification that goes on in these contexts and in conventional horsemanship. By measuring and evaluating what works and what does not, equitation science has the potential to have a unifying effect on traditional practices and developing branches of equitation.

  14. [From health promoting school perspectives to discuss the building of school-community partnership].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chun; Huang, Song-Yuan; Wu, Fei-Lin

    2005-06-01

    In the wake of the WHO's health promotion campaign health promotion schools have gained currency in Europe and the United States. The Department of Education in Taiwan has proposed a "school health promotion program" and the Department of Health a "program to build healthy schools" The goal of these programs was to create a holistic environment for school health and put the concepts of "school-family-community partnership" into practice. Although difficulties, such as school-centered perspectives, ambiguous definitions of "community" and shortage of funding, human resources and long-term planning impeded the program, this article, based on literature and practical experience, presents the "school-community model" and the strategies that it applied to organize the school-community health promotion committee to plan long-term programs and to assess the needs and resources of schools and communities on a collaborative basis. It contends, furthermore, that integrating community services into curriculums in order to enable students to appreciate the meaning of partnership, and involving the community in the planning process, can achieve the goal of effectively promoting the health of both the school and the community. PMID:15986306

  15. Dissemination of an Electronic Manual to Build Capacity for Implementing Farmers' Markets with Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, M Aaron; Freedman, Darcy; Alia, Kassandra A; Brandt, Heather M; Friedman, Daniela B

    2015-10-01

    Community-university partnerships can lend themselves to the development of tools that encourage and promote future community health development. The electronic manual, "Building Farmacies," describes an approach for developing capacity and sustaining a community health center-based farmers' market that emerged through a community-university partnership. Manual development was guided by the Knowledge to Action Framework and experiences developing a multivendor, produce-only farmers' market at a community health center in rural South Carolina. The manual was created to illustrate an innovative solution for community health development. The manual was disseminated electronically through 25 listservs and interested individuals voluntarily completed a Web-based survey to access the free manual. During the 6-month dissemination period, 271 individuals downloaded the manual. Findings highlighted the value of translating community-based participatory research into user-friendly manuals to guide future intervention development and dissemination approaches, and demonstrate the need to include capacity building opportunities to support translation and adoption of interventions.

  16. 20 CFR 219.40 - Evidence of relationship by equitable adoption-child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of relationship by equitable adoption-child. 219.40 Section 219.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... relationship by equitable adoption—child. (a) Preferred evidence. If the claimant is a person who claims to...

  17. Building community disaster resilience: perspectives from a large urban county department of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plough, Alonzo; Fielding, Jonathan E; Chandra, Anita; Williams, Malcolm; Eisenman, David; Wells, Kenneth B; Law, Grace Y; Fogleman, Stella; Magaña, Aizita

    2013-07-01

    An emerging approach to public health emergency preparedness and response, community resilience encompasses individual preparedness as well as establishing a supportive social context in communities to withstand and recover from disasters. We examine why building community resilience has become a key component of national policy across multiple federal agencies and discuss the core principles embodied in community resilience theory-specifically, the focus on incorporating equity and social justice considerations in preparedness planning and response. We also examine the challenges of integrating community resilience with traditional public health practices and the importance of developing metrics for evaluation and strategic planning purposes. Using the example of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project, we discuss our experience and perspective from a large urban county to better understand how to implement a community resilience framework in public health practice. PMID:23678937

  18. School Mental Health: The Impact of State and Local Capacity-Building Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a growing number of collaborative partnerships between schools and community-based organizations to expand school mental health (SMH service capacity in the United States, there have been relatively few systematic initiatives focused on key strategies for large-scale SMH capacity building with state and local education systems. Based on a framework of ten critical factors for capacity building, as well as existing best practices, two case studies were utilized to develop a replicable capacity-building model to advance interagency SMH development. Seventy education and mental health stakeholders from two selected states participated in baseline assessments of skill com-petency and critical factor implementation followed by two-day trainings (one in each state; 29 (41% of the participants also completed a six month follow-up assessment. Targeted competencies increased significantly for participants from both states, with large effect sizes (d = 2.05 and 2.56, from pre- to post-training. Participant reports of critical factor implementation increased significantly for one of the two states (t[15] = -6.40, p < .001, d = 1.77. Results inform specific training recommendations for stakeholders and collaborative teams, as well as policy implications to support future development of SMH service capacity.

  19. Building Comprehensive and Sustainable Health Informatics Institutions in Developing Countries: Moi University Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Were, Martin C; Siika, Abraham; Ayuo, Paul O; Atwoli, Lukoye; Esamai, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Current approaches for capacity building in Health Informatics (HI) in developing countries mostly focus on training, and often rely on support from foreign entities. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive and multidimensional capacity-building framework by Lansang & Dennis, and its application for HI capacity building as implemented in a higher-education institution in Kenya. This framework incorporates training, learning-by-doing, partnerships, and centers of excellence. At Moi University (Kenya), the training dimensions include an accredited Masters in HI Program, PhD in HI, and HI short courses. Learning-by-doing occurs through work within MOH facilities at the AMPATH care and treatment program serving 3 million people. Moi University has formed strategic HI partnerships with Regenstrief Institute, Inc. (USA), University of Bergen (Norway), and Makerere University (Uganda), among others. The University has also created an Institute of Biomedical Informatics to serve as an HI Center of Excellence in the region. This Institute has divisions in Training, Research, Service and Administration. The HI capacity-building approach by Moi provides a model for adoption by other institutions in resource-limited settings.

  20. Effect of renovating an office building on occupants' comfort and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejtersen, J; Brohus, H; Hyldgaard, C E; Nielsen, J B; Valbjørn, O; Hauschildt, P; Kjaergaard, S K; Wolkoff, P

    2001-03-01

    An intervention study was performed in a mechanically ventilated office building in which there were severe indoor climate complaints among the occupants. In one part of the building a new heating and ventilation strategy was implemented by renovating the HVAC system, and a carpet was replaced with a low-emitting vinyl floor material; the other part of the building was kept unchanged, serving as a control. A comprehensive indoor climate investigation was performed before and after the intervention. Over a 2-week period, the occupants completed a daily questionnaire regarding their comfort and health. Physiological examinations of eyes, nose and lungs were performed on each occupant. Physical, chemical and sensory measurements were performed before and after the intervention. The renewal of the flooring material was performed after a sensory test of alternative solutions in the laboratory. Before the floor material was installed in the office building, a full-scale exposure experiment was performed in the laboratory. The new ventilation strategy and renovation of the HVAC system were selected on the basis of laboratory experiments on a full-scale mock-up of a cellular office. The severity of occupants' environmental perceptions and symptoms was significantly reduced by the intervention. PMID:11235227

  1. Building Learning Health Systems to Accelerate Research and Improve Outcomes of Clinical Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Mike; Irimu, Grace; Agweyu, Ambrose; Gathara, David; Oliwa, Jacquie; Ayieko, Philip; Were, Fred; Paton, Chris; Tunis, Sean; Forrest, Christopher B

    2016-04-01

    Mike English and colleagues argue that as efforts are made towards achieving universal health coverage it is also important to build capacity to develop regionally relevant evidence to improve healthcare. PMID:27070913

  2. Building healthy communities: establishing health and wellness metrics for use within the real estate industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Matthew J; Pickell, Sarah Gauche; Pyke, Christopher R; Jutte, Douglas P

    2014-11-01

    It is increasingly well recognized that the design and operation of the communities in which people live, work, learn, and play significantly influence their health. However, within the real estate industry, the health impacts of transportation, community development, and other construction projects, both positive and negative, continue to operate largely as economic externalities: unmeasured, unregulated, and for the most part unconsidered. This lack of transparency limits communities' ability to efficiently advocate for real estate investment that best promotes their health and well-being. It also limits market incentives for innovation within the real estate industry by making it more difficult for developers that successfully target health behaviors and outcomes in their projects to differentiate themselves competitively. In this article we outline the need for actionable, community-relevant, practical, and valuable metrics jointly developed by the health care and real estate sectors to better evaluate and optimize the "performance" of real estate development projects from a population health perspective. Potential templates for implementation, including the successful introduction of sustainability metrics by the green building movement, and preliminary data from selected case-study projects are also discussed.

  3. Building healthy communities: establishing health and wellness metrics for use within the real estate industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Matthew J; Pickell, Sarah Gauche; Pyke, Christopher R; Jutte, Douglas P

    2014-11-01

    It is increasingly well recognized that the design and operation of the communities in which people live, work, learn, and play significantly influence their health. However, within the real estate industry, the health impacts of transportation, community development, and other construction projects, both positive and negative, continue to operate largely as economic externalities: unmeasured, unregulated, and for the most part unconsidered. This lack of transparency limits communities' ability to efficiently advocate for real estate investment that best promotes their health and well-being. It also limits market incentives for innovation within the real estate industry by making it more difficult for developers that successfully target health behaviors and outcomes in their projects to differentiate themselves competitively. In this article we outline the need for actionable, community-relevant, practical, and valuable metrics jointly developed by the health care and real estate sectors to better evaluate and optimize the "performance" of real estate development projects from a population health perspective. Potential templates for implementation, including the successful introduction of sustainability metrics by the green building movement, and preliminary data from selected case-study projects are also discussed. PMID:25367986

  4. Building capacity for evidence informed decision making in public health: a case study of organizational change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peirson Leslea

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Core competencies for public health in Canada require proficiency in evidence informed decision making (EIDM. However, decision makers often lack access to information, many workers lack knowledge and skills to conduct systematic literature reviews, and public health settings typically lack infrastructure to support EIDM activities. This research was conducted to explore and describe critical factors and dynamics in the early implementation of one public health unit's strategic initiative to develop capacity to make EIDM standard practice. Methods This qualitative case study was conducted in one public health unit in Ontario, Canada between 2008 and 2010. In-depth information was gathered from two sets of semi-structured interviews and focus groups (n = 27 with 70 members of the health unit, and through a review of 137 documents. Thematic analysis was used to code the key informant and document data. Results The critical factors and dynamics for building EIDM capacity at an organizational level included: clear vision and strong leadership, workforce and skills development, ability to access research (library services, fiscal investments, acquisition and development of technological resources, a knowledge management strategy, effective communication, a receptive organizational culture, and a focus on change management. Conclusion With leadership, planning, commitment and substantial investments, a public health department has made significant progress, within the first two years of a 10-year initiative, towards achieving its goal of becoming an evidence informed decision making organization.

  5. Structural Health Monitoring of Tall Buildings with Numerical Integrator and Convex-Concave Hull Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Thenozhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An important objective of health monitoring systems for tall buildings is to diagnose the state of the building and to evaluate its possible damage. In this paper, we use our prototype to evaluate our data-mining approach for the fault monitoring. The offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques are combined effectively to solve common problems in numerical integration of acceleration signals in real-time applications. The integration accuracy is improved compared with other numerical integrators. Then we introduce a novel method for support vector machine (SVM classification, called convex-concave hull. We use the Jarvis march method to decide the concave (nonconvex hull for the inseparable points. Finally the vertices of the convex-concave hull are applied for SVM training.

  6. Building Capacity to Use Earth Observations in Decision Making for Climate, Health, Agriculture and Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A. W.; Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    In order to fill the gaps existing in climate and public health, agriculture, natural disasters knowledge and practices, the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) has developed a Curriculum for Best Practices in Climate Information. This Curriculum builds on the experience of 10 years courses on 'Climate Information' and captures lessons and experiences from different tailored trainings that have been implemented in many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this presentation, we will provide examples of training activities we have developed to bring remote sensing products to monitor climatic and environmental information into decision processes that benefited users such as the World Health Organization, Ministries of Health, Ministries of Agriculture, Universities, Research Centers such as CIFOR and FIOCRUZ. The framework developed by IRI to provide capacity building is based on the IDEAS framework: Innovation (research) Around climate impacts, evaluation of interventions, and the value of climate information in reducing risks and maximizing opportunities Demonstration E.g. in-country GFCS projects in Tanzania and Malawi - or El Nino work in Ethiopia Education Academic and professional training efforts Advocacy This might focus on communication of variability and change? We are WHO collaborating center so are engaged through RBM/Global Malaria Programme Service ENACTS and Data library key to this. Country data better quality than NASA as incorporates all relevant station data and NASA products. This presentation will demonstrate how the IDEAS framework has been implemented and lessons learned.

  7. Economic, Environmental and Health Implications of Enhanced Ventilation in Office Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Pegues, James; Satish, Usha; Santanam, Suresh; Spengler, John; Allen, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Current building ventilation standards are based on acceptable minimums. Three decades of research demonstrates the human health benefits of increased ventilation above these minimums. Recent research also shows the benefits on human decision-making performance in office workers, which translates to increased productivity. However, adoption of enhanced ventilation strategies is lagging. We sought to evaluate two of the perceived potential barriers to more widespread adoption—Economic and environmental costs. Methods: We estimated the energy consumption and associated per building occupant costs for office buildings in seven U.S. cities, representing different climate zones for three ventilation scenarios (standard practice (20 cfm/person), 30% enhanced ventilation, and 40 cfm/person) and four different heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system strategies (Variable Air Volume (VAV) with reheat and a Fan Coil Unit (FCU), both with and without an energy recovery ventilator). We also estimated emissions of greenhouse gases associated with this increased energy usage, and, for comparison, converted this to the equivalent number of vehicles using greenhouse gas equivalencies. Lastly, we paired results from our previous research on cognitive function and ventilation with labor statistics to estimate the economic benefit of increased productivity associated with increasing ventilation rates. Results: Doubling the ventilation rate from the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers minimum cost less than $40 per person per year in all climate zones investigated. Using an energy recovery ventilation system significantly reduced energy costs, and in some scenarios led to a net savings. At the highest ventilation rate, adding an ERV essentially neutralized the environmental impact of enhanced ventilation (0.03 additional cars on the road per building across all cities). The same change in ventilation improved the

  8. Economic, Environmental and Health Implications of Enhanced Ventilation in Office Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers MacNaughton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Current building ventilation standards are based on acceptable minimums. Three decades of research demonstrates the human health benefits of increased ventilation above these minimums. Recent research also shows the benefits on human decision-making performance in office workers, which translates to increased productivity. However, adoption of enhanced ventilation strategies is lagging. We sought to evaluate two of the perceived potential barriers to more widespread adoption—Economic and environmental costs. Methods: We estimated the energy consumption and associated per building occupant costs for office buildings in seven U.S. cities, representing different climate zones for three ventilation scenarios (standard practice (20 cfm/person, 30% enhanced ventilation, and 40 cfm/person and four different heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC system strategies (Variable Air Volume (VAV with reheat and a Fan Coil Unit (FCU, both with and without an energy recovery ventilator. We also estimated emissions of greenhouse gases associated with this increased energy usage, and, for comparison, converted this to the equivalent number of vehicles using greenhouse gas equivalencies. Lastly, we paired results from our previous research on cognitive function and ventilation with labor statistics to estimate the economic benefit of increased productivity associated with increasing ventilation rates. Results: Doubling the ventilation rate from the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers minimum cost less than $40 per person per year in all climate zones investigated. Using an energy recovery ventilation system significantly reduced energy costs, and in some scenarios led to a net savings. At the highest ventilation rate, adding an ERV essentially neutralized the environmental impact of enhanced ventilation (0.03 additional cars on the road per building across all cities. The same change in ventilation

  9. Strengthening health promotion in hospitals with capacity building: a Taiwanese case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chiachi Bonnie; Chen, Michael S; Chien, Sou-Hsin; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Wang, Ying Wei; Chu, Cordia Ming-Yeuk

    2015-09-01

    Organizational capacity building for health promotion (HP) is beneficial to the effective implementation of HP in organizational settings. The World Health Organization (WHO) Health Promoting Hospitals' (HPHs) initiative encourages hospitals to promote the health of their stakeholders by developing organizational capacity. This study analyzes an application case of one hospital of the HPH initiative in Taiwan, characterizes actions aiming at building organizational support to strengthen health gains and identifies facilitators of and barriers to the implementation of the HP in this hospital. Case study methodology was used with a triangulation of various sources; thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative information. This study found a positive impact of the HPH initiative on the case hospital, such as more support from leadership, a fine-tuned HP mission and strategy, cultivated pro-HP habits of physical activities, a supportive intramural structure, an HP-inclusive system, improved management practices and enhanced staff participation. Transformational and transactional enablers are of equal importance in implementing HPH. However, it was also found that the case hospital encountered more transactional barriers than transformational ones. This hospital was hindered by insufficient support from external environments, leadership with limited autonomy and authority, a preference for ideals over professionalism, insufficient participation by physicians, a lack of manpower and time, a merit system with limited stimulating effect, ineffective management practices in weak central project management, a lack of integration, insufficient communication and an inability to inculcate the staff on the importance of HP, and inadequate staff participation. Several implications for other hospitals are suggested. PMID:24449706

  10. An interactive integrative approach to translating knowledge and building a "learning organization" in health services management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunharas, Somsak

    2006-08-01

    This paper proposes a basic approach to ensuring that knowledge from research studies is translated for use in health services management with a view towards building a "learning organization". (A learning organization is one in which the environment is structured in such a way as to facilitate learning as well as the sharing of knowledge among members or employees.) This paper highlights various dimensions that determine the complexity of knowledge translation, using the problem-solving cycle as the backbone for gaining a better understanding of how different types of knowledge interact in health services management. It is essential to use an integrated and interactive approach to ensure that knowledge from research is translated in a way that allows a learning organization to be built and that knowledge is not used merely to influence a single decision in isolation from the overall services and management of an organization.

  11. Are Biophilic-Designed Site Office Buildings Linked to Health Benefits and High Performing Occupants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Gray

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from interviews and observations of site workers. Preliminary data indicates a strong positive effect from incorporating aspects of biophilic design to boost productivity, ameliorate stress, enhance well-being, foster a collaborative work environment and promote workplace satisfaction, thus contributing towards a high performance workspace. The longitudinal study spanning over two years will track human-plant interactions in a biophilic influenced space, whilst also assessing the concomitant cognitive, social, psychological and physical health benefits for workers.

  12. Health impacts due to personal exposure to fine particles caused by insulation of residential buildings in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, Alexandra; Hurley, J. Fintan; Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Friedrich, Rainer

    2014-02-01

    The insulation of residential buildings affects human exposure to fine particles. According to current EU guidelines, insulation is regulated for energy saving reasons. As buildings become tighter, the air exchange rate is reduced and, thus, the indoor concentration of pollutants is increased if there are significant indoor sources. While usually the effects of heat insulation and increase of the air-tightness of buildings on greenhouse gas emissions are highlighted, the negative impacts on human health due to higher indoor concentrations are not addressed. Thus, we investigated these impacts using scenarios in three European countries, i. e. Czech Republic, Switzerland and Greece. The assessment was based on modelling the human exposure to fine particles originating from sources of particles within outdoor and indoor air, including environmental tobacco smoke. Exposure response relationships were derived to link (adverse) health effects to the exposure. Furthermore, probable values for the parameters influencing the infiltration of fine particles into residential buildings were modelled. Results show that the insulation and increase of the air-tightness of residential buildings leads to an overall increase of the mean population exposure - and consequently adverse health effects - in all considered countries (ranging for health effects from 0.4% in Czech Republic to 11.8% in Greece for 100% insulated buildings) due to an accumulation of particles indoors, especially from environmental tobacco smoke. Considering only the emission reductions in outdoor air (omitting changes in infiltration parameters) leads to a decrease of adverse health effects. This study highlights the importance of ensuring a sufficient air exchange rate when insulating buildings, e. g. by prescribing heat ventilation and air conditioning systems in new buildings and information campaigns on good airing practice in renovated buildings. It also shows that assessing policy measures based on the

  13. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Melissa; McLean, Andrew; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Equitation science describes an approach to horse training and riding that focuses on embracing the cognitive abilities of horses, their natural behaviour, and how human riders can use signalling and rewards to best effect. This approach is concerned with both horse welfare and rider safety, and this review discusses how equitation science can minimise risk to humans around horses and enhance horse welfare. Abstract Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse’s cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare. PMID:26907354

  14. Health monitoring methodology based on exergetic analysis for building mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exergetic analysis is not often performed in the context of retrocommissioning (RCX); this research provides insight into the benefits of incorporating this approach. Data collected from a previously developed RCX test for an air handling unit (AHU) on a college campus are used in an advanced thermodynamic analysis. The operating data is analyzed using the first and second laws and retrofit design solutions are recommended for improved system performance; the second law analysis is particularly helpful because it requires few additional calculations or data collections. The thermodynamic methodology is extended to a building's cooling plant, which uses a vapor compression refrigeration cycle (VCRC) chiller. Existing chiller data collected for the design of automated fault detection and diagnosis methodology is used. As with the AHU analysis, the second law analysis locates irreversibilities that would not be determined from a first law analysis alone. Plant data representing both normal and faulty operation is used to develop a chiller model for assessing performance and health monitoring. Data is analyzed to determine the viability of health monitoring by performing an exergy analysis on existing data. Conclusions are drawn about the usefulness of exergetic analysis for improving system operations of energy intensive building mechanical systems.

  15. Building capacity for Health Impact Assessment: Training outcomes from the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Despite the continued growth of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the US, there is little research on HIA capacity-building. A comprehensive study of longer-term training outcomes may reveal opportunities for improving capacity building activities and HIA practice. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with HIA trainees in the United States to assess their outcomes and needs. Using a training evaluation framework, we measured outcomes across a spectrum of reaction, learning, behavior and results. Results: From 2006 to 2012, four organizations trained over 2200 people in at least 75 in-person HIA trainings in 29 states. We interviewed 48 trainees, selected both randomly and purposefully. The mean duration between training and interview was 3.4 years. Trainees reported that their training objectives were met, especially when relevant case-studies were used. They established new collaborations at the trainings and maintained them. Training appeared to catalyze more holistic thinking and practice, including a range of HIA-related activities. Many trainees disseminated what they learned and engaged in components of HIA, even without dedicated funding. Going forward, trainees need assistance with quantitative methods, project management, community engagement, framing recommendations, and evaluation. Conclusions: The research revealed opportunities for a range of HIA stakeholders to refine and coordinate training resources, apply a competency framework and leverage complimentary workforce development efforts, and sensitize and build the capacity of communities. - Highlights: • We interviewed HIA trainees in the United States to assess longer-term outcomes. • Training appeared to catalyze a range of beneficial partnerships and activities. • Trainees reported outstanding needs for specific skills and competencies. • There are various opportunities to improve training and capacity-building

  16. Building capacity for Health Impact Assessment: Training outcomes from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchter, Joseph [Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutt, Candace, E-mail: awr8@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity, 4770 Buford Highway MS/F-77, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Satariano, William A. [University of California Berkeley, School of Public Health, Division of Community Health and Human Development, Berkeley, CA (United States); Seto, Edmund [University of Washington, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Despite the continued growth of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the US, there is little research on HIA capacity-building. A comprehensive study of longer-term training outcomes may reveal opportunities for improving capacity building activities and HIA practice. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with HIA trainees in the United States to assess their outcomes and needs. Using a training evaluation framework, we measured outcomes across a spectrum of reaction, learning, behavior and results. Results: From 2006 to 2012, four organizations trained over 2200 people in at least 75 in-person HIA trainings in 29 states. We interviewed 48 trainees, selected both randomly and purposefully. The mean duration between training and interview was 3.4 years. Trainees reported that their training objectives were met, especially when relevant case-studies were used. They established new collaborations at the trainings and maintained them. Training appeared to catalyze more holistic thinking and practice, including a range of HIA-related activities. Many trainees disseminated what they learned and engaged in components of HIA, even without dedicated funding. Going forward, trainees need assistance with quantitative methods, project management, community engagement, framing recommendations, and evaluation. Conclusions: The research revealed opportunities for a range of HIA stakeholders to refine and coordinate training resources, apply a competency framework and leverage complimentary workforce development efforts, and sensitize and build the capacity of communities. - Highlights: • We interviewed HIA trainees in the United States to assess longer-term outcomes. • Training appeared to catalyze a range of beneficial partnerships and activities. • Trainees reported outstanding needs for specific skills and competencies. • There are various opportunities to improve training and capacity-building.

  17. Santa Fé: building a virtual city to develop a family health game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubelo, Rodrigo; Dahmer, Alessandra; Pinheiro, Luciana; Pinto, Maria E

    2013-01-01

    The current tendency of education in health is the use of new technologies like Virtual Reality. The course of UNASUS-UFCSPA specialization in family health was developed for health professionals that work in primary health care (PHC); in order to reach all Brazilian territory. Moodle is a platform where virtual activities are posted and evaluated. Santa Fé is a virtual city created in the Sketch up Pro, which aims to fit in specific clinical cases that involve matters of medicine, nursing and dentistry. The Software eAdventure was the tool used for the development of a game, offering interaction to the student with the Virtual City and the clinical cases, in the perspective of learning utilizing an entertainment method and evaluating individual performance of the students. The building of the city in the Sketch up Pro was successful and at low cost. The eAdventure was an efficient and intuitive tool, therefore, there was not necessarily a huge specific knowledge of technology or hardware with high speed processing and also speedy broad band internet for its use. PMID:23920667

  18. Building a common pediatric research terminology for accelerating child health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Michael G; Bailey, L Charles; Forrest, Christopher B; Padula, Michael A; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal observational clinical data on pediatric patients in electronic format is becoming widely available. A new era of multi-institutional data networks that study pediatric diseases and outcomes across disparate health delivery models and care settings are also enabling an innovative collaborative rapid improvement paradigm called the Learning Health System. However, the potential alignment of routine clinical care, observational clinical research, pragmatic clinical trials, and health systems improvement requires a data infrastructure capable of combining information from systems and workflows that historically have been isolated from each other. Removing barriers to integrating and reusing data collected in different settings will permit new opportunities to develop a more complete picture of a patient's care and to leverage data from related research studies. One key barrier is the lack of a common terminology that provides uniform definitions and descriptions of clinical observations and data. A well-characterized terminology ensures a common meaning and supports data reuse and integration. A common terminology allows studies to build upon previous findings and to reuse data collection tools and data management processes. We present the current state of terminology harmonization and describe a governance structure and mechanism for coordinating the development of a common pediatric research terminology that links to clinical terminologies and can be used to align existing terminologies. By reducing the barriers between clinical care and clinical research, a Learning Health System can leverage and reuse not only its own data resources but also broader extant data resources. PMID:24534404

  19. Dampness in buildings as a risk factor for health effects. European multidisciplinary review of the entire literature (EUROEXPO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2002-01-01

    reviewed articles 52 were excluded as they were judged as background papers or "non-informative" or "inconclusive" or the study did not present data on exposure, health effects or analysis of the association between exposure and health. The review group concluded that "dampness" in buildings is a risk...... factor for health effects such as cough, wheeze, asthma, general symptoms and airway infections among atopics and non-atopics, both in domestic and public environments. However, the literature is inconclusive in respect of causative agents in such buildings. Suggested causative agents are mites...

  20. Developing Preservice Teachers' Expertise in Equitable Assessment for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2014-04-01

    This study illustrated a pathway of growth that a preservice teacher might traverse when learning to use and develop equitable assessments (EA). The study is rare in that it looks at the development of preservice teachers' understanding and ability to design EA. I examined the understanding and implementation of EA of 23 secondary preservice teachers within two classes. The methods classes focused on the academic content area of science. Participants' journals, teaching philosophies, and inquiry-based science units served as data sources. Participants progressed from a simple view of EA as "fairness" to a more sophisticated view of EA, including: ways to increase fairness, the importance of challenging students, and using assessments for learning. Results also showed changes in preservice teachers' views of learners and the purpose of assessment. While understanding developed robustly, teachers' assessment plans in their units were not as strong. Teacher education programs need to place more emphasis on developing critical understanding of EA practices to meet the needs of diverse learners.

  1. Putting Management Capacity Building at the Forefront of Health Systems Strengthening; Comment on “Management Matters: A Leverage Point for Health Systems Strengthening in Global Health”

    OpenAIRE

    Yeager, Valerie A.; Jane Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    The current limited focus on management in global health activities is highly problematic given the amounts of financial and human resources that are pouring into health system strengthening interventions and the complexity of clinical operations across settings. By ensuring that public health and healthcare practitioners in domestic and international settings receive management training in their educational programs and that we build management capacity among individuals already in the healt...

  2. Statewide Community-based Health Promotion: A North Carolina Model to Build Local Capacity for Chronic Disease Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Plescia, MD, MPH; Suzanna Young, RD, MPH; Rosemary L. Ritzman, PhD, MSN

    2005-01-01

    Background Public health faces major challenges to building state and local infrastructure with the capacity to address the underlying causes of chronic disease. We describe a structured statewide approach to providing technical assistance for local communities to support and develop health promotion capacity. Context Over the last two decades, the North Carolina Statewide Health Promotion program has supported local approaches to the prevention and control of chronic disease. In 1999, a majo...

  3. Country ownership and capacity building: the next buzzwords in health systems strengthening or a truly new approach to development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg Jessica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decade, donor governments and international agencies have increasingly emphasized the importance of building the capacity of indigenous health care organizations as part of strengthening health systems and ensuring sustainability. In 2009, the U.S. Global Health Initiative made country ownership and capacity building keystones of U.S. health development assistance, and yet there is still a lack of consensus on how to define either of these terms, or how to implement “country owned capacity building”. Discussion Concepts around capacity building have been well developed in the for-profit business sector, but remain less well defined in the non-profit and social sectors in low and middle-income countries. Historically, capacity building in developing countries has been externally driven, related to project implementation, and often resulted in disempowerment of local organizations rather than local ownership. Despite the expenditure of millions of dollars, there is no consensus on how to conduct capacity building, nor have there been rigorous evaluations of capacity building efforts. To shift to a new paradigm of country owned capacity building, donor assistance needs to be inclusive in the planning process and create true partnerships to conduct organizational assessments, analyze challenges to organizational success, prioritize addressing challenges, and implement appropriate activities to build new capacity in overcoming challenges. Before further investments are made, a solid evidence base should be established concerning what works and what doesn’t work to build capacity. Summary Country-owned capacity building is a relatively new concept that requires further theoretical exploration. Documents such as The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness detail the principles of country ownership to which partner and donor countries should commit, but do not identify the specific mechanisms to carry out these

  4. Building capacity in health facility management: guiding principles for skills transfer in Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahn Bernice T

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management training is fundamental to developing human resources for health. Particularly as Liberia revives its health delivery system, facility and county health team managers are central to progress. Nevertheless, such management skills are rarely prioritized in health training, and sustained capacity building in this area is limited. We describe a health management delivery program in which a north and south institution collaborated to integrate classroom and field-based training in health management and to transfer the capacity for sustained management development in Liberia. Methods We developed and implemented a 6-month training program in health management skills (i.e. strategic problem solving, financial management, human resource management and leadership delivered by Yale University and Mother Patern College from Liberia, with support from the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Over three 6-month cycles, responsibility for course instruction was transferred from the north institution to the south institution. A self-administered survey was conducted of all participants completing the course to measure changes in self-rated management skills, the degree to which the course was helpful and met its stated objectives, and faculty members' responsiveness to participant needs as the transfer process occurred. Results Respondents (n = 93, response rate 95.9% reported substantial improvement in self-reported management skills, and rated the helpfulness of the course and the degree to which the course met its objectives highly. Levels of improvement and course ratings were similar over the three cohorts as the course was transferred to the south institution. We suggest a framework of five elements for implementing successful management training programs that can be transferred and sustained in resource-limited settings, including: 1 use a short-course format focusing on four key skill areas with practical tools; 2 include

  5. A Human Rights Based Political Economy for a De-growth Based Equitable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Within a scenario of de-growth many may conclude that development in general, and equitable development in particular, may become outdated concepts and aspirations. In their minds this would immediately put the de-growth philosophy amidst the reactionary ideas and would favour world wide resistance to de-growth. The purpose of this paper is to explore institutional principles and tools that allow the conciliation between de-growth and equitable development, namely within economic thought. In ...

  6. Carbon emissions and an equitable emission reduction criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995 the world-wide carbon emissions reached 5.8 billion metric tonnes per year (GTC/y). The Kyoto protocol calls for a reduction of carbon emissions from the developed countries (Annex I countries) of 6-8% below 1990 levels on the average, and unspecified commitments for the less developed (non-Annex I) countries. It is doubtful that the Kyoto agreement will be ratified by some parliaments, especially the USA Congress. Furthermore, it is shown that if the non-Annex I countries will not curtail their carbon emissions drastically, the global emissions will soar to huge levels by the middle of the next century. An equitable emission criterion is proposed which may lead to a sustainable rate of growth of carbon emissions, and be acceptable to all countries of the world. The criterion links the rate of growth of carbon emissions to the rate of growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A target criterion is proposed R = 0.15 KgC/SGDP, which is the current average for western European countries and Japan. This allows for both the growth of the GDP and carbon emissions. However, to reach the target in a reasonable time, the countries for which R≤ 0.3 would be allowed a carbon emission growth rate of 1%./y, and countries for which R≥ 0.3, 0.75%/y. It is shown that by 2050 the world-wide carbon emissions would reach about 10 GTC/y, which is about 3 times less than the Kyoto agreement would allow. (Author)

  7. Investigation of natural radioactivity concentration in building materials and the impact to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Human health is burdened by the everyday exposure in natural radioactivity caused by materials used for the construction and decoration of their houses. This study focus on the determination of the natural radioactivity concentration of various building materials used for interior and exterior constructions located in Greece. Natural radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and K-40) concentration in specially prepared samples of these materials is measured utilizing the direct gamma-counting method. These values are presented as specific activities (Bq Kg-1) for each radionuclide in every constructing material while the overall results are tabulated, analyzed and compared with similar data from other studies. Additionally, the radiobiological impact to humans exposed to this specific radiation is investigated by estimating the probable radiation dose uptake (in mSv per year) and comparing it with the maximum permissible absorbed dose to humans as given by the world standards. (authors)

  8. Revitalizing communities together: the shared values, goals, and work of education, urban planning, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison Klebanoff; Schuchter, Joseph W

    2013-04-01

    Inequities in education, the urban environment, and health co-exist and mutually reinforce each other. Educators, planners, and public health practitioners share commitments to place-based, participatory, youth-focused, and equitable work. They also have shared goals of building community resilience, social capital, and civic engagement. Interdisciplinary programs that embody these shared values and work towards these shared goals are emerging, including school-based health centers, full-service community schools, community health centers, Promise Neighborhoods, and Choice Neighborhoods. The intersection of these three fields represents an opportunity to intervene on social determinants of health. More collaborative research and practice across public health, education, and planning should build from the shared values identified to continue to address these common goals.

  9. Research Equity: A Capacity Building Workshop of Research Methodology for Medical Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is a cornerstone for knowledge generation, which in turns requires capacity building for its tools and techniques. Despite having a vast infrastructure in India the research in medical science has been carried out in limited and focused institutions. In order to build the capacity in carrying out research activities a five-day planning workshop was conducted at state run medical college. Total 22 medical faculty members participated in the workshop with average public health experience of 12 years (range: 5–25 years. The knowledge was assessed objectively by multiple-choice questionnaire. The mean score increased from 6.7 to 7.9 from pre- to posttest. About seventy-percent participants showed improvement, whereas 21.0% showed deterioration in the knowledge and the rest showed the same score. Apart from knowledge skills also showed improvement as total 12 research projects were generated and eight were approved for funding by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, New Delhi. It can be concluded that a supportive environment for research can be built with the technical assistance.

