WorldWideScience

Sample records for building envelope components

  1. Adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Tillmann Klein; Ulrich Knaack

    2015-01-01

    The papers in this issue of JFDE discuss the potential of adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies. The applied practice paper demonstrates decision strategies behind the adaptive sun shading system of the Al-Bahr Towers. Additivity in building envelopes is not only a strategy to fulfil the growing demands for energy efficient buildings and comfort but has great architectural implications as well. In general it asks for more complex components as...

  2. Innovative Danish Building Envelope Components for Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    . The perhaps most important basic passive house concept requirement in a relatively cold Danish climate is envelope constructions with superior thermal insulation without thermal bridges. Some Danish producers of building components have during the last couple of years, developed new highly insulated...... and in some cases very innovative envelope constructions. In this paper, two of the most interesting components are described; a prefabricated light-weight exterior wall element with a load-bearing plywood and steel frame and a foundation / slab on ground solution based on concrete and EPS insulation......The Passive House concept has not as yet become generally accepted in Denmark. But there is a growing awareness of the concept as a solution to achieve high thermal comfort conditions and a low energy demand on low construction costs. This growing awareness is partly due to the introduction of new...

  3. Field Testing of Nano-PCM Enhanced Building Envelope Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program s goal of developing high-performance, energy efficient buildings will require more cost-effective, durable, energy efficient building envelopes. Forty-eight percent of the residential end-use energy consumption is spent on space heating and air conditioning. Reducing envelope-generated heating and cooling loads through application of phase change material (PCM)-enhanced envelope components can facilitate maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. Field-testing of prototype envelope components is an important step in estimating their energy benefits. An innovative phase change material (nano-PCM) was developed with PCM encapsulated with expanded graphite (interconnected) nanosheets, which is highly conducive for enhanced thermal storage and energy distribution, and is shape-stable for convenient incorporation into lightweight building components. During 2012, two test walls with cellulose cavity insulation and prototype PCM-enhanced interior wallboards were installed in a natural exposure test (NET) facility at Charleston, SC. The first test wall was divided into four sections, which were separated by wood studs and thin layers of foam insulation. Two sections contained nano-PCM-enhanced wallboards: one was a three-layer structure, in which nano-PCM was sandwiched between two gypsum boards, and the other one had PCM dispersed homogeneously throughout graphite nanosheets-enhanced gypsum board. The second test wall also contained two sections with interior PCM wallboards; one contained nano-PCM dispersed homogeneously in gypsum and the other was gypsum board containing a commercial microencapsulated PCM (MEPCM) for comparison. Each test wall contained a section covered with gypsum board on the interior side, which served as control or a baseline for evaluation of the PCM wallboards. The walls were instrumented with arrays of thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Further, numerical modeling of

  4. Adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Klein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The papers in this issue of JFDE discuss the potential of adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies. The applied practice paper demonstrates decision strategies behind the adaptive sun shading system of the Al-Bahr Towers. Additivity in building envelopes is not only a strategy to fulfil the growing demands for energy efficient buildings and comfort but has great architectural implications as well. In general it asks for more complex components as well as control strategies. But complexity also means costs and risks, and we need to discuss the means and effects. This discussion in particular is very interesting because here science and practice meet. The Journal of Facade Design and Engineering JFDE will actively follow and stimulate by providing high quality contributions. Four of the paper contributions have their origins in the Conference ‘Facades 2014’, held in November 2014 in Lucerne. The contributions have been carefully selected and have been subjected to the regular double blind review process of the journal. We want to thank Prof. Dr. Andres Luible for the help in making this issue happen. We are proud that JFDE is the scientific partner for a number of conferences such as ‘The Future Envelope’ Conference on Building Envelopes held yearly in Delft (NL or Bath (UK, the ICAE International Congress on Architectural Envelopes in San Sebastian (ES and the above mentioned conference ‘Facades’ in Lucerne (CH and Detmold (D. Our latest partner is the ICBEST 2017 - International Conference on Building Envelope Systems and Technologies in Istanbul. The growing number of partners indicates the relevance of JFDE for our growing discipline and will assure the continuity of the journal. Facade Design and Engineering is a peer reviewed, open access journal, funded by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research NWO (www.nwo.nl. We see ‘open access’ as the future publishing model

  5. PCM-enhanced building components an application of phase change materials in building envelopes and internal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kosny, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Presenting an overview of the use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) within buildings, this book discusses the performance of PCM-enhanced building envelopes. It reviews the most common PCMs suitable for building applications, and discusses PCM encapsulation and packaging methods. In addition to this, it examines a range of PCM-enhanced building products in the process of development as well as examples of whole-building-scale field demonstrations. Further chapters discuss experimental and theoretical analyses (including available software) to determine dynamic thermal and energy performance ch

  6. Analysis of Building Envelope Construction in 2003 CBECS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, David W.; Halverson, Mark A.; Jiang, Wei

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine "typical" building envelope characteristics for buildings built after 1980. We address three envelope components in this paper - roofs, walls, and window area. These typical building envelope characteristics were used in the development of DOE’s Reference Buildings .

  7. Format for description of building envelope components for use in an optimization process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    building codes specify minimum requirements for the aspects in question, but no trade-offs between the different aspects are allowed, being un-flexible. To allow for the use of optimization procedures in the design process a larger degree of flexibility is needed but first of all there is a need for...

  8. Energy efficiency of building envelope

    OpenAIRE

    V.M. Yakubson

    2014-01-01

    November, 12-13th, in Saint-Petersburg the 7th International congress "Energy efficiency. XXI century" took place. The reports were done in breakuo groups according to the various aspects of energy efficiency challenge: HVAC systems, water supply and sewerage systems, gas supply, energy metering. One of the grourps was devoted to thermophysics of buildings and energy effective design of building envelope.

  9. Moisture dynamics in building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuhkuri, R.

    2003-07-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis 'Moisture dynamics in building envelopes' has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygro thermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. (au)

  10. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. The first...... part of the Thesis consists of a theory and literature review on the moisture storage and transport processes (Chapter 2), on the non-Fickian moisture transport (Chapter 3)and on the methods for determining the moisture properties (Chapter 4). In the second part, the conducted experimental work......The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...

  11. Intelligent building envelopes. Architectural concept and applications for daylighting quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyckmans, Annemie

    2005-11-15

    How does an intelligent building envelope manage the variable and sometimes conflictive occupant requirements that arise in a day lit indoor environment. This is the research question that provides the basis for this Ph.D. work. As it touches upon several fields of application, the research question is untangled into four steps, each of which corresponds to a chapter of the thesis. 1) What characterises intelligent behaviour for a building envelope. 2) What characterises indoor day lighting quality. 3) Which functions can an intelligent building envelope be expected to perform in the context of day lighting quality. 4) How are the materials, components and composition of an intelligent building envelope designed to influence this performance. The emphasis is on design, environmental aspects, energy conservation, functional analysis and physical applications.

  12. Solar envelope concepts: moderate density building applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, R. L.; Berry, R. D.

    1980-04-01

    The public policy mechanism for guaranteeing solar access is conceptualized as a solar zoning envelope that allows the largest possible building bulk on a land parcel without shadowing neighboring properties during specified times. Step-by-step methods for generating solar envelopes are described with extensive drawings, showing a variety of urban platting and lot configurations. Development and design possibilities are examined on a selected set of Los Angeles sites with typically diverse urban characteristics. Envelope attributes suitable for encouraging moderate-density commercial and residential building are examined in the context of two hypothetical but realistic development programs: one for speculative office buildings and one for condominium housing. Numerous illustrations of envelope forms and prototypical building designs are provided.

  13. Investment Costs of the Building Envelope Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Výskala Miloslav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at the design of the measurements improving the thermal-technical properties of the building envelope from the point of view of the economic evaluation. The starting point for the evaluation of economic aspects is the quantification of the partial and total costs according to the individual constructions of the building envelope in relation to the earlier requirements. The result is the determination of the minimal thickness of the thermal insulation i.e. the determination of the corresponding properties of the building envelope. Described procedure represents the first step for the consecutive modelling of the potential investment options while comply with the optimal level according to Directive 2010/31/ES (EPBD II.

  14. Building envelope for New Buildings and Energy Renovation of Existing Buildings. Project results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Rose, Jørgen; Esbensen, Peter Kjær;

    1999-01-01

    , a group of scientists at the Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, have started a research project to develop better solutions for new building and energy renovation.The publication report the status after the first 3 year of the Building Envelope Project with emphasis......At the energy conference in 1995, Denmark agreed on reducing the total CO2-emission by 20%. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to increase thermal insulation thickness both in new and retrofitted buildings.This will, for both cases, impose a series of building physics problems, as the knowledge...... on the following subjects:Scientific basis for calculation programs, Development of calculationsmethods for heat transfer, Development of new building envelope components, Roofing system based on wooden roof elements, Roofing system with drying properties, Moisture uptake and drying from brick constructions...

  15. Implementation of Models for Building Envelope Air Flow Fields in a Whole Building Hygrothermal Simulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Grau, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Simulation tools are becoming available which predict the heat and moisture conditions in the indoor environment as well as in the envelope of buildings, and thus it has become possible to consider the important interaction between the different components of buildings and the different physical...... phenomena which occur. However, there is still room for further development of such tools. This paper will present an attempt to integrate modelling of air flows in building envelopes into a whole building hygrothermal simulation tool. Two kinds of air flows have been considered: 1. Air flow in ventilated...... cavity such as in the exterior cladding of building envelopes, i.e. a flow which is parallel to the construction plane. 2. Infiltration/exfiltration of air through the building envelope, i.e. a flow which is perpendicular to the construction plane. The new models make it possible to predict the thermal...

  16. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  17. Detection and modeling of rough component envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Matthew; Dluzniak, Richard; Thompson, William

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes an imaging technique for the determination of rough component envelopes of cast and forged components. The paper includes several image acquisition methods currently used in this area but concentrates in detail on the method known as the light stripe method. Results presented show the advantages of the light stripe method to obtain a fast and accurate 3D description of the cast and forged components. The research is part of a larger project on intelligent manufacturing systems and is being conducted at the CIM Centre, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia.

  18. Building envelope innovation: smart facades for non residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sala

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzes the evolution of smart façade systems in the area of design and industrial production, in order to investigate the technological, functional and qualitative standards of dynamic façade and evaluate the energy performance of the building envelope as a dynamic system that interacts between indoor and outdoor environment. The study focused on dynamic envelopes for office building analyzing the evolution of façade systems in terms of: building construction, innovative systems, smart materials, dynamic system. Aiming to improve building energy performances. The research, developed during the PhD thesis “Smart Envelope - dynamic and innovative technologies for energy saving” and the research “Abitare Mediterraneo”, aims to identify and define the energy performances of smart envelopes trough the analysis of the state of art, related to dynamic building envelope of double skin façade, and the development of a new dynamic façade system.

  19. ANALYSES AND INFLUENCES OF GLAZED BUILDING ENVELOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an analytical study of the functioning of glazing at two different yet interacting levels: at the level of the building as a whole, and at that of glazing as a building element. At the building level, analyses were performed on a sample of high-rise business buildings in Slovenia, where the glazing"s share of the building envelope was calculated, and estimates of the proportion of shade provided by external blinds were made. It is shown that, especially in the case of modern buildings with large proportions of glazing and buildings with no shading devices, careful glazing design is needed, together with a sound knowledge of energy performance. In the second part of the article, the energy balance values relating to selected types of glazing are presented, including solar control glazing. The paper demonstrates the need for a holistic energy approach to glazing problems, as well as how different types of glazing can be methodically compared, thus improving the design of sustainability-orientated buildings.

  20. Integrated Energy Design of the Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Vraa

    project analysed how the implementation of technical knowledge early in the building design process can quantify the effect of a building’s façades on its energy efficiency and indoor climate and thereby facilitate a more qualified design development. The project was structured in the following way: 1......This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research...... layout, window geometry and transparency, design of the window aperture, etc. Through the wide range of affiliated project involved in at the architectural firm over the course of this project, this approach resulted in building designs with an energy demand at least 25% below the minimum requirements...

  1. Shape Control of Responsive Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worre Foged, Isak; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christensen, Jesper Thøger;

    2010-01-01

    of the paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two different shape...... alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock-up concept of a secondary...

  2. CISBAT 2003 proceedings. BuildingEnvelopes.org. Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scartezzini, J.-L.

    2003-07-01

    Hosted by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne and jointly organised by EPFL and the Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA, the international conference 'Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems' enjoyed the attendance of 140 participants from 14 countries all around the world. The conference proceedings include the 63 presentations grouped in 9 sections. The 3 keynote speakers addressed the following topics: Sustainable buildings, USA research; Nanostructured materials for solar energy conversion; From smart buildings to ambient intelligence. The 9 groups of topics were: Building envelopes design and renovation; Solar collectors and systems; Indoor environment quality and health; Daylighting and visual ergonomy; Advanced building control systems; New construction materials; Environmental impacts of construction; Cities, infrastructures and sustainable development; Software. Organised each second year for now 20 years, the international conference CISBAT is amongst the leading ones in its field. The 2003 edition closed with a video conference from the USA, entitled 'Cradle to cradle - A design revolution', presented by the architect W. Mc Donough, Winner of 1996 Presidential Prize for Sustainable Development.

