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Sample records for building envelopes architectural

  1. Biomimetic Architecture in Building Envelope Maintenance (A Literature)

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Salim N.A.; Mydin M.A.O; Ulang N. H. Md.

    2014-01-01

    The study of biomimetic architecture on building envelope is the main structure of this research. The concept is believed more sustainable and efficient for energy saving, operating cost consumption, waste recycle and design renewal in the future. The inspiration from the nature developed the intention on this study to explore on what and how this concept to overcome the problems through design. Biomimicry does catch the attention of human to study more on the system and function of its natur...

  2. Biomimetic Architecture in Building Envelope Maintenance (A Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Salim N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of biomimetic architecture on building envelope is the main structure of this research. The concept is believed more sustainable and efficient for energy saving, operating cost consumption, waste recycle and design renewal in the future. The inspiration from the nature developed the intention on this study to explore on what and how this concept to overcome the problems through design. Biomimicry does catch the attention of human to study more on the system and function of its nature course. The designers are not exception influenced by this concept when the form, shape, texture and colour inspired them in their design. The domination of building form will affect the building envelope as the skin of the structure. A clear impact on building failure is begun with building envelope appearance without a proper maintenance. The faults in building design place a heavy burden on the building for the rest of its operational life and there is no compensation for it. In such situations, the responsibility falls on the shoulders of the designer.

  3. CISBAT 2007 - Design and renovation of building envelopes (bioclimatic architecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This is the second part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of sustainable building envelopes the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Flexible photovoltaics integrated in transparent membrane and pneumatic foil constructions', 'Development of a numerical thermal model for double skin facades', 'Thermal performance analysis for an electrochromic vacuum glazing with low emittance coatings', 'Challenging the public building sector: optimization of energy performance by sustainable strategies', 'Simulation of the thermal performance of a climate adaptive skin', 'Possibilities for upgrading prefabricated concrete building envelopes', 'Experimental study of airflow and heat transfer in a double skin facade with blinds', 'Energy efficiency of a glazing system - Case study: a dynamic glazing and double skin facades - the use of venetian blinds and night ventilation for saving energy on mediterranean climate'. Poster-sessions on the subject include 'Adaptive building envelopes design ', 'GRC facade panels in Brazil', 'Solar absorptance of building opaque surfaces', 'Evaluating the thermal behavior of exterior walls (in residential buildings of hot-dry climate of Yazd)', 'Energy performance of buildings and local energy policy: the case of new residential buildings in Greve in Chianti (Firenze)', 'Space heating and domestic hot water energy demand in high-level-insulation multi-storey buildings in Tuscany (Italy)', 'Is 2000 W society possible, affordable, and socially acceptable for the Vaud existing school building?', 'Development of simplified method for measuring solar shading performance of windows', 'Studies of ecological architecture in China's Loess Plateau region', 'Contemporary mud

  4. Intelligent Building Envelopes: Architectural Concept & Applications for Daylighting Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Wyckmans, Annemie

    2005-01-01

    During the past few decades, the term intelligent building envelope has emerged as a building skin designed to meet increasingly varying and complex demands related to user comfort and energy and cost efficiency. The concept is described by a multitude of definitions that range from the use of innovative components and a high-tech visual expression to the rational design, use and maintenance of the building envelope.Within the scope of this Ph.D., intelligent behaviour for a building envelope...

  5. Intelligent building envelopes. Architectural concept and applications for daylighting quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyckmans, Annemie

    2005-11-15

    How does an intelligent building envelope manage the variable and sometimes conflictive occupant requirements that arise in a day lit indoor environment. This is the research question that provides the basis for this Ph.D. work. As it touches upon several fields of application, the research question is untangled into four steps, each of which corresponds to a chapter of the thesis. 1) What characterises intelligent behaviour for a building envelope. 2) What characterises indoor day lighting quality. 3) Which functions can an intelligent building envelope be expected to perform in the context of day lighting quality. 4) How are the materials, components and composition of an intelligent building envelope designed to influence this performance. The emphasis is on design, environmental aspects, energy conservation, functional analysis and physical applications.

  6. Adaptive Architectural Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing variety of applications of adaptive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability....... The general scopes of this paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or...... two different shape alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock- up...

  7. Architecture Building Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ Leading architectural design and engineering firm, Skidmore,Owings, & Merrill (SOM), is renowned for pushing the envelope, masterminding some of the world's most cutting edge and enduring structural masterpieces - America's tallest building, the Sears Tower,in the firm's home city of Chicago, the 88-story Jinmao Tower in Shanghai, and the Freedom Tower in New York City, successor to the fallen World Trade Center complex,are among the well known projects in its building portfolio. SOM's next high profile assignment, the Pearl River Tower, in Guangzhou is one no less worthy of this tradition.

  8. Shape Control of Responsive Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worre Foged, Isak; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christensen, Jesper Thøger;

    2010-01-01

    of the paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two different shape...... alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock-up concept of a secondary...

  9. Energy efficiency of building envelope

    OpenAIRE

    V.M. Yakubson

    2014-01-01

    November, 12-13th, in Saint-Petersburg the 7th International congress "Energy efficiency. XXI century" took place. The reports were done in breakuo groups according to the various aspects of energy efficiency challenge: HVAC systems, water supply and sewerage systems, gas supply, energy metering. One of the grourps was devoted to thermophysics of buildings and energy effective design of building envelope.

  10. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. The first......The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and...

  11. Moisture dynamics in building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuhkuri, R.

    2003-07-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis 'Moisture dynamics in building envelopes' has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygro thermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. (au)

  12. BUILDING SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN: A RENOVATION PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan ÜNALAN,; TOKMAN, Leyla Y.

    2011-01-01

    Today, the conservation of energy and respect for the natural environment appears to be the most important phenomena in all areas. In this regard, "sustainability" concept emerged and the architectural platform "Sustainable Architecture" is composed of a research subject to the new and permanent. Architecture underlying the "design" as including also the new concept of "sustainable architectural design" has revealed that field. Sustainable architecture "building in-house", "building envelop...

  13. Integrated Energy Design of the Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Vraa

    project analysed how the implementation of technical knowledge early in the building design process can quantify the effect of a building’s façades on its energy efficiency and indoor climate and thereby facilitate a more qualified design development. The project was structured in the following way: 1......This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research...... depth, façade layout, window geometry and transparency, design of the window aperture, etc. Through the wide range of affiliated project involved in at the architectural firm over the course of this project, this approach resulted in building designs with an energy demand at least 25% below the minimum...

  14. Adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Tillmann Klein; Ulrich Knaack

    2015-01-01

    The papers in this issue of JFDE discuss the potential of adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies. The applied practice paper demonstrates decision strategies behind the adaptive sun shading system of the Al-Bahr Towers. Additivity in building envelopes is not only a strategy to fulfil the growing demands for energy efficient buildings and comfort but has great architectural implications as well. In general it asks for more complex components as...

  15. Isolating The Building Thermal Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrje, D. T.; Dutt, G. S.; Gadsby, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    The evaluation of the thermal integrity of building envelopes by infrared scanning tech-niques is often hampered in mild weather because temperature differentials across the envelope are small. Combining the infrared scanning with positive or negative building pressures, induced by a "blower door" or the building ventilation system, considerably extends the periods during which meaningful diagnostics can be conducted. Although missing or poorly installed insulation may lead to a substantial energy penalty, it is the search for air leakage sites that often has the largest potential for energy savings. Infrared inspection of the attic floor with air forced from the occupied space through ceiling by-passes, and inspecting the interior of the building when outside air is being sucked through the envelope reveals unexpected leakage sites. Portability of the diagnostic equipment is essential in these surveys which may include access into some tight spaces. A catalog of bypass heat losses that have been detected in residential housing using the combined infrared pressure differential technique is included to point out the wide variety of leakage sites which may compromise the benefits of thermal insulation and allow excessive air infiltration. Detection and suppression of such leaks should be key items in any building energy audit program. Where a calibrated blower door is used to pressurize or evacuate the house, the leakage rate can be quantified and an excessively tight house recognized. Houses that are too tight may be improved with a minimal energy penalty by forced ventilation,preferably with a heat recuperator and/or by providing combustion air directly to the furnace.

  16. BUILDING SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN: A RENOVATION PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan ÜNALAN,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the conservation of energy and respect for the natural environment appears to be the most important phenomena in all areas. In this regard, "sustainability" concept emerged and the architectural platform "Sustainable Architecture" is composed of a research subject to the new and permanent. Architecture underlying the "design" as including also the new concept of "sustainable architectural design" has revealed that field. Sustainable architecture "building in-house", "building envelope" and "physical environment" as shown in three different areas of development. Each consisting of three fields that directly affect andconcern. Sustainable architectural design within the scope of this study, "Building Envelope" developments will be discussed. In this context, building envelope, "the new building design" and "existingstructures" as appeared in two different ways. Existing structures, building envelope, sustainable architectural design in the literature in terms of "renovation" is considered within the scope. In terms of energy efficiency and performance (as Energy Performance of Buildings [BEP] with the energy policies of the various measures are being taken to reduce the energy consumption of the new building design. Not been received, but no measures in existing buildings (apartment buildings until 2012, except for heat insulation Remodeling obligation, energy consumption has remained constant. Therefore, the energy consumption of buildings on a sectoral basis is changing in the range 36-25% share of the portion of (Anonim 2011, but can not be reduced. In addition, operating costs of existing buildings and to reduce reliance on energy-environment systems (except for collectors used is noteworthy. In this study the appropriate design of sustainable architecture, renewable energy systems can be integrated into the shell structure will be investigated. In this context, a renovation project of the Department of Architecture at Anadolu

  17. Wall envelopes in office buildings: design trend and implications on cooling load of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wall envelope is a vital element of a building especially to a high rise building where its wall to building volume ratio is higher compared to other building forms. As well as a means of architectural expression, the wall envelope protects and regulates the indoor environment. In recent years there have been many applications of glass products and cladding systems in high-rise buildings built in Kuala Lumpur. This paper describes a recent research and survey on wall envelope designs adopted in 33 high-rise office buildings built in the central business district of Kuala Lumpur since 1990. This research adopts component design analysis to identify dominant trends on wall envelope design for the surveyed buildings. The paper seeks to discourse the implications of this design trend on energy consumption of high-rise office buildings in the country

  18. Integrated energy design of the building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vraa Nielsen, M.

    2012-07-01

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research project analysed how the implementation of technical knowledge early in the building design process can quantify the effect of a building's facades on its energy efficiency and indoor climate and thereby facilitate a more qualified design development. The project was structured in the following way: 1) the importance of integrating knowledge in the early stages of design, and how it can be done; 2) understanding the facade's typology; and 3) the complex notion of comfort. The project touched not only on the technical capabilities and requirements governing facade design, but also the process by which it takes place. This was done by applying the methodology of Integrated Energy Design (IED) and analysing its applicability in the design of facades. A major part of the project was an actual engagement in the architectural process to test out incorporating a consciousness about energy and comfort as part of a more holistic performance evaluation. The research project illustrates the great potential in taking passive properties into account through a geometrical optimisation inherent in the development of the architectural concept. It demonstrates that integration of technical knowledge at the early stages of design not only can qualify the geometrical processing, but also facilitate the design development of the facade. Thereby a more holistic performance optimisation can be obtained through parameters such as overall facade geometry and orientation, functional organisation, room height and depth, facade layout, window geometry and transparency, design of the window aperture, etc. Through the wide range of affiliated project involved in at the architectural firm over

  19. Air filtering through the building envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrosova D.V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, building envelopes with efficient insulation of low thermal conductivity, including light building envelope, which allow to increase thermal protection of buildings, are widely used. This new building envelope require a comprehensive study, because previously considered unimportant features often start to make significant effect on the performance characteristics of structures.To reduce the air permeability in the constructions wind-proof membranes are used. However, the influence of air filtering in such structures has not been researched yet.When the air-permeable building envelopes are used, the heat flow is moved away also due to the air filtering. It is proposed to take into account the convective heat transfer mechanism commensurate with the conductive heat transfer mechanism. In the formula for determining the heat flow due to the air filtering the filtration coefficient of air through the building envelope is used. This coefficient is found experimentally for light building envelopes.Furthermore, the empirical expression for the filtration coefficient, which relates it and the coefficient of heat loss is found.

  20. Towards a fourth skin? sustainability and double-envelope buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diprose, P.R.; Robertson, G. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand)

    1996-05-01

    In several well publicised designs for `green` office buildings, the zone of meditation between inside and outside has been increased by the addition of a second building envelope. When interpreted as exemplars of sustainable architecture, the addition of a second wall in these buildings is questionable both biophysically and psycho-culturally. More constructive design strategies acknowledge the wider biophysical contexts of the human ecosystem, the prudent use of material and energy resources throughout a building`s life, make realistic use of climate, and promote psycho-cultural needs arising out of ecologism. (author)

  1. Building Envelope for New Buildings and Energy Renovation of Old Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    The Building Envelope Project at Technical University of Denmark should, in coorporation with associated trade organizations, strengthen the development on the building envelope area with focus on heat, moisture and economy......The Building Envelope Project at Technical University of Denmark should, in coorporation with associated trade organizations, strengthen the development on the building envelope area with focus on heat, moisture and economy...

  2. Investment Costs of the Building Envelope Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Výskala Miloslav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at the design of the measurements improving the thermal-technical properties of the building envelope from the point of view of the economic evaluation. The starting point for the evaluation of economic aspects is the quantification of the partial and total costs according to the individual constructions of the building envelope in relation to the earlier requirements. The result is the determination of the minimal thickness of the thermal insulation i.e. the determination of the corresponding properties of the building envelope. Described procedure represents the first step for the consecutive modelling of the potential investment options while comply with the optimal level according to Directive 2010/31/ES (EPBD II.

  3. Envelope as Climate Negotiator: Evaluating adaptive building envelope's capacity to moderate indoor climate and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, James

    Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can be realized with adaptive envelopes over static building envelopes even under extreme summer and winter climate conditions; that the magnitude of these savings are dependent on climate and orientation; and that occupant thermal comfort can be improved consistently over comfort levels achieved by optimized static building envelopes. The resulting adaptive envelope's unique climate-specific behavior could inform designers in creating an intelligent kinetic aesthetic that helps facilitate adaptability and resiliency in architecture.

  4. Development and Evaluation of a Responsive Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Foged, Isak Worre

    2011-01-01

    . The general scopes of this paper are to present the development and evaluation of a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure. This reconfigurable structure can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one...... or two different shape alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock...

  5. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  6. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    OpenAIRE

    Marlen Lopez; Ramon Rubio; Santiago Martın; Ben Croxford; Richard Jackson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and nee...

  7. Analysis of Building Envelope Construction in 2003 CBECS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, David W.; Halverson, Mark A.; Jiang, Wei

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine "typical" building envelope characteristics for buildings built after 1980. We address three envelope components in this paper - roofs, walls, and window area. These typical building envelope characteristics were used in the development of DOE’s Reference Buildings .

  8. Development of Building Envelope Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik Monefeldt; Munch-Andersen, Jørgen; Esbensen, Peter Kjær

    2000-01-01

    It is expected that the heat insulation demands in the Danish Building Regulations will be further increased around 2005, in order to reduce the heating demand and the CO2-emission. A simple increase of the insulation thickness of common wall types seems not to be attractive due to the increased...... from solid materials as masonry and concrete and framed walls have been dealt with. Three types of foundation and five types of wall have been studied in detail, one of which is just the traditional cavity wall with increased insulation. Cost analysis has proved that the suggested wall types...

  9. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  10. Architectural Thermal Forms II: Brick Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre

    The paper presents an architectural concept and design method that investigates the use of dynamic factors in evolutionary form finding processes. The architectural construct, phenotype, is based on a brick assembly and how this can be organized based upon material properties and environmental...

  11. ANALYSES AND INFLUENCES OF GLAZED BUILDING ENVELOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an analytical study of the functioning of glazing at two different yet interacting levels: at the level of the building as a whole, and at that of glazing as a building element. At the building level, analyses were performed on a sample of high-rise business buildings in Slovenia, where the glazing"s share of the building envelope was calculated, and estimates of the proportion of shade provided by external blinds were made. It is shown that, especially in the case of modern buildings with large proportions of glazing and buildings with no shading devices, careful glazing design is needed, together with a sound knowledge of energy performance. In the second part of the article, the energy balance values relating to selected types of glazing are presented, including solar control glazing. The paper demonstrates the need for a holistic energy approach to glazing problems, as well as how different types of glazing can be methodically compared, thus improving the design of sustainability-orientated buildings.

  12. Adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Klein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The papers in this issue of JFDE discuss the potential of adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies. The applied practice paper demonstrates decision strategies behind the adaptive sun shading system of the Al-Bahr Towers. Additivity in building envelopes is not only a strategy to fulfil the growing demands for energy efficient buildings and comfort but has great architectural implications as well. In general it asks for more complex components as well as control strategies. But complexity also means costs and risks, and we need to discuss the means and effects. This discussion in particular is very interesting because here science and practice meet. The Journal of Facade Design and Engineering JFDE will actively follow and stimulate by providing high quality contributions. Four of the paper contributions have their origins in the Conference ‘Facades 2014’, held in November 2014 in Lucerne. The contributions have been carefully selected and have been subjected to the regular double blind review process of the journal. We want to thank Prof. Dr. Andres Luible for the help in making this issue happen. We are proud that JFDE is the scientific partner for a number of conferences such as ‘The Future Envelope’ Conference on Building Envelopes held yearly in Delft (NL or Bath (UK, the ICAE International Congress on Architectural Envelopes in San Sebastian (ES and the above mentioned conference ‘Facades’ in Lucerne (CH and Detmold (D. Our latest partner is the ICBEST 2017 - International Conference on Building Envelope Systems and Technologies in Istanbul. The growing number of partners indicates the relevance of JFDE for our growing discipline and will assure the continuity of the journal. Facade Design and Engineering is a peer reviewed, open access journal, funded by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research NWO (www.nwo.nl. We see ‘open access’ as the future publishing model

  13. Improving energy efficiency through the design of the building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozer, Hatice [Istanbul Teknik Universitesi Ayazaga Kampusu Rektorluk Binasi, Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Buildings, their surroundings and related enterprises produce more CO{sub 2}, generate more pollution, consume more energy, and waste more natural resources than any other human enterprise or industry. Moreover, considerable parts of these environmental impacts are the results of the lodging industry. Hotels are designed as multifunctional buildings to provide different comfort levels and services to guests. It is often desirous to pay for exclusive amenities. Resorts are often developed in untouched and very sensitive ecosystems with little or no consideration taken for the natural or cultural surroundings. Most strategies applied in design and many of the services offered by lodging establishments require the consumption of substantial quantities of energy, water and non-durable products. The efficiency of the resource use starting from the building design to the end-users in hotel facilities is typically low, and the resulting environmental impacts are greater than those caused by other types of commercial buildings of similar size. Decisions taken during the architectural building design play AS important A role in reducing these environmental impacts as DOES THE management of the building. With a goal of enhancing the overall energy performance of hotel buildings, this paper represents a research-design project, located in izmir-Turkey, based on the effect of passive solar design techniques for designing the building envelopes to develop and demonstrate high performance. (author)

  14. Simulation tools for building envelopes. Ulkovaipparakenteiden simulointivalmiudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojanen, T.; Salonvaara, M.

    1993-01-01

    The existing numerical simulation models TCCC2D and TRATMO2 were enhanced in this project to meet the requirements of the various applications in the field of building physics. The objective was to improve the models to be more applicable to the numerical analysis of the hygrothermal performance of the conventional and new building structures and materials. The methods to calculate air flows in cavities and through air cracks, radiation heat transfer especially through transparent insulations and the phase changes of moisture and phase change materials were developed or improved. A new method was developed to determine the moisture diffusivities of materials. A new 'Guarded Hot Box'- apparatus was designed and built to meet the new European standards. The GHB- apparatus can also be used to analyze the thermal effects of infiltrating or exfiltrating air flows on the total heat losses of a structure. The activities in the IEA/Annex-24 (HAMTIE) and in the collaboration between the Technical Research Centre of Finland / Laboratory of Heating and Ventilation and NRC/IRC (Canada) were participated within this research project. The new capabilities of the numerical models, the verifications and the main results of various applications are presented in this report. The applications of transparent insulations, phase change materials and the effects of exfiltrating air flows (inside overpressure) on the moisture loads of building envelopes have been studied closely.

  15. Free-form architectural envelopes: Digital processes opportunities of industrial production at a reasonable price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castaneda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-form architecture is one of the major challenges for architects, engineers, and the building industry. This is due to the inherent difficulty of manufacturing double curvature facades at reasonable prices and quality. This paper discusses the possibilities of manufacturing free-form facade panels for architectural envelopes supported by recent advances in CAD/CAM systems and digital processes. These methods allow for no-mould processes, thus reducing the final price. Examples of actual constructions will be presented to prove the viability of computer numerically controlled (CNC fabrication technologies. Scientific literature will be reviewed. Promising fabrication methods (additive, subtractive, forming to accomplish this proposal will be discussed. This research will provide valuable information regarding the feasibility of manufacturing free-form panels for architectural envelopes at lower prices.  

  16. CISBAT 2003 proceedings. BuildingEnvelopes.org. Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scartezzini, J.-L.

    2003-07-01

    Hosted by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne and jointly organised by EPFL and the Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA, the international conference 'Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems' enjoyed the attendance of 140 participants from 14 countries all around the world. The conference proceedings include the 63 presentations grouped in 9 sections. The 3 keynote speakers addressed the following topics: Sustainable buildings, USA research; Nanostructured materials for solar energy conversion; From smart buildings to ambient intelligence. The 9 groups of topics were: Building envelopes design and renovation; Solar collectors and systems; Indoor environment quality and health; Daylighting and visual ergonomy; Advanced building control systems; New construction materials; Environmental impacts of construction; Cities, infrastructures and sustainable development; Software. Organised each second year for now 20 years, the international conference CISBAT is amongst the leading ones in its field. The 2003 edition closed with a video conference from the USA, entitled 'Cradle to cradle - A design revolution', presented by the architect W. Mc Donough, Winner of 1996 Presidential Prize for Sustainable Development.

  17. Towards the LIVING envelope: Biomimetics for building envelope adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badarnah Kadri, L.

    2012-01-01

    Several biomimetic design strategies are available for various applications, though the research on biomimetics as a design tool in architecture is still challenging. This is due to a lack of systematic design tools required for identifying relevant organisms, or natural systems, and abstracting the

  18. Multifactorial forecast of thermal behavior in building envelope elements

    OpenAIRE

    S.V. Korniyenko

    2014-01-01

    Thermal performance of buildings is the key aspect of energy saving and energy efficiency enhancement. The thermal behavior of a building is formed under the influence of many factors. The complexity of the process of heat transfer through envelope structures makes the problem of multifactorial assessment of thermal behavior in building envelope elements crucial. This paper presents an assessment of the heat-insulating effect gained from the use of the “ceramic microspheres – binder” com...

  19. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  20. Translucent load-bearing GFRP envelopes for daylighting and solar cell integration in building construction

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Agullo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates the light transmittance of load-bearing glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminates with a view to two architectural applications: the daylighting of buildings through load-bearing translucent GFRP envelopes and encapsulation of solar cells into the GFRP building skins of sandwich structures. The total and diffuse visible light transmittances of the laminates were experimentally investigated using a spectrophotometer coupled to an integrating sphere. The refracti...

  1. Energy performance of the self-shading building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capeluto, I.G. [Climate and Energy Laboratory in Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning, Technion: Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, the Solar Collection Envelope (SCE) concept is used for the generation of the self-shading envelope. The computer model 'SustArc' was applied to create the nomogram of the Solar Collection Envelope. The model allows for the generation of the building shape in a way that the building facades are self-shaded during a required period determined by the designer. The presented method is limited to self-shading buildings and the use of additional shading devices should be considered by the designer to avoid very inclined walls. The model and algorithm for the generation of the Solar Collection Envelope are presented. The paper includes a detailed example of the implementation of the method, and the evaluation of the influence of the proposed building geometry on the energy performance of the building, based on a comparison with a traditional vertical facade building. The simulation results reveal that for all the orientations there is an important improvement in the energy performance of the building when designing according to the self-shading envelope. Similar results can be also obtained for vertical facades using high-performance low-emissivity windows. The combination of the building self-shading geometry and internal blinds provide the best solution, particularly for east and west orientations. (author)

  2. Energy performance of the self-shading building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capeluto, I.G. [Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel). Faculty of Architecture and Town PLanning, Climate and Energy Laboratory in Architecture

    2003-03-01

    In this work, the Solar Collection Envelope (SCE) concept is used for the generation of the self-shading envelope. The computer model SustArc was applied to create the nomogram of the Solar Collection Envelope. The model allows for the generation of the building shape in a way that the building facades are self-shaded during a required period determined by the designer. The presented method is limited to self-shading buildings and the use of additional shading devices should be considered by the designer to avoid very inclined walls. The model and algorithm for the generation of the Solar Collection Envelope are presented. The paper includes a detailed example of the implementation of the method, and the evaluation of the influence of the proposed building geometry on the energy performance of the building, based on a comparison with a traditional vertical facade building. The simulation results reveal that for all the orientations there is an important improvement in the energy performance of the building when designing according to the self-shading envelope. Similar results can be also obtained for vertical facades using high-performance low-emissivity windows. The combination of the building self-shading geometry and internal blinds provide the best solution, particularly for east and west orientations. (author)

  3. ARCHITECTURE IN THE ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION: MUSLIM BUILDING OR ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ayat Ali Yassin; Dr. Nangkula Utaberta

    2012-01-01

    The main problem of the theory in the arena of islamic architecture is affected by some of its Westernthoughts, and stereotyping the islamic architecture according to Western thoughts; this leads to the breakdownof the foundations in the islamic architecture. It is a myth that islamic architecture is subjected to theinfluence from foreign architectures. This paper will highlight the dialectical concept of islamic architecture ormuslim buildings and the areas of recognition in islamic architec...

  4. Thermal performance of integration of solar collectors and building envelopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国清; 龚小辉; 曹双华

    2009-01-01

    The integration of building with solar collector was studied. The theoretical model of integration of building envelopes and flat plate solar collectors was set up and the thermal performance of integration was studied in winter and summer,and compared to envelopes without solar collectors. The results show that the solar collection efficiency is raised in the integration of building envelopes and solar collectors with the air layer doors closed. This is true whether in winter or summer. The increment is higher as the inlet water temperature increases or the ambient temperature is low. In winter,the heat loss is significantly reduced through integration of the building envelopes and solar collectors with the closed air layer doors. The integration with the open air layer door is worse than that without collectors. In summer,the heat gains of the integration of envelopes and solar collectors are more obviously reduced than envelopes without collectors,the integration with the open air layer door is a little better than the closed one,but the difference is very small.

  5. A Phase-Change Composite for Use in Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, Ron S. [LMES/ORNL; Stovall, T. K. [LMES/ORNL; Weaver, K. E. [LMES/ORNL; Wilkes, K. E. [LMES/ORNL; Roy, S. [PhD Research Group, Inc.

    1992-06-15

    The objective of this project is to develop composite thermal insulations containing phase-change materials for use in the building envelope. The use of a phase-change insulation composite in the building envelope could result in a significant increase in energy efficiency. PhD Research provided candidate phase-change composites, and ORNL performed analytical and experimental evaluations of their thermal performance. The thermal resistance of the prototype panels was somewhat less than that of commercial products, although their thermal capacity was greater. Using these results, PhD Research has been working to modify the design and to produce practical building elements that incorporate phase-change material.

  6. Building envelope for New Buildings and Energy Renovation of Existing Buildings. Project results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Rose, Jørgen; Esbensen, Peter Kjær; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    facts, a group of scientists at the Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, have started a research project to develop better solutions for new building and energy renovation.The publication report the status after the first 3 year of the Building Envelope Project with......At the energy conference in 1995, Denmark agreed on reducing the total CO2-emission by 20%. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to increase thermal insulation thickness both in new and retrofitted buildings.This will, for both cases, impose a series of building physics problems, as the knowledge...... emphasis on the following subjects:Scientific basis for calculation programs, Development of calculationsmethods for heat transfer, Development of new building envelope components, Roofing system based on wooden roof elements, Roofing system with drying properties, Moisture uptake and drying from brick...

  7. Modeling of heat and mass transfer in lateritic building envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the behavior of building envelopes made of local lateritic soil bricks subjected to different climatic conditions. The analysis is developed for the prediction of the temperature, relative humidity and water content behavior within the walls. The building envelopes studied in this work consist of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust in order to obtain small thermal conductivity and low-density materials, and limit the heat transfer between the atmospheric climate and the inside environment. In order to describe coupled heat and moisture transfer in wet porous materials, the coupled equations were solved by the introduction of diffusion coefficients. A numerical model HMtrans, developed for prediction of beat and moisture transfer in multi-layered building components, was used to simulate the temperature, water content and relative humidity profiles within the building envelopes. The results allow the prediction of the duration of the exposed building walls to the local weather conditions. They show that for any of three climatic conditions considered, relative humidity and water content do not exceed 87% and 5% respectively. There is therefore minimum possibility of water condensation in the materials studied. The durability of building envelopes made of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust is not strongly affected by the climatic conditions in tropical and equatorial regions. (author)

  8. ARCHITECTURE IN THE ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION: MUSLIM BUILDING OR ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayat Ali Yassin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of the theory in the arena of islamic architecture is affected by some of its Westernthoughts, and stereotyping the islamic architecture according to Western thoughts; this leads to the breakdownof the foundations in the islamic architecture. It is a myth that islamic architecture is subjected to theinfluence from foreign architectures. This paper will highlight the dialectical concept of islamic architecture ormuslim buildings and the areas of recognition in islamic architecture. It will also widen the knowledge in thecharacteristics of each point in time according to the stages of islamic architecture from the prophetic agemoving through the architecture outside the city of Medina, the Caliphs, the Umayyad, Abbasid, andarchitectural models by spatial and time periods, taking Iraq as the example to explain how the Islam influentson architecture and vice versa.

  9. Performance profiles of exterior fire protective building envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarnskjold Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fire protective envelope of any building consists of multiple elements with widely differing properties relating to a fire, such as glass, roof tiles and sheathings, wood cladding, gaps and openings. Where resistance to an exterior fire is required, all elements should be verified to provide a comparable risk of burn-through. Elements are rated by either the material response to fire or fire resistance. In Europe, cladding sheets and wall membranes can be rated by K classes, which effectively include a measure of the time to burn through. A determination of burn-through time of each element of a specific building envelope should be obtained. A design tool to verify the performance of a building's fire protective envelope has been developed. In this paper, a general description of passive elements of the envelope, which should be included in a risk assessment tool such as an index method, is presented. An illustrative approach to visualise the profiles for areas densely spaced structures where an exterior fire may trigger building-to-building fire spread is also included. The research is based on the hypothesis that a relatively subtle and pointed upgrading of an exterior building envelope will severely reduce the speed of building-to-building fire spread, thus allowing firefighting efforts to get on top of the situation. For a burning structure to expose other buildings to fire, the fire has to settle, which leads to a burn-through to the inside. Once inside, an enclosure fire needs to develop and burn through the roof or break one or more large window panes. It is estimated that a 5–10 min delay for a structure to expose other structures to fire can be sufficient to avoid loss of multiple structures. A 10–50 min burn-through time allows for an extended intervention by the fire brigade, which is significant in rural areas. A fire protective envelope may prevent an exterior fire from penetrating the protective envelope at all and the

  10. Review on thermal performance of phase change energy storage building envelope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; ZHANG YinPing; XlAO Wei; ZENG RuoLang; ZHANG QunLi; DI HongFa

    2009-01-01

    Improving the thermal performance of building envelope is an important way to save building energy consumption. The phase change energy storage building envelope is helpful to effective use of renewable energy, reducing building operational energy consumption, increasing building thermal comfort, and reducing environment pollution and greenhouse gas emission. This paper presents the concept of ideal energy-saving building envelope, which is used to guide the building envelope material selection and thermal performance design. This paper reviews some available researches on phase change building material and phase change energy storage building envelope. At last, this paper presents some current problems needed further research.

  11. Folded Plate Structures as Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Buelow, Peter von; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    This paper treats applications of cross-laminated timber (CLT) in structural systems for folded façade solutions. Previous work on CLT-based systems for folded roofs has shown a widening range of structural possibilities to develop timber-based shells. Geometric and material properties play...... CLT-based systems, which are studied and analysed by using a combination of digital tools for structural and environmental design and analysis. The results show gainful, rational properties of folded systems and beneficial effects from an integration of architectural and environmental performance...... criteria in the design of CLT-based façades....

  12. BUILDING SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN: A RENOVATION PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    ÜNALAN, Hakan; TOKMAN, Leyla Yekdane

    2011-01-01

    Today, the conservation of energy and respect for the natural environment appears to be the most important phenomena in all areas. In this regard, "sustainability" concept emerged and the architectural platform "Sustainable Architecture" is composed of a research subject to the new and permanent. Architecture underlying the "design" as including also the new concept of "sustainable architectural design" has revealed that field.    Sustainable architecture "building in-house", "...

  13. Influence of Building Envelope Thermal Mass on Heating Design Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaujena, B.; Borodinecs, A.; Zemitis, J.; Prozuments, A.

    2015-11-01

    The stability of indoor air parameters is a very important factor, essential for such institutions as museums, schools and hospitals. Nowadays the use of renewable energy for space heating became one of the top priorities in modern building design. The active and passive solar energy as well as heat pumps are widely used nowadays. However, such technologies have a limitation in cold climates and often are not able to cover maximal heating loads. This paper is devoted to analysis of influence of building envelope's properties and outdoor air parameters on indoor air thermodynamic parameters stability in winter time. It presents analysis of thermal mass impact on building energy performance and indoor air parameter stability in cold climate. The results show that the thermal mass of building envelope is able to cover extreme winter temperatures as well as in case of emergency heat supply break.

  14. The green building envelope: vertical greening

    OpenAIRE

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve the environment in urban areas and is becoming a key design consideration in modern building developments. Vertical greening of structures offers large surfaces with vegetation and at the same time...

  15. Multifactorial forecast of thermal behavior in building envelope elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Korniyenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal performance of buildings is the key aspect of energy saving and energy efficiency enhancement. The thermal behavior of a building is formed under the influence of many factors. The complexity of the process of heat transfer through envelope structures makes the problem of multifactorial assessment of thermal behavior in building envelope elements crucial. This paper presents an assessment of the heat-insulating effect gained from the use of the “ceramic microspheres – binder” composite coating as additional thermal protection of the combined unventilated covering of a building. This multifactorial assessment is based on the calculation method of measuring thermal behavior in building envelope elements developed by the author. It was shown that the application of the composite coating has almost a zero heat-insulating effect and does not provide a normalized level of thermal performance of the enclosing structure during the cold season. In the meantime, the application of mineral wool slabs as the traditional heat insulation for the basic construction allows enhancing thermal properties of the construction to a specified value. Such heat insulation is best for the building thermal capacity, providing a minimum heat gain during the warm season.

  16. Assessing the service life of building envelope constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    1999-01-01

    During the last 10 years, national standards have been developed in order to assess the expected service life of building materials and constructions and work is still progressing on the international level. Besides the current and upcoming standards, several methodologies have been developed or...... construction or for assessing the performance over time of building constructions in the building envelope. A review is provided that contrast the less practical against the more useful aspects of national and international standards. The second gives suggestions as to those methodologies that potentially can...

  17. Field Testing of Nano-PCM Enhanced Building Envelope Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program s goal of developing high-performance, energy efficient buildings will require more cost-effective, durable, energy efficient building envelopes. Forty-eight percent of the residential end-use energy consumption is spent on space heating and air conditioning. Reducing envelope-generated heating and cooling loads through application of phase change material (PCM)-enhanced envelope components can facilitate maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. Field-testing of prototype envelope components is an important step in estimating their energy benefits. An innovative phase change material (nano-PCM) was developed with PCM encapsulated with expanded graphite (interconnected) nanosheets, which is highly conducive for enhanced thermal storage and energy distribution, and is shape-stable for convenient incorporation into lightweight building components. During 2012, two test walls with cellulose cavity insulation and prototype PCM-enhanced interior wallboards were installed in a natural exposure test (NET) facility at Charleston, SC. The first test wall was divided into four sections, which were separated by wood studs and thin layers of foam insulation. Two sections contained nano-PCM-enhanced wallboards: one was a three-layer structure, in which nano-PCM was sandwiched between two gypsum boards, and the other one had PCM dispersed homogeneously throughout graphite nanosheets-enhanced gypsum board. The second test wall also contained two sections with interior PCM wallboards; one contained nano-PCM dispersed homogeneously in gypsum and the other was gypsum board containing a commercial microencapsulated PCM (MEPCM) for comparison. Each test wall contained a section covered with gypsum board on the interior side, which served as control or a baseline for evaluation of the PCM wallboards. The walls were instrumented with arrays of thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Further, numerical modeling of

  18. Knowledge Building in Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Fetzer, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an internet-based seminar framework applicable for landscape architecture education. This process was accompanied by various aims. The basic expectation was to keep the main characteristics of landscape architecture education also in the online format. On top of that, four further objectives were anticipated: (1) training of competences for virtual team work, (2) fostering intercultural competence, (3) creation of equal opportunities for education th...

  19. Preindustrial versus postindustrial Architecture and Building Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    How can preindustrial architecture inspire sustainable thinking in postindustrial architectural design? How can we learn from experience and how can social, economic and environmental conditions give perspectives and guide a knowledge based evolution of basic experience towards modern industriali......How can preindustrial architecture inspire sustainable thinking in postindustrial architectural design? How can we learn from experience and how can social, economic and environmental conditions give perspectives and guide a knowledge based evolution of basic experience towards modern...... industrialized building processes? Identification of sustainable parameters related to change in society, to building technique and to comfort are illustrated through two Danish building types, which are different in time, but similar in function. One representing evolution and experience based countryside...

  20. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhari, Ramin [Renewable Energy Group

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  1. Thermal analysis of the building envelope of lightweight temporary housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, to meet the need of build efficient homes in a short time and with maximum constructive simplification, lightweight prefabricated building systems have proved to be particularly suitable, especially in geographical areas which must deal with emergency situations (i.e., temporary housing). In this paper the winter and summer thermal performance of a building prototype, realised with modular steel framed elements, have been studied, in both winter and summer conditions. Special attention has been paid to the optimisation of the dynamic thermal performance of the multi-layered envelope structures. The dynamic thermal behaviour of the outer wall, analysed and discussed in details in the paper, shows that it is possible to improve the performance of lightweight walls by using an optimised stratigraphy characterised by an opportune sequence of resistive and capacitive layers. The influence of inner structures (partitions, floor and roof) on the building thermal behaviour has also analyzed trough the introduction of room performance indices appropriately defined. The results of the study have been discussed with special reference to the requirements fixed by the Energy Performance Buildings European Directive (EPBDs) and the resulting implementation in Italian Legislation

  2. Building science of indian temple architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Vardia, Shweta

    2008-01-01

    Master’s Thesis Structural Analysis of Monuments and Historical Constructions Every style of building construction reflects a clearly distinctive basic principle that represents a particular culture and era. In this context the Indian Hindu temple architecture are not only the abode of God and place of worship, but they are also the cradle of knowledge, art, architecture and culture. The practices and traditions of temples exist not only in history but also in present time which g...

  3. Preindustrial versus postindustrial Architecture and Building Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    The paper will identify the sustainable parameters related to the change in society, building technique and comfort demands illustrated through 2 Danish building types, which are very different in time, but similar in function. The one representing evolution and experience based countryside farm...... house built around 1700 and the other a frontrunner suburban family house built year 2010. The aim is to show how preindustrial architecture can inspire sustainable thinking in postindustrial architectural design, how we can learn from the experience and how the nowadays social, economic and...... environmental conditions give perspectives and guide a knowledge based evolution of basic experience into an industrialized building process. Methodology used are comparative analysis on the specific 2 types: 2 long houses build related to the ideals of the preindustrial and the postindustrial period will point...

  4. Biomimetic Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Mazzoleni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available How to translate the lessons learned from the analysis and observation of the animal world is the design learning experience presented in this article. Skin is a complex and incredibly sophisticated organ that performs various functions, including protection, sensation and heat and water regulation. In a similar way building envelopes serve multiple roles, as they are the interface between the building inhabitants and environmental elements. The resulting architectural building envelopes proto-architectural research and design projects here presented, inspired by the study of animal skins, perform and respond; they take into consideration various dynamic local environmental conditions, enhancing and supporting them rather than exploiting them, creating a more sustainable way of building and living.

  5. Envelope Factorization with Partial Elimination and Recombination, EF-PER, a New Linear RF Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Diet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new architecture for efficient linear radio frequency transmitters is proposed; it includes envelope-tracking (ET and envelope-elimination-and-restoration (EER architectures as special instances. The proposed technique is referred to as Envelope Factorization with Partial Elimination and Recombination (EF-PER. It relies on a decomposition of the RF signal before power amplification as a product of two signals, one of them being the envelope signal elevated to an exponent “α”. Compared to ET or EER architectures, the parameter “α” constitutes a new degree of freedom. This allows one to realize good tradeoffs between different performance criteria such as spectrum use, power efficiency, and transmitter linearity. An intuitive aggregate cost function is introduced to capture the desired tradeoff and turns out to be maximized in α=0.5. The full relevance of EF-PER is sustained both by analytical results and realistic simulations performed for OFDM signals. The EF-PER architecture (with α=0.5 has been simulated under Agilent-ADS with a non-linear transistor model from Avago (E-PHEMT and compared with ET and EER.