  10. Evaluating the scope for energy-efficiency improvements in the public sector: Benchmarking NHSScotland's smaller health buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Joe; Burek, S. [School of the Built and Natural Environment, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom); Pahl, O. [Caledonian Environment Centre, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    The National Health Service in Scotland (NHSScotland) has, in recent years, done much to reduce energy consumption in its major healthcare buildings (hospitals). On average, a reduction of 2% per year has been achieved since 2000, based on hospital buildings. However, there had been little or no attention paid to smaller premises such as health centres, clinics, dentists, etc. Such smaller healthcare buildings in Scotland constitute 29% of the total treated floor area of all NHSScotland buildings and, therefore, may contribute a similar percentage of carbon and other emissions to the environment. By concentrating on a sample of local health centres in Scotland, this paper outlines the creation of an energy benchmark target, which is part of a wider research project to investigate the environmental impacts of small healthcare buildings in Scotland and the scope for improvements. It was found that energy consumption varied widely between different centres but this variation could not be linked to building style, floor area or volume. Overall, it was found that a benchmark of 0.2 GJ/m{sup 3} would be challenging, but realistic. (author)

  11. Descriptive analysis of the inequalities of health information resources between Alberta's rural and urban health regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieda, Vivian; Colvin, Barb

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to understand the extent of the inequalities in health information resources across Alberta, SEARCH Custom, HKN (Health Knowledge Network) and IRREN (Inter-Regional Research and Evaluation Network) conducted a survey in December 2007 to determine what library resources currently existed in Alberta's seven rural health regions and the two urban health regions. Although anecdotal evidence indicated that these gaps existed, the analysis was undertaken to provide empirical evidence of the exact nature of these gaps. The results, coupled with the published literature on the impact, effectiveness and value of information on clinical practice and administrative decisions in healthcare management, will be used to build momentum among relevant stakeholders to support a vision of equitably funded health information for all healthcare practitioners across the province of Alberta.

  12. Building Social Capital Through a Peer-Led Community Health Workshop: A Pilot with the Bhutanese Refugee Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyojin; Rosenberg, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    Despite the high health and mental health care needs, resettled refugees often face cultural and linguistic challenges that hinder the access to appropriate and timely interventions and services. Additionally, such concepts as preventive health or mental health treatment are foreign to this population, which creates additional burdens to the refugee community that already have difficulty navigating a complex health care system in the U.S. To address multiple and complex gaps in health and mental health support for the refugee community, requested is an innovative approach that can convey culturally responsive and effective interventions for health promotion, such as peer-based health education. Few studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of peer-led community health interventions with refugee populations in the U.S. resettlement context. However, peer-led interventions have been shown to be effective when working with cultural minorities and interventions in an international context. Adopting a social capital framework, the current study conducted qualitative evaluation on the impact of a pilot peer-led community health workshop (CHW) in the Bhutanese refugee community. A hybrid thematic analysis of focus group discussion data revealed the improvement in health promotion outcomes and health practice, as well as perceived emotional health. The results also showed that the peer-led CHW provided a platform of community building and participation, while increasing a sense of community, sense of belonging and unity. The findings posit that a peer-led intervention model provides culturally responsive and effective tools for building social capital and promoting community health in the refugee community. PMID:26578350

  13. Building strong research partnerships between public health and researchers: a VA case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midboe, Amanda M; Elwy, A Rani; Durfee, Janet M; Gifford, Allen L; Yakovchenko, Vera; Martinello, Richard A; Ross, David; Czarnogorski, Maggie; Goetz, Matthew B; Asch, Steven M

    2014-12-01

    We are in a new era of partner-based implementation research, and we need clear strategies for how to navigate this new era. Drawing on principles from community-based participatory research, the Clinical Public Health group of the Department of Veterans Affairs and the HIV/Hepatitis Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (HHQUERI) forged a longstanding partnership that has improved the care of Veterans with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus. An exemplar HIV testing project epitomizes this partnership and is discussed in terms of the lessons learned as a result of our high level of collaboration around design, analysis, implementation, and dissemination across projects over the past several years. Lessons learned through this partnered testing program involve respecting different time horizons among the partners, identifying relevant research questions for both parties, designing flexible studies, engaging all partners throughout the research, and placing an emphasis on relationship building at all times. These lessons and strategies can benefit others conducting partner-based research both within the Veterans Health Administration (VA) and in other integrated healthcare systems.

  14. [Social inclusion of individuals with mental health problems: building social networks in everyday life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Mariana Moraes; Barros, Sônia

    2013-07-01

    The support of social networks is a fundamental aspect for the social inclusion of people with mental health problems. This study seeks to identify and analyze the difficulties and possibilities of users of a Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS) in building their extended social network. The qualitative approach was used as the research methodology and Ágnes Heller's concept about everyday life was used as a philosophical benchmark. The subjects in this investigation were frequenters of Psychosocial Care Centers with people from their social network. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for the data gathering and discourse analysis was used for examining the data. It was seen that although this population is living in the community it is frequently segregated and isolated from living together with other people, thereby leading to social exclusion. Nevertheless, CAPS are a space of belonging and welcoming that undeniably produce favorable changes in the users' lives. People with mental health problems have also been able to relate to others in CAPS. By using the available opportunities, they make new friends and maintain friendships they already had. Living with others in the community is highly conducive to the formation of relationships.

  15. Building workforce capacity for ethical reflection in health promotion: a practitioner's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, Annabel; Carter, Drew

    2015-12-01

    Health promotion does not have a code of ethics, although attempts have been made to assist practitioners in their understanding and application of ethical concepts. This article describes and analyses one such attempt, sustained from 2006 to 2014 in rural South Australia. The attempt comprised capacity-building activities that were informed by principles of organisational change management, especially the principle of creating champions. The article also presents a framework (largely comprising ethical questions) that may help practitioners as a prompt and guide to ethical reflection. The framework was developed to be as accessible as possible in light of the diverse educational backgrounds found in rural settings. Finally, the article highlights some philosophical dimensions to the framework and defends its role, proposing that ethical reflection is integral to good practice and never simply the province of theorists. The article does all this with a view to stimulating discussion on how to increase the frequency and quality of ethical reflection undertaken by health promotion practitioners. PMID:26686061

  16. Building partnerships towards strengthening Makerere University College of Health Sciences: a stakeholder and sustainability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariyo George W

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partnerships and networking are important for an institution of higher learning like Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS to be competitive and sustainable. Methods A stakeholder and sustainability analysis of 25 key informant interviews was conducted among past, current and potential stakeholders of MakCHS to obtain their perspectives and contributions to sustainability of the College in its role to improve health outcomes. Results The College has multiple internal and external stakeholders. Stakeholders from Uganda wanted the College to use its enormous academic capacity to fulfil its vision, take initiative, and be innovative in conducting more research and training relevant to the country’s health needs. Many stakeholders felt that the initiative for collaboration currently came more from the stakeholders than the College. External stakeholders felt that MakCHS was insufficiently marketing itself and not directly engaging the private sector or Parliament. Stakeholders also identified the opportunity for MakCHS to embrace information technology in research, learning and training, and many also wanted MakCHS to start leadership and management training programmes in health systems. The need for MakCHS to be more vigorous in training to enhance professionalism and ethical conduct was also identified. Discussion As a constituent of a public university, MakCHS has relied on public funding, which has been inadequate to fulfill its mission. Broader networking, marketing to mobilize resources, and providing strong leadership and management support to inspire confidence among its current and potential stakeholders will be essential to MakCHS’ further growth. MakCHS’ relevance is hinged on generating research knowledge for solving the country’s contemporary health problems and starting relevant programs and embracing technologies. It should share new knowledge widely through publications and other forms of

  17. Equitable long term care for the elderly immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: The recent studies conducted among the health professionals representing long term care have shown that working with the elderly immigrants involves a range of challenges. One of the typical challenges is to adjust care service to the individual needs so that it maintains the patient’s integrity and dignity. The Norwegian health care system is built on the principles of equal access, equal quality and equal health outcomes. At the same time, it requires that health care takes into...

  18. A strategic approach to public health workforce development and capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Hazel D; Myles, Ranell L; Spears-Jones, Crystal; Bishop-Cline, Audriene; Fenton, Kevin A

    2014-11-01

    In February 2010, CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD), and Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention (NCHHSTP) formally institutionalized workforce development and capacity building (WDCB) as one of six overarching goals in its 2010-2015 Strategic Plan. Annually, workforce team members finalize an action plan that lays the foundation for programs to be implemented for NCHHSTP's workforce that year. This paper describes selected WDCB programs implemented by NCHHSTP during the last 4 years in the three strategic goal areas: (1) attracting, recruiting, and retaining a diverse and sustainable workforce; (2) providing staff with development opportunities to ensure the effective and innovative delivery of NCHHSTP programs; and (3) continuously recognizing performance and achievements of staff and creating an atmosphere that promotes a healthy work-life balance. Programs have included but are not limited to an Ambassador Program for new hires, career development training for all staff, leadership and coaching for mid-level managers, and a Laboratory Workforce Development Initiative for laboratory scientists. Additionally, the paper discusses three overarching areas-employee communication, evaluation and continuous review to guide program development, and the implementation of key organizational and leadership structures to ensure accountability and continuity of programs. Since 2010, many lessons have been learned regarding strategic approaches to scaling up organization-wide public health workforce development and capacity building. Perhaps the most important is the value of ensuring the high-level strategic prioritization of this issue, demonstrating to staff and partners the importance of this imperative in achieving NCHHSTP's mission. PMID:25439247

  19. Assessment of the health system and policy environment as a critical complement to tracking intervention coverage for maternal, newborn, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnero, Eleonora; Daelmans, Bernadette; Gupta, Neeru; Scherpbier, Robert; Shankar, Anuraj

    2008-04-12

    In 2008, the Countdown to 2015 initiative identified 68 priority countries for action on maternal, newborn, and child health. Much attention was paid to monitoring country-level progress in achieving high and equitable coverage with interventions effective in reducing mortality of mothers, newborn infants, and children up to 5 years of age. To have a broader understanding of the environment in which health services are delivered and health outcomes are produced is essential to increase intervention coverage. Programmes to address MNCH rely on health systems to generate information needed for effective decisions and to achieve the expected outcomes. Governance and leadership are needed throughout the process not only to create policies and implement them but also to assure quality and efficiency of care, to finance health services sufficiently and in an equitable way, and to manage the health workforce. We present a systematic approach to assess the wider health system and policy environment needed to achieve positive outcomes for maternal, newborn, and child health. We report on results from 13 indicators and show gaps in policy adoption as well as weaknesses in other health system building blocks. We identify areas for future action in measurement of key indicators and their use to support decision making. We hope that this information will provide an additional dimension to the discussions on feasible and sustainable solutions to accelerate progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, both at the global level but most importantly in individual countries. PMID:18406863

  20. Transnational Strategies for the Promotion of Physical Activity and Active Aging: The World Health Organization Model of Consensus Building in International Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Schwingel, Andiara

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we focus our attention on an examination of the four-step process adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in its systematic campaign to promote physically active lifestyles by older adults across the 193 WHO member states. The four steps adopted by the WHO include (1) Building Consensus Among Professionals; (2) Educating the…

  1. Building Capacity of Occupational Therapy Practitioners to Address the Mental Health Needs of Children and Youth: A Mixed-Methods Study of Knowledge Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyk, Susan; Demirjian, Louise; LaGuardia, Teri; Thompson-Repas, Karen; Conway, Carol; Michaud, Paula

    2015-01-01

    A 6-mo building capacity process designed to promote knowledge translation of a public health approach to mental health among pediatric occupational therapy practitioners empowered change leaders to articulate, advocate for, and implement practice changes.

  2. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Starling

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse’s cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare.

  3. Building Equitable Literate Futures: Home and School Computer-Mediated Literacy Practices and Disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Ilana; Angus, Lawrence; Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2002-01-01

    Examines the complex connections among literacy practices, the use of information, and communication technologies (ICTs) and disadvantage. Reports findings of a year-long Australian study, which investigated ways that four families use ICTs to engage in formal and informal literacy learning in home and school settings. (BT)

  4. Building equitable community-academic research collaborations: Learning together through tensions and contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Nichols

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the findings from a multi-method study of a community-university research alliance (Assets Coming Together for Youth that brings together multidisciplinary academics, graduate student research assistants, community stakeholders and youth research interns. The project undertook evaluative and reflexive research to better understand how these different partnership group members experienced the collaborative process. The article draws on focus group discussions with the four stakeholder groups, in-depth interviews with youth research interns and an online partnership assessment survey of partnership group members. Data highlight people’s ambivalence toward the partnership process. Despite a shared desire to collaborate, it is difficult to maintain a process that mobilises the outcomes of collaboration for the mutual benefit of all stakeholders. In this article, we explore three key factors that shape people’s perspectives on the partnership process: historical and institutional relations; structures for communicating across difference; and opportunities for learning. A close examination of these three factors suggests that ongoing opportunities for communication about, and learning from, people’s ambivalence (that is, uncertainty or hesitation supports a positive and productive partnership process. Keywords: Community-academic research, collaboration, process, equity, learning, youth

  5. Doubling down: Lessons learned from building a new electronic health record as part of primary care practice redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzbank, Andrew; Fernandopulle, Rushika

    2014-03-01

    Iora Health is a primary care delivery company creating de novo primary care practices with the mission of restoring humanity to health care. To support our very different and evolving model of team-based primary care we realized we needed to build our own electronic health record (EHR). This perspective shares four key lessons from the software development process: the tight relationship between delivery innovation and software development, the benefits of Agile development, the value of having the clinicians at all levels as part of the software development team, and different ways to think about clinical information. PMID:26250083

  6. Building integrated care systems: a case study of Bidasoa Integrated Health Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Toro Polanco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper analyses the implementation of integrated care policies in the Basque Country through the deployment of an Integrated Health Organisation in Bidasoa area during the period 2011–2014. Structural, functional and clinical integration policies have been employed with the aim to deliver integrated and person-centred care for patients, especially for those living with chronic conditions. Methods: This organisational case study used multiple data sources and methods in a pragmatic and reflexive manner to build a picture of the organisational development over a 4-year period. In order to measure the progress of integration three concepts have been measured: (i readiness for chronicity measured with Assessment of Readiness for Chronicity in Healthcare Organisations tool; (ii collaboration between clinicians from different care levels measured with the D'Amour Questionnaire, and (iii overall impact of integration through several indicators based on the Triple Aim Framework. Results: The measurement of organisational readiness for chronicity showed improvements in five of the six areas under evaluation. Similarly the collaboration between professionals of different care levels showed a steady improvement in each of the 10 items. Furthermore, the Triple Aim-based indicators showed a better experience of care in terms of patients’ perceptions of care coordination; a reduction in hospital utilisation, particularly for patients with complex chronic conditions; and cost-containment in terms of per capita expenditure. Conclusion: There is a significant amount of data that shows that Bidasoa Integrated Health Organisation has progressed in terms of delivering integrated care for chronic conditions with a positive impact on several Triple Aim outcomes.

  7. Building integrated care systems: a case study of Bidasoa Integrated Health Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Toro Polanco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper analyses the implementation of integrated care policies in the Basque Country through the deployment of an Integrated Health Organisation in Bidasoa area during the period 2011–2014. Structural, functional and clinical integration policies have been employed with the aim to deliver integrated and person-centred care for patients, especially for those living with chronic conditions.Methods: This organisational case study used multiple data sources and methods in a pragmatic and reflexive manner to build a picture of the organisational development over a 4-year period. In order to measure the progress of integration three concepts have been measured: (i readiness for chronicity measured with Assessment of Readiness for Chronicity in Healthcare Organisations tool; (ii collaboration between clinicians from different care levels measured with the D'Amour Questionnaire, and (iii overall impact of integration through several indicators based on the Triple Aim Framework.Results: The measurement of organisational readiness for chronicity showed improvements in five of the six areas under evaluation. Similarly the collaboration between professionals of different care levels showed a steady improvement in each of the 10 items. Furthermore, the Triple Aim-based indicators showed a better experience of care in terms of patients’ perceptions of care coordination; a reduction in hospital utilisation, particularly for patients with complex chronic conditions; and cost-containment in terms of per capita expenditure.Conclusion: There is a significant amount of data that shows that Bidasoa Integrated Health Organisation has progressed in terms of delivering integrated care for chronic conditions with a positive impact on several Triple Aim outcomes.

  8. The Global Role of Health Care Delivery Science: Learning from Variation to Build Health Systems that Avoid Waste and Harm

    OpenAIRE

    Mulley, Albert G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the fourth theme of the Indiana Global Health Research Working Conference, Clinical Effectiveness and Health Systems Research. It explores geographic variation in health care delivery and health outcomes as a source of learning how to achieve better health outcomes at lower cost. It focuses particularly on the relationship between investments made in capacities to deliver different health care services to a population and the value thereby created by that care for individ...

  9. Building research administration applications for the academic health center: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guard, J Roger; Brueggemann, Ralph F; Highsmith, Robert F; Marine, Stephen A; Riep, Josette R; Schick, Leslie C

    2005-11-01

    The academic health center information environment is saturated with information of varying quality and overwhelming quantity. The most significant challenge is transforming data and information into knowledge. The University of Cincinnati Medical Center's (UCMC) focus is to develop an information architecture comprising data structures, Web services, and user interfaces that enable individuals to manage the information overload so that they can create new knowledge. UCMC has accomplished much of what is reported in this article with the help of a four-year Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) operation grant awarded by the National Library of Medicine in 2003. In the UCMC vision for knowledge management, individuals have reliable, secure access to information that is filtered, organized, and highly relevant for specific tasks and personal needs. Current applications and tool sets will evolve to become the next generation knowledge management applications or smart digital services. When smart digital services are implemented, silo applications will disappear. A major focus of UCMC's IAIMS grant is research administration. Testing and building out existing and new research administration applications and digital services is underway. The authors review UCMC's progress and results in developing a software architecture, tools, and services for research administration. Included are sections on the evolution to full integration, the impact of the work at UCMC to date, lessons learned during this research and development process, and future plans and needs.

  10. [Advances and challenges in building the national health research system in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagui, Martín; Espinoza, Manuel; Caballero, Patricia; Castilla, Teresa; Garro, Gladys; Yamaguchi, L Patricia; Mormontoy, Henry; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Velásquez, Aníbal; Cabezas, César

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the situational status of the National Health Research System of Peru (NHRS), the lessons learnt during the building process, the opportunities to improve it and the challenges. A description of the functions of the peruvian NHRS is done, in relation to governance, legal framework, research priorities, funding, creation and sustainability of resources and research production and utilization. It describes that in Peru we excert governance in research, we count with regulations, policy and research priorities, these last developed in the framework of a participatory, inclusive process. The conclusion reached is that the challenges of the peruvian NHRS are to consolidate the governance and to develop the mechanisms to articulate the stakeholders involved in research, to improve the resources allocation for research and innovation, to elaborate a plan for the development of human resources dedicated to research, to develop institutions and regional competences in order to perform research, and to link research in order to solve problems and make national research policies sustainable. PMID:21152732

  11. Building Interdisciplinary Leadership Skills among Health Practitioners in the Twenty-First Century: An Innovative Training Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Quazi, Zahiruddin; Gaidhane, Abhay; Jayalakshmi N; Gijare, Meenakshi; Yeravdekar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning is the focus of twenty-first century global educational reforms. In India, there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing, and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing, and public health institutions partnered in this endeavor. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in interprofessional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team building, innovation, and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed, and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing, and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning. PMID:26501046

  12. Building Interdisciplinary Leadership Skills among Health Practitioners in the Twenty-First Century: An Innovative Training Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Quazi, Zahiruddin; Gaidhane, Abhay; Jayalakshmi N; Gijare, Meenakshi; Yeravdekar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning is the focus of twenty-first century global educational reforms. In India, there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing, and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing, and public health institutions partnered in this endeavor. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in interprofessional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team building, innovation, and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed, and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing, and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning.

  13. Addressing the “Global Health Tax” and “Wild Cards”: Practical Challenges to Building Academic Careers in Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Ranu

    2016-01-01

    Among many possible benefits, global health efforts can expand the skills and experience of U.S. clinicians, improve health for communities in need, and generate innovations in care delivery with relevance everywhere. Yet, despite high rates of interest among students and medical trainees to include global health opportunities in their training, there is still no clear understanding of how this interest will translate into viable and sustained global health careers after graduation. Building on a growing conversation about how to support careers in academic global health, this Perspective describes the practical challenges faced by physicians pursuing these careers after they complete training. Writing from their perspective as junior faculty at one U.S. academic health center with a dedicated focus on global health training, the authors describe a number of practical issues they have found to be critical both for their own career development and for the advice they provide their mentees. With a particular emphasis on the financial, personal, professional, and logistical challenges that young “expat” global health physicians in academic institutions face, they underscore the importance of finding ways to support these career paths, and propose possible solutions. Such investments would not only respond to the rational and moral imperatives of global health work and advance the mission of improving human health but also help to fully leverage the potential of what is already an unprecedented movement within academic medicine. PMID:26244256

  14. Strengthening of primary health care: Key to deliver inclusive health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Yeravdekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inequity and poverty are the root causes of ill health. Access to quality health services on an affordable and equitable basis in many parts of the country remains an unfulfilled aspiration. Disparity in health care is interpreted as compromise in ′Right to Life.′ It is imperative to define ′essential health care,′ which should be made available to all citizens to facilitate inclusivity in health care. The suggested methods for this include optimal utilization of public resources and increasing public spending on health care. Capacity building through training, especially training of paramedical personnel, is proposed as an essential ingredient, to reduce cost, especially in tertiary care. Another aspect which is considered very important is improvement in delivery system of health care. Increasing the role of ′family physician′ in health care delivery system will improve preventive care and reduce cost of tertiary care. These observations underlie the relevance and role of Primary health care as a key to deliver inclusive health care. The advantages of a primary health care model for health service delivery are greater access to needed services; better quality of care; a greater focus on prevention; early management of health problems; and cumulative improvements in health and lower morbidity as a result of primary health care delivery.

  15. Uncertainty quantification in structural health monitoring: Applications on cultural heritage buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Filippo; Casarin, Filippo; Caldon, Mauro; Islami, Kleidi; Modena, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades the need for an effective seismic protection and vulnerability reduction of cultural heritage buildings and sites determined a growing interest in structural health monitoring (SHM) as a knowledge-based assessment tool to quantify and reduce uncertainties regarding their structural performance. Monitoring can be successfully implemented in some cases as an alternative to interventions or to control the medium- and long-term effectiveness of already applied strengthening solutions. The research group at the University of Padua, in collaboration with public administrations, has recently installed several SHM systems on heritage structures. The paper reports the application of monitoring strategies implemented to avoid (or at least minimize) the execution of strengthening interventions/repairs and control the response as long as a clear worsening or damaging process is detected. Two emblematic case studies are presented and discussed: the Roman Amphitheatre (Arena) of Verona and the Conegliano Cathedral. Both are excellent examples of on-going monitoring activities, performed through static and dynamic approaches in combination with automated procedures to extract meaningful structural features from collected data. In parallel to the application of innovative monitoring techniques, statistical models and data processing algorithms have been developed and applied in order to reduce uncertainties and exploit monitoring results for an effective assessment and protection of historical constructions. Processing software for SHM was implemented to perform the continuous real time treatment of static data and the identification of modal parameters based on the structural response to ambient vibrations. Statistical models were also developed to filter out the environmental effects and thermal cycles from the extracted features.

  16. Using the arts in teaching and learning: building student capacity for community-based work in health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Anne

    2008-03-01

    Perspectives have emerged within health psychology that focus on the social constitution of health and emphasize community development and social change strategies to reduce human suffering and improve quality of life. Education and training are needed to build student capacity in these areas. Our analysis, grounded in theoretical, empirical, and experiential evidences, suggests that the arts may play a leading role in building this student capacity for community research and action. Major themes are that the arts promote student understandings of the values, goals, and practices of community-based work and enable meaningful student roles in community-based partnerships. Narrative accounts of our use of creative writing, visual arts, poetry, film, and theater in classroom and community-based practice with students illustrate these themes.

  17. How a Beacon Community Program in New Orleans Helped Create a Better Health Care System By Building Relationships Before Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Khurshid, Anjum; Brown, Lisanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, much of New Orleans’ healthcare infrastructure was destroyed. Initial federal funding after the storm expanded primary care services and helped set up medical homes for New Orleans’ large uninsured and underinsured population. Following that, the Beacon Community in New Orleans, charged with improving health care through the use of technology, decided the best way to accomplish those goals was to build community partnerships and introduce t...

  18. Knowledge-Based Energy Damage Model for Evaluating Industrialised Building Systems (IBS) Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Abas Nor Haslinda; Blismas Nick; Lingard Helen

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia’s construction industry has been long considered hazardous, owing to its poor health and safety record. It is proposed that one of the ways to improve safety and health in the construction industry is through the implementation of ‘off-site’ systems, commonly termed ‘industrialised building systems (IBS)’ in Malaysia. This is deemed safer based on the risk concept of reduced exposure, brought about by the reduction in onsite workers; however, no method yet exists for determining the ...

  19. Empowering health personnel for decentralized health planning in India: The Public Health Resource Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Anuska; Zaidi, Sarover; Prasad, Vandana; Raman, V R

    2009-01-01

    The Public Health Resource Network is an innovative distance-learning course in training, motivating, empowering and building a network of health personnel from government and civil society groups. Its aim is to build human resource capacity for strengthening decentralized health planning, especially at the district level, to improve accountability of health systems, elicit community participation for health, ensure equitable and accessible health facilities and to bring about convergence in programmes and services. The question confronting health systems in India is how best to reform, revitalize and resource primary health systems to deliver different levels of service aligned to local realities, ensuring universal coverage, equitable access, efficiency and effectiveness, through an empowered cadre of health personnel. To achieve these outcomes it is essential that health planning be decentralized. Districts vary widely according to the specific needs of their population, and even more so in terms of existing interventions and available resources. Strategies, therefore, have to be district-specific, not only because health needs vary, but also because people's perceptions and capacities to intervene and implement programmes vary. In centrally designed plans there is little scope for such adaptation and contextualization, and hence decentralized planning becomes crucial. To undertake these initiatives, there is a strong need for trained, motivated, empowered and networked health personnel. It is precisely at this level that a lack of technical knowledge and skills and the absence of a supportive network or adequate educational opportunities impede personnel from making improvements. The absence of in-service training and of training curricula that reflect field realities also adds to this, discouraging health workers from pursuing effective strategies. The Public Health Resource Network is thus an attempt to reach out to motivated though often isolated health

  20. Empowering health personnel for decentralized health planning in India: The Public Health Resource Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Vandana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Public Health Resource Network is an innovative distance-learning course in training, motivating, empowering and building a network of health personnel from government and civil society groups. Its aim is to build human resource capacity for strengthening decentralized health planning, especially at the district level, to improve accountability of health systems, elicit community participation for health, ensure equitable and accessible health facilities and to bring about convergence in programmes and services. The question confronting health systems in India is how best to reform, revitalize and resource primary health systems to deliver different levels of service aligned to local realities, ensuring universal coverage, equitable access, efficiency and effectiveness, through an empowered cadre of health personnel. To achieve these outcomes it is essential that health planning be decentralized. Districts vary widely according to the specific needs of their population, and even more so in terms of existing interventions and available resources. Strategies, therefore, have to be district-specific, not only because health needs vary, but also because people's perceptions and capacities to intervene and implement programmes vary. In centrally designed plans there is little scope for such adaptation and contextualization, and hence decentralized planning becomes crucial. To undertake these initiatives, there is a strong need for trained, motivated, empowered and networked health personnel. It is precisely at this level that a lack of technical knowledge and skills and the absence of a supportive network or adequate educational opportunities impede personnel from making improvements. The absence of in-service training and of training curricula that reflect field realities also adds to this, discouraging health workers from pursuing effective strategies. The Public Health Resource Network is thus an attempt to reach out to motivated

  1. People-centred health systems: building more resilient health systems in the wake of the Ebola crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Fred P

    2016-09-01

    The 2014-2016 West African Ebola outbreak demonstrated the extent to which local social and political dynamics shape health system responses to crises such as epidemics. Many post-Ebola health system strengthening programmes are framed around a notion of health system 'resilience' that focuses on global rather than local priorities and fails to account for key local social dynamics that shape crisis responses. Post-crisis health system strengthening efforts require a shift towards a more 'people-centred' understanding of resilience that attends to the people, relationships and local contexts that constitute health systems and the practices that produce crisis responses.

  2. Gap between technically accurate information and socially appropriate information for structural health monitoring system installed into tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the structural health monitoring system for tall buildings is now widely recognized by at least structural engineers and managers at large real estate companies to ensure the structural safety immediately after a large earthquake and appeal the quantitative safety of buildings to potential tenants. Some leading real estate companies decided to install the system into all tall buildings. Considering this tendency, a pilot project for the west area of Shinjuku Station supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency was started by the author team to explore a possibility of using the system to provide safe spaces for commuters and residents. The system was installed into six tall buildings. From our experience, it turned out that viewing only from technological aspects was not sufficient for the system to be accepted and to be really useful. Safe spaces require not only the structural safety but also the soundness of key functions of the building. We need help from social scientists, medical doctors, city planners etc. to further improve the integrity of the system.

  3. The Building Blocks Collaborative: advancing a life course approach to health equity through multi-sector collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimali, Bina Patel; Luginbuhl, Jessica; Malin, Christina; Flournoy, Rebecca; Siegel, Anita

    2014-02-01

    Too many children are born into poverty, often living in disinvested communities without adequate opportunities to be healthy and thrive. Two complementary frameworks-health equity and life course-propose new approaches to these challenges. Health equity strategies seek to improve community conditions that influence health. The life course perspective focuses on key developmental periods that can shift a person's trajectory over the life course, and highlights the importance of ensuring that children have supports in place that set them up for long-term success and health. Applying these frameworks, the Alameda County Public Health Department launched the Building Blocks Collaborative (BBC), a countywide multi-sector initiative to engage community partners in improving neighborhood conditions in low-income communities, with a focus on young children. A broad cross-section of stakeholders, called to action by the state of racial and economic inequities in children's health, came together to launch the BBC and develop a Bill of Rights that highlights the diverse factors that contribute to children's health. BBC partners then began working together to improve community conditions by learning and sharing ideas and strategies, and incubating new collaborative projects. Supportive health department leadership; dedicated staff; shared vision and ownership; a flexible partnership structure; and broad collective goals that build on partners' strengths and priorities have been critical to the growth of the BBC. Next steps include institutionalizing BBC projects into existing infrastructure, ongoing partner engagement, and continued project innovation-to achieve a common vision that all babies have the best start in life. PMID:23807714

  4. Self-reported health and comfort in 'modern' office buildings: first results from the European OFFICAIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluyssen, P M; Roda, C; Mandin, C; Fossati, S; Carrer, P; de Kluizenaar, Y; Mihucz, V G; de Oliveira Fernandes, E; Bartzis, J

    2016-04-01

    In the European research project OFFICAIR, a procedure was developed to determine associations between characteristics of European offices and health and comfort of office workers, through a checklist and a self-administered questionnaire including environmental, physiological, psychological, and social aspects. This procedure was applied in 167 office buildings in eight European countries (Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, France, Hungary, the Netherlands, and Finland) during the winter of 2011-2012. About 26 735 survey invitation e-mails were sent, and 7441 office workers were included in the survey. Among respondents who rated an overall comfort less than 4 (23%), 'noise (other than from building systems)', air 'too dry', and temperature 'too variable' were the main complaints selected. An increase of perceived control over indoor climate was positively associated with the perceived indoor environment quality. Almost one-third of office workers suffered from dry eyes and headache in the last 4 weeks. Physical building characteristics were associated with occupants' overall satisfaction (acoustical solutions, mold growth, complaints procedure, cleaning activities) and health (number of occupants, lack of operable windows, presence of carpet and cleaning activities). OFFICAIR project provides a useful database to identify stressors related to indoor environmental quality and office worker's health. PMID:25727348

  5. 78 FR 16845 - Equitrans, L.P.; Equitable Gas Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ..., Pennsylvania 15222, and Equitable Gas Company, LLC (EGC), 225 North Shore Drive, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212... (NGA) requesting that the Commission grants approval to abandon, by transfer from Equitrans to EGC, a pipeline lateral designated as the H-153 Line and all equipment and associated appurtenances. Also,...

  6. The implementation of equitable teaching strategies by high school biology student teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, Kate; Butler Kahle, Jane

    Teachers can perpetuate stereotypic cultural beliefs regarding girls' ability in, aptitude for, and suitability for science by their teaching practices and behaviors. As teachers have a major influence on girls' career choices their equitable teaching practices in the classroom are important to encourage all students, but especially girls, to continue with science. Researchers have studied science classrooms and have defined common strategies and practices that can help create an equitable classroom environment. The purpose of this study was to determine if high school biology student teachers could transfer learned equitable teaching strategies to actual teaching and the support conditions necessary for that transfer. Two support conditions were assessed: cooperating teacher and peer group support. Seven preservice teachers were placed into three groups. One group had both support conditions, the second group had only one condition (peer support), and the third group did not have either support condition. Both qualitative and quantitative data sources were collected. Results showed that preservice teachers could transfer learned equitable teaching into actual teaching practice. However, they were more successful in achieving the transfer if they were supervised by cooperating teachers who are sensitized to the issue of gender equity in education. Being involved in a peer support group was not as crucial to using the strategies as having a supportive cooperative teacher.

  7. Educational Leaders' Challenges in Creating Equitable Opportunities for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this position paper was to explore the challenges faced by principals in creating equitable opportunities for English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. We questioned "To what extent are educational leaders encouraged to create environments that value cultural diversity and the promotion of English language learners?"…

  8. Demographic Inertia Revisited: An Immodest Proposal to Achieve Equitable Gender Representation among Faculty in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschke, Robyn; Laursen, Sandra; Nielsen, Joyce McCarl; Rankin, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Progress toward equitable gender representation among faculty in higher education has been "glacial" since the early 1970s (Glazer-Raymo, 1999; Lomperis, 1990; Trower & Chait, 2002). Women, who now make up a majority of undergraduate degree earners and approximately 46% of Ph.D. earners nationwide (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES],…

  9. 20 CFR 404.734 - Evidence you are an equitably adopted child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence you are an equitably adopted child. 404.734 Section 404.734 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS... another if he or she agreed to adopt the child, the natural parents or the person caring for the...

  10. 20 CFR 632.87 - Equitable provision of services to the eligible population and significant segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... eligible population and significant segments. 632.87 Section 632.87 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... Program Design and Management § 632.87 Equitable provision of services to the eligible population and... system is in place to afford all members of the eligible population within the service area for which...

  11. Researches concerning the diversity and equitability of the Chilopoda populations from the deciduous forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gava R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The author describes the Chilopoda associations from the durmast oak, beech and alder forests by the Motomura’s log-linear mathematical model. The Chilopoda associations present a diversity and equitability that is close enough to the log-linear mathematical model so they can be considered as nomocoenosis in the sense Daget, Lecordier and Leveque (1972.

  12. 12 CFR 614.4590 - Equitable treatment of OFIs and Farm Credit System associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... differences in credit risk and administrative costs to the Farm Credit Bank or agricultural credit bank. (c... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable treatment of OFIs and Farm Credit System associations. 614.4590 Section 614.4590 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM...

  13. A Methodology for Equitable Performance Assessment and Presentation of Wave Energy Converters Based on Sea Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Pecher, Arthur; Margheritini, Lucia;

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a methodology for the analysis and presentation of data obtained from sea trials of wave energy converters (WEC). The equitable aspect of this methodology lies in its wide application, as any WEC at any scale or stage of development can be considered as long as the tests are p...