  3. Integrated energy design of the building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vraa Nielsen, M.

    2012-07-01

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research project analysed how the implementation of technical knowledge early in the building design process can quantify the effect of a building's facades on its energy efficiency and indoor climate and thereby facilitate a more qualified design development. The project was structured in the following way: 1) the importance of integrating knowledge in the early stages of design, and how it can be done; 2) understanding the facade's typology; and 3) the complex notion of comfort. The project touched not only on the technical capabilities and requirements governing facade design, but also the process by which it takes place. This was done by applying the methodology of Integrated Energy Design (IED) and analysing its applicability in the design of facades. A major part of the project was an actual engagement in the architectural process to test out incorporating a consciousness about energy and comfort as part of a more holistic performance evaluation. The research project illustrates the great potential in taking passive properties into account through a geometrical optimisation inherent in the development of the architectural concept. It demonstrates that integration of technical knowledge at the early stages of design not only can qualify the geometrical processing, but also facilitate the design development of the facade. Thereby a more holistic performance optimisation can be obtained through parameters such as overall facade geometry and orientation, functional organisation, room height and depth, facade layout, window geometry and transparency, design of the window aperture, etc. Through the wide range of affiliated project involved in at the architectural firm over

  4. Development of building envelope structures; Udvikling af klimaskaermskonstruktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monefeldt Tommerup, H. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark); Munch-Andersen, J. [Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, Hoersholm (Denmark); Kjaer Esbensen, P. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark)

    2000-08-01

    The present report concludes the work concerning the development of building envelope constructions, which can form the basis of new buildings with considerably less heat demand than in the present building regulations. It has been made probable that it is technically possible to build exterior walls with less heat loss than those just complying with the requirements of the current building regulations with no considerable added use of material apart from insulation. In their structure many of the shown constructions resemble types that are used today, while others presuppose that one part of the wall is attached to the other part or possibly to the rafters. Calculations concerning the importance of heat capacity for a 100 m{sup 2} single-family house have been made which confirm that by using heavy rather than light envelope constructions the reduction of the heating requirements is relatively small. Therefore optimisation of the insulation level can be carried out separately on the building components. A method has been developed for the evaluation of the optimum insulation level for the individual building components of the building envelope based on life cycle cost analysis. The method is based on making up the changes in the operational energy costs/ heating-costs and the cost of construction due to a change in the insulation thickness over a 30-year period. The life span of the primary parts of the building envelope is estimated at 100 years. It is assumed that the gross energy consumption that covers the heating requirements and the heat loss (determined by a simple calculation of degree days) changes concurrently with the change in the insulation thickness, which has been proved to be a reasonable approximation. The life cycle cost analysis has been carried out for a test-house of about 100 m{sup 2} and with two different energy price scenarios: 0.60 dkk/kWh (including taxes and VAT) which roughly corresponds to the present energy price level, and 1.20 dkk

  5. Energy performance of the self-shading building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capeluto, I.G. [Climate and Energy Laboratory in Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning, Technion: Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, the Solar Collection Envelope (SCE) concept is used for the generation of the self-shading envelope. The computer model 'SustArc' was applied to create the nomogram of the Solar Collection Envelope. The model allows for the generation of the building shape in a way that the building facades are self-shaded during a required period determined by the designer. The presented method is limited to self-shading buildings and the use of additional shading devices should be considered by the designer to avoid very inclined walls. The model and algorithm for the generation of the Solar Collection Envelope are presented. The paper includes a detailed example of the implementation of the method, and the evaluation of the influence of the proposed building geometry on the energy performance of the building, based on a comparison with a traditional vertical facade building. The simulation results reveal that for all the orientations there is an important improvement in the energy performance of the building when designing according to the self-shading envelope. Similar results can be also obtained for vertical facades using high-performance low-emissivity windows. The combination of the building self-shading geometry and internal blinds provide the best solution, particularly for east and west orientations. (author)

  6. Energy performance of the self-shading building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capeluto, I.G. [Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel). Faculty of Architecture and Town PLanning, Climate and Energy Laboratory in Architecture

    2003-03-01

    In this work, the Solar Collection Envelope (SCE) concept is used for the generation of the self-shading envelope. The computer model SustArc was applied to create the nomogram of the Solar Collection Envelope. The model allows for the generation of the building shape in a way that the building facades are self-shaded during a required period determined by the designer. The presented method is limited to self-shading buildings and the use of additional shading devices should be considered by the designer to avoid very inclined walls. The model and algorithm for the generation of the Solar Collection Envelope are presented. The paper includes a detailed example of the implementation of the method, and the evaluation of the influence of the proposed building geometry on the energy performance of the building, based on a comparison with a traditional vertical facade building. The simulation results reveal that for all the orientations there is an important improvement in the energy performance of the building when designing according to the self-shading envelope. Similar results can be also obtained for vertical facades using high-performance low-emissivity windows. The combination of the building self-shading geometry and internal blinds provide the best solution, particularly for east and west orientations. (author)

  7. Thermal performance of integration of solar collectors and building envelopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国清; 龚小辉; 曹双华

    2009-01-01

    The integration of building with solar collector was studied. The theoretical model of integration of building envelopes and flat plate solar collectors was set up and the thermal performance of integration was studied in winter and summer,and compared to envelopes without solar collectors. The results show that the solar collection efficiency is raised in the integration of building envelopes and solar collectors with the air layer doors closed. This is true whether in winter or summer. The increment is higher as the inlet water temperature increases or the ambient temperature is low. In winter,the heat loss is significantly reduced through integration of the building envelopes and solar collectors with the closed air layer doors. The integration with the open air layer door is worse than that without collectors. In summer,the heat gains of the integration of envelopes and solar collectors are more obviously reduced than envelopes without collectors,the integration with the open air layer door is a little better than the closed one,but the difference is very small.

  8. Solar envelope concepts: moderate density building applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, R.L.; Berry, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Solar energy utilization in urban areas requires public guarantees that all property owners have direct access to the sun. The study examines the implications of this premise in relation to the need for cities to also encourage or accommodate rebuilding and future development. The public policy mechanism for guaranteeing solar access is conceptualized as a solar zoning envelope that allows the largest possible building bulk on a land parcel without shadowing neighboring properties during specified times. Step-by-step methods for generating solar envelopes are described with extensive drawings, showing a variety of urban platting and lot configurations. Development and design possibilities are examined on a selected set of Los Angeles sites with typically diverse urban characteristics. Envelope attributes suitable for encouraging moderate-density commercial and residential building are examined in the context of two hypothetical but realistic development programs: one for speculative office buildings and one for condominium housing. Numerous illustrations of envelope forms and prototypical building designs are provided. The results of development simulation studies on all test sites are tabulated to show building bulk, density, land-coverage and open space characteristics obtainable under the hypothesized envelopes.

  9. Envelope as Climate Negotiator: Evaluating adaptive building envelope's capacity to moderate indoor climate and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, James

    Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can be realized with adaptive envelopes over static building envelopes even under extreme summer and winter climate conditions; that the magnitude of these savings are dependent on climate and orientation; and that occupant thermal comfort can be improved consistently over comfort levels achieved by optimized static building envelopes. The resulting adaptive envelope's unique climate-specific behavior could inform designers in creating an intelligent kinetic aesthetic that helps facilitate adaptability and resiliency in architecture.

  10. Towards a fourth skin? sustainability and double-envelope buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diprose, P.R.; Robertson, G. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand)

    1996-05-01

    In several well publicised designs for `green` office buildings, the zone of meditation between inside and outside has been increased by the addition of a second building envelope. When interpreted as exemplars of sustainable architecture, the addition of a second wall in these buildings is questionable both biophysically and psycho-culturally. More constructive design strategies acknowledge the wider biophysical contexts of the human ecosystem, the prudent use of material and energy resources throughout a building`s life, make realistic use of climate, and promote psycho-cultural needs arising out of ecologism. (author)

  11. Performance profiles of exterior fire protective building envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarnskjold Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fire protective envelope of any building consists of multiple elements with widely differing properties relating to a fire, such as glass, roof tiles and sheathings, wood cladding, gaps and openings. Where resistance to an exterior fire is required, all elements should be verified to provide a comparable risk of burn-through. Elements are rated by either the material response to fire or fire resistance. In Europe, cladding sheets and wall membranes can be rated by K classes, which effectively include a measure of the time to burn through. A determination of burn-through time of each element of a specific building envelope should be obtained. A design tool to verify the performance of a building's fire protective envelope has been developed. In this paper, a general description of passive elements of the envelope, which should be included in a risk assessment tool such as an index method, is presented. An illustrative approach to visualise the profiles for areas densely spaced structures where an exterior fire may trigger building-to-building fire spread is also included. The research is based on the hypothesis that a relatively subtle and pointed upgrading of an exterior building envelope will severely reduce the speed of building-to-building fire spread, thus allowing firefighting efforts to get on top of the situation. For a burning structure to expose other buildings to fire, the fire has to settle, which leads to a burn-through to the inside. Once inside, an enclosure fire needs to develop and burn through the roof or break one or more large window panes. It is estimated that a 5–10 min delay for a structure to expose other structures to fire can be sufficient to avoid loss of multiple structures. A 10–50 min burn-through time allows for an extended intervention by the fire brigade, which is significant in rural areas. A fire protective envelope may prevent an exterior fire from penetrating the protective envelope at all and the

  12. Review on thermal performance of phase change energy storage building envelope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; ZHANG YinPing; XlAO Wei; ZENG RuoLang; ZHANG QunLi; DI HongFa

    2009-01-01

    Improving the thermal performance of building envelope is an important way to save building energy consumption. The phase change energy storage building envelope is helpful to effective use of renewable energy, reducing building operational energy consumption, increasing building thermal comfort, and reducing environment pollution and greenhouse gas emission. This paper presents the concept of ideal energy-saving building envelope, which is used to guide the building envelope material selection and thermal performance design. This paper reviews some available researches on phase change building material and phase change energy storage building envelope. At last, this paper presents some current problems needed further research.

  13. Biomimetic Architecture in Building Envelope Maintenance (A Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Salim N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of biomimetic architecture on building envelope is the main structure of this research. The concept is believed more sustainable and efficient for energy saving, operating cost consumption, waste recycle and design renewal in the future. The inspiration from the nature developed the intention on this study to explore on what and how this concept to overcome the problems through design. Biomimicry does catch the attention of human to study more on the system and function of its nature course. The designers are not exception influenced by this concept when the form, shape, texture and colour inspired them in their design. The domination of building form will affect the building envelope as the skin of the structure. A clear impact on building failure is begun with building envelope appearance without a proper maintenance. The faults in building design place a heavy burden on the building for the rest of its operational life and there is no compensation for it. In such situations, the responsibility falls on the shoulders of the designer.

  14. Implementation of Models for Building Envelope Air Flow Fields in a Whole Building Hygrothermal Simulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karl Grau; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    phenomena that occur. However, there is still room for further development of such tools. This paper will present an attempt to integrate modelling of air flows in building envelopes into a whole building hygrothermal simulation tool. Two kinds of air flows have been considered: (1) Air flow in a ventilated...... cavity such as behind the exterior cladding of a building envelope, i.e. a flow which is parallel to the construction plane. (2) Infiltration/exfiltration of air through the building envelope, i.e. a flow which is perpendicular to the constructionplane. The paper presents the models and how they have...

  15. Influence of Building Envelope Thermal Mass on Heating Design Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaujena, B.; Borodinecs, A.; Zemitis, J.; Prozuments, A.

    2015-11-01

    The stability of indoor air parameters is a very important factor, essential for such institutions as museums, schools and hospitals. Nowadays the use of renewable energy for space heating became one of the top priorities in modern building design. The active and passive solar energy as well as heat pumps are widely used nowadays. However, such technologies have a limitation in cold climates and often are not able to cover maximal heating loads. This paper is devoted to analysis of influence of building envelope's properties and outdoor air parameters on indoor air thermodynamic parameters stability in winter time. It presents analysis of thermal mass impact on building energy performance and indoor air parameter stability in cold climate. The results show that the thermal mass of building envelope is able to cover extreme winter temperatures as well as in case of emergency heat supply break.

  16. Switching from static to adaptable and dynamic building envelopes: A paradigm shift for the energy efficiency in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Perino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The key role of the building envelope in attaining building energy efficiency and satisfactory indoor comfort has long been established. Nevertheless, until recent times, all efforts and attention have mainly been focused on increasing and optimizing the thermal insulation of the envelope components. This strategy was a winning approach for a long time, but its limitations became obvious when users and designers started to consider the overall energy demand of a building and started to aim for Zero Energy Building (ZEB or nearly ZEB goals. New and more revolutionary concepts and technologies needed to be developed to satisfy such challenging requirements. The potential benefits of this technological development are relevant since the building envelope plays a key role in controlling the energy and mass flows from outdoors to indoors (and vice versa and, moreover, the facades offer a significant opportunity for solar energy exploitation. Several researches have demonstrated that the limitation of the existing facades could be overcome only by switching from ‘static’ to ‘responsive’ and ‘dynamic’ systems, such as Multifunctional Facade Modules (MFMs and Responsive Building Elements (RBE. These components are able to continuously and pro-actively react to outdoor and indoor environment conditions and facilitate and enhance the exploitation of renewable and low exergy sources. In order to reduce the energy demand, to maximize the indoor comfort conditions and to produce energy at the site, these almost ‘self-sufficient’, or even ‘positive energy’ building skins frequently incorporate different technologies and are functionally connected to other building services and installations. An overview of the technological evolution of the building envelope that has taken place, ranging from traditional components to the innovative skins, will be given in this paper, while focusing on the different approaches that have characterized this

  17. The green building envelope: vertical greening

    OpenAIRE

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve the environment in urban areas and is becoming a key design consideration in modern building developments. Vertical greening of structures offers large surfaces with vegetation and at the same time...

  18. CISBAT 2007 - Design and renovation of building envelopes (bioclimatic architecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This is the second part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of sustainable building envelopes the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Flexible photovoltaics integrated in transparent membrane and pneumatic foil constructions', 'Development of a numerical thermal model for double skin facades', 'Thermal performance analysis for an electrochromic vacuum glazing with low emittance coatings', 'Challenging the public building sector: optimization of energy performance by sustainable strategies', 'Simulation of the thermal performance of a climate adaptive skin', 'Possibilities for upgrading prefabricated concrete building envelopes', 'Experimental study of airflow and heat transfer in a double skin facade with blinds', 'Energy efficiency of a glazing system - Case study: a dynamic glazing and double skin facades - the use of venetian blinds and night ventilation for saving energy on mediterranean climate'. Poster-sessions on the subject include 'Adaptive building envelopes design ', 'GRC facade panels in Brazil', 'Solar absorptance of building opaque surfaces', 'Evaluating the thermal behavior of exterior walls (in residential buildings of hot-dry climate of Yazd)', 'Energy performance of buildings and local energy policy: the case of new residential buildings in Greve in Chianti (Firenze)', 'Space heating and domestic hot water energy demand in high-level-insulation multi-storey buildings in Tuscany (Italy)', 'Is 2000 W society possible, affordable, and socially acceptable for the Vaud existing school building?', 'Development of simplified method for measuring solar shading performance of windows', 'Studies of ecological architecture in China's Loess Plateau region', 'Contemporary mud

  19. INNOVATIVE DYNAMIC BUILDING COMPONENT FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Sala M.; Romano R.

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate building envelope is the main strategy for sustainable design, but in the mild temperate/mesothermal climates, the rapid changing of outdoor conditions push toward a dynamic response of envelope parameters to allow the maintenance of interior good adaptive comfort. The traditional response of the windows components that characterizes the Mediterranean architecture has recently developed by the ABITA Centre to a new range of innovative facade modules and new materials able to pl...

  20. Owners perception on the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners' need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures. The paper is based on a questionnaire survey of 3059 homeowners (response rate of 36%) selected by stratified random sampling during the summer of 2008. The results showed that 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of adopting such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing building envelope components. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improved attic insulation has more advantages than energy efficient windows and improved wall insulation, but windows were more likely to be installed than improved attic insulation. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure. Interpersonal sources, construction companies, installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to adopt building envelope energy efficiency measures. Policy measures to facilitate the rate of adoption of energy efficient building envelope measures are discussed.

  1. Infrared Thermography Assessment of Thermal Bridges in Building Envelope: Experimental Validation in a Test Room Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bianchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared imaging is a valuable tool to perform non-destructive qualitative tests and to investigate buildings envelope thermal-energy behavior. The assessment of envelope thermal insulation, ventilation, air leakages, and HVAC performance can be implemented through the analysis of each thermogram corresponding to an object surface temperature. Thermography also allows the identification of thermal bridges in buildings’ envelope that, together with windows and doors, constitute one of the weakest component increasing thermal losses. A quantitative methodology was proposed in previous researches by the authors in order to evaluate the effect of such weak point on the energy balance of the whole building. In the present work, in-field experimental measurements were carried out with the purpose of evaluating the energy losses through the envelope of a test room experimental field. In-situ thermal transmittance of walls, ceiling and roof were continuously monitored and each element was characterized by its own thermal insulation capability. Infrared thermography and the proposed quantitative methodology were applied to assess the energy losses due to thermal bridges. The main results show that the procedure confirms to be a reliable tool to quantify the incidence of thermal bridges in the envelope thermal losses.