  6. Transient hygrothermal behaviour of a hemp concrete building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Le, A.D.; Maalouf, C.; Mai, T.H. [GRESPI/Thermomecanique, Universite de Reims, Moulin de la Housse BP. 1039, 51687 Reims (France); Wurtz, E. [INES-LOCIE, Savoie Technolac, Universite de Savoie, Le Bourget du Lac, 73375 Savoie (France); Collet, F. [Laboratoire de Genie civil et Genie Mecanique, equipe Materiaux-Thermo-Rheologie, Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Rennes 1 (France)

    2010-10-15

    The sustainable world's economic growth and people's life improvement greatly depend on the use of alternative products in the architecture and construction, such as industrial wastes conventionally called green materials. For this purpose, hemp concrete is more and more recommended by the eco-builders because hemp is a renewable plant, recyclable and does not degrade within time. It corresponds perfectly to the requirements of high environmental quality buildings. The objective of this article is to study transient hygrothermal behaviour of hemp concrete at whole building level. The physical model is one-dimensional and was implemented into the object-oriented simulation environment SPARK, using the finite difference technique with an implicit scheme. The numerical result showed that the use of hemp concrete wall in buildings can ensure good indoor air quality and energy savings in winter. Besides, the combined effect of moisture buffering with the adequate ventilation strategies increases hemp concrete building performance. Our results also suggest that taking into account the hygrothermal transfer at whole building level with heat and moisture production sources has significant effects on predictions. (author)

  7. Building sustainable ecosystem-oriented architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Bassil, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    Currently, organizations are transforming their business processes into e-services and service-oriented architectures to improve coordination across sales, marketing, and partner channels, to build flexible and scalable systems, and to reduce integration-related maintenance and development costs. However, this new paradigm is still fragile and lacks many features crucial for building sustainable and progressive computing infrastructures able to rapidly respond and adapt to the always-changing market and environmental business. This paper proposes a novel framework for building sustainable Ecosystem- Oriented Architectures (EOA) using e-service models. The backbone of this framework is an ecosystem layer comprising several computing units whose aim is to deliver universal interoperability, transparent communication, automated management, self-integration, self-adaptation, and security to all the interconnected services, components, and devices in the ecosystem. Overall, the proposed model seeks to deliver a co...

  8. Plausibility in Early Stages of Architectural Design: A New Tool for High-Rise Residential Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dirk Donath; Danny Lobos

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problem of the design of envelopes for high-rise isolated residential build-ings. The phenomenon of envelope creation appears in the early stages of the architectural design. Vari-ables that influence the final shape and size of such envelopes are then identified. This paper presents the state-of-the-art tools for the current solutions at the commercial and academic/scientific level. The variables identified in this research are the client's needs, the urban code and architectural practice, and their specific components for the final creation of a new decision support system tool based on the building information modeling (BIM) software platform, to facilitate the work in the project development and drawing production stages. This tool generates several options for building envelopes according to the parameters required by the city Zoning Planning Commission. These options then lead to deliver reliable data and a geometry that can be analyzed in a timely fashion by the engineers, builders, architects, government, and clients in the early stages of the building's design. The results show that use of specific information and communication technologies (ICT) tools in the early stages of a building design helps reduce the working time, increases confidence in the generated solution, and contributes to the exploration of altematives in a short period of time.

  9. Microclimatic conditions at the external surface of building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kragh, M.K.

    1998-12-31

    The project is described, the motivation for the research and the microclimate is defined in relation to both building physics research and applications. Air temperatur, air humidity, solar radiation and air velocity are briefly considered, whilst driving rain and long-wave radiation are described in more detail. Convective heat transfer and surface coefficients are discussed, although they are not microclimatic factors, merely resulting from combinations of such factors. They are included as they are important in relation to transfer of heat and moisture at the surface of the building envelope. Driving rain measurement is the main area of interest, including development of measurement equipment. Long-wave irradiation is measured and compared with empirical formulae from the literature. Window convection heat transfer is another main area of interest. Nocturnal convective heat transfer from a double pane glazing is studied and measurement principles are discussed. Finally, a compilation of meteorological data for hygrothermal simulations, including estimation of driving rain, is described. System error estimation in relation to the window convection measurements, design notes on an apparatus for external convection measurement, formulae for conversion of relative humitity and dry-bulb temperature into dew point temperature. (EG) 66 refs.

  10. SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING DESGIN STRATEGIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAROLAHYPrincy

    2011-01-01

    In 1987, the Brundtland report described sustainable development as a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable architecture can help put into practice and even encourage a sustainable way of life. It seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space. This publication is designed to provide basic theoretical and practical information about sustainable design to help the reader formulate a personal approach to sustainability, and make more informed decisions with respect to sustainable architectural design.

  11. Autopoietic-extended architecture: can buildings think?

    OpenAIRE

    Dollens, Dennis Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    To incorporate bioremedial functions into the performance of buildings and to balance generative architecture's dominant focus on computational programming and digital fabrication, this thesis first hybridizes theories of autopoiesis into extended cognition in order to research biological domains that include synthetic biology and biocomputation. Under the rubric of living technology I survey multidisciplinary fields to gather perspective for student design of bioremedial and/o...

  12. Methodological background and design tools in the architectural design of the biomimetic envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Edith Granero

    2013-01-01

    This research responds to the problem of sustainable architectural design, with a search in the background and tools that support the concept of an architectural shell, with a building system inspired by bio-mimicry and organizing an architectural limit from a structure cell, as a proposal that challenges the improvement of models, is seeking balance between design and use of resources. The objective is to get an analysis of methodological background and design tools to create an architectura...

  13. Passive solar architectural buildings in Mombassa (Kenya)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabah, K.V.O. [Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa (Turkey). Dept. of Physics]|[University of Nairobi (Cayman Islands). Dept. of Physics; Mito, C.O. [University of Nairobi (Cayman Islands). Dept. of Physics

    2000-07-01

    In this work climatic data for various regions in Kenya have been analyzed to obtain physical architectural design specifications for use by the building industry. It aims to provide a general and appropriate information at strategic pre-design stages to make better use of passive solar energy-efficient technique in urban planning and building design for better indoor ''comfort'' climate. It utilizes a computer program, ARCHIPAK (developed by Szokolay in 1985), together with climatic data (for 8 year period) to get ''comfort zones'' and ''control potential zones''. The use of the control potential zones (CPZ) in buildings and the objectives of the pre-design guidelines are discussed for the coastal city of Mombassa. Opportunities and limitations of the pre-design guidelines are also discussed. (author)

  14. Modeling a Decision Support Tool for Buildable and Sustainable Building Envelope Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natee Singhaputtangkul

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability and buildability requirements in building envelope design have significantly gained more importance nowadays, yet there is a lack of an appropriate decision support system (DSS that can help a building design team to incorporate these requirements and manage their tradeoffs at once. The main objective of this study is to build such a tool to facilitate a building design team to take into account sustainability and buildability criteria for assessment of building envelopes of high-rise residential buildings in Singapore. Literature reviews were conducted to investigate a comprehensive set of the sustainability and buildability criteria. This also included development of the tool using a Quality Functional Deployment (QFD approach combined with fuzzy set theory. A building design team was engaged to test the tool with the aim to evaluate usefulness of the tool in managing the tradeoffs among the sustainability and buildability criteria. The results from a qualitative data analysis suggested that the tool allowed the design team to effectively find a balance between the tradeoffs among the criteria when assessing multiple building envelope design alternatives. Main contributions of using this tool are achievement of a more efficient assessment of the building envelopes and more sustainable and buildable building envelope design.

  15. Smart Building: Decision Making Architecture for Thermal Energy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Oscar Hernández; Martin, Juan Pablo San; Garcia-Alegre, María C; Santos, Matilde; Guinea, Domingo

    2015-01-01

    Smart applications of the Internet of Things are improving the performance of buildings, reducing energy demand. Local and smart networks, soft computing methodologies, machine intelligence algorithms and pervasive sensors are some of the basics of energy optimization strategies developed for the benefit of environmental sustainability and user comfort. This work presents a distributed sensor-processor-communication decision-making architecture to improve the acquisition, storage and transfer of thermal energy in buildings. The developed system is implemented in a near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB) prototype equipped with a built-in thermal solar collector, where optical properties are analysed; a low enthalpy geothermal accumulation system, segmented in different temperature zones; and an envelope that includes a dynamic thermal barrier. An intelligent control of this dynamic thermal barrier is applied to reduce the thermal energy demand (heating and cooling) caused by daily and seasonal weather variations. Simulations and experimental results are presented to highlight the nZEB thermal energy reduction. PMID:26528978

  16. Smart Building: Decision Making Architecture for Thermal Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Hernández Uribe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Smart applications of the Internet of Things are improving the performance of buildings, reducing energy demand. Local and smart networks, soft computing methodologies, machine intelligence algorithms and pervasive sensors are some of the basics of energy optimization strategies developed for the benefit of environmental sustainability and user comfort. This work presents a distributed sensor-processor-communication decision-making architecture to improve the acquisition, storage and transfer of thermal energy in buildings. The developed system is implemented in a near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB prototype equipped with a built-in thermal solar collector, where optical properties are analysed; a low enthalpy geothermal accumulation system, segmented in different temperature zones; and an envelope that includes a dynamic thermal barrier. An intelligent control of this dynamic thermal barrier is applied to reduce the thermal energy demand (heating and cooling caused by daily and seasonal weather variations. Simulations and experimental results are presented to highlight the nZEB thermal energy reduction.

  17. Innovated Building Material's Interactions with Structural Form in Architectural Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Mozaikci, Begüm

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Interpretation of building materials into architectural form, is gaining greater interest and attention due to the conservation of architectural heritage. This study highlight, the influences of technological developments of building materials and their interactions with structural form in architectural design projects. Architectural form and decisions can potentially effects by introduced new materials and this study focus on the interaction of new material and structural form...

  18. Towards Energy Demand Reduction in Social Housing Buildings: Envelope System Optimization Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Esquivias

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the potential for the reduction of energy demand in residential buildings by acting on the exterior envelope, both in newly constructed buildings and in the retrofitting of existing stock. It focuses on analysing social housing buildings in Mediterranean areas and on quantifying the scope of that reduction in the application of different envelope design strategies, with the purpose of prioritizing their application based on their energy efficiency. The analyses and quantifications were made by means of the generation of energy models with the TRNSYS tool for simple or combined solutions, identifying possible potentials for reduction of the energy demand from 20% to 25%, basically by acting on the windows. The case study was a newly built social housing building of a closed block type located in Seville (Spain. Its constructive techniques and the insulation level of its envelope are standardized for current buildings widespread across Mediterranean Europe.

  19. Development and Evaluation of a Responsive Building Envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Foged, Isak Worre

    2011-01-01

    Recently we have seen an increasing variety of applications of adaptive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability. The general scopes of this paper are to present the development and evaluation of a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure. This reconfigurable structure can transform body shape from planar g...

  20. Innovative Danish Building Envelope Components for Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    and in some cases very innovative envelope constructions. In this paper, two of the most interesting components are described; a prefabricated light-weight exterior wall element with a load-bearing plywood and steel frame and a foundation / slab on ground solution based on concrete and EPS insulation...... materials. To illustrate the thermal efficiency of the new components in a realistic context, the paper will show results from detailed calculations of the space heating demand and peak heating load for a newly built single-family house....

  1. Architectural integration of solar energy applications with buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, there was an improvement in utilizing solar energy and using solar applications in Sudan.This improvement requires awareness of using this technology and collaboration among all people who have been involved in this process. In this study, an attempt is made to architecturally incorporate of solar applications with different buildings in Sudan. Mounting of solar applications within buildings in Sudan is not according to any architectural standards.That, therefor, led to losses of its appearance within buildings. Special emphasis on buildings in Khartoum has been made. Samples from different types of building have been chosen as a case study, and have been analyzed to indicate how these buildings accept this technology and to study the architectural value of this integration. In addition to that, conclusions and recommendations for buildings integrated solar applications have been made, together with some guidelines for further studies.The goal is to have the solar building.(Author)

  2. PCM-enhanced building components an application of phase change materials in building envelopes and internal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kosny, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Presenting an overview of the use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) within buildings, this book discusses the performance of PCM-enhanced building envelopes. It reviews the most common PCMs suitable for building applications, and discusses PCM encapsulation and packaging methods. In addition to this, it examines a range of PCM-enhanced building products in the process of development as well as examples of whole-building-scale field demonstrations. Further chapters discuss experimental and theoretical analyses (including available software) to determine dynamic thermal and energy performance ch

  3. Relationship between Architectural Outer Shape and Function of Buildings: Behaviour Study on Building Constructed in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSA. A.M. Al-Kahtani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempted to investigate the behaviour of some projects designed and constructed in China during the last decades from an architectural view point and their compatibility with respect to the relationship between the outer shape and function of the building. The study includes different groups of architectural works including; Culture architecture, Education architecture, Office architecture and Hotel architecture surveying about 60 projects divided into four groups. Four types of relationship were adopted depending on score given to each building. The statistical tools also used to classify and specify accurately the relationship between the buildings and the groups. The study concluded that most of the buildings give good relationship and express the function of the building in addition to aesthetics considerations but the educational architecture give the best representation.

  4. Switching from static to adaptable and dynamic building envelopes: A paradigm shift for the energy efficiency in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Perino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The key role of the building envelope in attaining building energy efficiency and satisfactory indoor comfort has long been established. Nevertheless, until recent times, all efforts and attention have mainly been focused on increasing and optimizing the thermal insulation of the envelope components. This strategy was a winning approach for a long time, but its limitations became obvious when users and designers started to consider the overall energy demand of a building and started to aim for Zero Energy Building (ZEB or nearly ZEB goals. New and more revolutionary concepts and technologies needed to be developed to satisfy such challenging requirements. The potential benefits of this technological development are relevant since the building envelope plays a key role in controlling the energy and mass flows from outdoors to indoors (and vice versa and, moreover, the facades offer a significant opportunity for solar energy exploitation. Several researches have demonstrated that the limitation of the existing facades could be overcome only by switching from ‘static’ to ‘responsive’ and ‘dynamic’ systems, such as Multifunctional Facade Modules (MFMs and Responsive Building Elements (RBE. These components are able to continuously and pro-actively react to outdoor and indoor environment conditions and facilitate and enhance the exploitation of renewable and low exergy sources. In order to reduce the energy demand, to maximize the indoor comfort conditions and to produce energy at the site, these almost ‘self-sufficient’, or even ‘positive energy’ building skins frequently incorporate different technologies and are functionally connected to other building services and installations. An overview of the technological evolution of the building envelope that has taken place, ranging from traditional components to the innovative skins, will be given in this paper, while focusing on the different approaches that have characterized this

  5. Procedures when calculating economy for building envelopes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    Until a few years ago, economy in public funded buildings during construction or retrofitting was focused on investment cost and not very much on the cost for maintenance and energy use. Lately there has been a change in the rules and laws from the Ministry of Housing, resulting in the possibility...... of using total-economy. Total-economy incorporates all present and future investments (e.g. operational and maintenance costs) into one number making it possible to invest more money when constructing a building and save the money later on due to lower cost for maintenance and energy consumption...

  6. Cost Analysis of Simple Phase Change Material-Enhanced Building Envelopes in Southern U.S. Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, Jan [Fraunhofer CSE, Cambridge, MA (United States); Shukla, Nitin [Fraunhofer CSE, Cambridge, MA (United States); Fallahi, Ali [Fraunhofer CSE, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Traditional thermal designs of building envelope assemblies are based on static energy flows, yet building envelopes are subject to varying environmental conditions. This mismatch between the steady-state principles and their dynamic operation can decrease thermal efficiency. Design work supporting the development of low-energy houses showed that conventional insulations may not always be the most cost effective solution to improvement envelope thermal performance. PCM-enhanced building envelopes that simultaneously reduce the total cooling loads and shift the peak-hour loads are the focus of this report.

  7. 10 CFR 434.516 - Building exterior envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Buildings for calculating the Energy Cost Budget. In calculating the Design Energy Consumption of the... assumptions for calculating the Energy Cost Budget and default assumptions for the Design Energy Consumption... without operable windows shall be assumed to be 0.038 cfm/ft2 of gross exterior wall. Hotels/motels...

  8. Owners perception on the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners' need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures. The paper is based on a questionnaire survey of 3059 homeowners (response rate of 36%) selected by stratified random sampling during the summer of 2008. The results showed that 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of adopting such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing building envelope components. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improved attic insulation has more advantages than energy efficient windows and improved wall insulation, but windows were more likely to be installed than improved attic insulation. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure. Interpersonal sources, construction companies, installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to adopt building envelope energy efficiency measures. Policy measures to facilitate the rate of adoption of energy efficient building envelope measures are discussed.

  9. Infrared Thermography Assessment of Thermal Bridges in Building Envelope: Experimental Validation in a Test Room Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bianchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared imaging is a valuable tool to perform non-destructive qualitative tests and to investigate buildings envelope thermal-energy behavior. The assessment of envelope thermal insulation, ventilation, air leakages, and HVAC performance can be implemented through the analysis of each thermogram corresponding to an object surface temperature. Thermography also allows the identification of thermal bridges in buildings’ envelope that, together with windows and doors, constitute one of the weakest component increasing thermal losses. A quantitative methodology was proposed in previous researches by the authors in order to evaluate the effect of such weak point on the energy balance of the whole building. In the present work, in-field experimental measurements were carried out with the purpose of evaluating the energy losses through the envelope of a test room experimental field. In-situ thermal transmittance of walls, ceiling and roof were continuously monitored and each element was characterized by its own thermal insulation capability. Infrared thermography and the proposed quantitative methodology were applied to assess the energy losses due to thermal bridges. The main results show that the procedure confirms to be a reliable tool to quantify the incidence of thermal bridges in the envelope thermal losses.

  10. Design with architectural objects in industrialised house-building

    OpenAIRE

    Ekholm, Anders; Wikberg, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a research project with the aim to develop concepts and tools for architectural design, taking the ideas of "behaviour settings" as a starting point, to enable a more relevant holistic view in object oriented design of buildings. In this paper we introduce the concept of "architectural object" as a representation of a real "situation" involving people, behaviour, experience and environment, based on our idea that architectural design results...

  11. Temporal Architecture: Poetic Dwelling in Japanese buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lazarin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heidegger’s thinking about poetic dwelling and Derrida’s impressions of Freudian estrangement are employed to provide a constitutional analysis of the experience of Japanese architecture, in particular, the Japanese vestibule (genkan. This analysis is supplemented by writings by Japanese architects and poets. The principal elements of Japanese architecture are: (1 ma, and (2 en. Ma is usually translated as ‘interval’ because, like the English word, it applies to both space and time.  However, in Japanese thinking, it is not so much an either/or, but rather a both/and. In other words, Japanese architecture emphasises the temporal aspect of dwelling in a way that Western architectural thinking usually does not. En means ‘joint, edge, the in-between’ as an ambiguous, often asymmetrical spanning of interior and exterior, rather than a demarcation of these regions. Both elements are aimed at producing an experience of temporality and transiency.

  12. Windows and Building Envelope Research and Development: A Roadmap for Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This Building Technologies Office (BTO) Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap identifies priority windows and building envelope R&D areas of interest. Cost and performance targets are identified for each key R&D area. The roadmap describes the technical and market challenges to be overcome, R&D activities and milestones, key stakeholders, and potential energy savings that could result if cost and performance targets are met. Methods for improving technology performance and specific strategies for reducing installed costs and mitigating any other market barriers, which would increase the likelihood of mass-market technology adoption, are identified. This roadmap is a useful resource for public and private decision makers evaluating and pursuing high-impact R&D focused on advancing next-generation energy efficient windows and building envelope technologies.

  13. Nearly zero energy buildings and proliferation of microorganisms a current issue for highly insulated and airtight building envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giuseppe, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a concise review of the thermo-physical phenomena which regulate heat and moisture transportation in Nearly Zero Energy Buildings envelopes, and their relationship with the growth of biological organisms. It describes the main microorganisms proliferating on contemporary building elements and within buildings. It also states the consequences of biological growth on durability, aesthetics and human health; and provides the main methods for the analytical and experimental evaluation of proliferation. Finally, through the review of recent developments, remedial actions to count

  14. CALCULATION OF THE THERMAL FIELD AND THE THERMAL RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS ENVELOPES USING THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    U. U. Liashkevich

    2015-01-01

    The method of calculation the thermal field and the thermal resistance of fragments of building envelope and developed computer calculating program are described in the article «Calculation of the thermal field and the thermal resistance of buildings envelopes using the finite element method». The main logical modules of the program are described. An example of calculation of temperature field and of the thermal resistance of element of monolithic frame building is given.

  15. Hybrid architecture for building secure sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ken R., Jr.; Watkins, Steve E.

    2012-04-01

    Sensor networks have various communication and security architectural concerns. Three approaches are defined to address these concerns for sensor networks. The first area is the utilization of new computing architectures that leverage embedded virtualization software on the sensor. Deploying a small, embedded virtualization operating system on the sensor nodes that is designed to communicate to low-cost cloud computing infrastructure in the network is the foundation to delivering low-cost, secure sensor networks. The second area focuses on securing the sensor. Sensor security components include developing an identification scheme, and leveraging authentication algorithms and protocols that address security assurance within the physical, communication network, and application layers. This function will primarily be accomplished through encrypting the communication channel and integrating sensor network firewall and intrusion detection/prevention components to the sensor network architecture. Hence, sensor networks will be able to maintain high levels of security. The third area addresses the real-time and high priority nature of the data that sensor networks collect. This function requires that a quality-of-service (QoS) definition and algorithm be developed for delivering the right data at the right time. A hybrid architecture is proposed that combines software and hardware features to handle network traffic with diverse QoS requirements.

  16. Numerical simulation of phase change material composite wallboard in a multi-layered building envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A numerical method to study the heat transfer through a PCM composite wallboard is presented. ► PCM wallboard can reduce energy consumption and shift peak electricity load. ► There is an optimal location for the PCM wallboard in the building envelop. ► The PCM wallboard performance depends on weather conditions. - Abstract: Phase change materials (PCMs) have the capability to store/release massive latent heat when undergoing phase change. When impregnated or encapsulated into wallboard or concrete systems, PCMs can greatly enhance their thermal energy storage capacity and effective thermal mass. When used in the building envelope PCM wallboard has the potential to improve building operation by reducing the energy requirement for maintaining thermal comfort, downsizing the AC/heating equipment, and shifting the peak load from the electrical grid. In this work we numerically studied the potential of PCM on energy saving for residential homes. For that purpose we solved the one-dimensional, transient heat equation through the multi-layered building envelope using the Crank–Nicolson discretization scheme. A source term is incorporated to account for the thermal-physical properties of the composite PCM wallboard. Using this code we examined a PCM composite wallboard incorporated into the walls and roof of a typical residential building across various climate zones. The PCM performance was studied under all seasonal conditions using the latest typical meteorological year (TMY3) data for exterior boundary conditions. Our simulations show that PCM performance highly depends on the weather conditions, emphasizing the necessity to choose different PCMs at different climate zones. Comparisons were also made between different PCM wallboard locations. Our work shows that there exists an optimal location for PCM placement within building envelope dependent upon the resistance values between the PCM layer and the exterior boundary conditions. We further

  17. Improving the thermal performance of the building envelopes with the use of foam glass-ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    D.G. Portnyagin

    2015-01-01

    Recommendations on eliminating the defects of thermal insulation on the basis of the previously carried out thermal imaging surveys were given. Constructive solutions of building envelopes were proposed with regard to modeling thermal fields in ELCUT. A typical solution of thermal insulation of the basement joint is the unit exterior insulation of the basement wall to the level of the facing course bottom. This constructive solution is characterized by a significant thermal bridge, in the dir...

  18. Analysis of Building Envelope Insulation Performance Utilizing Integrated Temperature and Humidity Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Wei Chen; Cheng-Jui Hsu; Chih-Yuan Chang; San-Shan Hung

    2012-01-01

    A major cause of high energy consumption for air conditioning in indoor spaces is the thermal storage characteristics of a building’s envelope concrete material; therefore, the physiological signals (temperature and humidity) within concrete structures are an important reference for building energy management. The current approach to measuring temperature and humidity within concrete structures (i.e., thermocouples and fiber optics) is limited by problems of wiring requir...

  19. Benchmarking the performance of building energy management using data envelopment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In traditional methods, benchmarking of building energy performance usually takes into consideration of a wide range of different factors, including floor area, number of occupants, climate condition, energy efficiency of the equipment used, setting of indoor temperature and so on. These different factors are then given different weights to calculate one general indicator. The indicator is 'general' as it measures only the overall energy performance of a building. For obtaining more specific information, such as the energy management effectiveness of a building, this paper proposes an adjustment to the traditional approach by using data envelopment analysis. Factors related to the evaluation of building energy performance are divided into scale factors and management factors; the effect of scale factors is then removed to focus on the performance of management factors that may provide an optional indicator to refine the traditional focus on energy consumption per unit floor area. Samples under evaluation incorporate 47 government office buildings in Taiwan, and floor area and the number of occupants are used as the scale factors for climate-adjusted building energy consumption after regression analysis. According to the evaluation focusing on management performance, five evaluated buildings report minimum energy consumption in different scales and they are rated as 100% for the best management performance. Six buildings receive the rating of 80-99%, 23 buildings fall under 60% and the poorest reads 31%. The average indicator of energy performance of all evaluated buildings reads 65%.

  20. Analysis of building envelope insulation performance utilizing integrated temperature and humidity sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, San-Shan; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Hsu, Cheng-Jui; Chen, Shih-Wei

    2012-01-01

    A major cause of high energy consumption for air conditioning in indoor spaces is the thermal storage characteristics of a building's envelope concrete material; therefore, the physiological signals (temperature and humidity) within concrete structures are an important reference for building energy management. The current approach to measuring temperature and humidity within concrete structures (i.e., thermocouples and fiber optics) is limited by problems of wiring requirements, discontinuous monitoring, and high costs. This study uses radio frequency integrated circuits (RFIC) combined with temperature and humidity sensors (T/H sensors) for the design of a smart temperature and humidity information material (STHIM) that automatically, regularly, and continuously converts temperature and humidity signals within concrete and transmits them by radio frequency (RF) to the Building Physiology Information System (BPIS). This provides a new approach to measurement that incorporates direct measurement, wireless communication, and real-time continuous monitoring to assist building designers and users in making energy management decisions and judgments. PMID:23012529

  1. Complete renovation of the thermal envelope of residential apartment building on the coast, including economics and carbon footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Marušič, Igor

    2014-01-01

    In the diploma thesis, we focus on complete renovation of the thermal envelope of on over 40 years old residential block of flats, situated on the Slovenian coast. Over the last years, energy performance of buildings became an ever more important element in civil engineering and construction. For this main reason it has been decided to make precise calculations of annual heat demand, costs and savings that are connected with renovation of thermal envelope of a specific building in the framewo...

  2. Integrating Branding Strategy Across Markets, Building International Brand Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, S.P.; Craig, S.; Nijssen, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    Brands play a critical role in establishing a firm’s visibility and position in international markets. Building a coherent international brand architecture is a key component of the firm’s overall international marketing strategy, because it provides a structure to leverage strong brands into other

  3. Form and Space Abstraction in Architectural Rehabilitation of Industrial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Andrei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In classical art, form was considered to be reproduced in the most faithful way, representing a naturalistic reality. On the other hand, contemporary art strive to achieve its value by abstraction, and by intelectual and psychological approach. Corresponding to contextual art, the architectural rehabilitation of industrial buildings opens new paths towards form and space abstracting.

  4. Eponymous Terms of Architecture, Art and Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laimutė Kitkauskienė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of terms in subject- matter conversation. The issue of architecture as being the crossing of science and art is reminded of. Eponymous terms are defined. The opinion is held that such a term which is a person’s name, the name of a city, village, of some other geographical place, of a country or nation, as well as of a tribe included in its structure, can be called an eponymous term. The Lithuanian terms of such a kind were not discussed till now, that’s why the article could give the start for discussions or for more thorough studies in this field. Logical – semantic links between the eponymous term and its original source (the proper name are examined. As one-word terms are loans, or borrowings, their original source is indicated. A lot of material is presented, and it could help to determine and identify the main ways of the formation of eponymous terms as well as their structural patterns. The given patterns could be successfully applied in forming the terms of other special fields.

  5. Energy Saving Potentials of Phase Change Materials Applied to Lightweight Building Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Bok Seong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs have been considered as an innovative technology that can reduce the peak loads and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC energy consumption in buildings. Basically they are substances capable of storing or releasing thermal energy as latent heat. Because the amount of latent heat absorbed or released is much larger than the sensible heat, the application of PCMs in buildings has significant potential to reduce energy consumption. However, because each PCM has its own phase change temperature, which is the temperature at which latent heat is absorbed or released, it is important to use an appropriate PCM for the purpose of building envelope design. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the energy saving potentials in buildings when various PCMs with different phase change temperatures are applied to a lightweight building envelope by analyzing the thermal load characteristics. As results, the annual heating load increased at every phase change temperature, but the peak heating load decreased by 3.19% with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C, and the lowest indoor temperature increased by 0.86 °C with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C. The annual cooling load decreased by 1.05% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak cooling load decreased by 1.30% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.50 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C. When the night ventilation was applied to the building HVAC system for better passive cooling performance, the annual cooling load decreased by 9.28% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak load decreased by 11.33% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.85 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C.

  6. Analysis of Building Envelops to Optimize Energy Efficiency as per Code of Practice for Energy Efficient Buildings in Sri Lanka - 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, Epa

    2012-01-01

    Residential and commercial buildings consume approximately 20% of the global energy generation. This value is continuously growing and the governments across the globe have realized the importance of regulating the building construction to optimize the energy utilization. Energy efficient building codes have been developed to optimize the energy efficiency in buildings. OTTV (Overall Thermal Transfer Value) is a key parameter for evaluating energy efficiency of building envelops in the presen...

  7. Laboratory testing of a building envelope segment based on cellular concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fořt, Jan; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Hygrothermal performance of a building envelope based on cellular concrete blocks is studied in the paper. Simultaneously, the strain fields induced by the heat and moisture changes are monitored. The studied wall is exposed to the climatic load corresponding to the winter climatic conditions of the moderate year for Prague. The winter climatic exposure is chosen in order to simulate the critical conditions of the building structure from the point of view of material performance and temperature and humidity loading. The evaluation of hygrothermal performance of a researched wall is done on the basis of relative humidity and temperature profiles measured along the cross section of the cellular concrete blocks. Strain gauges are fixed on the wall surface in expected orientation of the blocks expansion. The obtained results show a good hygrothermal function of the analyzed cellular concrete wall and its insignificant strain.

  8. Building energy modeling for green architecture and intelligent dashboard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlois, Justin

    Buildings are responsible for 40% of the carbon emissions in the United States. Energy efficiency in this sector is key to reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions. This work studied the passive technique called the roof solar chimney for reducing the cooling load in homes architecturally. Three models of the chimney were created: a zonal building energy model, computational fluid dynamics model, and numerical analytic model. The study estimated the error introduced to the building energy model (BEM) through key assumptions, and then used a sensitivity analysis to examine the impact on the model outputs. The conclusion was that the error in the building energy model is small enough to use it for building simulation reliably. Further studies simulated the roof solar chimney in a whole building, integrated into one side of the roof. Comparisons were made between high and low efficiency constructions, and three ventilation strategies. The results showed that in four US climates, the roof solar chimney results in significant cooling load energy savings of up to 90%. After developing this new method for the small scale representation of a passive architecture technique in BEM, the study expanded the scope to address a fundamental issue in modeling - the implementation of the uncertainty from and improvement of occupant behavior. This is believed to be one of the weakest links in both accurate modeling and proper, energy efficient building operation. A calibrated model of the Mascaro Center for Sustainable Innovation's LEED Gold, 3,400 m2 building was created. Then algorithms were developed for integration to the building's dashboard application that show the occupant the energy savings for a variety of behaviors in real time. An approach using neural networks to act on real-time building automation system data was found to be the most accurate and efficient way to predict the current energy savings for each scenario. A stochastic study examined the impact of the

  9. A Software Architecture for Building Location-Based Pervasive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    As mobile devices become more affordable and powerful, new families of applications are built to utilize the mobility of such mobile computing resources. Some of the most appealing and profitable kinds of applications in mobile and pervasive computing nowadays are location based service applications. In this article, we tackle such applications from a software engineering perspective, and propose an architecture for building location based service applications suitable for pushing data and ad...

  10. Importance of building maintenance at the time of architectural design of buildings rehabilitated with heritage value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Calejo Rodrigues; Patrícia Fernandes Rocha

    2011-01-01

    During architectural conception phase,building maintenance problematic is mostly a result of the unintentional use of preconceived architectonical solutions rather than a consequence of a specific influence of maintenance requirements.Hardly the architect in the act of design understands the importance of these solutions in the service life span of a building.Being aware of this,is it possible for the architect to be supplied with a decision support system that allows him to consider the implications of building maintenance since the early design phases? Having awareness of this problem and its consequences in the early design phases a research project was started at the Faculty Engineering of the University of Oporto(FEUP),under which the implications of building maintenance in the act of architectural design is studied.This article presents the methodology developed to identify the needs of maintenance of buildings based on a DSS-decision support system that provides simple tools the architect can use in design phase.This methodology is based on decomposition of building parts-Elements Source of Maintenance ESM-,and subsequently,a set of functional requirements that determine the performance regarding building maintenance on account of architectural decisions.Relevant maintenance actions are defined:Inspection,Pro-action,Cleaning,Correction,Replacement,Legal enforcement,Limits of use.One can thus set up a relationship between the act of design and its performance framework based on behavior,intervention and the ownership of the work of architecture.Using a Multicriteria Analysis (MCA) a qualitative evaluation of different options based on maintenance requirements accomplishment.Conclusions on the importance of architectural conception concerning the building maintenance were clearly arrived at and the utility of the developed decision support tool was also highlighted.

  11. Building Envelope Over-Cladding: Impact on Energy Balance and Microclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dernie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A considerable part of recent EU policies is currently addressed at developing effective measures to support the transition towards a low carbon society according to the principles and goals of Roadmap to 2050. In this general framework the links between the development of low-emission strategies and climate-resilient approaches to buildings play a key role. As most part of the existing building stock was built before the 1980s, retrofit and renovation actions are widely investigated. Despite progress in this field, relatively little attention has been given to the connections between the achievable energy savings and the energy investment needed to pursue the renovation process and to how technological choices can impact on the energy balance according to a multi-criteria perspective. The paper will explore how different technologies and design solutions to building envelopes cladding contribute to the reduction of the heat gains in urban environments and how appropriate adaptive strategies can further mitigate against accelerated greenhouse emissions. It will discuss the relationship between individual building performance and consequent effect on external environment. The effects of technological and material choices are evaluated for some design scenarios and conditions in order to develop an indicative impact mode.

  12. A METHODOLOGY FOR ENERGY OPTIMIZATION OF BUILDINGS CONSIDERING SIMULTANEOUSLY BUILDING ENVELOPE HVAC AND RENEWABLE SYSTEM PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    Energy is the vital source of life and it plays a key role in development of human society. Any living creature relies on a source of energy to exist. Similarly, machines require power to operate. Starting with Industrial Revolution, the modern life clearly depends on energy. We need energy for almost everything we do in our daily life, including transportation, agriculture, telecommunication, powering industry, heating, cooling and lighting our buildings, powering electric equipment etc. Glo...

  13. Improving the thermal performance of the building envelopes with the use of foam glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Portnyagin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on eliminating the defects of thermal insulation on the basis of the previously carried out thermal imaging surveys were given. Constructive solutions of building envelopes were proposed with regard to modeling thermal fields in ELCUT. A typical solution of thermal insulation of the basement joint is the unit exterior insulation of the basement wall to the level of the facing course bottom. This constructive solution is characterized by a significant thermal bridge, in the direction through the cross-section of the floor slab under the insulation of the wall. The article presents the results of eliminating the thermal bridge by substituting of ceramic or silica bricks for thermal insulation bricks of foamglass. We discussed the roof and parapet joint. The paper also presents the results of heat loss calculation when replacing of the top line of backfills above the level of the coating by the brick thermal insulation made of foamglass.

  14. The complex assessment of a thermal performance of the building envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Kornienko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The complex assessment of a thermal performance of the envelope on the basis of natural measurements and numerical modeling of the heat and moisture transport in building components was executed. On the basis of natural measurements it was shown that thermal performance qualities of a maintained building do not meet standard requirements. For the purpose of establishment of the reason of low level of a thermal performance numerical modeling of the heat and moisture transport in an external wall according to the computer program developed by the author, by two options — on the basis of the actual and design data was executed. It was shown that results of numerical modeling on the basis of actual data will well be coordinated with natural data that confirms reliability of the results received on the computer program. On the basis of numerical modeling with use of design data it was established that the design solution of external walls corresponded to standard requirements for a thermal performance, and, therefore, deterioration of a thermal performance can be caused by the violations allowed during construction and reconstruction of the building.

  15. Alternative methods for evaluation of airtightness of the building envelope; Alternativa metoder foer utvaerdering av byggnadsskalets lufttaethet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikander, Eva; Wahlgren, Paula

    2008-07-01

    Airtightness plays an important role when constructing energy efficient, sustainable and healthy buildings. In order to obtain airtight buildings, the airtightness needs to be evaluated during the construction phase. This enables improvements of the airtightness in an easy and cost-efficient way. During the construction phase, it is difficult to quantify the airtightness. However, detecting and sealing air leakages are good measures to improve the airtightness of the building. Several methods to detect air leakages are presented. A methodology to search for air leakages in buildings during construction has been developed, together with contractors and experts, and the methodology has been used at two building sites. The quantifiable airtightness of a building is determined by measuring the airflow that enters or exits the building at a certain pressure difference over the building envelope. In some cases it is not possible to measure air tightness according to standard. Therefore, a number of alternative methods have been evaluated. These methods include: extrapolation of measured data to a range used in standard measurements, using a buildings ventilation system fans to create a pressure difference over the building envelope, measuring the airtightness of a smaller part of the building (apartment, fire compartment or component) and tracer gas measurements

  16. Can envelope codes reduce electricity and CO2 emissions in different types of buildings in the hot climate of Bahrain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depletion of non-renewable resources and the environmental impact of energy consumption, particularly energy use in buildings, have awakened considerable interest in energy efficiency. Building energy codes have recently become effective techniques to achieve efficiency targets. The Electricity and Water Authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of building electricity consumption and CO2 emissions to be achieved by using envelope thermal insulation codes. This paper investigates the ability of the current codes to achieve such a benchmark and evaluates their impact on building energy consumption. The results of a simulation study are employed to investigate the impact of the Bahraini codes on the energy and environmental performance of buildings. The study focuses on air-conditioned commercial buildings and concludes that envelope codes, at best, are likely to reduce the energy use of the commercial sector by 25% if the building envelope is well-insulated and efficient glazing is used. Bahraini net CO2 emissions could drop to around 7.1%. The simulation results show that the current energy codes alone are not sufficient to achieve a 40% reduction benchmark, and therefore, more effort should be spent on moving towards a more comprehensive approach

  17. Building information modeling in the architectural design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Anders

    The overall economical benefits of Building Information Modeling are generally comprehensible, but are there other problems with the implementation of BIM as a formulized system in a field that ultimately is dependant on a creative input? Is optimization and economic benefit really contributing...... with an architectural quality? In Denmark the implementation of the digital working methods related to BIM has been introduced by government law in 2007. Will the important role of the architect as designer change in accordance with these new methods, and does the idea of one big integrated model...... represent a paradox in relation to designing? The BIM mindset requires changes on many levels....

  18. Evolutionary optimisation of façade design a new approach for the design of building envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Zemella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book explores how optimization-and performance-driven design in general-requires a change in the cultural approach to design for both architects and engineers. It shows how optimization techniques can be applied to the design of building envelopes.

  19. Cellular Architecture of Treponema pallidum: Novel Flagellum, Periplasmic Cone, and Cell Envelope as Revealed by Cryo-Electron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Howell, Jerrilyn K.; Bradley, Sherille D.; Zheng, Yesha; Zhou, Z. Hong; Norris, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    High resolution cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) was utilized to visualize Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, at the molecular level. Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions from 304 infectious organisms revealed unprecedented cellular structures of this unusual member in the spirochetal family. High resolution cryo-ET reconstructions provided the detailed structures of the cell envelope, which is significantly different from that of gram-negative bacteria. The 4 nm lipid bilayer of both outer and cytoplasmic membranes resolved in 3-D reconstructions, providing an important marker for interpreting membrane-associated structures. Abundant lipoproteins cover the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane, in contrast to the rare outer membrane proteins visible by scanning probe microscopy. High resolution cryo-ET images also provided the first observation of T. pallidum chemoreceptor arrays, as well as structural details of the periplasmically located, cone-shaped structure at both ends of bacterium. Furthermore, 3-D subvolume averages of the periplasmic flagellar motors and filaments from living organisms revealed the novel flagellar architectures that may facilitate their rotation within the confining periplasmic space. Together, our findings provide the most detailed structural understanding of the periplasmic flagella and the surrounding cell envelope, which enable this enigmatic bacterium to efficiently penetrate tissue and escape host immune responses. PMID:20850455

  20. The pedagogy of building solar devices in architecture schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. G. [Calgary Univ., Faculty of Environmental Design, AB (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Education and training of students of architecture, industrial design, planning and environmental sciences in solar energy utilization, as practiced at the University of Calgary, is described. Classes are relatively small, which allows for considerable flexibility in terms of the different modes of instruction. Lectures, case studies, field trips and workshops all have their place, although the most effective and most popular mode of instruction is the hands-on approach in building and installing a solar heating system. During the course, the students build various types of solar cookers and concentrating solar collectors, including air-type and water-type flat plate collectors. Usually one solar component is built by each class, but previous projects are available for examination and monitoring. This paper elaborates upon the pedagogical basis of shop experience for architectural students. In this context it addresses issues related to shop space, materials, construction, installation testing and monitoring, as well as safety and performance of the student-constructed solar systems. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  1. The pedagogy of building solar devices in architecture schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. G. (Calgary Univ., Faculty of Environmental Design, AB (Canada))

    1999-01-01

    Education and training of students of architecture, industrial design, planning and environmental sciences in solar energy utilization, as practiced at the University of Calgary, is described. Classes are relatively small, which allows for considerable flexibility in terms of the different modes of instruction. Lectures, case studies, field trips and workshops all have their place, although the most effective and most popular mode of instruction is the hands-on approach in building and installing a solar heating system. During the course, the students build various types of solar cookers and concentrating solar collectors, including air-type and water-type flat plate collectors. Usually one solar component is built by each class, but previous projects are available for examination and monitoring. This paper elaborates upon the pedagogical basis of shop experience for architectural students. In this context it addresses issues related to shop space, materials, construction, installation testing and monitoring, as well as safety and performance of the student-constructed solar systems. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Design of the Building Envelope: A Novel Multi-Objective Approach for the Optimization of Energy Performance and Thermal Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ascione

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the increasing worldwide attention to energy and the environmental performance of the building sector, building energy demand should be minimized by considering all energy uses. In this regard, the development of building components characterized by proper values of thermal transmittance, thermal capacity, and radiative properties is a key strategy to reduce the annual energy need for the microclimatic control. However, the design of the thermal characteristics of the building envelope is an arduous task, especially in temperate climates where the energy demands for space heating and cooling are balanced. This study presents a novel methodology for optimizing the thermo-physical properties of the building envelope and its coatings, in terms of thermal resistance, capacity, and radiative characteristics of exposed surfaces. A multi-objective approach is adopted in order to optimize energy performance and thermal comfort. The optimization problem is solved by means of a Genetic Algorithm implemented in MATLAB®, which is coupled with EnergyPlus for performing dynamic energy simulations. For demonstration, the methodology is applied to a residential building for two different Mediterranean climates: Naples and Istanbul. The results show that for Naples, because of the higher incidence of cooling demand, cool external coatings imply significant energy savings, whereas the insulation of walls should be high but not excessive (no more than 13–14 cm. The importance of high-reflective coating is clear also in colder Mediterranean climates, like Istanbul, although the optimal thicknesses of thermal insulation are higher (around 16–18 cm. In both climates, the thermal envelope should have a significant mass, obtainable by adopting dense and/or thick masonry layers. Globally, a careful design of the thermal envelope is always necessary in order to achieve high-efficiency buildings.