  14. Prospective Teacher Beliefs about Liberative and Oppressive Mathematics Teaching Practices: A First Step toward Equitable Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, Jan A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study conducted within a teacher education program to help highlight the importance of equitable instruction of mathematics for all students. The researcher developed four scenarios of her oppressive and liberative teaching practices. Prospective teachers were then asked to write scenarios describing their…

  15. What about Language while Equitably Assessing Science?: Case Studies of Preservice Teachers' Evolving Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    The three case studies, drawing on qualitative analysis of surveys, interviews, program artifacts, and classroom observation, describe secondary science preservice teachers' evolving expertise at providing opportunities for linguistically diverse students to learn and demonstrate what they have learned (i.e., equitable assessment). The teachers…

  16. Keeping Kids Moving: How Equitable Transportation Policy Can Prevent Childhood Obesity--What It Is

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The nation faces an obesity crisis, especially among low-income children and children of color. Today, nearly one-third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, and physical inactivity is a leading cause of this epidemic. Equitable transportation policy that fosters healthy, opportunity-rich communities has a critical role to play in…

  17. Noticing Children's Participation: Insights into Teacher Positionality toward Equitable Mathematics Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Anita A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how teachers in a professional development course responded to what they noticed about children's participation in elementary mathematics classrooms and how what they noticed was connected to the teachers' positionality toward equitable mathematics pedagogy. Findings suggest that a lens of participation supported…

  18. The Role of Higher Education in Equitable Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peercy, Chavanne; Svenson, Nanette

    2016-01-01

    As developing countries continue to battle poverty despite strong economic growth, understanding the relationship between equity and human development becomes increasingly important. In this context, equity is not equivalent to equality for any specific outcome such as health status, education or income. It is an objective ideal whereby people's…

  19. The global role of health care delivery science: learning from variation to build health systems that avoid waste and harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulley, Albert G

    2013-09-01

    This paper addresses the fourth theme of the Indiana Global Health Research Working Conference, Clinical Effectiveness and Health Systems Research. It explores geographic variation in health care delivery and health outcomes as a source of learning how to achieve better health outcomes at lower cost. It focuses particularly on the relationship between investments made in capacities to deliver different health care services to a population and the value thereby created by that care for individual patients. The framing begins with the dramatic variation in per capita health care expenditures across the nations of the world, which is largely explained by variations in national wealth. The 1978 Declaration of Alma Ata is briefly noted as a response to such inequities with great promise that has not as yet been realized. This failure to realize the promise of Alma Ata grows in significance with the increasing momentum for universal health coverage that is emerging in the current global debate about post-2015 development goals. Drawing upon work done at Dartmouth over more than three decades, the framing then turns to within-country variations in per capita expenditures, utilization of different services, and health outcomes. A case is made for greater attention to the question of value by bringing better information to bear at both the population and individual levels. Specific opportunities to identify and reduce waste in health care, and the harm that is so often associated with it, are identified by learning from outcome variations and practice variations. PMID:23797914

  20. The global role of health care delivery science: learning from variation to build health systems that avoid waste and harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulley, Albert G

    2013-09-01

    This paper addresses the fourth theme of the Indiana Global Health Research Working Conference, Clinical Effectiveness and Health Systems Research. It explores geographic variation in health care delivery and health outcomes as a source of learning how to achieve better health outcomes at lower cost. It focuses particularly on the relationship between investments made in capacities to deliver different health care services to a population and the value thereby created by that care for individual patients. The framing begins with the dramatic variation in per capita health care expenditures across the nations of the world, which is largely explained by variations in national wealth. The 1978 Declaration of Alma Ata is briefly noted as a response to such inequities with great promise that has not as yet been realized. This failure to realize the promise of Alma Ata grows in significance with the increasing momentum for universal health coverage that is emerging in the current global debate about post-2015 development goals. Drawing upon work done at Dartmouth over more than three decades, the framing then turns to within-country variations in per capita expenditures, utilization of different services, and health outcomes. A case is made for greater attention to the question of value by bringing better information to bear at both the population and individual levels. Specific opportunities to identify and reduce waste in health care, and the harm that is so often associated with it, are identified by learning from outcome variations and practice variations.

  1. Building up careers in translational neuroscience and mental health research: Education and training in the Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapado-Castro, Marta; Pazos, Ángel; Fañanás, Lourdes; Bernardo, Miquel; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Leza, Juan Carlos; Berrocoso, Esther; de Arriba, Jose; Roldán, Laura; Sanjuán, Julio; Pérez, Victor; Haro, Josep M; Palomo, Tomás; Valdizan, Elsa M; Micó, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2015-01-01

    The number of large collaborative research networks in mental health is increasing. Training programs are an essential part of them. We critically review the specific implementation of a research training program in a translational Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health in order to inform the strategic integration of basic research into clinical practice to have a positive impact in the mental health system and society. Description of training activities, specific educational programs developed by the research network, and challenges on its implementation are examined. The Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health has focused on training through different activities which have led to the development of an interuniversity master's degree postgraduate program in mental health research, certified by the National Spanish Agency for Quality Evaluation and Accreditation. Consolidation of training programs within the Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health has considerably advanced the training of researchers to meet competency standards on research. The master's degree constitutes a unique opportunity to accomplish neuroscience and mental health research career-building within the official framework of university programs in Spain.

  2. Integrating open-source technologies to build low-cost information systems for improved access to public health data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberle Mark W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective public health practice relies on the availability of public health data sources and assessment tools to convey information to investigators, practitioners, policy makers, and the general public. Emerging communication technologies on the Internet can deliver all components of the "who, what, when, and where" quartet more quickly than ever with a potentially higher level of quality and assurance, using new analysis and visualization tools. Open-source software provides the opportunity to build low-cost information systems allowing health departments with modest resources access to modern data analysis and visualization tools. In this paper, we integrate open-source technologies and public health data to create a web information system which is accessible to a wide audience through the Internet. Our web application, "EpiVue," was tested using two public health datasets from the Washington State Cancer Registry and Washington State Center for Health Statistics. A third dataset shows the extensibility and scalability of EpiVue in displaying gender-based longevity statistics over a twenty-year interval for 3,143 United States counties. In addition to providing an integrated visualization framework, EpiVue's highly interactive web environment empowers users by allowing them to upload their own geospatial public health data in either comma-separated text files or MS Excel™ spreadsheet files and visualize the geospatial datasets with Google Maps™.

  3. Evaluation of facade performance, in terms of thermal comfort for health center building, EMU

    OpenAIRE

    Khakzar, Golrokh

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Nowadays, because of lack of traditional sources of energy and high maintenance cost, building as a one of the major energy consumer and its problems in hot and humid regions become one of the main concerns of architects and designers. Also, there is a growing global interest in the impact of human activities on the environment in respect to global warming. The increment of energy demand in the developing world and global warming issues define the need for buildings with fewer probl...

  4. Financing equitable access to antiretroviral treatment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre Di

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While South Africa spends approximately 7.4% of GDP on healthcare, only 43% of these funds are spent in the public system, which is tasked with the provision of care to the majority of the population including a large proportion of those in need of antiretroviral treatment (ART. South Africa is currently debating the introduction of a National Health Insurance (NHI system. Because such a universal health system could mean increased public healthcare funding and improved access to human resources, it could improve the sustainability of ART provision. This paper considers the minimum resources that would be required to achieve the proposed universal health system and contrasts these with the costs of scaled up access to ART between 2010 and 2020. Methods The costs of ART and universal coverage (UC are assessed through multiplying unit costs, utilization and estimates of the population in need during each year of the planning cycle. Costs are from the provider’s perspective reflected in real 2007 prices. Results The annual costs of providing ART increase from US$1 billion in 2010 to US$3.6 billion in 2020. If increases in funding to public healthcare only keep pace with projected real GDP growth, then close to 30% of these resources would be required for ART by 2020. However, an increase in the public healthcare resource envelope from 3.2% to 5%-6% of GDP would be sufficient to finance both ART and other services under a universal system (if based on a largely public sector model and the annual costs of ART would not exceed 15% of the universal health system budget. Conclusions Responding to the HIV-epidemic is one of the many challenges currently facing South Africa. Whether this response becomes a “resource for democracy” or whether it undermines social cohesiveness within poor communities and between rich and poor communities will be partially determined by the steps that are taken during the next ten years. While the

  5. Building capacity for public and population health research in Africa: the consortium for advanced research training in Africa (CARTA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. Ezeh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, sub-Saharan Africa bears the greatest burden of disease. Strengthened research capacity to understand the social determinants of health among different African populations is key to addressing the drivers of poor health and developing interventions to improve health outcomes and health systems in the region. Yet, the continent clearly lacks centers of research excellence that can generate a strong evidence base to address the region's socio-economic and health problems. Objective and program overview: We describe the recently launched Consortium for Advanced Research Training in Africa (CARTA, which brings together a network of nine academic and four research institutions from West, East, Central, and Southern Africa, and select northern universities and training institutes. CARTA's program of activities comprises two primary, interrelated, and mutually reinforcing objectives: to strengthen research infrastructure and capacity at African universities; and to support doctoral training through the creation of a collaborative doctoral training program in population and public health. The ultimate goal of CARTA is to build local research capacity to understand the determinants of population health and effectively intervene to improve health outcomes and health systems. Conclusions: CARTA's focus on the local production of networked and high-skilled researchers committed to working in sub-Saharan Africa, and on the concomitant increase in local research and training capacity of African universities and research institutes addresses the inability of existing programs to create a critical mass of well-trained and networked researchers across the continent. The initiative's goal of strengthening human resources and university-wide systems critical to the success and sustainability of research productivity in public and population health will rejuvenate institutional teaching, research, and administrative systems.

  6. Building a community of practice:the Mental Health in Higher Education website

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Lynn; Anderson, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Mental Health in Higher Education, a project of the Higher Education Academy, aims to enhance learning and teaching about mental health in UK higher education. This article introduces the Mental Health in Higher Education website which has recently been relaunched. It outlines its key role in the development of our emerging community of practice.

  7. Why We Need to Build a Culture of Health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2015-07-01

    The United States spends $2.7 trillion a year on health care, more than any other country by far, and yet the U.S. population is not healthy. In fact, the United States loses $227 billion in productivity each year because of poor health. This is not sustainable-and it is the reason behind the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Culture of Health initiative. Culture of Health means so much more than simply not being sick. It means embracing a definition of health as outlined by the World Health Organization-a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. And it means shifting the values-and the actions-in the United States so that health becomes a part of everything we do. Health is the bedrock of personal fulfillment. It is the backbone of prosperity and the key to creating a strong and competitive nation. With health, children can grow up making the most of life's opportunities. Businesses can rely on the vitality of workers to stay competitive, and the military can perform at its highest level. But there is no single way to cultivate health. This Commentary explores the principles behind the Culture of Health initiative and examines the role of academic medicine in achieving this vision. Different communities must come up with the approaches that serve them best. Only by working toward a common goal in unique ways will a true Culture of Health be attainable in the United States.

  8. Health risk assessment for the Building 3001 Storage Canal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This human health risk assessment has been prepared for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The objectives of this risk assessment are to evaluate the alternatives for interim closure of the Building 3001 Storage Canal and to identify the potential health risk from an existing leak in the canal. The Building 3001 Storage Canal connects Buildings 3001 and 3019. The volume of water in the canal is monitored and kept constant at about 62,000 gal. The primary contaminants of the canal water are the radionuclides 137Cs, 60Co, and 90Sr; a layer of sediment on the canal floor also contains radionuclides and metals. The prime medium of contaminant transport has been identified as groundwater. The primary route for occupational exposure at the canal is external exposure to gamma radiation from the canal water and the walls of the canal. Similarly, the primary exposure route at the 3042 sump is external exposure to gamma radiation from the groundwater and the walls of the sump. Based on the exposure rates in the radiation work permits (Appendix C) and assuming conservative occupational work periods, the annual radiation dose to workers is considerably less than the relevant dose limits. The potential risk to the public using the Clinch River was determined for three significant exposure pathways: ingestion of drinking water; ingestion of contaminated fish; and external exposure to contaminated sediments on the shoreline, the dominant exposure pathway

  9. Building better research partnerships by understanding how Aboriginal health communities perceive and use data: a semistructured interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christian; Tong, Allison; Sherriff, Simone; Kalucy, Deanna; Fernando, Peter; Muthayya, Sumithra; Craig, Jonathan C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the attitudes and beliefs of health professionals working in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHS) towards the access, usage and potential value of routinely obtained clinical and research data. Design, setting and participants Face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted with 35 health professionals from 2 urban and 1 regional ACCHS in New South Wales. The interviews were transcribed and themes were identified using an adapted grounded theory approach. Results Six major themes were identified: occupational engagement (day-to-day relevance, contingent on professional capacity, emphasising clinical relevance), trust and assurance (protecting ownership, confidence in narratives, valuing local sources), motivation and empowerment (engaging the community, influencing morale, reassuring and encouraging clients), building research capacity (using cultural knowledge, promoting research aptitude, prioritising specific data), optimising service provision (necessity for sustainable services, guiding and improving services, supporting best practice), and enhancing usability (ensuring ease of comprehension, improving efficiency of data management, valuing accuracy and accessibility). Conclusions Participants were willing to learn data handling procedures that could further enhance health service delivery and enable more ACCHS-led research, but busy workloads restrict these opportunities. Staff held concerns regarding the translation of research data into beneficial services, and believed that the outcome and purpose of data collection could be communicated more clearly. Promoting research partnerships, ensuring greater awareness of positive health data and the purposes of data collection, and communicating data in a user-friendly format are likely to encourage greater data use, build research capacity and improve health services within the Aboriginal community. PMID:27113239

  10. Toward a national core course in agricultural medicine and curriculum in agricultural safety and health: the "building capacity" consensus process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolphi, Josie M; Donham, Kelley J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The agricultural industry poses specific hazards and risks to its workers. Since the 1970s, the University of Iowa has been establishing programs to educate rural health care and safety professionals who in turn provide education and occupational health and safety services to farm families and farm workers. This program has been well established in the state of Iowa as a program of Iowa's Center for Agricultural Safety and Health (I-CASH). However, the National 1989 Agriculture at Risk Report indicated there was a great need for agricultural medicine training beyond Iowa's borders. In order to help meet this need, Building Capacity: A National Resource of Agricultural Medicine Professionals was initiated as a project of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health in 2006. Before the first phase of this project, a consensus process was conducted with a group of safety and health professionals to determine topics and learning objectives for the course. Over 300 students attended and matriculated the agricultural medicine course during first phase of the project (2007-2010). Beginning the second phase of the project (2012-2016), an expanded advisory committee (38 internationally recognized health and safety professionals) was convened to review the progress of the first phase, make recommendations for revisions to the required topics and competencies, and discuss updates to the second edition of the course textbook (Agricultural Medicine: Occupational and Environmental Health for the Health Professions). A formal consensus process was held and included an online survey and also a face-to-face meeting. The group was charged with the responsibility of developing the next version of this course by establishing best practices and setting an agenda with the long-term goal of developing a national course in agricultural medicine.

  11. [Nutritional challenges in the Brazilian Unified National Health System for building the interface between health and food and nutritional security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, Silvia do Amaral; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha; Bógus, Cláudia Maria

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the establishment of inter-sector action between health and food and nutritional security in Brazil from 2003 to 2010, when this issue was launched as a priority on the government's agenda. A qualitative study was developed according to constructivist epistemology, using key-informant interviews in the field's nationwide social oversight body. Advances and challenges in this process are addressed as analytical categories. The National Food and Nutrition Policy (PNAN) was mentioned as the link between the two fields, decentralized through a network with activity in the states and municipalities. However, the study found political, institutional, and operational obstacles to the effective implementation of the PNAN in the Brazilian Unified National Health System and consequently to a contribution to the advancement of Health and Food and Nutritional Security in the country. The predominance of the biomedical, curative, and high-complexity model was cited as the principal impediment, while health promotion policies like the PNAN were assigned secondary priority.

  12. The effect of renovating an office building on occupants' comfort and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan; Brohus, H.; Hyldgaard, C.E.;

    1999-01-01

    An intervention study was performed in an office building in which there were severe indoor climate complaints among the occupants. In one part of the building a new heating and ventilation strategy was implemented by renovating the HVAC system, and a carpet floor material was replaced with a low...... laboratory studies on alternative flooring materials and alternative ventilation strategies. The occupants' adverse perceptions and symptoms were significantly reduced by the intervention. The improvement of the indoor climate was most pronounced in the cellular offices, where both the floor material...

  13. Building a Culture of Health Informatics Innovation and Entrepreneurship: A New Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa; Alshammari, Riyad; Almutairi, Mariam; Jamal, Amr; Alshoaib, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and innovation within the health informatics (HI) scientific community are relatively sluggish when compared to other disciplines such as computer science and engineering. Healthcare in general, and specifically, the health informatics scientific community needs to embrace more innovative and entrepreneurial practices. In this paper, we explore the concepts of innovation and entrepreneurship as they apply to the health informatics scientific community. We also outline several strategies to improve the culture of innovation and entrepreneurship within the health informatics scientific community such as: (I) incorporating innovation and entrepreneurship in health informatics education; (II) creating strong linkages with industry and healthcare organizations; (III) supporting national health innovation and entrepreneurship competitions; (IV) creating a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship within healthcare organizations; (V) developing health informatics policies that support innovation and entrepreneurship based on internationally recognized standards; and (VI) develop an health informatics entrepreneurship ecosystem. With these changes, we conclude that embracing health innovation and entrepreneurship may be more readily accepted over the long-term within the health informatics scientific community.

  14. Building a Culture of Health Informatics Innovation and Entrepreneurship: A New Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa; Alshammari, Riyad; Almutairi, Mariam; Jamal, Amr; Alshoaib, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and innovation within the health informatics (HI) scientific community are relatively sluggish when compared to other disciplines such as computer science and engineering. Healthcare in general, and specifically, the health informatics scientific community needs to embrace more innovative and entrepreneurial practices. In this paper, we explore the concepts of innovation and entrepreneurship as they apply to the health informatics scientific community. We also outline several strategies to improve the culture of innovation and entrepreneurship within the health informatics scientific community such as: (I) incorporating innovation and entrepreneurship in health informatics education; (II) creating strong linkages with industry and healthcare organizations; (III) supporting national health innovation and entrepreneurship competitions; (IV) creating a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship within healthcare organizations; (V) developing health informatics policies that support innovation and entrepreneurship based on internationally recognized standards; and (VI) develop an health informatics entrepreneurship ecosystem. With these changes, we conclude that embracing health innovation and entrepreneurship may be more readily accepted over the long-term within the health informatics scientific community. PMID:26153003

  15. Community Engaged Leadership to Advance Health Equity and Build Healthier Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisha Holden

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Health is a human right. Equity in health implies that ideally everyone should have a fair opportunity to attain their full health potential and, more pragmatically, that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential. Addressing the multi-faceted health needs of ethnically and culturally diverse individuals in the United States is a complex issue that requires inventive strategies to reduce risk factors and buttress protective factors to promote greater well-being among individuals, families, and communities. With growing diversity concerning various ethnicities and nationalities; and with significant changes in the constellation of multiple of risk factors that can influence health outcomes, it is imperative that we delineate strategic efforts that encourage better access to primary care, focused community-based programs, multi-disciplinary clinical and translational research methodologies, and health policy advocacy initiatives that may improve individuals’ longevity and quality of life.

  16. Community Engaged Leadership to Advance Health Equity and Build Healthier Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kisha; Akintobi, Tabia; Hopkins, Jammie; Belton, Allyson; McGregor, Brian; Blanks, Starla; Wrenn, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    Health is a human right. Equity in health implies that ideally everyone should have a fair opportunity to attain their full health potential and, more pragmatically, that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential. Addressing the multi-faceted health needs of ethnically and culturally diverse individuals in the United States is a complex issue that requires inventive strategies to reduce risk factors and buttress protective factors to promote greater well-being among individuals, families, and communities. With growing diversity concerning various ethnicities and nationalities; and with significant changes in the constellation of multiple of risk factors that can influence health outcomes, it is imperative that we delineate strategic efforts that encourage better access to primary care, focused community-based programs, multi-disciplinary clinical and translational research methodologies, and health policy advocacy initiatives that may improve individuals’ longevity and quality of life.

  17. A garage-building programme for the city of Vienna and resulting air quality. Related health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tvrdy, C.; Walter, R. [Inst. of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    Urban traffic influences air quality in cities considerably. This is particularly true for the medieval parts of the big European cities, which have not been designed for today s heavy traffic. A problem closely associated with city traffic, is the lack of parking lots, particularly for residents. In Vienna, the parking problem is tackled by the building of underground car parks. In the next years more than 50 large garages (>100 sites) are being planned. The main goal is the clearing of the beautiful old places and streets of Vienna from the bulk of parking vehicles and supplying the citizens with parking spaces in the neighbourhood. According to a recent decision of the City Council of Vienna the construction of `large garages` (>100 parking spaces) requires an official approval by various local authorities. Among them are those responsible for town design and architecture, for fire precaution and fire fighting, for city traffic, for planning and building and for environmental health. In this context the Institute of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna faced the task of establishing criteria for a health risk assessment linked with `large garages`. Health-risks may be caused by air pollution and noise. This presentation deals with the air pollution problem. Air pollution problems may occur due to traffic in and out of the garage, by insufficient ventilation systems and by construction failures. In the garage programme the health officers have to bring evidence that residents of the houses with underground car parks and residents in the close neighbourhood are not exposed to any health risk due to air pollution

  18. BUILDING TIES”: USE OF DIALOGUE IN PROMOTING HEALTH OF THE ELDERLY

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Aniceto Ferreira Figueirêdo; Thalmo da Costa Barros

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to describe educational activities, developed with a group of the elderly in the city of Itaporanga-PB. These activities relate to the practice of health education for discussion of hypertension and diabetes, constituted by professionals in primary care of psychology, pharmacy, physiotherapy and social service core to support family health (NASF), along with the health teams family (FHS ) of the city. The groups were built by elderly between 68 and 75 years of both sex...

  19. Effect of renovating an office building on occupants' comfort and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan; Brohus, H.; Hyldgaard, C. E.;

    2001-01-01

    . Before the floor material was installed in the office building, a full-scale exposure experiment was performed in the laboratory. The new ventilation strategy and renovation of the HVAC system were selected on the basis of laboratory experiments on a full-scale mock-up of a cellular office. The severity...

  20. Coalition Building for Health: A Community Garden Pilot Project with Apartment Dwelling Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Lynne K; Blood-Siegfried, Jane; Champagne, Mary; Al-Jumaily, Maha; Biederman, Donna J

    2015-01-01

    Refugees often experience compromised health from both pre- and post-migration stressors. Coalition theory has helped guide the development of targeted programs to address the health care needs of vulnerable populations. Using the Community Coalition Action Theory as a framework, a coalition was formed to implement a community garden with apartment-dwelling refugees. Outcomes included successful coalition formation, a community garden, reported satisfaction from all gardeners with increased vegetable intake, access to culturally meaningful foods, and evidence of increased community engagement. The opportunity for community health nurses to convene a coalition to affect positive health for refugees is demonstrated. PMID:26212466

  1. Share of Nations in 37 International Public Health Journals: An Equity and Diversity Perspective Towards Health Research Capacity Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E de Leeuw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper contributes to further exploration of inequity in access to health research capacity development by examining the representation of different nations in international public health journals. It also aims to examine the degree of diversity that exists in these journals.Methods: This study is a descriptive survey. It was done with objective sampling on 37 ISI health journals on October of 2008.The number and nationality of people in different editorial positions of the journals was identified. The second analy­sis involved recalculating the numbers obtained for each nation to the population size of nations per million inhabitants. In order to better compare countries in terms of presence in editorial team of the journals, a ‘public health editor equity gap ratio' (PHEEGR was developed.Results: Low income countries have occupied none of the leadership positions of chief editor or associate /assistant chief editors and middle income countries at maximum shared less than 5 percent. The PHEEGR gap in access to the different editorial positions between highest to the lowest representation of countries was 16/1 for chief editors, 12/1 for associate editors , 335/1 for editorial boards and 202/1 for associate editorial boards. However, after normalizing the data to the country's population, the gap increased significantly.Conclusion: There is an imbalance and possibly even inequity in the composition of editorial boards and offices of interna­tional health journals that should be paid significant attention. This can contribute to fill the equity gap exists between health in developing and developed countries.

  2. O desafio da política de atendimento à infância e à adolescência na construção de políticas públicas eqüitativas The challenge of health care provision for children and adolescents as part of equitable public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Magalhães de Mendonça

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisou a nova política social que se configurou pela assimilação da noção de proteção social integral com vistas à eqüidade. Os seus pressupostos marcaram a reforma social contida no texto constitucional de 1988 e nas leis regulamentadoras dos direitos assegurados ­ assistência social, saúde e educação públicas ­ nos anos 90. Mostrou-se que, no contexto precedente, a população jovem no Brasil apresentava situação de grande vulnerabilidade, em face da sua posição na estrutura social, reforçada pelo acesso diferenciado a bens e serviços públicos. A análise da política de atendimento para a infância e adolescência, que enfatizou a intersetorialidade e redefiniu os programas e ações sociais e de saúde, nos anos 90, não pretendeu ser conclusiva, mas apontou algumas tendências na reordenação da política de assistência pública para o população jovem pobre, compatíveis com alguns avanços dos indicadores sociais de vulnerabilidade na área da saúde, educação e trabalho na década. Contudo, considerou-se que essa reorientação renovou a tensão entre a focalização nos segmentos mais vulneráveis, com seletividade das ações a serem oferecidas e a universalização com integralidade da proteção social.The author analyzes the new social policy shaped by the assimilation of the notion of integral social protection with a view towards equity. The premises marked the social reform contained in the wording of the 1988 Constitution and in the laws regulating the respective rights during the 1990s, including public social assistance, health care, and education. The article demonstrates how, in the former context, Brazil's children and adolescents were subject to great vulnerability due to their position in the country's social structure, aggravated by differential access to public goods and services. An analysis of the health care policy for children and adolescents, emphasizing an inter

  3. Building Trust and Relationships Between Patients and Providers: An Essential Complement to Health Literacy in HIV Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Rose, Carol; Cuca, Yvette P; Webel, Allison R; Solís Báez, Solymar S; Holzemer, William L; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Sanzero Eller, Lucille; Reid, Paula; Johnson, Mallory O; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Reyes, Darcel; Nokes, Kathleen; Nicholas, Patrice K; Matshediso, Ellah; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Sabone, Motshedisi B; Ntsayagae, Esther I; Shaibu, Sheila; Corless, Inge B; Wantland, Dean; Lindgren, Teri

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is important for access to and quality of HIV care. While most models of health literacy acknowledge the importance of the patient-provider relationship to disease management, a more nuanced understanding of this relationship is needed. Thematic analysis from 28 focus groups with HIV-experienced patients (n = 135) and providers (n = 71) identified a long-term and trusting relationship as an essential part of HIV treatment over the continuum of HIV care. We found that trust and relationship building over time were important for patients with HIV as well as for their providers. An expanded definition of health literacy that includes gaining a patient's trust and engaging in a process of health education and information sharing over time could improve HIV care. Expanding clinical perspectives to include trust and the importance of the patient-provider relationship to a shared understanding of health literacy may improve patient experiences and engagement in care. PMID:27080926

  4. Building Research Integrity and Capacity (BRIC): An Educational Initiative to Increase Research Literacy among Community Health Workers and Promotores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebeker, Camille; López-Arenas, Araceli

    2016-03-01

    While citizen science is gaining attention of late, for those of us involved in community-based public health research, community/citizen involvement in research has steadily increased over the past 50 years. Community Health Workers (CHWs), also known as Promotores de Salud in the Latino community, are critical to reaching underserved populations, where health disparities are more prevalent. CHWs/Promotores provide health education and services and may also assist with the development and implementation of community- and clinic-based research studies. Recognizing that CHWs typically have no formal academic training in research design or methods, and considering that rigor in research is critical to obtaining meaningful results, we designed instruction to fill this gap. We call this educational initiative "Building Research Integrity and Capacity" or BRIC. The BRIC training consists of eight modules that can be administered as a self-paced training or incorporated into in-person, professional development geared to a specific health intervention study. While we initially designed this culturally-grounded, applied ethics training for Latino/Hispanic community research facilitators, BRIC training modules have been adapted for and tested with non-Latino novice research facilitators. This paper describes the BRIC core content and instructional design process. PMID:27047588

  5. Are doctors the structural weakness in the e-health building?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, T J; Celia, C

    2013-10-01

    Progressive evaluations by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) demonstrate that health care is now or becoming unaffordable. This means nations must change the way they manage health care. The costly nature of health care in most nations, as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) seems independent of the national funding models. Increasing evidence is demonstrating that the lack of involvement by clinicians (doctors, nurses, pharmacists, ancillary care and patients) in e-health projects is a major factor for the costly failures of many of these projects. The essential change in focus required to improve healthcare delivery using e-health technologies has to be on clinical care. To achieve this change clinicians must be involved at all stages of e-health implementations. From a clinicians perspective medicine is not a business. Our business is clinical medicine and e-health must be focussed on clinical decision making. This paper views the roles of physicians in e-health structural reforms.

  6. Building Teams in Primary Care: What Do Nonlicensed Allied Health Workers Want?

    OpenAIRE

    Saba, George W.; Taché, Stephanie; Ward, Lisa; Chen, Ellen H.; Hammer, Hali

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nonlicensed allied health workers are becoming increasingly important in collaborative team care, yet we know little about their experiences while filling these roles. To explore their perceptions of working as health coaches in a chronic-disease collaborative team, the teamlet model, we conducted a qualitative study to understand the nature and dynamics of this emerging role.

  7. Are doctors the structural weakness in the e-health building?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, T J; Celia, C

    2013-10-01

    Progressive evaluations by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) demonstrate that health care is now or becoming unaffordable. This means nations must change the way they manage health care. The costly nature of health care in most nations, as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) seems independent of the national funding models. Increasing evidence is demonstrating that the lack of involvement by clinicians (doctors, nurses, pharmacists, ancillary care and patients) in e-health projects is a major factor for the costly failures of many of these projects. The essential change in focus required to improve healthcare delivery using e-health technologies has to be on clinical care. To achieve this change clinicians must be involved at all stages of e-health implementations. From a clinicians perspective medicine is not a business. Our business is clinical medicine and e-health must be focussed on clinical decision making. This paper views the roles of physicians in e-health structural reforms. PMID:24134174

  8. Utilizing the School Health Index to Build Collaboration between a University and an Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S.; Reed, Ernestine A.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Insufficient attention has been paid to the process of conducting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's School Health Index (SHI) to promote collaboration between universities and urban school districts when developing adolescent health promotion initiatives. This article provides an overview of the real-world contextual…

  9. "Fair and Equitable Treatment" in Investment Treaties: Function of general provisions (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KOTERA Akira

    2008-01-01

    Bilateral investment treaties (BITs) typically obligate a contracting country to grant "fair and equitable treatment" (hereinafter referred to as "fair treatment") to the investments of other contracting country's investors, such as their subsidiaries. In the past, the fair treatment obligation attracted scant attention due to the abstractness of the provision; such was certainly the case in Japan. However, the fair treatment obligation in recent years jumped into the spotlight as the provisi...

  10. Building a health care workforce for the future: more physicians, professional reforms, and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Atul; Niecko-Najjum, Lidia M

    2013-11-01

    Traditionally, projections of US health care demand have been based upon a combination of existing trends in usage and idealized or expected delivery system changes. For example, 1990s health care demand projections were based upon an expectation that delivery models would move toward closed, tightly managed care networks and would greatly decrease the demand for subspecialty care. Today, however, a different equation is needed on which to base such projections. Realistic workforce planning must take into account the fact that expanded access to health care, a growing and aging population, increased comorbidity, and longer life expectancy will all increase the use of health care services per capita over the next few decades--at a time when the number of physicians per capita will begin to drop. New technologies and more aggressive screening may also change the equation. Strategies to address these increasing demands on the health system must include expanded physician training.

  11. Community engagement and its impact on child health disparities: building blocks, examples, and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Eduardo R; Nash, Creshelle

    2009-11-01

    National attention to racial and ethnic health disparities has increased over the last decades, but marked improvements in minority health, especially among children, have been slow to emerge. A life-course perspective with sustained community engagement takes into account root causes of poor health in minority and low-income communities. This perspective involves a variety of primary care, public health, and academic stakeholders. A life-course perspective holds great promise for having a positive impact on health inequities. In this article we provide background information on available tools and resources for engaging with communities. We also offer examples of community-primary care provider interventions that have had a positive impact on racial and ethnic health disparities. Common elements of these projects are described; additional local and national resources are listed; and future research needs, specifically in communities around issues that are relevant to children, are articulated. Examples throughout the history of pediatrics show the potential to eliminate racial and ethnic health disparities not only for children but also for all populations across the life course. PMID:19861475

  12. Building Service Delivery Networks: Partnership Evolution Among Children’s Behavioral Health Agencies in Response to New Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunger, Alicia C.; Doogan, Nathan J.; Cao, Yiwen

    2014-01-01

    Meeting the complex needs of youth with behavioral health problems requires a coordinated network of community-based agencies. Although fiscal scarcity or retrenchment can limit coordinated services, munificence can stimulate service delivery partnerships as agencies expand programs, hire staff, and spend more time coordinating services. This study examines the 2-year evolution of referral and staff expertise sharing networks in response to substantial new funding for services within a regional network of children’s mental health organizations. Quantitative network survey data were collected from directors of 22 nonprofit organizations that receive funding from a county government-based behavioral health service fund. Both referral and staff expertise sharing networks changed over time, but results of a stochastic actor-oriented model of network dynamics suggest the nature of this change varies for these networks. Agencies with higher numbers of referral and staff expertise sharing partners tend to maintain these ties and/or develop new relationships over the 2 years. Agencies tend to refer to agencies they trust, but trust was not associated with staff expertise sharing ties. However, agencies maintain or form staff expertise sharing ties with referral partners, or with organizations that provide similar services. In addition, agencies tend to reciprocate staff expertise sharing, but not referrals. Findings suggest that during periods of resource munificence and service expansion, behavioral health organizations build service delivery partnerships in complex ways that build upon prior collaborative history and coordinate services among similar types of providers. Referral partnerships can pave the way for future information sharing relationships. PMID:25574359

  13. Privacy protection and public goods: building a genetic database for health research in Newfoundland and Labrador

    OpenAIRE

    Kosseim, Patricia; Pullman, Daryl; Perrot-Daley, Astrid; Hodgkinson, Kathy; Street, Catherine; Rahman, Proton

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a legal and ethical analysis of some of the implementation challenges faced by the Population Therapeutics Research Group (PTRG) at Memorial University (Canada), in using genealogical information offered by individuals for its genetics research database. Materials and methods This paper describes the unique historical and genetic characteristics of the Newfoundland and Labrador founder population, which gave rise to the opportunity for PTRG to build the Newfoundland Genea...

  14. Wandering of the modal parameters in existing building: application to structural health monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Gueguen, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Ambient vibrations in building is of increasing interest for applications in mechanical engineering, civil engineering and earthquake engineering. With advances in data acquisition systems (number of measurement points, continuous recording, low-noise instrument) and advances in signal processing algorithms, further and better studies can be conducted on civil engineering structures for evaluating their modal parameters and their physical properties. This study is focused on long- and short-t...

  15. Uncertainty analysis of practical structural health monitoring systems currently employed for tall buildings consisting of small number of sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Kenta; Mita, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Because of social background, such as repeated large earthquakes and cheating in design and construction, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are getting strong attention. The SHM systems are in a practical phase. An SHM system consisting of small number of sensors has been introduced to 6 tall buildings in Shinjuku area. Including them, there are 2 major issues in the SHM systems consisting of small number of sensors. First, optimal system number of sensors and the location are not well-defined. In the practice, system placement is determined based on rough prediction and experience. Second, there are some uncertainties in estimation results by the SHM systems. Thus, the purpose of this research is to provide useful information for increasing reliability of SHM system and to improve estimation results based on uncertainty analysis of the SHM systems. The important damage index used here is the inter-story drift angle. The uncertainty considered here are number of sensors, earthquake motion characteristics, noise in data, error between numerical model and real building, nonlinearity of parameter. Then I have analyzed influence of each factor to estimation accuracy. The analysis conducted here will help to decide sensor system design considering valance of cost and accuracy. Because of constraint on the number of sensors, estimation results by the SHM system has tendency to provide smaller values. To overcome this problem, a compensation algorithm was discussed and presented. The usefulness of this compensation method was demonstrated for 40 story S and RC building models with nonlinear response.