  2. Improving energy efficiency through the design of the building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozer, Hatice [Istanbul Teknik Universitesi Ayazaga Kampusu Rektorluk Binasi, Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Buildings, their surroundings and related enterprises produce more CO{sub 2}, generate more pollution, consume more energy, and waste more natural resources than any other human enterprise or industry. Moreover, considerable parts of these environmental impacts are the results of the lodging industry. Hotels are designed as multifunctional buildings to provide different comfort levels and services to guests. It is often desirous to pay for exclusive amenities. Resorts are often developed in untouched and very sensitive ecosystems with little or no consideration taken for the natural or cultural surroundings. Most strategies applied in design and many of the services offered by lodging establishments require the consumption of substantial quantities of energy, water and non-durable products. The efficiency of the resource use starting from the building design to the end-users in hotel facilities is typically low, and the resulting environmental impacts are greater than those caused by other types of commercial buildings of similar size. Decisions taken during the architectural building design play AS important A role in reducing these environmental impacts as DOES THE management of the building. With a goal of enhancing the overall energy performance of hotel buildings, this paper represents a research-design project, located in izmir-Turkey, based on the effect of passive solar design techniques for designing the building envelopes to develop and demonstrate high performance. (author)

  3. Building thermal envelope systems and materials (BTESM) progress report for DOE Office of Buildings Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn, G. (comp.)

    1990-10-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, and building diagnostics. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

  4. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhari, Ramin [Renewable Energy Group

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  5. Thermal analysis of the building envelope of lightweight temporary housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, to meet the need of build efficient homes in a short time and with maximum constructive simplification, lightweight prefabricated building systems have proved to be particularly suitable, especially in geographical areas which must deal with emergency situations (i.e., temporary housing). In this paper the winter and summer thermal performance of a building prototype, realised with modular steel framed elements, have been studied, in both winter and summer conditions. Special attention has been paid to the optimisation of the dynamic thermal performance of the multi-layered envelope structures. The dynamic thermal behaviour of the outer wall, analysed and discussed in details in the paper, shows that it is possible to improve the performance of lightweight walls by using an optimised stratigraphy characterised by an opportune sequence of resistive and capacitive layers. The influence of inner structures (partitions, floor and roof) on the building thermal behaviour has also analyzed trough the introduction of room performance indices appropriately defined. The results of the study have been discussed with special reference to the requirements fixed by the Energy Performance Buildings European Directive (EPBDs) and the resulting implementation in Italian Legislation

  6. In situ monitoring of internal surface temperature of the historic building envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovská, Veronika; Katunský, Dušan

    2016-06-01

    Historical building envelope is characterized by a large accumulation that impact is mainly by changing the inner surface temperature over time. The minimum value of the inner surface temperature is set Code requirements. In the case of thermal technology assessment of building envelope contemplates a steady state external temperature and internal environment, thereby neglecting the heat accumulation capacity of building envelopes. Monitoring surface temperature in real terms in situ shows the real behavior of the building envelope close to reality. The recorded data can be used to create a numerical model for the simulation.

  7. Microclimatic conditions at the external surface of building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kragh, M.K.

    1998-12-31

    The project is described, the motivation for the research and the microclimate is defined in relation to both building physics research and applications. Air temperatur, air humidity, solar radiation and air velocity are briefly considered, whilst driving rain and long-wave radiation are described in more detail. Convective heat transfer and surface coefficients are discussed, although they are not microclimatic factors, merely resulting from combinations of such factors. They are included as they are important in relation to transfer of heat and moisture at the surface of the building envelope. Driving rain measurement is the main area of interest, including development of measurement equipment. Long-wave irradiation is measured and compared with empirical formulae from the literature. Window convection heat transfer is another main area of interest. Nocturnal convective heat transfer from a double pane glazing is studied and measurement principles are discussed. Finally, a compilation of meteorological data for hygrothermal simulations, including estimation of driving rain, is described. System error estimation in relation to the window convection measurements, design notes on an apparatus for external convection measurement, formulae for conversion of relative humitity and dry-bulb temperature into dew point temperature. (EG) 66 refs.

  8. Masking Release for Sweeping Masker Components with Correlated Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhey, Jesko l.; Klein-Hennig, Hendrike; Epp, Bastian

    2013-01-01

    To separate sounds from different sound sources, common properties of natural sounds are used by the auditory system, such as coherent temporal envelope fluctuations and correlated changes of frequency in different frequency regions. The present study investigates how the auditory systemprocesses...

  9. Integrated envelope and lighting systems for commercial buildings: a retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1998-06-01

    Daylighting systems in use world-wide rarely capture the energy-savings predicted by simulation tools and that we believe are achievable in real buildings. One of the primary reasons for this is that window and lighting systems are not designed and operated as an integrated system. Our efforts over the last five years have been targeted toward (1) development and testing of new prototype systems that involve a higher degree of systems integration than has been typical in the past, and (2) addressing current design and technological barriers that are often missed with component-oriented research. We summarize the results from this body of cross-disciplinary research and discuss its effects on the existing and future practice of daylighting in commercial buildings.

  10. Alternative methods for evaluation of airtightness of the building envelope; Alternativa metoder foer utvaerdering av byggnadsskalets lufttaethet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikander, Eva; Wahlgren, Paula

    2008-07-01

    Airtightness plays an important role when constructing energy efficient, sustainable and healthy buildings. In order to obtain airtight buildings, the airtightness needs to be evaluated during the construction phase. This enables improvements of the airtightness in an easy and cost-efficient way. During the construction phase, it is difficult to quantify the airtightness. However, detecting and sealing air leakages are good measures to improve the airtightness of the building. Several methods to detect air leakages are presented. A methodology to search for air leakages in buildings during construction has been developed, together with contractors and experts, and the methodology has been used at two building sites. The quantifiable airtightness of a building is determined by measuring the airflow that enters or exits the building at a certain pressure difference over the building envelope. In some cases it is not possible to measure air tightness according to standard. Therefore, a number of alternative methods have been evaluated. These methods include: extrapolation of measured data to a range used in standard measurements, using a buildings ventilation system fans to create a pressure difference over the building envelope, measuring the airtightness of a smaller part of the building (apartment, fire compartment or component) and tracer gas measurements

  11. Modeling a Decision Support Tool for Buildable and Sustainable Building Envelope Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natee Singhaputtangkul

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability and buildability requirements in building envelope design have significantly gained more importance nowadays, yet there is a lack of an appropriate decision support system (DSS that can help a building design team to incorporate these requirements and manage their tradeoffs at once. The main objective of this study is to build such a tool to facilitate a building design team to take into account sustainability and buildability criteria for assessment of building envelopes of high-rise residential buildings in Singapore. Literature reviews were conducted to investigate a comprehensive set of the sustainability and buildability criteria. This also included development of the tool using a Quality Functional Deployment (QFD approach combined with fuzzy set theory. A building design team was engaged to test the tool with the aim to evaluate usefulness of the tool in managing the tradeoffs among the sustainability and buildability criteria. The results from a qualitative data analysis suggested that the tool allowed the design team to effectively find a balance between the tradeoffs among the criteria when assessing multiple building envelope design alternatives. Main contributions of using this tool are achievement of a more efficient assessment of the building envelopes and more sustainable and buildable building envelope design.

  12. Towards Energy Demand Reduction in Social Housing Buildings: Envelope System Optimization Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Esquivias

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the potential for the reduction of energy demand in residential buildings by acting on the exterior envelope, both in newly constructed buildings and in the retrofitting of existing stock. It focuses on analysing social housing buildings in Mediterranean areas and on quantifying the scope of that reduction in the application of different envelope design strategies, with the purpose of prioritizing their application based on their energy efficiency. The analyses and quantifications were made by means of the generation of energy models with the TRNSYS tool for simple or combined solutions, identifying possible potentials for reduction of the energy demand from 20% to 25%, basically by acting on the windows. The case study was a newly built social housing building of a closed block type located in Seville (Spain. Its constructive techniques and the insulation level of its envelope are standardized for current buildings widespread across Mediterranean Europe.

  13. Design of the Building Envelope: A Novel Multi-Objective Approach for the Optimization of Energy Performance and Thermal Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ascione

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the increasing worldwide attention to energy and the environmental performance of the building sector, building energy demand should be minimized by considering all energy uses. In this regard, the development of building components characterized by proper values of thermal transmittance, thermal capacity, and radiative properties is a key strategy to reduce the annual energy need for the microclimatic control. However, the design of the thermal characteristics of the building envelope is an arduous task, especially in temperate climates where the energy demands for space heating and cooling are balanced. This study presents a novel methodology for optimizing the thermo-physical properties of the building envelope and its coatings, in terms of thermal resistance, capacity, and radiative characteristics of exposed surfaces. A multi-objective approach is adopted in order to optimize energy performance and thermal comfort. The optimization problem is solved by means of a Genetic Algorithm implemented in MATLAB®, which is coupled with EnergyPlus for performing dynamic energy simulations. For demonstration, the methodology is applied to a residential building for two different Mediterranean climates: Naples and Istanbul. The results show that for Naples, because of the higher incidence of cooling demand, cool external coatings imply significant energy savings, whereas the insulation of walls should be high but not excessive (no more than 13–14 cm. The importance of high-reflective coating is clear also in colder Mediterranean climates, like Istanbul, although the optimal thicknesses of thermal insulation are higher (around 16–18 cm. In both climates, the thermal envelope should have a significant mass, obtainable by adopting dense and/or thick masonry layers. Globally, a careful design of the thermal envelope is always necessary in order to achieve high-efficiency buildings.

  14. Envelope extraction based dimension reduction for independent component analysis in fault diagnosis of rolling element bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Na, Jing; Li, Bin; Fung, Rong-Fong

    2014-06-01

    A robust feature extraction scheme for the rolling element bearing (REB) fault diagnosis is proposed by combining the envelope extraction and the independent component analysis (ICA). In the present approach, the envelope extraction is not only utilized to obtain the impulsive component corresponding to the faults from the REB, but also to reduce the dimension of vibration sources included in the sensor-picked signals. Consequently, the difficulty for applying the ICA algorithm under the conditions that the sensor number is limited and the source number is unknown can be successfully eliminated. Then, the ICA algorithm is employed to separate the envelopes according to the independence of vibration sources. Finally, the vibration features related to the REB faults can be separated from disturbances and clearly exposed by the envelope spectrum. Simulations and experimental tests are conducted to validate the proposed method.

  15. Actual service life prediction of building components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Niels-Jørgen; Brandt, Erik; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2014-01-01

    , the paper presents an analysis of service life of buildings as such with respect to the use of the building partially based on analysis of data from the nationwide Danish register of buildings and housing as well as turnover in the Danish construction industry from refurbishment and demolition activities...... a condensed method for assessment of life cycle costs for buildings. Estimation of life cycle costs has traditionally been based on predicted service life for building components in terms of technical performance. This paper suggests a method for taking into account other contributing factors...... such as economics, aesthetics and use of the building. Each of these factors is regarded as a stochastic variable and can be seen as competing causes of bringing service life to an end. A model is proposed for combining such variables resulting in the actual service life of building components. Furthermore...

  16. Electrostatic envelope modes in multi-component non-thermal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiful Islam, Md; Sultana, Sharmin; Mamun, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    A theoretical study of envelope type solitary structures and their modulational instability has been made in a multi-component unmagnetized non-thermal plasma (consisting of negatively charged immobile heavy ions, inertial light ions and non-thermal electrons of two distinct temperatures). The cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (which describes the evolution of a slowly varying wave envelope with space and time) is derived by adopting the multiple scale (in space and time) perturbation technique. It is found that the plasma system under consideration supports two types (bright and dark) envelope solitons. It is also seen that the dark (bright) envelope solitons are modulationally stable (unstable). The variation of the growth rate of the unstable bright envelope solitons with various plasma parameters (e.g. wave number, temperature of plasma non-thermality, etc.) are found to be significant. The modulational instability criterions of the envelope modes are also seen to be influenced due to the variation of the intrinsic plasma parameters. This theoretical study may be useful in understanding the basic features of localized electrostatic structures in some space plasma systems (viz. Saturn's magnetosphere) where high energetic particles are available.

  17. Transient hygrothermal behaviour of a hemp concrete building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Le, A.D.; Maalouf, C.; Mai, T.H. [GRESPI/Thermomecanique, Universite de Reims, Moulin de la Housse BP. 1039, 51687 Reims (France); Wurtz, E. [INES-LOCIE, Savoie Technolac, Universite de Savoie, Le Bourget du Lac, 73375 Savoie (France); Collet, F. [Laboratoire de Genie civil et Genie Mecanique, equipe Materiaux-Thermo-Rheologie, Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Rennes 1 (France)

    2010-10-15

    The sustainable world's economic growth and people's life improvement greatly depend on the use of alternative products in the architecture and construction, such as industrial wastes conventionally called green materials. For this purpose, hemp concrete is more and more recommended by the eco-builders because hemp is a renewable plant, recyclable and does not degrade within time. It corresponds perfectly to the requirements of high environmental quality buildings. The objective of this article is to study transient hygrothermal behaviour of hemp concrete at whole building level. The physical model is one-dimensional and was implemented into the object-oriented simulation environment SPARK, using the finite difference technique with an implicit scheme. The numerical result showed that the use of hemp concrete wall in buildings can ensure good indoor air quality and energy savings in winter. Besides, the combined effect of moisture buffering with the adequate ventilation strategies increases hemp concrete building performance. Our results also suggest that taking into account the hygrothermal transfer at whole building level with heat and moisture production sources has significant effects on predictions. (author)

  18. Assessing the service life of building envelope constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    1999-01-01

    During the last 10 years, national standards have been developed in order to assess the expected service life of building materials and constructions and work is still progressing on the international level. Besides the current and upcoming standards, several methodologies have been developed...... or suggested at the national, international or individual level. The overview provided in this paper focuses on two two items: The first describes the current methods or standards established at a national level for either assessing and implementing service life requirements in the design stage of a building...

  19. Procedures when calculating economy for building envelopes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    Until a few years ago, economy in public funded buildings during construction or retrofitting was focused on investment cost and not very much on the cost for maintenance and energy use. Lately there has been a change in the rules and laws from the Ministry of Housing, resulting in the possibility...... of using total-economy. Total-economy incorporates all present and future investments (e.g. operational and maintenance costs) into one number making it possible to invest more money when constructing a building and save the money later on due to lower cost for maintenance and energy consumption.This paper...

  20. Cost Analysis of Simple Phase Change Material-Enhanced Building Envelopes in Southern U.S. Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, Jan [Fraunhofer CSE, Cambridge, MA (United States); Shukla, Nitin [Fraunhofer CSE, Cambridge, MA (United States); Fallahi, Ali [Fraunhofer CSE, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Traditional thermal designs of building envelope assemblies are based on static energy flows, yet building envelopes are subject to varying environmental conditions. This mismatch between the steady-state principles and their dynamic operation can decrease thermal efficiency. Design work supporting the development of low-energy houses showed that conventional insulations may not always be the most cost effective solution to improvement envelope thermal performance. PCM-enhanced building envelopes that simultaneously reduce the total cooling loads and shift the peak-hour loads are the focus of this report.

  1. 10 CFR 434.516 - Building exterior envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Buildings for calculating the Energy Cost Budget. In calculating the Design Energy Consumption of the... assumptions for calculating the Energy Cost Budget and default assumptions for the Design Energy Consumption... without operable windows shall be assumed to be 0.038 cfm/ft2 of gross exterior wall. Hotels/motels...

  2. 10 CFR 434.402 - Building envelope assemblies and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... The building shall be unoccupied. (c) During the testing period, the average wind speed during the... increased by 50% if a shading device is used that blocks over 50% of the solar gain during the peak cooling... cumulative annual energy flux attributable to thermal transmittance and solar gains shall be less than...