  3. Comparative effects of building envelope improvements and occupant behavioural changes on the exergy consumption for heating and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much focus is put on measures to improve the building envelope system performance to reduce the impact of the building sector on the global environmental degradation. This paper compares the potential of building envelope improvements to those of a change in the occupant's behavioural pattern. Three cases of improvements together with a base case were analysed using exergy analysis, because the exergy concept is useful to understand the underlying processes and the necessary adjustments to the calculation of the heat-pump system. The assumptions for the occupant behaviour were set up based on our field measurements conducted in a dormitory building and the calculation was for steady-state conditions. It was found that the potential of occupant behavioural changes for the reduction in exergy consumption is more affected by the outdoor temperature compared to building envelope improvements. The influence of occupant behaviour was highly significant (more than 90% decrease of exergy consumption) when the temperature difference between indoors and outdoors is small, which is the case for long periods in regions with moderate temperatures during summer and/or winter. Nevertheless, both measures combined lead to a reduction from 76% up to 95% depending on the outside conditions and should be the final goal.

  4. Low-Cost Bio-Based Phase Change Materials as an Energy Storage Medium in Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Abhari, Mr. Ramin [Renewable Energy Group, Inc.; Shukla, Dr. Nitin [Fraunhofer USA, Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston; Kosny, Dr. Jan [Fraunhofer USA, Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston

    2015-01-01

    A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of phase change material (PCM) in building envelope systems. Several studies have reported the energy saving potential of PCM in building envelopes. However, wide application of PCMs in building applications has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel paraffin product made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application, with the ultimate goal of commercializing a low-cost PCM platform. The low-cost PCM pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation, installed in external walls and field-tested under natural weatherization conditions for a period of several months. In addition, several PCM samples and PCM-cellulose samples were prepared under controlled conditions for laboratory-scale testing. The laboratory tests were performed to determine the phase change properties of PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation both at microscopic and macroscopic levels. This article presents the data and analysis from the exterior test wall and the laboratory-scale test data. PCM behavior is influenced by the weather and interior conditions, PCM phase change temperature and PCM distribution within the wall cavity, among other factors. Under optimal conditions, the field data showed up to 20% reduction in weekly heat transfer through an external wall due to the PCM compared to cellulose-only insulation.

  5. Differential protein partitioning within the herpesvirus tegument and envelope underlies a complex and variable virion architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannon, Kevin Patrick; Jun, Yonggun; Gross, Steven P.; Smith, Gregory Allan

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinvasive herpesviruses cause diseases in humans ranging from cold sores to central nervous system infections. Unlike most icosahedral viruses, herpesvirus capsids are surrounded by protein layers that lack polyhedral architecture. The outer layers are critical for herpesvirus infectivity. Although the disorganized layers are visible by electron microscopy, the protein topography of these layers remains unclear. We fused fluorophores to virus proteins and pinpointed their positions within...

  6. The Teaching Green School Building: A Framework for Linking Architecture and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laura B.

    2014-01-01

    The "Teaching Green School Building" is an emergent type of school building that attempts to engage building users with environmental issues in buildings. Architectural interventions in these buildings range from signage to interactive touch screens to gardens and demonstration kitchens that foster educational programmes about…

  7. A Semantics-Rich Information Technology Architecture for Smart Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Bonino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The design of smart homes, buildings and environments currently suffers from a low maturity of available methodologies and tools. Technologies, devices and protocols strongly bias the design process towards vertical integration, and more flexible solutions based on separation of design concerns are seldom applied. As a result, the current landscape of smart environments is mostly populated by defectively designed solutions where application requirements (e.g., end-user functionality are too often mixed and intertwined with technical requirements (e.g., managing the network of devices. A mature and effective design process must, instead, rely on a clear separation between the application layer and the underlying enabling technologies, to enable effective design reuse. The role of smart gateways is to enable this separation of concerns and to provide an abstracted view of available automation technology to higher software layers. This paper presents a blueprint for the information technology (IT architecture of smart buildings that builds on top of established software engineering practices, such as model-driven development and semantic representation, and that avoids many pitfalls inherent in legacy approaches. The paper will also present a representative use case where the approach has been applied and the corresponding modeling and software tools.

  8. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program: Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Mallay, D. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-05-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. It presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements.

  9. Building and measuring a high performance network architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, William T.C.; Toole, Timothy; Fisher, Chuck; Dugan, Jon; Wheeler, David; Wing, William R; Nickless, William; Goddard, Gregory; Corbato, Steven; Love, E. Paul; Daspit, Paul; Edwards, Hal; Mercer, Linden; Koester, David; Decina, Basil; Dart, Eli; Paul Reisinger, Paul; Kurihara, Riki; Zekauskas, Matthew J; Plesset, Eric; Wulf, Julie; Luce, Douglas; Rogers, James; Duncan, Rex; Mauth, Jeffery

    2001-04-20

    Once a year, the SC conferences present a unique opportunity to create and build one of the most complex and highest performance networks in the world. At SC2000, large-scale and complex local and wide area networking connections were demonstrated, including large-scale distributed applications running on different architectures. This project was designed to use the unique opportunity presented at SC2000 to create a testbed network environment and then use that network to demonstrate and evaluate high performance computational and communication applications. This testbed was designed to incorporate many interoperable systems and services and was designed for measurement from the very beginning. The end results were key insights into how to use novel, high performance networking technologies and to accumulate measurements that will give insights into the networks of the future.

  10. Building and measuring a high performance network architecture; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once a year, the SC conferences present a unique opportunity to create and build one of the most complex and highest performance networks in the world. At SC2000, large-scale and complex local and wide area networking connections were demonstrated, including large-scale distributed applications running on different architectures. This project was designed to use the unique opportunity presented at SC2000 to create a testbed network environment and then use that network to demonstrate and evaluate high performance computational and communication applications. This testbed was designed to incorporate many interoperable systems and services and was designed for measurement from the very beginning. The end results were key insights into how to use novel, high performance networking technologies and to accumulate measurements that will give insights into the networks of the future

  11. The HP0256 gene product is involved in motility and cell envelope architecture of Helicobacter pylori

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Douillard, Francois P

    2010-04-08

    Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent for gastritis, and peptic and duodenal ulcers. The bacterium displays 5-6 polar sheathed flagella that are essential for colonisation and persistence in the gastric mucosa. The biochemistry and genetics of flagellar biogenesis in H. pylori has not been fully elucidated. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the gene HP0256, annotated as hypothetical, was a FliJ homologue. In Salmonella, FliJ is a chaperone escort protein for FlgN and FliT, two proteins that themselves display chaperone activity for components of the hook, the rod and the filament. Results Ablation of the HP0256 gene in H. pylori significantly reduced motility. However, flagellin and hook protein synthesis was not affected in the HP0256 mutant. Transmission electron transmission microscopy revealed that the HP0256 mutant cells displayed a normal flagellum configuration, suggesting that HP0256 was not essential for assembly and polar localisation of the flagella in the cell. Interestingly, whole genome microarrays of an HP0256 mutant revealed transcriptional changes in a number of genes associated with the flagellar regulon and the cell envelope, such as outer membrane proteins and adhesins. Consistent with the array data, lack of the HP0256 gene significantly reduced adhesion and the inflammatory response in host cells. Conclusions We conclude that HP0256 is not a functional counterpart of FliJ in H. pylori. However, it is required for full motility and it is involved, possibly indirectly, in expression of outer membrane proteins and adhesins involved in pathogenesis and adhesion.

  12. Energy performance and optimal control of air-conditioned buildings with envelopes enhanced by phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Impact of PCM on the energy consumption and peak load demand as well as electricity cost of air-conditioned buildings. → Impact of load shifting control on energy consumption, peak load and electricity cost of air-conditioned PCM buildings. → Impact of demand limiting control on energy consumption, peak load and electricity cost of air-conditioned PCM buildings. → Energy/cost effects of different control strategies and use of PCM in energy-plus-demand-based pricing policy. → Energy/cost effects of different control strategies and use of PCM in time-based pricing policy. - Abstract: Studies are conducted to investigate the impacts of shape-stabilized phase change material (SSPCM) and different control strategies on the energy consumption and peak load demand as well as electricity cost of building air-conditioning systems at typical summer conditions in two climates (subtropical and dry continental climates). An office building using a typical variable air volume (VAV) air-conditioning system was selected and simulated as the reference building in this study. Its envelopes were enhanced by integrating the SSPCM layers into its walls while the air-conditioning system and other configurations of the building remained unchanged. The building system was tested under two typical weather conditions and two typical electricity pricing policies (i.e. time-based pricing and energy-plus-demand-based pricing). Test results show that the use of SSPCM in the building could reduce the building electricity cost significantly (over 11% in electricity cost reduction and over 20% in peak load reduction), under two pricing policies by using load shifting control and demand limiting control respectively. This paper presents the test results and the evaluation on the energy performance and the optimal control strategies of air-conditioned commercial buildings with envelopes enhanced by SSPCM.

  13. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  14. Analyzing the effect of the longwave emissivity and solar reflectance of building envelopes on energy-saving in buildings in various climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhiyang; Zhang, Xiong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials of Education Ministry, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-01-15

    A dynamic computer simulation is carried out in the climates of 35 cities distributed around the world. The variation of the annual air-conditioning energy loads due to changes in the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance of the building envelopes is studied to find the most appropriate exterior building finishes in various climates (including a tropical climate, a subtropical climate, a mountain plateau climate, a frigid-temperate climate and a temperate climate). Both the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance are set from 0.1 to 0.9 with an interval of 0.1 in the simulation. The annual air-conditioning energy loads trends of each city are listed in a chart. The results show that both the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance of building envelopes play significant roles in energy-saving for buildings. In tropical climates, the optical parameters of the building exterior surface affect the building energy-saving most significantly. In the mountain plateau climates and the subarctic climates, the impacts on energy-saving in buildings due to changes in the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance are still considerable, but in the temperate continental climates and the temperate maritime climates, only limited effects are seen. (author)

  15. Building Paradigms: Major Transformations in School Architecture (1798-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gislason, Neil

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an historical overview of significant trends in school architecture from 1798 to the present. I divide the history of school architecture into two major phases. The first period falls between 1798 and 1921: the modern graded classroom emerged as a standard architectural feature during this period. The second period, which…

  16. Polymeric architectures of bismuth citrate based on dimeric building blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Four bismuth complexes, (H2En)[Bi2(cit)2(H2O)4/3]·(H2O)x (1), (H2En)3[Bi2(cit)2Cl4]·(H2O)x (2), (HPy)2[Bi2(cit)2(H2O)8/5]·(H2O)x (3) and (H2En)[Bi2(cit)2](H2O)x (4) [cit = citrate4-; En = ethylenediamine; Py = pyridine] have been synthesized and crystallized. The crystal structures reveal that the basic building blocks in all of these complexes are bismuth citrate dimeric units which combine to form polymeric architectures. The embedded protonated ethylenediamine and pyridine moieties in the polymeric frameworks have been identified by X-ray crystallography and solid-state cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C NMR. Based on the framework of complex 1, a structural model of a clinically used antiulcer drug, ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) was generated. The behavior of the protonated amine-bismuth citrate complexes in acidic aqueous solution has been studied by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

  17. 10 Steps to Building an Architecture for Space Surveillance Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorko, E.; Barnhart, E.; Gans, H.

    Space surveillance is an increasingly complex task, requiring the coordination of a multitude of organizations and systems, while dealing with competing capabilities, proprietary processes, differing standards, and compliance issues. In order to fully understand space surveillance operations, analysts and engineers need to analyze and break down their operations and systems using what are essentially enterprise architecture processes and techniques. These techniques can be daunting to the first- time architect. This paper provides a summary of simplified steps to analyze a space surveillance system at the enterprise level in order to determine capabilities, services, and systems. These steps form the core of an initial Model-Based Architecting process. For new systems, a well defined, or well architected, space surveillance enterprise leads to an easier transition from model-based architecture to model-based design and provides a greater likelihood that requirements are fulfilled the first time. Both new and existing systems benefit from being easier to manage, and can be sustained more easily using portfolio management techniques, based around capabilities documented in the model repository. The resulting enterprise model helps an architect avoid 1) costly, faulty portfolio decisions; 2) wasteful technology refresh efforts; 3) upgrade and transition nightmares; and 4) non-compliance with DoDAF directives. The Model-Based Architecting steps are based on a process that Harris Corporation has developed from practical experience architecting space surveillance systems and ground systems. Examples are drawn from current work on documenting space situational awareness enterprises. The process is centered on DoDAF 2 and its corresponding meta-model so that terminology is standardized and communicable across any disciplines that know DoDAF architecting, including acquisition, engineering and sustainment disciplines. Each step provides a guideline for the type of data to

  18. Hierarchical architectured NiS@SiO2 nanoparticles enveloped in graphene sheets as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • NiS@SiO2/graphene is prepared by a simple electrostatic attraction route. • NiS@SiO2/graphene presents nano-porous and hierarchical core-shell structure. • Superior cyclic stability and excellent rate capability are achieved. - Abstract: A well-designed hierarchical architecture NiS@SiO2/graphene is prepared through electrostatic self-assembly between (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES)-modified NiS and graphene in aqueous solutions at room temperature. The obtained composite possesses a unique structure with SiO2 ultrasmall nanoparticles (3–5 nm) derived from the pyrolysis of APTES homogeneously anchored on the surface of NiS nanoparticles (100 nm), forming NiS@SiO2 core-shell hybrid particles, which are well enveloped in graphene sheets. The SiO2 nanoparticles act as pillars to form open space between graphene sheets and NiS particles, which can buffer the volume change and afford easy electrolyte-wetting and fast lithium ion transport channels. The graphene sheets can not only significantly enhance the overall electrical conductivity of the NiS@SiO2/graphene electrode, but also serve as a blanket to wrap NiS particle and so as to avert its exfoliation from electrode due to large volume change during cycling. The prepared NiS@SiO2/graphene nanocomposite exhibits high reversible capacity (∼750 mAh g−1 for 100 cycles), remarkable cycling stability and impressive rate capability

  19. OTTV (SNI 03-6389-2011 and ETTV (BCA 2008 Calculation for Various Building’s Shapes, Orientations, Envelope Building Materials: Comparison and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loekita S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian National Standard SNI 03-6389-2000 adapted the 1983 Singapore’s Handbook on Energy Conservation and limited the Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV of the building envelope to 45 Watt/m2. In 2008, the Singapore’s Building and Construction Authority (BCA shifted to Envelope Thermal Transfer Value (ETTV value of 50 Watt/m2, while SNI 03-6389-2011 continues to use OTTV. This paper reviewed the new SNI 03-6389-2011 and compared it with BCA by calculating OTTV and ETTV of prismatic buildings with eight different shapes and building orientations, 11 Window to Wall Ratio, and 27 building envelope materials. This study also tested those variables to find the best building shape and orientation for an energy saver building. The result shows that ETTV (BCA is stricter than OTTV (SNI 03-6389-2011 except the OTTV with black building envelope, while parallelogram shape building with North-South orientation is the best combination of energy saver building.

  20. Architectural structure and environmental performance of the traditional buildings in Florina, NW Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, A. [Department of Architecture, University of Patras (Greece); Bougiatioti, F. [School of Architecture, National Technical University of Athens, 25, Iasonos Street, 166-71 Vouliagmeni, Athens (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    This paper presents various aspects, which characterise the traditional architecture in the town of Florina, north-western Greece, and can be related to bioclimatic and environmental architecture. The study is based on the documentation and the analysis of the architectural and bioclimatic aspects of a sample of forty (40) remaining houses of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. The analysis of the architectural aspects concerns the building typology, the form, the materials and the construction techniques, whereas the analysis of bioclimatic aspects involves the thermal behaviour of the building shell, the thermal and the visual comfort conditions. The aim of the study is to document and assess, both qualitatively and quantitatively, all the afore-mentioned aspects in order to draw conclusions concerning the principles, which characterised this architecture and can be integrated to the refurbishment of existing buildings or the design of new ones in traditional surroundings. (author)

  1. Architecture design of Exit-Entry Administration Building of Shanghai Municipal Public Security Bureau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Limin; JIANG Du

    2007-01-01

    In retrospect of the architecture design of Exit- Entry Administration Building of Shanghai Municipal Public Security Bureau, this paper elaborates on the architect's pursuit of the symbol of the image, the fluidity of the space and the sequence of the function. It promotes a case which deals with the harmony of the architecture individuality and the urban space commonness in city center.

  2. ECOENVELOPES R&D. Passive architectural envelopes high thermal performance and low environmental impact for tropical geoclimatic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varini, C.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available “Ecoenvelopes” is about the development of building envelope solutions for tropical humid climates involving passive control of thermal gains on their surfaces, allowing for better internal conditions and comfort without the use of thermal machines. Environmental principles, design, and technological aspects are specifically defined based on the peculiar conditions (geo-climatic, technological, of biodiversity, economic and anthropic present in the Colombian low altitude regions, marked by constant high temperatures. Thermal and CFD simulations orient the process of experimental verification in a permanent laboratory counting on partnerships and available know-how.“Ecoenvolventes” plantea el desarrollo de soluciones de envolventes arquitectónicas para clima tropical húmedo, que permiten el control pasivo de las ganancias térmicas en sus superficies permitiendo el mejoramiento de las condiciones internas e generar condiciones de confort sin el uso de máquinas térmicas. Principios, diseño, tecnologías y aspectos medioambientales son expresamente definidos en función de las peculiares condiciones (e.i. geo-climáticas, tecnológicas, de biodiversidad, económicas y antrópicas presentes en las regiones colombianas con baja altitud, caracterizadas por altas temperaturas a lo largo de todo el año. Simulaciones térmicas y CFD orientan el proceso de verificación experimental en un laboratorio permanente contando con convenios con empresas locales y know-how disponible in situ.

  3. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Hugo; Radu Zmeureanu

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1) reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2) using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS softwar...

  4. Heat- and moisture transfer at the exterior of the building envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Mikkel Kristian

    1996-01-01

    Introductory lecture note relating the theory of convective heat and moisture transfer to applications in building physics.......Introductory lecture note relating the theory of convective heat and moisture transfer to applications in building physics....

  5. Building a next generation Internet with source address validation architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU JianPing; REN Gang; LI Xing

    2008-01-01

    The IP packet forwarding of current Internet is mainly destination based. In the forwarding process, the source IP address is not checked in most cases.This causes serious security, management and accounting problems. Based on the drastically increased IPv6 address space, a "source address validation architecture" (SAVA) is proposed in this paper, which can guarantee that every packet received and forwarded holds an authenticated source IP address. The design goals of the architecture are lightweight, loose coupling, "multi-fence support" and incremental deployment. This paper discusses the design and implementation for the architecture, including inter-AS, intra-AS and local subnet. The performance and scalability of SAVA are described. This architecture is deployed into the CNGI-CERNET2infrastructure--a large-scale native IPv6 backbone network of the China Next Generation Internet project. We believe that the SAVA will help the transition to a new, more secure and dependable Internet.

  6. Modern concept design of intelligent buildings in architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Namicev, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Architects need to follow innovative radical smart materials and kinetic objects that create change in response to heat, moisture and light, leading to the formation of a revolutionary approach to architecture. The architecture of the future will be able to change color, size, shape and transparency in response to certain provocations, such as the weight of users and so on. Smart materials are selected for outside surfaces of objects to have the ability to react to changes in the external env...

  7. Evaluation of building envelopes from the viewpoint of capability of controlling thermal environment; Onnetsu kankyo chosei noryoku ni yoru kenchiku gaihi no hyoka no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, K.; Ono, S. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shukuya, M. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The ability that architectural space improves the thermal environment in comparison with outdoor environment is called the `capability of controlling thermal environment.` As the value becomes higher, the indoor thermal environment is more improved. In this paper, the controlling capability of six building envelopes with different window systems was compared. The heat transfer in the wall and window system is approximated using a lumped mass model of heat capacity to obtain a heat balance equation and combined with the heat balance equation in indoor air for backward difference. The wall surface temperature and indoor air temperature in a calculation model are then calculated. A radiation absorption coefficient is used for mutual radiation on each wall. In the model, the adjoining room or first- and second-floor rooms were made the same in conditions as the model on the assumption that the one-side lighted office in an RC reference floor is in the non-illumination and non-airconditioning state. In summer, the controlling capability remarkably varies depending on the window system. For the window facing the south, the annual capability is more advanced than in other directions and the indoor thermal environment is improved on the average. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Energy Impacts of Nonlinear Behavior of PCM When Applied into Building Envelope: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.

    2012-08-01

    Previous research on phase change materials (PCM) for building applications has been done for several decades resulting in plenty of literature on PCM properties, temperature, and peak reduction potential. Thus, PCMs are a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in buildings. There are few building energy simulation programs that have PCM modeling features, and even fewer have been validated. Additionally, there is no previous research that indicates the level of accuracy when simulating PCM from a building energy simulation perspective. This study analyzes the effects a nonlinear enthalpy profile has on thermal performance and expected energy benefits for PCM-enhanced insulation.

  9. Fire and collapse, Faculty of Architecture building, Delft University of Technology: Data collection and preliminary analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, B.; Park, H.; Engelhardt, M.; Kirk, A.; Kodur, V.; Straalen, IJ.J.; Maljaars, J.; Weeren, K. van; Feijter, R. de; Both, K.

    2010-01-01

    On the morning of May 13, 2008, a fire that started in a coffee vending machine on the 6th floor of the 13-story Faculty of Architecture Building at the Delft University of Technology (TUD), Delft, the Netherlands, quickly developed into an extreme loading event. Although all building occupants evac

  10. Architecture and pervasive Computing when buildings and design artifacts become popular interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Peter Gall; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2001-01-01

    One of the main areas of architecture is buildings design, and we will focus on the impact of pervasive computing in this area. The breakthrough of the Internet has triggered a significant increase in what is often called intelligent buildings 1  in recent years. Due to development in pervasive c...

  11. A Methodology to Support Decision-Making Towards an Energy-Efficiency Conscious Design of Residential Building Envelope Retrofitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaleia Konstantinou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the next decade investment in building energy savings needs to increase, together with the rate and depth of renovations, to achieve the required reduction in building-related CO2 emissions. Although the need to improve residential buildings has been identified, guidelines come as general suggestions that fail to address the diversity of each project and give specific answers on how these requirements can be implemented in the design. During early design phases, architects are in search of a design direction to make informed decisions, particularly with regard to the building envelope, which mostly regulates energy demand. To result in an energy-efficient residential stock, this paper proposes a methodology to support refurbishment strategies design. The methodology, called “façade refurbishment toolbox (FRT approach”, is based on compiling and quantifying retrofitting measures that can be also seen as “tools” used to upgrade the building’s energy performance. The result of the proposed methodology enables designers to make informed decisions that lead to energy and sustainability conscious designs, without dictating an optimal solution, from the energy point of view alone. Its applicability is validated through interviews with refurbishment stakeholders.

  12. Building a Verilog model for Boundary-Scan architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a short introduction of the Boundary-Scan technique, as well as a model designed by Verilog HDL to implement the Boundary-Scan architecture. The idea of Boundary-Scan architecture provides a non-contact method of accessing chip pins during testing. The model implemented by Verilog is simple, but expresses the spirit of the standard very well. As this model is compatible with the IEEE 1149.1 standard it provides the possibility of implementing it in the real world. 11 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  13. ACCURATE BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM (BIPV) ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the leading areas of renewable energy applications for the twenty-first century is building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). Integrating photovoltaics into building structures allows the costs of the PV system to be partially offset by the solar modules also serving a s...

  14. Building a repository on European colonial architecture and town planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    During the past two years the TU Delft Library has developed a repository to store data about architecture and town planning in the former Dutch colonies. Historical images, books, journals and archives coming from libraries and museums are scanned and stored into the repository. Information about

  15. "Building Dancing": Dance within the Context of Architectural Design Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Zehra

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical and technological developments redefine the discipline of architecture substantially. Current day approaches in design pedagogy focus on personal and bodily experiences of the "subject" and the need for investigating new ways and methods to enhance awareness of spatial experiences is inevitable. In order to establish a heuristic…

  16. Sustainable buildings. Bioclimatic architecture for housing in a Mediterranean climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirone, L. [Tirone Nunes Urbanismo Lda, Sintra (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    Although the building sector is the largest energy consumer worldwide, and thus a major contributor to climate change and global warming, the comfort we require in our homes does not have to be harmful to our environment. While in a Mediterranean climate the mean outdoor temperatures coincide with the indoor comfort range, it is possible to apply passive solar technologies in the design of the new buildings and this provides three advantages: The buildings will offer thermal comfort to their inhabitants all year round, relying predominantly on renewable energies. The buildings will not require cooling at any time of year and will require up to 90% less heating than their conventional counterparts. The buildings will be no more costly to construct than their conventional counterparts. (orig.)

  17. An expert system for the seismic protection of architectural building heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, S.; Dip. di Ingegneria Strutturale "La Sapienza"; Di Stefano, A.; Dip. di Ingegneria Strutturale "La Sapienza"; Gavarini, C.; Dip. di Ingegneria Strutturale "La Sapienza"; Padula, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia

    1999-01-01

    The definition of a form for the seismic protection of Architectural Building Heritage, a work carried out for the Italian Research Council, has led to the implementation of a knowledge system, that presently consents to partially analyse the walls of historical buildings. Among other things the system uses geometrical reasoning techniques that permit to survey the building by means of articulation and composition of elementary items, “built”, case by case, with a specific geometric, materia...

  18. Energy Saving Potentials of Phase Change Materials Applied to Lightweight Building Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Bok Seong; Jae-Han Lim

    2013-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) have been considered as an innovative technology that can reduce the peak loads and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) energy consumption in buildings. Basically they are substances capable of storing or releasing thermal energy as latent heat. Because the amount of latent heat absorbed or released is much larger than the sensible heat, the application of PCMs in buildings has significant potential to reduce energy consumption. However, because each...

  19. Nonwoven flax fiber mats and white portland cement composites for building envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Carrasco, Lucía; Claramunt Blanes, Josep; Llerena Encalada, Ana; Torrens Martín, David; Ardanuy Raso, Mònica; Zamora i Mestre, Joan-Lluís

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, architectural materials performance was the key point for developing materials; but nowadays, other criteria’s as sustainability, availability and recyclability are being considered. By the other hand, the addition of fibres as polymers, steel or glass on cement based materials was proved to enhance their performance in terms of ductility, tensile strength, toughness, fatigue strength, impact resistance and energy absorption capacity of matrices. Actually, the use of vegetable ...

  20. Evaluation of Various Retrofitting Concepts of Building Envelope for Offices Equipped with Large Radiant Ceiling Panels by Dynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve significant savings in energy and an improved level of thermal comfort in retrofitted existing buildings, specific retrofitting concepts that combine new technologies and design need to be developed and implemented. Large radiant surfaces systems are now among the most promising future technologies to be used both in retrofitted and in new low-energy buildings. These kinds of systems have been the topic of several studies dealing with thermal comfort and energy utilization, but some specific issues concerning their possible use in various concepts for retrofitting are still poorly understood. In the present paper, some results of dynamic simulations, with the transient system simulation tool (TRNSYS model, of the retrofitted offices equipped with radiant ceiling panels are presented and thoroughly analysed. Based on a precise comparison of the results of these simulations with actual measurements in the offices, certain input data for the model were added, so that the model was consequently validated. The model was then applied to the evaluation of various concepts of building envelopes for office retrofitting. By means of dynamic simulations of indoor environment it was possible to determine the benefits and limitations of individual retrofitting concepts. Some specific parameters, which are relevant to these concepts, were also identified.

  1. Carbon footprint of a reflective foil and comparison with other solutions for thermal insulation in building envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Environmental and energy assessment of thermal insulating materials in building envelope. ► Carbon footprint of a reflective foil, conceived and produced by an Italian company. ► Study conducted according to principles of LCA – Life Cycle Assessment. ► Identification of main impacting processes and measures for reducing emissions. ► Comparison with traditional insulating materials (EPS and rockwool). - Abstract: The present study aims at assessing environmental and energy compatibility of different solutions of thermal insulation in building envelope. In fact a good insulation results in a reduction of heating/cooling energy consumptions; on the other hand construction materials undergo production, transformation and transport processes, whose energy and resources consumptions may lead to a significant decrease of the environmental benefits. The paper presents a detailed carbon footprint of a product (CFP, defined as the sum of greenhouse gas emissions and removals of a product system, expressed in CO2 equivalents), which is a reflective foil conceived and produced by an Italian company. CFP can be seen as a Life Cycle Assessment with climate change as the single impact category; it does not assess other potential social, economic and environmental impacts arising from the provision of products. The analysis considers all stages of the life cycle, from the extraction of raw materials to the product’s disposal, i.e. “from cradle to grave”; it was carried out according to UNI EN ISO 14040 and 14044, and LCA modelling was performed using SimaPro software tool. On the basis of obtained results, different measures have been proposed in order to reduce emissions in the life cycle and neutralize residual carbon footprint. The results allowed to make an important comparison concerning the environmental performance of the reflective foil in comparison with other types of insulating materials

  2. Hyperbranched polyether polyols as building blocks for complex macromolecular architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Barriau, Emilie

    2005-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the development of new branched polymer architectures containing hyperbranched polyglycerol. Materials investigated include hyperbranched oligomers, hyperbranched polyglycerols containing functional initiator-cores at the focal point, well-defined linear-hyperbranched block copolymers and also negatively charged hyperbranched polyelectrolytes.rnHyperbranched oligoglycerols (DPn = 7 and 14) have been synthesized for the first time. The materials show narrow polydi...

  3. A Software Architecture for Simulation Support in Building Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Leal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Building automation integrates the active components in a building and, thus, has to connect components of different industries. The goal is to provide reliable and efficient operation. This paper describes how simulation can support building automation and how the deployment process of simulation assisted building control systems can be structured. We look at the process as a whole and map it to a set of formally described workflows that can partly be automated. A workbench environment supports the process execution by means of improved planning, collaboration and deployment. This framework allows integration of existing tools, as well as manual tasks, and is, therefore, many more intricate than regular software deployment tools. The complex environment of building commissioning requires expertise in different domains, especially lighting, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, measurement and control technology, as well as energy efficiency; therefore, we present a framework for building commissioning and describe a deployment process that is capable of supporting the various phases of this approach.

  4. Architectural Tectonics: A Shift Between the Cultural Tradition of Making to Contemporary Building Processes

    OpenAIRE

    MacManus, Sean Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Modern architecture has lost its sense of place by the adoption of practices like standardization and universal modularity, over the focus and influence of unique local building practices. However, looking outside of the cultural main stream works of architecture, there exists some built structures with such purity around how they were constructed and a form of honesty deeply embedded within their material usage. Having been idealized in such a locally specific manner, these attributes become...

  5. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1 reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2 using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS software. Second, several design alternatives with improved thermal resistance for walls, ceiling and windows, increased overall air tightness, and increased window-to-wall ratio of South facing windows are evaluated with respect to the life cycle energy use, life cycle emissions and life cycle cost. The solution that minimizes the energy demand is chosen as a reference house for the study of long-term thermal storage. Third, the computer simulation of a solar heating system with solar thermal collectors and long-term thermal storage capacity is presented. Finally, the life cycle cost and life cycle energy use of the solar combisystem are estimated for flat-plate solar collectors and evacuated tube solar collectors, respectively, for the economic and climatic conditions of this study.

  6. Potential for innovative massive building envelope systems – Scenario development towards integrated active systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Knaack

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate possible scenarios about future developments of massive constructions, this paper explains the developmental paths on the basis of individual materials of clay/brick as well as concrete/lightweight concrete/aerated concrete and sand-lime brick. These construction types are organised qua development level on a roadmap, structured by a timeline and the division in massive and skeleton construction. By this development, lines of constructions appear, structured by the order of additional functionalities integrated in each development step. Following this path, possible scenarios for future developments of integrated active systems are sketched, following the line of additional functionalities being integrated in the construction. Drawbacks such as the limitation of recycling of integrated constructions and the conflict of insulation versus load bearing capacities are named. As a result two strategies are expressed: the light massive envelope construction with integral layers and the massive oriented solution with possible exchangeable components are developed and illustrated by five general construction principles.  

  7. Potential for innovative massive building envelope systems – Scenario development towards integrated active systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Knaack

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate possible scenarios about future developments of massive constructions, this paper explains the developmental paths on the basis of individual materials of clay/brick as well as concrete/lightweight concrete/aerated concrete and sand-lime brick. These construction types are organised qua development level on a roadmap, structured by a timeline and the division in massive and skeleton construction. By this development, lines of constructions appear, structured by the order of additional functionalities integrated in each development step. Following this path, possible scenarios for future developments of integrated active systems are sketched, following the line of additional functionalities being integrated in the construction. Drawbacks such as the limitation of recycling of integrated constructions and the conflict of insulation versus load bearing capacities are named. As a result two strategies are expressed: the light massive envelope construction with integral layers and the massive oriented solution with possible exchangeable components are developed and illustrated by five general construction principles.

  8. Cool products for building envelope - Part I: Development and lab scale testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revel, G.M.; Martarelli, M.; Emiliani, M.; Gozalbo, A.; Orts, M.J.; Bengochea, M.T.; Guaita Delgado, L.; Gaki, A.; Katsiapi, A.; Taxiarchou, M.; Arabatzis, I.; Fasaki, I.; Hermanns, S.

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology followed for the development of new cool products in order to widen the range of existing solutions both including coloured (even dark) materials and extending the application also to building vertical components. Cool coloured ceramic tiles and acrylic paints for

  9. Format for description of building envelope components for use in an optimization process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    building codes specify minimum requirements for the aspects in question, but no trade-offs between the different aspects are allowed, being un-flexible. To allow for the use of optimization procedures in the design process a larger degree of flexibility is needed but first of all there is a need for...

  10. Building an effective illicit nuclear trafficking detection architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Not just one, but a series of combined events has led, through an abundance of prudence, to a systematic development and deployment of a nuclear detection architecture in the USA. There have been troublesome reports that non-national terrorist entities have been striving to acquire nuclear material - both radioactive sources and weapons usable material - since the early 1990s. There have been two World Trade Center attacks using unconventional weapons, the second attack being fully successful. Threat streams of even greater attacks are continuing. The terrorist adversary has proven adaptive and persistent. Additionally, not all State actors have embraced the abolishment of terror tactics; thus, we cannot ignore those States as possible surreptitious users of nuclear or radioactive material as weapons, should diplomacy fail. We do not believe that nuclear stockpiles are one hundred per cent secure in some nations, and that diversions may have occurred or could still occur. Combine this with radicalism, motive and intent, and we are compelled to strive to create an effective detection architecture that may deter or prevent illicit nuclear or radioactive material trafficking. Our primary intent is to secure our borders and support our partners, and some of this work involves strengthening partnerships with other countries and entities, the IAEA being one of those entities. Arguably, there have been about 20 cases of illicit nuclear trafficking where actual weapons usable material was seized (many more in which other radioactive material was involved). This is 20 cases too many, and we cannot know whether this is only the tip of the iceberg. The paper describes the US Government origins of the development of an effective illicit nuclear trafficking detection architecture, the centralized planning involved and the shared responsibilities of numerous US Government agencies. Our belief is that end to end planning, a robust nuclear forensics capability, a global

  11. Cellular Architecture of Treponema pallidum: Novel Flagellum, Periplasmic Cone, and Cell Envelope as Revealed by Cryo-Electron Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jun; Howell, Jerrilyn K.; Bradley, Sherille D.; Zheng, Yesha; Zhou, Z. Hong; Norris, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    High resolution cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) was utilized to visualize Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, at the molecular level. Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions from 304 infectious organisms revealed unprecedented cellular structures of this unusual member in the spirochetal family. High resolution cryo-ET reconstructions provided the detailed structures of the cell envelope, which is significantly different from that of gram-negative bacteria. The 4 nm lipid ...

  12. Performance Evaluation of Modern Building Thermal Envelope Designs in the Semi-Arid Continental Climate of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the thermal performance of a range of modern wall constructions used in the residential buildings of Tehran in order to find the most appropriate alternative to the traditional un-fired clay and brick materials, which are increasingly being replaced in favor of more slender wall constructions employing hollow clay, autoclaved aerated concrete or light expanded clay aggregate blocks. The importance of improving the building envelope through estimating the potential for energy saving due to the application of the most energy-efficient wall type is presented and the wall constructions currently erected in Tehran are introduced along with their dynamic and steady-state thermal properties. The application of a dynamic simulation tool is explained and the output of the thermal simulation model is compared with the dynamic thermal properties of the wall constructions to assess their performance in summer and in winter. Finally, the best and worst wall type in terms of their cyclic thermal performance and their ability to moderate outdoor conditions is identified through comparison of the predicted indoor temperature and a target comfort temperature.

  13. Thermographic NDT of building envelopes utilizing in-door heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Tatsuhito; Nakano, Yonezou; Tanigawa, Yasuo

    2002-03-01

    The deterioration of concrete structures due to drastic changes in environment or due to poor workmanship has become very serious in Japan recently. In particular, since buildings are finished with render or tile on their facades in order to improve durability and appearance in many cases, the number of accidents resulting in injury or death caused by the fall of these finishing materials in increasing continuously. As a method of detecting delaminations of finishing materials, the thermographic survey using thermal imager is widely used because of the advantages of easiness, rate of data sampling and safeness. However, since this method is based on the difference of surface temperature between delaminated areas and sound areas generated by solar radiation, the method cannot be used under cloudy weather. It is a big difference between the construction field and other fields like metals, ceramics and plastics, which can do artificial heating or cooling easily. In order to improve the applicability and limitations of the method, a study was carried out. In ths study, instead of exposing an external wall to the sun, a method of heating the rear side of the wall by using the indoor heating system of the building was discussed and tested. As a result, it was proved that below-surface defects of building facades could be located without solar radiation by controlling the room temperature appropriately. This paper outlines the procedure and results of the study.

  14. Strategy towards solar architecture by photovoltaic for building integration

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanara, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In a time when climate change has got so much attention on account of fossil-driven fuel overuse, recognition and implementation of solar-driven energies play a crucial role in human being’s future career. The traditional system of heating, lighting, cooling uses huge amount of fossil energy and produces harmful pollution to the environment. Existing buildings and constructions have a great responsibility in using, undamaging and wasting. In recent decades, the focus has been on the...

  15. Energy Retrofit Strategies for Residential Building Envelopes: An Italian Case Study of an Early-50s Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Evangelisti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, the issues of energy efficiency and energy saving have dominated the buildings research field. New constructions are based on efficient design and, because of this, the real challenge is to retrofit existing buildings. Italian standards impose thermal transmittance limits for opaque and transparent surfaces, according to the climatic area. In order to understand buildings’ energy behavior, an accurate analysis, carried out by employing advanced calculation codes and instrumental diagnosis—provided by the use of heat flow meter, surface temperature probes and thermal imaging camera—is needed. In this paper, a structure built in the 50 s has been analyzed, by means of a measurement campaign, to investigate the building’s characteristics and its vulnerability. Finally, some retrofit hypotheses have been evaluated by means of a well-known dynamic code. All investments have to be analyzed under a financial point of view, considering materials and installation costs. For this reason, the payback time has been calculated in order to understand how quickly the energy upgrading can be repaid.

  16. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program. Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States); Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-05-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Home Innovation wrote a report on Phase 1 of the project that summarized a condition assessment of the homes and evaluated retrofit options within the constraints of the cooperative provided by GHI. Phase 2 was completed following monitoring in the 2013–2014 winter season; the results are summarized in this report. Phase 3 upgrades of heating equipment will be implemented in time for the 2014–2015 heating season and are not part of this report.

  17. Trabasa - Traditional Architecture Recorded by Means of Building Archaeology in Saudi Arabia: Workshop in Jeddah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, U.; Jäger-Klein, C.; Mayer, I.; Mortada, H.; Styhler-Aydın, G.

    2013-07-01

    Saudi Arabia has a rich architectural heritage that can be found in all regions of the vast country. Except for a small number of publications the recording and documentation of the traditional built environment was not content of detailed scientific investigations so far. But with the increasing decay of the architectural heritage the interest for this kind of research is rising. A mirror of this efforts is the National Built Heritage Forum, annual conference, launched in 2010 by his excellency Prince Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities (SCTA). In that frame Saudi universities are intensifying research and educational programs for the research of traditional architecture. In 2008 the Department of Architecture of the College of Environmental Design at the King Abdulaziz University established a cooperation with the Department of History of Architecture and Building Archaeology of the Vienna University of Technology with the aim to start an exchange of knowledge and experience in building archaeology and building survey. An important part of this cooperation was a workshop for staff and students in the historic centre of Jeddah. The aim was to train methods and techniques on typical examples in the old town of Jeddah, Al Balad. This paper is describing the layout of the workshop, the process of the work and examples of the results.