  16. Radon health hazards of some rocks of Iranian origin, frequently used as building stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon exhalation rate from various types of stones, used inside the living buildings, is a major factor for evaluation of the environmental radon level. To verify the significance and lethal impacts of this unknown and obscure source of radiation upon the people around the world, the exhaled radon gas concentrations from the rocks, granodiorite, granite, limestone and aragonite, and the effect of their block sizes on the exhalation rate, have been studied. The block samples, collected from their ores, were transferred to plastic containers in which the CR-39 detectors could properly be placed and air tightened, for concentration measurements. The results show the radon concentration of 7.4 ± 0.8, 6.6 ± 0.6, 0.08 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.02 kBq m-3 for granodiorite, granite, limestone and aragonite, respectively. The corresponding annual dose values in a closed environment are: 186 ± 20, 166 ± 15, 2.5 ± 1 and 2 ± 1 mSv y-1. These absorbed dose values indicate that granodiorite and granite when used inside the buildings could increase the risk of various cancers while aragonite and limestone have much lower risks and are recommended for use inside the buildings. The former ones when used in the closure areas remedial action should be implemented. The results do not show obvious dependence between the rock size of the samples and their radon exhalation rate. (author)

  17. Front-line worker engagement: greening health care, improving worker and patient health, and building better jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenven, Laura; Copeland, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Frontline workers have a great deal to contribute to improving environmental sustainability of their employers and the health of workers and patients. This article discusses a national project of the Healthcare Career Advancement Program, funded by the U.S. Department of Labor to support green jobs development. Implementation was accomplished through a labor/management collaboration between union locals and 11 employers in four regions throughout the United States. The project developed and implemented a model of training and education for environmental service workers and other frontline health-care workers in hospital settings that supported systems change and built new roles for these workers. It empowered them to contribute to triple bottom line outcomes in support of People (patients, workers, the community), Planet (environmental sustainability and a lower carbon footprint), and Profit (cost savings for the institutions). In the process workers more clearly articulated their important role as a part of the healthcare team and learned how they could contribute to improved patient and worker health and safety.

  18. Health informatics and analytics - building a program to integrate business analytics across clinical and administrative disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Monica Chiarini; Deckard, Gloria J; Klein, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations must develop integrated health information systems to respond to the numerous government mandates driving the movement toward reimbursement models emphasizing value-based and accountable care. Success in this transition requires integrated data analytics, supported by the combination of health informatics, interoperability, business process design, and advanced decision support tools. This case study presents the development of a master's level cross- and multidisciplinary informatics program offered through a business school. The program provides students from diverse backgrounds with the knowledge, leadership, and practical application skills of health informatics, information systems, and data analytics that bridge the interests of clinical and nonclinical professionals. This case presents the actions taken and challenges encountered in navigating intra-university politics, specifying curriculum, recruiting the requisite interdisciplinary faculty, innovating the educational format, managing students with diverse educational and professional backgrounds, and balancing multiple accreditation agencies. PMID:27274022

  19. Health informatics and analytics - building a program to integrate business analytics across clinical and administrative disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Monica Chiarini; Deckard, Gloria J; Klein, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations must develop integrated health information systems to respond to the numerous government mandates driving the movement toward reimbursement models emphasizing value-based and accountable care. Success in this transition requires integrated data analytics, supported by the combination of health informatics, interoperability, business process design, and advanced decision support tools. This case study presents the development of a master's level cross- and multidisciplinary informatics program offered through a business school. The program provides students from diverse backgrounds with the knowledge, leadership, and practical application skills of health informatics, information systems, and data analytics that bridge the interests of clinical and nonclinical professionals. This case presents the actions taken and challenges encountered in navigating intra-university politics, specifying curriculum, recruiting the requisite interdisciplinary faculty, innovating the educational format, managing students with diverse educational and professional backgrounds, and balancing multiple accreditation agencies.

  20. Metabolomics: building on a century of biochemistry to guide human health

    OpenAIRE

    German, J. Bruce; Hammock, Bruce D.; Watkins, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Medical diagnosis and treatment efficacy will improve significantly when a more personalized system for health assessment is implemented. This system will require diagnostics that provide sufficiently detailed information about the metabolic status of individuals such that assay results will be able to guide food, drug and lifestyle choices to maintain or improve distinct aspects of health without compromising others. Achieving this goal will use the new science of metabolomics – comprehensiv...

  1. Building interdisciplinary leadership skills among health practitioners in the 21st century: an innovative training model

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti eNegandhi; Himanshu eNegandhi; Ritika eTiwari; Kavya eSharma; Sanjay P Zodpey; Zahiruddin eQuazi; Abhay eGaidhane; Jayalakshmi eN.; Meenakshi eGijare; Rajiv eYeravdekar

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning is the focus of 21st century global educational reforms. In India there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners, and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nur...

  2. Building Resilience on Adolescent Mental Health Associated with Emerging Risk and Protective Factors among Ethnic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Arat, G

    2014-01-01

    A bulk of studies have focused on systematically catalogued risk and protective factors (e.g., parental monitoring, peer, neighborhood support) in terms of adolescent mental health status concerning resilience; however, they did not display any improvement regarding adolescent mental health, particularly in school-based interventions. Therefore, I suggested that whether other emerging factors (e.g., nutrition, physical activity) could be beneficial to promote effective school-based interventi...

  3. Building a Thriving Nation: 21st-Century Vision and Practice to Advance Health and Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Larry

    2016-04-01

    It is a great time for prevention. As the United States explores what health in our country should look like, it is an extraordinary time to highlight the role of prevention in improving health, saving lives, and saving money. The Affordable Care Act's investment in prevention has spurred innovation by communities and states to keep people healthy and safein the first place This includes growing awareness that community conditions are critical in determining health and that there is now a strong track record of prevention success. Community prevention strategies create lasting changes by addressing specific policies and practices in the environments and institutions that shape our lives and our health-from schools and workplaces to neighborhoods and government. Action at the community level also fosters health equity-the opportunity for every person to achieve optimal health regardless of identity, neighborhood, ability, or social status-and is often the impetus for national-level decisions that vitally shape the well-being of individuals and populations.

  4. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AI Syazwan,1 B Mohd Rafee,1 Hafizan Juahir,2 AZF Azman,1 AM Nizar,3 Z Izwyn,4 K Syahidatussyakirah,1 AA Muhaimin,5 MA Syafiq Yunos,6 AR Anita,1 J Muhamad Hanafiah,1 MS Shaharuddin,7 A Mohd Ibthisham,8 I Mohd Hasmadi,9 MN Mohamad Azhar,1 HS Azizan,1 I Zulfadhli,10 J Othman,11 M Rozalini,12 FT Kamarul131Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 2Department of Environmental Science/ Environmental Forensics Research Center (ENFORCE, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 3Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, 4Department of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Biomedical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 5Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 6Plant Assessment Technology (PAT, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 7Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 8Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 9Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 10Faculty of Built Environment and Architect, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 11Department of Counselor Education and Psychology Counseling, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 12Occupational Safety, Health and Environment Unit, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, 13ERALAB SDN. BHD. (Environmental Research and Analytical Laboratory Sdn. Bhd., Selangor, MALAYSIAPurpose: To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial

  5. An exploration of equitable science teaching practices for students with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marlene

    In this study, a mixed methods approach was used to gather descriptive exploratory information regarding the teaching of science to middle grades students with learning disabilities within a general education classroom. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' beliefs and their practices concerning providing equitable opportunities for students with learning disabilities in a general education science classroom. Equitable science teaching practices take into account each student's differences and uses those differences to inform instructional decisions and tailor teaching practices based on the student's individualized learning needs. Students with learning disabilities are similar to their non-disabled peers; however, they need some differentiation in instruction to perform to their highest potential achievement levels (Finson, Ormsbee, & Jensen, 2011). In the quantitative phase, the purpose of the study was to identify patterns in the beliefs of middle grades science teachers about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education classroom. In the qualitative phase, the purpose of the study was to present examples of instruction in the classrooms of science education reform-oriented middle grades science teachers. The quantitative phase of the study collected data from 274 sixth through eighth grade teachers in the State of Florida during the 2007--2008 school year using The Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities Inventory. Overall, the quantitative findings revealed that middle grades science teachers held positive beliefs about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education science classroom. The qualitative phase collected data from multiple sources (interviews, classroom observations, and artifacts) to develop two case studies of reform-oriented middle grades science teachers who were expected to provide equitable science teaching practices. Based on their responses to The

  6. Building effective service linkages in primary mental health care: a narrative review part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Sharon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care services have not generally been effective in meeting mental health care needs. There is evidence that collaboration between primary care and specialist mental health services can improve clinical and organisational outcomes. It is not clear however what factors enable or hinder effective collaboration. The objective of this study was to examine the factors that enable effective collaboration between specialist mental health services and primary mental health care. Methods A narrative and thematic review of English language papers published between 1998 and 2009. An expert reference group helped formulate strategies for policy makers. Studies of descriptive and qualitative design from Australia, New Zealand, UK, Europe, USA and Canada were included. Data were extracted on factors reported as enablers or barriers to development of service linkages. These were tabulated by theme at clinical and organisational levels and the inter-relationship between themes was explored. Results A thematic analysis of 30 papers found the most frequently cited group of factors was "partnership formation", specifically role clarity between health care workers. Other factor groups supporting clinical partnership formation were staff support, clinician attributes, clinic physical features and evaluation and feedback. At the organisational level a supportive institutional environment of leadership and change management was important. The expert reference group then proposed strategies for collaboration that would be seen as important, acceptable and feasible. Because of the variability of study types we did not exclude on quality and findings are weighted by the number of studies. Variability in local service contexts limits the generalisation of findings. Conclusion The findings provide a framework for health planners to develop effective service linkages in primary mental health care. Our expert reference group proposed five areas of

  7. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds at a building with health and comfort complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschler, C J; Shields, H C; Rainer, D

    1990-05-01

    For four separate periods over a 1-yr span, the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been measured at a facility with a history of occupant complaints. The reported symptoms were characteristic of "sick building syndrome." This study was initiated to determine if VOC levels were higher than those measured in "complaint-free" buildings and, if so, to identify sources and other factors that might contribute to the elevated concentrations. VOCs were collected with passive samplers, using a sampling interval that lasted from 3 to 4 weeks. Following collection, the samplers were extracted, and the compounds in the extract were separated and identified using standard gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric procedures. Over 40 different organic compounds with concentrations in excess of 1 microgram/m3 were identified; several species had values greater than 100 micrograms/m3. For each of the first three sampling periods, the total concentration of VOCs detected using this methodology was in excess of 3 mg/m3. Sources of the identified compounds included cleaning products, floor wax, latex paints, and reentrained motor vehicle exhaust. However, the dominant source was the hydraulic system for the buildings' elevators. Compounds were volatilizing from the hydraulic fluid used in this system. Neither the elevator shafts nor the mechanical room housing the fluid reservoirs were vented to the outside. The problem was compounded by the relatively small amount of outside air used for ventilation at this facility (less than 6 L/sec [12 cfm]/occupant or about 1/4 air change/hr). At such low ventilation rates, compounds with strong sources can achieve high steady-state concentrations within the facility. Recommendations have been made to reduce the VOC levels at this site. Although implementing the recommendations will be costly, even a slight improvement in employee productivity will offset these costs.

  8. Fuzzified Data Based Neural Network Modeling for Health Assessment of Multistorey Shear Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Moyi Sahoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to propose identification methodologies for multistorey shear buildings using the powerful technique of Artificial Neural Network (ANN models which can handle fuzzified data. Identification with crisp data is known, and also neural network method has already been used by various researchers for this case. Here, the input and output data may be in fuzzified form. This is because in general we may not get the corresponding input and output values exactly (in crisp form, but we have only the uncertain information of the data. This uncertain data is assumed in terms of fuzzy number, and the corresponding problem of system identification is investigated.

  9. Integrating Continuing Professional Development With Health System Reform: Building Pillars of Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, David A; Rayburn, William F

    2016-01-01

    Clinical failures sparked a widespread desire for health system reform at the beginning of the 21st century, but related efforts have resulted in changes that are either slow or nonexistent. In response, academic medicine has moved in two directions: (1) system-wide reform using electronic health records, practice networks, and widespread data applications (a macro pathway); and (2) professional development of individual clinicians through continuous performance improvement (a micro pathway). Both pathways exist to improve patient care and population health, yet each suffers from limitations in widespread implementation. The authors call for a better union between these two parallel pathways through four pillars of support: (1) an acknowledgment that both pathways are essential to each other and to the final outcome they intend to achieve, (2) a strong faculty commitment to educate about quality improvement and patient safety at all education levels, (3) a reengineering of tools for professional development to serve as effective change agents, and (4) the development of standards to sustain this alignment of pathways. With these pillars of support integrating continuing professional development with health system reform, the authors envision a better functioning system, with improved metrics and value to enhance patient care and population health. PMID:26556296

  10. Health promotion for adolescent childhood leukemia survivors: building on prevention science and ehealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Diane L; Lindemulder, Susan J; Goldberg, Linn; Stadler, Diane D; Smith, Jennifer

    2013-06-01

    Teenage survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased morbidity likely due to their prior multicomponent treatment. Habits established in adolescence can impact individuals' subsequent adult behaviors. Accordingly, healthy lifestyles, avoiding harmful actions, and appropriate disease surveillance are of heightened importance among teenage survivors. We review the findings from prevention science and their relevance to heath promotion. The capabilities and current uses of eHealth components including e-learning, serious video games, exergaming, behavior tracking, individual messaging, and social networking are briefly presented. The health promotion needs of adolescent survivors are aligned with those eHealth aspects to propose a new paradigm to enhance the wellbeing of adolescent ALL survivors.

  11. The laboratory efficiencies initiative: partnership for building a sustainable national public health laboratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderhof, John C; Moulton, Anthony D; Ned, Renée M; Nicholson, Janet K A; Chu, May C; Becker, Scott J; Blank, Eric C; Breckenridge, Karen J; Waddell, Victor; Brokopp, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in early 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Public Health Laboratories launched the Laboratory Efficiencies Initiative (LEI) to help public health laboratories (PHLs) and the nation's entire PHL system achieve and maintain sustainability to continue to conduct vital services in the face of unprecedented financial and other pressures. The LEI focuses on stimulating substantial gains in laboratories' operating efficiency and cost efficiency through the adoption of proven and promising management practices. In its first year, the LEI generated a strategic plan and a number of resources that PHL directors can use toward achieving LEI goals. Additionally, the first year saw the formation of a dynamic community of practitioners committed to implementing the LEI strategic plan in coordination with state and local public health executives, program officials, foundations, and other key partners.

  12. Building alliances for improving newborn health in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Petrie, Molly K; Mazia, Goldy; Serpa, Magdalena; Pooley, Bertha; Marshall, Margaret; Meléndez, Carlos; Vicuña, Marisol

    2014-07-01

    The regional Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) Neonatal Alliance and national neonatal alliances in Bolivia, El Salvador, and Peru were studied through in-depth interviews and a review of publications. Findings were analyzed to distill successful strategies, structures, and tools for improving neonatal health by working through alliances that can be replicated at the regional or national level. The studies found the following factors were the most critical for successful outcomes from alliance work: inclusion of the Ministry of Health as a leader or primary stakeholder; a committed, diverse, technically expert, and horizontal membership; the presence of champions for neonatal health at the national level; development of a shared work plan based on feasible objectives; the use of shared financing mechanisms; the use of informal and dynamic organizational structures; and a commitment to scientific evidence-based programming. The relationship between the regional and national alliances was found to be mutually beneficial. PMID:25211677

  13. Health beliefs related to diarrhea in Haitian children: building transcultural nursing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, S M; Cobb, A K

    1990-01-01

    Regardless of where they live or under what circumstances, mothers throughout the world seem to have a compelling desire to provide the best possible health care for their children (Huston, 1979). Haitian mothers living in the Dominican Republic were no exception. The health beliefs and practices of these mothers related primarily to diarrhea among their children which demonstrated a concern and resourcefulness that is commendable. The results of this study clearly indicate the importance of transcultural nurses conducting culturally relevant research as a basis to develop sound health programs in developing countries. Diarrhea was identified as the single most important threat to a child's health in these communities. That mothers did not know about the correct ingredients and/or proportions for oral rehydration solutions (Western views) was of interest. Although the Dominican government makes some commercial packets of ORS, most of the women interviewed did not have ready access to this product. This finding reflected the need for transcultural nurses to offer to teach mothers how to make ORS using the sugar, salt, and water they had available. Since the mothers' perception that diarrhea was a dangerous threat to their children's health, was verified by childhood mortality statistics in the bateys, it would seem that ORS could make a significant impact on the health status of the children. Breastfeeding also was a major health belief factor associated with the treatment of diarrhea. Even though the majority of mothers believed breast feeding should be continued if a child had diarrhea, a number believed it should be discontinued. Nurses working with CHWs will need to emphasize the importance of breastfeeding and help them to develop creative ways of communicating this information to the mothers. The second most dangerous threat to the child identified by the mothers was respiratory ailments. This suggests a new area of concentration for future research and

  14. Building Partnerships With Rural Arkansas Faith Communities to Promote Veterans’ Mental Health: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Greer; Hunt, Justin; Haynes, Tiffany F.; Bryant, Keneshia; Cheney, Ann M.; Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Reaves, Christina; Sullivan, Steve; Lewis, Caleb; Barnes, Bonita; Barnes, Michael; Hudson, Cliff; Jegley, Susan; Larkin, Bridgette; Russell, Shane; White, Penny; Gilmore, LaNissa; Claypoole, Sterling; Smith, Rev. Johnny; Richison, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background The Mental Health–Clergy Partnership Program established partnerships between institutional (Department of Veterans’ Affairs [VA] chaplains, mental health providers) and community (local clergy, parishioners) groups to develop programs to assist rural veterans with mental health needs. Objectives Describe the development, challenges, and lessons learned from the Mental Health–Clergy Partnership Program in three Arkansas towns between 2009 and 2012. Methods Researchers identified three rural Arkansas sites, established local advisory boards, and obtained quantitative ratings of the extent to which partnerships were participatory. Results Partnerships seemed to become more participatory over time. Each site developed distinctive programs with variation in fidelity to original program goals. Challenges included developing trust and maintaining racial diversity in local program leadership. Conclusions Academics can partner with local faith communities to create unique programs that benefit the mental health of returning veterans. Research is needed to determine the effectiveness of community based programs, especially relative to typical “top-down” outreach approaches. PMID:24859098

  15. Increasing access and building equity into mental health services: an examination of the potential for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C C

    2001-01-01

    This article explores the use of mental health care services by ethnoracial people in Canada and distinguishes between the reasons for underutilization of services by ethnoracial groups and the barriers which prevent ethnoracial groups from accessing services. Research focusing on Canadian race relations is reviewed to reveal how they are paralleled in the functioning of mainstream mental health care organizations. Existing policies and attitudes are then considered in relation to how they support or impede interventions to increase accessibility to services. Finally, frameworks for organizational change based on multiculturalism and anti-racism are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of both are articulated. PMID:11599135

  16. BUILDING TIES”: USE OF DIALOGUE IN PROMOTING HEALTH OF THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Aniceto Ferreira de Figueirêdo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe educational activities, developed with a group of the elderly in the city of Itaporanga-PB. These activities relate to the practice of health education for discussion of hypertension and diabetes, constituted by professionals in primary care of psychology, pharmacy, physiotherapy and social service core to support family health (NASF, along with the health teams family (FHS of the city. The groups were built by elderly between 68 and 75 years of both sexes, these being conducted in community centers, health facilities close to family. To implement these activities, were used: data projector, computer, stereo and CD player, blowing balls, sheets of paper, projection screen, speaker , microphone, chairs and tables. It was considered that were discussed pathologies that afflict this group, this action caused the service users could reflect not only on hypertension and diabetes, but also about themselves, about their daily lives through knowledge and practices shared that enabled their involvement with the care of the self and the production of life through a conscious and autonomous attitude .

  17. Building the Diversity Bridge Abroad: The Journey to Implement Cultural Competent Health Care in Lausanne, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Alejandra; Paroz, Sophie; Dory, Elody; Green, Alexander; Vu, Francis; Bodenmann, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although the United States has been central in bringing cultural competency into the discussion of high-quality care, health systems all over the world are faced with the effects of global immigration and the widening disparities gap between socioeconomic classes. Lausanne University Hospital is one of five Swiss academic medical…

  18. Integrating Medical and Environmental Sociology with Environmental Health: Crossing Boundaries and Building Connections through Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phil

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the personal and professional processes of developing an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complex issues of environmental health in their community, political-economic, social science, and scientific contexts. This interdisciplinary approach includes a synthesis of research, policy work, and advocacy. To examine…

  19. A chance for change : building an outcome monitoring feedback system for outpatient mental health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Kim de

    2012-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis was to develop an outcome monitoring feedback model for Dutch outpatient mental health care in the Netherlands and to test whether providing feedback to therapists and patients can improve treatment outcomes. Data on patient progress collected in outpatient centers i

  20. WORKPLACE CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH HEALTH AND COMFORT CONCERNS IN THREE OFFICE BUILDINGS IN WASHINGTON, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly 4000 employees of a Federal Agency in Washington, DC were surveyed in March of 1989 to determine their health symptoms, comfort concerns, and reports of odor during the previous year. Their personal characteristics and perceptions of workplace conditions were also determin...

  1. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan, AI; Rafee, B Mohd; Juahir, Hafizan; Azman, AZF; Nizar, AM; Izwyn, Z; Syahidatussyakirah, K; Muhaimin, AA; Yunos, MA Syafiq; Anita, AR; Hanafiah, J Muhamad; Shaharuddin, MS; Ibthisham, A Mohd; Hasmadi, I Mohd; Azhar, MN Mohamad; Azizan, HS; Zulfadhli, I; Othman, J; Rozalini, M; Kamarul, FT

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial workplace setting. Design A cross-sectional study based on a participatory occupational health program conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Malaysia) and Universiti Putra Malaysia. Method A modified version of the indoor environmental checklist published by the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, based on the literature and discussion with occupational health and safety professionals, was used in the evaluation process. Summated scores were given according to the cluster analysis and principal component analysis in the characterization of risk. Environmetric techniques was used to classify the risk of variables in the checklist. Identification of the possible source of item pollutants was also evaluated from a semiquantitative approach. Result Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of factorial components into three clusters (high complaint, moderate-high complaint, moderate complaint), which were further analyzed by discriminant analysis. From this, 15 major variables that influence indoor air quality were determined. Principal component analysis of each cluster revealed that the main factors influencing the high complaint group were fungal-related problems, chemical indoor dispersion, detergent, renovation, thermal comfort, and location of fresh air intake. The moderate-high complaint group showed significant high loading on ventilation, air filters, and smoking-related activities. The moderate complaint group showed high loading on dampness, odor, and thermal comfort. Conclusion This semiquantitative assessment, which graded risk from low to high based on the intensity of the problem, shows promising and reliable results. It should be used as an important tool in the preliminary assessment of indoor air quality and as a

  2. Building sustainable community partnerships into the structure of new academic public health schools and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, Monica; Gillman, Laura B; Boumbulian, Paul; Davis, Marsha; Galen, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    We describe and assess how the College of Public Health at the University of Georgia, established in 2005, has developed formal institutional mechanisms to facilitate community-university partnerships that serve the needs of communities and the university. The College developed these partnerships as part of its founding; therefore, the University of Georgia model may serve as an important model for other new public health programs. One important lesson is the need to develop financial and organizational mechanisms that ensure stability over time. Equally important is attention to how community needs can be addressed by faculty and students in academically appropriate ways. The integration of these 2 lessons ensures that the academic mission is fulfilled at the same time that community needs are addressed. Together, these lessons suggest that multiple formal strategies are warranted in the development of academically appropriate and sustainable university-community partnerships.

  3. Building communication strategy on health prevention through the human-centered design

    OpenAIRE

    Karine de Mello Freire; Caio Marcelo Miolo de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    It has been identified a latent need for developing efficient communication strategies for prevention of diseases and also, design as a potential agent to create communications artifacts that are able to promote self-care. In order to analyze a design process that develops this kind of artifact, an action research in IAPI Health Center in Porto Alegre was done. The action’s goal was to design a strategy to promote self-care to prevent cervical cancer. The process was conducted ...

  4. Building a high quality medical data architecture for multiple uses in an integrated health care environment

    OpenAIRE

    Boterenbrood, Frank; Krediet, Irene; Goossen, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to create a reliable information provisioning system in healthcare for both care and research processes, based on existing data standards and standardized electronic messages. The research question is: How can a Clinical Data Ware House (CDWH) be developed for standardized basic patient data, generic nursing data and data about oncology nursing, allowing management of Electronic Health Record data, electronic data exchange and data analytics? Materials and methods: The ...

  5. Integrated Methodologies Based on Structural Health Monitoring for the Protection of Cutural Heritage Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzoni, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades the need for an effective seismic protection and vulnerability reduction of strategic structures and particularly the architectural heritage determined a growing interest in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) as a measure of passive mitigation of earthquake effects. The object of monitoring is to identify, locate and classify type and severity of damages induced by external actions or degradation phenomena and to assess their effects on the structural performance. In this ...

  6. Right from primary school, I liked science: understanding health research capacity building in sub-Saharan Africa through Kenyan training experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Joseph; Nduati, Ruth; Farquhar, Carey

    2014-02-20

    Defining research career paths that enable Africans to address local and global health issues is essential for population health. This study was conducted to better understand how international health training programs contribute to human resource capacity building in health research. Research career motivations, decision-making and experiences were explored among a small group of Kenyan HIV/AIDS researchers who had completed an international training program. We found that intersecting social dynamics within specific geographic spaces influenced individual training decision-making and motivated research career decisions over time. The concept that 'geo-social motivation' is an important determinant of success for an African considering a research career developed from this study, and may be used to tailor future health research human resource capacity-building programs. PMID:24557949

  7. Privatisation in reproductive health services in Pakistan: three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, T K Sundari

    2010-11-01

    Privatisation in Pakistan's health sector was part of the Structural Adjustment Programme that started in 1998 following the country's acute foreign exchange crisis. This paper examines three examples of privatisation which have taken place in service delivery, management and capacity-building functions in the health sector: 1) large-scale contracting out of publicly-funded health services to private, not-for-profit organisations; 2) social marketing/franchising networks providing reproductive health services; and 3) a public-private partnership involving a consortium of private players and the government of Pakistan. It assesses the extent to which these initiatives have contributed to promoting equitable access to good quality, comprehensive reproductive health services. The paper concludes that these forms of privatisation in Pakistan's health sector have at best made available a limited range of fragmented reproductive health services, often of sub-optimal quality, to a fraction of the population, with poor returns in terms of health and survival, especially for women. This analysis has exposed a deep-rooted malaise within the health system as an important contributor to this situation. Sustained investment in health system strengthening is called for, where resources from both public and private sectors are channelled towards achieving health equity, under the stewardship of the state and with active participation by and accountability to members of civil society. PMID:21111347

  8. Building the microbiome in health and disease: niche construction and social conflict in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Luke; Brown, Sam P

    2015-08-19

    Microbes collectively shape their environment in remarkable ways via the products of their metabolism. The diverse environmental impacts of macro-organisms have been collated and reviewed under the banner of 'niche construction'. Here, we identify and review a series of broad and overlapping classes of bacterial niche construction, ranging from biofilm production to detoxification or release of toxins, enzymes, metabolites and viruses, and review their role in shaping microbiome composition, human health and disease. Some bacterial niche-constructing traits can be seen as extended phenotypes, where individuals actively tailor their environment to their benefit (and potentially to the benefit of others, generating social dilemmas). Other modifications can be viewed as non-adaptive by-products from a producer perspective, yet they may lead to remarkable within-host environmental changes. We illustrate how social evolution and niche construction perspectives offer complementary insights into the dynamics and consequences of these traits across distinct timescales. This review highlights that by understanding the coupled bacterial and biochemical dynamics in human health and disease we can better manage host health.

  9. Building sustainability indicators in the health dimension for solid waste management 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Coutinho, Silvano da Silva; Andre, Silvia Carla Silva; Mendes, Adriana Aparecida; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to prepare a list of sustainability indicators in the health dimension, for urban solid waste management. Methods: a descriptive and exploratory study performed jointly with 52 solid waste specialists, using a three-steps Delphi technique, and a scale measuring the degree of importance for agreement among the researchers in this area. Results: the subjects under study were 92,3% PhD's concentrated in the age group from 30 to 40 years old (32,7%) and 51% were men. At the end of the 3rd step of the Delphi process, the average and standard deviation of all the proposed indicators varied from 4,22 (±0,79) to 4,72 (±0,64), in a scale of scores for each indicator from 1 to 5 (from "dispensable" to "very important"). Results showed the level of correspondence among the participants ranging from 82% to 94% related to those indicators. Conclusion: the proposed indicators may be helpful not only for the identification of data that is updated in this area, but also to enlarge the field of debates of the environmental health policies, directed not only for urban solid waste but for the achievement of better health conditions for the Brazilian context. PMID:27508905

  10. Building Viable Fitness Brands: Importance of Brand Communication Strategies in Attracting Potential Health Club Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio S. Williams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to empirically examine antecedents of sport consumer-based brand equity in the fitness segment of the sport industry (i.e., participatory sport. The proposed framework consisted of market-induced (e.g. word-of-mouth, electronic word-of-mouth and organization-induced antecedents (e.g. price, place that have been theoretically proposed, but not tested. An 18-item paper-based survey was administered to a convenience sample of health club prospects (N= 213. The questionnaire consisted of items measuring price (three items, brand awareness (two items, brand association (three items, electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM (three items, word-of-mouth (WOM (three items, and place (four items. The relationship between independent (i.e., price, place, WOM, eWOM and dependent variables (i.e., brand awareness, brand association within the proposed model were tested using a multiple linear regression analysis (MLR. The results of the proposed model indicated that the four proposed antecedents accounted for a total of 30% of the variance in brand awareness and 14% of the variance in brand association. Specifically, price and WOM were significant predictors of brand awareness as well as brand association. The findings suggest that organization controlled brand strategies such as price, and organic brand communications such as WOM, help shape the perceptions potential health club members have with the health club brand.

  11. Developing more open and equitable relationships with industry to improve advancements in clinical research in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, M; Ryan, C; Menter, A

    2016-06-01

    Relationships between physicians, scientists, and the pharmaceutical industry can be complicated by conflicts of interest. Honest and equitable relationships, however, are essential to the advancement of dermatologic clinical research. Several factors can increase transparency in clinical trials including preregistration of clinical trials, reporting of all data produced from clinical trials, non-industry ownership of clinical trial data, clarity of statistical methods and publication of both positive and negative results. Through collaborative, scientifically rigorous studies, physicians and industry can achieve significant advances in dermatologic care. PMID:27317287

  12. Replacing The Responsibility to Protect: The Equitable Theory of Humanitarian Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciarán Burke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, Ciarán J. Burke argues that the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ initiative has failed. Burke presents a series of fundamental flaws, both with the doctrine advanced by the ICISS, and with the subsequent attempts to incorporate it into the international legal framework. Burke opines that equity, as a source of international law, should instead be used to shed fresh light on the debate, keeping the discourse within the law and away from subjective ethics, and drafting a novel framework which he dubs ‘equitable humanitarian intervention’.

  13. The SAIL Databank: building a national architecture for e-health research and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Simon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vast quantities of electronic data are collected about patients and service users as they pass through health service and other public sector organisations, and these data present enormous potential for research and policy evaluation. The Health Information Research Unit (HIRU aims to realise the potential of electronically-held, person-based, routinely-collected data to conduct and support health-related studies. However, there are considerable challenges that must be addressed before such data can be used for these purposes, to ensure compliance with the legislation and guidelines generally known as Information Governance. Methods A set of objectives was identified to address the challenges and establish the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL system in accordance with Information Governance. These were to: 1 ensure data transportation is secure; 2 operate a reliable record matching technique to enable accurate record linkage across datasets; 3 anonymise and encrypt the data to prevent re-identification of individuals; 4 apply measures to address disclosure risk in data views created for researchers; 5 ensure data access is controlled and authorised; 6 establish methods for scrutinising proposals for data utilisation and approving output; and 7 gain external verification of compliance with Information Governance. Results The SAIL databank has been established and it operates on a DB2 platform (Data Warehouse Edition on AIX running on an IBM 'P' series Supercomputer: Blue-C. The findings of an independent internal audit were favourable and concluded that the systems in place provide adequate assurance of compliance with Information Governance. This expanding databank already holds over 500 million anonymised and encrypted individual-level records from a range of sources relevant to health and well-being. This includes national datasets covering the whole of Wales (approximately 3 million population and local provider

  14. Deconstructing myths, building alliances: a networking model to enhance tobacco control in hospital mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballbè, Montse; Gual, Antoni; Nieva, Gemma; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy for people with severe mental disorders is up to 25 years less in comparison to the general population, mainly due to diseases caused or worsened by smoking. However, smoking is usually a neglected issue in mental healthcare settings. The aim of this article is to describe a strategy to improve tobacco control in the hospital mental healthcare services of Catalonia (Spain). To bridge this gap, the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals launched a nationwide bottom-up strategy in Catalonia in 2007. The strategy relied on the creation of a working group of key professionals from various hospitals -the early adopters- based on Rogers' theory of the Diffusion of Innovations. In 2016, the working group is composed of professionals from 17 hospitals (70.8% of all hospitals in the region with mental health inpatient units). Since 2007, tobacco control has improved in different areas such as increasing mental health professionals' awareness of smoking, training professionals on smoking cessation interventions and achieving good compliance with the national smoking ban. The working group has produced and disseminated various materials, including clinical practice and best practice guidelines, implemented smoking cessation programmes and organised seminars and training sessions on smoking cessation measures in patients with mental illnesses. The next challenge is to ensure effective follow-up for smoking cessation after discharge. While some areas of tobacco control within these services still require significant improvement, the aforementioned initiative promotes successful tobacco control in these settings. PMID:27325123

  15. Theoretical and Practical Premises in Building Up the Health Public Policies in the Field of Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina GAVRILUŢĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing data at European level situate Romania on the last places regarding the rate of organ donation. This fact is also an indicator of the effect of the health policies in Romania in the field of transplant. The research carried out (the study on the population’s attitudes towards the organ donation, the study on the theme of organ transplantation as presented in the Romanian media, and the study on the opinions of the ER doctors, neurologists and neurosurgeons regarding the organ donation and transplantation show different models of approaching the issue of transplant in the European area. The investigations carried out among doctors identify a series of issues which relate, on the one hand, to the cultural component, and, on the other hand, to the structure and functioning of the Romanian health system. The survey carried out in Iași in 2012 shows favorable attitudes towards organ donations in the conditions of a lack of information and of a less effective policy regarding organ donation.