  3. Numerical Analysis of Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer in Cork Lightweight Concretes Used in Building Envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotehi, Nassima; Chaker, Abla

    A numerical study was carried out in order to investigate the behaviour of building envelopes made of lightweight concretes. In this work, we are particularly interested to the building envelopes which are consist of cement paste with incorporation of cork aggregates in order to obtain small thermal conductivity and low-density materials. The mathematical formulation of coupled heat and mass transfer in wet porous materials has been made using Luikov's model, the system describing temperature and moisture transfer processes within building walls is solved numerically with the finite elements method. The obtained results illustrate the temporal evolutions of the temperature and the moisture content, and the distributions of the temperature and moisture content inside the wall for several periods of time. They allow us to specify the effect of the nature and dosage of fibre on the heat and mass transfer.

  4. Windows and Building Envelope Research and Development: A Roadmap for Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This Building Technologies Office (BTO) Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap identifies priority windows and building envelope R&D areas of interest. Cost and performance targets are identified for each key R&D area. The roadmap describes the technical and market challenges to be overcome, R&D activities and milestones, key stakeholders, and potential energy savings that could result if cost and performance targets are met. Methods for improving technology performance and specific strategies for reducing installed costs and mitigating any other market barriers, which would increase the likelihood of mass-market technology adoption, are identified. This roadmap is a useful resource for public and private decision makers evaluating and pursuing high-impact R&D focused on advancing next-generation energy efficient windows and building envelope technologies.

  5. Nearly zero energy buildings and proliferation of microorganisms a current issue for highly insulated and airtight building envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giuseppe, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a concise review of the thermo-physical phenomena which regulate heat and moisture transportation in Nearly Zero Energy Buildings envelopes, and their relationship with the growth of biological organisms. It describes the main microorganisms proliferating on contemporary building elements and within buildings. It also states the consequences of biological growth on durability, aesthetics and human health; and provides the main methods for the analytical and experimental evaluation of proliferation. Finally, through the review of recent developments, remedial actions to count

  6. CALCULATION OF THE THERMAL FIELD AND THE THERMAL RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS ENVELOPES USING THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    U. U. Liashkevich

    2015-01-01

    The method of calculation the thermal field and the thermal resistance of fragments of building envelope and developed computer calculating program are described in the article «Calculation of the thermal field and the thermal resistance of buildings envelopes using the finite element method». The main logical modules of the program are described. An example of calculation of temperature field and of the thermal resistance of element of monolithic frame building is given.

  7. Electronic building component catalogue; Realisierung elektronischer Bauteilkatalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paolantonio, M. Di

    2007-01-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes an electronic building component catalogue developed to replace earlier printed documentation issued by the Swiss Association of Engineers and Architects SIA. The catalogue, which is available on the Internet, is described and discussed. The paper describes the web site and its features that can be used for the selection of building components such as, for example, double-wall masonry. Here, the thickness of the brickwork and insulation layers can dynamically be selected in order to achieve the insulation properties required. Ecological factors are also dealt with and the XML interface provided for the electronic export of data is described.

  8. Durability of building materials and components

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, JMPQ

    2013-01-01

    Durability of Building Materials and Components provides a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to the long-term performance and durability of construction and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of durability, service life prediction methodologies, the durability approach for historical and old buildings, asset and maintenance management and on the durability of materials, systems and components. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.

  9. Analysis of Building Envelope Insulation Performance Utilizing Integrated Temperature and Humidity Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Wei Chen; Cheng-Jui Hsu; Chih-Yuan Chang; San-Shan Hung

    2012-01-01

    A major cause of high energy consumption for air conditioning in indoor spaces is the thermal storage characteristics of a building’s envelope concrete material; therefore, the physiological signals (temperature and humidity) within concrete structures are an important reference for building energy management. The current approach to measuring temperature and humidity within concrete structures (i.e., thermocouples and fiber optics) is limited by problems of wiring requir...

  10. Improving the thermal performance of the building envelopes with the use of foam glass-ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    D.G. Portnyagin

    2015-01-01

    Recommendations on eliminating the defects of thermal insulation on the basis of the previously carried out thermal imaging surveys were given. Constructive solutions of building envelopes were proposed with regard to modeling thermal fields in ELCUT. A typical solution of thermal insulation of the basement joint is the unit exterior insulation of the basement wall to the level of the facing course bottom. This constructive solution is characterized by a significant thermal bridge, in the dir...

  11. Moisture condensation on building envelopes in differential ventilated spaces in the tropics: quantitative assessment of influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Maisarah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventilation systems play a significant role in maintaining the indoor thermal and hygric balance. Nevertheless, the systems had been implicated to result in many problems. In the tropical climate, especially for energy efficiency purposes, building spaces are operated with differential ventilation. Such spaces operate on 24-hrs basis, some on 8-hrs while others are either naturally ventilated or served with mechanical supply-exhaust fan systems with non-conditioned outdoor air. This practice had been found to result in condensation problems. This study involves a quantitative appraisal of the effect of operative conditions and hygrothermal quality of building envelopes on condensation risk. The in-situ experiment is combined with an analytical approach to assessing the hygrothermal quality of building envelopes in a tropical climate building under differential ventilation between adjacent spaces. The case-studied building is with a known history of condensation and associated damages including mould growth. The microclimate measurement and hygrothermal performance of the wall and floor against condensation and mould growth risks had been previously reported elsewhere. As a step further, the present study evaluates the effects of various envelope insulation types and configurations together with the HVAC cooling set-points on envelope hygrothermal performance. The results revealed that overcooling the air-conditioned side increases condensation risk on the non-air-conditioned side of the envelopes. The envelopes failed criteria for surface condensation at existing operative conditions irrespective of envelope hygrothermal quality improvements. However, the envelope performed well at improved cooling operative conditions even at existing envelope hygrothermal quality. It is, therefore, important to ascertain the envelope hygrothermal quality as well the cooling operative conditions while embarking on energy efficiency operations in mechanical

  12. Energy Saving Potentials of Phase Change Materials Applied to Lightweight Building Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Bok Seong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs have been considered as an innovative technology that can reduce the peak loads and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC energy consumption in buildings. Basically they are substances capable of storing or releasing thermal energy as latent heat. Because the amount of latent heat absorbed or released is much larger than the sensible heat, the application of PCMs in buildings has significant potential to reduce energy consumption. However, because each PCM has its own phase change temperature, which is the temperature at which latent heat is absorbed or released, it is important to use an appropriate PCM for the purpose of building envelope design. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the energy saving potentials in buildings when various PCMs with different phase change temperatures are applied to a lightweight building envelope by analyzing the thermal load characteristics. As results, the annual heating load increased at every phase change temperature, but the peak heating load decreased by 3.19% with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C, and the lowest indoor temperature increased by 0.86 °C with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C. The annual cooling load decreased by 1.05% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak cooling load decreased by 1.30% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.50 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C. When the night ventilation was applied to the building HVAC system for better passive cooling performance, the annual cooling load decreased by 9.28% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak load decreased by 11.33% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.85 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C.

  13. Analysis of Building Envelops to Optimize Energy Efficiency as per Code of Practice for Energy Efficient Buildings in Sri Lanka - 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, Epa

    2012-01-01

    Residential and commercial buildings consume approximately 20% of the global energy generation. This value is continuously growing and the governments across the globe have realized the importance of regulating the building construction to optimize the energy utilization. Energy efficient building codes have been developed to optimize the energy efficiency in buildings. OTTV (Overall Thermal Transfer Value) is a key parameter for evaluating energy efficiency of building envelops in the presen...

  14. Laboratory testing of a building envelope segment based on cellular concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fořt, Jan; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Hygrothermal performance of a building envelope based on cellular concrete blocks is studied in the paper. Simultaneously, the strain fields induced by the heat and moisture changes are monitored. The studied wall is exposed to the climatic load corresponding to the winter climatic conditions of the moderate year for Prague. The winter climatic exposure is chosen in order to simulate the critical conditions of the building structure from the point of view of material performance and temperature and humidity loading. The evaluation of hygrothermal performance of a researched wall is done on the basis of relative humidity and temperature profiles measured along the cross section of the cellular concrete blocks. Strain gauges are fixed on the wall surface in expected orientation of the blocks expansion. The obtained results show a good hygrothermal function of the analyzed cellular concrete wall and its insignificant strain.

  15. y Human herpesvirus 6 envelope components enriched in lipid rafts: evidence for virion-associated lipid rafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamanishi Koichi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In general, enveloped viruses are highly dependent on their lipid envelope for entry into host cells. Here, we demonstrated that during the course of virus maturation, a significant proportion of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6 envelope proteins were selectively concentrated in the detergent-resistant glycosphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich membranes (rafts in HHV-6-infected cells. In addition, the ganglioside GM1, which is known to partition preferentially into lipid rafts, was detected in purified virions, along with viral envelope glycoproteins, gH, gL, gB, gQ1, gQ2 and gO indicating that at least one raft component was included in the viral particle during the assembly process.

  16. A METHODOLOGY FOR ENERGY OPTIMIZATION OF BUILDINGS CONSIDERING SIMULTANEOUSLY BUILDING ENVELOPE HVAC AND RENEWABLE SYSTEM PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    Energy is the vital source of life and it plays a key role in development of human society. Any living creature relies on a source of energy to exist. Similarly, machines require power to operate. Starting with Industrial Revolution, the modern life clearly depends on energy. We need energy for almost everything we do in our daily life, including transportation, agriculture, telecommunication, powering industry, heating, cooling and lighting our buildings, powering electric equipment etc. Glo...

  17. Improving the thermal performance of the building envelopes with the use of foam glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Portnyagin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on eliminating the defects of thermal insulation on the basis of the previously carried out thermal imaging surveys were given. Constructive solutions of building envelopes were proposed with regard to modeling thermal fields in ELCUT. A typical solution of thermal insulation of the basement joint is the unit exterior insulation of the basement wall to the level of the facing course bottom. This constructive solution is characterized by a significant thermal bridge, in the direction through the cross-section of the floor slab under the insulation of the wall. The article presents the results of eliminating the thermal bridge by substituting of ceramic or silica bricks for thermal insulation bricks of foamglass. We discussed the roof and parapet joint. The paper also presents the results of heat loss calculation when replacing of the top line of backfills above the level of the coating by the brick thermal insulation made of foamglass.

  18. Evolutionary optimisation of façade design a new approach for the design of building envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Zemella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book explores how optimization-and performance-driven design in general-requires a change in the cultural approach to design for both architects and engineers. It shows how optimization techniques can be applied to the design of building envelopes.

  19. Cell envelope components influencing filament length in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnat, Mireia; Schleiff, Enrico; Flores, Enrique

    2014-12-01

    Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as chains of cells (known as trichomes or filaments) that can be hundreds of cells long. The filament consists of individual cells surrounded by a cytoplasmic membrane and peptidoglycan layers. The cells, however, share a continuous outer membrane, and septal proteins, such as SepJ, are important for cell-cell contact and filament formation. Here, we addressed a possible role of cell envelope components in filamentation, the process of producing and maintaining filaments, in the model cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. We studied filament length and the response of the filaments to mechanical fragmentation in a number of strains with mutations in genes encoding cell envelope components. Previously published peptidoglycan- and outer membrane-related gene mutants and strains with mutations in two genes (all5045 and alr0718) encoding class B penicillin-binding proteins isolated in this work were used. Our results show that filament length is affected in most cell envelope mutants, but the filaments of alr5045 and alr2270 gene mutants were particularly fragmented. All5045 is a dd-transpeptidase involved in peptidoglycan elongation during cell growth, and Alr2270 is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of lipid A, a key component of lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that both components of the cell envelope, the murein sacculus and the outer membrane, influence filamentation. As deduced from the filament fragmentation phenotypes of their mutants, however, none of these elements is as important for filamentation as the septal protein SepJ.

  20. Cool products for building envelope - Part I: Development and lab scale testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revel, G.M.; Martarelli, M.; Emiliani, M.; Gozalbo, A.; Orts, M.J.; Bengochea, M.T.; Guaita Delgado, L.; Gaki, A.; Katsiapi, A.; Taxiarchou, M.; Arabatzis, I.; Fasaki, I.; Hermanns, S.

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology followed for the development of new cool products in order to widen the range of existing solutions both including coloured (even dark) materials and extending the application also to building vertical components. Cool coloured ceramic tiles and acrylic paints for

  1. (Durability of building materials and components)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.

    1990-11-27

    The traveler participated in the fourth meeting of RILEM 100-TSL, Techniques for Service Life Prediction,'' and The Fifth International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components.'' In addition, the traveler met with staff members at Taywood Engineering Ltd., Electricite de France, and AEA Technology. The meeting pertained to performance of concrete materials in nuclear power plant structures, time variation of concrete material properties, methods for evaluating concrete structures, and modeling to predict the effects of degradation factors on concrete materials. As many of the concrete structures in general civil engineering applications as well as nuclear power plant applications in Europe are aging, there is increasing emphasis on assessing the durability of these structures. Information was provided of direct application to the Structural Aging Program which would not have been available without these visits. Of equal, or possibly more importance, was the individual contacts established at the organizations visited. Each organization was extremely interested in both the approach and scope of the Structural Aging Program and requested that they be informed of progress. The initial steps were taken to cooperate with several of these researchers and this should help the Structural Aging Program keep abreast of related European activities. In summary, information obtained during this trip will benefit the ongoing Structural Aging Program by informing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) of the extensive European research programs addressing the durability of concrete structures, and also by forming and strengthening acquaintances with counterparts in other countries, thus enhancing the basis for possible international cooperation.

  2. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on structural components of enveloped RNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Mauro R.; Couceiro, Jose N.S.S.; Brito, Sieberth N.; Cabral, Maulori C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Microbiologia

    1995-01-01

    The interaction of ultraviolet radiation and virus particles of Western Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus (WEE) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) which have respectively RNA of positive (RNA+) and negative (RNA-) polarity as genomes, was studied using purified particles. The purified virus preparations were irradiated at a range of 1,000 to 6,000 joules per m{sup 2} with posterior analysis of their propagation in primary cells cultures of chicken embryos. It could be observed that a radiation dose of 4,500 joules per m{sup 2} could induce 10{sup 9} TCID50 per ml as minimal loss of titer for WEE virus and NDV. The hemagglutination assay was used as a tool for evaluate the alterations caused by UV radiation on the molecular arrangement of virus proteins. Alterations of the virus hemagglutinating activity were only observed when radiation levels higher than 6,000 joules per m{sup 2} were used. The results from hemolysis assays showed the importance of the loss of the envelope integrity and the damages to nucleoprotein structures during the inactivation process, when we use radiation doses higher than 6,000 joules per m{sup 2}. This model of study can increase our comprehension of the radiation effects on the cell physiology and biological components of the cell membranes. (author). 34 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Low-Cost Bio-Based Phase Change Materials as an Energy Storage Medium in Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Abhari, Mr. Ramin [Renewable Energy Group, Inc.; Shukla, Dr. Nitin [Fraunhofer USA, Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston; Kosny, Dr. Jan [Fraunhofer USA, Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston

    2015-01-01

    A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of phase change material (PCM) in building envelope systems. Several studies have reported the energy saving potential of PCM in building envelopes. However, wide application of PCMs in building applications has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel paraffin product made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application, with the ultimate goal of commercializing a low-cost PCM platform. The low-cost PCM pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation, installed in external walls and field-tested under natural weatherization conditions for a period of several months. In addition, several PCM samples and PCM-cellulose samples were prepared under controlled conditions for laboratory-scale testing. The laboratory tests were performed to determine the phase change properties of PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation both at microscopic and macroscopic levels. This article presents the data and analysis from the exterior test wall and the laboratory-scale test data. PCM behavior is influenced by the weather and interior conditions, PCM phase change temperature and PCM distribution within the wall cavity, among other factors. Under optimal conditions, the field data showed up to 20% reduction in weekly heat transfer through an external wall due to the PCM compared to cellulose-only insulation.