  18. A multi-layered software architecture model for building software solutions in an urbanized information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Guetat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Information Systems urbanization has been proposed since the late 1990’s in order to help organizations building agile information systems. Nevertheless, despite the advantages of this concept, it remains too descriptive and presents many weaknesses. In particular, there is a lack of useful architecture models dedicated to defining software solutions compliant with information systems urbanization principles and rules. Moreover, well-known software architecture models do not provide sufficient resources to address the requirements and constraints of urbanized information systems. In this paper, we draw on the “information city” framework to propose a model of software architecture - called the 5+1 Software Architecture Model - which is compliant with information systems urbanization principles and helps organizations building urbanized software solutions. This framework improves the well-established software architecture models and allows the integration of new architectural paradigms. Furthermore, the proposed model contributes to the implementation of information systems urbanization in several ways. On the one hand, this model devotes a specific layer to applications integration and software reuse. On the other hand, it contributes to the information system agility and scalability due to its conformity to the separation of concerns principle.

  19. Service architecture challenges in building the KNMI Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som de Cerff, Wim; van de Vegte, John; Plieger, Maarten; de Vreede, Ernst; Sluiter, Raymond; Willem Noteboom, Jan; van der Neut, Ian; Verhoef, Hans; van Versendaal, Robert; van Binnendijk, Martin; Kalle, Henk; Knopper, Arthur; Calis, Gijs; Ha, Siu Siu; van Moosel, WIm; Klein Ikkink, Henk-Jan; Tosun, Tuncay

    2013-04-01

    One of the objectives of KNMI is to act as a National Data centre for weather, climate and seismological data. KNMI has experience in curation of data for many years however important scientific data is not well accessible. New technologies also are available to improve the current infrastructure. Therefore a data curation program is initiated with two main goals: setup a Satellite Data Platform (SDP) and a KNMI data centre (KDC). KDC will provide, besides curation, data access, and storage and retrieval portal for KNMI data. In 2010 first requirements were gathered, in 2011 the main architecture was sketched, KDC was implemented in 2012 and is available on: http://data.knmi.nl KDC is built with the data providers involved with as key challenge: 'adding a dataset should be as simple as creating an HTML page'. This is enabled by a three step process, in which the data provider is responsible for two steps: 1. Provide dataset metadata: An easy to use web interface for providing metadata, with automated validation. Metadata consists of an ISO 19115 profile (matching INSPIRE and WMO requirements) and additional technical metadata regarding the data structure and access rights to the data. The interface hides certain metadata fields, which are filed by KDC automatically. 2. Provide data: after metadata has been entered, an upload location for uploading the dataset is provided. Also scripts for pushing large datasets are available. 3. Process and publish: once files are uploaded, they are processed for metadata (e.g., geolocation, time, version) and made available in KDC. The data is put into archive and made available using the in-house developed Virtual File System, which provides a persistent virtual path to the data. For the end-user of the data, KDC provides a web interface with search filters on key words, geolocation and time. Data can be downloaded using HTTP or FTP and can be scripted. Users can register to gain access to restricted datasets. The architecture

  20. Optimum Application of Thermal Factors to Artificial Neural Network Models for Improvement of Control Performance in Double Skin-Enveloped Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Il Chin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an artificial neural network (ANN-based thermal control method for buildings with double skin envelopes that has rational relationships between the ANN model input and output. The relationship between the indoor air temperature and surrounding environmental factors was investigated based on field measurement data from an actual building. The results imply that the indoor temperature was not significantly influenced by vertical solar irradiance, but by the outdoor and cavity temperature. Accordingly, a new ANN model developed in this study excluded solar irradiance as an input variable for predicting the future indoor temperature. The structure and learning method of this new ANN model was optimized, followed by the performance tests of a variety of internal and external envelope opening strategies for the heating and cooling seasons. The performance tests revealed that the optimized ANN-based logic yielded better temperature conditions than the non-ANN based logic. This ANN-based logic increased overall comfortable periods and decreased the frequency of overshoots and undershoots out of the thermal comfort range. The ANN model proved that it has the potential to be successfully applied in the temperature control logic for double skin-enveloped buildings. The ANN model, which was proposed in this study, effectively predicted future indoor temperatures for the diverse opening strategies. The ANN-based logic optimally determined the operation of heating and cooling systems as well as opening conditions for the double skin envelopes.

  1. End-to-end interoperability and workflows from building architecture design to one or more simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-02-10

    An end-to-end interoperability and workflows from building architecture design to one or more simulations, in one aspect, may comprise establishing a BIM enablement platform architecture. A data model defines data entities and entity relationships for enabling the interoperability and workflows. A data definition language may be implemented that defines and creates a table schema of a database associated with the data model. Data management services and/or application programming interfaces may be implemented for interacting with the data model. Web services may also be provided for interacting with the data model via the Web. A user interface may be implemented that communicates with users and uses the BIM enablement platform architecture, the data model, the data definition language, data management services and application programming interfaces to provide functions to the users to perform work related to building information management.

  2. Architecture and environmental restoration: Remediating uranium mill tailings from buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) manages the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Program in Grand Junction, Colorado. This program is a congressionally mandated clean up of by-product waste that resulted from the extraction of yellow cake from uranium ore. The by-product waste, a fine sand commonly called open-quotes mill tailingclose quotes is contaminated with low-level radioactivity. These mill tailings were available to the community for use as construction material from approximately 1952 to 1966; their use as bedding material for concrete slabs, utilities, backfill materials, concrete sand, and mortar created unique remediation problems that required innovative solutions. This paper describes how design personnel approach the remediation of structures, the evaluation of the buildings, and the factors that must be considered in completing the remediation design. This paper will not address the health risks of the tailings in an inhabited space, the remediation of exterior areas, or the process of determining where the tailings exist in the building

  3. 75 FR 2144 - Public Buildings Service; Submission for OMB Review; Art-in-Architecture Program National Artist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... comments was published in the Federal Register at 74 FR 31278, on June 30, 2009. No comments were received... works of art that are an integral part of the building's architecture and adjacent landscape was... ADMINISTRATION Public Buildings Service; Submission for OMB Review; Art-in- Architecture Program National...

  4. Building code challenging the ethics behind adobe architecture in North Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; Şahali, Öznem

    2015-04-01

    Adobe masonry is part of the vernacular architecture of Cyprus. Thus, it is possible to use this technology in a meaningful way on the island. On the other hand, although adobe architecture is more sustainable in comparison to other building technologies, the use of it is diminishing in North Cyprus. The application of Turkish building code in the north of the island has created complications in respect of the use of adobe masonry, because this building code demands that reinforced concrete vertical tie-beams are used together with adobe masonry. The use of reinforced concrete elements together with adobe masonry causes problems in relation to the climatic response of the building as well as causing other technical and aesthetic problems. This situation makes the design of adobe masonry complicated and various types of ethical problems also emerge. The objective of this article is to analyse the ethical problems which arise as a consequence of the restrictive character of the building code, by analysing two case studies and conducting an interview with an architect who was involved with the use of adobe masonry in North Cyprus. According to the results of this article there are ethical problems at various levels in the design of both case studies. These problems are connected to the responsibilities of architects in respect of the social benefit, material production, aesthetics and affordability of the architecture as well as presenting distrustful behaviour where the obligations of architects to their clients is concerned. PMID:24696019

  5. Integration of the security systems in the architectural design of nuclear and important buildings in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new and emerging threats to buildings and infrastructure which are faced by todays engineering design and facility management community in Egypt demand new approaches and solutions that are innovative and increasingly based on risk management principles. In the wake of the damage of Taba hotel in south Sinai (2004) and Sharm El-Sheik hotels in Egypt (July, 2005), there was a growing awareness of public vulnerability to terrorist attacks. This awareness leads to increase the expectations form and responsibilities of the architects, engineers and construction professionals This study reviews and assesses different types of threats to nuclear and important buildings. It identifies also the architectural design, vulnerability and risk management that can enhance security. It also introduces a new approach for integration of architectural design and security in nuclear and important buildings in Egypt. The results shows that escalating threats and risks to important buildings and infrastructures change the role of planners, architects, engineers and builders by increasing the focus on the importance of applying viable security principles to the building designs. Architects in Egypt can assume an important role in improving the life-safety features of important buildings by increasing and integrating new security principles and approaches to improve the security and performance of the buildings against man made disasters

  6. Nano insulating materials and energy retrofit of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, Marco

    2016-06-01

    The article offers an analysis of the use of nanotechnological insulation materials (NIMs) for energy upgrading of buildings, illustrating the possibility of their integration into the building envelope and the benefits achievable in terms of architectural quality, comfort and energy saving, within the new framework of European legislation aimed at achieving Zero energy buildings. Particular reference is given to Fibre Reinforced Aerogel Blankets for the building envelope, especially interesting for their wide possible applications even combined with phase change materials.

  7. Energy-efficient buildings are environmentally friendly, architecturally attractive and economically compelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard building construction is wasteful, toxic, and is destroying the environment. It produced buildings that operate independently of its natural surrounding and depended heavily on mechanical systems that run with fossil fuel to create comfortable indoor environment. These buildings caused a wide range of health and environmental problems. The concern about the consequences of standard building construction have prompted countless experiments and design improvements to make built environment more energy efficient, less reliant on potentially limited fossil fuels and more reliant on renewable energy resources. The application of energy efficient technologies can make significant contribution to meeting the building and construction sector's energy demand, while at the same time providing better built environment, offering more comfortable living and working conditions for the users, cleaner and healthier in-outdoor environment, and cost no more to build. The proposes of the paper are to: 1-Promote the implementation of Energy-Efficient buildings through vigorous efforts, by engaging government agencies, design professions, engineers, and construction industry in the task of radically improving the performance of our buildings, neighborhoods, and cities. 2-Educate the general public (the consumers) that Energy-Efficient Building is good for their well-being, to their pocket and to the environment.3-Demonstrate that Energy-efficient Building are with highest standards of architecture design, the highest quality living and working environment and within a reasonable budget. The paper describes the technological options available for dealing sensibly with energy and focuses on the important areas of new building constructions and building refurbishment together with its specific energy requirements. The approach presented in this paper is just one of many methods of planning energy efficient buildings.This paper is part of the effort to promote Energy

  8. Building Design Guidelines for Interior Architecture Concerned with Animal Researches Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the most important design guidelines elements and characteristics for animal facilities, in order to achieve and maintain highest efficiency can be, with respect to the pivot role of Interior Architecture as one of the accurate specializations for completing the Architectural Sciences, for designer/s concerned with those types of facilities, (specially those using radioactive materials). These building types known as vivariums, are specially designed, accommodating and having sophisticated controlled environments for the care and maintenance of experimental animals, and are related to, but distinct from other research laboratories premises

  9. A System Architecture for Autonomous Demand Side Load Management in Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zhu, Guchuan; Anjos, Miguel F.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a system architecture for load management in smart buildings which enables autonomous demand side load management in the smart grid. Being of a layered structure composed of three main modules for admission control, load balancing, and demand response management, this...... architecture can encapsulate the system functionality, assure the interoperability between various components, allow the integration of different energy sources, and ease maintenance and upgrading. Hence it is capable of handling autonomous energy consumption management for systems with heterogeneous dynamics...... in multiple time-scales and allows seamless integration of diverse techniques for online operation control, optimal scheduling, and dynamic pricing. The design of a home energy manager based on this architecture is illustrated and the simulation results with Matlab/Simulink confirm the viability and...

  10. A building characterization-based method for the advancement of knowledge on external architectural features of traditional rural buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto, S. M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant role that traditional rural buildings have with regard to environmental conservation and rural development is widely acknowledged by the scientific community. These buildings must be protected from inappropriate building interventions that may stem from their rather superficial knowledge. Therefore, this study was directed towards overcoming such a limitation by developing a method based on traditional rural buildings’ characterization. In particular, the study aimed at the characterization of building materials and techniques used for the construction of a number of building components that make up the external envelope of traditional rural buildings. The application of the method to a homogeneous area of the Etna Regional Park (Italy highlighted the need to improve the technical norms of the park’s Territorial Coordination Plan to respect the building characteristics of the traditional rural buildings located in the protected area.La comunidad científica le atribuye a las construcciones rurales tradicionales un papel fundamental en términos de conservación del medioambiente y de evolución rural. Dichos edificios deben ser protegidos contra obras inapropiadas debidas a un conocimiento más bien superficial. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de eliminar dichas limitaciones desarrollando un método basado en la caracterización de las construcciones rurales tradicionales, que puede ser aplicado para mejorar el conocimiento de estas últimas. En particular, el susodicho estudio tiene la finalidad de caracterizar los materiales y las técnicas constructivas a emplear para la construcción de algunos componentes del envoltorio externo de las construcciones rurales tradicionales. La aplicación del método propuesto a una zona homogénea del Parque Regional del Etna (Italia puso de relieve la necesidad de mejorar las normas técnicas del Plan de Coordinación Territorial del parque para respetar las caracter

  11. Applying Design Research Artifacts for Building Design Research Artifacts: A Process Model for Enterprise Architecture Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Aier, Stephan; Gleichauf, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Enterprise architecture (EA) describes the fundamental structure of an organization from business to IT. EA as a practice as well as a research topic has been around for several years. However, existing methods largely neglect the existence of time which is essential in order to systematically approach EA planning. The article at hand builds a process model for EA planning as a de-sign research artifact. We therefore use another more general design research artifact a method for process engi...

  12. Bioclimatic Architecture, a Sensible and Logical Approach towards the Future of Building Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ţundrea, Horia; Budescu, Mihai

    2013-01-01

    The modern world building scene tends to depend more and more on the economical climate as well as the geographical climate itself, as none of the major players in the construction game can afford to ignore current conditions and dismiss logical solutions that can drastically cut the impact on the environment as well as the exploitation costs. The present paper will provide the information needed to understand the bioclimatic architecture concept, as well as describe a few examples of such ap...

  13. Passive designed buildings for active citizens became schools of sustainability: a proposal for sustainable architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Vives Rego, José; Usón Guardiola, Ezequiel; Fumadó Alsina, Joan Lluís

    2015-01-01

    An idea that is currently attracting an increasing number of supporters within sustainable architecture is the belief that technology should be as passive as possible and, as a counterpart to this, residents should be actively involved in its use and management, especially as regards the overseeing of its energy, water and waste. Consequently, here, the foundations we propose for constructing a sustainable building are: i) passive design; ii) efficient resource monitoring and control and iii)...

  14. Building integration of thin-film photovoltaics. New architectural possibilities and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawietz, Silke [University of Catania, Roma (Italy). Faculty of Architecture

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of the paper is the advanced research in photovoltaics and their integration into buildings, in particular the thin-film photovoltaics into bioclimatic architectural projects. Buildings are responsible for 50% of the world's generation of CO2.The urgent task is to forge an environmentally responsible modern architecture, to use technology to achieve beneficial ends. The further development of the photovoltaics technology, in combination with the development of the area of Building integration of photovoltaics (BIPV), are the basis of this paper. The results of the research, undertaken for the thin-film BIPV are presented. Key features of this technology are lower cost and higher aesthetical values, making this an important new area of research. The research consists in an exploration of the architectural possibilities of the thin-film Photovoltaic technology with high-profile architects and engineers. The results of the project underline the importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration between architects, industry and engineers. (orig.)

  15. Architecture and performance of neural networks for efficient A/C control in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using neural networks (NNs) for optimizing air conditioning (AC) setback scheduling in public buildings was investigated. The main focus is on optimizing the network architecture in order to achieve best performance. To save energy, the temperature inside public buildings is allowed to rise after business hours by setting back the thermostat. The objective is to predict the time of the end of thermostat setback (EoS) such that the design temperature inside the building is restored in time for the start of business hours. State of the art building simulation software, ESP-r, was used to generate a database that covered the years 1995-1999. The software was used to calculate the EoS for two office buildings using the climate records in Kuwait. The EoS data for 1995 and 1996 were used for training and testing the NNs. The robustness of the trained NN was tested by applying them to a 'production' data set (1997-1999), which the networks have never 'seen' before. For each of the six different NN architectures evaluated, parametric studies were performed to determine the network parameters that best predict the EoS. External hourly temperature readings were used as network inputs, and the thermostat end of setback (EoS) is the output. The NN predictions were improved by developing a neural control scheme (NC). This scheme is based on using the temperature readings as they become available. For each NN architecture considered, six NNs were designed and trained for this purpose. The performance of the NN analysis was evaluated using a statistical indicator (the coefficient of multiple determination) and by statistical analysis of the error patterns, including ANOVA (analysis of variance). The results show that the NC, when used with a properly designed NN, is a powerful instrument for optimizing AC setback scheduling based only on external temperature records

  16. Thermal properties of the vernacular buildings envelopes: the case of the "Sassi di Matera" and "Trulli di Alberobello"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Cardinale, Gianluca Rospi, Pietro Stefanizzi, Valentina Augenti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The stone and the clay are the basic elements of the existing architectural heritage in the Mediterranean area, both historical and monumental. The study cases taken into account are the "Sassi of Matera" and the "Trulli of Alberobello." The thermohygrometric performances of the "Tufo of Matera" (commonly denoted as calcarenite sandstone and the "Stone of Fasano" (commonly denoted as calcareous stone, which are the base materials of the buildings "Sassi" and "Trulli", were quantified through measurements in situ, realized with nondestructive methodology and analyses in laboratory. The behavior of these constructions has finally been better described with dynamic simulations developed by the software EnergyPlus. This study demonstrated that the thermal mass of these structures mainly affect the indoor microclimate, stabilizing the inside temperatures and thus annulling the great thermal daily oscillations of the external temperature. The results of the measurements and numerical simulations confirmed that the seasonal thermal storage of these structures allows comfortable temperatures during the summer season, with values below 26 C, and stabilizes the indoor temperatures during the winter season, through the release of the heat stored during warm season.

  17. Historic Building Information Modelling - Adding intelligence to laser and image based surveys of European classical architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maurice; McGovern, Eugene; Pavia, Sara

    2013-02-01

    Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects, based on historic architectural data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects onto point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan surveys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engineering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured) for both the analysis and conservation of historic objects, structures and environments.

  18. Effects of various event building techniques on data acquisition system architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary specifications for various new detectors throughout the world including those at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) already make it clear that existing event building techniques will be inadequate for the high trigger and data rates anticipated for these detectors. In the world of high-energy physics many approaches have been taken to solving the problem of reading out data from a whole detector and presenting a complete event to the physicist, while simultaneously keeping deadtime to a minimum. This paper includes a review of multiprocessor and telecommunications interconnection networks and how these networks relate to event building in general, illustrating advantages of the various approaches. It presents a more detailed study of recent research into new event building techniques which incorporate much greater parallelism to better accommodate high data rates. The future in areas such as front-end electronics architectures, high speed data links, event building and online processor arrays is also examined. Finally, details of a scalable parallel data acquisition system architecture being developed at Fermilab are given. 35 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab

  19. Landscape architecture student Christina Hicks receives recognition in James River Green Building Council's 2009 Green Spaces Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2009-01-01

    Christina Hicks of Stafford, Va., a fifth-year landscape architecture student, is the Honor Winner of the 2009 James River Green Building Council's (JRGBC) Green Spaces Competition in the student division.

  20. CISBAT 2005 proceedings. Renewables in a changing climate - Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems; CISBAT 2005 proceedings. Energies renouvelables et climat - Enveloppes et systemes environnementaux innovatifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scartezzini, J. L. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    These proceedings include the contributions presented at the 2005 CISBAT conference, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. Hosted by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne and jointly organised by the Solar Energy and Buildings Physics Laboratory at the EPFL, Cambridge University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), this international conference looked at 'Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems'. Along with three keynote presentations on climate change, the use of renewables in the European Union and Swiss policies on solar energy, these 632-page conference proceedings include the conference's 106 presentations grouped in 10 sections. These cover the following topics: Design and renovation of building envelopes (33 contributions); solar collectors (16 contributions); active and passive cooling (9 contributions); indoor environment quality and health (10 contributions); optimisation of daylighting and electric lighting (5 contributions); advanced building control systems (2 contributions); environmental impacts of construction (4 contributions); networks and decentralised energy production (1 contribution); sustainable urban development (12 contributions) and software and new information technologies (14 contributions). Organised each second year, the two-day CISBAT international conference 2005 attracted more than 200 participants from all over the world.

  1. Building a prototype of a Martian base in Poland, an architectural design overview and progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozicki, Janek

    This talk focuses on recent advances in the construction of a prototype 1000 m2 Martian out-post for 8 inhabitants. The architectural design for such a Martian base has been presented previously on COSPAR 2008, the presentation being entitled ,,Architectural design proposal for a Martian base to continue NASA Mars Design Reference Mission". The presentation was welcomed with warm interest by various institutions, some of which offered help in building a prototype such as providing the building site or funding. This year's oral presentation will focus on a progress report and will briefly describe the architectural design. The architectural design is inspired by terrestrial pneumatic architecture. It has small volume, can be easily transported and provides a large habitable space. An architectural solution analo-gous to a terrestrial house with a studio and a workshop was assumed. The spatial placement of the following zones was carefully considered: residential, agricultural and science, as well as garage and workshop. Further attention was paid to transportation routes and a control and communications center. The issues of a life support system, energy, food, water and waste recycling were also discussed. This Martian base was designed to be crewed by a team of eight people to stay on Mars for at least one and a half year. An Open Plan architectural solution was assumed, with a high level of modularity. Walls of standardized sizes with zip-fasteners allow free rearrangement of the interior to adapt to a new situation. The prototype of such a Polish-origin Martian outpost will be used in a manner similar to MDRS or FMARS but to a larger extent. The prototype's design itself will be tested and corrected to achieve a design which can be used on Mars. The procedure of unfolding the pneumatic modules and floor leveling will be tested. The 1000 m2 interior will be used for various simulation exercises: socio-psychological testing, interior arrangement experiments

  2. ROMAN SPECTACLES BUILDINGS AS A SETTING FOR MARTYRDOM AND ITS CONSEQUENCES IN THE CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordina Sales Carbonell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the study of Christian buildings in the ruins of amphitheaters, theaters, stadiums and Roman circuses, becomes appropriate to develop some reflections mainly aimed helping to explain the symbolic dimension acquired by the ludic background in which a far from negligible part of the Christian martyrdoms took place, as outlined on the preserved sources. Although this ludic substrate is not the only factor to be considered, it’s the one that allowed the hagiographers composing stories —some with more historical veracity than others— with architectural settings charged with symbolism, where the victory of the martyrs as “athletes of Christ” was equated to the victory in secular games. All this greatly contributes to explain the subsequent relationship between Christian building and playful architecture occurred from the late fourth and early fifth century, and detected in the late antique and early medieval topography of some Roman cities. However, this issue has gone relatively unnoticed for Archeology, and when the two key elements —building and church— appear, with few exceptions, they are considered separately in case of being subjected to some kind of study.

  3. Thesis-Building: Architecture, Alchemy and the Constructive Moment(s of a Doctoral Dissertation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem de Bruijn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks back at the long and sometimes difficult process of doing a ‘PhD’. It asks how certain ‘moments’ in the building of a doctoral thesis – moments of conception, of discovery, of despair, of truth, of revelation and of jouissance – inform the building of a thesis. By revisiting these moments, the paper traces the genesis of the author’s thesis on Architecture and Alchemy and explores the metaphor of construction encountered in the work of cultural theorist Walter Benjamin.Drawing on some of the historical sources of the thesis, in particular the emblem books of seventeenth-century alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622, the paper argues that the above-named ‘moments’ in a PhD constitute an ensemble of impassioned investment, which can be known as the PhD-pathos. This paper, then, can be read as no more, or less, than a pathological guide to the PhD, where architecture and alchemy come into play as polar opposites in the process of construction and change that thesis-building is.

  4. Basic building units, self-assembly and crystallization in the formation of complex inorganic open architectures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C N R Rao

    2001-10-01

    Careful investigations of open-framework metal phosphates reveal that the formation of these complex architectures is likely to involve a process wherein one-dimensional ladders or chains, and possibly zero-dimens ional monomers, transform to higher dimensional structures. The one-dimensional ladder appears to be the primary building unit of these structures. At one stage of the building-up process, spontaneous self-assembly of a low-dimensional structure such as the ladder seems to occur, followed by crys tallization of a two- or three-dimensional structure. Accordingly, many of the higher dimensional structures retain the structural features of the 1D structure, indicating the occurrence of self-assembly. These findings mark the beginnings of our understan ding of complex supramolecular inorganic materials.

  5. Integrated upstream parasitic event building architecture for BTeV level 1 pixel trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contemporary event building approaches use data switches, either homemade or commercial off-the-shelf ones, to merge data from different channels and distribute them among processor nodes. However, in many trigger and DAQ systems, the merging and distributing functions can often be performed in pre-processing stages. By carefully integrating these functions into the upstream pre-processing stages, the events can be built without dedicated switches. In addition to the cost reducing, extra benefits are gain when the event is built early upstream. In this document, an example of the integrated upstream parasitic event building architecture that has been studied for the BTeV level 1 pixel trigger system is described. Several design considerations that experimentalists of other projects might be interested in are also discussed

  6. Architecture, energy and daylight. Study of seven buildings; Arkitektur, energi og dagslys. Undersoegelse af syv bygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, J.; Petersen, E.; Svensson, O.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this research project was to enhance the designer's knowledge for designing buildings, rooms and window openings which utilise daylight in such a way that aesthetic and functional requirements can be met and energy consumption for electric lighting can be reduced at the same time. It was not the purpose of the project to develop guidelines but only to demonstrate how good daylight conditions and energy conservation can be achieved. The daylight conditions in the seven selected buildings were registered and assessed by the panel on two field trips in the spring of 1999. During these visits, the research team registered the location of rooms, their orientation, windows, artificial lighting etc. After the field trips, the buildings were photographed and the research group performed measurements and analyses of the lighting conditions in the rooms. However, the quality of daylight cannot be determined based only on measurements. The four professionals therefore supplemented the measurements with a subjective evaluation. The study of these seven buildings led to a number of results that must be assumed to be generally valid. A main result is that good daylight conditions in no way prevents or impedes the creation of good architecture. On the contrary, quality of daylight creates both functional as well as aesthetically satisfactory architecture. In all the investigated buildings, the ratio of glass areas to floor area is highter than 10%. In Denmark, this ratio would ensure reasonable daylight access and a view out. However, when size of glass area and daylight measurements are compared, the relationship between them is not straight-forward. The quantity and quality of daylight in buildings depend on other factors too, such as the depth of window openings, solar shading devices, opposite buildings, outdoor vegetation etc. The study points out that there are no standard solutions of how to design facades and window openings which satisfy all

  7. A new methodology for the diagnostics of architectural elements in historical buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casula, Giuseppe; Fais, Silvana; Cuccuru, Francesco; Ligas, Paola; Giovanna Bianchi, Maria

    2016-04-01

    A new methodology is presented consisting of a multi-step procedure based on the integrated application of different diagnostic techniques aimed at recognizing altered and unaltered parts of architectural elements of ancient buildings and at identifying zones where structural damage has occurred on their surface. The methodology was tested on a historical building of the monumental compound in Piazza Palazzo in the historical center of the town of Cagliari (Italy). Three types of carbonate building materials have been used historically to construct ancient monuments in the historical center of Cagliari, which in order of increasing hardness are: Pietra Cantone, Tramezzario and Pietra Forte. Our methodology begins with an accurate microscopic examination of petrographic thin sections and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the above carbonate materials in order to identify their textural characteristics and especially the nature and distribution of their porosity. Other rock properties such as wet and dry bulk density were calculated from saturated and dry mass and volume respectively. In a second step we used a Leica HDS-6200 terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) to 3D model some building of the studied monumental compound (Piazza Palazzo). Surface geometrical anomalies have been modeled for the most interesting architectural elements, such as a Pietra Cantone portal in Late Gothic style inside the Antico Palazzo di Città, a historical building that hosts the civic museum bearing the same name. Since TLS technology is characterized by high productivity but is unable to investigate the inner parts of the studied materials, a third step of our procedure was complemented by several ultrasonic in situ and laboratory tests in the 54kHz - 82kHz range. The ultrasonic parameters, especially longitudinal and transversal velocities, can be measured very accurately and correlated with various material properties with reasonable confidence. This task has two objectives

  8. Architectural layout and vulnerability to earthquakes of housing buildings of the Modernism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    Bucharest, the capital of Romania, lays in a high seismic risk zone, being affected about three times a century by strong earthquakes. These occur in the mountainous region of Vrancea, at about 150 km from Bucharest, but given the fact that Bucharest is situated on alluvial soil deposits the effect of the earthquakes is stronger than in other regions of the country. In the 20th century damaging earthquakes occurred in 1940 and 1977. In both of them mostly affected were the interwar buildings, built 1920-1940 in the style of Romanian Modernism. There is little data about the 1940 earthquake, but the effects of the 1977 earthquake were extensively studied and last year 30 years since this earthquake passed. Scope of this contribution is to examine the architectural characteristics of the buildings of Modernism which lead to this high vulnerability, more precisely the criterion of zoning in the layout of the plans. This is the scope of a research project funded 2007-2010 by the European Commission with a Marie Curie Reintegration Grant; contract MERG-CT-2007-200636. Not only the buildings from Bucharest will be considered, but also from Athens, Greece and from Milan, Italy. Both Greece and Italy are countries with high seismic risk; however, Athens did not experience such damaging earthquakes until 1999 and Milan ever. The buildings of Romanian Modernism are characterised by a highly irregular shape in plan in both the overall contour as well as in the distribution of columns and beams. This is due to the following the architectural layout as well as to a lacking local seismic culture to apply at high rise buildings. It will be explained that Vrancea earthquakes, with their specific vibration periods, affect high rise buildings, and previously the style of living in Romania was the single family house, low rise, and thus less affected. Strong earthquakes used to affect slender high constructions, like the towers of churches, for example, and this is where the local

  9. Site-Specific Soundscape Design for the Creation of Sonic Architectures and the Emergent Voices of Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Lacey

    2014-01-01

    Does a building contain its own Voice? And if so, can that Voice be discovered, transformed and augmented by soundscape design? Barry Blesser’s writings on acoustic space, discuss reverberation and resonant frequencies as providing architectural spaces with characteristic listening conditions related to the architectural space’s dimensions and materiality. The paper argues that Blesser and Salter expand such discussion into pantheistic speculation when suggesting that humanity contains the im...

  10. Reference Architecture Test-Bed for Avionics (RASTA): A Software Building Blocks Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana Sanchez, Aitor; Taylor, Chris

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Reference Architecture System Test-bed for Avionics (RASTA) being developed within the ESA Estec Data Systems Division. This activity aims to benefit from interface standardization to provide a hardware/software reference infrastructure into which incoming R&D activities can be integrated, thus providing a generic but standardized test and development environment rather than dedicated facilities for each activity. Rasta is composed of by both HW and SW building blocks constituting the main elements of a typical Data Handling System. This includes a core processor (LEON2), Telemetry and Telecommand links, digital interfaces, and mass memory. The range of digital serial interfaces includes CAN bus, MIL-STD-1553 and SpaceWire. The paper will focus on the Software aspects of RASTA and in particular the software building blocks provided to ease development activities and allow hardware independency. To support the take-up of RASTA by European Industry, all RASTA software developed internally by ESA is provided free under license. Significant outputs are already available and include: Basic SW and SW drivers (CAN/1553/SpW, TT&C), OS abstraction layer, CFDP flight implementation, highly portable and independent file system for space, ground segment telecommand/telemetry router. In the future, additional SW building blocks are planned (e.g. ECSS CAN library). The present focus of RASTA is related to a prototype implementation of the SOIS services and protocols under development by the CCSDS (Consultative committee for Space Data Standards)

  11. Performance of envelope: an innovative energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Franchino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the field of applied research in construction, the constant request from the production's sector and the persisting both European (Directive 2010/31/EU and 2012/27/UE and national (Legislative Decree 63/13, LD 115/ 09, LD 28/11 normative indications require testing of technology solutions for envelope ever more efficient in terms of energy and the environment. The conversion of locally generated energy from renewable sources assumes a particularly important role in the energy balance of the building-plant system. In this respect, the paper illustrates the results of technological experimentation conducted within the SEEM (Solar Eco - efficient Envelope Model Project, funded in 2011 by the Ministry of Environment. The project involved the study of a combined system of solar and wind chimney, architecturally integrated into an envelope systems of the tertiary sector, in order to produce electricity and heat from renewable sources. The study proposes the performance analysis of the SEEM system's components, with particular attention to the thermo-physical relationship between the building and the integrated plant system.

  12. A Methodology to Support Decision-Making Towards an Energy-Efficiency Conscious Design of Residential Building Envelope Retrofitting

    OpenAIRE

    Thaleia Konstantinou

    2015-01-01

    Over the next decade investment in building energy savings needs to increase, together with the rate and depth of renovations, to achieve the required reduction in building-related CO2 emissions. Although the need to improve residential buildings has been identified, guidelines come as general suggestions that fail to address the diversity of each project and give specific answers on how these requirements can be implemented in the design. During early design phases, architects are in search ...

  13. Site-Specific Soundscape Design for the Creation of Sonic Architectures and the Emergent Voices of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Lacey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Does a building contain its own Voice? And if so, can that Voice be discovered, transformed and augmented by soundscape design? Barry Blesser’s writings on acoustic space, discuss reverberation and resonant frequencies as providing architectural spaces with characteristic listening conditions related to the architectural space’s dimensions and materiality. The paper argues that Blesser and Salter expand such discussion into pantheistic speculation when suggesting that humanity contains the imaginative capacity to experience spaces as “living spirits”. This argument is achieved by building on the speculation through the discussion of a soundscape design methodology that considers space as containing pantheistic qualities. Sonic architectures are created with electroacoustic sound installations that recompose existing architectural soundscapes, to create the conditions for the emergence of the Voices of buildings. This paper describes two soundscape designs, Revoicing the Striated Soundscape and Subterranean Voices, which transformed existing architectural soundscapes for the emergence of Voices in a laneway and a building located in the City of Melbourne, Australia.

  14. Application of super-insulating translucent silica aerogel glazing system on commercial building envelope of humid subtropical climates – Impact on space cooling load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar radiation through glazing area is one major source of the space cooling load in subtropical cooling-dominant climates. Application of energy-efficient glazing system can significantly reduce the energy consumption of air-conditioning systems in summer, thus has become a hot research topic. In this paper, a super-insulating glazing system was studied, which was formed by two layers of conventional single clear glass panes and a layer of silica aerogel filled in between. Several glazing samples were prepared. The thermal and optical parameters were measured. An annual HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) system energy analysis was also conducted based on the space cooling load simulation. The result indicated that in humid subtropical climates like Hong Kong, the application of silica aerogel glazing system can reduce the annual space cooling load by around 4% in a typical commercial building. With respect to the envelope heat gain, the reduction could be around 60%. It was also found that the silica aerogel glazing system performed better if the internal heat source in a building took a small proportion in the total space cooling load. - Highlights: • We evaluated the application of silica aerogel glazing in cooling-dominant climates. • A silica aerogel-filled window system sample is constructed and measured. • HVAC energy consumption was reduced by 4% with silica aerogel glazing application. • More than 60% cooling load caused by building envelope heat gain can be reduced. • It is the first time silica aerogel window is considered in cooling dominant climates

  15. The City of Çorum and Architectural Buildings (According to a Map at the Late of 19the Century)

    OpenAIRE

    Dündar, Abdulkadir

    2007-01-01

    This article bases on a map of city of Çorum which belong to 1892 in Ottoman Archive in İstanbul. This map prepared by captain Ömer bin Osman for the demand of municipal council of Çorum. In this map besides the city plan of Çorum, there are seven more drawings belonging to other architectural buildings in the city. Furthermore the names of streets is being shown in this map. Again in this map it is available to find different architectural buildings as, mosques, mascids, graveyards, tombs, t...

  16. Thermal Responsive Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke

    2015-01-01

    includes the calculation of bending behaviour, the calculation of perceived temperatures inside the envelope and the evolutionary module, which in a design process advance the composite structure in relation to the thermal environment desired. The research presents the methods used and developed, the way...... composite layers and their relative layer lengths thereby embedding the merged material effect to create a responsive behavioural architectural envelope. Copper and polypropylene are used as base materials for the composite structure due to their high differences in thermal expansion, surface emissivity...... alterations, their respective durability and copper’s architectural (visual and transformative) aesthetic qualities. Through the use of an evolutionary solver, the composite structure of the elements are organised to find the bending behaviour specified by and for the thermal environments. The entire model...

  17. Building the Knowledge Base to Support the Automatic Animation Generation of Chinese Traditional Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gongjin; Bai, Weijing; Yin, Meifang; Zhang, Songmao

    We present a practice of applying the Semantic Web technologies in the domain of Chinese traditional architecture. A knowledge base consisting of one ontology and four rule bases is built to support the automatic generation of animations that demonstrate the construction of various Chinese timber structures based on the user's input. Different Semantic Web formalisms are used, e.g., OWL DL, SWRL and Jess, to capture the domain knowledge, including the wooden components needed for a given building, construction sequence, and the 3D size and position of every piece of wood. Our experience in exploiting the current Semantic Web technologies in real-world application systems indicates their prominent advantages (such as the reasoning facilities and modeling tools) as well as the limitations (such as low efficiency).

  18. Building envelope design for renewal of air by natural ventilation in moderate climates. Proposition of a designing methodology; Conception des enveloppes de batiments pour le renouvellement d'air par ventilation naturelle en climats temperes. Proposition d'une methodologie de conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansouri, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The subject of this research is to produce methods and methodological tools for the architects to support the integration of natural ventilation systems in the building envelope design. Our research is situated to the interface between the architectural practice and the physical research on natural ventilation. We are interested in phenomena that can influence or force the strategy of ventilation. A morphological analysis of naturally ventilated buildings concerning the integration modes of natural ventilation systems is done permitting US to propose a typology and a topology of ventilation systems. We define criteria in relation to the thermal comfort, to the quality of air and the economy of energy to assess air renewal techniques. In complement of the sizing tool, we elaborate a methodology of conception for the integration of passives ventilation systems. Design guidelines permit US to conclude on an effective natural ventilation system which is well adapted to collective habitat. (author)

  19. Comparative thermal performance of static sunshade and brick cavity wall for energy efficient building envelope in composite climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charde Meghana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient building technologies can reduce energy consumption in buildings. In present paper effect of designed static sunshade, brick cavity wall with brick projections and their combined effect on indoor air temperature has been analyzed by constructing three test rooms each of habitable dimensions (3.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m and studying hourly temperatures on typical days for one month in summer and winter each. The three rooms have also been simulated using a software and the results have been compared with the experimental results. Designed static sunshade increased indoor air temperature in winter while proposed brick cavity wall with brick projections lowered it in summer. Combined effect of building elements lowered indoor air temperature in summer and increased it in winter as compared to outdoor air temperature. It is thus useful for energy conservation in buildings in composite climate.

  20. 太阳能建筑表皮设计策略*--以2013年中国国际太阳能十项全能竞赛作品为例%Solar Building Envelope Design Strategy:Case Study of Solar Decathlon China 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵学义; 王天珍; 丁玎

    2014-01-01

    建筑表皮除表现建筑外形特征,更是提高建筑性能的重要结构。在阐述太阳能十项全能竞赛的背景的基础上,介绍竞赛规则与往届典型作品。概述2013年竞赛作品在建筑外围护结构保温隔热效果优化、微气候优化及其余太阳能设备结合等方面所做的尝试。重点以山东建筑大学作品“工业魔方”为例,分析较低投资策略下的零能耗太阳能小住宅围护结构构造与相关技术应用,包括高性能外墙及其喷淋系统应用、自动化保温隔热门窗选型、多样化立体绿化方案设计、太阳能集热器与电池板遮阴等。%Building envelope is not only presentation of architectural appearance, but also vital struc-ture to improving building performance. The background of Solar Decathlon is introduced, as well as com-petition rules and typical entries of previous competitions. The paper summarizes attempts of entries of 2013 in the aspects of advanced building envelope and integration of solar devices with building skin. The I-Magic Cube, the entry of Shandong Jianzhu University for example, is analyzed on building envelope construction and relative technologies application of zero energy solar house on condition of low investment. Presentation of I-Magic Cube includes application of high-performance exterior wall and its spray system, model selection of automatic heat insulating exterior door and window, diversified design of vertical green-ing, solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic panels using as sunshade etc. New design deliverables of ad-vanced building envelope are demonstrated by utilizing abundant and lucid instances.

  1. A city is not a building- architectural concepts for public square design in Dutch urban climate contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzholzer, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article elaborates on an architectural approach to urban design ¿ to the idea of `city as a building¿ in relation to user¿s perceptions and urban microclimate based on Dutch examples. A brief analysis of urban square design approaches in The Netherlands since WW II reveals a prominent tendency

  2. Validation Methodology to Allow Simulated Peak Reduction and Energy Performance Analysis of Residential Building Envelope with Phase Change Materials: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.

    2012-08-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) represent a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in residential buildings. This paper summarizes NREL efforts to obtain accurate energy simulations when PCMs are modeled in residential buildings: the overall methodology to verify and validate Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) and PCM algorithms in EnergyPlus is presented in this study. It also shows preliminary results of three residential building enclosure technologies containing PCM: PCM-enhanced insulation, PCM impregnated drywall and thin PCM layers. The results are compared based on predicted peak reduction and energy savings using two algorithms in EnergyPlus: the PCM and Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) algorithms.