  16. A case study on processes in team building and performance improvement at Government Health Centers in Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Purohit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Public healthcare system in India suffers from poor performance mainly due to the severe shortage and high absenteeism of healthcare providers. The performance is further affected due to low productivity and competencies of the already existing healthcare providers. While management training (with a special focus on human resource issues to address the shortage to healthcare providers has gained some importance in recent past, there has been a very limited focus on how to use the exiting workforce effectively. With this backdrop, training health providers in issues pertaining to team effectiveness becomes very crucial. The case study discusses some of the dimensions of team building, as well as processes involved in performance improvement including problem identification, prioritization, and problem-solving process as demonstrated by health system improvement teams (HSIT′s. Materials and Methods: HSIT′s have been constituted and are functional at 238 secondary level facilities in Rajasthani. The case writer interacted with five HSIT′s from two districts in Rajasthan. We were able to speak to about four to five members from each team for all the five facilities. The information for the case was gathered in two ways. The first was use of an instrument on team building that was given to each member of the team to gauge their individual perception about various team building aspects. The second was with the help of group discussions that were done with all the team members for each all the five teams. All those who were present and willing to be part of the discussion were given instruments and were included in group discussions. As this was an exploratory case study, the sample size was small and, therefore, the findings from group discussion and instruments have been presented together without any quantification of the data. Results: The findings of the case study indicate moderate team empowerment. While HSIT′s were clear

  17. Global Health Education in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharthan, Trishul; North, Crystal M; Attia, Engi F; Christiani, David C; Checkley, William; West, T Eoin

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of pulmonary and critical care medicine fellowship programs in the United States offer global health training opportunities. Formal, integrated global health programs within pulmonary and critical care fellowships are relatively new but are built on principles and ideals of global health that focus on the mutually beneficial exchange of knowledge and social justice. Although core competencies consistent with these overarching themes in global health education have not been formalized for pulmonary and critical care trainees, relevant competency areas include clinical knowledge, international research training, cultural competency, and clinical and research capacity building. Existing global health education in U.S. pulmonary and critical care medicine training programs can generally be classified as one of three different models: integrated global health tracks, global health electives, and additional research years. Successful global health education programs foster partnerships and collaborations with international sites that emphasize bidirectional exchange. This bidirectional exchange includes ongoing, equitable commitments to mutual opportunities for training and professional development, including a focus on the particular knowledge and skill sets critical for addressing the unique priorities of individual countries. However, barriers related to the availability of mentorship, funding, and dedicated time exist to expanding global health education in pulmonary and critical care medicine. The implementation of global health training within pulmonary and critical care medicine programs requires continued optimization, but this training is essential to prepare the next generation of physicians to address the global aspects of respiratory disease and critical illness. PMID:26974557

  18. Capacity building in e-health and health informatics: a review of the global vision and informatics educational initiatives of the American Medical Informatics Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detmer, D E

    2010-01-01

    Substantial global and national commitment will be required for current healthcare systems and health professional practices to become learning care systems utilizing information and communications technology (ICT) empowered by informatics. To engage this multifaceted challenge, a vision is required that shifts the emphasis from silos of activities toward integrated systems. Successful systems will include a set of essential elements, e.g., a sufficient ICT infrastructure, evolving health care processes based on evidence and harmonized to local cultures, a fresh view toward educational preparation, sound and sustained policy support, and ongoing applied research and development. Increasingly, leaders are aware that ICT empowered by informatics must be an integral part of their national and regional visions. This paper sketches out the elements of what is needed in terms of objectives and some steps toward achieving them. It summarizes some of the progress that has been made to date by the American and International Medical Informatics Associations working separately as well as collaborating to conceptualize informatics capacity building in order to bring this vision to reality in low resource nations in particular.

  19. Building a digital library for the health sciences: information space complementing information place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucier, R E

    1995-07-01

    In 1990, the University of California, San Francisco, dedicated a new library to serve the faculty, staff, and students and to meet their academic information needs for several decades to come. Major environmental changes present new and additional information management challenges, which can effectively be handled only through the widespread use of computing and computing technologies. Over the next five years, a three-pronged strategy will be followed. We are refining the current physical, paper-based library through the continuous application of technology for modernization and functional improvement. At the same time, we have begun the planning, design, and implementation of a "free-standing" Digital Library of the Health Sciences, focusing on the innovative application of technology. To ensure complementarity and product integrity where the two libraries interface, we will look to technology to transform these separate entities into an eventual, integral whole.

  20. Towards building the oral health care workforce: who are the new dental therapists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Christine M; Lopez, Naty

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, Minnesota Governor Pawlenty signed into law a bill approving the creation of a new dental team member: the dental therapist. The intent of this legislation was to address oral health disparities by creating a dental professional who would expand access to dental care in Minnesota. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of the first class of dental therapy students at the University of Minnesota and to ascertain the values and motivations that led them to choose a career in dental therapy. Four surveys were used to create the composite profile of the ten students in this first dental therapy class: 1) the California Critical Thinking Skills Test, 2) the Learning Type Measure, 3) the Attitudes Toward Healthcare Survey, and 4) a values and motivation survey that included demographic data. The results of the surveys revealed interacting influences of the students' background, personal self-concept, and environment leading to a career decision to pursue dental therapy. PMID:21205726

  1. Team-building through sailing: effects on health status, job satisfaction and work performance of health care professionals involved in organ and tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzin, Diego; Fasolo, Adriano; Vidale, Enrico; Pozzi, Annalaura; Bottignolo, Elisa; Calabrò, Francesco; Rupolo, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a team-building learning project on job satisfaction, psychological wellbeing, and performance of health care workers involved in the process of organ and tissue donation. The project was conducted between June and September 2011 and consisted of two one-day meetings and a one week sailing, involving 20 staff members. GHQ-12, MBI-HSS, and 25 items taken from the Multidimensional Organizational Health Questionnaire (MOHQ) were used to assess health status, burnout, and job satisfaction. Results of the descriptive analyses were expressed as mean ± SD and as counts and percentages; Chi-square test was used to evaluate statistical significance of differences before and after the initiative. 6 (30,0%) participants showed the likelihood to suffering from anxiety and depression (i.e. recognized as 'cases' by the GHQ-12), 3 (15.0%) of them at baseline and 3 (15.0%), different from the previous ones, in the post-intervention. The presence of stress was revealed in 9 (45.0%) and 12 subjects (60.0%) before and after the experience, respectively (6 subjects showed the presence of stress in both circumstances). We documented 4 burnout cases, 3 (15.0%) at baseline and 1 (5.0%) after the experience. Nevertheless, about 80% of the participants showed a high degree ofjob satisfaction, in terms of positive influence of job in the professional satisfaction and of clear satisfaction for the organization, during both evaluation. In respect to 2010, the number of organ donors and that of ocular tissue donors improved of about 16% and 10%, respectively, during the year of the project and in the following year (mean value). We recognize that our team-building project for personnel involved in the stressful and demanding setting of organ and tissue donation, worthwhile and recompensing at the same time, possibly influenced the personal commitment and the quality of job provided. The high level of stress showed by participants should be

  2. Team-building through sailing: effects on health status, job satisfaction and work performance of health care professionals involved in organ and tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzin, Diego; Fasolo, Adriano; Vidale, Enrico; Pozzi, Annalaura; Bottignolo, Elisa; Calabrò, Francesco; Rupolo, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a team-building learning project on job satisfaction, psychological wellbeing, and performance of health care workers involved in the process of organ and tissue donation. The project was conducted between June and September 2011 and consisted of two one-day meetings and a one week sailing, involving 20 staff members. GHQ-12, MBI-HSS, and 25 items taken from the Multidimensional Organizational Health Questionnaire (MOHQ) were used to assess health status, burnout, and job satisfaction. Results of the descriptive analyses were expressed as mean ± SD and as counts and percentages; Chi-square test was used to evaluate statistical significance of differences before and after the initiative. 6 (30,0%) participants showed the likelihood to suffering from anxiety and depression (i.e. recognized as 'cases' by the GHQ-12), 3 (15.0%) of them at baseline and 3 (15.0%), different from the previous ones, in the post-intervention. The presence of stress was revealed in 9 (45.0%) and 12 subjects (60.0%) before and after the experience, respectively (6 subjects showed the presence of stress in both circumstances). We documented 4 burnout cases, 3 (15.0%) at baseline and 1 (5.0%) after the experience. Nevertheless, about 80% of the participants showed a high degree ofjob satisfaction, in terms of positive influence of job in the professional satisfaction and of clear satisfaction for the organization, during both evaluation. In respect to 2010, the number of organ donors and that of ocular tissue donors improved of about 16% and 10%, respectively, during the year of the project and in the following year (mean value). We recognize that our team-building project for personnel involved in the stressful and demanding setting of organ and tissue donation, worthwhile and recompensing at the same time, possibly influenced the personal commitment and the quality of job provided. The high level of stress showed by participants should be

  3. Knowledge-Based Energy Damage Model for Evaluating Industrialised Building Systems (IBS Occupational Health and Safety (OHS Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Nor Haslinda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia’s construction industry has been long considered hazardous, owing to its poor health and safety record. It is proposed that one of the ways to improve safety and health in the construction industry is through the implementation of ‘off-site’ systems, commonly termed ‘industrialised building systems (IBS’ in Malaysia. This is deemed safer based on the risk concept of reduced exposure, brought about by the reduction in onsite workers; however, no method yet exists for determining the relative safety of various construction methods, including IBS. This study presents a comparative evaluation of the occupational health and safety (OHS risk presented by different construction approaches, namely IBS and traditional methods. The evaluation involved developing a model based on the concept of ‘argumentation theory’, which helps construction designers integrate the management of OHS risk into the design process. In addition, an ‘energy damage model’ was used as an underpinning framework. Development of the model was achieved through three phases, namely Phase I – knowledge acquisitaion, Phase II – argument trees mapping, and Phase III – validation of the model. The research revealed that different approaches/methods of construction projects carried a different level of energy damage, depending on how the activities were carried out. A study of the way in which the risks change from one construction process to another shows that there is a difference in the profile of OHS risk between IBS construction and traditional methods.Therefore, whether the option is an IBS or traditional approach, the fundamental idea of the model is to motivate construction designers or decision-makers to address safety in the design process and encourage them to examine carefully the probable OHS risk variables surrounding an action, thus preventing accidents in construction.

  4. Building communication strategy on health prevention through the human-centered design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Mello Freire

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been identified a latent need for developing efficient communication strategies for prevention of diseases and also, design as a potential agent to create communications artifacts that are able to promote self-care. In order to analyze a design process that develops this kind of artifact, an action research in IAPI Health Center in Porto Alegre was done. The action’s goal was to design a strategy to promote self-care to prevent cervical cancer. The process was conducted from the human centered design approach - HCD, which seeks to create solutions desirable for people and feasible for organizations from three main phases: a Hear, in which inspirations are originated from stories collected from people; b Create, which aims to translate these knowledge into prototypes; and, c Deliver, where the prototypes are tested and developed with users. Communication strategies were supported by design studies about visual-verbal rhetoric. As results, this design approach has shown adequate to create communication strategies targeted at self-care behaviors, aiming to empower users to change their behavior.

  5. Building new computational models to support health behavior change and maintenance: new opportunities in behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Hekler, Eric; Saranummi, Niilo; Intille, Stephen; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy; Rivera, Daniel E; Spring, Bonnie; Michie, Susan; Asch, David A; Sanna, Alberto; Salcedo, Vicente Traver; Kukakfa, Rita; Pavel, Misha

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and suboptimal health behaviors and habits are responsible for approximately 40 % of preventable deaths, in addition to their unfavorable effects on quality of life and economics. Our current understanding of human behavior is largely based on static "snapshots" of human behavior, rather than ongoing, dynamic feedback loops of behavior in response to ever-changing biological, social, personal, and environmental states. This paper first discusses how new technologies (i.e., mobile sensors, smartphones, ubiquitous computing, and cloud-enabled processing/computing) and emerging systems modeling techniques enable the development of new, dynamic, and empirical models of human behavior that could facilitate just-in-time adaptive, scalable interventions. The paper then describes concrete steps to the creation of robust dynamic mathematical models of behavior including: (1) establishing "gold standard" measures, (2) the creation of a behavioral ontology for shared language and understanding tools that both enable dynamic theorizing across disciplines, (3) the development of data sharing resources, and (4) facilitating improved sharing of mathematical models and tools to support rapid aggregation of the models. We conclude with the discussion of what might be incorporated into a "knowledge commons," which could help to bring together these disparate activities into a unified system and structure for organizing knowledge about behavior. PMID:26327939

  6. Building an international health management graduate curriculum: analyzing faculty survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Joseph S; McLaughlin, Eric; Cantoni, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    The development of an international graduate program requires thorough analysis, awareness of the risks involved, and the constraints unique to a particular institution. An assessment of three critical questions must be answered. First, what are the host university investment requirements? Second, what is the degree of enhancement of educational outcomes for the host university? Third, what is the contribution to the international reputations of the host university? This paper presents the result of a survey about these three questions of international educators attending the Third International Conference on Healthcare Systems meeting in Charleston, West Virginia. The results of this survey suggest that there is much to be gained in the educational outcomes and international reputation for both the host campus and the international campus yet the investment is significant. Perhaps of greatest importance is funding, and if possible, external funding is advised. This will attract both high quality students and faculty to participate and/or enroll, thus strengthening the program. There appears to be no optimal strategy or single model that can maximize the educational outcomes and international reputation while minimizing the degree of investment simultaneously. Further research is needed on what is successful and what is not, in terms of investment of time and effort. Hopefully, such research will contribute to higher quality international health management graduate programs that achieve the stated business and educational goals of all parties to reduce the risk of investing both time and money in a new educational venture. PMID:18214077

  7. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part VIII: Risk, Risk Reduction, Risk Management, and Capacity Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Loretti, Alessandro; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P

    2016-06-01

    There is a cascade of risks associated with a hazard evolving into a disaster that consists of the risk that: (1) a hazard will produce an event; (2) an event will cause structural damage; (3) structural damage will create functional damages and needs; (4) needs will create an emergency (require use of the local response capacity); and (5) the needs will overwhelm the local response capacity and result in a disaster (ie, the need for outside assistance). Each step along the continuum/cascade can be characterized by its probability of occurrence and the probability of possible consequences of its occurrence, and each risk is dependent upon the preceding occurrence in the progression from a hazard to a disaster. Risk-reduction measures are interventions (actions) that can be implemented to: (1) decrease the risk that a hazard will manifest as an event; (2) decrease the amounts of structural and functional damages that will result from the event; and/or (3) increase the ability to cope with the damage and respond to the needs that result from an event. Capacity building increases the level of resilience by augmenting the absorbing and/or buffering and/or response capacities of a community-at-risk. Risks for some hazards vary by the context in which they exist and by the Societal System(s) involved. Birnbaum ML , Loretti A , Daily EK , O'Rourke AP . Research and evaluations of the health aspects of disasters, part VIII: risk, risk reduction, risk management, and capacity building. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):300-308. PMID:27025980

  8. Building a people-centered health service system%建设以人为本的卫生服务体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆跃

    2015-01-01

    为满足居民健康需求,我国卫生服务体系需要不断做出改革和调整。健康需要、公平和效率、服务质量、卫生服务体系的发展历史和现状是体系建设需要考虑的四个维度。本文认为建设以人为本的卫生服务体系是方向,并从人文关怀、利益相关、基层为本、连续整合和条件支撑五个方面对其内涵进行了阐述。提出了提升基层卫生服务质量、整合卫生服务体系和强化政府责任等建设以人为本卫生服务体系的策略和路径。%In order to meet the health needs of people, China’s health service system needs continuous reforms and adjustments. Health needs, equity and efficiency, quality of service, and the development history and current situation of the health service system are the four main dimensions to be considered during the building process of the system. This paper argues that building a people-centered health service system is the direction, and it describes its connotation from five different aspects, including human care, interrelated interests, primary health care-oriented, continuous integration, and conditions for support. This paper proposes the strategies and paths to build a people-cen-tered health service system, including to promoting the quality of primary health care, integrating health service sys-tems, and strengthening government’s responsibility.

  9. Could the ethics of institutionalized health care be anything but Kantian? Collecting building blocks for a unifying metaethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldis, Byron

    2005-01-01

    Is a Health Care Ethics possible? Against sceptical and relativist doubts Kantian deontology may advance a challenging alternative affirming the possibility of such an ethics on the condition that deontology be adopted as a total programme or complete vision. Kantian deontology is enlisted to move us from an ethics of two-person informal care to one of institutions. It justifies this affirmative answer by occupying a commanding meta-ethical stand. Such a total programme comprises, on the one hand, a dual-aspect strategy incorporating the macro- (institutional) and micro- (person-to-person) levels while, on the other, it integrates consistently within moral epistemology a meta-ethics with lower-ground moral theories. The article describes the issues to be dealt with and the problems which have to be solved on the way to a unifying theory of that kind (Sections I-III) and indicates elements of Kantian moral philosophy which may serve as building blocks (Section IV). Among these are not only Kant's ideas concerning the moral acting of persons and his ideas concerning civil society and state but also his ideas concerning morality, schematism and religion. PMID:15906938

  10. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  11. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  12. Sport mega-events: can legacies and development be equitable and sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Coakley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sport mega-events (SMEs involve struggles to determine the definition of legacy and the outcome priorities that guide legacy planning, funding, and implementation processes. History shows that legacies reflect the interests of capital, and legacy benefits are enjoyed primarily, if not exclusively, by powerful business interests, a few political leaders, and organizations that govern high performance sports. This paper addresses challenges faced by cities and countries that host SMEs, and shows that fair and equitable legacies and developmental outcomes are achieved only when the voices and interests of the general population are taken into account and given priority during the process of planning, funding and implementation. It also explains how full representation in the process of defining and achieving legacies and developmental outcomes may be undermined by populist beliefs about the power of sport.

  13. Is the high-risk strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease equitable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Diderichsen, Finn; Krasnik, Allan;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Statins are increasingly prescribed to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in asymptomatic individuals. Yet, it is unknown whether those at higher CVD risk - i.e. individuals in lower socio-economic position (SEP) - are adequately reached by this high-risk strategy. Aim......: To examine whether the Danish implementation of the strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) by initiating statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) therapy in high-risk individuals is equitable across socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Design: Cohort study. Setting and participants: Applying individual...... statin prescription (N=3.3 mill). Main outcome measures: Stratified by gender, 5-year age-groups and socioeconomic position (SEP), incidence of MI was applied as a proxy for statin need. Need-standardised statin incidence rates were calculated, applying MI incidence rate ratios (IRR) as need...

  14. The Purpose of the Cataloging for Matters of Equitable Access: Spanish-Language Cataloging and "Everyday" Approaches of Non-Native English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamich, Tom

    2009-01-01

    While teacher-librarians embrace the concept of equitable access when they select "multicultural" materials to include in their collections, plan special programs, and teach lessons on a variety of topics, what do they do to make equitable access a part of their online catalogs? Have they achieved (or nearly achieved) a consistent level of…

  15. The Public Health Exposome: A Population-Based, Exposure Science Approach to Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Juarez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training.

  16. Promoting Community Health and Eliminating Health Disparities Through Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ruiping; Stone, John R; Hoffman, Julie E; Klappa, Susan G

    2016-03-01

    In physical therapy, there is increasing focus on the need at the community level to promote health, eliminate disparities in health status, and ameliorate risk factors among underserved minorities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is the most promising paradigm for pursuing these goals. Community-based participatory research stresses equitable partnering of the community and investigators in light of local social, structural, and cultural elements. Throughout the research process, the CBPR model emphasizes coalition and team building that joins partners with diverse skills/expertise, knowledge, and sensitivities. This article presents core concepts and principles of CBPR and the rationale for its application in the management of health issues at the community level. Community-based participatory research is now commonly used to address public health issues. A literature review identified limited reports of its use in physical therapy research and services. A published study is used to illustrate features of CBPR for physical therapy. The purpose of this article is to promote an understanding of how physical therapists could use CBPR as a promising way to advance the profession's goals of community health and elimination of health care disparities, and social responsibility. Funding opportunities for the support of CBPR are noted. PMID:26251479

  17. Overcoming health care disparities via better cross-cultural communication and health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra-Hebert, Anita D; Isaacson, J Harry

    2012-02-01

    Health care disparities have multiple causes; the dynamics of the physician-patient encounter is one of the causes that can be modified. Here, we discuss specific recommendations related to cross-cultural communication and health literacy as practical steps to providing more equitable health care to all patients.

  18. Clarifying and Capturing "Trust" in Relation to Science Education: Dimensions of Trustworthiness within Schools and Associations with Equitable Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Lara K.; Wenner, Julianne; Settlage, John; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2016-01-01

    Science education reform may fall short of its potential to reduce educational disparities if the challenges are interpreted using strictly reductionist approaches. Taking a cue from school effectiveness research and reframing our approach using systems thinking, this study examined school-level variables associated with equitable science…

  19. The process of development of a prioritization tool for a clinical decision support build within a computerized provider order entry system: Experiences from St Luke's Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Matthew; Miller, Suzanne; DeJong, Doug; House, John A; Dirks, Carl; Beasley, Brent

    2016-09-01

    To establish a process for the development of a prioritization tool for a clinical decision support build within a computerized provider order entry system and concurrently to prioritize alerts for Saint Luke's Health System. The process of prioritizing clinical decision support alerts included (a) consensus sessions to establish a prioritization process and identify clinical decision support alerts through a modified Delphi process and (b) a clinical decision support survey to validate the results. All members of our health system's physician quality organization, Saint Luke's Care as well as clinicians, administrators, and pharmacy staff throughout Saint Luke's Health System, were invited to participate in this confidential survey. The consensus sessions yielded a prioritization process through alert contextualization and associated Likert-type scales. Utilizing this process, the clinical decision support survey polled the opinions of 850 clinicians with a 64.7 percent response rate. Three of the top rated alerts were approved for the pre-implementation build at Saint Luke's Health System: Acute Myocardial Infarction Core Measure Sets, Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis within 4 h, and Criteria for Sepsis. This study establishes a process for developing a prioritization tool for a clinical decision support build within a computerized provider order entry system that may be applicable to similar institutions. PMID:25814483

  20. Domains of Core Competency, Standards, and Quality Assurance for Building Global Capacity in Health Promotion: The Galway Consensus Conference Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrante, John P.; Barry, Margaret M.; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Auld, M. Elaine; Collins, Janet L.; Lamarre, Marie-Claude; Magnusson, Gudjon; McQueen, David V.; Mittelmark, Maurice B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the outcome of the Galway Consensus Conference, an effort undertaken as a first step toward international collaboration on credentialing in health promotion and health education. Twenty-nine leading authorities in health promotion, health education, and public health convened a 2-day meeting in Galway, Ireland, during which the…

  1. Using Social Network Analysis To Map Participation And Non-participation In Health Promotion and Community-building Among Vulnerable Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    and capacities for collective and collaborative problemsolving is seen as key to successful community building (Kretzmann and McKnight, 1993). By using social network analysis and Bourdieu’s definition of capital, this study aimed to identify patterns of participation and non-participation in a community......In empowerment and asset-based approaches to community development, the ability to change local residents’ perception of themselves and their neighbours from that of persons with needs that can only be met with the help of professionals to that of a more self-reliant group with assets......-building project aiming at increasing upward mobility and social capital within the area and increase equity in health. This presentation will outline the tensions and contradictions which accompany policies and interventions that seek to strengthen local communities as a means of promoting health. Emerging...

  2. An Iterative, Low-Cost Strategy to Building Information Systems Allows a Small Jurisdiction Local Health Department to Increase Efficiencies and Expand Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective and Methods: The objective of this case study was to describe the process and outcomes of a small local health department's (LHD's) strategy to build and use information systems. The case study is based on a review of documents and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the Pomperaug District Health Department. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed. Results and Conclusions: The case study here suggests that small LHDs can use a low-resource, incremental strategy to build information systems for improving departmental effectiveness and efficiency. Specifically, we suggest that the elements for this department's success were simple information systems, clear vision, consistent leadership, and the involvement, training, and support of staff. PMID:27684628

  3. Modeled effects of an improved building insulation scenario in Europe on air pollution, health and societal costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Holst, Gitte Juel; Sigsgaard, Torben;

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Europe a substantial share of the energy supply is used for domestic heating and cooling. The quality of building insulation thus significantly impacts air pollution. Objectives: To model the effects of an improved building insulation scenario in Europe on air pollution levels and ...

  4. Health care delivery in Malaysia: changes, challenges and champions

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Thomas; LooSee Beh; Rusli Nordin

    2011-01-01

    Since 1957, there has been major reorganization of health care services in Malaysia. This article assesses the changes and challenges in health care delivery in Malaysia and how the management in health care processes has evolved over the years including equitable health care and health care financing. The health care service in Malaysia is changing towards wellness service as opposed to illness service. The Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH), being the main provider of health services, may n...

  5. Housing as a Social Determinant of Health: Exploring the Relationship between Rent Burden and Risk Behaviors for Single Room Occupancy Building Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Elizabeth A; Mitchell, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of health determinants research recognizes that housing and health are intimately linked. This study explores the relationship between rent burden (the ratio of rent to income) and health risk behaviors among a sample of single room occupancy (SRO) building residents. Cross-sectional data were gathered from a sample of 162 residents living in privately owned, for-profit SROs in Chicago. Findings indicated that participants who had full rental subsidies and thus were designated in a no-rent-burden category were more likely to engage in risk behaviors including illicit drug use, having multiple sexual partners, and having sex without a condom, in comparison to participants with moderate or high-rent burdens. These findings suggest that interventions to increase housing stability and affordability and bolster reliable income sources (in addition to rental subsidies) may be key in reducing risk behaviors and improving health for vulnerably housed populations such as SRO residents. PMID:27167535

  6. Public health challenges for universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Radha Madhab

    2014-01-01

    The effective functioning of any health system requires an efficient public health service. Every human being has the right to enjoy "the highest attainable standard of health," which can be fulfilled by giving every man an affordable and equitable health system he deserves and demands. In these years, complex health changes have complicated the situation in India. Most important gaps in the health care include an understanding of the burden of the disease and what leads to and causes ill health, the availability and use of appropriate technology in the management of disease, ill health and health systems that have an impact on service delivery. Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has the potential to increase economic growth, improve educational opportunities, reduce impoverishment and inequalities, and foster social cohesion. Steps taken for achieving UHC will address the public health challenges and vice versa. PMID:25116820

  7. Equitable water allocation in a heavily committed international catchment area: the case of the Komati Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomo, Sakhiwe; van der Zaag, Pieter

    This paper investigates water availability and use in the Komati catchment. The Komati catchment is shared by Swaziland and South Africa and forms part of the Incomati basin, with Mozambique as the third riparian country. In 2002 the three countries reached agreement about how the scarce water should be allocated, based on the principle of equitable and sustainable utilization, as stipulated by the SADC Protocol. The Komati catchment has five main water uses: afforestation, irrigation, the environment, urban/industrial/mining (UIM), and interbasin water transfers (for industrial use). In addition, South Africa and Swaziland have committed themselves to satisfy a certain cross border flow to downstream Mozambique. Frequently, debate has arisen between users and riparian countries on the direction that water resources development has taken in the catchment. Downstream farmers have often complained about interbasin transfers taking place in the upstream portions of the catchment. There has also been animosity about effecting environmental flow releases. A relatively simple, spreadsheet-based water resources model (Waflex) was developed to analyse water availability and use under current and future scenarios. The results were then compared to results obtained from another model that was used in a joint study by Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland. The Waflex model showed a high degree of consistency with the one used for comparison, especially in terms of trends. It was found that the recent completion of two new dams has improved water supply to irrigation in the two countries. Future water demands will result in appreciable shortages for irrigation and domestic use. The agreed maximum development levels will soon outstrip the ability of the catchment’s supply. The paper shows that a combination of measures will be required to ensure equitable and sustainable water utilisation in the Komati catchment. These will have to be agreed by the riparian countries

  8. Beyond the cathedral: building trust to engage the African American community in health promotion and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Angela F; Reddick, Karen; Browne, Mario C; Robins, Anthony; Thomas, Stephen B; Crouse Quinn, Sandra

    2009-10-01

    Effective efforts to eliminate health disparities must be grounded in strong community partnerships and trusting relationships between academic institutions and minority communities. However, there are often barriers to such efforts, including the frequent need to rely on time-limited funding mechanisms that take categorical approaches. This article provides an overview of health promotion and disease prevention projects implemented through the Community Outreach and Information Dissemination Core (COID) of the Center for Minority Health, within the Graduate School of Public Health at the University of Pittsburgh. The COID is one of five Cores that comprised the University of Pittsburgh's NIH Excellence in Partnerships for Community Outreach, and Research on Disparities in Health and Training (EXPORT Health) funded from 2002 to 2007 by the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Based in large part on the success of the community engagement activities, in 2007, the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institutes of Health, designated the CMH as a Research Center of Excellence on Minority Health Disparities. COID major initiatives included the Community Research Advisory Board, Health Disparity Working Groups, Health Advocates in Reach, Healthy Class of 2010, and the Healthy Black Family Project. Lessons learned may provide guidance to other academic institutions, community-based organizations, and health departments who seek to engage minority communities in changing social norms to support health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:19809000

  9. STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARU Trichothecene Mycotoxins and Damp Building-Related Illness: New Insights into a Public Health Enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damp building-related illnesses (DBRI) include a myriad of respiratory, immunologic, and neurologic symptoms that are sometimes etiologically linked to aberrant indoor growth of the toxic black mold, Stachybotrys chartarum. Although supportive evidence for such linkages is limite...

  10. Equitable utilisation and effective protection of sharing transboundary water resources:international rivers of western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Western China includes 12 provincial divisions (the 7 provinces of Sichuan, Guizhou,Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai and; 5 autonomous regions of Tibet, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Guangxi; and one city of Chongqing), which comprise 71.4% of the national land area,28.5% of the national population and produce 17.5% of the national GDP in China. There are 17countries that have riparian relationships with western China, most of which are water-short countries. All are listed by UN ESCAP as countries with potential water crisis. The co-operative development and coordinated management of international rivers in western China is an important step toward the implementation of the national Great Western Development program. Taking into account of the national strategy and object hierarchy, as well as the development demand of the western region, it is necessary to pursue the multi-disciplinary study of the equitable allocation,utilisation, and eco-environment protection of transboundary water resources in the region. Such efforts will undoubtedly provide scientific evidence and support for the decision-making of the environmental protection and ecological construction and management in the western regions, the enforcement of the sub-regional economic co-operation, mitigation of trans-boundary conflicts, and enhancing bio-diversity conservation.

  11. Equitable fund allocation, an economical approach for sustainable waste load allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Elham Feizi; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Jamshidi, Shervin

    2015-08-01

    This research aims to study a novel approach for waste load allocation (WLA) to meet environmental, economical, and equity objectives, simultaneously. For this purpose, based on a simulation-optimization model developed for Haraz River in north of Iran, the waste loads are allocated according to discharge permit market. The non-dominated solutions are initially achieved through multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO). Here, the violation of environmental standards based on dissolved oxygen (DO) versus biochemical oxidation demand (BOD) removal costs is minimized to find economical total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). This can save 41% in total abatement costs in comparison with the conventional command and control policy. The BOD discharge permit market then increases the revenues to 45%. This framework ensures that the environmental limits are fulfilled but the inequity index is rather high (about 4.65). For instance, the discharge permit buyer may not be satisfied about the equity of WLA. Consequently, it is recommended that a third party or institution should be in charge of reallocating the funds. It means that the polluters which gain benefits by unfair discharges should pay taxes (or funds) to compensate the losses of other polluters. This intends to reduce the costs below the required values of the lowest inequity index condition. These compensations of equitable fund allocation (EFA) may help to reduce the dissatisfactions and develop WLA policies. It is concluded that EFA in integration with water quality trading (WQT) is a promising approach to meet the objectives. PMID:26205280

  12. Great expectations. Can international emissions trading deliver an equitable climate regime?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change equity debates tend to focus on achieving a fair and global 'allocation' of emission rights among countries. Allocation proposals typically envision, if implicitly, two purposes for international emissions trading. First, trading is expected to serve as a cost-effective means of promoting compliance with emissions targets. Second, trading is posited as a means to generate financial transfers, typically from industrialized to transitioning and developing countries. This article investigates the common assumption that international emissions trading will effectively serve both of these purposes. We conclude that the two purposes might not be mutually supportive, and that efforts to use international emissions trading as a financial transfer mechanism may potentially undermine cost-effectiveness goals. International emissions trading on a global scale would create new risks in terms of both cost-effectiveness and environmental performance, some of which will be challenging to manage. In particular, uncertainties over market prices and trading eligibility, coupled with the costs of participation, may together be the Achilles heel of some allocation proposals that entail large financial transfers from industrialized to developing countries. Any proposal for an 'equitable' allocation of emission allowances, we conclude, must be cognizant of the risks and costs implied by a reliance on international emissions trading. We offer some suggestions to this end

  13. The potential of PVs in developing countries: maintaining an equitable society in the face of fossil fuel depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The availability of an adequate electrical supply to the whole population is essential for the wellbeing and equity of a society. However, for those countries that are largely dependent on fossil fuels for generating electricity, peak oil and gas threaten energy security and the ability to provide an uninterrupted supply of electricity on an equitable basis. This paper will review future energy demand and supply in Malaysia and implications for its electricity supply. It will demonstrate ...

  14. Children’s right to equitable education: A welfare state’s goal in times of Neoliberalism

    OpenAIRE

    Francia, Guadalupe

    2011-01-01

    This article employs Social Representations Theory as a theoretical instrument to analyse the right of children to an equitable education. It analyses how social representations of students and students’ performances can be used by political actors as an interpretation system to manage contradictions in the equity education policies implemented in Sweden. A textual analysis of website propaganda of eight political parties produced for the Swedish electoral campaign in 2010 is used as research...

  15. How can community health programmes build enabling environments for transformative communication?: Experiences from India and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora

    2010-01-01

    Whilst much research has examined how to empower poor community members to identify the social roots of health problems and articulate demands for health-enabling living conditions, less is known about how to create receptive social environments where the powerful are likely to heed the voices of the poor. This paper seeks to characterise the social environments in which community-led health programmes are most likely to facilitate effective and sustainable health improvements, using three di...

  16. A Healthy Investment: Building the Facilities to Train the Next Generation of Nursing and Allied Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Bob

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of community colleges are investing in new facilities and programs to train health care workers in a variety of professions, including nursing, radiology, health information technology, physical therapy, dentistry, and surgical technology. Community colleges have historically offered job training programs in health care, but with…

  17. "Something to Smile About": An Evaluation of a Capacity-Building Oral Health Intervention for Staff Working with Homeless People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Emma; Watt, Celia; Freeman, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To use a qualitative exploration to evaluate whether "Something to Smile About" (STSA), an oral health intervention, had increased the oral health capacity of staff working with homeless people. Setting: A National Health Service board area in Scotland. Method: A purposive sample of 14 staff members from STSA-participating organizations…

  18. Gender and health promotion: a multisectoral policy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlin, Piroska; Eckermann, Elizabeth; Mishra, Udaya Shankar; Nkowane, Mwansa; Wallstam, Eva

    2006-12-01

    Women and men are different as regards their biology, the roles and responsibilities that society assigns to them and their position in the family and community. These factors have a great influence on causes, consequences and management of diseases and ill-health and on the efficacy of health promotion policies and programmes. This is confirmed by evidence on male-female differences in cause-specific mortality and morbidity and exposure to risk factors. Health promoting interventions aimed at ensuring safe and supportive environments, healthy living conditions and lifestyles, community involvement and participation, access to essential facilities and to social and health services need to address these differences between women and men, boys and girls in an equitable manner in order to be effective. The aim of this paper is to (i) demonstrate that health promotion policies that take women's and men's differential biological and social vulnerability to health risks and the unequal power relationships between the sexes into account are more likely to be successful and effective compared to policies that are not concerned with such differences, and (ii) discuss what is required to build a multisectoral policy response to gender inequities in health through health promotion and disease prevention. The requirements discussed in the paper include i) the establishment of joint commitment for policy within society through setting objectives related to gender equality and equity in health as well as health promotion, ii) an assessment and analysis of gender inequalities affecting health and determinants of health, iii) the actions needed to tackle the main determinants of those inequalities and iv) documentation and dissemination of effective and gender sensitive policy interventions to promote health. In the discussion of these key policy elements, we use illustrative examples of good practices from different countries around the world. PMID:17307954

  19. Building on a YMCA's health and physical activity promotion capacities: A case study of a researcher-organization partnership to optimize adolescent programming_.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Paula Louise; García Bengoechea, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    School-based physical activity programs are only effective for increasing adolescents' school-based physical activity. To increase out-of-school-time physical activity, complementary community programs are warranted. Partnerships between universities and community organizations may help build the capacity of these organizations to provide sustainable programs. To understand capacity building processes and outcomes, we partnered with a YMCA to build on their adolescent physical activity promotion capacity. Together, we designed and implemented means to evaluate the YMCA teen program to inform program planning. For this qualitative case study, emails and interviews and meetings transcripts were collected over 2.5 years and analyzed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis. Findings illustrate that the YMCA's workforce and organizational development capacities (e.g., evaluation and health promotion capacity and competence) were increased through our partnership, resource allocation, and leadership. We responded to YMCA partners' perceived needs, yet guided them beyond those needs, successfully combining our complementary objectives, knowledge, and skills to generate an integrated program vision, rationale, and evaluation results. This provided YMCA partners with validation, reminders, and awareness. In turn, this contributed to programming and evaluation practice changes. In light of extant capacity building literature, we discuss how our partnership increased the YMCA's capacity to promote healthy adolescent programs.