  4. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program: Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Mallay, D. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-05-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. It presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements.

  5. Computational Support for the Selection of Energy Saving Building Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wilde, P.J.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Buildings use energy for heating, cooling and lighting, contributing to the problems of exhaustion of fossil fuel supplies and environmental pollution. In order to make buildings more energy-efficient an extensive set of âenergy saving building componentsâ has been developed that contributes to mini

  6. Potential for innovative massive building envelope systems – Scenario development towards integrated active systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Knaack

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate possible scenarios about future developments of massive constructions, this paper explains the developmental paths on the basis of individual materials of clay/brick as well as concrete/lightweight concrete/aerated concrete and sand-lime brick. These construction types are organised qua development level on a roadmap, structured by a timeline and the division in massive and skeleton construction. By this development, lines of constructions appear, structured by the order of additional functionalities integrated in each development step. Following this path, possible scenarios for future developments of integrated active systems are sketched, following the line of additional functionalities being integrated in the construction. Drawbacks such as the limitation of recycling of integrated constructions and the conflict of insulation versus load bearing capacities are named. As a result two strategies are expressed: the light massive envelope construction with integral layers and the massive oriented solution with possible exchangeable components are developed and illustrated by five general construction principles.  

  7. Potential for innovative massive building envelope systems – Scenario development towards integrated active systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Knaack

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate possible scenarios about future developments of massive constructions, this paper explains the developmental paths on the basis of individual materials of clay/brick as well as concrete/lightweight concrete/aerated concrete and sand-lime brick. These construction types are organised qua development level on a roadmap, structured by a timeline and the division in massive and skeleton construction. By this development, lines of constructions appear, structured by the order of additional functionalities integrated in each development step. Following this path, possible scenarios for future developments of integrated active systems are sketched, following the line of additional functionalities being integrated in the construction. Drawbacks such as the limitation of recycling of integrated constructions and the conflict of insulation versus load bearing capacities are named. As a result two strategies are expressed: the light massive envelope construction with integral layers and the massive oriented solution with possible exchangeable components are developed and illustrated by five general construction principles.

  8. Intracellular self-assembly based multi-labeling of key viral components: Envelope, capsid and nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Lu, Wen; Lv, Cheng; Chen, Zhi-Liang; Wang, Han-Zhong; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2016-08-01

    Envelope, capsid and nucleic acids are key viral components that are all involved in crucial events during virus infection. Thus simultaneous labeling of these key components is an indispensable prerequisite for monitoring comprehensive virus infection process and dissecting virus infection mechanism. Baculovirus was genetically tagged with biotin on its envelope protein GP64 and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) on its capsid protein VP39. Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) cells were infected by the recombinant baculovirus and subsequently fed with streptavidin-conjugated quantum dots (SA-QDs) and cell-permeable nucleic acids dye SYTO 82. Just by genetic engineering and virus propagation, multi-labeling of envelope, capsid and nucleic acids was spontaneously accomplished during virus inherent self-assembly process, significantly simplifying the labeling process while maintaining virus infectivity. Intracellular dissociation and transportation of all the key viral components, which was barely reported previously, was real-time monitored based on the multi-labeling approach, offering opportunities for deeply understanding virus infection and developing anti-virus treatment. PMID:27209260

  9. Building Reusable Software Component For Optimization Check in ABAP Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Shireesha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Software component reuse is the software engineering practice of developing newsoftware products from existing components. A reuse library or component reuserepository organizes stores and manages reusable components. This paper describeshow a reusable component is created, how it reuses the function and checking ifoptimized code is being used in building programs and applications. Finally providingcoding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable componentsand guidelines and best practices for making configurable and easy to use.

  10. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  11. Building Component Library: An Online Repository to Facilitate Building Energy Model Creation; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, K.; Long, N.; Swindler, A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes the Building Component Library (BCL), the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) online repository of building components that can be directly used to create energy models. This comprehensive, searchable library consists of components and measures as well as the metadata which describes them. The library is also designed to allow contributors to easily add new components, providing a continuously growing, standardized list of components for users to draw upon.

  12. Analyzing the effect of the longwave emissivity and solar reflectance of building envelopes on energy-saving in buildings in various climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhiyang; Zhang, Xiong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials of Education Ministry, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-01-15

    A dynamic computer simulation is carried out in the climates of 35 cities distributed around the world. The variation of the annual air-conditioning energy loads due to changes in the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance of the building envelopes is studied to find the most appropriate exterior building finishes in various climates (including a tropical climate, a subtropical climate, a mountain plateau climate, a frigid-temperate climate and a temperate climate). Both the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance are set from 0.1 to 0.9 with an interval of 0.1 in the simulation. The annual air-conditioning energy loads trends of each city are listed in a chart. The results show that both the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance of building envelopes play significant roles in energy-saving for buildings. In tropical climates, the optical parameters of the building exterior surface affect the building energy-saving most significantly. In the mountain plateau climates and the subarctic climates, the impacts on energy-saving in buildings due to changes in the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance are still considerable, but in the temperate continental climates and the temperate maritime climates, only limited effects are seen. (author)

  13. Ultrastructural Study of Salmonella typhimurium Treated with Membrane-Active Agents: Specific Reaction of Dansylchloride with Cell Envelope Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Peter R. G.; Teuber, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Amino groups of cell envelope proteins, lipids, and lipopolysaccharides cannot be labeled in intact cells of Salmonella typhimurium G 30 by using 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonylchloride incorporated in lecithin-cholesterol vesicles. However, application of membrane-interacting agents like tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris)-hydrochloride, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Na salt) (EDTA), divalent cations, and sublethal doses of the cationic antibacterial agents polymyxin B and chlorhexidine induced specific fluorescent labeling of envelope proteins and lipids but not of cytoplasmic compounds, with the exception of a soluble protein with a molecular weight of 46,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Treatment with Tris-hydrochloride buffer produced labeling of the heat-modifiable protein B/B+ and of proteins with molecular weights of 26,000, 22,000, and below 17,000. A combination of Tris-hydrochloride and EDTA induced additional dansylation of the major protein A and of proteins of molecular weights 80,000, 60,000, and 44,000. Polymyxin B and chlorhexidine caused similar labeling patterns. In every case, except with divalent cation treatment, protein B/B+ was the most prominently labeled species. Phosphatidylethanolamine was dansylated up to 30%. Lipopolysaccharide was not reactive under any condition or treatment. In addition, the peptidoglycan-bound lipoprotein did not react with dansylchloride in either intact or Tris-hydrochloride-treated cells. The results are discussed with regard to a possible localization of labeled and unlabeled compounds of the cell envelope on the basis of a model placing cell envelope amino groups into ion-ion interactions with anionic components of other envelope compounds like phosphate and carboxyl groups. Images PMID:97268

  14. Biomimetic Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Mazzoleni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available How to translate the lessons learned from the analysis and observation of the animal world is the design learning experience presented in this article. Skin is a complex and incredibly sophisticated organ that performs various functions, including protection, sensation and heat and water regulation. In a similar way building envelopes serve multiple roles, as they are the interface between the building inhabitants and environmental elements. The resulting architectural building envelopes proto-architectural research and design projects here presented, inspired by the study of animal skins, perform and respond; they take into consideration various dynamic local environmental conditions, enhancing and supporting them rather than exploiting them, creating a more sustainable way of building and living.

  15. Building Lifespan: Effect on the Environmental Impact of Building Components in a Danish Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Construction professionals must now integrate environmental concerns with life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the procurement process. Building lifespan is important to LCA, since results must be normalized on an annualized basis for comparison. However, the scientific literature shows that issues...... of building lifespan are inadequately addressed. The aim of this research is therefore to explore how environmental impact from building components is affected by building lifespans of 50, 80, 100 and 120 years in a Danish context. LCAs are undertaken for 792 parametric variations of typical construction...... solutions, covering all primary building components and based on contemporary practice. A full statistical analysis is carried out, which shows a significant statistical correlation between changes in building lifespan and environmental impact for all primary building components, except windows...

  16. Relevance of simplifications in LCA of building components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellenberger, Daniel [Scion (Forest Research), Te Papa Tipu Innovation Park, 49 Sala Street, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua 3010 (New Zealand); Althaus, Hans-Joerg [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2009-04-15

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of life cycle assessment (LCA) results of different building components (e.g. wooden wall, concrete roof) on different levels of simplification (from a comprehensive LCA including all materials and processes to the fully reduced component including only the main materials remaining in the component). The main objective is the determination of the relevance of materials and processes often neglected in simplified LCA of building components which aim at providing results of similar quality as comprehensive assessments with less effort. The studied simplifications are categorised in transportations of the building materials from the factory gate to the building site, some ancillary materials which are not obvious in the component, the building process itself and the associated cutting waste. The results show that transports and ancillary materials are of relevance while the building process and the cutting waste can be neglected. The heavier the used materials and the longer the transport distances the bigger is the influence of transports on the LCA results. The influence of the ancillary materials is highest for wooden constructions as a lot of screws nails and other connectors are essential. (author)

  17. Structural proteins of ribonucleic acid tumor viruses. Purification of envelope, core, and internal components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, M; August, J T

    1976-01-25

    Murine type C virus structural proteins, the envelope glycopeptides, 30,000 dalton major core protein, and 15,000 dalton internal protein have each been purified to near homogeneity and in high yield from the smae batch of virus by use of phosphocellulose column chromatography and gel filtration procedures. Evidence that these proteins are specified by the viral genome was obtained by competition radioimmunoassay analysis, comparing these polypeptides from Rauscher virus cultivated in a variety of mammalian cell lines; all of the reactive antigenic determinants of these proteins appeared to be virus-specific.

  18. Models for describing the thermal characteristics of building components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, M.J.; Madsen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor testing of buildings and building components under real weather conditions provides useful information about their dynamic performance. Such knowledge is needed to properly characterize the heat transfer dynamics and provides useful information for implementing energy saving strategies...... of these approaches may therefore be very useful for selecting a suitable approach for each particular case. This paper presents an overview of models that can be applied for modelling the thermal characteristics of buildings and building components using data from outdoor testing. The choice of approach depends......, for example. For the analysis of these tests, dynamic analysis models and methods are required. However, a wide variety of models and methods exists, and the problem of choosing the most appropriate approach for each particular case is a non-trivial and interdisciplinary task. Knowledge of a large family...

  19. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Hugo; Radu Zmeureanu

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1) reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2) using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS softwar...

  20. Preserving Envelope Efficiency in Performance Based Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A. [Thornton Energy Consulting (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Efficiency Solutions (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-20

    The City of Seattle 2012 Energy Code (Seattle 2014), one of the most progressive in the country, is under revision for its 2015 edition. Additionally, city personnel participate in the development of the next generation of the Washington State Energy Code and the International Energy Code. Seattle has pledged carbon neutrality by 2050 including buildings, transportation and other sectors. The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided technical assistance to Seattle in order to understand the implications of one potential direction for its code development, limiting trade-offs of long-lived building envelope components less stringent than the prescriptive code envelope requirements by using better-than-code but shorter-lived lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components through the total building performance modeled energy compliance path. Weaker building envelopes can permanently limit building energy performance even as lighting and HVAC components are upgraded over time, because retrofitting the envelope is less likely and more expensive. Weaker building envelopes may also increase the required size, cost and complexity of HVAC systems and may adversely affect occupant comfort. This report presents the results of this technical assistance. The use of modeled energy code compliance to trade-off envelope components with shorter-lived building components is not unique to Seattle and the lessons and possible solutions described in this report have implications for other jurisdictions and energy codes.

  1. Two-component system cross-regulation integrates Bacillus anthracis response to heme and cell envelope stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Mike

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-component signaling systems (TCSs are one of the mechanisms that bacteria employ to sense and adapt to changes in the environment. A prototypical TCS functions as a phosphorelay from a membrane-bound sensor histidine kinase (HK to a cytoplasmic response regulator (RR that controls target gene expression. Despite significant homology in the signaling domains of HKs and RRs, TCSs are thought to typically function as linear systems with little to no cross-talk between non-cognate HK-RR pairs. Here we have identified several cell envelope acting compounds that stimulate a previously uncharacterized Bacillus anthracis TCS. Furthermore, this TCS cross-signals with the heme sensing TCS HssRS; therefore, we have named it HssRS interfacing TCS (HitRS. HssRS reciprocates cross-talk to HitRS, suggesting a link between heme toxicity and cell envelope stress. The signaling between HssRS and HitRS occurs in the parental B. anthracis strain; therefore, we classify HssRS-HitRS interactions as cross-regulation. Cross-talk between HssRS and HitRS occurs at both HK-RR and post-RR signaling junctions. Finally, HitRS also regulates a previously unstudied ABC transporter implicating this transporter in the response to cell envelope stress. This chemical biology approach to probing TCS signaling provides a new model for understanding how bacterial signaling networks are integrated to enable adaptation to complex environments such as those encountered during colonization of the vertebrate host.

  2. A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Alberto J; Rahn, Monica I; Saura, Alicia; Lujan, Hugo D

    2003-12-01

    The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin directly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

  3. A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Alberto J; Rahn, Monica I; Saura, Alicia; Lujan, Hugo D

    2003-12-01

    The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin directly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei. PMID:15002750

  4. Energy Impacts of Nonlinear Behavior of PCM When Applied into Building Envelope: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.

    2012-08-01

    Previous research on phase change materials (PCM) for building applications has been done for several decades resulting in plenty of literature on PCM properties, temperature, and peak reduction potential. Thus, PCMs are a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in buildings. There are few building energy simulation programs that have PCM modeling features, and even fewer have been validated. Additionally, there is no previous research that indicates the level of accuracy when simulating PCM from a building energy simulation perspective. This study analyzes the effects a nonlinear enthalpy profile has on thermal performance and expected energy benefits for PCM-enhanced insulation.

  5. Durability of future energy-efficient building components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Diana

    Over the last decade, there has been a goal-oriented focus in the European Union on energy efficiency in the building sector to free it from the use of fossil fuels. Increases in the energy efficiency of building components means increased initial costs, for both new buildings and renovations...... tools. The method includes both energy analysis compared to current and future energy requirements, and analysis of possible failures in the building design (Failure Mode and Effects analysis). The method also includes an economic perspective (Net present value) given that the choice of a specific...... that the maintenance is already thought into the solution, so that the work can be done fast and easily with a minimum of expense. Minimizing costs is an important aspect in the complete solution so that we not only develop energy-efficient solutions, but also solutions that are economical. Two case studies were...

  6. Energy Saving Potentials of Phase Change Materials Applied to Lightweight Building Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Bok Seong; Jae-Han Lim

    2013-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) have been considered as an innovative technology that can reduce the peak loads and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) energy consumption in buildings. Basically they are substances capable of storing or releasing thermal energy as latent heat. Because the amount of latent heat absorbed or released is much larger than the sensible heat, the application of PCMs in buildings has significant potential to reduce energy consumption. However, because each...

  7. Evaluation of Various Retrofitting Concepts of Building Envelope for Offices Equipped with Large Radiant Ceiling Panels by Dynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve significant savings in energy and an improved level of thermal comfort in retrofitted existing buildings, specific retrofitting concepts that combine new technologies and design need to be developed and implemented. Large radiant surfaces systems are now among the most promising future technologies to be used both in retrofitted and in new low-energy buildings. These kinds of systems have been the topic of several studies dealing with thermal comfort and energy utilization, but some specific issues concerning their possible use in various concepts for retrofitting are still poorly understood. In the present paper, some results of dynamic simulations, with the transient system simulation tool (TRNSYS model, of the retrofitted offices equipped with radiant ceiling panels are presented and thoroughly analysed. Based on a precise comparison of the results of these simulations with actual measurements in the offices, certain input data for the model were added, so that the model was consequently validated. The model was then applied to the evaluation of various concepts of building envelopes for office retrofitting. By means of dynamic simulations of indoor environment it was possible to determine the benefits and limitations of individual retrofitting concepts. Some specific parameters, which are relevant to these concepts, were also identified.