  3. MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imriyanti Imriyanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which wants the Islamic center to be equipped with facilities and infrastructure as well as architectural, monumental buildings and structures that can be last for hundreds of years (continuous, blend with the environment, and also can be used by the public. Having regard to the function of a mosque especially at the Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque, then the problem that arise is how the Al Markas Al Islamic mosque can be survived/sustainable  in order  to function  as a place  of worship  and  as a center  of Islam.  This research  is a descriptive qualitative research that is trying to generate data in the form of systematic and accurate picture of the object of study. The sustaiprophetlity  of Al Markas AL Islamic mosque can be known through the concept of Islam  in accordance with the view of Islam as well as the sustaiprophetlity of the buildings that seen in the spatial pattern of the mosque, appearance, natural lighting, natural ventilation, and user behavior of the mosque. Keywords: mosque architecture, sustaiprophetlity, view of Islam     Abstrak Arsitektur masjid merupakan bagian dari arsitektur Islam. Bangunan masjid sebaiknya dapat menyatu dengan unsur alam karena masjid difungsikan sebagai wadah dalam bersujud/sembahyang  kepada Allah SWT yang menciptakan alam semesta ini. Masjid Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar merupakan kompleks kegiatan Islam yang digunakan sebagai pusat aspirasi masyarakat  dan pemerintahan  yang dapat menampung

  4. Getting Their Hands Dirty: Qualitative Study on Hands-on Learning for Architectural Students in Design-build Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunaibi B. Abdullah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study provides an in-depth perspective of hands-on learning through the observation and analysis of architectural students' views in a design-build program at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln during the fall semester of 2008. Qualitative data was gathered from 14 participants involved in the construction of a low energy double-storey house in the city of Lincoln, Nebraska. The study inventoried the requisite characteristics of a design-build course. Participants' views and activities were studied to ascribe the qualitative benefits of hands-on learning. In addition, students' motivation towards hands-on activities were evaluated in reference to student confidence and independence levels towards their future career as architects, designers or other design-build professionals. The findings showed the design-build course could offer a specific knowledge that link between theoretical subjects and the practical expect of building contractions.

  5. Building Community: A New Future for Architecture Education and Practice. A Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Ernest L.; Mitgang, Lee D.

    This report examines the problems and possibilities of architecture education as it has evolved in the United States and proposes a new framework for renewing architecture education and practice. In order to assess the need for reform in architecture education, students and alumni from 15 representative campuses were surveyed as to whether they…

  6. Thermal Activated Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke

    2015-01-01

    search procedure, the combination of materials and their bonding temperature is found in relation to the envelope effect on a thermal environment inside a defined space. This allows the designer to articulate dynamic composites with time-based thermal functionality, related to the material dynamics......, environmental dynamics and occupancy dynamics. Lastly, a physical prototype is created, which illustrates the physical expression of the bi-materials and the problems related to manufacturing of these composite structures.......The research studies the making of a responsive architectural envelope based on bi-materials. The bi-materials are organized according to a method that combines different isotropic metals and plastic into an active composite structure that reacts to temperature variations. Through an evolutionary...

  7. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...... that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... of green architecture. The paper argues that this greenification of facades is insufficient. The green is only a skin cladding the exterior envelope without having a spatial significance. Through the paper it is proposed to flip the order of words from green architecture to architectural green...

  8. An Industrial Study on Building Consensus Around Software Architectures and Quality Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Svahnberg, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    When creating an architecture for a software system it is important to consider many aspects and different sides of these aspects at an early stage, lest they are misunderstood and cause problems at later stages during development. In this paper, we report from an industry study to understand and select between different architecture candidates. The company uses a method that focuses discussions of architecture candidates to where there are disagreements between the participating domain exper...

  9. The pherophorins: common, versatile building blocks in the evolution of extracellular matrix architecture in Volvocales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, Armin

    2006-01-01

    Green algae of the order Volvocales provide an unrivalled opportunity for exploring the transition from unicellularity to multicellularity. They range from unicells, like Chlamydomonas, through homocytic colonial forms with increasing cooperation of individual cells, like Gonium or Pandorina, to heterocytic multicellular forms with different cell types and a complete division of labour, like Volvox. A fundamental requirement for the evolution of multicellularity is the development of a complex, multifunctional extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM has many functions, which can change under developmental control or as a result of environmental factors. Here molecular data from 15 novel proteins are presented. These proteins have been identified in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Gonium pectorale, Pandorina morum and Volvox carteri, and all belong to a single protein family, the pherophorins. Pherophorin-V1 is shown to be a glycoprotein localized to the 'cellular zone' of the V. carteri ECM. Pherophorin-V1 and -V2 mRNAs are strongly induced not only by the sex inducer, which triggers sexual development at extremely low concentrations, but also by mechanical wounding. Like the extensins of higher plants, which are also developmentally controlled or sometimes inducible by wounding, the pherophorins contain a (hydroxy-)proline-rich (HR) rod-like domain and are abundant within the extracellular compartment. In contrast to most extensins, pherophorins have additional globular A and B domains on both ends of the HR domains. Therefore pherophorins most closely resemble a particular class of higher plant extensin, the solanaceous lectins (e.g. potato lectin), suggesting multivalent carbohydrate-binding functions are present within the A and B domains and are responsible for cross-linking. Our results suggest that pherophorins are used as the building blocks for the extracellular scaffold throughout the Volvocales, with the characteristic mesh sizes in different ECM structures being

  10. Enveloping algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the works of Gelfand, Harish-Chandra, Kostant and Duflo, a new theory has earned its place in the field of mathematics, due to the abundance of its results and the coherence of its methods: the theory of enveloping algebras. This study is the first to present the whole subject in textbook form. The most recent results are included, as well as complete proofs, starting from the elementary theory of Lie algebras. (Auth.)

  11. INTERNAL ENVELOPES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2001-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration.

  12. INNOVATIVE DYNAMIC BUILDING COMPONENT FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Sala M.; Romano R.

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate building envelope is the main strategy for sustainable design, but in the mild temperate/mesothermal climates, the rapid changing of outdoor conditions push toward a dynamic response of envelope parameters to allow the maintenance of interior good adaptive comfort. The traditional response of the windows components that characterizes the Mediterranean architecture has recently developed by the ABITA Centre to a new range of innovative facade modules and new materials able to pl...

  13. Building Design Guidelines of Interior Architecture for Bio safety Levels of Biology Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the pivotal role of the Interior Architecture As one of the scientific disciplines minute to complete the Architectural Sciences, which relied upon the achievement and development of facilities containing scientific research laboratories, in terms of planning and design, particularly those containing biological laboratories using radioactive materials, adding to that, the application of the materials or raw materials commensurate with each discipline of laboratory and its work nature, and by the discussion the processing of design techniques and requirements of interior architecture dealing with Research Laboratory for electronic circuits an their applications with the making of its prototypes

  14. VLSI architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randell, B.; Treleaven, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    This book is a collection of course papers which discusses the latest (1982) milestone of electronic building blocks and its effect on computer architecture. Contributions range from selecting a VLSI process technology to Japan's Fifth Generation Computer Architecture. Contents, abridged: VLSI and machine architecture. Graphic design aids: HED and FATFREDDY. On the LUCIFER system. Clocking of VLSI circuits. Decentralised computer architectures for VLSI. Index.

  15. Parametric design strategies: robotic building in academic architectural research and education

    OpenAIRE

    Bier, H.H.

    2015-01-01

    Parametric design strategies employing design-to-robotic-production (D2RP) approaches are relative new in architecture. They require trans-disciplinary research that at Hyperbody, TUD is experimentally tested in academic education and research. This paper presents and discusses trans-disciplinary approaches employing strategies that cross several disciplinary boundaries such as architectural design, structural engineering, material sciences, and robotics in order to create a holistic approach.

  16. MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar)

    OpenAIRE

    Imriyanti Imriyanti

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which want...

  17. Methodology for building and maintaining enterprise architectures in small and medium enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Ruben David de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de mest., Engenharia Informática, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Univ. do Algarve, 2013 Enterprise architectures are used by companies so that they can understand their structure and dynamics in a more extensive and detailed way, allowing them to reduce costs, increase productivity, promote growth and adapt in a rapidly changing business environment. In order to not only survive but gain competitive advantage, enterprises need their architectures to be in sync with thei...

  18. A Query on the Impact of Place on the Formation of Iconic Buildings in Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Davarpanah, Sayena

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Places are demarcated with their different characteristics. Generally, socio-cultural, historical, ecological, technological and human attributes define the places and their architecture consequently. Throughout the centuries, the power of place on the development of architecture is known and respectively experienced. Even, in modern times when there is a limited attention to the local/contextual characteristics, creating places and making the environment meaningful are considered ...

  19. BIM-based Modeling and Data Enrichment of Classical Architectural Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Ivan Apollonio; Marco Gaiani; Zheng Sun

    2012-01-01

    EnIn this paper we presented a BIM-based approach for the documentation of Architectural Heritage. Knowledge of classical architecture is first extracted from the treatises for parametric modeling in object level. Then we established a profile library based on semantic studies to sweep out different objects. Variants grow out from the parametric models by editing or regrouping parameters based on grammars. Multiple data including material, structure and real-life state are enriched with respe...

  20. Building Quality into Learning Management Systems – An Architecture-Centric Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Avgeriou, P.; Retalis, Simos; Skordalakis, Manolis

    2003-01-01

    The design and development of contemporary Learning Management Systems (LMS), is largely focused on satisfying functional requirements, rather than quality requirements, thus resulting in inefficient systems of poor software and business quality. In order to remedy this problem there is a research trend into specifying and evaluating software architectures for LMS, since quality at-tributes in a system depend profoundly on its architecture. This paper presents a case study of appraising the s...

  1. Reverse-engineering of architectural buildings based on an hybrid modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca, Livio; Veron, Philippe; Florenzano, Michel

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a set of theoretical reflections and technical demonstrations that constitute a new methodological base for the architectural surveying and representation using computer graphics techniques. The problem we treated relates to three distinct concerns: the surveying of architectural objects, the construction and the semantic enrichment of their geometrical models, and their handling for the extraction of dimensional information. A hybrid approach to 3D reconstruction is des...

  2. Dialogic e-learning2learn: creating global digital networks and educational knowledge building architectures across diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the challenge and potential of online higher and continuing education, of fostering and promoting, in a global perspective across time and space, democratic values working for a better world. Design/methodology/approach – The paper...... presents a generalized dialogic learning architecture of networked collaborative learning and makes a plea for a theory-informed networked collaborative learning architecture and methodology appropriate for adult learners in higher and continuing education. Findings – Values include mutual political and...... intercultural understanding, collaboration, and tolerance to cultural and ethical diversity, and they are mediated through collaborative dialogue and knowledge-building processes between learners. While embedded, empirically, in a networked distance learning context, established through synchronous and...

  3. Environmental issues and energy conservation in buildings in Pakistan: role of architectural intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy shortage and environmental catastrophe is the severe problem globally and particularly important for the developing countries like Pakistan. There is a serious need to solve the problem for a sustainable building environment as the building sector has become a major consumer of energy. An attempt has been made for the building professionals and building users for adherence into their design and construction the energy conservation measures to reduce environmental problems more easily after the thorough review of the famous authors' research work and findings in this field. The ultimate aim is the establishment of awareness for the building professionals for delivering sustainable buildings in Pakistan. Through the implementation of design measures to mitigate the urban heat island, the general public can decrease their demand for energy and effectively cool the urban landscape. In addition to the economic benefits, energy conservation leads to reductions in CO/sub 2/ emissions. (author)

  4. Advanced connection systems for architectural glazing

    CERN Document Server

    Afghani Khoraskani, Roham

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the findings of a detailed study to explore the behavior of architectural glazing systems during and after an earthquake and to develop design proposals that will mitigate or even eliminate the damage inflicted on these systems. The seismic behavior of common types of architectural glazing systems are investigated and causes of damage to each system, identified. Furthermore, depending on the geometrical and structural characteristics, the ultimate horizontal load capacity of glass curtain wall systems is defined based on the stability of the glass components. Detailed attention is devoted to the incorporation of advanced connection devices between the structure of the building and the building envelope system in order to minimize the damage to glazed components. An innovative new connection device is introduced that results in a delicate and functional system easily incorporated into different architectural glazing systems, including those demanding maximum transparency.

  5. 4th Conference on Advances in architectural geometry 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Knippers, Jan; Mitra, Niloy; Wang, Wenping

    2015-01-01

    This book contains 24 technical papers presented at the fourth edition of the Advances in Architectural Geometry conference, AAG 2014, held in London, England, September 2014. It offers engineers, mathematicians, designers, and contractors insight into the efficient design, analysis, and manufacture of complex shapes, which will help open up new horizons for architecture. The book examines geometric aspects involved in architectural design, ranging from initial conception to final fabrication. It focuses on four key topics: applied geometry, architecture, computational design, and also practice in the form of case studies. In addition, the book also features algorithms, proposed implementation, experimental results, and illustrations. Overall, the book presents both theoretical and practical work linked to new geometrical developments in architecture. It gathers the diverse components of the contemporary architectural tendencies that push the building envelope towards free form in order to respond to multiple...

  6. BioClimatic Architecture without Architects: Green Design Tips by Insects, Animals and Vernacular Buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christodoulou, A.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. In our struggle towards a smarter building approach we can get our inspiration from natural and vernacular buildings, which survived for thousands of years and integrated well with nature, without the technol

  7. Low energy architecture in the tropics: from design to building construction

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Harry; Payet, François

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a realization of passive construction in Reunion, French Department in the Indian Ocean (southern hemisphere) submitted to a wet tropical climate. Aspects of passive construction were integrated at the design stage and this house does not present additional costs towards classical ones. This project was awarded a prize for architecture climate.

  8. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture. Inge Vestergaard, Associate Professor, Cand. Arch. Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Noerreport 20, 8000 Aarhus C Telephone +45 89 36 0000 E-mai l inge.vestergaard@aarch.dk Based on the repetitive architecture from the "building boom" 1960...... to 1973 it is discussed how architects can handle these Danish element and montage buildings through the transformation to upgraded aesthetical, functional and energy efficient architecture. The method used is analysis of cases, parallels to literature studies and producer interviews. This analysis...... compares "best practice" in Denmark and "best practice" in Austria. The modern architects accepted the fact that industrialized architecture told the storey of repetition and monotonous as basic condition. This article aims to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through...

  9. Matériau, matière d'architecture soutenable choix responsable des matériaux de construction pour une conception globale de l'architecture soutenable

    OpenAIRE

    TRACHTE, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The choice of materials is a fundamental step in the process of architectural design of a building. This step becomes now predominant because architects, in terms of choice, face three major issues: the expansion and multiplication of new materials, the desire for dematerialisation generated by the separation between the building structure and building envelope and its energy requirements, environmental and health. If these last two centuries, in a spirit of modernity, contributed to techn...

  10. Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Building a Better Approach for (Human) Spaceflight Avionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Hames, Kevin L.; Vitalpur, Sharada V.

    2014-01-01

    The field of Avionics is advancing far more rapidly in terrestrial applications than in space flight applications. Spaceflight Avionics are not keeping pace with expectations set by terrestrial experience, nor are they keeping pace with the need for increasingly complex automation and crew interfaces as we move beyond Low Earth Orbit. NASA must take advantage of the strides being made by both space-related and terrestrial industries to drive our development and sustaining costs down. This paper describes ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionic architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. Results from the AAE project's FY13 efforts are discussed, along with the status of FY14 efforts and future plans.

  11. Characterization of individual barium titanate nanorods and their assessment as building blocks of new circuit architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report on the integration of individual BaTiO3 nanorods into simple circuit architectures. Polycrystalline BaTiO3 nanorods were synthesized by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of barium titanate sol into aluminium oxide (AAO) templates and subsequent annealing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed the presence of slabs of hexagonal polymorphs intergrown within cubic grains, resulting from the local reducing atmosphere during the thermal treatment. Electrical measurements performed on individual BaTiO3 nanorods revealed resistivity values between 10 and 100 Ω cm, which is in good agreement with typical values reported in the past for oxygen-deficient barium titanate films. Consequently the presence of oxygen vacancies in their structure was indirectly validated. Some of these nanorods were tested as proof-of-concept humidity sensors. They showed reproducible responses towards different moisture concentrations, demonstrating that individual BaTiO3 nanorods may be integrated in complex circuit architectures with functional capacities.

  12. Characterization of individual barium titanate nanorods and their assessment as building blocks of new circuit architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žagar, Kristina; Hernandez-Ramirez, Francisco; Prades, Joan Daniel; Morante, Joan Ramon; Rečnik, Aleksander; Čeh, Miran

    2011-09-01

    In this work, we report on the integration of individual BaTiO3 nanorods into simple circuit architectures. Polycrystalline BaTiO3 nanorods were synthesized by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of barium titanate sol into aluminium oxide (AAO) templates and subsequent annealing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed the presence of slabs of hexagonal polymorphs intergrown within cubic grains, resulting from the local reducing atmosphere during the thermal treatment. Electrical measurements performed on individual BaTiO3 nanorods revealed resistivity values between 10 and 100 Ω cm, which is in good agreement with typical values reported in the past for oxygen-deficient barium titanate films. Consequently the presence of oxygen vacancies in their structure was indirectly validated. Some of these nanorods were tested as proof-of-concept humidity sensors. They showed reproducible responses towards different moisture concentrations, demonstrating that individual BaTiO3 nanorods may be integrated in complex circuit architectures with functional capacities.

  13. Architectural Reconstruction of 3D Building Objects through Semantic Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Yucong, Duan; Cruz, Christophe; Nicolle, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper presents an ongoing research which aims at combining geometrical analysis of point clouds and semantic rules to detect 3D building objects. Firstly by applying a previous semantic formalization investigation, we propose a classification of related knowledge as definition, partial knowledge and ambiguous knowledge to facilitate the understanding and design. Secondly an empirical implementation is conducted on a simplified building prototype complying with t...

  14. Performance and Energy Efficient Building Blocks for Network-on-Chip Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Vangal, Sriram R.

    2006-01-01

    The ever shrinking size of the MOS transistors brings the promise of scalable Network-on-Chip (NoC) architectures containing hundreds of processing elements with on-chip communication, all integrated into a single die. Such a computational fabric will provide high levels of performance in an energy efficient manner. To mitigate emerging wire-delay problem and to address the need for substantial interconnect bandwidth, packet switched routers are fast replacing shared buses and dedicated wires...

  15. Architecture and Engineering Issues in Building an IP over WDM Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The technologies of IP over WDM have presently received increasing attention owing to the rapid growth in Internet traffic and the need for next-generation Internet technologies. The challenge now is how to integrate the services of IP over WDM optical networks to take full advantages of WDM technologies and IP technologies, and yield a high-throughput optical platform directly underpinning next generation data networks. This article discusses some of the architecture and technology issues for the design of IP over WDM optical networks.

  16. The performance of a novel flat heat pipe based thermal and PV/T (photovoltaic and thermal systems) solar collector that can be used asan energy-active building envelope material

    OpenAIRE

    Jouhara, H; Milko, J; Danielewicz, J; Sayegh, MA; Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, M; Ramos, JB; Lester, SP

    2015-01-01

    A novel flat heat pipe design has been developed and utilised as a building envelope and thermal solar collector with and without (PV) bonded directly to its surface. The design of the new solar collector has been validated through full scale testing in Cardiff, UK where solar/thermal, uncooled PV and PV/T tests were carried out on three identical systems, simultaneously. The tests showed a solar/thermal energy conversion efficiency of around 64% for the collector with no PV and 50% for the s...

  17. BIM-based Modeling and Data Enrichment of Classical Architectural Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ivan Apollonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available EnIn this paper we presented a BIM-based approach for the documentation of Architectural Heritage. Knowledge of classical architecture is first extracted from the treatises for parametric modeling in object level. Then we established a profile library based on semantic studies to sweep out different objects. Variants grow out from the parametric models by editing or regrouping parameters based on grammars. Multiple data including material, structure and real-life state are enriched with respect to different research motivations. The BIM models are expected to ease the modeling process and provide comprehensive data shared among different platforms for further simulations.ItIn questo articolo è presentata una procedura definita nell'ambito dei sistemi BIM con l'obiettivo di documentare il Patrimonio Architettonico. I dati conoscitivi relativi all'architettura classica sono, in una prima fase, ottenuti dai trattati al fine di modellare in maniera parametrica a livello di oggetti. Successivamente è stata definita una libreria di profili, basata su principi semantici, dalla quale è possibile ottenere oggetti differenti. Dati di natura differente, relativi ad esempio ai materiali, alle strutture, allo stato di fatto, sono implementati in funzione delle differenti esigenze. I modelli BIM hanno la potenzialità di facilitare le procedure di modellazione e di fornire informazioni e dati completi che possono essere condivisi tra piattaforme differenti per ulteriori simulazioni ed analisi.

  18. Architectural Theatricality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    This PhD thesis is motived by a personal interest in the theoretical, practical and creative qualities of architecture. But also a wonder and curiosity about the cultural and social relations architecture represents through its occupation with both the sciences and the arts. Inspired by present...... initiatives in Aalborg Hospital to overcome patient undernutrition by refurbishing eating environments, this thesis engages in an investigation of the interior architectural qualities of patient eating environments. The relevance for this holistic perspective, synthesizing health, food and architecture, is...... the current building of a series of Danish ‘super hospitals’ and an increased focus among architectural practices on research-based knowledge produced with the architectural sub-disciplines Healing Architecture and Evidence-Based Design. The problem is that this research does not focus on patient...

  19. Risk management in architectural design control of uncertainty over building use and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Martani, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This book analyzes the risk management process in relation to building design and operation and on this basis proposes a method and a set of tools that will improve the planning and evaluation of design solutions in order to control risks in the operation and management phase. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between design choices and the long-term performance of buildings in meeting requirements expressing user and client needs. A risk dashboard is presented as a risk measurement framework that identifies and addresses areas of uncertainty surrounding the satisfaction of particularly relevant requirements over time. This risk dashboard will assist both designers and clients. It will support designers by enabling them to improve the maintainability of project performance and will aid clients both in devising a brief that emphasizes the most relevant aspects of maintainability and in evaluating project proposals according to long-term risks. The results of assessment of the proposed method and...

  20. Intelligent tools for building a scientific information platform advanced architectures and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Skonieczny, Lukasz; Rybinski, Henryk; Kryszkiewicz, Marzena; Niezgodka, Marek

    2013-01-01

    This book is a selection of results obtained within two years of research per- formed under SYNAT - a nation-wide scientific project aiming at creating an infrastructure for scientific content storage and sharing for academia, education and open knowledge society in Poland. The selection refers to the research in artificial intelligence, knowledge discovery and data mining, information retrieval and natural language processing, addressing the problems of implementing intelligent tools for building a scientific information platform.This book is a continuation and extension of the ideas presented in “Intelligent Tools for Building a Scientific Information Platform” published as volume 390 in the same series in 2012. It is based on the SYNAT 2012 Workshop held in Warsaw. The papers included in this volume present an overview and insight into information retrieval, repository systems, text processing, ontology-based systems, text mining, multimedia data processing and advanced software engineering.  

  1. BUILDING A COMPETITIVE BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE ARCHITECTURE THAT CAN FOSTER PERFORMANCE IN THE ROMANIAN NATIONAL RAILWAY COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan George Bogdan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Today many industry players from banking, financial services, insurance, IT, healthcare, telecommunications and transportation are deploying competitive business intelligence to grow their company’s financial results. The use of such advanced business applications is one key enabler to increase their spread which provides them an edge over their competitors. Companies of the future are buiding a new culture developed on fact-based decisions. (BusinessWeek Research Services, 2009 These decisions are made through analysis using the business analytics systems which encourage the anticipation in solving complex business problems in the entire organization. Embracing this approach, these companies focus on their most profitable customers, define the right pricing, a faster product innovation, optimize supply chains and identify the real drivers of financial performance. This research paper will detail the theorethical importance of using competitive business intelligence architectures to gain competitive advantage.

  2. Position paper: an agent-oriented architecture for building automation systems applied to assistive technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, Hannu; Garcia Gasulla, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Building Automation Systems typically consists of di erent types of devices interacting and sharing information with each other. Similarly, Multi-Agent Systems has focused on flexible mechanisms to coordinate networks of (usually distributed) autonomous computational entities. The integration of these two fields provides powerful solutions to complex problems. Such integration has often been attempted by using Web technologies, such as Web services. However, the lack of a common standa...

  3. Building Blocks for Cognitive Robots: Embodied Simulation and Schemata in a Cognitive Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Hemion, Nikolas

    2013-01-01

    Building robots with the ability to perform general intelligent action is a primary goal of artificial intelligence research. The traditional approach is to study and model fragments of cognition separately, with the hope that it will somehow be possible to integrate the specialist solutions into a functioning whole. However, while individual specialist systems demonstrate proficiency in their respective niche, current integrated systems remain clumsy in their performance. Recent findings in ...

  4. A research on historical and cultural buildings in iranian vernacular architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Okhovat, Hanie; Almasifar, Nina; Reza Bemanian, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The need for preserving historical constructions is not only a cultural requirement, but also an economical and developmental demand. In addition to their historical interest, cultural heritage buildings and landscapes are valuable because they contribute significantly to the economy by providing key attractions at a time when tourism and leisure are major industries. Herein, the great Iranian tradition is as yet little known in the West and there is much to be learnt both from it and the bui...

  5. Potential of bioclimatic architecture for energy saving in buildings; Potencial de la arquitectura bioclimatica para ahorro de energia en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Chavez, Jose Roberto [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The design and construction of current buildings has been characterized, most of all, in the last 30 years, for the lack of consideration in the design process of aspects that nowadays represent a fundamental importance. These aspects are related to energy conservation and environmental protection, with man as the main center of attention for the optimum satisfaction of its physiological as well as psychological needs. In this paper are presented the causes for the lack of consideration of the mentioned aspects and guidelines to follow are set forth for their integration in the design process. Also the architecture potential with a bioclimatic approach is analyzed, for energy saving in buildings. [Espanol] El diseno y construccion de edificios contemporaneos se ha caracterizado, sobre todo en los ultimos treinta anos, por la falta de consideracion en el proceso de diseno, de aspectos que hoy en dia revisten una importancia primordial. Estos aspectos se relacionan con la preservacion de la energia y del medio ambiente, teniendo al hombre como principal centro de atencion, para la satisfaccion optima de sus necesidades, tanto fisiologicas como psicologicas. En este trabajo, se presentan las causas de la falta de consideracion de los aspectos antes citados y se plantean las pautas a seguir para su integracion en el proceso de diseno. Asi mismo, se analiza el potencial de la arquitectura con un enfoque bioclimatico, para ahorro de energia en los edificios.

  6. Building highly available control system applications with Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture and open standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements for modern and future control systems for large projects like International Linear Collider demand high availability for control system components. Recently telecom industry came up with a great open hardware specification - Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA). This specification is aimed for better reliability, availability and serviceability. Since its first market appearance in 2004, ATCA platform has shown tremendous growth and proved to be stable and well represented by a number of vendors. ATCA is an industry standard for highly available systems. On the other hand Service Availability Forum, a consortium of leading communications and computing companies, describes interaction between hardware and software. SAF defines a set of specifications such as Hardware Platform Interface, Application Interface Specification. SAF specifications provide extensive description of highly available systems, services and their interfaces. Originally aimed for telecom applications, these specifications can be used for accelerator controls software as well. This study describes benefits of using these specifications and their possible adoption to accelerator control systems. It is demonstrated how EPICS Redundant IOC was extended using Hardware Platform Interface specification, which made it possible to utilize benefits of the ATCA platform.

  7. Sequence System Building Blocks: Using a Component Architecture for Sequencing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiffert, Barbara A.; O'Reilly, Taifun

    2005-01-01

    Over the last few years software engineering has made significant strides in making more flexible architectures and designs possible. However, at the same time, spacecraft have become more complex and flight software has become more sophisticated. Typically spacecraft are often one-of-a-kind entities that have different hardware designs, different capabilities, different instruments, etc. Ground software has become more complex and operations teams have had to learn a myriad of tools that all have different user interfaces and represent data in different ways. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) these themes have collided to require an new approach to producing ground system software. Two different groups have been looking at tackling this particular problem. One group is working for the JPL Mars Technology Program in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Focused Technology area. The other group is the JPL Multi-Mission Planning and Sequencing Group . The major concept driving these two approaches on a similar path is to provide software that can be a more cohesive flexible system that provides a act of planning and sequencing system of services. This paper describes the efforts that have been made to date to create a unified approach from these disparate groups.

  8. Sequencing System Building Blocks: Using a Component Architecture for Sequencing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiffert, Barbara A.; O'Reilly, Taifun

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few years software engineering has made significant strides in making more flexible architectures and designs possible. However, at the same time, spacecraft have become more complex and flight software has become more sophisticated. Typically spacecraft are often one-of-a-kind entities that have different hardware designs, different capabilities, different instruments, etc. Ground software has become more complex and operations teams have had to learn a myriad of tools that all have different user interfaces and represent data in different ways. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) these themes have collided to require a new approach to producing ground system software. Two different groups have been looking at tackling this particular problem. One group is working for the JPL Mars Technology Program in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Focused Technology area. The other group is the JPL Multi-Mission Planning and Sequencing Group. The major concept driving these two approaches on a similar path is to provide software that can be a more cohesive flexible system that provides a set of planning and sequencing system of services. This paper describes the efforts that have been made to date to create a unified approach from these disparate groups.

  9. Biomimicry of Palm Tree Leaves Form and Pattern on Building Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Salim N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a study on biomimicry of palm tree towards a building form. It is to find a suitable form and pattern that can be applied to building shell to ease building maintenance operation beside to enhance the aesthetic value of a building architecture. The research has been carried out by observation and modeling on some various species of palm tree’s patterns and forms. The result expectation can be found at the end of this research by producing the best pattern of palm tree that can be adapted to building envelop as the whole form of a building.

  10. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faakye, Omari [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Griffiths, Dianne [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-08

    “The cost for blower testing is high, because it is labor intensive, and it may disrupt occupants in multiple units. This high cost and disruption deter program participants, and dissuade them from pursuing energy improvements that would trigger air leakage testing, such as improvements to the building envelope.” This statement found in a 2012 report by Heschong Mahone Group for several California interests emphasizes the importance of reducing the cost and complexity of blower testing in multifamily buildings. Energy efficiency opportunities are being bypassed. The cost of single blower testing is on the order of $300. The cost for guarded blower door testing—the more appropriate test for assessing energy savings opportunities—could easily be six times that, and that’s only if you have the equipment and simultaneous access to multiple apartments. Thus, the proper test is simply not performed. This research seeks to provide an algorithm for predicting the guarded blower door test result based upon a single, total blower door test.

  11. China and Northeast Asia’s Regional Security Architecture:The Six-Party Talks as a Case of Chinese Regime-building?

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco Pardo, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    China, as host of the six-party talks first convened in August 2003, has been one of the major players in dealing with the North Korean nuclear crisis that began in October 2002. China’s role in the talks has helped to start shaping a stable regional security architecture in Northeast Asia. Beijing’s leadership in building a new security regime in the region suggests a change on Chinese perspectives regarding its role within the broader East Asia’s regional security architecture. After years ...

  12. Design of a multipurpose “zero energy consumption” building according to European Directive 2010/31/EU: Architectural and technical plants solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the significant impact that the residential sector has on energy consumption, it is particularly important to implement policies aimed at improving energy efficiency in buildings. Highly energy efficient buildings can either save primary energy or disseminate the use of the most suitable technologies to be used in new constructions. Due to those reasons, the Municipality of Città della Pieve promoted the creation of a “Renewable Energy Park” in a deprived area of its territory, where some green technologies could be installed and tested. This site has also been considered as an optimal location for an educational/demonstrative “zero energy consumption” building for multifunctional activities and realized with the most innovative techniques to save energy. The building may be considered as an example to study and optimize the benefits of higher energy efficiency together with the use of renewable energy systems. In this paper the technical solutions adopted both in the building envelope and the technical plants are described and discussed. A simulation of the behaviour of the building in summer and winter was carried out in order to assess the benefits that can be obtained both in energetic and economic terms. - Highlights: • Project focused on the implementation of European Directive 2010/31/EU. • Energy efficiency in buildings for saving primary energy using renewable sources. • Dissemination of the concept of sustainable development for new buildings. • High performance construction layers and high efficiency plants. • Design of a “zero energy consumption” building with zero emissions of CO2

  13. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete.

  14. Architecture in the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    narratives related to historical buildings and architectural heritage; another group tries to embed new performative technologies in expressive architectural representation. The article provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of the political rationales of these projects and for the architectural...

  15. Evolution of contemporary museum architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Bilous, Yulia

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the development of museum architecture from the formation of the classic building architecture to the establishment of the contemporary museum architecture. Changes in the museum building architecture and displaying principles have been analysed. The 19th century was defined by the emergence of a vast number of museums serving through present as examples of the contemporary museum architecture. New styles are tried in the museum architecture alo...

  16. Reflection on Full Life Cycle Green Architectural Design of Passive Priority---Taking the Award Design of China Merchants Property 2013 Green Architectural Design Competition as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhenHe Fan; Yan Qiao

    2014-01-01

    In the China merchants property 2013 green architectural design competition, feature of this award-winning program is the design method based on the principles of passive priority and comprehensive utilization of full life cycle. The passive priority can be achieved by building form derived from the simulation and analysis of wind environment, improvement of the building envelope insulation and the dehumidification of fresh air, the use of solar energy. The full life cycle utilization can be accomplished by the combination of exhibition and residents’ leisure activities, and the integration with local cultural tradition, thereby improving energy efficiency and the utilization of the building.

  17. Petrification’ of architecture in Brussels: An attempt at explanation: between Construction Methods, Building Materials and Social Changes (13th-17th c.)

    OpenAIRE

    Charruadas, Paulo; Sosnowska, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Except religious and aristocratic buildings, most of the constructions and houses in the first ages of the former European cities and towns are made of cob and timber. The gradual transformation of this architecture in stone and brick constructions – the so-called “petrification” – is one of the most important processes within the cities and towns. Nevertheless, until now, this phenomenon has been little studied by historians and archaeologists (for instance Lilley 2002; Schofield & Vince 200...

  18. CREATION OF A COMFORTABLE ENVIRONMENT IN PREMISES OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS WITH ACCOUNT FOR ARCHITECTURAL, ENGINEERING AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Saltykov Ivan Petrovich

    2012-01-01

    The author provides his multiple-factor approach to the assessment and creation of a comfortable indoor environment with account for architectural, engineering and ecological parameters. Architectural parameters include indoor space arrangement, color solutions, etc. The engineering approach contemplates favorable acoustic, thermal, humidity and lighting conditions. Nowadays, the problem of the indoor microclimate is resolvable through the assessment of its conditions and furth...

  19. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged. The...... paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where the...... role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped with...

  20. Solar active envelope module with an adjustable transmittance/absorptance

    OpenAIRE

    C. Villasante Villasante; I. del Hoyo; Pagola, I. (I.); Sanchez, M.; E. Aranzabe

    2015-01-01

    A solar active envelope module with a high flexibility degree is proposed in this paper. The transparent module controls the day-lighting of the room, improving the indoor environment, while absorbing the superfluous solar energy inside. That energy is used to increase the efficiency of heating, ventilation, and the air-conditioning (HVAC) system of the building. This is carried out through a fine control of the absorptance of the envelope module. The active envelope module consists of three ...

  1. Architectural Mealscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    German architect Gottfried Semper developed a theory on the “four elements of Architecture” tracing the origin of architecture back to the rise of the early human settlement and the creation of fire. With the notion ‘hearth’ as the first motive in architecture and the definition of three enclosing...... motives; mounding, enclosure and roof, Semper linked the cultural and social values of the primordial fireplace with the order and shape of architecture. He claimed that any building ever made was nothing but a variation of the first primitive shelters erected around the fireplace, and that the three...... enclosing motives existed only as defenders of the “sacred flame”. In that way Semper developed the idea that any architectural scenery can be described, analyzed and explained by understanding the contextual, symbolic and social values of how the four basic motives of hearth, mounding, enclosure, and roof...

  2. Storage envelopes or sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A storage envelope or sleeve particularly for processed X-ray films is described. It consists of front and back panels joined together at a hinge line and connected along the intermediate sides by connecting flaps. An inner pocket is formed from a third flap which is folded to lie against the inner face of the back panel. The panels may have additional score lines parallel to the closed sides of the envelope and the inner pocket so that the envelope and the inner pocket can accommodate bulky contents. The free edge of the pocket is inset from the open side of the envelope, and finger cut-outs may be provided to facilitate access to the contents of the envelope and the pocket. (author)

  3. Textile Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen

    2010-01-01

    Textiles can be used as building skins, adding new aesthetic and functional qualities to architecture. Just like we as humans can put on a coat, buildings can also get dressed. Depending on our mood, or on the weather, we can change coat, and so can the building. But the idea of using textiles...... to create human habitation is not new. As Diether S. Hope phrases it, referring to tents: The history of development of humanity would be barely conceivable without free spanning textile membrane structures....

  4. Kosmos = architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Kurent

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The old Greek word "kosmos" means not only "cosmos", but also "the beautiful order", "the way of building", "building", "scenography", "mankind", and, in the time of the New Testament, also "pagans". The word "arhitekton", meaning first the "master of theatrical scenography", acquired the meaning of "builder", when the words "kosmos" and ~kosmetes" became pejorative. The fear that architecture was not considered one of the arts before Renaissance, since none of the Muses supervised the art of building, results from the misunderstanding of the word "kosmos". Urania was the Goddes of the activity implied in the verb "kosmein", meaning "to put in the beautiful order" - everything, from the universe to the man-made space, i. e. the architecture.

  5. NEBULAS A High Performance Data-Driven Event-Building Architecture based on an Asynchronous Self-Routing Packet-Switching Network

    CERN Multimedia

    Costa, M; Letheren, M; Djidi, K; Gustafsson, L; Lazraq, T; Minerskjold, M; Tenhunen, H; Manabe, A; Nomachi, M; Watase, Y

    2002-01-01

    RD31 : The project is evaluating a new approach to event building for level-two and level-three processor farms at high rate experiments. It is based on the use of commercial switching fabrics to replace the traditional bus-based architectures used in most previous data acquisition sytems. Switching fabrics permit the construction of parallel, expandable, hardware-driven event builders that can deliver higher aggregate throughput than the bus-based architectures. A standard industrial switching fabric technology is being evaluated. It is based on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) packet-switching network technology. Commercial, expandable ATM switching fabrics and processor interfaces, now being developed for the future Broadband ISDN infrastructure, could form the basis of an implementation. The goals of the project are to demonstrate the viability of this approach, to evaluate the trade-offs involved in make versus buy options, to study the interfacing of the physics frontend data buffers to such a fabric, a...

  6. Architectural Intention as the Mediator of Lean Housing Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2008-01-01

    In recent years a number of companies have taken up the challenge of producing prefab houses using lean principles, hereby incorporating value driven production theory as the means to optimize construction processes. However, the value of home is dependent on architectural qualities and interior...... prefab production as lean construction strategies hold obvious potentials in the development of an effective building envelope with regards to indoor climate, assembly etc. However, the discussion of lean construction, future working co operations and processes, often avoid an actual positioning...... regarding the values, which were originally the main focus of lean construction philosophy (Howell, 1999). Through the development of a particular interior architectural focus this paper suggests a method for reintroducing customer value; architectural quality, as the outset for making housing construction...

  7. Envelopes of Commutative Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael PARRA; Manuel SAOR(I)N

    2012-01-01

    Given a significative class F of commutative rings,we study the precise conditions under which a commutative ring R has an F-envelope.A full answer is obtained when.F is the class of fields,semisimple commutative rings or integral domains.When F is the class of Noetherian rings,we give a full answer when the Krull dimension of R is zero and when the envelope is required to be epimorphic.The general problem is reduced to identifying the class of non-Noetherian rings having a monomorphic Noetherian envelope,which we conjecture is the empty class.

  8. Preserving Envelope Efficiency in Performance Based Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A. [Thornton Energy Consulting (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Efficiency Solutions (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-20

    The City of Seattle 2012 Energy Code (Seattle 2014), one of the most progressive in the country, is under revision for its 2015 edition. Additionally, city personnel participate in the development of the next generation of the Washington State Energy Code and the International Energy Code. Seattle has pledged carbon neutrality by 2050 including buildings, transportation and other sectors. The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided technical assistance to Seattle in order to understand the implications of one potential direction for its code development, limiting trade-offs of long-lived building envelope components less stringent than the prescriptive code envelope requirements by using better-than-code but shorter-lived lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components through the total building performance modeled energy compliance path. Weaker building envelopes can permanently limit building energy performance even as lighting and HVAC components are upgraded over time, because retrofitting the envelope is less likely and more expensive. Weaker building envelopes may also increase the required size, cost and complexity of HVAC systems and may adversely affect occupant comfort. This report presents the results of this technical assistance. The use of modeled energy code compliance to trade-off envelope components with shorter-lived building components is not unique to Seattle and the lessons and possible solutions described in this report have implications for other jurisdictions and energy codes.

  9. The Nuclear Envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    An electron microscope study of thin sections of interphase cells has revealed the following:— Circular pores are formed in the double nuclear envelope by continuities between the inner and outer membranes which permit contact between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm unmediated by a well defined membrane. The pores, seen in sections normal to the nuclear envelope, are profiles of the ring-shaped structures described by others and seen in tangential section. The inner and outer nuclear membra...

  10. AM Envelope. The potential of Additive Manufacturing for facade constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Strauss

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation shows the potential of Additive Manufacturing (AM) for the development of building envelopes: AM will change the way of designing facades, how we engineer and produce them. To achieve today’s demands from those future envelopes, we have to find new solutions.New technologies offer one possible way to do so. They open new approaches in designing, producing and processing building construction and facades. Finding the one capable of having big impact is difficult – Additive Ma...

  11. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance – Part II: Development of an accelerated aging method for roofing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleiman, Mohamad [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kirchstetter, Thomas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Berdahl, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gilbert, Haley E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Quelen, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marlot, Lea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Preble, Chelsea V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Montalbano, Amandine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rosseler, Olivier [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Akbari, Hashem [Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Destaillats, Hugo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-09

    Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products₋single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles₋and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. In conclusion, this accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

  12. Report to the Board of Regents State University System of Florida. Review of Programs: Architecture, Architectural Technology, Landscape Architecture, Interior Design, Construction and Construction Technology, Building Construction, Urban and Regional Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, William G.