  20. Building on a YMCA's health and physical activity promotion capacities: A case study of a researcher-organization partnership to optimize adolescent programming_.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Paula Louise; García Bengoechea, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    School-based physical activity programs are only effective for increasing adolescents' school-based physical activity. To increase out-of-school-time physical activity, complementary community programs are warranted. Partnerships between universities and community organizations may help build the capacity of these organizations to provide sustainable programs. To understand capacity building processes and outcomes, we partnered with a YMCA to build on their adolescent physical activity promotion capacity. Together, we designed and implemented means to evaluate the YMCA teen program to inform program planning. For this qualitative case study, emails and interviews and meetings transcripts were collected over 2.5 years and analyzed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis. Findings illustrate that the YMCA's workforce and organizational development capacities (e.g., evaluation and health promotion capacity and competence) were increased through our partnership, resource allocation, and leadership. We responded to YMCA partners' perceived needs, yet guided them beyond those needs, successfully combining our complementary objectives, knowledge, and skills to generate an integrated program vision, rationale, and evaluation results. This provided YMCA partners with validation, reminders, and awareness. In turn, this contributed to programming and evaluation practice changes. In light of extant capacity building literature, we discuss how our partnership increased the YMCA's capacity to promote healthy adolescent programs. PMID:27161649

  1. Study on Health Management Method for Office Workers in City Buildings%城市楼宇办公人员健康管理方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 丁玎

    2012-01-01

    [目的]通过对楼宇员工健康现况的调查、健康干预,评价在楼宇开展办公人员健康管理方法的有效性. [方法]对467名城市办公人员开展问卷调查、健康体检,将其中137名脂代谢和糖代谢障碍的办公人员分为干预组64人和对照组73人,进行综合性健康干预. [结果]经综合健康管理模式干预后的健康知识知晓率较干预前提高了11.7%,与对照组相比有明显提高. [结论] “三级医院技术指导—社区卫生服务中心实施与管理—街道相关部门协调支持—楼宇办公人员积极参与”的新型综合健康管理模式在健康促进方面有显著效果.楼宇健康管理应根据办公人员主要健康问题和需求,由社区卫生服务中心制定健康管理计划,协同楼宇工会、街道办事处等机构部门合作完成.%[Objective ] To compare health status of office workers in city buildings before and after health interventions, and to evaluate effectiveness of health management conducted in commercial buildings. [ Methods ] A total of 467 office workers participated in a questionnaire survey and physical examination, in which 137 with lipid metabolism and glucose metabolism disorders were divided into an intervention group (64) and a control group (73). The latter group received an integrated health intervention. [ R6SUltS ] After intervention, the awareness rate of health knowledge in the intervention group was significantly increased by 11.7%, compared with the control group. [ Conclusion ] The new mndel of integrated health management, which is technically directed by tertiary hospitals, implemented and managed by community health center, coordinated and supported by sub-district departments, and actively involves office workers, showed remarkable results on health promotion. Health management for office workers should be based on their major health problems and demands and be carried out with joint efforts of sectors mentioned above.

  2. The fight against the greenhouse effect. Equity and efficiency; La lutte contre l'effet de serre. Equite et efficacite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, A. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France)

    2003-07-01

    The author discusses the definition of an equitable division rule of the global effort of greenhouse gases emissions decrease, the research of the economic efficiency, the flexibility mechanisms and the emissions trading. (A.L.B.)

  3. Does the Dutch Building Decree 2012 guarantee air quality? Quality is essential for productivity and health; Bouwbesluit 2012 garantie voor luchtkwaliteit? Kwaliteit essentieel voor productiviteit en gezondheid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebregt, R.

    2011-10-15

    Poor indoor air quality in new buildings is a common problem. According to the Health Council scientific evidence is lacking that it is necessary to tighten ventilation requirements in the Building Decree . GGD Netherlands are advocates for stricter rules. Several studies show that the productivity in offices and the academic performance of children will benefit. [Dutch] Slechte kwaliteit van de binnenlucht in nieuwe gebouwen is een veel voorkomend probleem. Volgens de Gezondheidsraad ontbreken echter wetenschappelijke aanwijzingen dat het noodzakelijk is de ventilatie-eisen in het Bouwbesluit aan te scherpen. GGD Nederland pleit wel voor strengere regels. Diverse onderzoeken laten zien dat de productiviteit op kantoor en de leerprestaties van kinderen daarbij gebaat zijn.

  4. Is the use of particle air filtration justified? Costs and benefits of filtration with regard to health effects, building cleaning and occupant productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    with building and HVAC cleaning. Conversely, losses of occupant productivity due to sensory offending pollutants emitted from used ventilation filters can lead to significant economic losses. The results of the present analysis are strongly dependent on several key input parameters; consequently...... even a small decrease in productivity caused by sensory pollutants emitted from used ventilation filters have the potential to substantially exceed the annual economic benefits of filtration. Further studies are required to determine if meaningful benefits can be obtained from more frequent filter...... is impacted by maintenance of the building and its HVAC system; society is impacted by the employees’ health and welfare. Regardless of perspective, particle filtration is anticipated to lead to annual savings significantly exceeding the running costs for filtration. However, economic losses resulting from...

  5. Paradigm for Distributive & Procedural Justice in Equitable Apportionment of Transboundary Ganges Waters Under Changing Climate & Landuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.; Anand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers have no regard for human demarcated boundaries. Besides, ever increasing demand-supply gap & vested riparian interests, fuel transboundary water conflicts. For resolving such disputes, appropriation doctrines advocating equity & fairness have received endorsement in the Helsinki Rules-1966 & UN Convention-1997. Thus, current study proposes the principle of equitable apportionment for sharing Ganges waters as it balances the interests & deservedness of all stakeholders, namely, India & its 11 states, Bangladesh, Nepal, & China. The study endeavors to derive a reasonable share of each co-basin state by operationalizing the vague concepts of fairness & equity through an objective & quantitative framework encompassing proportionality & egalitarianism for distributive & procedural justice. Equal weightage factors reflecting hydrology, geography & water use potential are chosen for fair share computation, wherein each contender ranks these factors to maximize his entitlement. If cumulative claims exceed the water availability, each claimant puts forth next ranked factor & this process continues till the claims match availability. Due to inter-annual variability in few factors, scenarios for Rabi & Kharif seasons are considered apart from cases for maximum, upper quartile, median, lower quartile & minimum. Possibility of spatial homogeneity & heterogeneity in factors is also recognized. Sometimes lack of technical information hinders transboundary dispute resolution via legal mechanisms. Hence, the study also attempts to bridge this gap between law & technology through GIS-based SWAT hydrologic model by estimating the Ganges water yield, & consequent share of each riparian for range of flows incorporating e-flows as well, under present & future climate & landuse scenarios. 82% of India's territory lies within interstate rivers, & therefore this research is very pertinent as it can facilitate the decision makers in effective interstate water conflict resolution.

  6. Rootzone processes, tree water-use, and the equitable allocation of irrigation water to olives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Steve; Clothier, Brent; Caspari, Horst; Neal, Sue

    John Philip's first job in 1947, at Griffith in Australia's Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area, was to develop means by which irrigation practices could become sustainable. Subsequently, through his analytical endeavors he created revolutionary new understanding of mass and energy transfers in the soil-plantatmosphere continuum. Here we describe applications and modeling that have directly benefited from John Philip's insights and perspicacity. We have used a new means for determining the radiation interception by an isolated olive tree, and we have employed these results to interpret and model the measured rates of tree water-use from heat-pulse measures of sapflow. These parameters are used in a risk assessment framework, along with measures of the soil's hydraulic character to provide a basis for establishing guidelines for the equitable and sustainable allocation of water for the irrigation of olive trees in Marlborough, New Zealand. We find that small 2-year old olive trees use about 25 litres a week, whereas mature 8-year old trees transpire about 525 L/wk. Our model developed to establish irrigation allocations, SPASMO, used a 28-year sequence of local weather records. For the Fairhall stony silt loam, we find that an irrigation allocation of 230 mm will meet the needs of olives 9 years in 10. Average requirements would be met with just 140 mm. Only 35 mm would be required to meet the needs of olives 90% of the time on the Woodbourne deep silt loam. Apposite measurements and apt modeling are shown capable of guiding regulatory authorities in managing the complexity of allocating water to olive irrigationists.

  7. [Building a "Smiling Brazil"? Implementation of the Brazilian National Oral Health Policy in a health region in the State of São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilante, Aline Guerra; Aciole, Geovani Gurgel

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a case study on the implementation of the Brazilian National Oral Health Policy (PNSB), known as "Smiling Brazil", in the cities of the Regional Health Department of Araraquara (DRS III) in São Paulo State. A structured questionnaire was given to the municipal oral health coordinators, an interview with oral health care professionals and managers was conducted, and the official data provided by the Brazilian Ministry of Health were coded to assess the policy's scope: (i) expansion and qualification of actions; (ii) work conditions; (iii) care; (iv) access; and (v) planning and management. The quantitative and qualitative analyses were linked by methods triangulation. In terms of PNSB implementation, the majority of the cities (52.6%) were classified as "good", with 42.1% classified as "bad". Approximately 10 years after launching the PNSB, despite strides in oral health care and access to different levels of care, the cities still experience difficulties in implementing the policy's principles.

  8. What does the scientific literature tell us about the ventilation-health relationship in public and residential buildings?

    OpenAIRE

    Carrer, Paolo; WARGOCKI Pawel; FANETTI Annaclara; BISCHOF Wolfgang; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Hartmann, Thomas; KEPHALOPOULOS Stylianos; PALKONEN Susanna; Seppanen, Olli

    2015-01-01

    Objective of this paper is to examine whether the available epidemiological evidence provides information on the link between outdoor air ventilation rates and health, and whether it can be used for regulatory purposes when setting ventilation requirements for non-industrial built environments. Effects on health were seen for a wide range of outdoor ventilation rates from 6-7 L/s per person, which were the lowest ventilation rates at which no effects on any health outcomes were observed i...

  9. A Community-Based Food System: Building Health, Wealth, Connection, and Capacity as the Foundation of Our Economic Future

    OpenAIRE

    Bendfeldt, Eric S.; Walker, Martha; Bunn, Travis; Martin, Lisa; Barrow, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    An examination and exploration of the Martinsville region's capacity for expanding agricultural production,creating value-added products, potential to build and utilize the local food and farming system to meet growing demand and to be a foundational economic developmental tool.

  10. Evaluating the consequences of retrofitting residential multi-family buildings on indoor environmental quality, comfort, health and user satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Jong, P. de; Cornelissen, H.J.M.; Vliet, M.R.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Within the European project RETROKIT a systemic approach is being developed for retrofitting existing multi-family residential buildings. Modular combination of (semi-) prefabricated technological solutions will be demonstrated in three case studies. The part of the study described here aims to eval

  11. 'The full has never been told': building a theory of sexual health for heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Candice N; Delgado-Romero, Edward A; Mosley, Della V; Huynh, Sophia

    2016-08-01

    Research on Black sexual health often fails to represent the heterogeneity of Black ethnic groups. For people of Caribbean descent in the USA, ethnicity is a salient cultural factor that influences definitions and experiences of sexual health. Most research on people of Caribbean descent focuses on the relatively high rate of STIs, but sexual health is defined more broadly than STI prevalence. Psychological and emotional indicators and the voice of participants are important to consider when exploring the sexual health of a minority culture. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent define and understand sexual health for themselves. Eleven men who self-identified as Black, Caribbean and heterosexual participated in three focus groups and were asked to define sexual health, critique behaviours expertly identified as healthy and address what encourages and discourages sexual health in their lives. Findings point to six dimensions of sexual health for heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent. These include: heterosexually privileged, protective, contextual, interpersonal, cultural and pleasurable dimensions. There were some notable departures from current expert definitions of sexual health. Recommendations for further theory development are provided. PMID:26907581

  12. Equity in health care financing: The case of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Sach Tracey H; Whynes David K; Yu Chai

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Equitable financing is a key objective of health care systems. Its importance is evidenced in policy documents, policy statements, the work of health economists and policy analysts. The conventional categorisations of finance sources for health care are taxation, social health insurance, private health insurance and out-of-pocket payments. There are nonetheless increasing variations in the finance sources used to fund health care. An understanding of the equity implication...

  13. From Nothing to Something: The Nuts and Bolts of Building a Mentoring Program in a Health Sciences College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I report the development of a mentoring program in a College of Health Sciences comprised of schools of nursing, pharmacy, and health professions (which include physical therapy, speech pathology and audiology, applied psychology, and physician assistant programs) at a large private university. Although university-wide mentoring…

  14. Building Health Promotion Capacity in Developing Countries: Strategies from 60 Years of Experience in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howze, Elizabeth H.; Auld, M. Elaine; Woodhouse, Lynn D.; Gershick, Jessica; Livingood, William C.

    2009-01-01

    The Galway Consensus Conference articulated key definitions, principles, values, and core domains of practice as the foundation for the diffusion of health promotion across the globe. The conference occurred in the context of an urgent need for large numbers of trained health workers in developing countries, which face multiple severe threats to…

  15. Health, hope, and human development: building capacity in public housing communities on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Holly; Flores, Maria; Castañeda, Ernesto; Medina-Jerez, William; Lachica, Josue; Smith, Curtis; Olvera, Hector

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we highlight results from our recent survey of public housing residents living in the U.S.-Mexico border region. Our data inform our interdisciplinary (public health, education, environmental engineering, sociology) efforts to improve health and educational equity in our community, and provide ripe opportunities for policy advocacy. PMID:24185141

  16. Addressing Student Mental Health Needs by Providing Direct and Indirect Services and Building Alliances in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffenberger, Carol J.; O'Rorke-Trigiani, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Given that 20% of students experience mental health issues that interfere with school performance and most of these students will turn first to their school for help, school counselors need to consider how they can best serve this population. This article describes how school counselors can address the mental health needs of students by providing…

  17. Building a University-Community Partnership to Explore Health Challenges among Residents at Extended-Stay Hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinson, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Extended-stay hotels are housing solutions for some older adults on the fringe of street homelessness. Research indicates that these environments can produce negative health outcomes for older adults. Strategies for managing negative environmental conditions must be identified to help older adults manage health outcomes. This paper describes a…

  18. Lessons in Building Capacity in Sexuality Education Using the Health Promoting School Framework: From Planning to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollis, Debbie; Harrison, Lyn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The health promoting school model is rarely implemented in relation to sexuality education. This paper reports on data collected as part of a five-year project designed to implement a health promoting and whole school approach to sexuality education in a five campus year 1-12 college in regional Victoria, Australia. Using a community…

  19. Europart - Airborne particles in the indoor environment. A European interdisciplinary review of scientific evidence on associations between exposure to particles in buildings and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, T.; Sundell, Jan; Bischof, W.;

    2002-01-01

    The relevance of particle mass, surface area or number concentration as risk indicators for health effects in non-industrial buildings has been assessed by a European interdisciplinary group of researchers by reviewing papers identified in Medline, Toxline, and OSH. Studies dealing with dermal...... effects or cancer or specifically addressing environmental tobacco smoke, major allergens, and pesticides were excluded. Seventy-six papers were identified for evaluation and eight of these were judged to be conclusive and included in the final review: five experimental studies, two cross-sectional office...... studies, and a longitudinal study among elderly with cardiovascular conditions. Given the limited and inconclusive scientific evidence, the group concluded that indoor particulate mass or number concentrations cannot be used as generally applicable risk indicators of health effects in non...

  20. Building relationships with physicians. Internal marketing efforts help strengthen organizational bonds at a rural health care clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, J W; Boyt, T; Westfall, J E

    1997-01-01

    Physician turnover is costly for health care organizations, especially for rural organizations. One approach management can take to reduce turnover is to promote physician loyalty by treating them as an important customer segment. The authors develop an information--oriented framework for generating physician loyalty and illustrate how this framework has helped to eliminate physician turnover at a rural health care clinic. Rural health care organizations must develop a more internal marketing orientation in their approach to establishing strong relationship bonds with physicians. PMID:10173904

  1. Forging partnerships to solve the global health workforce crisis and achieve the health MDGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometto, Giorgio; Sheikh, Mubashar

    2010-01-01

    The health workforce is in many countries the weakest link in the effective and equitable delivery of quality health services, and the largest impediment to the achievement of health Millennium Development Goals. The Kampala Declaration and Agenda for Global Action, championed by the Global Health Workforce Alliance, provide an effective overarching framework for the bold, concerted and sustained action which is required at the international, national and local level.

  2. Estimation of the state of health of students of the I course of build university attributed to task medical force.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova A.Yu.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The different approaches are considered near the estimation of the state of health of students. General description of the state of health and activity of students is resulted on its maintenance. It is marked that different rejections have 30% students in a state of health, disease of temporal or permanent character. The students of the first course of university took part in research. It is set that unsatisfactory physical preparation is observed 43% students, good - at 37,2%, excellent at 20%. On the whole there is a tendency to the decline of motive activity of students of the I course, frequent violations of the mode of sleep and feed. The system of recommendations is developed for employments by a physical culture and sport. It is marked that for maintenance and optimization of resources of organism of students of the I course the correctly organized athletic health work is needed.

  3. The inverse of managed health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borremans, V

    1978-01-01

    In providing a non-professional view on health, on health in a desirable modern world, the modern form of "medicalized health" is contrasted with the conception of health among the Aztecs before the arrival of the Spaniards. Health was "medicalized" in the 1960s; the medical model of health care was determined mostly by what physicians do. Since that time, 4 distinct professional approaches each have challenged the monopoly of doctors over the definition of health. 1 of the key mistakes of modern civilization is to assume that there is only 1 health - a universal health, which is given in the form of health services and imposed on the people. In actuality, there are many different kinds of health - as many as there are cultures. In modern society health will be high when 2 conditions are met: 1) when society distributes equitably what it produces; and 2) when society produces just barely as many goods and services as are needed to equip people equitably with the tools they need for the most effective level of autonomous action. The answer is not simply to redistribute health. People need to be involved in determining their own health needs. A lesson can be learned from what the Spaniards did to the Aztecs in Mexico. In 1519 there was a population of 25 million in Mexico, but by 1608 there were just 1 million after the Spaniards had begun their campaign to bring health to the Aztecs. PMID:12260676

  4. Closing the mental health gap in low-income settings by building research capacity: Perspectives from Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Sweetland, Annika C.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Sidat, Mohsin; Santos, Palmira F.; Sten H Vermund; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Arbuckle, Melissa; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide, accounting for 22.7% of all years lived with disability (YLDs). Despite this global burden, fewer than 25% of affected individuals ever access mental health treatment; in low-income settings, access is much lower, though non-allopathic interventions through traditional healers are common in many venues. Three main barriers to reducing the gap between individuals who need and those who have access to mental health treatm...

  5. The role of short-term volunteers in a global health capacity building effort: the Project HOPE-GEMC experience

    OpenAIRE

    Rominski, Sarah D; Yakubu, Jamila; Oteng, Rockefeller A.; Peterson, Matt; Tagoe, Nadia; Bell, Sue Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasingly, medical students and practicing clinicians are showing interest in traveling to low-income settings to conduct research and engage in clinical rotations. While global health activities have the potential to benefit both the individual and the host, there can be challenges. We describe one way to harmonize the desire of volunteers to have a meaningful impact on the health care delivery system in a developing country with the needs of that country. Methods The Project H...

  6. Integrating open-source technologies to build low-cost information systems for improved access to public health data

    OpenAIRE

    Oberle Mark W; Sorensen Svend S; Hillringhouse Elizabeth A; Hoskins Richard E; Yi Qian; Fuller Sherrilynne S; Wallace James C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Effective public health practice relies on the availability of public health data sources and assessment tools to convey information to investigators, practitioners, policy makers, and the general public. Emerging communication technologies on the Internet can deliver all components of the "who, what, when, and where" quartet more quickly than ever with a potentially higher level of quality and assurance, using new analysis and visualization tools. Open-source software provides the o...

  7. Millennium development goals and eye health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah B Faal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 2000, world leaders made a commitment to build a more equitable, prosperous and safer world by 2015 and launched the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. In the previous year, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in partnership launched the global initiative to eliminate avoidable blindness by the year 2020-VISION 2020 the Right to Sight. It has focused on the prevention of a disability-blindness and recognized a health issue-sight as a human right. Both global initiatives have made considerable progress with synergy especially on MDG 1-the reduction of poverty and the reduction in numbers of the blind. A review of the MDGs has identified the need to address disparities within and between countries, quality, and disability. Noncommunicable diseases are emerging as a challenge to the MDGs and Vision 2020:0 the Right to Sight. For the future, up to and beyond 2015, there will be need for both initiatives to continue to work in synergy to address present and emerging challenges.

  8. New dialogue for the way forward in maternal health: addressing market inefficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Katharine; Ramarao, Saumya; Taboada, Hannah

    2015-06-01

    Despite notable progress in Millennium Development Goal (MDG) five, to reduce maternal deaths three-quarters by 2015, deaths due to treatable conditions during pregnancy and childbirth continue to concentrate in the developing world. Expanding access to three effective and low-cost maternal health drugs can reduce preventable maternal deaths, if available to all women. However, current failures in markets for maternal health drugs limit access to lifesaving medicines among those most in need. In effort to stimulate renewed action planning in the post-MDG era, we present three case examples from other global health initiatives to illustrate how market shaping strategies can scale-up access to essential maternal health drugs. Such strategies include: sharing intelligence among suppliers and users to better approximate and address unmet need for maternal health drugs, introducing innovative financial strategies to catalyze otherwise unattractive markets for drug manufacturers, and employing market segmentation to create a viable and sustainable market. By building on lessons learned from other market shaping interventions and capitalizing on opportunities for renewed action planning and partnership, the maternal health field can utilize market dynamics to better ensure sustainable and equitable distribution of essential maternal health drugs to all women, including the most marginalized.

  9. Building the "fable hospital"--the CEO's perspective: an interview with Michael H. Covert, president and chief executive officer, Palomar Pomerado Health. Interview by David A Tam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hospital construction is a significant event in any health system. The financial implications are great, especially at a time of shrinking capital resources. Personnel are affected, as are the processes to perform their tasks. Often, new facilities are catalysts that change organizational culture; it has been clearly shown that new facilities have a positive impact on patient satisfaction scores. The members of the C-suite of a hospital/health system play important roles in construction projects. However, no one is more critical to the success of such major endeavors than the chief executive officer (CEO). The CEO sets the tone for the project, giving direction to the design and construction process that may have implications for the rest of the organization. Palomar Pomerado Health (PPH) is the largest public health district in California. In 2002, the PPH governing board authorized the creation of a new facility master plan for the district, which included the construction of a replacement facility for its tertiary care trauma center. The new Palomar Medical Center is slated to open in August 2012. HERD had the opportunity to speak with PPH CEO Michael H. Covert on the role of the CEO in the building of this "fable hospital".

  10. International Health Regulations (2005 and the U.S. Department of Defense: building core capacities on a foundation of partnership and trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazes David L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cornerstone of effective global health surveillance programs is the ability to build systems that identify, track and respond to public health threats in a timely manner. These functions are often difficult and require international cooperation given the rapidity with which diseases cross national borders and spread throughout the global community as a result of travel and migration by both humans and animals. As part of the U.S. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC, the Department of Defense’s (DoD Globa Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS has developed a global network of surveillance sites over the past decade that engages in a wide spectrum of support activities in collaboration with host country partners. Many of these activities are in direct support of International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]. The network also supports host country military forces around the world, which are equally affected by these threats and are often in a unique position to respond in areas of conflict or during complex emergencies. With IHR(2005 as the guiding framework for action, the AFHSC-GEIS network of international partners and overseas research laboratories continues to develop into a far-reaching system for identifying, analyzing and responding to emerging disease threats.

  11. Public Ends, Private Means : Strategic Purchasing of Health Services

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander S. Preker; Liu, Xingzhu; Velenyi, Edit V.; Baris, Enis

    2007-01-01

    Public Ends, Private Means: Strategic purchasing of value for money in health services is part of a series of World Bank publications on ways to make public spending on health care more efficient and equitable in developing countries. It reviews the underlying economics in terms of agency theory, behavioral science, contract theory, transaction costs, and public choice theory. It provides a ...

  12. Doing Better: Illuminating a Framework of Equitable Science Pedagogy through a Cross- Case Analysis of Urban High School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Manali J.

    Students of color are routinely asked to participate in science education that is less intellectually rich and self-affirming. Additionally, teachers have trouble embarking on professional growth related to issues of equity and diversity in science. The purpose of this dissertation research is to develop a multi-dimensional framework for equitable science pedagogy (ESP) through analyzing the efforts and struggles of high school science teachers. This study is grounded in a conceptual framework derived from scholarship in science education, multicultural education, critical science studies, and teacher learning. The following questions guide this research: 1) What visions and enactments emerge in teachers' practices towards equitable science pedagogy? 2) How are teachers' practice decisions towards ESP influenced by their personal theories of race/culture, science, and learning and sociocultural contexts? 3) Why are there consistencies and variances across teachers' practices? This study employs a qualitative multiple case study design with ethnographic data collection to explore the practices of three urban high school science teachers who were identified as being committed to nurturing the science learning of students of color. Data include over 120 hours of classroom observation, 60 hours of teacher interviews, and 500 teacher- and student-generated artifacts. Data analysis included coding teachers' practices using theory- and participant generated codes, construction of themes based on emergent patterns, and cross-case analysis. The affordances and limitations of the participants' pedagogical approaches inform the following framework for equitable science pedagogy: 1) Seeing race and culture and sharing responsibility for learning form foundational dimensions. Practices from the other three dimensions--- nurturing students' identities, re-centering students' epistemologies, and critiquing structural inequities---emerge from the foundation. As emergent practices

  13. Building better systems of care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: findings from the Kanyini health systems assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiris David

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian federal and jurisdictional governments are implementing ambitious policy initiatives intended to improve health care access and outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. In this qualitative study we explored Aboriginal Medical Service (AMS staff views on factors needed to improve chronic care systems and assessed their relevance to the new policy environment. Methods Two theories informed the study: (1 ‘candidacy’, which explores “the ways in which people’s eligibility for care is jointly negotiated between individuals and health services”; and (2 kanyini or ‘holding’, a Central Australian philosophy which describes the principle and obligations of nurturing and protecting others. A structured health systems assessment, locally adapted from Chronic Care Model domains, was administered via group interviews with 37 health staff in six AMSs and one government Indigenous-led health service. Data were thematically analysed. Results Staff emphasised AMS health care was different to private general practices. Consistent with kanyini, community governance and leadership, community representation among staff, and commitment to community development were important organisational features to retain and nurture both staff and patients. This was undermined, however, by constant fear of government funding for AMSs being withheld. Staff resourcing, information systems and high-level leadership were perceived to be key drivers of health care quality. On-site specialist services, managed by AMS staff, were considered an enabling strategy to increase specialist access. Candidacy theory suggests the above factors influence whether a service is ‘tractable’ and ‘navigable’ to its users. Staff also described entrenched patient discrimination in hospitals and the need to expend considerable effort to reinstate care. This suggests that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are still

  14. What does the scientific literature tell us about the ventilation-health relationship in public and residential buildings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrer, Paolo; Wargocki, Pawel; Fanetti, Annaclara;

    2015-01-01

    Objective of this paper is to examine whether the available epidemiological evidence provides information on the link between outdoor air ventilation rates and health, and whether it can be used for regulatory purposes when setting ventilation requirements for non-industrial built environments...

  15. Building a Collaboration One Day at a Time: Integrating Infant Mental Health into a Residential Drug Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Mary Claire; Purcell, Arlene; Schalit, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Families In Recovery Staying Together (FIRST) is a team from Children's Hospital and Research Center at Oakland that has joined in collaboration with two local perinatal residential drug treatment programs to create early childhood mental health services at those sites. The authors highlight the collaboration strategies and challenges the partners…

  16. Improving health care globally : a critical review of the necessity of family medicine research and recommendations to build research capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, C. van; Rosser, W.W.

    2004-01-01

    An invitational conference led by the World Organization of Family Doctors (Wonca) involving selected delegates from 34 countries was held in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, March 8 to12, 2003. The conference theme was "Improving Health Globally: The Necessity of Family Medicine Research." Guiding confer

  17. Capacity-Building for African American Mental Health Training and Research: Lessons from the Howard-Dartmouth Collaborative Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipolito, Maria M. S.; Malik, Mansoor; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Whitley, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many psychiatric residents have traditionally received little-or-no training in cross cultural approaches to psychiatric training and research. Method: The Dartmouth-Howard Collaboration summer school training program had a 5-year grant to explore approaches to enhancing understanding of cultural factors in mental health treatment and…

  18. Optimization and Cost of Energy of Renewable Energy System in Health Clinic Building for a Coastal Area in Tamil Nadu, India Using Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Suresh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy potential of coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, India ranks along with the utmost in the world. This study proposes optimization and cost of energy of different hybrid renewable energy system to power a health clinic in that building. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL optimization computer model for distributed power, “HOMER,” is used to estimate the optimization and its cost of energy. The implementation of RE systems to supply Rural Health Clinics will contribute to reduce both electricity generation cost and to reduce the consumption of fuel while improving health care and quality of life in these isolated coastal regions. We conclude that using the PV+Wind+Diesel+Battery system for these types of applications in justified on technical and economic grounds. The experimental results show that the least cost of energy at Rs 5.00/KWh, is obtained from above said system and also experiment result shows that the COE decreases with 0% of interest. It is noted, that the PV+Wind+Diesel+Battery hybrid system shows the lowest COE and high amount of Renewable energy.

  19. Using Administrative Health Data to Identify Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Comparison of Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E.; Balogh, R.; Cobigo, V.; Ouellette-Kuntz, H.; Wilton, A. S.; Lunsky, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience high rates of physical and mental health problems; yet their health care is often inadequate. Information about their characteristics and health services needs is critical for planning efficient and equitable services. A logical source of such information is…

  20. Mycotoxins in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    as in future energy efficient buildings. It brings together different disciplinary points of view on indoor mold, ranging from physics and material science to microbiology and health sciences. The contents have been outlined according to three main issues: Fundamentals, particularly addressing the crucial...... for avoiding adverse health effects is the prevention (or minimization) of persistent dampness and microbial growth on interior surfaces and in building structures. This book aims to describe the fundamentals of indoor mold growth as a prerequisite to tackle mold growth in the existing building stock as well...

  1. Overcoming barriers to effectiveness in a health care operational environment: building on the lessons of American industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerer, L W; Zimmerer, T W; Yasin, M M

    1999-01-01

    Several of the manufacturing-based philosophies, techniques and tools, such as Total Quality Management (TQM), Continuous Improvement (CI), Business Process Reengineering (BPR) and Time-based Competition (TBC) have been successfully adapted for use within the service sector. Diverse service industries including airlines, insurance, food services and hospitality have increased customer satisfaction and performance through the use of the quality driven, manufacturing-based philosophies. This article explores the reasons for the limited success of TQM/CI, BPR, TBC and benchmarking within the health care industry. Sixteen barriers to change are identified, possible counter-measures to these barriers are outlined and two conceptual frameworks are offered as possible facilitators of change for the health care industry. PMID:11066723

  2. Reverse Migration, the Black Church and Sexual Health: Implications for Building HIV/AIDS Prevention Capacity in the Deep South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Payne Foster

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Black Church has long been purported as being strongly influential in the lives of Blacks in America. Recent U.S. census data trends highlight a “reverse migration” pattern where Blacks are moving back to the South from larger metropolitan areas in other U.S. geographical regions. This migration pattern parallels the increasing HIV/AIDS prevalence among Blacks in the Deep South. This paper reviews both the historical and current migration patterns among Blacks, as well as the current HIV/AIDS epidemic among Blacks in the Deep South. Thereafter, the authors discuss an existing framework for increasing HIV/AIDS prevention capacity through a conceptual connection of migration, religion and sexual health. The authors use case studies to support the proposed framework. It is hoped that the framework could be used to address HIV/AIDS health disparities and other chronic diseases affecting Blacks in America.

  3. Overcoming barriers to effectiveness in a health care operational environment: building on the lessons of American industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerer, L W; Zimmerer, T W; Yasin, M M

    1999-01-01

    Several of the manufacturing-based philosophies, techniques and tools, such as Total Quality Management (TQM), Continuous Improvement (CI), Business Process Reengineering (BPR) and Time-based Competition (TBC) have been successfully adapted for use within the service sector. Diverse service industries including airlines, insurance, food services and hospitality have increased customer satisfaction and performance through the use of the quality driven, manufacturing-based philosophies. This article explores the reasons for the limited success of TQM/CI, BPR, TBC and benchmarking within the health care industry. Sixteen barriers to change are identified, possible counter-measures to these barriers are outlined and two conceptual frameworks are offered as possible facilitators of change for the health care industry.

  4. How can community health programmes build enabling environments for transformative communication? Experiences from India and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora

    2012-05-01

    Much research has examined how to empower the poor to articulate demands for health-enabling living conditions. Less is known about creating receptive social environments where the powerful heed the voices of the poor. We explore the potential for 'transformative communication' between the poor and the powerful, through comparing two well-documented case studies of HIV/AIDS management. The Entabeni Project in South Africa sought to empower impoverished women to deliver home-based nursing to people with AIDS. It successfully provided short-term welfare, but did not achieve local leadership or sustainability. The Sonagachi Project in India, an HIV-prevention programme targeting female sex workers, became locally led and sustainable. We highlight the strategies through which Sonagachi, but not Entabeni, altered the material, symbolic and relational contexts of participants' lives, enabling transformative communication and opportunities for sexual health-enabling social change. PMID:21604108

  5. Building social networks for maternal and newborn health in poor urban settlements: a cross-sectional study in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alayne M Adams

    Full Text Available The beneficial influence of social networks on health and wellbeing is well-established. In poor urban settlements in Bangladesh, BRAC's Manoshi programme trains community health workers (CHWs to support women through pregnancy, delivery and postpartum periods. This paper test the hypothesis that the introduction of CHWs as weak ties into the social networks of Manoshi members mediates improvements in maternal and neonatal health (MNH best practices by providing support, facilitating ideational change, connecting mother to resources, and strengthening or countering the influence of strong ties.1000 women who had given birth in the last three months were identified and interviewed as part of ongoing monitoring of 5 poor urban settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A social networks questionnaire was administered which elicited women's perceived networks around pregnancy, delivery and post-partum periods. Mediation analysis was performed to test the hypothesis that penetration of Manoshi CHWs into women's perceived networks has a beneficial effect on MNH best practises.The presence and influence of Manoshi CHWs in women's networks significantly mediated the effect of Manoshi membership on MNH best practices. Respondents who were Manoshi members and who listed Manoshi CHWs as part of their support networks were significantly more likely to deliver with a trained birth attendant (OR 3.61; 95%CI 2.36-5.51, to use postnatal care (OR 3.09; 95%CI 1.83-5.22, and to give colostrum to their newborn (OR 7.51; 95%CI 3.51-16.05.Manoshi has succeeded in penetrating the perceived pregnancy, delivery and post-partum networks of poor urban women through the introduction of trained CHWs. Study findings demonstrate the benefits of moving beyond urban health care delivery models that concentrate on the provision of clinical services by medical providers, to an approach that nurtures the power of social networks as a means to support the poorest and most marginalized in

  6. Development of a technical assistance framework for building organizational capacity of health programs in resource-limited settings

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, E. Michael; SHARMA, Anjali; Thomas, Kate K.; Kuehn, Chuck; Morales, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Background Little information exists on the technical assistance needs of local indigenous organizations charged with managing HIV care and treatment programs funded by the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). This paper describes the methods used to adapt the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) framework, which has successfully strengthened HIV primary care services in the US, into one that could strengthen the capacity of local partners to deliver priority health programs...