  8. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1 reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2 using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS software. Second, several design alternatives with improved thermal resistance for walls, ceiling and windows, increased overall air tightness, and increased window-to-wall ratio of South facing windows are evaluated with respect to the life cycle energy use, life cycle emissions and life cycle cost. The solution that minimizes the energy demand is chosen as a reference house for the study of long-term thermal storage. Third, the computer simulation of a solar heating system with solar thermal collectors and long-term thermal storage capacity is presented. Finally, the life cycle cost and life cycle energy use of the solar combisystem are estimated for flat-plate solar collectors and evacuated tube solar collectors, respectively, for the economic and climatic conditions of this study.

  9. Targeting and Assembly of Components of the TOC Protein Import Complex at the Chloroplast Outer Envelope Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn G.L. Richardson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts (TOC initiates the import of thousands of nuclear encoded preproteins required for chloroplast biogenesis and function. The multimeric TOC complex contains two GTP-regulated receptors, Toc34 and Toc159, which recognize the transit peptides of preproteins and initiate protein import through a β–barrel membrane channel, Toc75. Different isoforms of Toc34 and Toc159 assemble with Toc75 to form structurally and functionally diverse translocons, and the composition and levels of TOC translocons is required for the import of specific subsets of coordinately expressed proteins during plant growth and development. Consequently, the proper assembly of the TOC complexes is key to ensuring organelle homeostasis. This review will focus on our current knowledge of the targeting and assembly of TOC components to form functional translocons at the outer membrane. Our analyses reveal that the targeting of TOC components involves elements common to the targeting of other outer membrane proteins, but also include unique features that appear to have evolved to specifically facilitate assembly of the import apparatus.

  10. Service life assessment of historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone: a computational analysis based on experimental input data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Fořt, Jan; Žumár, Jaromír; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Service life assessment of three historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone is presented. At first, experimental measurements of material parameters of sandstones are performed to provide the necessary input data for a subsequent computational analysis. In the second step, the moisture and temperature fields across the studied envelopes are calculated for a representative period of time. The computations are performed using dynamic climatic data as the boundary conditions on the exterior side of building envelope. The climatic data for three characteristic localities are experimentally determined by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and contain hourly values of temperature, relative humidity, rainfalls, wind velocity and direction, and sun radiation. Using the measured durability properties of the analyzed sandstones and the calculated numbers of freeze/thaw cycles under different climatic conditions, the service life of the investigated building envelopes is assessed. The obtained results show that the climatic conditions can play a very significant role in the service life assessment of historical buildings, even in the conditions of such a small country as the Czech Republic. In addition, the investigations reveal the importance of the material characteristics of sandstones, in particular the hygric properties, on their service life in a structure. PMID:25114972

  11. Service Life Assessment of Historical Building Envelopes Constructed Using Different Types of Sandstone: A Computational Analysis Based on Experimental Input Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Fořt, Jan; Žumár, Jaromír; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Service life assessment of three historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone is presented. At first, experimental measurements of material parameters of sandstones are performed to provide the necessary input data for a subsequent computational analysis. In the second step, the moisture and temperature fields across the studied envelopes are calculated for a representative period of time. The computations are performed using dynamic climatic data as the boundary conditions on the exterior side of building envelope. The climatic data for three characteristic localities are experimentally determined by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and contain hourly values of temperature, relative humidity, rainfalls, wind velocity and direction, and sun radiation. Using the measured durability properties of the analyzed sandstones and the calculated numbers of freeze/thaw cycles under different climatic conditions, the service life of the investigated building envelopes is assessed. The obtained results show that the climatic conditions can play a very significant role in the service life assessment of historical buildings, even in the conditions of such a small country as the Czech Republic. In addition, the investigations reveal the importance of the material characteristics of sandstones, in particular the hygric properties, on their service life in a structure. PMID:25114972

  12. Service life assessment of historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone: a computational analysis based on experimental input data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Fořt, Jan; Žumár, Jaromír; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Service life assessment of three historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone is presented. At first, experimental measurements of material parameters of sandstones are performed to provide the necessary input data for a subsequent computational analysis. In the second step, the moisture and temperature fields across the studied envelopes are calculated for a representative period of time. The computations are performed using dynamic climatic data as the boundary conditions on the exterior side of building envelope. The climatic data for three characteristic localities are experimentally determined by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and contain hourly values of temperature, relative humidity, rainfalls, wind velocity and direction, and sun radiation. Using the measured durability properties of the analyzed sandstones and the calculated numbers of freeze/thaw cycles under different climatic conditions, the service life of the investigated building envelopes is assessed. The obtained results show that the climatic conditions can play a very significant role in the service life assessment of historical buildings, even in the conditions of such a small country as the Czech Republic. In addition, the investigations reveal the importance of the material characteristics of sandstones, in particular the hygric properties, on their service life in a structure.

  13. Measurement and simulation of transparent building components with sun-shading; Messung und Simulation von transparenten Bauteilen mit Sonnenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmler, H.; Manz, H.; Haas, A. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Favarolo, P.A. [Universita Technica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy)

    2004-12-15

    This paper takes a look at the construction and simulation of modern office buildings that often feature lightweight construction and a high proportion of glazing or even double building skins completely made of glass. In particular, those thermal comfort and cooling aspects are discussed that require that the solar attributes of facade elements are taken into account. Work done at the Swiss Federal materials institute EMPA as part of the International Energy Agency's IEA Task 27 'Performance, durability and sustainability of advanced windows and solar components for building envelopes' is discussed. The properties of glazing and shading systems are presented and discussed. Results obtained by calculation are compared with those obtained from measurements. Modules for the calculation of the properties of glazing elements and their simulation are discussed, as are transparent insulation systems.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Modern Building Thermal Envelope Designs in the Semi-Arid Continental Climate of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the thermal performance of a range of modern wall constructions used in the residential buildings of Tehran in order to find the most appropriate alternative to the traditional un-fired clay and brick materials, which are increasingly being replaced in favor of more slender wall constructions employing hollow clay, autoclaved aerated concrete or light expanded clay aggregate blocks. The importance of improving the building envelope through estimating the potential for energy saving due to the application of the most energy-efficient wall type is presented and the wall constructions currently erected in Tehran are introduced along with their dynamic and steady-state thermal properties. The application of a dynamic simulation tool is explained and the output of the thermal simulation model is compared with the dynamic thermal properties of the wall constructions to assess their performance in summer and in winter. Finally, the best and worst wall type in terms of their cyclic thermal performance and their ability to moderate outdoor conditions is identified through comparison of the predicted indoor temperature and a target comfort temperature.

  15. Thermographic NDT of building envelopes utilizing in-door heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Tatsuhito; Nakano, Yonezou; Tanigawa, Yasuo

    2002-03-01

    The deterioration of concrete structures due to drastic changes in environment or due to poor workmanship has become very serious in Japan recently. In particular, since buildings are finished with render or tile on their facades in order to improve durability and appearance in many cases, the number of accidents resulting in injury or death caused by the fall of these finishing materials in increasing continuously. As a method of detecting delaminations of finishing materials, the thermographic survey using thermal imager is widely used because of the advantages of easiness, rate of data sampling and safeness. However, since this method is based on the difference of surface temperature between delaminated areas and sound areas generated by solar radiation, the method cannot be used under cloudy weather. It is a big difference between the construction field and other fields like metals, ceramics and plastics, which can do artificial heating or cooling easily. In order to improve the applicability and limitations of the method, a study was carried out. In ths study, instead of exposing an external wall to the sun, a method of heating the rear side of the wall by using the indoor heating system of the building was discussed and tested. As a result, it was proved that below-surface defects of building facades could be located without solar radiation by controlling the room temperature appropriately. This paper outlines the procedure and results of the study.

  16. Drying and wetting of building materials and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book, Drying and Wetting of Building Materials and Components, provides a collection of recent contributions in the field of drying and wetting in porous building materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.

  17. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program. Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States); Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-05-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Home Innovation wrote a report on Phase 1 of the project that summarized a condition assessment of the homes and evaluated retrofit options within the constraints of the cooperative provided by GHI. Phase 2 was completed following monitoring in the 2013–2014 winter season; the results are summarized in this report. Phase 3 upgrades of heating equipment will be implemented in time for the 2014–2015 heating season and are not part of this report.

  18. Energy Retrofit Strategies for Residential Building Envelopes: An Italian Case Study of an Early-50s Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Evangelisti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, the issues of energy efficiency and energy saving have dominated the buildings research field. New constructions are based on efficient design and, because of this, the real challenge is to retrofit existing buildings. Italian standards impose thermal transmittance limits for opaque and transparent surfaces, according to the climatic area. In order to understand buildings’ energy behavior, an accurate analysis, carried out by employing advanced calculation codes and instrumental diagnosis—provided by the use of heat flow meter, surface temperature probes and thermal imaging camera—is needed. In this paper, a structure built in the 50 s has been analyzed, by means of a measurement campaign, to investigate the building’s characteristics and its vulnerability. Finally, some retrofit hypotheses have been evaluated by means of a well-known dynamic code. All investments have to be analyzed under a financial point of view, considering materials and installation costs. For this reason, the payback time has been calculated in order to understand how quickly the energy upgrading can be repaid.

  19. Optimum Application of Thermal Factors to Artificial Neural Network Models for Improvement of Control Performance in Double Skin-Enveloped Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Il Chin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an artificial neural network (ANN-based thermal control method for buildings with double skin envelopes that has rational relationships between the ANN model input and output. The relationship between the indoor air temperature and surrounding environmental factors was investigated based on field measurement data from an actual building. The results imply that the indoor temperature was not significantly influenced by vertical solar irradiance, but by the outdoor and cavity temperature. Accordingly, a new ANN model developed in this study excluded solar irradiance as an input variable for predicting the future indoor temperature. The structure and learning method of this new ANN model was optimized, followed by the performance tests of a variety of internal and external envelope opening strategies for the heating and cooling seasons. The performance tests revealed that the optimized ANN-based logic yielded better temperature conditions than the non-ANN based logic. This ANN-based logic increased overall comfortable periods and decreased the frequency of overshoots and undershoots out of the thermal comfort range. The ANN model proved that it has the potential to be successfully applied in the temperature control logic for double skin-enveloped buildings. The ANN model, which was proposed in this study, effectively predicted future indoor temperatures for the diverse opening strategies. The ANN-based logic optimally determined the operation of heating and cooling systems as well as opening conditions for the double skin envelopes.

  20. Methods for designing building envelope components prepared for repair and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    2000-01-01

    of the method specified in the Japanese guide and a later ISO standard have been described and examined. Instead of using modifying factors, the two variations introduce statistical functions to describe the influence of the indoor/outdoor climate, quality of materials/work etc., and as such combine...... by experiments in the laboratory and by using a proposed method. Both roofing insulation systems showed good performance in the experiments and in the performance assessment.The final section of the dissertation consists of the the conclusions of the dissertation and the recommendations for further work...

  1. Investigation on Prefabricated Building System Skilled Component Installers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Rezuana Buyung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of an increasingly challenging era of globalization, skills and new equipments which includes prefabricated building components, known as Industrialized Building System (IBS has been introduced towards achievement of sustainable construction. IBS is a construction system in which the components are manufactured in a factory, on or off site, positioned and assembled into complete structures with minimal additional site work. IBS requires high construction precision and needs a higher skill level of workers. Compared to the conventional construction method, the skill level of IBS workers is more demanding. Although there are a lot benefits in implementing IBS, the construction industry still not rapidly implementing IBS. The IBS method still considered new and even though there are a lot of benefits it still faces barriers. In an IBS construction, the role of the contractor is shifted from a builder to an assembler on the site. Therefore, this requires the contractor to be prepared technologically with IBS knowledge and skills. It is generally perceived that the number of skilled IBS installers in Malaysia is still low even though the system has been implemented for a long time. This research is carried out to find out whether the existing number of IBS installer is sufficient. Primary data was collected by carrying out interviews with the contractors at the IBS construction site in Penang Island in order to get the contractor’s feedback regarding this issue. Meanwhile, the secondary data was collected from government agencies to get the number of existing IBS installer and the number of IBS projects done in government projects. The results from this study indicated that not all categories of skill workers are in shortage. However, the number of precast concrete installer is in a critical shortage.

  2. Responsive envelope tessellation and stochastic rotation of 4-fold penttiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambit Datta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and control of a responsive envelope based on the rotation of tessellated components. The study investigates responsive and dynamic approaches for building facades and envelopes to regulate solar shading, light control, views and thermal gain within the building. It is well known that near real-time visual output from computational simulation can significantly impact the prediction of dynamic building-environment interactions and lead to the development of smart, adaptable, net zero energy buildings. To address these motivations, this paper reports the development of an experimental simulation of a responsive envelope based on using a 4-fold penttile scheme. The simulation is developed using a novel pentagonal approach involving component (tile design, tessellation and control methods. The paper further elaborates on the geometry and control aspects of the facade subdivision and presents the results of applying this tessellation geometry to a building envelope shading study based on facade components with rotation. Finally, it tests the “responsiveness” to multiple performance metrics by applying a non-deterministic exploration method for the stochastic rotation of individual panels. The sophisticated evaluation of alternative envelope configurations for a set of performance criteria require a tighter computational coupling between modelling and control of dynamic geometry.

  3. Computational support for the selection of energy saving building components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, P.J.C.J. de; Voorden, M. van der

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes a PhD.-project that is currently under completion at Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, Building Physics Group. The general problem addressed in this project is the integration of building simulation tools and building design. This problem has been narrowe

  4. CISBAT 2005 proceedings. Renewables in a changing climate - Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems; CISBAT 2005 proceedings. Energies renouvelables et climat - Enveloppes et systemes environnementaux innovatifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scartezzini, J. L. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    These proceedings include the contributions presented at the 2005 CISBAT conference, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. Hosted by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne and jointly organised by the Solar Energy and Buildings Physics Laboratory at the EPFL, Cambridge University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), this international conference looked at 'Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems'. Along with three keynote presentations on climate change, the use of renewables in the European Union and Swiss policies on solar energy, these 632-page conference proceedings include the conference's 106 presentations grouped in 10 sections. These cover the following topics: Design and renovation of building envelopes (33 contributions); solar collectors (16 contributions); active and passive cooling (9 contributions); indoor environment quality and health (10 contributions); optimisation of daylighting and electric lighting (5 contributions); advanced building control systems (2 contributions); environmental impacts of construction (4 contributions); networks and decentralised energy production (1 contribution); sustainable urban development (12 contributions) and software and new information technologies (14 contributions). Organised each second year, the two-day CISBAT international conference 2005 attracted more than 200 participants from all over the world.