    An evaluation and report was done on the status of programs in architecture and related fields in the Florida State University System as a follow-up to a 1983 evaluation. The evaluation involved self-studies prepared by each program and a series of site visits to each of seven campuses and two centers with programs under review. These institutions…

  13. Review of Programs: Architecture; Architectural Technology; Landscape Architecture; Interior Design; Construction and Construction Technology; Building Construction; Urban and Regional Planning. Report to the Board of Regents, State University System of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, William G.

    This report is an update of a report on the development and status of various programs in architecture and related fields in the State University System of Florida, a report that was submitted to the Board of Regents in May 1983. The objectives of this updated report, like those of the earlier one, are to review the anticipated needs of the…

  14. Architectural Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, I focus on the combination of programs and the architecture of cultural projects that have emerged within the last few years. These projects are characterized as “hybrid cultural projects,” because they intend to combine experience with entertainment, play, and learning. This essay...... identifies new rationales related to this development, and it argues that “cultural planning” has increasingly shifted its focus from a cultural institutional approach to a more market-oriented strategy that integrates art and business. The role of architecture has changed, too. It not only provides a...... functional framework for these concepts, but tries increasingly to endow the main idea of the cultural project with a spatially aesthetic expression - a shift towards “experience architecture.” A great number of these projects typically recycle and reinterpret narratives related to historical buildings and...

  15. New design concepts for energy-conserving buildings. Results of a national competition among students in schools of architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The National Student Competition in Energy Conscious Design held among professional schools of architecture in 1976 is documented. Fifty-five schools participated, submitting 115 entries; twelve were chosen as finalists. Details are presented on the twelve winning designs and excerpts from the remaining 103 entries are published. (MCW)

  16. The beginnings of Christian stone architecture in Bohemia: a reconstruction of the first building phases of St. George's Basilica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlustiková, Katarína

    Istanbul: Archaeology & Art Publications, 2014 - (Yilmaz, Ö.). s. 166 ISBN 978-605-396-287-8. [Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists /20./. 10.09.2014-14.09.2014, Istanbul] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Christian architecture * St George Basilica * Prague Castle Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology https://www.eaa2014istanbul.org/assets/indirilecekler/2014%20EAA%20abstracts.pdf

  17. 严寒和寒冷地区农宅围护结构最优化参数及节能率研究%Study on Building Envelope Optimization Parameters and Energy-saving Rate of Rural Residential Buildings in Severe Cold and Cold Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李骥; 邹瑜; 刘晶

    2012-01-01

    本文建立了严寒和寒冷地区典型农宅模型,利用TRNSYS软件计算得到了基础耗热量指标,并使用最优化算法(PSO算法)结合全寿命周期成本理论,得到了该地区农宅全寿命周期成本最小情况下的围护结构传热系数限值以及节能率,为严寒和寒冷地区农宅围护结构节能和农村建筑经济效益最优化提供了依据.%In this paper, a model for typical rural residential building in severe cold and cold zones was developed. And then, the basic heat loss index was calculated using the software of TRNSYS. Furthermore, based on the PSO algorithm and life cycle cost theory, the limited value of heat transfer coefficient and energy-saving rate of building envelope with the minimum whole life cycle cost were obtained. Therefore,the references for energy efficiency and economic benefit optimization for rural residential buildings in severe cold and cold zones were provided.

  18. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions

  19. The integration of engineering and architecture: A perspective on natural ventilation for the new San Francisco Federal Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the in-progress design of a new Federal Office Building for San Francisco is used to illustrate a number of issues arising in the design of large, naturally ventilated office buildings. These issues include the need for an integrated approach to design involving the architects, mechanical and structural engineers, lighting designers and specialist simulation modelers. In particular, the use of natural ventilation, and the avoidance of air-conditioning, depends on the high degree of exposed thermal mass made possible by the structural scheme and by the minimization of solar heat gains while maintaining the good daylighting that results from optimization of the facade. Another issue was the need for a radical change in interior space planning in order to enhance the natural ventilation; all the individual enclosed offices are located along the central spine of each floorplate rather than at the perimeter. The role of integration in deterring the undermining of the design through value engineering is discussed. The comfort criteria for the building were established based on the recent extension to the ASHRAE comfort standard based on the adaptive model for naturally ventilated buildings. The building energy simulation program EnergyPlus was used to compare the performance of different natural ventilation strategies. The results indicate that, in the San Francisco climate, wind-driven ventilation provides sufficient nocturnal cooling to maintain comfortable conditions and that external chimneys do not provide significant additional ventilation at times when it when it would be beneficial

  20. Software Architecture: Architecture Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Tibermacine, Chouki

    2014-01-01

    International audience In this chapter, we introduce an additional, yet essential, concept in describing software architectures : architecture constraints. We explain the precise role of these entities and their importance in object-oriented, component-based or service-oriented software engi-neering. We then describe the way in which they are specified and interpreted. An architect can define architecture constraints and then associate them to architectural descriptions to limit their stru...

  1. Architecture, energy and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Architecture has always had to relate to climatic conditions while providing shelter from the sun, the rain, the winds or the cold. This is a main purpose of buildings: To establish an indoor climate different from the outdoor. In the Nordic countries fuels for heating buildings has been a vital...... cases been to search for traditional and pre-industrialized ways of building and settlement. The idea of this theme number is not to flee from modern life and approaches, but instead to face modern conditions relevant in achieving sustainable urban development and sustainable architecture, the only...... truly modern architecture that exists....

  2. Architectural Design Activities for JAS

    CERN Document Server

    Khaled, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The critical part for building any software system is its architecture. Architectural design is a design at a higher level of abstraction. A good architecture ensures that software will satisfy its requirement. This paper defines the most important activities of architectural design that used through building any software; also it applies these activities on one type of Electronic Commerce (EC) applications that is Job Agency System(JAS) to show how these activities can work through these types of applications.

  3. Architecture on Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karen

    2016-01-01

    how recognising the autonomy of architecture, not as an esoteric concept but as a valid source of information in a pragmatic design practice, may help us overcome the often-proclaimed dichotomy between formal autonomy and a societally committed architecture. It follows that in architectural education...

  4. The green building envelope: vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  5. Elliptic stable envelope

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, Mina

    2016-01-01

    We construct stable envelopes in equivariant elliptic cohomology of Nakajima quiver varieties. In particular, this gives an elliptic generalization of the results of arXiv:1211.1287. We apply them to the computation of the monodromy of $q$-difference equations arising the enumerative K-theory of rational curves in Nakajima varieties, including the quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations.

  6. AĞRI VE ÇEVRESİNDE OSMANLI DÖNEMİNDE MİMARİ YAPILAŞMA / ARCHITECTURAL BUILDINGS IN AND AROUND AĞRI DURING OTTOMAN PERIOD

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin, Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTAlthough Ağrı and its environment are very rich in terms of architectural buildings. these have not adequately been studied exeept İshakpaşa Palace. In this study it İs aimed to analyze Attornan age architectural buildings in Ağn and its provinces. finding out and examining in detail which have not reached today.The Old Bayezid Castle, which is the oldest one, features original Urartian construction. The castle was ruined during Ottoman-lran, Otoman-Russia wars and subsequently repair...

  7. Building robust architectures of carbon and metal oxide nanocrystals toward high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xilai; Chen, Zheng; Cui, Xia; Peng, Yiting; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Ge; Wei, Fei; Lu, Yunfeng

    2012-11-27

    Design and fabrication of effective electrode structure is essential but is still a challenge for current lithium-ion battery technology. Herein we report the design and fabrication of a class of high-performance robust nanocomposites based on iron oxide spheres and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). An efficient aerosol spray process combined with vacuum filtration was used to synthesize such composite architecture, where oxide nanocrystals were assembled into a continuous carbon skeleton and entangled in porous CNT networks. This material architecture offers many critical features that are required for high-performance anodes, including efficient ion transport, high conductivity, and structure durability, therefore enabling an electrode with outstanding lithium storage performance. For example, such an electrode with a thickness of ∼35 μm could deliver a specific capacity of 994 mA h g(-1) (based on total electrode weight) and high recharging rates. This effective strategy can be extended to construct many other composite electrodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. PMID:23046380

  8. (Quasi-)Poisson enveloping algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yan-Hong; Yuan YAO; Ye, Yu

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the quasi-Poisson enveloping algebra and Poisson enveloping algebra for a non-commutative Poisson algebra. We prove that for a non-commutative Poisson algebra, the category of quasi-Poisson modules is equivalent to the category of left modules over its quasi-Poisson enveloping algebra, and the category of Poisson modules is equivalent to the category of left modules over its Poisson enveloping algebra.

  9. Appropriate opening and layout for daylighting of office spaces: The case of EMU faculty of architecture office building

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Yousif Hussien Suleiman

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The significant aims in office space designs are to create an enabling atmosphere and place where work can be accomplished comfortably. It is a known fact that using day lighting in buildings not only influences human behavior but also minimizes discomfort. Besides, with the rise in cost of electricity and the .constant increase of energy costs along with the fossil energy consumption problems, it is an urgent necessity to reduce the consumption of fossil fuel. Furthermore, case ...

  10. Architecture Criticism Blindfolded

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Heylighen; Jasmien Herssens; Hubert Froyen

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports on a recent Belgian initiative targeting architectural practice through the professional press. Architecture critics were invited to revisit an exemplary public building while being blindfolded and guided by persons who are visually impaired. Afterwards, they were asked to report on this visit in an article for an architectural magazine. The initiative aimed at drawing the attention of the critics—and, by extension, the readers of their articles—to the need for accessibil...

  11. Adaptive building skin structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of adaptive and morphing structures has gained considerable attention in the recent years in many fields of engineering. In civil engineering very few practical applications are reported to date however. Non-conventional structural concepts like deployable, inflatable and morphing structures may indeed provide innovative solutions to some of the problems that the construction industry is being called to face. To give some examples, searches for low-energy consumption or even energy-harvesting green buildings are amongst such problems. This paper first presents a review of the above problems and technologies, which shows how the solution to these problems requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving the integration of architectural and engineering disciplines. The discussion continues with the presentation of a possible application of two adaptive and dynamically morphing structures which are proposed for the realization of an acoustic envelope. The core of the two applications is the use of a novel optimization process which leads the search for optimal solutions by means of an evolutionary technique while the compatibility of the resulting configurations of the adaptive envelope is ensured by the virtual force density method

  12. Energy management systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lush, D.M.

    1979-07-01

    An investigation is made of the range of possibilities available from three types of systems (automatic control devices, building envelope, and the occupants) in buildings. The following subjects are discussed: general (buildings, design and personnel); new buildings (envelope, designers, energy and load calculations, plant design, general design parameters); existing buildings (conservation measures, general energy management, air conditioned buildings, industrial buildings); man and motivation (general, energy management and documentation, maintenance, motivation); automatic energy management systems (thermostatic controls, optimized plant start up, air conditioned and industrial buildings, building automatic systems). (MCW)

  13. Pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The post office on CERN's Prévessin site is still selling pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days. Hurry while stocks last!   The special envelopes, which are valid in France for non-priority letters weighing up to 20 grams, are ideal for your Christmas and New Year correspondence. A set of ten envelopes, each featuring a different image, costs € 8.70 or 10 CHF. The post office is located in Building 866 on the Prévessin site and is open Mondays to Thursdays from 9.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m.

  14. Pushing architectural quality further

    OpenAIRE

    Laverge, Jelle; Van Den Bossche, Nathan; Janssens, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the intentions thriving the implementation of computational modeling of building physics as it is approached in the Architectural engineering courses at Ghent University are discussed. During the bachelor degree, courses focus mainly on integration of basic building physics feasibility in the architectural conceptualization. During the final bachelor year, students program their own simplified 2D models for internal condensation and thermal bridges in a spreadsheet, based on...

  15. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Henriette Bier; Terry Knight

    2014-01-01

    The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While stan...

  16. On isogeometric yield envelopes.

    OpenAIRE

    Coombs, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    In numerical analysis the failure of engineering materials is controlled through specifying yield envelopes (or surfaces) that bound the allowable stress in the material. Simple examples include the prismatic von Mises (circle) and Tresca (hexagon) yield surfaces. However, each surface is distinct and requires a specific equation describing the shape of the surface to be formulated in each case. These equations impact on the numerical implementation (specifically relating to st...

  17. Data envelopment analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This review introduces the history and present status of data envelopment analysis (DEA) research, particularly the evaluation process. And extensions of some DEA models are also described. It is pointed out that mathematics, economics and management science are the main forces in the DEA development, optimization provides the fundamental method for the DEA research, and the wide range of applications enforces the rapid development of DEA.

  18. INTERNAL MAIL ENVELOPES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2001-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration.

  19. INTERNAL MAIL ENVELOPES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2002-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  20. INTERNAL MAIL ENVELOPES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2002-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration.   Mail Office

  1. INTERNAL MAIL ENVELOPES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2002-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration.

  2. URGENT - Internal Mail Envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  3. INTERNAL CIRCULATION ENVELOPES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2001-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or a piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration.

  4. URGENT - Internal Mail Envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2004-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  5. Internal mail envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unusual stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  6. Extending a Mobile Device with Low-Cost 3d Modeling and Building-Scale Mapping Capabilities, for Application in Architecture and Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, M.; Clini, P.; Dellacasa, A.; Falzone, P.; La Camera, A.; Quattrini, R.; Sommariva, E.; Stephens, J.

    2015-02-01

    One of the most challenging problem in architecture is the automated construction of 3D (and 4D) digital models of cultural objects with the aim of implementing open data repositories, scientifically authenticated and responding to well accepted standards of validation, evaluation, preservation, publication, updating and dissemination. The realization of such an ambitious objective requires the adoption of special technological instruments. In this paper we plan to use portable devices (i.e. smartphones, tablets or PDAs eventually extended to wearable ones), extended with a small plug-in, for automatically extracting 3D models of single objects and building-scale mapping of the surrounding environment. At the same time, the device will provide the capability of inserting notes and observations. Where the instrument cannot be directly applied, for example for exploring the top of a complex building, we consider mounting our device, or using equivalent existing equipment, on a drone, in a modular approach for obtaining data de-facto interchangeable. The approach based on the expansion packs has the advantage of anticipating (or even promoting) future extensions of new mobile devices, when the spectrum of possible applications justify the corresponding increased costs. In order to experiment and verify this approach we plan to test it in two specific scenarios of the cultural heritage domain in which such devices seem particularly promising: Strada Nuova in Genoa and Palazzo Ducale in Urbino, both located in Italy.

  7. Building high-efficiency CdS/CdSe-sensitized solar cells with a hierarchically branched double-layer architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zonglong; Qiu, Jianhang; Yan, Keyou; Yang, Shihe

    2013-05-22

    We report a double-layer architecture for a photoanode of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), which consists of a ZnO nanorod array (NR) underlayer and a ZnO nanotetrapod (TP) top layer. Such double-layer and branching strategies have significantly increased the power conversion efficiency (PCE) to as high as 5.24%, nearly reaching the record PCE of QDSSCs based on TiO2. Our systematic studies have shown that the double-layer strategy could significantly reduce charge recombination at the interface between the charge collection anode (FTO) and ZnO nanostructure because of the strong and compact adhesion of the NRs and enhance charge transport due to the partially interpenetrating contact between the NR and TP layers, leading to improved open-circuit voltage (Voc) and short-circuit current density (Jsc). Also, when the double layer was subjected to further branching, a large increase in Jsc and, to a lesser extent, the fill factor (FF) has resulted from increases in quantum-dot loading, enhanced light scattering, and reduced series resistance. PMID:23618104

  8. Thermal mass impact on energy performance of a low, medium and heavy mass building in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Bojan V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy mass materials used in building structures and architecture can significantly affect building energy performance and occupant comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate if thermal mass can improve the internal environment of a building, resulting in lower energy requirements from the mechanical systems. The study was focused on passive building energy performance and compared annual space heating and cooling energy requirements for an office building in Belgrade with several different applications of thermal mass. A three-dimensional building model was generated to represent a typical office building. Building shape, orientation, glazing to wall ratio, envelope insulation thickness, and indoor design conditions were held constant while location and thickness of building mass (concrete was varied between cases in a series of energy simulations. The results were compared and discussed in terms of the building space heating and cooling energy and demand affected by thermal mass. The simulation results indicated that with addition of thermal mass to the building envelope and structure: 100% of all simulated cases experienced reduced annual space heating energy requirements, 67% of all simulated cases experienced reduced annual space cooling energy requirements, 83% of all simulated cases experienced reduced peak space heating demand and 50% of all simulated cases experienced reduced peak space cooling demand. The study demonstrated that there exists a potential for reducing space heating and cooling energy requirements with heavy mass construction in the analyzed climate region (Belgrade, Serbia.

  9. Energy-related renovation in the world heritage. Retrofitting 'Glas-Hoffmann' buildings, Berlin; Energetische Sanierung im Weltkulturerbe. Sanierung 'Glas-Hoffmann'-Bauten, Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brensing, Christian

    2012-11-01

    Between 1955 and 1959, the housing estate at the Schiller park in Berlin-Wedding (Federal Republic in Germany) established in the 1920ies was expanded by four-storey house lines, the so-called Glas-Hoffmann buildings. Since 2008, this ensemble belongs to the Unesco World Heritage. In improving the thermal insulation of the building envelope and the adaptation of the building services to today's standards, therefore the architectural aesthetics of these buildings should not be endangered. The retrofitting was a pilot project of the research project ''Monument and energy - Postwar Modernism''.

  10. Architecture on Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This paper will discuss the challenges faced by architectural education today. It takes as its starting point the double commitment of any school of architecture: on the one hand the task of preserving the particular knowledge that belongs to the discipline of architecture, and on the other hand...... the obligation to prepare students to perform in a profession that is largely defined by forces outside that discipline. It will be proposed that the autonomy of architecture can be understood as a unique kind of information: as architecture’s self-reliance or knowledge-about itself. A knowledge that...... is not scientific or academic but is more like a latent body of data that we find embedded in existing works of architecture. This information, it is argued, is not limited by the historical context of the work. It can be thought of as a virtual capacity – a reservoir of spatial configurations that...

  11. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Bier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisa­tion focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means. In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as prag­matic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sens­ing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to inter­act with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.

  12. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Bier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisation focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means.In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as pragmatic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sens­ing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to inter­act with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.

  13. Uncertain data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Meilin

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended to present the milestones in the progression of uncertain Data envelopment analysis (DEA). Chapter 1 gives some basic introduction to uncertain theories, including probability theory, credibility theory, uncertainty theory and chance theory. Chapter 2 presents a comprehensive review and discussion of basic DEA models. The stochastic DEA is introduced in Chapter 3, in which the inputs and outputs are assumed to be random variables. To obtain the probability distribution of a random variable, a lot of samples are needed to apply the statistics inference approach. Chapter 4

  14. Towards Innovative and Inclusive Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging that the Danish Buildings Regulations is having an impact on the design of inclusive architecture, a Danish government agency focuses on new models for the accessibility requirements in the future Building Regulations supporting an innovative and inclusive architecture. In order to...

  15. Sun, space and architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyama, Takeshi

    1987-01-01

    Several projects being performed in Japan on the relationship between architectural space and solar energy are briefly described. The experimental buildings under investigation include the Matsumoto house, the Maruyama house, a tropical dome, the Teraoka Windhouse restaurant, a cross-cultural building blueprint, the Hirata town hall blueprint, the Kijo Alumni hall plan and the 'Ever-Spring' house.

  16. Methodological Approach to the Energy Analysis of Unconstrained Historical Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Burattini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal set by the EU of quasi-zero energy buildings is not easy to reach for a country like Italy, as it holds a wide number of UNESCO sites and most of them are entire historical old towns. This paper focuses on the problem of the improvement of energy performance of historical Italian architecture through simple interventions that respect the building without changing its shape and structure. The work starts from an energy analysis of a building located in the historic center of Tivoli, a town close to Rome. The analysis follows the recommendations of the UNI TS 11300-Part1, which indicates how to evaluate the energy consumptions. The calculations were performed only on the building envelope, based on passive solutions and alternatives. Four passive strategies were examined and applied based on the location of the building and the non-alteration of the structure and the landscape. The obtained results impacted positively on the energy performance of the building: the annual energy saving reached a maximum value of 25%. This work shows how it is possible to improve the energy performance of an existing building achieving a significant energy saving with the respect of the building architecture, shape, function and the surrounding landscape.

  17. Bioclimatic lessons from James C. Rose's architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vissilia, A.M. [Department of Structural Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Kodrou 13, 105 58 Athens (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    This paper attempts to interpret three residences designed by landscape architect James Rose, focusing on their bioclimatic concepts (layout of the buildings: orientation in relation to sun and wind, geometry of the building form; spacing: site planning-landscape; air movement; openings: size, position and orientation, protection; and building envelope: choice of building materials and construction detailing). James Rose (1913-1991) was one of the three pioneer landscape architects who established modern landscape design in the United States. He had the opportunity to design three residences and their landscapes which constitute the clearest expression of his views about environmental design. Residences conceived in Rose's design philosophy result to the creation of an ''environment'' instead of the ordinary approach of architecture plus landscape, exhibiting his contribution to the development of a less aggressive architecture, more attentive and integrated to the environment. This is a rare approach where the design is product of one single mind that of the landscape architect. Several bioclimatic concepts are apparent in the landscape architect's works, showing a deep concern with the integration between construction and environment. The three cases explored are: the landscape architect's environment (1952, 1970), the Zheutlin environment (1956), and the Slutzker environment (1964). (author)

  18. Architecture and Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

    future. But this is not enough. The agenda is to develop architectural spaces, where social interaction and learning are enhanced by art and fun. How can we develop new architectural designs in our inner cities and waterfronts where eventscapes, learning labs and temporal use are merged with everyday......Architecture and Art as Fuel New development zones for shopping and entertainment and space for festivals inside the city CAN be coupled with art and architecture and become ‘open minded' public domains based on cultural exchange and mutual learning. This type of space could be labelled as...... "experiencescape" - a space between tourism, culture, learning and economy. Strategies related to these challenges involve new architectural concepts and art as ‘engines' for a change. New expressive architecture and old industrial buildings are often combined into hybrid narratives, linking the past with the...

  19. Study Style Building of Architecture in the Perspective of Professional Teachers%专业教师视角下的建筑系学风建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑林伟

    2014-01-01

    Style building is not only the management of schools and school workers job content, but also with professional teachers should think and work. From the perspective of a professional teacher discusses the style of study of architecture, summed up a pattern:show discipline charm, cultivate interest in learning;clear goal, to create Gakken atmosphere;develop enrichment programs, maintain the proper pressure.%学风建设不仅是院校管理层和学工的工作内容,也是专业教师应该思考和配合的工作。本文从一个专业教师的视角探讨了建筑系的学风建设,总结了一个模式:展示学科魅力,培养学习兴趣;明确奋斗目标,营造学研氛围;制定充实课程,保持适当压力。

  20. Compositional Specification of Software Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penix, John; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes our experience using parameterized algebraic specifications to model properties of software architectures. The goal is to model the decomposition of requirements independent of the style used to implement the architecture. We begin by providing an overview of the role of architecture specification in software development. We then describe how architecture specifications are build up from component and connector specifications and give an overview of insights gained from a case study used to validate the method.

  1. Mixed Reality Architecture: a dynamic architectural topology

    OpenAIRE

    Schnädelbach, H.; A Penn; Steadman, P.

    2007-01-01

    Architecture can be shown to structure patterns of co-presence and in turn to be structured itself by the rules and norms of the society present within it. This two-way relationship exists in a surprisingly stable framework, as fundamental changes to buildings are slow and costly. At the same time, change within organisations is increasingly rapid and buildings are used to accommodate some of that change. This adaptation can be supported by the use of telecommunication technolo...

  2. Categories with envelopes and imprints

    CERN Document Server

    Akbarov, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    An envelope in a category is a construction generalizing operations of "exterior completion", like completion of a locally convex space. Dually, an imprint generalizes operations of "interior enrichment", like saturation of a locally convex space. We give abstract definition for envelopes and imprints, prove existence of these objects in the categories of stereotype spaces and of stereotype algebras, and give some examples.

  3. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...... efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies....

  4. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  5. Architectural Competition and BIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Øien, Turid Borgestrand

    2015-01-01

    on architecturalcompetitions, a series of interviews was conducted with building clients as well as architects, focusing on the impact of the above-mentioned changes within the building sector on architectural competitions as an institution. In the interviews, ICT and notleast BIM was a recurring...... clients, architects and client consultants) and the applied technologies (competition forms, ICT tools, directives) in architectural competitions in a theoretical actor-network perspective. The diverging understandings of the role of BIM are demonstrating one of many negotiations in progress in the...... network of architectural competitions. BIM is transformed from an inscription device visually representing the competition proposals to form an actant that challenges the very concept of architectural competition. The objective of the paper is to contribute to theunderstanding of BIM used in the kind of...

  6. AM Envelope: The Potential of Additive Manufacturing for facade constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strauss, H.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous development of the building envelope over the past hundred years can be exemplified by a few ground-breaking inventions. Firstly, the separation of primary and secondary structure during the beginning of the 20th century; by implementing a curtain wall façade to physically separate th

  7. Architectural Slicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context of...... architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given a...... system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java....

  8. RECONSTRUCTING DECONSTRUCTION IN ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDHAM Noor Cholis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines deconstruction in architecture and forms used, which triggered by dispute of form and its scientification claimed by deconstructivists. Deconstruction terminologyis studied in the first part related to architecture field as a base knowledge. Some sample works of known deconstructionist architects are assessed in order to understand how their building is deconstructed and what forms they used. Discussion about form and its relation to other fields is then pursued by discussing the involvement of terminology of science, aesthetic pattern, and human life. The results of this discussion give clear understanding how form related to deconstruction in architecture are used.

  9. Architectural Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders......' concerns with respect to a system under development. An architectural prototype is primarily a learning and communication vehicle used to explore and experiment with alternative architectural styles, features, and patterns in order to balance different architectural qualities. The use of architectural...... prototypes in the development process is discussed, and we argue that such prototypes can play a role throughout the entire process. The use of architectural prototypes is illustrated by three distinct cases of creating software systems. We argue that architectural prototyping can provide key insights that...

  10. Architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders......' concerns with respect to a system under development. An architectural prototype is primarily a learning and communication vehicle used to explore and experiment with alternative architectural styles, features, and patterns in order to balance different architectural qualities. The use of architectural...... prototypes in the development process is discussed, and we argue that such prototypes can play a role throughout the entire process. The use of architectural prototypes is illustrated by three distinct cases of creating software systems. We argue that architectural prototyping can provide key insights that...

  11. Safe operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a slide-based oral presentation given to the COG/IAEA: Fifth technical committee meeting on 'Exchange of operating experience of pressurized heavy water reactors' held in Mangalia, Romania on 7-10 September 1998. The plant states and operating conditions are defined as resulting from the consequences of a Licensing Basis Event occurrence. Three categories of important plant parameters are considered: A - directly associated with either the mechanical or instrumentation and control aspects of the Special Safety Systems; B - process conditions related to trip parameters; C - other parameters that effect outcome of an accident. In A category the following aspects were addressed: Instrument loop uncertainties and time lags and delays; Tank levels, pressures and chemistry; Valve operating times and characteristics; Pump performance; The number of redundant pieces of equipment. Relating to category B the process conditions implied in trip initiation parameters as they effect margin to trip are discussed and illustrated by the cases of pressurizer level, RB pressure, etc. Finally, in the last category, the parameters effecting accident outcome are considered, i.e. either process variables, or equipment associated with safety related or safety support systems. The following cases are analysed PHTS Isotopic/temperatures/flows, moderator outlet temperature, RCW/RSW temperature, number of available aux. boiler feedpumps. In connection with the plant states the following matters are analyzed: fueling; boiler tube leak; defect fuel; non-equilibrium core; shutdown and reduced power operation; two pump operation. Concerning the Safety Operating Envelope (SOE) the following issues are presented: OP and P (high level overview), supported by OM tests and surveillance, by taking into account the use Tech Specs for the future, the role of safety analysis, historical perspective at PLGS. Finally, the DOA (Design/Operation/Analysis) Program at PLGS is described and the following

  12. Reuse and Upcycling of Municipal Waste for ZEB Envelope Design in European Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pennacchia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building energy efficiency and urban waste management are two focal issues for improving environmental status and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The main aim of this paper is to compare economic costs of new building envelope structures designed by authors reusing and upcycling municipal waste in order to decrease energy demand from the building sector and, at the same time, improve eco-friendly waste management at the local scale. The reuse of waste for building envelope structures is one of the main principles of the Earthship buildings model, based on the use of passive solar principles in autonomous earth-sheltered homes. This Earthship principle has been analyzed in order to optimize buildings’ energy performance and reuse municipal waste for new building envelope structures in urban areas. Indeed, the elaborated structures have been designed for urban contexts, with the aim of reuse waste coming from surrounding landfills. The methods include an analysis of thermal performance of urban waste for designing new building envelope structures realized by assembling waste and isolating materials not foreseen in Earthship buildings. The reused materials are: cardboard tubes, automobile tires, wood pallets, and plastic and glass bottles. Finally, comparing economic costs of these new building envelope structures, the obtained results highlight their economic feasibility compared to a traditional structure with similar thermal transmittance.

  13. Architecture and communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Hudnik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents effects of technology, science and capital strategies on changes in traditional forms and definitions of space, architecture and bodies. It confronts us with new processes of thinking and living that are constantly being transformed into new dynamic time and spatial contexts. Space is becoming the information filter, communication network. A cross-section of three landscapes: landscape of megastructures, nomadic landscapes and psychedelic landscapes, theory contributes to understanding of media and space-age technology, information technology and electronical language. It offers designs of various megastructures, media surfaces and envelopes of contemporary information society: the anthropological module, hyper- and infra-bodies, bio-electronical bodies and population genetics bodies. It presents the architecture of communication.

  14. The LHC in an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The series of envelopes featuring CERN issued this summer was a huge success. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex will shortly be launching the second set of pre-paid envelopes issued in collaboration with the Laboratory this year, this time highlighting the LHC. Five thousand envelopes describing the accelerator’s capabilities will go on sale on 12 November, and some of the packs will even contain a small sample of the cables from the heart of the LHC magnets. The sets of ten pre-paid envelopes will tell you everything about CERN’s flagship accelerator, from its astounding technical capabilities to its spin-offs in the fields of technology and human resources. Each envelope will feature a different attribute or spin-off of the LHC. People will be invited to consult CERN’s public website for more detailed explanations if they want to know more. The new envelopes will be available from five post offices in the Pays de Gex (Ferney-Voltaire, Prévessin...

  15. The LHC on an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The series of envelopes featuring CERN issued this summer was a huge success. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex will shortly be launching the second set of pre-paid envelopes issued in collaboration with the Laboratory this year, this time highlighting the LHC. Five thousand envelopes describing the accelerator’s capabilities will go on sale on 12 November, and some of the packs will even contain a small sample of the cables from the heart of the LHC magnets. The sets of ten pre-paid envelopes will tell you everything about CERN’s flagship accelerator, from its astounding technical capabilities to its spin-offs in the fields of technology and human resources. Each envelope will feature a different attribute or spin-off of the LHC. People will be invited to consult CERN’s public website for more detailed explanations if they want to know more. The new envelopes will be available from five post offices in the Pays ...

  16. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this second rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In the first volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: schools, laboratories and universities, and sports and educational centres. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (11 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  17. From Architectural Acoustics to Acoustical Architecture Using Computer Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; KIRKEGAARD, Poul Henning

    2005-01-01

    Architectural acoustics design has in the past been based on simple design rules. However, with a growing complexity in architectural acoustics and the emergence of room acoustic simulation programmes with considerable potential, it is now possible to subjectively analyse and evaluate acoustic properties prior to the actual construction of a building. With the right tools applied, acoustic design can become an integral part of the architectural design process. The aim of this paper is to inve...

  18. The architecture of the four-īwān building tradition as a representation of paradise and dynastic power aspirations

    OpenAIRE

    Paskaleva, Elena Georgieva

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation analyses how architecture represents sacred realities. The main focus is on Tīmūrid architecture as an instrument to legitimize extreme and universal power. The four-īwān plan is examined as a dynastic architectural tool marking the centre of the world, from which power spreads along the cardinal points to all corners of the macrosomos. Kosh examples of Tīmūrid mosques, madrasas and tombs are used to illustrate this approach. The concept of recreating Paradise on earth is fur...

  19. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Griffiths, D. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the 2013 research project was to develop the model for predicting fully guarded test results (FGT), using unguarded test data and specific building features of apartment units. The model developed has a coefficient of determination R2 value of 0.53 with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.13. Both statistical metrics indicate that the model is relatively strong. When tested against data that was not included in the development of the model, prediction accuracy was within 19%, which is reasonable given that seasonal differences in blower door measurements can vary by as much as 25%.

  20. Architectural Qualities in Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    In recent years in Denmark there has been an increasing focus on implementing passive and active strategies in buildings to fulfil low energy demands like for example the Passive House Standard. From a technical rational perspective, plenty of pilot projects and commercial projects have shown that...... it is possible to build this type of houses, but the knowledge and discussion about the architectural quality in the buildings is hardly present. The question is if the strategies for optimising energy use and indoor environment collide with the architectural qualities of buildings. This paper brings...... forth this discussion based in literature and four case studies. The paper highlights cases on how passive strategies for optimising energy use and indoor environment affect, restrict, inspire or create possibilities for the architectural expression and there through the architectural quality of the...

  1. An Architectural Strategy for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Raymond M., Ed.

    This volume presents the proceedings of the preconference institute of the Architecture for Public Libraries Committee of Library Administration Division's Building and Equipment section. The keynote address raises questions about architecture in a strategy for change. The remaining 14 articles and presentations are divided into five sections:…

  2. Robotically Driven Architectural Production

    OpenAIRE

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Robotically driven architectural production advances seamless, computer-numerically controlled (CNC) and robotically supported design to production and operation processes enabling im-plementation of robotically driven buildings from conceptualisation to use. It enables production of free-formed, heterogeneous, optimized structures in order to address specific requirements in terms of properties (density, consistency, rigidity, etc.) and behaviours (re-configurability, responsiveness, etc.) i...

  3. Architecture and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael; Marsh, Rob

    2009-01-01

    , and where the transition from an industrial to an information- or knowledge-based society is well-developed. The last three decades of the 20th century show many conscientious - both governmental and architectural - Danish attempts at creating buildings with lower heat consumption. The lower U...

  4. The estimation of enclosing structures edge zones influence on thermal performance and energy efficiency of buildings (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korniyenko S.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of priority directions in modern building is maintenance of energy efficiency of buildings and constructions. This problem can be realized by perfection of architectural, constructive and technical decisions. The particular interest is represented by an influence estimation of temperature and moisture mode of enclosing structures on a thermal performance and energy efficiency of buildings. The analysis of the data available in the literature has shown absence of effective calculation methods of temperature and moisture mode in edge zones of enclosing structures that complicates the decision of this problem.The purpose of the given work is an estimation of edge zones influence on a thermal performance and energy efficiency of buildings. The design procedure of energy parameters of a building for the heating period, realized in the computer program is developed. The given technique allows settling an invoice power inputs on heating, hot water supply, an electrical supply. Power inputs on heating include conduction heat-losses through an envelope of a building taking into account edge zones, ventilation heat-losses and leakage air (infiltration, internal household thermal emissions, heat-receipt from solar radiation. On an example it is shown that the account of edge zones raises conduction heat-losses through an envelope of a building on 37 %, the expense of thermal energy on building heating on 32 %, and the expense thermal and electric energy on 13 %. Consequently, thermal and moisture mode in edge zones of enclosing structures makes essential impact on building power consumption. Perfection of the constructive decision leads to decrease of transmission heat-losses through an envelope of a building on 29 %, the expense of thermal energy on building heating on 25 %, the expense of thermal and electric energy on 10 %. Thus, perfection of edge zones of enclosing structures has high potential of energy efficiency.

  5. Capital Architecture: Situating symbolism parallel to architectural methods and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Bassam

    Capital Architecture is a symbol of a nation's global presence and the cultural and social focal point of its inhabitants. Since the advent of High-Modernism in Western cities, and subsequently decolonised capitals, civic architecture no longer seems to be strictly grounded in the philosophy that national buildings shape the legacy of government and the way a nation is regarded through its built environment. Amidst an exceedingly globalized architectural practice and with the growing concern of key heritage foundations over the shortcomings of international modernism in representing its immediate socio-cultural context, the contextualization of public architecture within its sociological, cultural and economic framework in capital cities became the key denominator of this thesis. Civic architecture in capital cities is essential to confront the challenges of symbolizing a nation and demonstrating the legitimacy of the government'. In today's dominantly secular Western societies, governmental architecture, especially where the seat of political power lies, is the ultimate form of architectural expression in conveying a sense of identity and underlining a nation's status. Departing with these convictions, this thesis investigates the embodied symbolic power, the representative capacity, and the inherent permanence in contemporary architecture, and in its modes of production. Through a vast study on Modern architectural ideals and heritage -- in parallel to methodologies -- the thesis stimulates the future of large scale governmental building practices and aims to identify and index the key constituents that may respond to the lack representation in civic architecture in capital cities.

  6. Virtual architecture: reconstructing architecture through photography

    OpenAIRE

    Germen, Murat

    2007-01-01

    The concept of construction in architectural design process is a temporary action that exists for a while and transforms itself into another product; i.e. the final building to be inhabited. Construction site can be taken as a podium where a play-to-remain-incomplete is being staged. The incompleteness causes us to dream, due to the fact that a complete building loses its narrative potential as it informs us about all the necessary pieces that constitute the whole: There is no puzzle to solve...

  7. Architectural Contestation

    OpenAIRE

    Merle, J.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the reductive reading of Georges Bataille's work done within the field of architectural criticism and theory which tends to set aside the fundamental ‘broken’ totality of Bataille's oeuvre and also to narrowly interpret it as a mere critique of architectural form, consequently presenting it either as the negation of all form of architecture or as the critique of 'classical' architectural forms. Against this ‘appropriation’, i.e. this reductive reading and the subse...

  8. Architectural Theatricality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    and recovery through the architecture framing eating experiences, this article examines, from a theoretical perspective, two less debated concepts relating to hospitality called food design and architectural theatricality. In architectural theory the nineteenth century German architect Gottfried...... Semper is known for his writings on theatricality, understood as a holistic design approach emphasizing the contextual, cultural, ritual and social meanings rooted in architecture. Relative hereto, the International Food Design Society recently argued, in a similar holistic manner, that the methodology...

  9. AM Envelope. The potential of Additive Manufacturing for facade constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Strauss

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation shows the potential of Additive Manufacturing (AM for the development of building envelopes: AM will change the way of designing facades, how we engineer and produce them. To achieve today’s demands from those future envelopes, we have to find new solutions.New technologies offer one possible way to do so. They open new approaches in designing, producing and processing building construction and facades. Finding the one capable of having big impact is difficult – Additive Manufacturing is one possible answer.The term ‘AM Envelope’ (Additive Manufacturing Envelope describes the transfer of this technology to the building envelope. Additive Fabrication is a building block that aids in developing the building envelope from a mere space enclosure to a dynamic building envelope.First beginnings of AM facade construction show up when dealing with relevant aspects like material consumption, mounting or part’s performance.From those starting points several parts of an existing post-and-beam façade system were optimized, aiming toward the implementation of AM into the production chain. Enhancements on all different levels of production were achieved: storing, producing, mounting and performance.AM offers the opportunity to manufacture facades ‘just in time’. It is no longer necessary to store or produce large numbers of parts in advance. Initial investment for tooling can be avoided, as design improvements can be realized within the dataset of the AM part. AM is based on ‘tool-less’ production, all parts can be further developed with every new generation.Producing tool-less also allows for new shapes and functional parts in small batch sizes – down to batch size one. The parts performance can be re-interpreted based on the demands within the system, not based on the limitations of conventional manufacturing. AM offers new ways of materializing the physical part around its function. It leads toward customized and

  10. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  11. The impact of roofing material on building energy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Ali

    The last decade has seen an increase in the efficient use of energy sources such as water, electricity, and natural gas as well as a variety of roofing materials, in the heating and cooling of both residential and commercial infrastructure. Oil costs, coal and natural gas prices remain high and unstable. All of these instabilities and increased costs have resulted in higher heating and cooling costs, and engineers are making an effort to keep them under control by using energy efficient building materials. The building envelope (that which separates the indoor and outdoor environments of a building) plays a significant role in the rate of building energy consumption. An appropriate architectural design of a building envelope can considerably lower the energy consumption during hot summers and cold winters, resulting in reduced HVAC loads. Several building components (walls, roofs, fenestration, foundations, thermal insulation, external shading devices, thermal mass, etc.) make up this essential part of a building. However, thermal insulation of a building's rooftop is the most essential part of a building envelope in that it reduces the incoming "heat flux" (defined as the amount of heat transferred per unit area per unit time from or to a surface) (Sadineni et al., 2011). Moreover, more than 60% of heat transfer occurs through the roof regardless of weather, since a roof is often the building surface that receives the largest amount of solar radiation per square annually (Suman, and Srivastava, 2009). Hence, an argument can be made that the emphasis on building energy efficiency has influenced roofing manufacturing more than any other building envelope component. This research project will address roofing energy performance as the source of nearly 60% of the building heat transfer (Suman, and Srivastava, 2009). We will also rank different roofing materials in terms of their energy performance. Other parts of the building envelope such as walls, foundation

  12. Envelope Inflation or Stellar Wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, S.; Matzner, C. D.

    We an optically-thick, transonic, steady wind model for a H-free Wolf-Rayet star. A bifurcation is found across a critical mass loss rate Mb. Slower winds M < Mb extend by several hydrostatic stellar radii, reproduce features of envelope in ation from Petrovic et al. (2006) and Gräfener et al. (2012), and are energetically unbound. This work is of particular interest for extended envelopes and winds, radiative hydrodynamic instabilities (eg. wind stagnation, clumping, etc.), and NLTE atmospheric models.