  7. Supporting early career health investigators in Kenya: A qualitative study of HIV/AIDS research capacity building

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Joseph; Nduati, Ruth; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Strategies to transfer international health research training programs to sub-Saharan African institutions focus on developing cadres of local investigators who will lead such programs. Using a critical leadership theory framework, we conducted a qualitative study of one program to understand how collaborative training and research can support early career investigators in Kenya toward the program transfer goal. Methods We used purposive sampling methods and a semi-structured pro...

  8. Building the field of population health intervention research: The development and use of an initial set of competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Barbara; Harvey, Jean; Di Ruggiero, Erica; Potvin, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Population health intervention research (PHIR) is a relatively new research field that studies interventions that can improve health and health equity at a population level. Competencies are one way to give legitimacy and definition to a field. An initial set of PHIR competencies was developed with leadership from a multi-sector group in Canada. This paper describes the development process for these competencies and their possible uses. Methods to develop the competencies included key informant interviews; a targeted review of scientific and gray literature; a 2-round, online adapted Delphi study with a 24-member panel; and a focus group with 9 international PHIR experts. The resulting competencies consist of 25 items grouped into 6 categories. They include principles of good science applicable though not exclusive to PHIR, and more suitable for PHIR teams rather than individuals. This initial set of competencies, released in 2013, may be used to develop graduate student curriculum, recruit trainees and faculty to academic institutions, plan non-degree professional development, and develop job descriptions for PHIR-related research and professional positions. The competencies provide some initial guideposts for the field and will need to be adapted as the PHIR field matures and to meet unique needs of different jurisdictions. PMID:26844160

  9. 新世纪图书馆平等服务的倡导与研究%On Advocacy and Study of Library Equitable Service in the New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋润芳

    2012-01-01

    图书馆平等服务是新世纪以来我国图书馆界倡导的重要理念。文章探讨了对这种理念的认知,我国图书馆界倡导平等理念的意义,以及对图书馆平等服务的深层思考。%Library equitable service is the important concept to advocate in library circle of our country since the new century . This paper discusses the cognition of the concept , significance to advocate the equitable concept in library circle of our country and deep thinking on library equitable service.

  10. "EUROPART". Airborne particles in the indoor environment. A European interdisciplinary review of scientific evidence on associations between exposure to particles in buildings and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, T.; Sundell, Jan; Bischof, W.;

    2003-01-01

    The relevance of particle mass, surface area or number concentration as risk indicators for health effects in non-industrial buildings has been assessed by a European interdisciplinary group of researchers (called EUROPART) by reviewing papers identified in Medline, Toxline, and OSH. Studies...... dealing with dermal effects or cancer or specifically addressing environmental tobacco smoke, house dust-mite, cockroach or animal allergens, microorganisms and pesticides were excluded. A total of 70 papers were reviewed, and eight were identified for the final review: Five experimental studies involving...... mainly healthy subjects, two cross-sectional office studies and one longitudinal study among elderly on cardiovascular effects. From most studies, no definite conclusions could be drawn. Overall, the group concluded that there is inadequate scientific evidence that airborne, indoor particulate mass...

  11. 卫生法学的概念及基本范畴辨析%The Basic Framework of the Concept of Health Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李筱永

    2011-01-01

    Health Law is a legal science that study the health law (normative law ),and the phenomenon of the law (law of life )and its related issues. Through the phenomenon of the health law ,we can find that pursuing human health is the best interest of the health law, the essence of the health law views social welfare as the legal interest, and its essence is to make health service more equitable. Building the basic law that regards the health right as the core is the top priority of health law.%卫生法学是研究卫生法、卫生法的现象及其与卫生法相关问题的一门法律科学.透过卫生法现象不难发现,卫生法以追求人的生命健康为最大利益,卫生法的本质是以社会公益为法益的法律,其实质就是让卫生服务更加公平.制定以健康权为核心的卫生基本法是卫生法学的重中之重.

  12. Exploring health researchers’ perceptions of policymaking in Argentina: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina’s rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher’s function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher’s interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around ‘lack of trust’ and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers’ distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers’ identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers’ perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the

  13. Participatory support to farmers in improving safety and health at work: building WIND farmer volunteer networks in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Van, Vhu Nhu; Theu, Nguyen Van; Khai, Ton That; Kogi, Kazutaka

    2008-10-01

    The government of Viet Nam places a high priority on upgrading the quality of farmers' lives. Providing adequate occupational safety and health (OSH) protection for all farmers is an important challenge. The Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) of Viet Nam trained WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) farmer volunteers. From 2004-2007, MOLISA in cooperation with ministries of health and agriculture trained 480 WIND farmer volunteers in selected 14 provinces. Trained farmer volunteers trained their neighbouring farmers and expanded their networks. The WIND training programme produced in Cantho, Viet Nam in 1996, was used as the core training methodology. The WIND action-checklist, good example photo-sheets, and other participatory training materials were designed for WIND farmer volunteers as practical training tools. The volunteers trained 7,922 farmers. The trained farmers implemented 28,508 improvements in materials handling, work posture, machine and electrical safety, working environments and control of hazardous chemicals, and welfare facilities. The provincial support committees organized follow-up workshops and strengthen the WIND farmer volunteer networks. The system of WIND farmer volunteers proved effective in extending practical OSH protection measures to farmers at grassroots level. The system of WIND farmer volunteers was adopted in the First National Programme on Labour Protection and OSH of Viet Nam as a practical means in OSH and is now further expanding within the framework of the National Programme.

  14. Hospitality Invites Sociability, Which Builds Cohesion: a Model for the Role of Main Streets in Population Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenberg, Jacob M; Fullilove, Mindy Thompson

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of main streets to community social cohesion, a factor important to health. Prior work suggests that casual contact in public space, which we call "sociability," facilitates more sustained social bonds in the community. We appropriate the term "hospitality" to describe a main street's propensity to support a density of such social interactions. Hospitality is a result of the integrity and complex contents of the main street and surrounding area. We examine this using a typology we term "box-circle-line" to represent the streetscape (the box), the local neighborhood (the circle), and the relationship to the regional network of streets (the line). Through field visits to 50 main streets in New Jersey and elsewhere, and a systematic qualitative investigation of main streets in a densely interconnected urban region (Essex County, New Jersey), we observed significant variation in main street hospitality, which generally correlated closely with sociability. Physical elements such as street wall, neighborhood elements such as connectivity, inter-community elements such as access and perceived welcome, and socio-political elements such as investment and racial discrimination were identified as relevant to main street hospitality. We describe the box-circle-line as a theoretical model for main street hospitality that links these various factors and provides a viable framework for further research into main street hospitality, particularly with regard to geographic health disparities.

  15. Hospitality Invites Sociability, Which Builds Cohesion: a Model for the Role of Main Streets in Population Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenberg, Jacob M; Fullilove, Mindy Thompson

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of main streets to community social cohesion, a factor important to health. Prior work suggests that casual contact in public space, which we call "sociability," facilitates more sustained social bonds in the community. We appropriate the term "hospitality" to describe a main street's propensity to support a density of such social interactions. Hospitality is a result of the integrity and complex contents of the main street and surrounding area. We examine this using a typology we term "box-circle-line" to represent the streetscape (the box), the local neighborhood (the circle), and the relationship to the regional network of streets (the line). Through field visits to 50 main streets in New Jersey and elsewhere, and a systematic qualitative investigation of main streets in a densely interconnected urban region (Essex County, New Jersey), we observed significant variation in main street hospitality, which generally correlated closely with sociability. Physical elements such as street wall, neighborhood elements such as connectivity, inter-community elements such as access and perceived welcome, and socio-political elements such as investment and racial discrimination were identified as relevant to main street hospitality. We describe the box-circle-line as a theoretical model for main street hospitality that links these various factors and provides a viable framework for further research into main street hospitality, particularly with regard to geographic health disparities. PMID:26955815

  16. Participatory support to farmers in improving safety and health at work: building WIND farmer volunteer networks in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Van, Vhu Nhu; Theu, Nguyen Van; Khai, Ton That; Kogi, Kazutaka

    2008-10-01

    The government of Viet Nam places a high priority on upgrading the quality of farmers' lives. Providing adequate occupational safety and health (OSH) protection for all farmers is an important challenge. The Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) of Viet Nam trained WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) farmer volunteers. From 2004-2007, MOLISA in cooperation with ministries of health and agriculture trained 480 WIND farmer volunteers in selected 14 provinces. Trained farmer volunteers trained their neighbouring farmers and expanded their networks. The WIND training programme produced in Cantho, Viet Nam in 1996, was used as the core training methodology. The WIND action-checklist, good example photo-sheets, and other participatory training materials were designed for WIND farmer volunteers as practical training tools. The volunteers trained 7,922 farmers. The trained farmers implemented 28,508 improvements in materials handling, work posture, machine and electrical safety, working environments and control of hazardous chemicals, and welfare facilities. The provincial support committees organized follow-up workshops and strengthen the WIND farmer volunteer networks. The system of WIND farmer volunteers proved effective in extending practical OSH protection measures to farmers at grassroots level. The system of WIND farmer volunteers was adopted in the First National Programme on Labour Protection and OSH of Viet Nam as a practical means in OSH and is now further expanding within the framework of the National Programme. PMID:18840935

  17. Health assessment of natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in granites used as building materials in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissi, M A; El-Samad, O; Rachidi, I

    2013-03-01

    Measurements of specific activities (Bq kg(-1)) of gamma-emissions from radioactive nuclides, (238)U, (226)Ra, (214)Bi, (232)Th, (212)Pb and (40)K, contained in 28 granite types, used as building materials in indoors in Lebanon, were performed on the powdered granites. The concentration of the nuclides, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, in the granites varied from below detection level (BDL) to 494 Bq kg(-1), BDL to 157.2 Bq kg(-1) and BDL to 1776 Bq kg(-1), respectively. (226)Ra concentration equivalents, C(Raeq), were obtained and ranged between 37 and 591 Bq kg(-1), with certain values above the allowed limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). Calculated annual gamma-absorbed dose in air, D(aR), varied from 17.7 to 274.5 (nGy h(-1)). Annual effective dose, E (mSv y(-1)), of gamma radiations related to the studied granites and absorbed by the inhabitants was evaluated. E (mSv y(-1)) ranged from 0.09 to 1.35 mSv y(-1). Some granite types produced E above the allowed limit of 1 mSv y(-1) set by ICRP. Values of (222)Rn mass exhalation rate, E(M) (mBq kg(-1)h(-1))(,) in granite powder were obtained using the CR-39 detector technique. Diffusion factors, f, in 23 granite types were calculated with f ranging between (0.1 ± 0.02)×10(-2) and (6.6 ± 1.01)×10(-2).

  18. Critical Medical Anthropology--a voice for just and equitable healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witeska-Młynarczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a paradigm current in contemporary medical anthropology - Critical Medical Anthropology (CMA), which merges political-economic approaches with a culturally sensitive analysis of human behaviour grounded in anthropological methods. It is characterized by a strongly applied orientation and a devotion to improving population health and promoting health equity. The beginning of CMA dates back to the 1970s when the interdisciplinary movement called the political economy of health was developed. Today, CMA has grown into one of three major perspectives used in anthropological research devoted to health, illness and wellbeing. The author discusses the origins, key concepts and CMA's usefulness for social research, and its significance for the design of effective policies in the realm of public health. Examplary interventions and ethnographic researches are introduced and wider usage is advocated of such works and methods by bureaucrats and medical staff for understanding the patients' behavior, and the influence of social, economic and political factors on the workings of particular health systems.

  19. Building a house on shifting sand: methodological considerations when evaluating the implementation and adoption of national electronic health record systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takian Amirhossein

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A commitment to Electronic Health Record (EHR systems now constitutes a core part of many governments’ healthcare reform strategies. The resulting politically-initiated large-scale or national EHR endeavors are challenging because of their ambitious agendas of change, the scale of resources needed to make them work, the (relatively short timescales set, and the large number of stakeholders involved, all of whom pursue somewhat different interests. These initiatives need to be evaluated to establish if they improve care and represent value for money. Methods Critical reflections on these complexities in the light of experience of undertaking the first national, longitudinal, and sociotechnical evaluation of the implementation and adoption of England’s National Health Service’s Care Records Service (NHS CRS. Results/discussion We advance two key arguments. First, national programs for EHR implementations are likely to take place in the shifting sands of evolving sociopolitical and sociotechnical and contexts, which are likely to shape them in significant ways. This poses challenges to conventional evaluation approaches which draw on a model of baseline operations → intervention → changed operations (outcome. Second, evaluation of such programs must account for this changing context by adapting to it. This requires careful and creative choice of ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions. Summary New and significant challenges are faced in evaluating national EHR implementation endeavors. Based on experiences from this national evaluation of the implementation and adoption of the NHS CRS in England, we argue for an approach to these evaluations which moves away from seeing EHR systems as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT projects requiring an essentially outcome-centred assessment towards a more interpretive approach that reflects the situated and evolving nature of EHR seen within

  20. Inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal sessions in rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Studies have widely documented the socioeconomic inequalities in maternal and child health related outcomes in developing countries including India. However, there is limited research on the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers on maternal and child health during antenatal visits. This paper investigates the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal visits in rural India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The District Level Household Survey (2007-08 was used to compute rich-poor ratios and concentration indices. Binary logistic regressions were used to investigate inequalities in advice provided by public health workers. The dependent variables comprised the advice provided on seven essential components of maternal and child health care. A significant proportion of pregnant women who attended at least four ANC sessions were not advised on these components during their antenatal sessions. Only 51%-72% of the pregnant women were advised on at least one of the components. Moreover, socioeconomic inequalities in providing advice were significant and the provision of advice concentrated disproportionately among the rich. Inequalities were highest in the case of advice on family planning methods. Advice on breastfeeding was least unequal. Public health workers working in lower level health facilities were significantly less likely than their counterparts in the higher level health facilities to provide specific advice. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of women were not advised on recommended components of maternal and child health in rural India. Moreover, there were enormous socioeconomic inequalities. The findings of this study raise questions about the capacity of the public health care system in providing equitable services in India. The Government of India must focus on training and capacity building of the public health workers in communication skills so that they can deliver

  1. Metatranscriptome Sequencing of a Reef-building Coral Elucidates Holobiont Community Gene Functions in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, S.; Helbig, T.; Fernando, S.; Penn, K.; Alm, E.; Thompson, F.; Thompson, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The coral reefs of the Abrolhos Bank of Brazil play a vital ecological role in the health of the Southern Atlantic Ocean, but accelerating rates of disease, particularly white plague, threaten this ecosystem. Thus, an understanding of white plague disease and diagnostic tests for it are urgently needed. The coral animal is associated with a distinct microbiome, a diverse assemblage of eukaryotes, bacteria, and viruses. That these microbes have a great influence on the health of the coral has been long known, however, most of their functions are still mysterious. While recent studies have contrasted healthy and white-plague-associated communities, the causative agents and mechanisms of the disease remain unknown. We collected fragments of healthy and diseased corals, as well as post-disease skeleton, from 12 colonies of the genus Mussismilia, the major component of the reef structure in the Abrolhos bank, and increasingly, a victim of white-plague disease. Fragments were flash-frozen in situ, and prepped for culture-free high throughput sequencing of gene transcripts with the Illumina II-G. While the membership of the microbial communities associated with coral has been previously described, the a coral holobiont community's gene function has, to date, never been assayed by this powerful approach. We designed a bioinformatics pipeline to analyze the short-read data from this complex sample: identifying the functions of genes expressed in the holobiont, and describing the active community's taxonomic composition. We show that gene functions expressed by the coral's bacterial assemblage are distinct from those of the underlying skeleton, and we highlight differences in the disease samples. We find that gene markers for the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway more abundant in the disease state, and we further quantify this difference with qPCR. Finally, we report the abundant expression of highly repetitive transcripts in the diseased coral samples, and highlight

  2. The health and well-being of Indigenous drug and alcohol workers: results from a national Australian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ann M; Duraisingam, Vinita; Trifonoff, Allan; Tovell, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment services among the Australian Indigenous population, complex organisational challenges and limitations, and high unemployment rates are likely to negatively impact Indigenous AOD workers' health and well-being. Building the capacity of Indigenous AOD workers is vital, as they play a crucial role in the delivery of treatment services and offer essential support to their communities. A national online survey was conducted to examine organisational, workplace and individual factors that might contribute to levels of stress and well-being among workers who provide services to Indigenous clients. A total of 294 eligible surveys were completed; 184 (63%) from Indigenous and 108 (37%) from non-Indigenous AOD workers. Multiple regression models were conducted to assess the significant predictors of mental health and well-being, job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention. Indigenous AOD workers typically experienced above average levels of job satisfaction and relatively low levels of emotional exhaustion. However, 1 in 10 reported high levels of emotional exhaustion, a key predictor of turnover intention. Indigenous workers also experienced significantly lower levels of mental health and well-being and greater work/family imbalance, which was a significant contributor to emotional exhaustion. The findings highlight the importance of implementing workforce development strategies that focus on achieving culturally appropriate, equitable and supportive organisational conditions for Indigenous AOD workers. Preventing or managing levels of stress, ensuring adequate and equitable salaries and benefits, and providing more opportunities for career and personal growth may increase job satisfaction and reduce turnover intention among Indigenous workers in the drug and alcohol field. PMID:22425037

  3. “Assessment as Discourse”: A Pre-Service Physics Teacher’s Evolving Capacity to Support an Equitable Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G. Lyon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One way to view ‘equitable pedagogy’ is through an opportunity to learn (OTL lens, meaning that regardless of race, class, or culture, a student has access to rigorous and meaningful content, as well as appropriate resources and instruction necessary to learn and demonstrate understanding of that content. Assessment holds a unique position in the classroom in that it can both uncover whether inequitable conditions exist (i.e., performance gaps, denied OTL and provide an OTL by mediating communication between teacher and students regarding learning progress and what is important to learn. Nevertheless, individuals entering teacher education programs often hold deficit views toward marginalized students, such as Language Minorities (LMs, believe that assessment strictly serves to evaluate learning, and do not do consider how language and culture influence student thinking–views supplanting assessment’s role at supporting an equitable pedagogy for LMs. Through surveys, interviews, program artifacts, and classroom observation, I report on a case study of one pre-service physics teacher, Dean, to depict how his expertise at assessing science did evolve throughout his yearlong teacher education program in terms of (a becoming more knowledgeable of the role of language and (b developing a belief in incorporating ‘discourse’ while assessing science. Within the case study, I analyze one particular episode from Dean’s teaching practicum to highlight remaining challenges for pre-service teachers to integrate science and language in classroom assessment—namely, interpreting students’ use of language along with their understanding of core science ideas. The findings underscore the need for connecting language and equity issues to content-area assessment in teacher preparation.

  4. Rethinking the Affordable Care Act's "Cadillac tax": A More Equitable Way to Encourage "Chevy" Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Sarah; Eibner, Christine

    2015-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act's "Cadillac tax" will apply a 40 percent excise tax on total employer health insurance premiums in excess of $10,200 for single coverage and $27,500 for family coverage, starting in 2018. Employer spending on premiums is currently excluded from income and payroll taxes. Economists argue that this encourages overconsumption of health care, favors high-income workers, and reduces federal revenue. This issue brief suggests that the Cadillac tax is a "blunt instrument" for addressing these concerns because it will affect workers on a rolling timetable, does relatively little to address the regressive nature of the current exclusion, and may penalize firms and workers for cost variation that is outside their control. Replacing the current exclusion with tax credits for employer coverage that scale inversely with income might allow for regional adjustments in health care costs and eliminate aspects of the tax exclusion that favor high-income over low-income workers. PMID:26702468

  5. Rethinking the Affordable Care Act's "Cadillac tax": A More Equitable Way to Encourage "Chevy" Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Sarah; Eibner, Christine

    2015-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act's "Cadillac tax" will apply a 40 percent excise tax on total employer health insurance premiums in excess of $10,200 for single coverage and $27,500 for family coverage, starting in 2018. Employer spending on premiums is currently excluded from income and payroll taxes. Economists argue that this encourages overconsumption of health care, favors high-income workers, and reduces federal revenue. This issue brief suggests that the Cadillac tax is a "blunt instrument" for addressing these concerns because it will affect workers on a rolling timetable, does relatively little to address the regressive nature of the current exclusion, and may penalize firms and workers for cost variation that is outside their control. Replacing the current exclusion with tax credits for employer coverage that scale inversely with income might allow for regional adjustments in health care costs and eliminate aspects of the tax exclusion that favor high-income over low-income workers.

  6. The impact of health system governance and policy processes on health services in Iraqi Kurdistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnaw Hiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relative to the amount of global attention and media coverage since the first and second Gulf Wars, very little has been published in the health services research literature regarding the state of health services in Iraq, and particularly on the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Building on findings from a field visit, this paper describes the state of health services in Kurdistan, analyzes their underlying governance structures and policy processes, and their overall impact on the quality, accessibility and cost of the health system, while stressing the importance of reinvesting in public health and community-based primary care. Discussion Very little validated, research-based data exists relating to the state of population health and health services in Kurdistan. What little evidence exists, points to a region experiencing an epidemiological polarization, with different segments of the population experiencing rapidly-diverging rates of morbidity and mortality related to different etiological patterns of communicable, non-communicable, acute and chronic illness and disease. Simply put, the rural poor suffer from malnutrition and cholera, while the urban middle and upper classes deal with issues of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. The inequity is exacerbated by a poorly governed, fragmented, unregulated, specialized and heavily privatized system, that not only leads to poor quality of care and catastrophic health expenditures, but also threatens the economic and political stability of the region. There is an urgent need to revisit and clearly define the core values and goals of a future health system, and to develop an inclusive governance and policy framework for change, towards a more equitable and effective primary care-based health system, with attention to broader social determinants of health and salutogenesis. Summary This paper not only frames the situation in Kurdistan in terms of a human rights or special political

  7. Primary health care in rural Malawi - a qualitative assessment exploring the relevance of the community-directed interventions approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makaula, Peter; Bloch, Paul; Banda, Hastings T.;

    2012-01-01

    Primary Health Care (PHC) is a strategy endorsed for attaining equitable access to basic health care including treatment and prevention of endemic diseases. Thirty four years later, its implementation remains sub-optimal in most Sub-Saharan African countries that access to health interventions is...

  8. Disentangling the Effects of Nonmetro Location and Student Poverty on School Performance/Improvement: Implications for Equitable Excellence in Kentucky Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Edward B.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of student poverty and location on school accountability scores were examined using hierarchical linear modeling and data from 1,115 Kentucky schools in 171 districts. Positive effects of nonmetro location were found, but they did not erase the strong negative effect of poverty. Projections indicate that equitable excellence will not be…

  9. Telemedicine: The Assessment of an Evolving Health Care Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Joel J.

    Telemedicine, the use of bidirectional telecommunications systems for the delivery of health care at a distance, could create a more equitable distribution of medical care. Many medical tasks can be performed at a distance although some require the presence of a physician's assistant. Cost-benefit analysis of this service is difficult and requires…

  10. The Male Role in Contraception: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Chwee Lye

    1983-01-01

    Many males still perceive contraception as a woman's responsibility. This paper describes male contraceptives and their effectiveness and draws implications for school and community health education professionals. More equitable sharing of the responsibility for contraception might result in more effective contraception. (PP)

  11. The use of emerging technology to build health promotion capacity in regions with diversity in language and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Martha W; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2006-01-01

    Today in the human development arena, three actors play complementary, sometimes competing, and even conflicting roles on the world stage: governments, commercial enterprises and non-governmental organisations. Given their mission and available resources, each of these interact in different ways between each other, but have the same basis and needs for communication among each other. Two of the factors that come into play in these actors' operations are technology and internationalisation. We currently live the digital era brought on by the technological revolution. This has provided international actors with speed and flexibility over traditional communication formats to disseminate their work and collaborate more closely in real time and across geographical, cultural and language barriers. In order to be efficient and effective, these actors have begun and must continue to engage in this global transformation. All this is relevant to the IUHPE as a global organisation with members in over 90 countries. The hundreds of cultures and languages of our members enrich our ability to advocate for health in every corner of the world. However, our diversity can hinder our effectiveness. Language barriers separating even neighbours can make collaborative work difficult. There are several solutions that the IUHPE is adopting to bridge this divide, among them, using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Within this context, this paper examines the different multi-dimensional dialogue and information platforms offered by ICTs today and its future developments. This will include advantages and limitations with regard to both technological and financial nuances. The use of technology will be defined in relation to the implications for knowledge acquisition, conversation and action. The scenarios include the web as a global resource database and ICTs, including machine translation, for one-on-one and multi-party communication. In a world that is increasingly entwined

  12. The use of emerging technology to build health promotion capacity in regions with diversity in language and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Martha W; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2006-01-01

    Today in the human development arena, three actors play complementary, sometimes competing, and even conflicting roles on the world stage: governments, commercial enterprises and non-governmental organisations. Given their mission and available resources, each of these interact in different ways between each other, but have the same basis and needs for communication among each other. Two of the factors that come into play in these actors' operations are technology and internationalisation. We currently live the digital era brought on by the technological revolution. This has provided international actors with speed and flexibility over traditional communication formats to disseminate their work and collaborate more closely in real time and across geographical, cultural and language barriers. In order to be efficient and effective, these actors have begun and must continue to engage in this global transformation. All this is relevant to the IUHPE as a global organisation with members in over 90 countries. The hundreds of cultures and languages of our members enrich our ability to advocate for health in every corner of the world. However, our diversity can hinder our effectiveness. Language barriers separating even neighbours can make collaborative work difficult. There are several solutions that the IUHPE is adopting to bridge this divide, among them, using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Within this context, this paper examines the different multi-dimensional dialogue and information platforms offered by ICTs today and its future developments. This will include advantages and limitations with regard to both technological and financial nuances. The use of technology will be defined in relation to the implications for knowledge acquisition, conversation and action. The scenarios include the web as a global resource database and ICTs, including machine translation, for one-on-one and multi-party communication. In a world that is increasingly entwined

  13. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  14. "Investing in Care: A Strategy for Effective and Equitable Job Creation"

    OpenAIRE

    Antonopoulos, Rania; Kim, Kijong; Masterson, Tom; Zacharias, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    Massive job losses in the United States, over eight million since the onset of the 'Great Recession,' call for job creation measures through fiscal expansion. In this paper we analyze the job creation potential of social service-delivery sectors-early childhood development and home-based health care-as compared to other proposed alternatives in infrastructure construction and energy. Our microsimulation results suggest that investing in the care sector creates more jobs in total, at double th...

  15. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  16. Engaging youth of color in applied science education and public health promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague Martinez, Linda; Bowers, Edmond; Reich, Amanda J.; Ndulue, Uchenna J.; Le, Albert An; Peréa, Flavia C.

    2016-03-01

    Participation in inquiry-based science education, which focuses on student-constructed learning, has been linked to academic success. Whereas the benefits of this type of science education are evident, access to such high-quality science curriculum and programming is not equitable. Black and Latino students in particular have less access to supplementary science programming, and fewer opportunities to engage in inquiry-based education. This paper describes outcomes associated with an inquiry-based out-of-school time science education program, Nuestro Futuro: Applied Science Education to Engage Black and Latino Youth (NFASE), which sought to build the capacity of middle school students of color to 'think' like health scientists from diverse disciplinary perspectives. The program was designed with the intent of (1) improving student attitudes toward and motivation for science and (2) increasing active and engaged citizenship (AEC). NFASE students explored health inequity and the social determinants of health locally and engaged in developing health promotion, outreach and education efforts targeted to their peers, parents/families, and community. Interest in the program was high overall, but implementation was not without challenges. Although evaluation outcomes indicate that there were no statistically significant changes in science-related attitudes or motivation, students reported significant increases in neighborhood social connection, as well as overall AEC.

  17. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  18. [Definition and adoption of a building code based on biological and ecological sustainability in the Local Health Authority 11 of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy): strengths and areas for improvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Maria Grazia; Battisti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Built environment is an important social determinant of health, but nowadays local health authorities (LHAs) have lost their competences in the issuing of building permits, especially since a new legislation introduced the possibility of personal declaration of conformity. They are also usually excluded from the urban planning process. At the same time, in recent years construction of buildings has been developed with insufficient regard to environmental health requirements, proper exposure to sunlight and winds, comfort, building materials, consumption of resources, and waste production. To deal with these issues, an interdepartmental working group was set up under the direction of the Department of Prevention of the LHA of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy), with members of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency, along with experts of the 15 Municipalities included in the LHA territory and members of other local institutions. The objective of the Working Group was to define and propose as mandatory a set of rules for local governments aimed at regulating construction activities according to criteria of environmental sustainability, eco-efficiency, comfort, and healthiness of living areas, at the same time encouraging the responsible use of natural resources, the reduction of energy consumption and the use of renewable energy sources in order to place environmental safety and health at the heart of all building activities. Experts of six Municipalities joined the working group and the regulation framework was adopted (and made legally binding) in 8 out of 15 Municipalities, with an almost complete overlap with participation in the working group. The active participation of experts, whose work consists in examining municipal building, permits, and declarations, has therefore marked the difference in the transition from theory to practice. The level of know-how attained by the participants and their motivation and enthusiasm have been so relevant in the

  19. [Definition and adoption of a building code based on biological and ecological sustainability in the Local Health Authority 11 of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy): strengths and areas for improvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Maria Grazia; Battisti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Built environment is an important social determinant of health, but nowadays local health authorities (LHAs) have lost their competences in the issuing of building permits, especially since a new legislation introduced the possibility of personal declaration of conformity. They are also usually excluded from the urban planning process. At the same time, in recent years construction of buildings has been developed with insufficient regard to environmental health requirements, proper exposure to sunlight and winds, comfort, building materials, consumption of resources, and waste production. To deal with these issues, an interdepartmental working group was set up under the direction of the Department of Prevention of the LHA of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy), with members of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency, along with experts of the 15 Municipalities included in the LHA territory and members of other local institutions. The objective of the Working Group was to define and propose as mandatory a set of rules for local governments aimed at regulating construction activities according to criteria of environmental sustainability, eco-efficiency, comfort, and healthiness of living areas, at the same time encouraging the responsible use of natural resources, the reduction of energy consumption and the use of renewable energy sources in order to place environmental safety and health at the heart of all building activities. Experts of six Municipalities joined the working group and the regulation framework was adopted (and made legally binding) in 8 out of 15 Municipalities, with an almost complete overlap with participation in the working group. The active participation of experts, whose work consists in examining municipal building, permits, and declarations, has therefore marked the difference in the transition from theory to practice. The level of know-how attained by the participants and their motivation and enthusiasm have been so relevant in the

  20. Carbon Budget Proposal: An Institutional Framework for an Equitable and Sustainable World Climate Regime%Carbon Budget Proposal: An Institutional Framework for an Equitable and Sustainable World Climate Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jiahua; Chen Ying

    2011-01-01

    Consensus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions has been reached at the technical and political level. However, as the issue involves economic costs and the right to develop, the international institutional framework for addressing greenhouse gas emissions has consistently failed to balance the demands of impartiality and sustainability. However, a sustainable carbon budget proposal is undoubtedly achievable if the global carbon budget (the total amount of carbon permitted by climate security) is made an absolute constraint. If a preliminary distribution was made among the world's population on a per capita basis, the total limited global carbon budget could not only meet basic needs but also ensure the proposal's equitable. Taking into account historical emission levels and future needs, we should carry out carbon budget transfer payments and devise a corresponding funding mechanism to ensure efficient allocation under the proposal. Unlike the phase-by-phase progress and provisional goals of the Kyoto Protocol, the carbon budget proposal outlined above is a comprehensive and holistic package. Due to the politicization of the climate change issue, however, many technical issues can only be worked out through international political and diplomatic negotiations.

  1. A primary evaluation on capability building regarding health promotion strategl derelopment%健康促进策略发展能力的初步评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董胜利; 任学锋; 许文青; 安家敖

    2001-01-01

    significance. Conclusion The result showed that the provincial-level planners have an inadequate capability in developing health promotion strategies, the capability building for strategy development is badly needed and has achieved a primary effect through training. In consideration of only 60% of relevant key elements have been considered in the improved proposals as a whole, it's recommended that the training be renewed and strengthened so as to push an ongoing progress in health promotion strategy development and planning.

  2. Analysis on the Mechanism of Portability of Social Health Insurance%社会医疗保险便携性机制探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔仕臣

    2011-01-01

    社会医疗保险机制是保证便携性的前提,便携性是实现人们公平地获得健康权和医疗保险制度可持续发展的基础条件.因此,要实现社会医疗保险便携性,体现社会公平正义,推进城市化建设,保证社会医疗保险制度的可持续发展,需要构建科学合理的社会医疗保险便携性机制.%Social health insurance system is a prerequisite to ensure portabilily portability is to achieve equitable access to people's health and health insurance system for sustainable development.Therefore, to achieve the portability of social health insurance, to achieve social fairness and justice, to promote the construaion of the city, and to ensure the social health insurance system for sustainable development , we need to build a scientific and rational mechanism of portability of social health insurance

  3. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report, drawn up at the request of the former Minister of Public Health and Environmental Affairs of the Netherlands, discusses the potential radiological consequences for the population of the Netherlands of using waste materials as building materials in housing construction. (Auth.)

  4. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  5. Equitable Principles and Relevant Circumstances Rule of Maritime Delimitation%论海洋划界中的衡平原则及相关情况规则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨陶

    2015-01-01

    The legal concept of“equity” came from domestic law,which was driven by the international judicial practice from the discourse system of common law to the field of maritime demarcation. The justices have practiced and developed the idea of equity,to develop the idea of equity from the equitable principle to determined equitable principle and relevant circum-stances rule. At present,the equitable principle to determined equitable principle and relevant circumstances rule, including many practical connotations, such as justice, circumstances, just delimitation procedure and method,is becoming a general customary international law. A right understanding and appropriate employment of this rule makes a great support China ’ s basic claim for the delimitation of the East China Sea.%“衡平”这个法律概念源于国内法,经国际司法实践的推动从普通法的话语体系进入到海洋划界领域。大法官们实践并发展了衡平理念,努力使衡平理念向衡平原则再向确定的衡平原则及相关情况规则演进。当前的衡平原则及相关情况规则包含了确保结果公正、考虑相关情况、遵循公平划界程序和划界方法等实践内涵,正在成为一般国际习惯法。我国应正确理解和适用该规则以支持我国在东海划界中的基本主张。

  6. Beyond Traditional Measures of Success in STEM: Predictors of STEM Bachelor's Degree Recipients' Values Toward Using Research and Sociopolitical Involvement to Promote a More Equitable Society

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Recent figures on the state of poverty within the U.S. and throughout the world suggest that even though advancements in science and technology (S&T) have had a tremendous impact on human capacity, the overall impact of S&T on creating a more equitable world remains limited. Despite the importance of preparing socially responsible graduates in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) to address the current state of poverty and inequality, higher education research focused on S...

  7. Energy-efficient timber buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Zbašnik-Senegačnik, Martina; Kitek Kuzman, Manja

    2015-01-01

    The choice of materials for a building with high energy efficiency becomes much more important and strategies for reducing the use of primary energy for the production of materials and components becomes key. The positive trend towards wooden construction is dictated by international guidelines, where a wooden building is an important starting point, not only for low-energy, but also low-emission building with exceptional health and safety aspects. In Europe, the most comprehensiv...