  5. 数据包络分析在建筑能效评价中的应用%Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Building Energy Efficiency Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 董春桥; 陈昱廷

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of building energy efficiency is one of the measures which are important to improve building energy efficiency. And scientific building energy efficiency assessment can ensure the improvement of the building energy efficiency and the enhancement of building performance as well. It first introduces the basic principle and characteristics of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), then expounds feasibility of the building energy efficiency assessment with DEA, and discusses its application method and model properties, finally demon-strates the result and function of DEA to building energy efficiency assessment with an example. As improvement of building energy efficiency and enhancement of building performance, DEA will play a more and more powerful role.%  建筑能效评价是促进建筑节能的重要措施之一,科学的建筑能效评价方法既是提高建筑能效和节能减排的标尺,又是增强建筑性能的基础。首先介绍数据包络分析的基本原理和特征,然后论证数据包络分析进行建筑能效评价的可行性,并探讨数据包络分析在建筑能效评价中的应用方式和建模特点,最后通过实例验证数据包络分析在建筑能效评价中的效果和意义。随着我国建筑节能工作的深入和节能方式的转变,数据包络分析必将在提高建筑能效和增强建筑性能中发挥更大的作用。

  6. Components of the E. coli envelope are affected by and can react to protein over-production in the cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa Riccardo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein over-expression in bacteria is still the easiest, cheapest and therefore preferred way to obtain large amounts of proteins for industrial and laboratory scale preparations. Several studies emphasized the importance of understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by protein over-production in order to obtain higher yield and better quality of the recombinant product. Almost every step leading to a fully functional polypeptide has been investigated, from mRNA stability to the role of molecular chaperones, from aggregation to bottlenecks in the secretory pathway. In this context, we focused on the still poorly addressed relationship between protein production in the cytoplasm and the bacterial envelope, an active and reactive cell compartment that controls interactions with the environment and several major cellular processes. Results available to date show that the accumulation of foreign proteins in the cytoplasm induces changes in the membrane lipids and in the levels of mRNAs for some membrane proteins. However, a direct connection between membrane protein expression levels and soluble/aggregated protein accumulation in the cytoplasm has never been reported. Results By the use of a combined physiological and proteomic approach, we investigated the effects on the cell membrane of E. coli of the overexpression of two recombinant proteins, the B. cepacia lipase (BCL and the green fluorescent protein (GFP. Both polypeptides are expressed in the cytoplasm at similar levels but GFP is fully soluble whereas inactive BCL accumulates in inclusion bodies. Growth and viability of the transformed cells were tested in the presence of different drugs. We found that chloramphenycol preferentially inhibited the strain over-producing GFP while SDS was more effective when BCL inclusion bodies accumulated in the cytoplasm. In contrast, both proteins induced a similar response in the membrane proteome, i.e. increased levels

  7. 15 CFR 270.325 - Notice of authority to enter and inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to a building... Notice of authority to enter and inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and... investigated has occurred, or where building components, materials, and artifacts with respect to the...

  8. A Methodology to Support Decision-Making Towards an Energy-Efficiency Conscious Design of Residential Building Envelope Retrofitting

    OpenAIRE

    Thaleia Konstantinou

    2015-01-01

    Over the next decade investment in building energy savings needs to increase, together with the rate and depth of renovations, to achieve the required reduction in building-related CO2 emissions. Although the need to improve residential buildings has been identified, guidelines come as general suggestions that fail to address the diversity of each project and give specific answers on how these requirements can be implemented in the design. During early design phases, architects are in search ...

  9. Application of super-insulating translucent silica aerogel glazing system on commercial building envelope of humid subtropical climates – Impact on space cooling load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar radiation through glazing area is one major source of the space cooling load in subtropical cooling-dominant climates. Application of energy-efficient glazing system can significantly reduce the energy consumption of air-conditioning systems in summer, thus has become a hot research topic. In this paper, a super-insulating glazing system was studied, which was formed by two layers of conventional single clear glass panes and a layer of silica aerogel filled in between. Several glazing samples were prepared. The thermal and optical parameters were measured. An annual HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) system energy analysis was also conducted based on the space cooling load simulation. The result indicated that in humid subtropical climates like Hong Kong, the application of silica aerogel glazing system can reduce the annual space cooling load by around 4% in a typical commercial building. With respect to the envelope heat gain, the reduction could be around 60%. It was also found that the silica aerogel glazing system performed better if the internal heat source in a building took a small proportion in the total space cooling load. - Highlights: • We evaluated the application of silica aerogel glazing in cooling-dominant climates. • A silica aerogel-filled window system sample is constructed and measured. • HVAC energy consumption was reduced by 4% with silica aerogel glazing application. • More than 60% cooling load caused by building envelope heat gain can be reduced. • It is the first time silica aerogel window is considered in cooling dominant climates

  10. Performance-based seismic design of nonstructural building components: The next frontier of earthquake engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault, Andre; Sullivan, Timothy

    2014-08-01

    With the development and implementation of performance-based earthquake engineering, harmonization of performance levels between structural and nonstructural components becomes vital. Even if the structural components of a building achieve a continuous or immediate occupancy performance level after a seismic event, failure of architectural, mechanical or electrical components can lower the performance level of the entire building system. This reduction in performance caused by the vulnerability of nonstructural components has been observed during recent earthquakes worldwide. Moreover, nonstructural damage has limited the functionality of critical facilities, such as hospitals, following major seismic events. The investment in nonstructural components and building contents is far greater than that of structural components and framing. Therefore, it is not surprising that in many past earthquakes, losses from damage to nonstructural components have exceeded losses from structural damage. Furthermore, the failure of nonstructural components can become a safety hazard or can hamper the safe movement of occupants evacuating buildings, or of rescue workers entering buildings. In comparison to structural components and systems, there is relatively limited information on the seismic design of nonstructural components. Basic research work in this area has been sparse, and the available codes and guidelines are usually, for the most part, based on past experiences, engineering judgment and intuition, rather than on objective experimental and analytical results. Often, design engineers are forced to start almost from square one after each earthquake event: to observe what went wrong and to try to prevent repetitions. This is a consequence of the empirical nature of current seismic regulations and guidelines for nonstructural components. This review paper summarizes current knowledge on the seismic design and analysis of nonstructural building components, identifying major

  11. Java Decaffeinated: experiences building a programming language from components

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Simon; Farragher, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Most modern programming languages are complex and feature rich. Whilst this is (sometimes) an advantage for industrial-strength applications, it complicates both language teaching and language research. We describe our experiences in the design of a reduced sub-set of the Java language and its implementation using the Vanilla language development framework. We argue that Vanilla???s component-based approach allows the language???s feature set to be varied quickly and simply compared with othe...

  12. Comparative thermal performance of static sunshade and brick cavity wall for energy efficient building envelope in composite climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charde Meghana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient building technologies can reduce energy consumption in buildings. In present paper effect of designed static sunshade, brick cavity wall with brick projections and their combined effect on indoor air temperature has been analyzed by constructing three test rooms each of habitable dimensions (3.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m and studying hourly temperatures on typical days for one month in summer and winter each. The three rooms have also been simulated using a software and the results have been compared with the experimental results. Designed static sunshade increased indoor air temperature in winter while proposed brick cavity wall with brick projections lowered it in summer. Combined effect of building elements lowered indoor air temperature in summer and increased it in winter as compared to outdoor air temperature. It is thus useful for energy conservation in buildings in composite climate.

  13. Conservative modelling of the moisture and heat transfer in building components under atmospheric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Blocken, Bert; Carmeliet, Jan

    2007-01-01

    While the transfer equations for moisture and heat in building components are currently undergoing standardisation, atmospheric boundary conditions, conservative modelling and numerical efficiency are not addressed. In a first part, this paper adds a comprehensive description of those boundary co...

  14. Validation Methodology to Allow Simulated Peak Reduction and Energy Performance Analysis of Residential Building Envelope with Phase Change Materials: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.

    2012-08-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) represent a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in residential buildings. This paper summarizes NREL efforts to obtain accurate energy simulations when PCMs are modeled in residential buildings: the overall methodology to verify and validate Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) and PCM algorithms in EnergyPlus is presented in this study. It also shows preliminary results of three residential building enclosure technologies containing PCM: PCM-enhanced insulation, PCM impregnated drywall and thin PCM layers. The results are compared based on predicted peak reduction and energy savings using two algorithms in EnergyPlus: the PCM and Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) algorithms.

  15. Building Lifespan: Effect on the Environmental Impact of Building Components in a Danish Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Construction professionals must now integrate environmental concerns with life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the procurement process. Building lifespan is important to LCA, since results must be normalized on an annualized basis for comparison. However, the scientific literature shows that issu...

  16. Analysis 6. Component requirements, competition and export. A survey of innovation related to building components; Analyse 6. Komponentkrav, konkurrence og eksport. En kortlaegning af innovation i byggekomponenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Svend

    2011-02-15

    The report collates several sub-analyses about feasible developments in relation to improved energy requirements for the most important building parts, components and installations for low-energy buildings. The aim is to achieve 75% reduction of energy consumption in the future building class 2020. The findings will contribute to the plans of introducing new building component requirements to force Danish manufacturers to use innovative solutions and to force manufacturers from other countries to market the best products only. (LN)

  17. The ORC method. Effective modelling of thermal performance of multilayer building components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akander, Jan

    2000-02-01

    The ORC Method (Optimised RC-networks) provides a means of modelling one- or multidimensional heat transfer in building components, in this context within building simulation environments. The methodology is shown, primarily applied to heat transfer in multilayer building components. For multilayer building components, the analytical thermal performance is known, given layer thickness and material properties. The aim of the ORC Method is to optimise the values of the thermal resistances and heat capacities of an RC-model such as to give model performance a good agreement with the analytical performance, for a wide range of frequencies. The optimisation procedure is made in the frequency domain, where the over-all deviation between model and analytical frequency response, in terms of admittance and dynamic transmittance, is minimised. It is shown that ORC's are effective in terms of accuracy and computational time in comparison to finite difference models when used in building simulations, in this case with IDA/ICE. An ORC configuration of five mass nodes has been found to model building components in Nordic countries well, within the application of thermal comfort and energy requirement simulations. Simple RC-networks, such as the surface heat capacity and the simple R-C-configuration are not appropriate for detailed building simulation. However, these can be used as basis for defining the effective heat capacity of a building component. An approximate method is suggested on how to determine the effective heat capacity without the use of complex numbers. This entity can be calculated on basis of layer thickness and material properties with the help of two time constants. The approximate method can give inaccuracies corresponding to 20%. In-situ measurements have been carried out in an experimental building with the purpose of establishing the effective heat capacity of external building components that are subjected to normal thermal conditions. The auxiliary

  18. STUDY OF MOISTURE TRANSFER IN ENVELOPE OF CITY RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN TIBET ALTIPLANO%西藏高原城镇居住建筑围护结构传湿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑国臣; 刘加平

    2011-01-01

    It is greatly different between sol-air temperature and outdoor air temperature in Tibet altiplano where solar radiation is strong. Taking energy efficiency city residential building in Lassa region as an example, moisture transfer in envelope of different configurations was analyzed adopting different direction sol-air temperature in midwinter day as calculating temperature. The results show that there is no dew-formation in south envelope and dew-formation often occurs in north envelope. In this region, building envelope should adopt external thermal insulation and Sandwich insulation except internal thermal insulation. Optimum no-unfformity configuration design of building envelope for preventing dew-formation was suggested in this study. Therefore, these not only enable more accurate calculation of moisture transfer in building envelope in Tibet altiplano, but also provide better information for optimum configuration design of building envelope for prevention of dew-formation in similar region.%以拉萨地区城镇居住建筑为例,以冬至日不同朝向室外综合温度作为室外计算温度,分析了不同节能构造围护结构在稳态条件下的传湿情况.结果表明:拉萨地区围护结构南向不出现冷凝,北向易出现冷凝,并且该地区围护结构适合采用外保温构造和夹芯保温构造,不宜采用内保温构造;围护结构应采取非平衡防冷凝构造设计.因此,该文的结果不仅可使西藏地区居住建筑围护结构传湿分析更加准确,同时也为该地区围护结构的防冷凝构造设计提供了理论依据.

  19. INTERNAL ENVELOPES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2001-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration.

  20. Evaluation of building envelopes from the viewpoint of capability of controlling thermal environment; Onnetsu kankyo chosei noryoku ni yoru kenchiku gaihi no hyoka no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, K.; Ono, S. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shukuya, M. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The ability that architectural space improves the thermal environment in comparison with outdoor environment is called the `capability of controlling thermal environment.` As the value becomes higher, the indoor thermal environment is more improved. In this paper, the controlling capability of six building envelopes with different window systems was compared. The heat transfer in the wall and window system is approximated using a lumped mass model of heat capacity to obtain a heat balance equation and combined with the heat balance equation in indoor air for backward difference. The wall surface temperature and indoor air temperature in a calculation model are then calculated. A radiation absorption coefficient is used for mutual radiation on each wall. In the model, the adjoining room or first- and second-floor rooms were made the same in conditions as the model on the assumption that the one-side lighted office in an RC reference floor is in the non-illumination and non-airconditioning state. In summer, the controlling capability remarkably varies depending on the window system. For the window facing the south, the annual capability is more advanced than in other directions and the indoor thermal environment is improved on the average. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Prototypic implementations of the building block for component based open Hypermedia systems (BB/CB-OHSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Omer I. Eldai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the prototypic implementations of the BuildingBlock (BB/CB-OHSs) that proposed to address some of the Component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHSs) issues, including distribution and interoperability [4, 11, 12]. Four service implementations were described below. The...

  2. Class separation of buildings with high and low prevalence of SBS by principal component analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommer, L.; Fick, J.; Andersson, B.;

    2002-01-01

    This method was able to separate buildings with high and low prevalence of SBS in two different classes using principal component analysis (PCA). Data from the Northern Swedish Office Illness Study describing the presence and level of chemical compounds in outdoor, supply and room air, respective...

  3. Identification of the main thermal characteristics of building components using MATLAB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, M.J.; Madsen, Henrik; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the IDENT Graphical User Interface of MATLAB to estimate the thermal properties of building components from outdoor dynamic testing, imposing appropriate physical constraints and assuming linear and time invariant parametric models. The theory is briefly...

  4. LCA profiles for building components: strategies for the early design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2016-01-01

    , a new approach explores how environmental information on building components can be simplified for strategic use early in the design process in a Danish context. In this paper, life cycle assessments (LCAs) are undertaken for several hundred typical external wall solutions, based on relevant standards...

  5. Building Integration of Aerogel Glazings

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Tao; Jelle, Bjørn Petter; Gustavsen, Arild

    2016-01-01

    The recent building practices have shown that aerogel glazings can be used as a multifunctional building envelope component for different purposes. Nevertheless, the distinctive physical properties and energy performance of aerogel glazings suggest that building integration of aerogel glazings may create architectural challenges, aesthetic problems, as well as concerns on their durability and environmental impact, thus highlighting the importance of developing guidelines to regulate the use o...

  6. Development of Building Envelope Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik Monefeldt; Munch-Andersen, Jørgen; Esbensen, Peter Kjær

    2000-01-01

    of the joint between the foundation, the wall, and the floor slap is very important as 2-dimensional heat loss here is quit significant if not taken proper care of (even though it is not accounted for in the present rules). The new wall types were consequently designed jointly with the foundation. Both walls...... from solid materials as masonry and concrete and framed walls have been dealt with. Three types of foundation and five types of wall have been studied in detail, one of which is just the traditional cavity wall with increased insulation. Cost analysis has proved that the suggested wall types...

  7. Building of nested components by a double-nozzle droplet deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, SuLi; Wei, ZhengYing; Du, Jun; Zhao, Guangxi; Wang, Xin; Lu, BingHeng

    2016-07-01

    According to the nested components jointed with multiple parts,a double-nozzle droplet deposition process was put forward in this paper, and the experimental system was developed. Through the research on the properties of support materials and the process of double-nozzle droplet deposition, the linkage control of the metal droplet deposition and the support material extrusion was realized, and a nested component with complex construction was fabricated directly. Compared with the traditional forming processes, this double-nozzle deposition process has the advantages of short cycle, low cost and so on. It can provide an approach way to build the nested parts.