  13. Analysis of energy economic renovation for historic wooden apartment buildings in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Energy saving potential in historic wooden apartment buildings is up to 63%. • In historic wooden apartment buildings an economically viable energy saving level is 50%. • The largest energy saving potential lies in heat source and building service systems. • Of the building structures, insulation of the external wall has the highest potential. • New heating and ventilation systems must be installed to fulfill regulations limits. - Abstract: Buildings represent the largest sector of primary energy consumption and play a major role in saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Our analysis of energy consumption and potential energy savings is based on field measurements, computer simulations and economic calculations. The average primary energy consumption (PE) of wooden apartment buildings was 331 kW h/(m2 a) 83% higher than the limit 180 kW h/(m2 a) set in national regulations for apartment buildings subject to major renovation. The studied buildings represent a high potential for energy savings. The renovation packages were compiled using different insulation measures, HVAC solutions and energy sources to achieve a 20–65% reduction of primary energy. For historic buildings, the renovation solutions that concentrate on the building envelope can be problematic due to the need to preserve cultural and architectural values. Our calculation results indicate that the cost optimal PE level is around 250 kW h/(m2 a) and the point at which renovation packages recover expenses is around a PE level of 170 kW h/(m2 a). In terms of the architectural appearance the point at which renovation packages recover expenses is around a PE level of 210 kW h/(m2 a). We propose to set a different PE limit for historic wooden apartment buildings with an architectural appearance worth preserving

  14. Improvement of energy performances of existing buildings by application of solar thermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić-Furundžić Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of energy performances of the existing buildings in the suburban settlement Konjarnik in Belgrade, by the application of solar thermal systems is the topic presented in this paper. Hypothetical models of building improvements are created to allow the benefits of applying solar thermal collectors to residential buildings in Belgrade climate conditions to be estimated. This case study presents different design variants of solar thermal collectors integrated into a multifamily building envelope. The following aspects of solar thermal systems integration are analyzed in the paper: energy, architectural, ecological and economic. The results show that in Belgrade climatic conditions significant energy savings and reduction of CO2 emissions can be obtained with the application of solar thermal collectors.

  15. New developments in illumination, heating and cooling technologies for energy-efficient buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a concise review of new designs and developments of illumination, heating and air-conditioning systems and technologies for energy-efficient buildings. Important breakthroughs in these areas include high-efficiency and/or reduced cost solar system components, LED lamps, smart windows, computer-controlled illumination systems, compact combined heat-power generation systems, and so on. To take advantage of these new technologies, hybrid or cascade energy systems have been proposed and/or investigated. A survey of innovative architectural and building envelope designs that have the potential to considerably reduce the illumination and heating and cooling costs for office buildings and residential houses is also included in the review. In addition, new designs and ideas that can be easily implemented to improve the energy efficiency and/or reduce greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts of new or existing buildings are proposed and discussed.

  16. Thermal Space in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    buildings. However at the bottom of this lies an understanding of how we inhabit the space in our buildings and how we historically have adapted to the changing conditions of the seasons in our buildings. Through an increased understanding of this adaptability of and to our buildings, our work with spaces...... and understanding of spaces in buildings can change significantly and instead of the creation of frozen geometrical spaces, thermal spaces can be created as it is suggested in meteorological architecture where functions are distributed in relation to temperature gradients. This creates an interesting contrast...... to the current discussions about passive houses that today is starting to set the standards in a Scandinavian context, where the highly controlled indoor environment is in focus relying on mechanical ventilation, creating spaces with a narrow margin for comfort. One can raise the question if re...

  17. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  18. Outliers In Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Khaleel Ahamed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Data Envelopment Analysis is a linear programming technique that assigns efficiency scores to firms engaged in producing similar outputs employing similar inputs. Extremely efficient firms are potential Outliers. The method developed detects Outliers, implementing Stochastic Threshold Value, with computational ease. It is useful in data filtering in BIG DATA problems.

  19. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the Building America expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  20. Design of low-energy building and energy consumption analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鸣; 陈滨; 范悦; 朱佳音; 索健

    2009-01-01

    In China,a new "Design standard for energy efficiency of residential buildings (for cold region)" was introduced in 2006. In this new standard,more high level insulation of the building envelope is required,yearly energy requirement for heating must be less than 55 kWh/(m2·a)(regarded as a low-energy house). The new attempt was carried out in the process of architecture design with an evaluation on energy consumption of the building. The design plan was brought forward and compared. PHPP software from German was applied to calculate energy consumption of the passive residential building. The optimum design planning was discussed and model of passive house suited to China’s national conditions were attempted. The compactness,solar air collector and the window-wall ratio have essential influence on the energy consumption of buildings. The annual heat demands for the buildings with the window-wall ratio 0.35 and 0.50 are 48 kWh/(m2·a) and 46 kWh/(m2·a),respectively. The yearly auxiliary heat of building with the wall-mounted solar air collectors and the window-wall ratio 0.35 is just 4.8 kWh/(m2·a).

  1. Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, Per; Andresen, Inger; Perino, Marco; van der Aa, Ad

    2006-01-01

    Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie with technologies that promote the integration of responsive building elements and building services in integrated building concepts. In order to address some of these issues an international research effort, IE...

  2. Architecture Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The first Web extra at http://youtu.be/wUGHvocfix0 is an audio interview in which Davide Falessi speaks with guest editors Paris Avgeriou and Rich Hilliard about the importance of architecture sustainabil...

  3. Experiences when employing different alternatives for envelope upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peru Elguezabal Esnarrizaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of achieving the 2020 goals in terms of energy savings and improving efficiency are guiding numerous research initiatives looking for more insulated envelopes, dealing with thermal performance of insulation materials and envelope systems. Nevertheless, the envelope integrates within the building and this improvement on the insulation performance has to be properly adopted, taking into account the interrelation of main elements composing the overall system (facade, frame, slabs, openings, partitions etc., as well as side effects originated not only for new erected buildings, but specifically in renovation and retrofitting works. This paper describes real experiences when considering various options for upgrading the facade through the increase of the insulation capacity, starting from external overcladding prefabricated panels and ventilated facades, advancing to more sustainable low carbon systems and ending with even more highly insulated solutions employing aerogels. Lessons from these cases, where energy and hygrothermal assessments have being carried out, demonstrate the influence of the design and construction phases and the relevance of disregarded effects such as minor thermal bridges, uncontrolled craftsmanship on site, and moisture transfer for the different technologies considered. Finally, possible alternatives are provided to overcome some of the detected difficulties, such as combination with non-metallic structural components and building membranes, and being prepared for future challenges and new developments when these isolative elements are combined with other technologies, as for example, renewable energy harvesting devices.  

  4. Software architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Oliver; Chughtai, Arif

    2011-01-01

    As a software architect you work in a wide-ranging and dynamic environment. You have to understand the needs of your customer, design architectures that satisfy both functional and non-functional requirements, and lead development teams in implementing the architecture. And it is an environment that is constantly changing: trends such as cloud computing, service orientation, and model-driven procedures open up new architectural possibilities. This book will help you to develop a holistic architectural awareness and knowledge base that extends beyond concrete methods, techniques, and technologi

  5. Catalyst Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans; Marling, Gitte; Hansen, Peter Mandal

    2014-01-01

    How can architecture promote the enriching experiences of the tolerant, the democratic, and the learning city - a city worth living in, worth supporting and worth investing in? Catalyst Architecture comprises architectural projects, which, by virtue of their location, context and their combination...... of programs, have a role in mediating positive social and/or cultural development. In this sense, we talk about architecture as a catalyst for: sustainable adaptation of the city’s infrastructure appropriate renovation of dilapidated urban districts strengthening of social cohesiveness in the city...

  6. Energy-saving material optimization of the envelop enclosure of residential buildings based on value analysis%基于价值分析的住宅建筑维护结构节能材料优选的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽妍; 石振武

    2015-01-01

    建筑业节能建筑、绿色建筑正在兴起,但由于成本相对较高,导致节能材料的应用并不普遍。根据价值工程理论,对现有的住宅建筑围护结构的节能材料进行价值分析,在外墙外保温系统材料和外门窗材料的多种方案中,优选出符合哈尔滨市地理气候特点的节能方案。优选出的方案在保证功能性的前提下提升使用价值,降低建造成本。%Nowadays , the construction industry is developing energy‐saving building , however , its relatively high cost has caused the uncommon application of energy‐saving materials . According to the theory of value engineering ,this paper proposes a value analysis of current energy‐saving materials of the envelop enclosure of residential buildings ,in order to select the energy‐saving solution w hich conforms with the geographical and climatic characteristics in Harbin among various schemes of the material of the exterior wall insulation system and external doors and windows .The optimum scheme is to promote the use value and reduce the building cost on the premise of guaranteed functionality .Also ,It will provide reference for the construction and development of Harbin ,in order to realize the sustainable development of construction industry .

  7. A SOA-based architecture framework

    OpenAIRE

    Aalst, van der, WMP Wil; Beisiegel, M; Hee, van, .; König, D.; Stahl, C Christian

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present first results of a SOA-based architecture framework. The architecture framework is required to be close to industry standards, especially to service component architecture (SCA), language independent (i.e. it is adoptable) and the building blocks of a system, activities and data, are first class citizens. We present a meta model of the architecture framework and discuss its concepts in detail.

  8. A methodological study of environmental simulation in architecture and engineering. Integrating daylight and thermal performance across the urban and building scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattrup, Peter Andreas; Strømann-Andersen, Jakob Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a methodological and conceptual framework that allows for the integration and creation of knowledge across professional borders in the field of environmental simulation. The framework has been developed on the basis of interviews with leading international practitioners, key...... theories of environmental performance in architecture and engineering, and a range of simulation experiments by the authors. The framework is an open structure, which can continuously be renewed and contributed to by any author. The value of the framework is demonstrated, using it to map a series of...... simulation studies, emphazising the multidimensionality of environmental performance optimization. Clarifying the conceptual interconnectivity between architecture and engineering, - agency and physics, - not only enhances communicative power and the dissemination of knowledge, but becomes instrumental in...

  9. Dynamics of extended AGB star envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, C; Sedlmayr, E

    2010-01-01

    The dust formed in extended circumstellar envelopes of long-period variables and Miras has a strong influence on the envelope dynamics. A radiatively driven instability caused by the formation of dust leads to the development of an autonomous dynamics characterised by a set of distinct frequencies. We study the interplay between the envelope's internal dynamics and an external excitation by a pulsating star.

  10. Solar envelope zoning: application to the city planning process. Los Angeles case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Solar envelope zoning represents a promising approach to solar access protection. A solar envelope defines the volume within which a building will not shade adjacent lots or buildings. Other solar access protection techniques, such as privately negotiated easements, continue to be tested and implemented but none offer the degree of comprehensiveness evident in this approach. Here, the City of Los Angeles, through the Mayor's Energy Office, the City Planning Department, and the City Attorney's Office, examine the feasibility of translating the concept of solar envelopes into zoning techniques. They concluded that envelope zoning is a fair and consistent method of guaranteeing solar access, but problems of complexity and uncertainty may limit its usefulness. Envelope zoning may be inappropriate for the development of high density centers and for more restrictive community plans. Aids or tools to administer envelope zoning need to be developed. Finally, some combination of approaches, including publicly recorded easements, subdivision approval and envelope zoning, need to be adopted to encourage solar use in cities. (MHR)

  11. Chemical Models of Collapsing Envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Bergin, E A

    1999-01-01

    We discuss recent models of chemical evolution in the developing and collapsing protostellar envelopes associated with low-mass star formation. In particular, the effects of depletion of gas-phase molecules onto grain surfaces is considered. We show that during the middle to late evolutionary stages, prior to the formation of a protostar, various species selectively deplete from the gas phase. The principal pattern of selective depletions is the depletion of sulfur-bearing molecules relative to nitrogen-bearing species: NH3 and N2H+. This pattern is shown to be insensitive to the details of the dynamics and marginally sensitive to whether the grain mantle is dominated by polar or non-polar molecules. Based on these results we suggest that molecular ions are good tracers of collapsing envelopes. The effects of coupling chemistry and dynamics on the resulting physical evolution are also examined. Particular attention is paid to comparisons between models and observations.

  12. Avionics System Architecture Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Savio; Hall, Ronald; Traylor, marcus; Whitfield, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Avionics System Architecture Tool (ASAT) is a computer program intended for use during the avionics-system-architecture- design phase of the process of designing a spacecraft for a specific mission. ASAT enables simulation of the dynamics of the command-and-data-handling functions of the spacecraft avionics in the scenarios in which the spacecraft is expected to operate. ASAT is built upon I-Logix Statemate MAGNUM, providing a complement of dynamic system modeling tools, including a graphical user interface (GUI), modeling checking capabilities, and a simulation engine. ASAT augments this with a library of predefined avionics components and additional software to support building and analyzing avionics hardware architectures using these components.

  13. Architecture of Environmental Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    2006-01-01

    An architecture of Environmental Engineering has been developed comprising the various disciplines and tools involved. It identifies industry as the major actor and target group, and it builds on the concept of Eco-efficiency. To improve Eco-efficiency, there is a limited number of intervention......-efficiency is the aim of Environmental Engineering, the discipline of synthesis – design and creation of solutions – will form a core pillar of the architecture. Other disciplines of Environmental Engineering exist forming the necessary background and frame for the synthesis. Environmental Engineering, thus, in...... essence comprise the disciplines of: management, system description & inventory, analysis & assessment, prioritisation, synthesis, and communication, each existing at all levels of intervention. The developed architecture of Environmental Engineering, thus, consists of thirty individual disciplines...

  14. Architecture of Environmental Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    2004-01-01

    An architecture of Environmental Engineering has been developed comprising the various disciplines and tools involved. It identifies industry as the major actor and target group, and it builds on the concept of Eco-efficiency. To improve Eco-efficiency, there is a limited number of intervention...... of Eco-efficiency is the aim of Environmental Engineering, the discipline of synthesis – design and creation of solutions – will form a core pillar of the architecture. Other disciplines of Environmental Engineering exist forming the necessary background and frame for the synthesis. Environmental...... Engineering, thus, in essence comprise the disciplines of: management, system description & inventory, analysis & assessment, prioritisation, synthesis, and communication, each existing at all levels of intervention. The developed architecture of Environmental Engineering, thus, consists of thirty individual...

  15. Data Envelopment Analysis: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash C. Ray

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has emerged as an important nonparametric method of evaluating performance of decision making units through benchmarking. Although developed primarily for measuring technical efficiency, DEA is now applied extensively for measuring scale efficiency, cost efficiency, and profit efficiency as well. This paper integrates the different DEA models commonly applied in empirical research with their underlying theoretical foundations in neoclassic...

  16. Systemic Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poletto, Marco; Pasquero, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    This is a manual investigating the subject of urban ecology and systemic development from the perspective of architectural design. It sets out to explore two main goals: to discuss the contemporary relevance of a systemic practice to architectural design, and to share a toolbox of informational...... design protocols developed to describe the city as a territory of self-organization. Collecting together nearly a decade of design experiments by the authors and their practice, ecoLogicStudio, the book discusses key disciplinary definitions such as ecologic urbanism, algorithmic architecture, bottom......-up or tactical design, behavioural space and the boundary of the natural and the artificial realms within the city and architecture. A new kind of "real-time world-city" is illustrated in the form of an operational design manual for the assemblage of proto-architectures, the incubation of proto...

  17. High-Tech Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Eşsiz

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The technological development in building and construction area, bring with the new construction systems and the new products. The aim of this study is to define the High Tech concept, and set the common and basic characteristics of High Tech applications. During 1970’s High Tech was born and developed in Britain. Especially British Architects Richard Rogers, Michael Hopkins, Norman Foster, Nicholas Grimshaw and Ian Ritchie are the leaders of this style. Their architecture show the machine aesthetic and use of industrial revoluation materials such as glass and steel. The reasons for wide usage of this technology in building constructions are; the ease of renewing the structural and installation systems by the changing technology and giving monumentality to the prestige buildings. High Tech building which we have many examples of give their occupants a lot of opportunities and also they can adapt itself to the time.

  18. Open system architecture for CIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This book addresses the need for an open system architecture for computer integrated manufacturing (CIM-OSA) which provides: a general definition of the scope and nature of CIM, guidelines for implementation, a description of constituent systems and subsystems, a modular framework complying with international standards. CIM-OSA defines an architecture for the building of a computer managed and integrated manufacturing enterprise. The architecture is subdivided into three architectural levels: a requirements definition model, a design specification model, and an implementation description model. This architecture provides building blocks for the design and execution of a CIM system. To develop such an architecture, ESPRIT Project 688, A European Computer Integrated Manufacturing Architecture (AMICE), was launched in 1986. Under the management of ESPRIT Consortium AMICE, 21 companies from 7 European countries are cooperating in the project. This book reports on the results obtained in the project and gives a detailed description of CIM-OSA. The architecture will be employed in the next generation CIM systems.

  19. Science for Architecture: Designing Architectural Research in Post-War Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Rosenberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available How did architectural research in Sweden become scientific in its approach rather than artistic, as architecture education in the post-war period was primarily influenced by the Bauhaus pedagogy?
Via the American Bauhaus pedagogical developments taking place at the IIT and the GSD, Swedish architecture education adopted the artistic ‘learning by doing’ approach.The most interesting structure signifying this was a permanent exhibition of building materials located in the foreground of the 1957 KTH architecture school. When the new KTH architecture school was completed its architecture illustrated another image: that of the new architecture curriculum, A68, put into practice the same year as the building was designed. 
A68 reorganized architecture education and put more focus on environmental studies and building function analysis.The new curriculum included the subjects Formlära, Design Principles, and Byggnadsfunktionslära, Building Function Analysis, which were technical in their approach of using empirical research. As a result, the 1969 KTH architecture building included a laboratory for testing technical problems in air-conditioned spaces as well as a laboratory for testing acoustics. The 1961 LTH architecture building included a full-scale-laboratory where studies were directed by Carin Boalt, the first female professor at a technical university.

  20. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF THE BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Bocharnikov, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    The subject of bachelor’s thesis is about energy efficiency of the building. Much attention is being paid to energy saving problems all over the world. In the first part it theoretic base for thermal performance requirements of buildings. It includes main positions of Russian requirements for thermal performance. Also it is about general types of building envelope. The second part is about energy audit of buildings. In this part there is an energy efficiency assessment methodology. Energy eff...

  1. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles to...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  2. Architectural technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The booklet offers an overall introduction to the Institute of Architectural Technology and its projects and activities, and an invitation to the reader to contact the institute or the individual researcher for further information. The research, which takes place at the Institute of Architectural...... Technology at the Roayl Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, reflects a spread between strategic, goal-oriented pilot projects, commissioned by a ministry, a fund or a private company, and on the other hand projects which originate from strong personal interests and enthusiasm of individual...

  3. From Architectural Acoustics to Acoustical Architecture Using Computer Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2005-01-01

    Architectural acoustics design has in the past been based on simple design rules. However, with a growing complexity in architectural acoustics and the emergence of room acoustic simulation programmes with considerable potential, it is now possible to subjectively analyse and evaluate acoustic...... properties prior to the actual construction of a building. With the right tools applied, acoustic design can become an integral part of the architectural design process. The aim of this paper is to investigate the field of application that an acoustic simulation programme can have during an architectural...... the first phases in the architectural process and set out a reverse strategy for simulation programmes to do so - from developing acoustics from given spaces to developing spaces from given acoustics...

  4. The epigenetics of nuclear envelope organization and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, Eric C. [Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Michael Swann Building, Room 5.22, Edinburgh EH9 3JR (United Kingdom)], E-mail: e.schirmer@ed.ac.uk

    2008-12-01

    Mammalian chromosomes and some specific genes have non-random positions within the nucleus that are tissue-specific and heritable. Work in many organisms has shown that genes at the nuclear periphery tend to be inactive and altering their partitioning to the interior results in their activation. Proteins of the nuclear envelope can recruit chromatin with specific epigenetic marks and can also recruit silencing factors that add new epigenetic modifications to chromatin sequestered at the periphery. Together these findings indicate that the nuclear envelope is a significant epigenetic regulator. The importance of this function is emphasized by observations of aberrant distribution of peripheral heterochromatin in several human diseases linked to mutations in NE proteins. These debilitating inherited diseases range from muscular dystrophies to the premature aging progeroid syndromes and the heterochromatin changes are just one early clue for understanding the molecular details of how they work. The architecture of the nuclear envelope provides a unique environment for epigenetic regulation and as such a great deal of research will be required before we can ascertain the full range of its contributions to epigenetics.

  5. The epigenetics of nuclear envelope organization and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammalian chromosomes and some specific genes have non-random positions within the nucleus that are tissue-specific and heritable. Work in many organisms has shown that genes at the nuclear periphery tend to be inactive and altering their partitioning to the interior results in their activation. Proteins of the nuclear envelope can recruit chromatin with specific epigenetic marks and can also recruit silencing factors that add new epigenetic modifications to chromatin sequestered at the periphery. Together these findings indicate that the nuclear envelope is a significant epigenetic regulator. The importance of this function is emphasized by observations of aberrant distribution of peripheral heterochromatin in several human diseases linked to mutations in NE proteins. These debilitating inherited diseases range from muscular dystrophies to the premature aging progeroid syndromes and the heterochromatin changes are just one early clue for understanding the molecular details of how they work. The architecture of the nuclear envelope provides a unique environment for epigenetic regulation and as such a great deal of research will be required before we can ascertain the full range of its contributions to epigenetics

  6. New Energy Architecture. Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    A global transition towards a new energy architecture is under way, driven by countries' need to respond to the changing dynamics of economic growth, environmental sustainability and energy security. The World Economic Forum, in collaboration with Accenture, has created the New Energy Architecture Initiative to address and accelerate this transition. The Initiative supports the development of national strategies and policy frameworks as countries seek to achieve the combined goals of energy security and access, sustainability, and economic growth and development. The World Economic Forum has formed a partnership with the Ministry of Energy of Myanmar to help apply the Initiative's approach to this developing and resource-rich nation. The Asian Development Bank and the World Economic Forum's Project Adviser, Accenture, have collaborated with the Forum on this consultation process, and have been supported by relevant government, industry and civil society stakeholders. The consultation process aims to understand the nation's current energy architecture challenges and provide an overview of a path to a New Energy Architecture through a series of insights. These insights could form the basis for a long-term multistakeholder roadmap to build Myanmar's energy sector in a way that is secure and sustainable, and promotes economic growth as the country makes its democratic transition. While not all recommendations can be implemented in the near term, they do provide options for creating a prioritized roadmap for Myanmar's energy transition. This report is the culmination of a nine-month multistakeholder process investigating Myanmar's energy architecture. Over the course of many visits to the country, the team has conducted numerous interviews, multistakeholder workshops, and learning and data-gathering exercises to ensure a comprehensive range of information and views. The team has also engaged with a variety of stakeholders to better

  7. Cell Architecture for Nanoelectronic Design

    OpenAIRE

    Martorell, F.; A. Rubio

    2007-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/5920) International audience Several nanoelectronic devices have been already proved. However, no architecture which makes use of them provides a feasible opportunity to build medium/large systems. Nanoarchitecture proposals only solve a small part of the problems needed to achieve a real design. In this paper, we propose and analyze a cell architecture that overcomes most of those at the gate level. ...

  8. Model Driven ArchitectureTM

    CERN Document Server

    Frankel, David S

    2003-01-01

    Model Driven Architecture MDA)is a new methodologyf rom OMG that uses modeling languages like UML along with programming languages like Java to build software architectures. PriceWatersCoopers' prestigious Technology Center just predicted that MDA will be one of the most important methodologies in the next two years Written by the lead architect of the specification who provides inside information on how MDA has worked in the real world

  9. Framing Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Shirey, David E.

    2002-01-01

    The following thesis is comprised of a pair of projects focused on the making of architecture through the concept of framing. The work was conducted at the Academia dà ­Architettura in Mendrisio, Switzerland, under the direction of Peter Zumthor, Miguel Kreisler and Myriam Sterling, emphasizing the relationship between ordered structures and contextual propriety. The making of architecture is inherently most pure when approached as the subtraction of unnecessary elements and a distillation ...

  10. Textile Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Maurin, Bernard; Motro, René

    2013-01-01

    The basic idea for a textile architecture project originates during early meetings between the architect and the engineer. The morphologic richness of such projects is provided by the varying curvatures of shapes, in contradiction with a classical straight line and orthogonal architecture. However the rules of construction are quite different in terms of realisation and of mechanical behaviour: textile membranes are subjected to a pre-stress conferring them their rigidity, and a major objecti...

  11. Fractal Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Rumież, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Research focuses on the recognition of the disposition of natural environment, which serves as an inspiration for cultural creation as it has always been in the history of architecture. Modern mathematical model of fractal geometry has been used to understand patterns occurring in the surrounding. The comparative analysis has been conducted between the abstract mathematical model and architectural composition in the view of contemporary cognitive paradigms. In conclusion, a hypothesis of a ne...

  12. IAIMS Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Hripcsak, George

    1997-01-01

    An information system architecture defines the components of a system and the interfaces among the components. A good architecture is essential for creating an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) that works as an integrated whole yet is flexible enough to accommodate many users and roles, multiple applications, changing vendors, evolving user needs, and advancing technology. Modularity and layering promote flexibility by reducing the complexity of...

  13. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues....... Branding via LEED and BREEAM has taken green ideas to China and other emerging economies. The globalization of sustainability and of architectural practice is an important strand of the new edition....

  14. SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

  15. Circumplanetary disc or circumplanetary envelope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulágyi, J.; Masset, F.; Lega, E.; Crida, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Guillot, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present three-dimensional simulations with nested meshes of the dynamics of the gas around a Jupiter mass planet with the JUPITER and FARGOCA codes. We implemented a radiative transfer module into the JUPITER code to account for realistic heating and cooling of the gas. We focus on the circumplanetary gas flow, determining its characteristics at very high resolution (80 per cent of Jupiter's diameter). In our nominal simulation where the temperature evolves freely by the radiative module and reaches 13000 K at the planet, a circumplanetary envelope was formed filling the entire Roche lobe. Because of our equation of state is simplified and probably overestimates the temperature, we also performed simulations with limited maximal temperatures in the planet region (1000, 1500, and 2000 K). In these fixed temperature cases circumplanetary discs (CPDs) were formed. This suggests that the capability to form a CPD is not simply linked to the mass of the planet and its ability to open a gap. Instead, the gas temperature at the planet's location, which depends on its accretion history, plays also fundamental role. The CPDs in the simulations are hot and cooling very slowly, they have very steep temperature and density profiles, and are strongly sub-Keplerian. Moreover, the CPDs are fed by a strong vertical influx, which shocks on the CPD surfaces creating a hot and luminous shock-front. In contrast, the pressure supported circumplanetary envelope is characterized by internal convection and almost stalled rotation.

  16. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Metcalf

    2010-10-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details the additions to the advanced operating techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Research this year focused on combining disparate pieces of data together to maximize operating time with minimal downtime due to safeguards. A Chi-Square and Croiser's cumulative sum were both included as part of the new analysis. Because of a major issue with the original data, the implementation of the two new tests did not add to the existing set of tests, though limited one-variable optimization made a small increase in detection probability. Additional analysis was performed to determine if prior analysis would have caused a major security or safety operating envelope issue. It was determined that a safety issue would have resulted from the prior research, but that the security may have been increased under certain conditions.

  17. Art and Architectural Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    and its content. The urban and spatial question goes far beyond museums and other buildings for art: how in democratic societies should public spaces be supported by art and how can public art support ´cityness´ and meaning versus spaces of consumerism. Famous but egocentric buildings with the main......art and architectural space museums and other exhibition spaces or how artists learn to love architects Over the last two decades, innumerable new museums, art galleries and other exhibition spaces have been built and opened all over the globe. The most extreme growth happened in China, where the...... number of museums went up from 300 by 1980 to estimated 3000 museums by 2015. In urban discourses, new museums and buildings for art have been considered as drivers for ´cultural sustainability´ of cities. The notion is diffuse and the reality is more an economic centred ´city branding´ to help the...

  18. Evolution of envelope solitons of ionization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time evolution of a particle-like envelope soliton of ionization waves in plasma was investigated theoretically. The hydrodynamic equations of one spatial dimension were solved and the nonlinear dispersion relation was derived. For the amplitude of the wave the nonlinear Schroedinger equation was derived. Its soliton solution was interpreted as the envelope soliton which was experimentally found. The damping rate of the envelope soliton was estimated. (D.Gy.)

  19. Computing envelopes in dynamic geometry environments

    OpenAIRE

    Botana Ferreiro, Francisco Ramón; Recio Muñiz, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    We review the behavior of standard dynamic geometry software when computing envelopes, relating these approaches with the various definitions of envelope. Special attention is given to the recently released version of GeoGebra 5.0, that implements a recent parametric polynomial solving algorithm, allowing sound computations of envelopes of families of plane curves. Specific details on this novel approach are provided in this paper.

  20. Adaptive Flight Envelope Estimation and Protection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Impact Technologies, in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology, proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative flight envelope estimation and...

  1. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-11-26

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  2. Age features of eyeball envelopes structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyanova N.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The absence of adequate experimental model of myopia is the actual problem in pathophysiological investigation of the myopia progression. Studies of the chick eye have formed the basis for several hypotheses of myopia development. The most pathogenically valid animal model of myopia is a deprivation model. Before introduction of this model in mammals, in particular rats, it is necessary to investigate the dynamics of age morphological changes in sclera and retina. Objective. To determine the age-related features of the sclera and retina in intact rats. Methods. The sclera and retina were investigated by optic microscopy method on the 14th, 21st, 30th, 40th, 50th, 60th, 70th, 90th days after birth. Results. It was determined that sagittal, vertical and horizontal sizes of rats eyes increase more intensively at the age period from the 14th to the 30th day. At this time the maximal number of fibroblasts was observed in sclera. The total amount of these cells decreases after 40 days of postnatal ontogenesis. At the same time changes in thickness and compactness of retina layers were detected. At the age period from the 14th to the 30th day definitive scleral tissue architecture is not yet formed, part of collagen fibrils are organized in bundles, part of them are loosely arranged. On the 90th day all collagen fibrils of scleral stroma and retina are arranged. Conclusion. The highest intensity of sclera and retina restructuring is observed between the 14th and 30th days of postnatal ontogenesis. This period could be considered as optimal for experimental modeling of myopia in rats. Citation: Ulyanova NA. [Age features of eyeball envelopes structure]. Morphologia. 2014;8(1:95-8. Russian.

  3. 3D PLUS HI-REL DDR2 Termination Regulator Module- A Building Block Function for High Reliability SDRAM DDR2 System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Nicolas; Dubus, Patrick; Garcia-Sanchez, Esther

    2015-09-01

    Memory system architectures using DDR2 technology need to be compliant with JEDEC JESD8-15A standard [1]. Therefore a bus termination regulator able to sink and source current while regulating VTT voltage is used for this purpose. Such module has been developed by 3D PLUS and is the first space qualified DDR Termination Regulator (DDR2-TR) available on the market. It is based on an innovative Bang-Bang regulation principle, chosen for its speed performance and to guarantee an output voltage that remains within the predefined limits regardless of any output current transients. The output filter type is selected to make the module rugged to any overload condition without complex protection circuits. The module has been specifically designed for low input voltage, low noise and high reliability systems where space is a key consideration. The module uses the 3D PLUS SIP (System-In-Package) technology embedding 3 stacked PCBs. No external filters or decoupling capacitors are needed.

  4. IAIMS architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hripcsak, G

    1997-01-01

    An information system architecture defines the components of a system and the interfaces among the components. A good architecture is essential for creating an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) that works as an integrated whole yet is flexible enough to accommodate many users and roles, multiple applications, changing vendors, evolving user needs, and advancing technology. Modularity and layering promote flexibility by reducing the complexity of a system and by restricting the ways in which components may interact. Enterprise-wide mediation promotes integration by providing message routing, support for standards, dictionary-based code translation, a centralized conceptual data schema, business rule implementation, and consistent access to databases. Several IAIMS sites have adopted a client-server architecture, and some have adopted a three-tiered approach, separating user interface functions, application logic, and repositories. PMID:9067884

  5. Architectural Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Architecture and anthropology have always had a common focus on dwelling, housing, urban life and spatial organisation. Current developments in both disciplines make it even more relevant to explore their boundaries and overlaps. Architects are inspired by anthropological insights and methods......, while recent material and spatial turns in anthropology have also brought an increasing interest in design, architecture and the built environment. Understanding the relationship between the social and the physical is at the heart of both disciplines, and they can obviously benefit from further...... collaboration: How can qualitative anthropological approaches contribute to contemporary architecture? And just as importantly: What can anthropologists learn from architects’ understanding of spatial and material surroundings? Recent theoretical developments in anthropology stress the role of materials and...

  6. Architectural Theatricality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    initiatives in Aalborg Hospital to overcome patient undernutrition by refurbishing eating environments, this thesis engages in an investigation of the interior architectural qualities of patient eating environments. The relevance for this holistic perspective, synthesizing health, food and architecture...... environments and a knowledge gap therefore exists in present hospital designs. Consequently, the purpose of this thesis has been to investigate if any research-based knowledge exist supporting the hypothesis that the interior architectural qualities of eating environments influence patient food intake, health...... such as a literature review, timeline and historical outline to create a “knowledge map”, which in an eclectic manner merges the positive, normative and polemical knowledge rooted in research, objects and writings. The results of these investigations show that sparse researchbased knowledge exist directly taking...

  7. Abitare Mediterraneo. Integrated approach of a sustainable building management in Mediterranean context: think tanks network sharing an open platform to integrate technological and architectural innovation for low energy building

    OpenAIRE

    Trombadore, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Abitare Mediterraneo proposes an integrated management action to stimulate the participation of major stakeholders in the built environment revitalization process, fostering the objectives of sustainable project. As open platform of knowledge, the continuous updating of technologies and procedures will redefine a quality-based methodology for integrated conservation of existing buildings: new models and standards of indoor comfort in hot/cold season and a more aware management of the availabl...

  8. Five Theories on Architectural Sciences by Qian Xuesen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuMengchao

    2004-01-01

    Qian Xuesen made initiative theoretic contribution to architectu-ral sciences in five aspects: the theory for positioning architectural science, the theory for positioning architectural philosophy, the theory for setting up Chinese landscape architecture; the theory for setting up urbanology, and the theory for building Chinese “shan-shui city”. Studying, deepening and perfecting Qian's theories are of momentous importance for the development of China' s architectural sciences.

  9. Architectural Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    and other spaces that architects are preoccupied with. On the other hand, the distinction between architecture and design is not merely one of scale. Design and architecture represent – at least in Denmark – also quite different disciplinary traditions and methods. Where designers develop prototypes......, architects tend to work with models and plans that are not easily understood by lay people. Further, many architects are themselves sceptical towards notions of user-involvement and collaborative design. They fear that the imagination of citizens and users is restricted to what they are already familiar with...

  10. Reframing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    I would like to thank Prof. Stephen Read (2011) and Prof. Andrew Benjamin (2011) for both giving inspiring and elaborate comments on my article “Dwelling in-between walls: the architectural surround”. As I will try to demonstrate below, their two different responses not only supplement my article...... focuses on how the absence of an initial distinction might threaten the endeavour of my paper. In my reply to Read and Benjamin, I will discuss their suggestions and arguments, while at the same time hopefully clarifying the postphenomenological approach to architecture....

  11. Multithreading architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Nemirovsky, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Multithreaded architectures now appear across the entire range of computing devices, from the highest-performing general purpose devices to low-end embedded processors. Multithreading enables a processor core to more effectively utilize its computational resources, as a stall in one thread need not cause execution resources to be idle. This enables the computer architect to maximize performance within area constraints, power constraints, or energy constraints. However, the architectural options for the processor designer or architect looking to implement multithreading are quite extensive and

  12. Reach Envelope of Human Extremities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jingzhou(杨景周); ZHANG Yunqing(张云清); CHEN Liping(陈立平); ABDEL-MALEK Karim

    2004-01-01

    Significant attention in recent years has been given to obtain a better understanding of human joint ranges, measurement, and functionality, especially in conjunction with commands issued by the central nervous system. While researchers have studied motor commands needed to drive a limb to follow a path trajectory, various computer algorithms have been reported that provide adequate analysis of limb modeling and motion. This paper uses a rigorous mathematical formulation to model human limbs, understand their reach envelope, delineate barriers therein where a trajectory becomes difficult to control, and help visualize these barriers. Workspaces of a typical forearm with 9 degrees of freedom, a typical finger modeled as a 4- degree-of-freedom system, and a lower extremity with 4 degrees of freedom are discussed. The results show that using the proposed formulation, joint limits play an important role in distinguishing the barriers.

  13. Atmosphere and heritage - Documenting the architectural heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Ventzel Riis, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Often, when we choose buildings to be categorized as heritage, it is the building as a whole that calls for protection and not only some specific detail that is worth preserving. In this case, the values of the building not only relate to the tangible, physical material but also to the in-between of the materials. This is what we identify as atmosphere, an enveloping phenomenon that surrounds and affects our sensuous system and well-being when we approach, enter, stay or move in a building. W...

  14. Building Web Application System Based on Architecture of Struts 2 & Spring & Hibernate%基于Struts2+Spring+Hibernate架构构建Web应用系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武宝珠; 梁声灼; 牛德雄

    2009-01-01

    It can quickly build Web application system, and make the structure of system to be clear taking Struts2 & Spring & Hibernate framework, along with have good expansibility and maintainability, so it greatly improves the reusability of the Web application system. This paper introduces three frameworks: Struts2, Spring, Hibernate, and integrates them in the Web application system.%采用Struts2+Spring+Hibernate架构可快速构建Web应用系统,并且能使得系统结构清晰,同时具备很好的可扩展性和可维护性,大大提高了Web应用系统的可重用性.本文介绍了Struts2、Spring、Hibernate 3个开源框架,并将其整合起来应用于Web应用系统系统中.

  15. Generic robot architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  16. Architecture, or the Presence of an Interior

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick, Martin Joseph

    2014-01-01

    An object or thing with no interiority is sculpture. Architecture begins with the making of an interior. The real character of Architecture is revealed in the distinguishing qualities of the interior: the arrangement of spaces, the heights of the ceilings and the placement of walls, the entrance of light, the colors, the textures, the patterns and the surfaces. Emphasis on and development of these formal elements elevates a work from the world of building into the realm of Architecture. The s...

  17. Power-efficient computer architectures recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Själander, Magnus; Kaxiras, Stefanos

    2014-01-01

    As Moore's Law and Dennard scaling trends have slowed, the challenges of building high-performance computer architectures while maintaining acceptable power efficiency levels have heightened. Over the past ten years, architecture techniques for power efficiency have shifted from primarily focusing on module-level efficiencies, toward more holistic design styles based on parallelism and heterogeneity. This work highlights and synthesizes recent techniques and trends in power-efficient computer architecture.Table of Contents: Introduction / Voltage and Frequency Management / Heterogeneity and Sp

  18. Research on Classification of Intelligent Robotic Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Xie; Jiachen Ma; Mingli Yang; Qi Zhang

    2012-01-01

    It is a hot issue that how to determine the appropriate architecture for building an Intelligent Robot System (IRS). The architecture includes information processing and control system, which ensures reasonable coordination, openness, and scalability of robotic system. Unlike the architecture of computer, the design of a robotic system is so complex that it is difficult to seek systematic analysis methods due to its interdisciplinary nature despite it has built and experimented popularly. The...

  19. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  20. Religious Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The main religions of ancient China were Buddhism,Taoism and Islam, of which Buddhism was the most widespread. As a result, Buddhist temples and towers are found all over China, and have become important components of the country's ancient architecture.

  1. Solar active envelope module with an adjustable transmittance/absorptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Villasante Villasante

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A solar active envelope module with a high flexibility degree is proposed in this paper. The transparent module controls the day-lighting of the room, improving the indoor environment, while absorbing the superfluous solar energy inside. That energy is used to increase the efficiency of heating, ventilation, and the air-conditioning (HVAC system of the building. This is carried out through a fine control of the absorptance of the envelope module. The active envelope module consists of three glazed chambers with advanced coatings and frames to assure a minimum thermal transmittance while allowing transparency. A fluid containing heat-absorbing nanoparticles flows inside the central chamber and is heated up due to the impinging solar energy. Unlike other systems proposed in the past, which included transparency control systems based on complex filters and chemical processes, the absorption of the module is controlled by the variation of the thickness of the central chamber with a mechanical device. That is, varying the thickness of the central chamber, it allows controlling the absorptance of the whole system and, as a result, indoor day-lighting and thermal loads. Therefore, a new system is proposed that enables to:  

  2. Monterey Phoenix: modeling software and systems architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Auguston, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    One of the major concerns in System and Software Architecture design is the question of the behavior of the system. For system's architeture one of the challenges is to predict emerging behavior of systems or systems. We suggest an approach for building system behavior models based on the concepts of event and event traces and tools for architecture verification.

  3. 10 CFR 434.402 - Building envelope assemblies and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., including between-floor spandrels, peripheral edges of flooring, window areas (including sash), and door.... Fixed RS-11* 0.15 cfm/ft2. Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC): Prime Windows RS-12* 0.37 cfm/ft2....

  4. Future Architectures for NREN infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessing, Henrik; Bozorgebrahimi, Kurosh; Belter, Bartosz; Tzanakaki, Anna; Naegele-Jackson, Susanne; Olifer, Victor; Metz, Andreas; Vojtech, Josef; Skoda, Pavel

    resources. In this work, the key findings from related projects are integrated to provide the building blocks forefficient use and sharing of spectrum. A new network architecture is derived to support exactly the service orchestration and the federated useof resources. It comprises four layers from the...... heterogeneous multi-technology physical layer up to the service provisioning and orchestration....

  5. Vernacular architecture in the Cuyo Region (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Cirvini, Silvia Augusta

    2011-01-01

    As it is widely known/universally accepted, the concept of vernacular architecture implies the consideration of certain building terms, such as: a) Building practices are related to popular wisdom, which is transmitted through tradition, with scarcely or no professional intervention during each construction stage. b) Native materials and technologies that fit the local bioclimatic features are used to construct these buildings. c) These types of building practices are mainly related ...