  8. Mould growth on building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog Nielsen, K.

    Mould growth in buildings is associated with adverse health effects among the occupants of the building. However actual growth only occurs in damp and water-damaged materials, and is an increasing problem in Denmark, due to less robust constructions, inadequate maintenance, and too little...

  9. The Key Network Technology Analysis of Building Regional Health Information Platform%构建区域卫生信息平台的关键网络技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐婧; 聂志华

    2012-01-01

    随着新医改的逐步深入,对卫生信息化的要求不断提高,建立区域卫生信息平台成为卫生医疗系统迫在眉睫的重要工作。文章分析了构建区域卫生信息平台的关键网络技术。并在此基础上探讨了区域卫生信息平台的功能及实现,建立了实现医疗卫生领域各业务系统信息共享的区域卫生信息平台,以供相关工作人员参考。%With the gradual deepening of new health care reform, there is higher requirement of health information technology, and the establishment of regional health information platform has become the imminent important work of health care system. This article analyzed the key network technology of building a regional health information platform, and discussed the function and implementation of regional health information platform on this basis, andestablished business system information sharing regional health information platform for the fields of health care, providing reference for related workers.

  10. Focusing Resources on Effective School Health: A FRESH Start to Enhancing the Quality and Equity of Education. World Education Forum 2000. Final Report = Accorder la priorite a un programme efficace de sante scolaire: Une maniere FRAICHE (FRESH) d'aneliorer la qualite et d'accroitre l'equite dans le domaine de l'education. Forum mondial 2000 sur l'education. Rapport final = Recursos efectivos en salud escolar: Un enfogue NUEVO para mejorar la calidad y la equidad educativa. Foro Mundial par la educacion 2000. Informe final.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This booklet, written in English, Spanish, and French, describes the foundation and reasoning behind the partnership to Focus on Resources on Effective School Health (FRESH), making the case that an effective school health program: responds to the greater number of school-age children and the greater proportion of those children attending school;…

  11. 信托受益权的法律性质探讨%The Legal Nature of Equitable Title

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓桃; 聂迎; 袁晓东

    2012-01-01

    It is a controversial issue what kinds of right the equitable title belongs to,regardless in civil law system or in common law system.Trust performs a significant role in modern commercialization and financial field,as well as is widely applied in the field of securities investment funds,trusts and asset securitization.Chinese Trust Act adopts contract theory and provides a series of compulsive and standard items,in order to response to our social requirement.Therefore,we should absorb other theories to perfect trust system,such as property theory and enterprise theory.%对于"信托受益权"究竟是一种什么样的权利,无论是英美法系还是大陆法系持续争论了百余年。信托在现代商业和金融交易领域发挥着重要作用,我国广泛应用于证券投资基金、资金信托和资产证券化中。我国《信托法》是法律对信托社会需求的回应,更多地采纳了合同理论,为信托合同提供了一套强制性的标准化条款。我国应借鉴"物权说"完善信托财产登记制度,吸收"企业组织"理论强化信托的资产分割功能。

  12. The Yokes of Gender and Class: The Policy Reforms and Implications for Equitable Access to Education in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njoki Nathani Wane

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Kenya, a former British colony, attained its political independence in 1963. Despite its political independence, Kenya inherited a colonial education system that was based on segregation and exclusion because of race, culture, class, and gender. This is a qualitative analysis examining the education system in Kenya. In the analysis, we explore gender and class barriers that may inhibit education for women in Kenya. We review existing secondary literature on policy documents; reflect on our experiences and observations; and also reflect on interviews with Njeri and Nyokavi, who live in the 21st century ‘post-colonial’ Kenya. As Kenyan women from subsistence-farming backgrounds, we, the authors, seemed destined to remain at the very bottom of the hierarchical education structure established during the colonial period. We explore the impact of contemporary, globally and locally mandated education policy reforms and emerging social service provision partnerships. These are often packaged as policy reforms and viable strategies of a just, equitable, and fair distribution of opportunities for all, meant to correct the colonial disparities. Our arguments are informed by the system's discursive framework (Wane 2000b and the anti-colonial discursive framework (Amadiume 1989, 1997; Dei 1999, 2000; Oyewumi 1997; Wane 2002. The analysis authenticates that, since independence, Kenya has realized tremendous educational growth at all levels. However, such educational reforms have resulted in the exclusion of many children who are from low socio-economic groups, in essence replacing the racial segregation of the colonial system with cultural and class-based inequities of the post-colonial society.

  13. Building blocks for meta-synthesis: data integration tables for summarising, mapping, and synthesising evidence on interventions for communicating with health consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufman Caroline A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews have developed into a powerful method for summarising and synthesising evidence. The rise in systematic reviews creates a methodological opportunity and associated challenges and this is seen in the development of overviews, or reviews of systematic reviews. One of these challenges is how to summarise evidence from systematic reviews of complex interventions for inclusion in an overview. Interventions for communicating with and involving consumers in their care are frequently complex. In this article we outline a method for preparing data integration tables to enable review-level synthesis of the evidence on interventions for communication and participation in health. Methods and Results Systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group were utilised as the basis from which to develop linked steps for data extraction, evidence assessment and synthesis. The resulting output is called a data integration table. Four steps were undertaken in designing the data integration tables: first, relevant information for a comprehensive picture of the characteristics of the review was identified from each review, extracted and summarised. Second, results for the outcomes of the review were assessed and translated to standardised evidence statements. Third, outcomes and evidence statements were mapped into an outcome taxonomy that we developed, using language specific to the field of interventions for communication and participation. Fourth, the implications of the review were assessed after the mapping step clarified the level of evidence available for each intervention. Conclusion The data integration tables represent building blocks for constructing overviews of review-level evidence and for the conduct of meta-synthesis. Individually, each table aims to improve the consistency of reporting on the features and effects of interventions for communication and participation; provides a

  14. Oral health of building construction workers: an epidemiological approach Saúde bucal de trabalhadores da construção civil: abordagem epidemiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Emy Tomita

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating the oral health conditions of building construction workers from a city in the mid-west region of São Paulo, Brazil. This study involved 219 male subjects, aged 17 to 72. The definition of a random sample utilized the functional number of each worker as a criterion to the raffle, which took into account all 450 subjects registered in the Working Accidents Prevention Program. The examination of oral health conditions by DMFT index and need of treatment were carried out according to WHO criteria (1997. This paper reports the prevalence of caries according to age, occupation, and educational level. Among the 219 workers examined, the mean DMFT was 16.9. Amongst the younger workers (Este estudo transversal foi delineado para avaliar as condições de saúde bucal de trabalhadores da construção civil em município da região centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo. Foram examinados 219 indivíduos do sexo masculino, com idades entre 17 e 72 anos. O levantamento das condições bucais foi realizado em processo de amostragem aleatória simples, a partir do total de 450 inscritos na MEGA-SIPAT 2000 (Semana Interna de Prevenção de Acidentes do Trabalho. Foi utilizado o índice CPOD (cárie dentária e necessidade de tratamento odontológico, segundo metodologia proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (1997. Neste estudo, são descritas a prevalência de cárie segundo a idade, ocupação e escolaridade. Entre os 219 trabalhadores examinados, o valor CPOD apurado foi 16,9. Os trabalhadores mais jovens (<25 anos de idade apresentaram média de 21,3 dentes sem necessidade de tratamento, enquanto os mais velhos mostraram necessidades progressivas de tratamento restaurador e reabilitador (p<0,001. Verificou-se índice CPOD de 15,6 para os trabalhadores de áreas administrativas e 21,7 para os mestres-de-obras, sem significância estatística. Houve aumento do índice CPOD segundo a idade, para todos os

  15. Los jóvenes y la salud. Construcción de grupos en función de representaciones sobre salud y enfermedad Adolescents and health. Group-building based on representations of health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Inés Weller

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue indagar la existencia de diferentes "grupos" de jóvenes en función de sus representaciones alrededor de la salud y la enfermedad. En la construcción de estos "grupos" se busca incorporar conceptos tradicionalmente relegados al estudio de la subjetividad. Se trabajó con una encuesta cerrada que se aplicó sobre 400 jóvenes escolarizados. El procesamiento de los datos se realizó con el análisis de correspondencias múltiples, una técnica de análisis multivariado especialmente diseñada para trabajar con un alto número de variables cualitativas. El estudio permitió despejar ocho "tipos" de jóvenes ­ los asustados, los que cierran los ojos, los hipocondríacos, los sensuales, los felices, los amargados, los que miran al mundo y los que miran su ombligo. Estos resultados indicarían la necesidad de diversificar las estrategias de indagación e intervención en terreno dirigidas a esta población.This study explores the presence of different "groups" of adolescents based on their representations of health and disease. Concepts traditionally linked to the study of subjectivity were incorporated into the building of these "groups". Four hundred students participated in the survey. Data were analyzed through multiple correspondence analysis, a multivariate approach especially designed to work with large numbers of qualitative variables. Eight groups of adolescents were detected, described as follows: frightened; tends to close eyes; hypochondriac; sensual; happy; embittered; outgoing (looks out on the world; and introspective (contemplates own navel. The results highlight the importance of diversifying research and interventions focusing on this age bracket.

  16. Economic Efficiency or Gender Equality: Conceptualizing an Equitable “Social Framing” for Economic Evaluations to Support Gender Equality in Disaster Risk- and Environmental-Management Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheney Shreve

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is unlikely that cost–benefit approaches will be effective in identifying investments that support gender equality without a relevant “social framing”. Criteria for a “social framing” are lacking, yet cost–benefit approaches often guide investment decisions for disaster risk and environmental management. Mainstream approaches typically do a poor job identifying and characterizing costs and benefits, and often fail to address distributive concerns (i.e., how costs and benefits may be distributed throughout society, to whom, etc.. Gender-blind investments may project responsibility for equality “problems” onto one sex, potentially augmenting gender inequalities and disaster risk. This article examines evidence from the gender, disaster, and development literature to identify distributive concerns and criteria for an equitable “social framing” for economic evaluations. Primary distributive concerns identified regard assumptions of women’s homogeneity, agency, “active” participation, and the influence of customary practice and displacement on disaster vulnerability. The need for a “gender-responsive” “social framing” that considers the needs of men and women in relation to one another is evident. Second, cost–benefit studies focused on gender equality concerns are reviewed and the “social framing” is critiqued. Results show most studies are not “gender-responsive”. Women’s health concerns, often exacerbated by disasters, are sidelined by assumptions regarding distributive concerns and reductive outcome measures.

  17. Building Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow

    2009-01-01

    The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion proje

  18. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family's native language) is taught as the child's second language through reading, writing, speech, and use of residual ... that parents can use to help their child learn language. There are many types of building blocks, and ...

  19. Pursuing Clean Energy Equitably

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, Peter; Phillips, Jon; Mulvaney, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the opportunities for a ‘just transition’ to low carbon and sustainable energy systems; one that addresses the current inequities in the distribution of energy benefits and their human and ecological costs. In order to prioritize policies that address energy poverty alleviation and sustainability concerns, national action and higher levels of international cooperation and coordination are required to steer public policy towards a broader range of public interests. This als...

  20. Asbestos in Buildings: What You Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe Buildings Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Thirty-one critical questions about asbestos, its use in school buildings, and the risks it poses to health are answered in this booklet. Issued by the Safe Buildings Alliance, an incorporated association of manufacturers that once supplied asbestos-containing materials for building construction, the booklet's purpose is to provide information…

  1. Building TQM into nursing management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, M L; Masters, R J

    1993-01-01

    Total quality management (TQM) is a management philosophy that addresses problems currently faced by health care, specifically reducing costs while improving quality of services. As hospital administrators embrace this new management style, nurse executives and managers will be challenged to implement TQM. Building TQM into nursing management will improve quality and reduce costs while meeting the needs of health care customers.

  2. Translating Latin American/US Latina frameworks and methods in gender and health equity: linking women's health education and participatory social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Ester R

    This article applies transdisciplinary approaches to critical health education for gender equity by analyzing textual and political strategies translating/culturally adapting the U.S. feminist health text, Our Bodies Ourselves (OBOS), for Latin American/Caribbean and U.S. Latina women. The resulting text, Nuestros Cuerpos, Nuestras Vidas (NCNV), was revised at multiple levels to reflect different cultural\\sociopolitical assumptions connecting individual knowledge, community-based and transnational activist organizations, and strategic social change. Translation/cultural adaptation decisions were designed to ensure that gender-equitable health promotion education crossed cultural borders, conveying personal knowledge and motivating individual actions while also inspiring participation in partnerships for change. Transdisciplinary approaches integrating critical ecosystemic frameworks and participatory methods can help design health promotion education mobilizing engaged, gender-equitable health citizenship supporting both personal and societal change. PMID:24366020

  3. Modifying and developing health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L W

    1984-01-01

    The literatures on both behavior modification and behavioral development have engendered innovations in public health programs, addressing problems of patient adherance to preventive and therapeutic regimens, delay in seeking diagnosis of illness symptoms, risk-taking behavior, and other aspects of lifestyle associated with health. Because most of this literature derives from psychology, there has been a distinct bias in the construction of interventions, pointing them directly at individuals, usually in a counseling or small group mode of delivery. These developments served public health well enough during a decade or so when the preoccupation was with utilization of health services and medical management of chronic diseases. With the publication of the Lalonde Report in Canada in 1974, the passage of Public Law 94-317 in 1976 in the United States, and similar initiatives in other English-speaking and European countries, the recognition of the greater complexities of lifestyle development and modification in the absence of symptoms has taken hold. Policy makers and public health workers seek a more efficient and equitable set of strategies to meet the behavioral health challenges of modern society without placing the entire weight of responsibility for behavior on the individual or on therapeutic practitioners. Concurrently, on a more global scale and in the developing countries, a concern has emerged for strategies that give individuals, families, and communities a greater role in deciding their own health priorities. The convergence of these two trends--one seeking to distribute responsibility for lifestyle more equitably and the other seeking to distribute responsibility for planning health programs more equitably --calls for policies, strategies, and interventions that will place similar emphasis on health education and organizational, economic, and environmental supports for health behavior. The combination of these elements of support for behavior calls, in

  4. Veterinary education for global animal and public health, D.A. Walsh : book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.E. McCrindle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This 28th annual volume published by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE, addresses the need for a global shift in the way veterinary students are taught veterinary public health (VPH. As well as taking the lead in prevention and control of animal diseases, the OIE develops health and welfare standards to promote food security and equitable international trade in animals and animal products.

  5. Transforming health policies through migrant user involvement:Lessons learnt from three European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Freitas; Manuel García-Ramirez; Arild Aambøc; Sandra C. Buttigieg

    2014-01-01

    Designing and implementing equitable health policies requires the involvement of all stakeholders. However, disadvantaged groups are under-represented in European health participatory mechanisms. Migrants and ethnic minorities (MEMs), for example, are consistently left out of policy-making fora. Additionally, MEMs lack a voice on the programmes that are intended to benefit them. This can jeopardize the responsiveness of health policies to MEM needs and undermine the development of diversity s...

  6. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences...... on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  7. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    ‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which...... evolves from a simple establishment of a contractual relationship to a central and strategic part of construction. The authors relate to cultural, ethical and social and behavioural sciences as the fundamental basis for analysis and understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the procurement system...

  8. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project — A Community-Level, Public Health Initiative to Build Community Disaster Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    David Eisenman; Anita Chandra; Stella Fogleman; Aizita Magana; Astrid Hendricks; Ken Wells; Malcolm Williams; Jennifer Tang; Alonzo Plough

    2014-01-01

    Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR), a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Proj...

  9. Expanding Options. A Model to Attract Secondary Students into Nontraditional Vocational Programs. For Emphasis in: Building Trades, Electronics, Health Services, Machine Shop, Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, James D.; DeVore, Mary Ann

    This model has been designed for use by Missouri secondary schools in attracting females and males into nontraditional occupational programs. The research-based strategies are intended for implementation in the following areas: attracting females into building trades, electronics, machine shop, and welding; and males into secondary health…

  10. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...

  11. To Strengthen the Supervision of Medical Services to Build a Well-being Health Insurance%加强医疗服务行为监管共建医疗保险民生大业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占伊扬; 宋宁宏; 万彬; 王虹

    2014-01-01

    人民健康是医保事业与医疗事业共同的宗旨和目标,为实现这一目标,医保、医院应共同加强对医疗服务的监管。本文从制度建设、政策宣传、考核方式及医院医保创新管理四个方面总结江苏省人民医院医保监管体系,为进一步提高医院自身医保管理提供借鉴。%People's health is a common objectives of medical insurance and medical services. To achieve this goal, the department of health care and hospitals should work together to strengthen the supervision of medical services. The article introduced the health care management system in Jiangsu Provincial Hospital in the aspects of institution building, policy advocacy, assessment methods and innovative health care management, therefore to provide reference for hospitals to improve their management of health care.

  12. Urban environmental health hazards and health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Friel, Sharon; Dixon, Jane; Corvalan, Carlos; Rehfuess, Eva; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gore, Fiona; Bartram, Jamie

    2007-05-01

    This paper outlines briefly how the living environment can affect health. It explains the links between social and environmental determinants of health in urban settings. Interventions to improve health equity through the environment include actions and policies that deal with proximal risk factors in deprived urban areas, such as safe drinking water supply, reduced air pollution from household cooking and heating as well as from vehicles and industry, reduced traffic injury hazards and noise, improved working environment, and reduced heat stress because of global climate change. The urban environment involves health hazards with an inequitable distribution of exposures and vulnerabilities, but it also involves opportunities for implementing interventions for health equity. The high population density in many poor urban areas means that interventions at a small scale level can assist many people, and existing infrastructure can sometimes be upgraded to meet health demands. Interventions at higher policy levels that will create more sustainable and equitable living conditions and environments include improved city planning and policies that take health aspects into account in every sector. Health equity also implies policies and actions that improve the global living environment, for instance, limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In a global equity perspective, improving the living environment and health of the poor in developing country cities requires actions to be taken in the most affluent urban areas of the world. This includes making financial and technical resources available from high-income countries to be applied in low-income countries for urgent interventions for health equity. This is an abbreviated version of a paper on "Improving the living environment" prepared for the World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health, Knowledge Network on Urban Settings.

  13. Youth United through Health Education: Building Capacity through a Community Collaborative Intervention to Prevent HIV/STD in Adolescents Residing in a High STD Prevalent Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, John; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Siller, Jacqueline; Gallaread, Alonzo; Krone, Melissa; Chang, Y. Jason

    2005-01-01

    The early detection and treatment of STDs is an effective strategy for slowing the sexual transmission of HIV. The goal of the YUTHE (Youth United Through Health Education) program, a collaborative effort between the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH) and the University of California, San Francisco, is to increase sexually…

  14. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...

  15. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  16. Taking forward a 'One Health' approach for turning the tide against the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and other zoonotic pathogens with epidemic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Dar, Osman; Kock, Richard; Muturi, Matthew; Ntoumi, Francine; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Eusebio, Macete; Mfinanga, Sayoki; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Ansumana, Rashid; Khan, Mishal; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Cotten, Matthew; Azhar, Esam I; Maeurer, Markus; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Petersen, Eskild

    2016-06-01

    The appearance of novel pathogens of humans with epidemic potential and high mortality rates have threatened global health security for centuries. Over the past few decades new zoonotic infectious diseases of humans caused by pathogens arising from animal reservoirs have included West Nile virus, Yellow fever virus, Ebola virus, Nipah virus, Lassa Fever virus, Hanta virus, Dengue fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, and Zika virus. The recent Ebola Virus Disease epidemic in West Africa and the ongoing Zika Virus outbreak in South America highlight the urgent need for local, regional and international public health systems to be be more coordinated and better prepared. The One Health concept focuses on the relationship and interconnectedness between Humans, Animals and the Environment, and recognizes that the health and wellbeing of humans is intimately connected to the health of animals and their environment (and vice versa). Critical to the establishment of a One Health platform is the creation of a multidisciplinary team with a range of expertise including public health officers, physicians, veterinarians, animal husbandry specialists, agriculturalists, ecologists, vector biologists, viral phylogeneticists, and researchers to co-operate, collaborate to learn more about zoonotic spread between animals, humans and the environment and to monitor, respond to and prevent major outbreaks. We discuss the unique opportunities for Middle Eastern and African stakeholders to take leadership in building equitable and effective partnerships with all stakeholders involved in human and health systems to take forward a 'One Health' approach to control such zoonotic pathogens with epidemic potential. PMID:27321961

  17. The health capability paradigm and the right to health care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2016-08-01

    Against a backdrop of non-ideal political and legal conditions, this article examines the health capability paradigm and how its principles can help determine what aspects of health care might legitimately constitute positive health care rights-and if indeed human rights are even the best approach to equitable health care provision. This article addresses the long American preoccupation with negative rights rather than positive rights in health care. Positive health care rights are an exception to the overall moral range and general thrust of U.S. legal doctrine. Some positive rights to health care have arisen from U.S. Constitutional Eighth Amendment cases and federal and state laws like Medicare, Medicaid, the State Children's Health Insurance Program, the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act, and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Finally, this article discusses some of the difficulties inherent in implementing a positive right to health care in the U.S. PMID:27543139

  18. La Palabra Es Salud: A Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Popular Education vs. Traditional Education for Enhancing Health Knowledge and Skills and Increasing Empowerment among Parish-Based Community Health Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Noelle

    2010-01-01

    Popular education is a mode of teaching and learning which seeks to bring about more equitable social conditions by creating settings in which people can identify and solve their own problems. While the public health literature offers evidence to suggest that popular education is an effective strategy for increasing empowerment and improving…

  19. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards

  20. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  1. Ensuring the Equitable Distribution of Teachers: Strategies for School, District, and State Leaders. TQ Research & Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock, Ellen; Clifford, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    National and state-level policies recognize the critical role that talented teachers play in ensuring that all students learn and in building capacity for instructional excellence in schools. Teachers influence student learning more than any other factor in the school, and the dividends of effective teaching are cumulative (see "Defining the…

  2. Mental Health Facilities, Part of our City of Hutchinson polygon building footprint layer, Published in 2006, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Hutchinson.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Mental Health Facilities dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described as...

  3. The dynamics of health and return migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita A Davies

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance and complexity of migration globally also implies a global increase in return migration, and thus an increased interest in the health of returning migrants. The health of returning migrants is impacted by the cumulative exposure to social determinants and risk factors of health during the migration process, during the return movement, and following return. Circular migration often occurs among the diaspora, which can result in the transfer of knowledge and skills that contribute to development, including health system strengthening. Migrants with dual nationality often return to countries with better health services than their country of origin when they are sick and can not get care at home. To maintain and improve the health of returning migrants, multi-sectoral policies at global and national levels should facilitate access to appropriate and equitable health services, social services, and continuity of care across and within borders.

  4. The dynamics of health and return migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Anita A; Borland, Rosilyne M; Blake, Carolyn; West, Haley E

    2011-06-01

    The increasing importance and complexity of migration globally also implies a global increase in return migration, and thus an increased interest in the health of returning migrants. The health of returning migrants is impacted by the cumulative exposure to social determinants and risk factors of health during the migration process, during the return movement, and following return. Circular migration often occurs among the diaspora, which can result in the transfer of knowledge and skills that contribute to development, including health system strengthening. Migrants with dual nationality often return to countries with better health services than their country of origin when they are sick and can not get care at home. To maintain and improve the health of returning migrants, multi-sectoral policies at global and national levels should facilitate access to appropriate and equitable health services, social services, and continuity of care across and within borders.

  5. [Linguistic minorities in Canada and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Louise; Desmeules, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Official language minorities (Francophones outside of Quebec and Anglophones in Quebec) make up about 6.4% of the Canadian population. Even though the Canadian constitution gives legal equality status to French and English, there is still room to ask if this equality is maintained in the health sector. In other words, do Francophone and Anglophone communities of Canada have the same health profiles regardless of their minority or majority status? Do they have access to the same health services and in the same conditions? The objective of this paper is to identify the health issues associated with belonging to a linguistic minority. Our research allows us to highlight the social and health disparities that can be attributed to belonging to a minority. In the Canadian context, which has two official languages, an equitable health policy will have to take into consideration language as a determinant of health. PMID:24289938

  6. Building Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Cabinet是种十分吸引人却很简单的衬线字体,是由一名匿名字体设计师专门为Building Letters最新的资金筹集活动所设计的。这个Building Letters包中包含一个CDROM,有32种字体,以及一本专门设计的杂志和两张由Eboy和Emigre所设计的海报。字体光盘样例是由世界顶级的字体设计师们设计的.

  7. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: provider payment and service supply behaviour and incentives in the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme – a systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    Agyepong, Irene A; Aryeetey, Geneieve C; Nonvignon, Justice; Asenso-Boadi, Francis; Dzikunu, Helen; Antwi, Edward; Ankrah, Daniel; Adjei-Acquah, Charles; Esena, Reuben; Aikins, Moses; Arhinful, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Assuring equitable universal access to essential health services without exposure to undue financial hardship requires adequate resource mobilization, efficient use of resources, and attention to quality and responsiveness of services. The way providers are paid is a critical part of this process because it can create incentives and patterns of behaviour related to supply. The objective of this work was to describe provider behaviour related to supply of health services to insured ...

  8. Model Building

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, Paul H.

    1997-01-01

    In this talk I begin with some general discussion of model building in particle theory, emphasizing the need for motivation and testability. Three illustrative examples are then described. The first is the Left-Right model which provides an explanation for the chirality of quarks and leptons. The second is the 331-model which offers a first step to understanding the three generations of quarks and leptons. Third and last is the SU(15) model which can accommodate the light leptoquarks possibly...

  9. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  10. 建立健全高校教职工健康档案工作探讨%The Discussion on Building and Strengthening Faculty's Health Files in Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫胜; 詹秋文

    2012-01-01

    通过学习与借鉴美国高校对员工健康服务与管理的理念,从不同侧面深入分析国内高校教职工健康现状及理念以及高校在教职工健康管理方面存在的问题,阐述建立健全高校教职工健康档案的必要性,就存在的问题提出改进建议。%By learning from the ideas of American colleges and universities towards staff's health service and management,different perspectives are chosen to deeply analyze the health status and ideas of teaching and administrative staff in domestic colleges and universities,as well as the problems in the health management of the faculty in colleges and universities,to elaborate the necessity of building and strengthening teaching and administrative staff's health files in colleges and universities,and to put forward improvement suggestions in regard of existing problems.

  11. A Concise Introduction to Body-building Practices of Pengzu for Health & Longevity and Their Effects%简明彭祖养生长寿健身术及其功效解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志平

    2014-01-01

    彭祖的养生长寿术虽然不会像先秦文献记载那样简单,但也不可能像后世不断增益、渲染的那样繁冗与玄虚。行之有效的彭祖养生术,应该是主旨集中明确,符合中华民族传统养生理念,形式简洁明了,便于操作,效果显著。汉代以前一直推重吐纳导引和行气。《简明彭祖养生导引术》根据原始文献所提供的线索,试图正本清源,尽可能地体现彭祖长寿养生术通过吐故纳新,促进新陈代谢;平衡阴阳,调理脏腑气血;适度运动肢体、关节、肌肉、韧带,增强生命活力,进而延缓机体衰老速度而延年益寿的精髓与关键。因而是合理并符合科学精神的。本文运用文献检索法和科学提炼法梳理了《简明彭祖养生导引术》的来龙去脉,阐释了其养生机理。%Body-building practices for health and longevity of Pengzu are neither as simple as what has been described in pre-Qin dy-nasties nor as complicated and mysterious as what post-generations have boasted of. Actually effective body-building practices for health and longevity of Pengzu ought to be clear and concise and in line with traditional body-building values and operational. Deep breathing and promoting qi flow by respiration was extremely popular before Han dynasty. Based on the original documents and records, Concise Bodybuilding Practices for Health & Longevity of Pengzu promotes the process of metabolism by such strengthening exercises as deep breathing and promoting qi flow to bring in the new and healthy and get rid of the old and unhealthy, and nurse the organs and blood by balancing Yin and Yang, and enhance vitality by moderately exercising limbs, joints, muscles and ligament. Therefore, the aging process will be slowed down and a healthy life will be extended. Body-building practices for health and longevity of Pengzu are reasonable and scientific. The paper traces back their origin and elaborates on the

  12. Patterns and expenditures of multi-morbidity in an insured working population in the United States: insights for a sustainable health care system and building healthier lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Robert; Dasso, Edwin; Ho, Sam; Frank, Jerry; Scandrett, Graeme; Genaidy, Ash

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. health care system is currently heading toward unsustainable health care expenditures and increased dissatisfaction with health outcomes. The objective of this population-based study is to uncover practical insights regarding patients with 1 or more chronic illnesses. A cross-sectional investigation was designed to gather data from health records drawn from diverse US geographic markets. A database of 9.74 million fully-insured, working individuals was used, together with members in the same households. Among nearly 3.43 million patients with claims, 2.22 million had chronic conditions. About 24.3% had 1 chronic condition and 40.4% had multi-morbidity. Health care expenditures for chronic conditions accounted for 92% of all costs (52% for chronic costs and 40% for nonchronic costs). Psychiatry, orthopedics-rheumatology, endocrinology, and cardiology areas accounted for two thirds of these chronic condition costs; nonchronic condition costs were dominated by otolaryngology, gastroenterology, dermatology, orthopedics-rheumatology conditions, and preventive services. About 50.1% of all households had 2 or more members with chronic conditions. In summary, multi-morbidity is prevalent not only among those older than age 65 years but also in younger and working individuals, and commonly occurs among several members of a household. The authors suggest that the disease-focused model of medicine should change to a more holistic illness-wellness model, emphasizing not only the physical but also the mental and social elements that can influence individual health. In that way the chronic care model could be broadened in context and content to improve the health of patients and households.

  13. Health care delivery in Malaysia: changes, challenges and champions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1957, there has been major reorganization of health care services in Malaysia. This article assesses the changes and challenges in health care delivery in Malaysia and how the management in health care processes has evolved over the years including equitable health care and health care financing. The health care service in Malaysia is changing towards wellness service as opposed to illness service. The Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH, being the main provider of health services, may need to manage and mobilize better health care services by providing better health care financing mechanisms. It is recommended that partnership between public and private sectors with the extension of traditional medicine complementing western medicine in medical therapy continues in the delivery of health care.

  14. The Quality of Collaboration among Medical Research Centers, Universities, Health Executives and the Community in İran

    OpenAIRE

    Asefzadeh, Saeed

    2005-01-01

    A health research system is defined as a system for planning, coordinating, monitoring and managing health research resources and activities, and for promoting research aimed at effective and equitable national health development. This study was conducted to describe the quality of mutual collaboration among medical research centers, universities, executive organizations and the community. In this situation analysis qualitative methods were applied. In-depth interviews were held with the ...

  15. An Integrative Structural Health Monitoring System for the Local/Global Responses of a Large-Scale Irregular Building under Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Woon Choi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a practical and integrative SHM system was developed and applied to a large-scale irregular building under construction, where many challenging issues exist. In the proposed sensor network, customized energy-efficient wireless sensing units (sensor nodes, repeater nodes, and master nodes were employed and comprehensive communications from the sensor node to the remote monitoring server were conducted through wireless communications. The long-term (13-month monitoring results recorded from a large number of sensors (75 vibrating wire strain gauges, 10 inclinometers, and three laser displacement sensors indicated that the construction event exhibiting the largest influence on structural behavior was the removal of bents that were temporarily installed to support the free end of the cantilevered members during their construction. The safety of each member could be confirmed based on the quantitative evaluation of each response. Furthermore, it was also confirmed that the relation between these responses (i.e., deflection, strain, and inclination can provide information about the global behavior of structures induced from specific events. Analysis of the measurement results demonstrates the proposed sensor network system is capable of automatic and real-time monitoring and can be applied and utilized for both the safety evaluation and precise implementation of buildings under construction.

  16. Medical One Account Building and Design Based on Residents' Health Card%基于居民健康卡的医疗一账通建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 陈平; 张伟; 李维冬

    2015-01-01

    To optimize the medical treatment process and to improve the medical environment is an important means to solve the problem of medical treatment. The payment function is introduced to all aspects of medical treatment is the trend. The purpose of building the medical one account is making a system of accounts is to ensure the financial security of individuals, under the premise of information security, to build a regional medical institutions in general and the storage value payment systems. Making regional cost settlement process between patient, medical institutions, financial institutions, to improve the patient's medical experience.%优化就医流程、改善就医环境是解决看病难的重要手段之一。将支付功能引入医疗机构各个就诊环节是大势所趋。医疗一账通系统的建设,目的就是在保证个人的资金安全、信息安全的前提下,搭建一种在区域内各医疗机构通用的贮值与交费系统,完成患者、医疗机构、金融机构、三方之间的费用结算流程,提高患者的就医体验。

  17. 军队干部保健对象综合健康评估指标体系构建%Building a comprehensive health assessment indicators systems for health management of military officers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏雁; 董军; 吴海云; 何昆仑; 赛晓勇; 何耀; 秦银河

    2010-01-01

    In line with the new WHO definition for health and reference of comprehensive health assessments of elderly overseas, the paper screened and set the weight for comprehensive health assessment indicators for military officers, establishing a general health assessment model as a result 402 military officers were subject to Comprehensive Health Assessments, and the outcomes were compared with subjective assessment of experts. The results of both methods are highly coincidental. It proves Comprehensive Health Assessment as a scientific quantitative health assessment method, with promising perspectives in health management in the future.%依据世界卫生组织(WHO)的健康新定义,参考国外老年综合健康评估方法,对军队干部保健对象综合健康评估指标进行筛选和权重确立,从而构建综合健康评估指标体系和评估模型.对402名军队干部保健对象进行综合健康评估,并与专家主观评估对照,取得良好的一致性.说明综合健康评估是一种较科学的健康量化测评方法,在健康管理方面有良好的应用前景.

  18. Uzbekistan: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, Mohir; Azimov, Ravshan; Mutalova, Zulkhumor; Huseynov, Shahin; Tsoyi, Elena; Rechel, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Uzbekistan is a central Asian country that became independent in 1991 with the break-up of the Soviet Union. Since then, it has embarked on several major health reforms covering health care provision, governance and financing, with the aim of improving efficiency while ensuring equitable access. Primary care in rural areas has been changed to a two-tiered system, while specialized polyclinics in urban areas are being transformed into general polyclinics covering all groups of the urban population. Secondary care is financed on the basis of past expenditure and inputs (and increasingly self-financing through user fees), while financing of primary care is increasingly based on capitation. There are also efforts to improve allocative efficiency, with a slowly increasing share of resources devoted to the reformed primary health care system. Health care provision has largely remained in public ownership but nearly half of total health care expenditure comes from private sources, mostly in the form of out-of-pocket expenditure. There is a basic benefits package, which includes primary care, emergency care and care for certain disease and population categories. Yet secondary care and outpatient pharmaceuticals are not included in the benefits package for most of the population, and the reliance on private health expenditure results in inequities and catastrophic expenditure for households. While the share of public expenditure is slowly increasing, financial protection thus remains an area of concern. Quality of care is another area that is receiving increasing attention. PMID:25689490

  19. Building Research Capacity of Medical Students and Health Professionals in Rural Communities: Leveraging a Rural Clinical School's Resources to Conduct Research Skills Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, Kaye E.; Moffatt, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports on a project where the objective was for the Rural Clinical School, The University of Queensland, Australia, to design an acceptable model of research skills workshops for medical students and rural health professionals. Eight, interactive research skills workshops focused on skill development were conducted in rural Queensland,…

  20. Dampness in buildings and health. Dampness at home as a risk factor for symptoms among 10 851 Swedish children (DBH-Step 1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Hagerhed, L.;

    2002-01-01

    -sectional questionnaire study on 14 077 children (1-6 years) focusing on their health and their home environment. There were strong and consistent associations between different "dampness"-indicators and symptoms among children. The combination of floor moisture problems and PVC as flooring material significantly...