  6. Quaternion-Based Control Architecture for Determining Controllability/Maneuverability Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Barton J

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic inversion has often been used in the simulation environment to rapidly prototype controls for the full flight envelope, because of its capacity for assessing a vehicle s maneuver performance and proper sizing of control surfaces. Generally, the architectures involve either a direct inversion of the entire set of equations of motion or a sequential set of inversions exploiting time scale separation in the vehicle dynamics where faster parameters are considered as controls for slower varying parameters. The proposed architecture builds on the latter using a quaternion formulation that provides singularity free tracking. Of interest, the proposed architecture simplifies the sequential approach by exploiting a simpler kinematic inversion in place of a more difficult inversion typically used. This kinematic relationship accurately describes the angular rate required to drive some reference frame of interest to a desired attitude at some desired quaternion error rate. A simple PID control is used to define the desired quaternion error rate. The paper develops the theoretical framework for the approach, and shows results in tracking a desired trajectory.

  7. Architecture, eTrees, & Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Dollens

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One vision for grafting biological performance into buildings includes inventing, growing, and synthesizing biological attributes for architectural life—thinking of architecture as metabolically evolved nature/culture. This requires a parallel strategy fostering collaborations between design, biology, art, horticulture, e-plant simulation, synthetic life, bio-mineralization, and advanced fabrication. It encourages designers to integrate industrial and agricultural information as design research with the goal of embedding specific environmental-life responses in architecture. This text discusses and illustrates induced evolution in one emerging method for design realized through software simulation—in this case, plant-to-architecture generation based in naturally occurring algorithms, found for example, in botanic phyllotaxy and allometry.

  8. Advanced router architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Kloth, Axel K

    2005-01-01

    Routers, switches, and transmission equipment form the backbone of the Internet, yet many users and service technicians do not understand how these nodes really work.Advanced Router Architectures addresses how components of advanced routers work together and how they are integrated with each other. This book provides the background behind why these building blocks perform certain functions, and how the function is implemented in general use. It offers an introduction to the subject matter that is intended to trigger deeper interest from the reader. The book explains, for example, why traffic m

  9. Simulating Convection in Stellar Envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Joel

    Understanding convection in stellar envelopes, and providing a mathematical description of it, would represent a substantial advance in stellar astrophysics. As one of the largest sources of uncertainty in stellar models, existing treatments of convection fail to account for many of the dynamical effects of convection, such as turbulent pressure and asymmetry in the velocity field. To better understand stellar convection, we must be able to study and examine it in detail, and one of the best tools for doing so is numerical simulation. Near the stellar surface, both convective and radiative process play a critical role in determining the structure and gas dynamics. By following these processes from first principles, convection can be simulated self-consistently and accurately, even in regions of inefficient energy transport where existing descriptions of convection fail. Our simulation code includes two radiative transfer solvers that are based on different assumptions and approximations. By comparing simulations that differ only in their respective radiative transfer methods, we are able to isolate the effect that radiative efficiency has on the structure of the superadiabatic layer. We find the simulations to be in good general agreement, but they show distinct differences in the thermal structure in the superadiabatic layer and atmosphere. Using the code to construct a grid of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the link between convection and various chemical compositions. The stellar parameters correspond to main-sequence stars at several surface gravities, and span a range in effective temperatures (4500 adiabatic structure of sub-photospheric convection. Since the MLT treatment of convection defines the thermal structure of the atmosphere and SAL arbitrarily, one strategy for calibrating the mixing length parameter is to tune it so that it matches the thermodynamics of the simulations. In particular, we consider adjusting the

  10. Discrete optimization in architecture architectural & urban layout

    CERN Document Server

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents three projects that demonstrate the fundamental problems of architectural design and urban composition – the layout design, evaluation and optimization. Part I describes the functional layout design of a residential building, and an evaluation of the quality of a town square (plaza). The algorithm for the functional layout design is based on backtracking using a constraint satisfaction approach combined with coarse grid discretization. The algorithm for the town square evaluation is based on geometrical properties derived directly from its plan. Part II introduces a crowd-simulation application for the analysis of escape routes on floor plans, and optimization of a floor plan for smooth crowd flow. The algorithms presented employ agent-based modeling and cellular automata.

  11. Guidelines for sustainable building design: Recommendations from the Presidio of San Francisco energy efficiency design charrette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Sartor, D.; Greenberg, S. [and others

    1996-05-01

    In 1994, the Bay Chapter of the Association of Energy Engineers{reg_sign} organized a two-day design charrette for energy-efficient redevelopment of buildings by the National Park Services (NPS) at the Presidio of San Francisco. This event brought together engineers, researchers, architects, government officials, and students in a participatory environment to apply their experience to create guidelines for the sustainable redesign of Presidio buildings. The venue for the charrette was a representative barracks building located at the Main Post of the Presidio. Examination of this building allowed for the development of design recommendations, both for the building and for the remainder of the facilities. The charrette was organized into a committee structure consisting of: steering, measurement and monitoring, modeling, building envelope and historic preservation (architectural), HVAC and controls, lighting, and presentation. Prior to the charrette itself, the modeling and measurement/monitoring committees developed substantial baseline data for the other committees during the charrette. An integrated design approach was initiated through interaction between the committees during the charrette. Later, committee reports were cross-referenced to emphasize whole building design and systems integration.

  12. Self-Assembling Nano-Architectures Created from a Protein Nano-Building Block Using an Intermolecularly Folded Dimeric de Novo Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Yanase, Keiichi; Sato, Takaaki; Unzai, Satoru; Hecht, Michael H; Arai, Ryoichi

    2015-09-01

    The design of novel proteins that self-assemble into supramolecular complexes is an important step in the development of synthetic biology and nanotechnology. Recently, we described the three-dimensional structure of WA20, a de novo protein that forms an intermolecularly folded dimeric 4-helix bundle (PDB code 3VJF ). To harness the unusual intertwined structure of WA20 for the self-assembly of supramolecular nanostructures, we created a protein nanobuilding block (PN-Block), called WA20-foldon, by fusing the dimeric structure of WA20 to the trimeric foldon domain of fibritin from bacteriophage T4. The WA20-foldon fusion protein was expressed in the soluble fraction in Escherichia coli, purified, and shown to form several homooligomeric forms. The stable oligomeric forms were further purified and characterized by a range of biophysical techniques. Size exclusion chromatography, multiangle light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses indicate that the small (S form), middle (M form), and large (L form) forms of the WA20-foldon oligomers exist as hexamer (6-mer), dodecamer (12-mer), and octadecamer (18-mer), respectively. These findings suggest that the oligomers in multiples of 6-mer are stably formed by fusing the interdigitated dimer of WA20 with the trimer of foldon domain. Pair-distance distribution functions obtained from the Fourier inversion of the SAXS data suggest that the S and M forms have barrel- and tetrahedron-like shapes, respectively. These results demonstrate that the de novo WA20-foldon is an effective building block for the creation of self-assembling artificial nanoarchitectures. PMID:26120734

  13. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Research and Development 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for research and development, including residential and commercial integration, lighting, HVAC and water heating, envelope, windows, and analysis tools.

  14. Steel-framed buildings: Impacts of wall detail configurations on the whole wall thermal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, J.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Christian, J.E.

    1998-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is the influence of architectural wall details on the whole wall thermal performance. Whole wall thermal performance analysis was performed for six light gage steel-framed wall systems (some with wood components). For each wall system, all wall details were simulated using calibrated 3-D finite difference computer modeling. The thermal performance of the six steel-framed wall systems included various system details and the whole wall system thermal performance for a typical single-story ranch house. Currently, predicted heat losses through building walls are typically based on measurements of the wall system clear wall area using test methods such as ASTM C 236 or are calculated by one of the procedures recommended in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals that often is carried out for the clear wall area exclusively. In this paper, clear wall area is defined as the part of the wall system that is free of thermal anomalies due to building envelope details or thermally unaffected by intersections with other surfaces of the building envelope. Clear wall experiments or calculations normally do not include the effects of building envelope details such as corners, window and door openings, and structural intersections with roofs, floors, ceilings, and other walls. In steel-framed wall systems, these details typically consist of much more structural components than the clear wall. For this situation, the thermal properties measured or calculated for the clear wall area do not adequately represent the total wall system thermal performance. Factors that would impact the ability of today`s standard practice to accurately predict the total wall system thermal performance are the accuracy of the calculation methods, the area of the total wall that is clear wall, and the quantity and thermal performance of the various wall system details.

  15. Helicoid and Architectural application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Inzerillo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of a long time research concerning the representation of complex surfaces in descriptive geometry. The ability to use the different techniques of representation aims to achieve results never thought before. In the University of Palermo, at the Engineering School, the research involved the study on simplifying a more elaborated way to represent the geometry and its applications in buildings architecture and related engineering plants and equipment. Specifically, is here reported the application of the proposed method to represent one of the most used surfaces in the buildings design. It concerns a helicoid surface represented in orthogonal axonometric projecting. The method is essentially based on the experimental homology that, by the way, is extensively documented in the bibliography section of this paper.

  16. Isolation of corneocyte envelopes from porcine epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, D C; Kitko, D J; Wertz, P W; Madison, K C; Downing, D T

    1988-01-01

    Sheets of porcine stratum corneum were dispersed into individual corneocytes after 4 h in a solution consisting of 8 mM N,N-dimethyldodecylamine oxide and 2 mM sodium dodecylsulfate in phosphate-buffered isotonic saline, at 45 degrees C. With continued detergent treatment and moderate sonication, most of the cells lost their keratin contents and were then separated from the remaining intact cells by centrifugation in cesium chloride solution of density 1.280. Electron microscopy showed that the cell envelopes retained both the crosslinked protein envelope and its attached lipid envelope. The dry weight of envelopes was approximately 7% of the estimated dry weight of the original stratum corneum, while the corneocytes surviving intact also amounted to 7% of the starting weight. Mild alkaline hydrolysis of the corneocyte envelopes allowed the extraction of hydroxyceramides amounting to 10% of the dry weight of the envelopes. The procedure therefore provides isolated corneocyte envelopes suitable for studying both the protein and lipid components of this compound sheath. PMID:3207369

  17. MUF architecture /art London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen Kajita, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Om MUF architecture samt interview med Liza Fior og Katherine Clarke, partnere i muf architecture/art......Om MUF architecture samt interview med Liza Fior og Katherine Clarke, partnere i muf architecture/art...

  18. Spectral Envelopes - A Preliminary Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lawton, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    The spectral envelope S(F) of a subset of integers is the set of probability measures on the circle group that are weak star limits of squared moduli of trigonometric polynomials with frequencies in F. Fourier transforms of these measures are positive and supported in F - F but the converse generally fails. The characteristic function chiF of F is a binary sequence whose orbit closure gives a symbolic dynamical system O(F). Analytic properties of S(F) are related to dynamical properties of chiF. The Riemann-Lebesque lemma implies that if chiF is minimal, then S(F) is convex and hence S(F) is the closure of the convex hull of its extreme points Se(F). In this paper we (i) review the relationship between these concepts and the special case of the still open 1959 Kadison-Singer problem called Feichtinger's conjecture for exponential functions, (ii) partially characterize of elements in Se(F), for minimal chiF, in terms of ergodic properties of (O(F),lambda) where lambda is a shift invariant probability measure w...

  19. Circumplanetary disk or circumplanetary envelope?

    CERN Document Server

    Szulágyi, J; Lega, E; Crida, A; Morbidelli, A; Guillot, T

    2016-01-01

    We present three-dimensional simulations with nested meshes of the dynamics of the gas around a Jupiter mass planet with the JUPITER and FARGOCA codes. We implemented a radiative transfer module into the JUPITER code to account for realistic heating and cooling of the gas. We focus on the circumplanetary gas flow, determining its characteristics at very high resolution ($80\\%$ of Jupiter's diameter). In our nominal simulation where the temperature evolves freely by the radiative module and reaches 13000 K at the planet, a circumplanetary envelope was formed filling the entire Roche-lobe. Because of our equation of state is simplified and probably overestimates the temperature, we also performed simulations with limited maximal temperatures in the planet region (1000 K, 1500 K, and 2000 K). In these fixed temperature cases circumplanetary disks (CPDs) were formed. This suggests that the capability to form a circumplanetary disk is not simply linked to the mass of the planet and its ability to open a gap. Inste...

  20. Security and Architectural Patterns for Securing the Cloud Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golajapu Venu Madhava Rao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Operating a cloud securely and efficiently entails a great deal of advanceplanning. A data center and redundant internet connection is required at the beginning to connect to cloud. This can constitute the technology portion of an information security and some network devices that safely and securely serve the communication. National Institute of Standards and Technology states that the process of uniquely assigning the information resources to an information system will define the security boundary for that system. A massive amount of gear that is racked and cabled following defined patterns is enabled inside this boundary. Need for the infrastructure that is used to manage the cloud and its resources as it operates the cloud. Each component like server, network and storagerequires some degree of configuration. While designing or planning a complex systemit is important to look ahead the process and procedures required for operation of the system. Small cloud systems can be build without much of planning. But any Cloud system substantially bigger size needs significant planning and design. If we fail to plan it leads to higher cost due to inefficiency in design and process. In this paper we study on the architectural components that can be used to build a cloud with security as a priority. This can be achieved by identifying requirements for secured cloud architecture along with key patterns and architectural elements. This paper first discusses on security patterns and an architectural element required and also focuses on several different cloud architectures and secure cloud operation strategies.

  1. Injection envelope matching in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shape and size of the transverse phase space injected into a storage ring can be deduced from turn-by-turn measurements of the transient behavior of the beam envelope in the ring. Envelope oscillations at 2 x the β-tron frequency indicate the presence of a β-mismatch, while envelope oscillations at the β-tron frequency are the signature of a dispersion function mismatch. Experiments in injection optimization using synchrotron radiation imaging of the beam and a fast-gated camera at the SLC damping rings are reported

  2. MHTGR thermal performance envelopes: Reliability by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document discusses thermal performance envelopes which are used to specify steady-state design requirements for the systems of the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor to maximize plant performance reliability with optimized design. The thermal performance envelopes are constructed around the expected operating point accounting for uncertainties in actual plant as-built parameters and plant operation. The components are then designed to perform successfully at all points within the envelope. As a result, plant reliability is maximized by accounting for component thermal performance variation in the design. The design is optimized by providing a means to determine required margins in a disciplined and visible fashion

  3. Glycosylation in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and its biological implications

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Yung Shwen

    2013-08-01

    Glycosylation of HIV-1 envelope proteins (Env gp120/gp41) plays a vital role in viral evasion from the host immune response, which occurs through the masking of key neutralization epitopes and the presentation of the Env glycosylation as \\'self\\' to the host immune system. Env glycosylation is generally conserved, yet its continual evolution plays an important role in modulating viral infectivity and Env immunogenicity. Thus, it is believed that Env glycosylation, which is a vital part of the HIV-1 architecture, also controls intra- and inter-clade genetic variations. Discerning intra- and inter-clade glycosylation variations could therefore yield important information for understanding the molecular and biological differences between HIV clades and may assist in effectively designing Env-based immunogens and in clearly understanding HIV vaccines. This review provides an in-depth perspective of various aspects of Env glycosylation in the context of HIV-1 pathogenesis. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.

  4. Hepatitis C Virus E2 Envelope Glycoprotein Core Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Nieusma, Travis; Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Cogburn, Kristin E.; Hua, Yuanzi; Dai, Xiaoping; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun

    2014-08-26

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a Hepacivirus, is a major cause of viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 mediate fusion and entry into host cells and are the primary targets of the humoral immune response. The crystal structure of the E2 core bound to broadly neutralizing antibody AR3C at 2.65 angstroms reveals a compact architecture composed of a central immunoglobulin-fold β sandwich flanked by two additional protein layers. The CD81 receptor binding site was identified by electron microscopy and site-directed mutagenesis and overlaps with the AR3C epitope. The x-ray and electron microscopy E2 structures differ markedly from predictions of an extended, three-domain, class II fusion protein fold and therefore provide valuable information for HCV drug and vaccine design.

  5. Design and performance of an integrated envelope/lighting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1997-04-01

    Dynamic envelope/lighting systems offer the potential to achieve a near optimum energy-efficient environment meeting occupant needs throughout the year by adapting to dynamic meteorological conditions and changing occupant preferences in real time. With the dramatic increased functionality of the microprocessor, there is an untapped potential to make dynamic envelop/lighting systems easier to use, diagnose, and monitor, and to integrate them as part of a sophisticated building-wide control system. This study addresses the complex relationship between this energy-efficiency technology and many of the non-energy issues related to its potential acceptance by the building industry, architects, owners, and users. The authors demonstrate the concept of integrated dynamic systems with a prototype motorized venetian blind operated in synchronization with electric lighting and daylighting controls via an intelligent control system. Research work conducted with simulation software and reduced-scale and full-scale field tests is summarized. Much of this work is directly relevant to other active shading and daylighting systems on the market today and to state-of-the-art window systems yet to come (i.e., electrochromics).

  6. Array processor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George H. (Inventor); Lundstrom, Stephen F. (Inventor); Shafer, Philip E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A high speed parallel array data processing architecture fashioned under a computational envelope approach includes a data base memory for secondary storage of programs and data, and a plurality of memory modules interconnected to a plurality of processing modules by a connection network of the Omega gender. Programs and data are fed from the data base memory to the plurality of memory modules and from hence the programs are fed through the connection network to the array of processors (one copy of each program for each processor). Execution of the programs occur with the processors operating normally quite independently of each other in a multiprocessing fashion. For data dependent operations and other suitable operations, all processors are instructed to finish one given task or program branch before all are instructed to proceed in parallel processing fashion on the next instruction. Even when functioning in the parallel processing mode however, the processors are not locked-step but execute their own copy of the program individually unless or until another overall processor array synchronization instruction is issued.

  7. Haptic architecture becomes architectural hap

    OpenAIRE

    Herssens, Jasmien; Heylighen, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Universal Design is a recent design paradigm which aims at handicap elimination in the physical environment and strives for a more humanized architecture. After pointing out the value of Universal Design, the paper advances human centred design as a possible methodology to make this paradigm operational. Key to this methodology is the explicit attention for cognitive human factors in experiencing space and—the focus of this paper—for the role played by the sense of tou...

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE THERMAL COMFORT OF DIFFERENT BUILDING MATERIALS IN SANA’A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Ahmed Alhaddad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the impact of alternative building material envelope systems on the overall thermal performance of four selected materials used in Sana’a, Yemen. These systems included adobe, brick, stone and concrete block. After thorough on-site investigation and data collection, the information, along with regional weather data were input into the Ecotect energy simulation software for thermal performance evaluation. The objective was to search for affordable and energy-efficient construction techniques suitable for settlements and incorporating traditional cultural values in a arid upland region characterized by cold winters and warm, dry summers. This was pursued by analyzing temperature and measurements within buildings constructed from a variety of traditional and modern materials. The thermal behavior and comfort, the patterns of energy use and the appropriateness of the different building techniques and materials are analyzed, compared and discussed. We demonstrate how a building envelope reacts to outdoor conditions through graphic illustration and show ways in which the research can be extended by the creation of simulations using Ecotect software. This research contributes to the promotion of passive and low energy architecture towards a sustainable future.

  9. Residential commissioning to assess envelope and HVAC system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Sherman, Max H.

    2001-08-31

    Houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict. For example, Walker et al. (1998a) found large variations in thermal distribution system efficiency, as much as a factor of two even between side-by-side houses with the same system design and installation crew. This and other studies (e.g., Jump et al. 1996) indicate that duct leakage testing and sealing can readily achieve a 25 to 30% reduction in installed cooling capacity and energy consumption. As another example, consider that the building industry has recognized for at least 20 years the substantial impact that envelope airtightness has on thermal loads, energy use, comfort, and indoor air quality. However, Walker et al. (1998a) found 50% variances in airtightness for houses with the same design and construction crews, within the same subdivision. A substantial reason for these problems is that few houses are now built or retrofitted using formal design procedures, most are field assembled from a large number of components, and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Solving the problems requires field performance evaluations of houses using appropriate and agreed upon procedures. Many procedural elements already exist in a fragmented environment; some are ready now to be integrated into a new process called residential commissioning (Wray et al. 2000). For example, California's Title 24 energy code already provides some commissioning elements for evaluating the energy performance of new houses. A house consists of components and systems that need to be commissioned, such as building envelopes, air distribution systems, cooling equipment, heat pumps, combustion appliances, controls, and other electrical appliances. For simplicity and practicality, these components and systems are usually evaluated individually, but we need to bear in mind that many of them interact. Therefore, commissioning must not only identify the energy and non

  10. “Pushing the Envelope” a modeling-based approach to the development of organic, responsive architectural form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Yearley

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests design procedures for the development of complex, organic architectural forms. It illustrates a postgraduate student design process, implementing a development sequence based on the intelligent manipulation of architectural envelopes using a variety of existing modeling tools and emerging digital techniques. These stages of development respond to imposed spatial and environmental constraints. The tests began with full-scale modeling of small segments. The major constraints at this stage were spatial requirements and the physical characteristics of materials. The forms derived from the bending properties of prestressed green timber and the dimensions of shingle cladding. This was followed by digital 3D modeling using common commercial applications. At this stage initial models were derived from a traditional space requirement brief. The envelopes for these activities were then manipulated to respond to the spatial limitations imposed by surrounding buildings. This digital modeling process metaphorically “pushed the limits” as vertices of the envelope model were stretched and shifted to achieve a perceived “fit” between the two sets of spatial dimensions. The spatially manipulated geometry was then imported into Ecotect, an environmental analysis package. As an example, the envelope’s morphology and cladding material options on the acoustic qualities of the surrounding space were tested. The improved geometry was then imported into a Virtual Reality room, in which the spatial experience was simulated in presentations to the design team and potential occupants. This room utilized six projectors to create an immersive experience to users wearing stereoscopic goggles, and moving in a space surrounded by three large screens, creating a CAVE-like presentation space. Finally there was an attempt to complete the circle by returning from the simulated world to the physical worlds, by creating full-scale models from the digital

  11. Materials Driven Architectural Design and Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    often quite technical and oriented towards the field of engineering. Often cost, efficiency, optimisation and specific functional properties are the driving forces in material research. While this is extremely relevant in relation to new building strategies, material research can potentially also play......This paper aims to outline a framework for a deeper connection between experimentally obtained material knowledge and architectural design. While materials and architecture in the process of realisation are tightly connected, architectural design and representation are often distanced from the...... material domain in which the construction eventually will happen. In many cases, it can seem that materials play the role of a selection of building blocks from which a determined architectural vision or representation are tried to be build. Research in materials, materials behaviour and new materials are...

  12. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE: A JUXTA POSITION?#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Benade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A systems approach to creating a system is discussed. The system engineering process, and specifically the system architecture process, is formulated and applied to a typical (physical system, enterprise, and project. These lead to the concepts of system architecture (SA, enterprise architecture (EA, and project architecture (PA respectively. Similarities and inter-relationships among these architectures and related methodologies are investigated, seeking better interaction among them. ‘Work’ is proposed as an important conceptual building-block of these architectures, properly defined as activity with associated inputs, outputs, governances, and mechanisms. Techniques such as functional analysis, process modelling, and task analysis are used to demonstrate the inter-relationships among these apparently unrelated organisational perspectives of product, process, and project.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING ’n Stelselbenadering tot die daarstelling van ’n stelsel word bespreek. Die stelselingenieurs-wese,en spesifiek die stelselargitektuurproses, word geformuleer en toegepas op ’n tipiese (fisiese stelsel, onderneming, en projek. Dit lei tot die konsepte van stelselargitektuur (SA, ondernemingsargitektuur (OA, en projekargitektuur (PA. Ooreenkomste en verwant-skappe tussen hierdie argitekture word ontleed om beter onderlinge interaksie te bewerkstellig. ’n Belangrike konseptuele bousteen van hierdie argitekture word voorgestel as ‘werk’, behoorlik gedefinieer as aktiwiteit met gepaardgaande insette, uitsette, kontroles, en meganismes. Tegnieke soos funksionele analise, prosesmodellering, en taakanalise word gebruik om die onderlinge verbande tussen hierdie skynbaar onverwante organisatoriese perspektiewe van produk, projek, en proses, te demonstreer.

  13. Diffusive heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Beznogov, M V; Yakovlev, D G

    2016-01-01

    We construct new models of outer heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars composed of binary ion mixtures (H - He, He - C, C - Fe) in and out of diffusive equilibrium. To this aim, we generalize our previous work on diffusion of ions in isothermal gaseous or Coulomb liquid plasmas to handle non-isothermal systems. We calculate the relations between the effective surface temperature Ts and the temperature Tb at the bottom of heat blanketing envelopes (at a density rhob= 1e8 -- 1e10 g/cc) for diffusively equilibrated and non-equilibrated distributions of ion species at different masses DeltaM of lighter ions in the envelope. Our principal result is that the Ts - Tb relations are fairly insensitive to detailed distribution of ion fractions over the envelope (diffusively equilibrated or not) and depend almost solely on DeltaM. The obtained relations are approximated by analytic expressions which are convenient for modeling the evolution of neutron stars.

  14. Enveloping Relief Surfaces of Landslide Terrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two relief surfaces that envelop the rock fall region in a part of Garhwal Himalayas around Chamoli have been identified. Relative relief and absolute relief have been analyzed and the enveloping surfaces recorded at two levels of relief in the landscape. All landslide activity lies within these surfaces. The lower enveloping surface (800 m) dips due south by 7-8 degrees, due to an elevation rise of 100 meters within 12 km from south to north, i.e., a gradient of 8 percent. The nature of the surface is smooth. The upper enveloping surface (> 2500 m) is almost parallel to the lower one but its surface is undulatory due to landslides and denudation. The area has been a seismically active region and has undergone seismic activity up until recently, as evidenced by the Chamoli earthquake of 29th March 1999. The effects of earthquakes are seen at higher levels in the form of landslide imprints on the terrain.

  15. Survival of an Enveloped Virus on Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Richard L; Casanova, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    Children's toys may carry respiratory viruses. Inactivation of a lipid-enveloped bacteriophage, Φ6, was measured on a nonporous toy at indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH). Inactivation was approximately 2log10 after 24 hours at 60% RH and 6.8log10 at 10 hours at 40% RH. Enveloped viruses can potentially survive on toys long enough to result in exposures. PMID:27144972

  16. Nuclear Envelope, Nuclear Lamina, and Inherited Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Worman, Howard; Courvalin, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is composed of the nuclear membranes, nuclear lamina, and nuclear pore complexes. In recent years, mutations in nuclear-envelope proteins have been shown to cause a surprisingly wide array of inherited diseases. While the mutant proteins are generally expressed in most or all differentiated somatic cells, many mutations cause fairly tissue-specific disorders. Perhaps the most dramatic case is that of mutations in A-type lamins, intermediate filament proteins associated wi...

  17. The Arabidopsis Nuclear Pore and Nuclear Envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Iris; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that separates the eukaryotic cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The nuclear pores embedded in the nuclear envelope are the sole gateways for macromolecular trafficking in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear pore complexes assembled at the nuclear pores are large protein conglomerates composed of multiple units of about 30 different nucleoporins. Proteins and RNAs traffic through the nuclear pore complexes, enabled by the interacting activities...

  18. The Envelope of Projectile Trajectories in Midair

    CERN Document Server

    Chudinov, P

    2005-01-01

    A classic problem of the motion of a point mass (projectile) thrown at an angle to the horizon is reviewed. The air drag force is taken into account with the drag factor assumed to be constant. Analytic approach is used for investigation. Simple analytical formulas are used for the constructing the envelope of the family of the point mass trajectories. The equation of envelope is applied for determination of maximum range of flight. The motion of a baseball is presented as an example.

  19. Full scale prototype laboratory for architecture students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, A.C.J.M.; Van Swieten, P.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Innovation in prefabrication with new technologies in product development of building components together with the important role materialization is playing in the education of architectural engineers and building technology designers are the main motifs for full scale material prototyping in the Ma

  20. Early Neolithic Building in the Southern Levant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz

    The history of prehistoric building is often not considered to be relevant for the origins of “architecture”. But the early human building history tells a different story. First substantial buildings were emerging in the Near East during the so-called Epipalaeolithic. During the Neolithic period...... development could build upon; regardless building archaeological studies on Near Eastern Neolithic architecture are still rare. In the last decades Neolithic architecture was mainly looked at from an archaeological point of view searching for models explaining economic and social developments in human...... societies. Architecture was used as an argument to support whatever hypothesis instead of being looked at as a primary source for construction history and related architectural issues in the first place. The PPN-architecture of a site is often explained by repetitive comparisons with “similar” architecture...

  1. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  2. Tectonic Thinking in Contemporary Industrialized Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Beim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues for a new critical approach to the ways architectural design strategies are developing. Contemporary construction industry appears to evolve into highly specialized and optimized processes driven by industrialized manufacturing, therefore the role of the architect and the understanding of the architectural design process ought to be revised. The paper is based on the following underlying hypothesis: ‘Tectonic thinking – defined as a central attention towards the nature, the properties, and the application of building materials (construction and how this attention forms a creative force in building constructions, structural features and architectural design (construing – helps to identify and refine technology transfer in contemporary industrialized building construction’. (This definition of tectonic thinking forms part of a large, central research project: Towards a tectonic sustainable building practice, that is presently (2010- 2014 executed in collaboration between; The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts – School of Architecture, Aarhus School of Architecture, and The Danish Building Research Institute.Through various references from the construction industry, business theory and architectural practice the paper offers various analyses, comparisons and concrete design approaches. How architectural design processes and the tectonic design can benefit from Integrated Product Deliveries, mass-customization and Design for Disassembly is examined and discussed. The paper concludes by presenting a series of arguments that call for adaptable systems based on sufficient numbers of industrialized building products of high quality and a great variety of suppliers, and point at the need for optimizing our use of resources in order to reach sustainable solutions in architecture.

  3. Cooling of neutron stars with diffusive envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Beznogov, M V; Haensel, P; Yakovlev, D G; Zdunik, J L

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars on their cooling. To this aim, we perform cooling simulations using newly constructed models of the envelopes composed of binary ion mixtures (H--He, He--C, C--Fe) varying the mass of lighter ions (H, He or C) in the envelope. The results are compared with those calculated using the standard models of the envelopes which contain the layers of lighter (accreted) elements (H, He and C) on top of the Fe layer, varying the mass of accreted elements. The main effect is that the chemical composition of the envelopes influences their thermal conductivity and, hence, thermal insulation of the star. For illustration, we apply these results to estimate the internal temperature of the Vela pulsar and to study the cooling of neutron stars of ages of 0.1 - 1 Myr at the photon cooling stage. The uncertainties of the cooling models associated with our poor knowledge of chemical composition of the heat insulating envelopes strongly complicate theoretical reco...

  4. All the Universe in an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Do you know which force is hidden in an envelope or how many billions of years old are the atoms it contains? You will find the answers to these (curious) questions in a post office in the Pays de Gex. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex are again issuing pre-paid envelopes in collaboration with CERN (see Bulletin No. 24/2006). The new series presents some of the concepts of modern physics in an amazing way by showing what you can learn about the Universe with a single envelope. Packets of ten pre-stamped envelopes, each carrying a statement on fundamental physics, will be on sale from 7 July onwards. To learn more about the physics issues presented on the envelopes, people are invited to go to the CERN Web site where they will find the explanations. Five thousand envelopes will be put on sale in July and five thousand more during the French "Fête de la science" in October. They will be available from five post offices in the Pays de Gex (F...

  5. Genetic Diversity of Koala Retroviral Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqin Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity, attributable to the low fidelity of reverse transcription, recombination and mutation, is an important feature of infectious retroviruses. Under selective pressure, such as that imposed by superinfection interference, gammaretroviruses commonly adapt their envelope proteins to use alternative receptors to overcome this entry block. The first characterized koala retroviruses KoRV subgroup A (KoRV-A were remarkable in their absence of envelope genetic variability. Once it was determined that KoRV-A was present in all koalas in US zoos, regardless of their disease status, we sought to isolate a KoRV variant whose presence correlated with neoplastic malignancies. More than a decade after the identification of KoRV-A, we isolated a second subgroup of KoRV, KoRV-B from koalas with lymphomas. The envelope proteins of KoRV-A and KoRV-B are sufficiently divergent to confer the ability to bind and employ distinct receptors for infection. We have now obtained a number of additional KoRV envelope variants. In the present studies we report these variants, and show that they differ from KoRV-A and KoRV-B envelopes in their host range and superinfection interference properties. Thus, there appears to be considerable variation among KoRVs envelope genes suggesting genetic diversity is a factor following the KoRV-A infection process.

  6. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Whole-House Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective envelope designs that can be effectively integrated into the plant production process while meeting the thermal requirements of the 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing new envelope technologies. This work is part of a multi-phase effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three methods for building high performance walls. Phase 2 focused on developing viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped narrow the research focus to perfecting a stud wall design with exterior continuous insulation (CI). Phase 3, completed in two stages, continued the design development effort, exploring and evaluating a range or methods for applying CI to factory built homes. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing. During this phase, a home was built with CI, evaluated, and placed in service. The experience of building a mock up wall section with CI and then constructing on line a prototype home resolved important concerns about how to integrate the material into the production process. First steps were taken toward finding least expensive approaches for incorporating CI in standard factory building practices and a preliminary assessment suggested that even at this early stage the technology is attractive when viewed from a life cycle cost perspective.

  7. Architectural gaits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Katrine

    The attempt in this paper is to offer a suggestion for analytical practices that focus on the discursive manifold of 'strategies, manoeuvres, tactics and technologies' performed to produce, or obtain spaces and buildings with special or cultural relevant qualities. By acknowledging the discursive...

  8. Ultimate architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Jencks, Charles

    2007-01-01

    "European physics hothouse CERN recently unveiled Atlas, the world's most powerful particle detector, which it will use to search for the fundamental building blocks of nature from May next year. Charles Jencks describes the experience of getting up clsoe to the engineering marvel that could en up creating a mini-black hole."(5 pages with photos).

  9. Democratic management and architecture school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aparecida de Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a conceptual and theoretical research on school organization and its democratization, focusing on one aspect of an objective nature: its architecture. The study was based on the academic literature on democratization and theoretical contribution of Michel Foucault, with regard to the analysis of space as a resourcecontrol, surveillance and training, going through a historical review of the modelconstruction of school buildings in Brazil. It is therefore a sociological analysis of the school environment, in relation to the democratization process of basic education, understood as ensuring that the conditions of access and permanence to a universalquality education, and conceived and gestated from collective interests of its users.We conclude that the architecture of public schools in Brazil do not provides democratic management, either by format controller of buildings constructed in the republican period, either by the current economic priority for the construction of public school buildings, which includes little or no space for collective activities. The character of the buildings remains controller, no more for its architecture, but made possible by technological development, which allows monitoring by video cameras, which is made with the permission and support of community.

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvements to Wundar Hall, a Historic Building on the Concordia Campus, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karman, Nathan

    2012-11-29

    The Forest County Potawatomi Community (FCPC or Community) implemented energy efficiency improvements to revitalize Wundar Hall, a 34,000 square foot (SF) building that was formerly used as a dormitory and is listed on the National Registry of Historic Places, into an office building. Wundar Hall is the first of many architecturally and historically significant buildings that the Community hopes to renovate at the former Concordia College campus, property on the near west side of Milwaukee that was taken into trust for the Community by the United States on July 10, 1990 (collectively, the Concordia Trust Property). As part of this project, which was conducted with assistance from the Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program (TEP), the Community updated and/or replaced the building envelope, mechanical systems, the plumbing system, the electrical infrastructure, and building control systems. The project is expected to reduce the building's natural gas consumption by 58% and the electricity consumption by 55%. In addition, the project was designed to act as a catalyst to further renovation of the Concordia Trust Property and the neighborhood. The City of Milwaukee has identified redevelopment of the Concordia Trust Property as a Catalytic Project for revitalizing the near west side. The Tribe envisions a revitalized, mixed-use campus of community services, education, and economic developmen-providing services to the Indian community and jobs to the neighborhood.

  11. Public regulations towards a tectonic architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due

    2006-01-01

    Public regulations can support tectonic architecture by changes to the tendering system, supporting new organizational structures of the building industry in public building projects and suggesting a focus on innovation through increased research and development activity. The Danish state......'s activities has primarily been to support the optimization of the building process through ‘trimmed building’ and ‘partnering’ that only takes the immediate economic benefits of the changes to the building process into account and as such has no measures for architectural quality. The public initiatives so...... far have failed to create the incitement to do so – one could say that while they have opened the gates around the closed field of the building industry they have yet to introduce the sticks and carrots that could drive the animals to leave the safe enclosure. The changes in the building industry are...

  12. The traditional architecture of the Igbo of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nsude, Godwin Chikwendu

    1987-01-01

    Modern architecture in Nigeria presents a bizarre picture of indiscriminate transplantation of foreign buildings, and a complete abandonment of traditional architecture. Apparently, the transplanted architecture does not respond to the physical and cultural needs of Nigerians, and, at all events, the peoples' attitude to it portrays ignorance, confusion and resignation. This thesis argues that rather than this wholesale transplantation, Nigeria's traditional architecture should be studied to ...

  13. Responsive Systems: Light and Human Responsive Systems in Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Niqui, Mobasher

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies the notion of responsiveness in architectural design. It tries to make a framework for understanding the act of response in architectural body. Focusing on Light as a contextual force, it studies the way light affects the built environment and architectural body, in order to introduce a light responsive system. This light responsive system will be used to design a mediatheque in the city of Geneva. Studying a multidisciplinary thematic between architecture and building phy...

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Envelopment Follows Two Diverse Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Leuzinger, Helene; Ziegler, Urs; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Fraefel, Cornel; Glauser, Daniel L.; Heid, Irma; Ackermann, Mathias; Mueller, Martin; Wild, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Herpesvirus envelopment is assumed to follow an uneconomical pathway including primary envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane, de-envelopment at the outer nuclear membrane, and reenvelopment at the trans-Golgi network. In contrast to the hypothesis of de-envelopment by fusion of the primary envelope with the outer nuclear membrane, virions were demonstrated to be transported from the perinuclear space to rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) cisternae. Here we show by high-resolution microscop...

  15. Tectonic thinking in contemporary industrialized architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding author: Professor Anne Beim, Ph.D., CINARK – Centre for Industrialized Architecture, Institute of Architectural Technology, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts – School of Architecture, Phillip Langes ALlé 10, DK-1435 Copenhagen, Denmark. Tel.: +45 4170 1623; E-mail: anne.beim@kadk.dk This paper argues for a new critical approach to the ways architectural design strategies are developing. Contemporary construction industry appears to evolve into highly specialized and optimized processes driven by industrialized manufacturing, therefore the role of the architect and the understanding of the architectural design process ought to be revised. The paper is based on the following underlying hypothesis: ‘Tectonic thinking – defined as a central attention towards the nature, the properties, and the application of building materials (construction and how this attention forms a creative force in building constructions, structural features and architectural design (construing – helps to identify and refine technology transfer in contemporary industrialized building construction’. Through various references from the construction industry, business theory and architectural practice the paper offers various analyses, comparisons and concrete design approaches. How architectural design processes and the tectonic design can benefit from Integrated Product Deliveries, mass-customization and Design for Disassembly is examined and discussed. The paper concludes by presenting a series of arguments that call for adaptable systems based on sufficient numbers of industrialized building products of high quality and a great variety of suppliers, and point at the need for optimizing our use of resources in order to reach sustainable solutions in architecture.

  16. Occupant behaviour and robustness of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buso, Tiziana; Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano P.

    2015-01-01

    Occupant behaviour can cause major discrepancies between the designed and the real total energy use in buildings. A possible solution to reduce the differences between predictions and actual performances is designing robust buildings, i.e. buildings whose performances show little variations with...... alternating occupant behaviour patterns. The aim of this work was to investigate how alternating occupant behaviour patterns impact the performance of different envelope design solutions in terms of building robustness. Probabilistic models of occupants' window opening and use of shading were implemented in a...... dynamic building energy simulation tool (IDA ICE). The analysis was carried out by simulating 15 building envelope designs in different thermal zones of an Office Reference Building in 3 climates: Stockholm, Frankfurt and Athens.In general, robustness towards changes in occupants' behaviour increased with...

  17. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm. These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.

  18. Examination of the architecture interactions and visual arts (painting and sculpture) and their role in the persistence architecture (Case Study: City Theatre and the Museum of Contemporary Art)

    OpenAIRE

    ESMAILZADEH, Mitra; BASIRI, Mahdis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Sustainability in architecture includes very extensive and different aspects. Environmental sustainability, the use of natural energies, etc., are factors that have been extensively studied, but what is less studied, is the effects of durability of a work in architecture. Architecture durability means building construction that one of the aesthetic aspects is durable building. Therefore, architecture interactions with painting and sculpture arts and how it will lead to the architect...

  19. Grey Vancouver's information architecture process

    OpenAIRE

    LeBlanc, Christopher Francis

    2010-01-01

    This project report provides an overview and analysis of Grey’s process for developing the information architecture (IA) of two client websites: UBC Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Kelty Mental Health Resource Centre. The report details the initial stages of IA development, including research into user groups, and covers the development process prior to site building. Further, the report discusses the process and purpose behind usability testing for the two websites, and details k...

  20. Indonesian residential high rise buildings: A life cycle energy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utama, Agya; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2009-11-15

    This study evaluates the effect of building envelopes on the life cycle energy consumption of high rise residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia. For high rise residential buildings, the enclosures contribute 10-50% of the total building cost, 14-17% of the total material mass and 20-30% of the total heat gain. The direct as well as indirect influence of the envelope materials plays an important role in the life cycle energy consumption of buildings. The initial embodied energy of typical double wall and single wall envelopes for high residential buildings is 79.5 GJ and 76.3 GJ, respectively. Over an assumed life span of 40 years, double walls have better energy performance than single walls, 283 GJ versus 480 GJ, respectively. Material selection, which depends not only on embodied energy but also thermal properties, should, therefore, play a crucial role during the design of buildings. (author)