  8. Residential building thermal performance energy efficiency in Yangtze River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王厚华; 庄燕燕; 吴伟伟

    2009-01-01

    Using energy consumption software VisualDOE4.0,simulation was carried out on the energy consumption of a typical residential building in Yangtze River basin,with a focus on thermal performance of envelope each component and application of total heating recovery equipment. The effects of thermal performance of building envelope each component on energy efficiency ratio were analyzed. Comprehensive measures schemes of energy saving were designed by the orthogonal experiment. The energy efficiency ratios of different envelopes combination schemes were gained. Finally,the optimize combination scheme was confirmed. With the measurement dates,the correctness of the simulation dates was completely verified.

  9. Flood vulnerability assessment of residential buildings by explicit damage process modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The present paper introduces a vulnerability modelling approach for residential buildings in flood. The modelling approach explicitly considers relevant damage processes, i.e. water infiltration into the building, mechanical failure of components in the building envelope and damage from water...... for engineering decision-making for flood risk management for residential buildings....

  10. Multi-component superstructures self-assembled from nanocrystal building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rui; Zhu, Hua; Cao, Can; Chen, Ou

    2016-05-01

    More than three decades of intensive study to make high-quality nanocrystals have created a unique toolbox for building multi-component superstructures, which have been recognized as a new generation of metamaterials important to both fundamental sciences and applied technologies. This minireview summarizes recent advances in this exciting field. We will focus our discussion on the synthetic strategies and superstructures of this multi-component metamaterial, and highlight their novel properties and potential applications. Additionally, some perspectives on possible developments in this field are offered at the end of this review. We hope that this minireview will both inform and stimulate research interests for the design and fabrication of these nanocrystal-based multi-component metamaterials for diverse applications in the future.

  11. 太阳能富集地区采暖居住建筑节能构造研究%STUDY OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY ENVELOPE CONFIGURATION OF HEATING RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN SOLAR RADIATION ZONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑国臣; 刘加平

    2011-01-01

    Study taking energy efficiency residential building in Lassa region as an exapmle, suggests a concept of no-uniformity insulation envelope configuration. In this envelope configuration, south wall without exterior insulation and exterior insulation systems were employed in other exterior walls. Based on the investigation of representative residential building modality and envelope characteristic in Lassa region, thermal transfer coefficient of no-uniformity insulation envelope was calculated acooding to the analyse method that time lag and thermal transfer of south exterior wall are regarded synchronously and unit area net thermal losing is equated each other in other exterior walls. In this paper the whole net thermal losing and the surface temperature of no-uniformity insulation envelope were analysed. Therefore, not only the analyse method was suggested but also provided better information for design of no-uniformity insulation envelope configuration in same region.%针对太阳能富集地区居住建筑外墙构造特点和室外综合温度条件,以拉萨地区为例进行研究,提出了采暖居住建筑非平衡保温节能墙体构造,其中南墙不做保温、东西墙和北墙采用外保温.在对当地典型居住建筑形式和围护结构现状调研基础上,采用南墙兼顾延迟时间和传热系数,东西墙、北墙单位面积等净失热量的分析方法,确定了非平衡外墙的传热系数,并对以此设计的非平衡保温构造总净热损失和内表面温度进行了分析.给出了非平衡保温构造的计算与分析方法,为同类地区非平衡保温构造设计提供了方法和理论依据.

  12. Environmental zoning for service life prediction of building components in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    U, Fathoni; O, Rohayu C.; M, Zakaria C.

    2013-06-01

    Interactions between building materials and environment are very complex. More often than not, deterioration of building component is due to environmental loads with the result of reducing its durability. The environmental loads are less overlooked or underestimated in early design phase. Objective of this study is to distinguish the difference of environmental load for different area in Malaysia. The environmental data consist of climate and pollution data which extracted from the Malaysia Meteorology Department's data bank. From this study, six different environmental zones in Malaysia are distinguished. There are different characteristic of environmental parameters found where some of them dominant to others. This information can assist the engineer to justify the use of different technology, material or construction method in construction industry.

  13. AM Envelope. The potential of Additive Manufacturing for facade constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Strauss

    2013-02-01

    enhanced performance.Advancements can for example be achieved in the semi-finished goods: more effective glueing of window frames can be supported by Snap-On fittings. Solving the most critical part of a free-form structure and allowing for a smart combination with the approved standards has a great potential, as well.Next to those product oriented approaches toward future envelopes, this thesis provides the basic knowledge about AM technologies and AM materials.The basic principle of AM opens a fascinating new world of engineering, no matter what applications can be found: to ‘design for function’ rather to ‘design for production’ turns our way of engineering of the last century upside down. A collection of AM applications therefore offers the outlook to our (built future in combination with the acquired knowledge.AM will never replace established production processes but rather complement them where this seems practical. AM is not the proverbial Swiss-army knife that can resolve all of today’s façade issues! But it is a tool that might be able to close another link in the ‘file-to-factory chain’. AM allows us a better, more precise and safer realization of today’s predominantly free designs that are based on the algorithms of the available software. With such extraordinary building projects, the digital production of neuralgic system components will become reality in the near future – today, an AM Envelope is close at hand. Still, ‘printing’ entire buildings lies in the far future; for a long time human skill and craftsmanship will be needed on the construction site combined with high-tech tools to translate the designers’ visions into reality. AM Envelope is one possible result of this!

  14. Verification of the local structural response of building structures in the anchorage areas of heavy components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conventional dynamic structural analyses for determining dynamic system response for various locations at which components are installed inside the structures it is common practice (in order to simplify analytical effort) to assume that the anchorage (anchor plate, anchor bolts or throughbolts, concrete and reinforcement in the area of bound) has rigid body characteristics and that the building structure itself does not display any local response of its own. The influence of the stiffness of the anchor plate as well anchor bolts and its stress level on the dynamic response is also neglected. For a large number of anchoring systems, especially for all those components and systems having only a small mass, this assumption is certainly appropriate. At some locations, particularly at points where heavy components are anchored or when loading input has been increased, this can lead to local loading of the anchor system as well as of the building structure well into the nonlinear range. Often, verification of capability to accommodate these loads is not possible without changing the wall thicknesses or increasing the percentage of reinforcement. Since the presence of linear or nonlinear effects can be expected to result in energy dissipation (increase in damping capacity and also a change in the stiffness of the coupled system) it must be assumed that the dynamic response between the theoretical coupling point A and the real connection point B of the component on the anchor plate can be considerably altered. Some changes of the dynamic response in the connection point B have to be expected generally even in cases of linear-elastic loading of the anchorage. Using typical anchoring systems as an example, the influence of consideration of nonlinear effects in the anchorage area of a typical anchor plate on the dynamic response as well as the conservatism of conventional analytical approaches are investigated

  15. The performance of a novel flat heat pipe based thermal and PV/T (photovoltaic and thermal systems) solar collector that can be used asan energy-active building envelope material

    OpenAIRE

    Jouhara, H; Milko, J; Danielewicz, J; Sayegh, MA; Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, M; Ramos, JB; Lester, SP

    2015-01-01

    A novel flat heat pipe design has been developed and utilised as a building envelope and thermal solar collector with and without (PV) bonded directly to its surface. The design of the new solar collector has been validated through full scale testing in Cardiff, UK where solar/thermal, uncooled PV and PV/T tests were carried out on three identical systems, simultaneously. The tests showed a solar/thermal energy conversion efficiency of around 64% for the collector with no PV and 50% for the s...

  16. Design, construction, monitoring & control of a mock-up building module for testing new components and systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Labrador, Raúl

    2011-01-01

    In view of the difficulties with implementing the innovative components and systems conceived in the I3CON project on a dwelled building (because of their early stage of development), one of the main demonstration activities was building a Mock-up module to test the feasibility (in terms of physical integration and logical interoperability) of these components and systems, and evaluate their overall performance. The design of all the systems involved in the Mock-up has the aim to develop new ...

  17. The components required to build a therapeutic relationship with children diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome / cEdré Gerber.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, Edré

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and describe the components required to build a therapeutic relationship with children diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome. Through this study therapists and other professionals working with these children could be guided to form functioning and healthy therapeutic relationships with children diagnosed with AS. An inductive, qualitative method was used to gain insight into the components required to build a therapeutic relationship with children diagnosed...

  18. Review on Thermal Models for Double-Skin Ventilated Building Envelopes%双层皮通风围护结构的热特性模型研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新华

    2013-01-01

      玻璃幕墙及大面积玻璃窗在现代建筑中有许多应用。为了减少夏季的太阳辐射得热或冬季的失热,这些结构可以设计为双层的并在双层的空腔中进行通风,这种结构称为双层皮通风围护结构。回顾了该结构的热特性模型,该热特性模型从建模方法上基本可以分为 CFD 模型、集总参数模型、热与气流网络模型、控制体积模型、区域模型等,分析了这些模型的特点及应用。后4种模型可以与常规建筑能耗模拟软件集成,进行房间或整个建筑的能耗分析,并对该结构的优化控制进行分析。%Curtains and windows with large glass are utilized widely in contemporary buildings. These curtains or windows are designed as double-skin with airflow passing through, to reduce solar radiation in summer and heat loss in winter. The structures are called double-skin ventilated building envelope due to it acting as envelope. The development of thermal models for these structures which may be catego-rized as CFD model, lumped model, thermal and airflow network model, control volume model, zonal model etc, based on modeling approach. Their characteristics and applications are expounded in details. The later four models can be integrated with conventional building energy soft -ware for energy performance analysis or control analysis of the room or the whole building which utilized this double-skin ventilated building envelope.

  19. Adaptive Architectural Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing variety of applications of adaptive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability....... The general scopes of this paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two...... different shape alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock- up concept...

  20. Preliminary study of small scale solar test cells for solar thermal evaluation of building components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, G. [CIEMAT, Renewable Energy Dept., Madrid (Spain)]|[CENIDET, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Jimenez, M.J.; Heras, M.R. [CIEMAT, Renewable Energy Dept., Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study to validate small scale solar test cells for thermal evaluation of building components such as windows and roofs. The description and performance of the scale test cells are described. The validation of the thermal performance was made with the real test cell Passys indirectly by applying the classical averaging method that was initially used for the Passys cells to determine overall heat loss coefficient, UA, and the solar heat gain, gA. The use of this methodology was selected, as a first approach, to evaluate the viability of the study of scale test cells. Our preliminary results indicate that some percentage differences were high for some tests. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the period of time of the measurements of the scale test cells, in order to use dynamic system methods to reduce the percentage differences of UA and gA. (orig.)

  1. Detailed Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of Building Components in Steel-construction Residential Buildings%钢结构住宅建筑部品生命周期详单分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏醒; 张旭; 孙永强

    2011-01-01

    对某钢结构住宅小区内3幢不同层数建筑施工过程的建材耗量、建材来源进行调研统计,并结合BESLCI软件计算建筑结构、围护结构的生命周期能耗及环境排放.结果表明,钢构件、混凝土和水泥的生命周期能耗共占钢结构住宅建筑部品生命周期能耗的60%以上,钢结构住宅施工生命周期能耗仅为常规结构住宅的50%左右,建筑体量对钢结构住宅建筑部品生命周期清单影响不大.同国内外其他学者的钢结构建筑生命周期清单分析结果进行了比较,差异较大,分析发现数据获取的精确性、研究边界划分的合理性及缺少标准的清单分析数据库是造成差异的主要原因.%An in-situ research was made to investigate the building material consumption and source of three steel-construction residential buildings with different volumes. Then a comparative study was made of the life cycle energy consumption and environmental emissions of building structures and envelops with the BESLCI software. Results show that the steel component,concrete and cement consume more than 60% of the total life cycle energy; the life cycle energy consumption of steel construction residential building during construction stage is only 50% of that of conventional structure. The building volumes have little impact on inventory analysis results per building area unit. The results are different from the former research results because of the accuracy of inventory data, rationality of research boundary partition and the shortage of inventory analysis data base.

  2. Fusion of LIDAR Data and Multispectral Imagery for Effective Building Detection Based on Graph and Connected Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, S. A. N.; Awrangjeb, M.; Lu, G.

    2015-03-01

    Building detection in complex scenes is a non-trivial exercise due to building shape variability, irregular terrain, shadows, and occlusion by highly dense vegetation. In this research, we present a graph based algorithm, which combines multispectral imagery and airborne LiDAR information to completely delineate the building boundaries in urban and densely vegetated area. In the first phase, LiDAR data is divided into two groups: ground and non-ground data, using ground height from a bare-earth DEM. A mask, known as the primary building mask, is generated from the non-ground LiDAR points where the black region represents the elevated area (buildings and trees), while the white region describes the ground (earth). The second phase begins with the process of Connected Component Analysis (CCA) where the number of objects present in the test scene are identified followed by initial boundary detection and labelling. Additionally, a graph from the connected components is generated, where each black pixel corresponds to a node. An edge of a unit distance is defined between a black pixel and a neighbouring black pixel, if any. An edge does not exist from a black pixel to a neighbouring white pixel, if any. This phenomenon produces a disconnected components graph, where each component represents a prospective building or a dense vegetation (a contiguous block of black pixels from the primary mask). In the third phase, a clustering process clusters the segmented lines, extracted from multispectral imagery, around the graph components, if possible. In the fourth step, NDVI, image entropy, and LiDAR data are utilised to discriminate between vegetation, buildings, and isolated building's occluded parts. Finally, the initially extracted building boundary is extended pixel-wise using NDVI, entropy, and LiDAR data to completely delineate the building and to maximise the boundary reach towards building edges. The proposed technique is evaluated using two Australian data sets

  3. Segmentation of Heritage Building by Means of Geometric and Radiometric Components from Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitelkadi, K.; Tahiri, D.; Simonetto, E.; Sebari, I.; Polidori, L.

    2013-07-01

    Nowadays, the terrestrial laser scanning represents an integral source of data for cultural heritage 3D storage and access through digital communication tools. The achievement of 3D models requires the implementation of several tasks such as segmentation. Segmentation is the key step during the point cloud processing where all homogeneous areas are identified, which describe a building facade. Usually, a large part of the segmentation approach focuses on the geometric information contained in the point cloud data by exploiting mathematical representation of a parametric surface. However, due to the complexity of the architecture, such segmentation does not suffice. Henceforth, other approaches turn to the use of color and laser intensity components. Although a variety of algorithms have been developed in this sense, problems of over-segmentation or under-segmentation are observed. In this context, we propose a new approach for point cloud segmentation aiming at a more accurate result. This approach relies on all the components of a colored point - both geometric and radiometric - combining the RGB values, laser intensity and geometric data. Our process begins with the extraction of homogeneous planar segments using the RANSAC algorithm. Next, the result is subjected to a radiometric-based segmentation, first through color similarity as one of the homogeneity criteria of a region growing algorithm, then through the use of intensity similarity for segment fusion. Experiments are performed on a facade presenting an example of Moroccan classical architecture located in Casablanca's Medina. Results show the importance of integrating all point cloud components, both geometric and radiometric.

  4. Influences of the Indoor Environment on Heat, Air and Moisture Conditions in The Building Component: Boundary Conditions Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Rode, Carsten; Janssen, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in building components assume uniform boundary conditions, both for the temperature and relative humidity of the air in an indoor space as well as for the surface transfer coefficients. Such models cannot accurately predict the HAM...... conditions in the component and on the surface of the component with non-uniform air temperature or relative humidity distributions in an indoor space. Moreover, the heat and moisture surface transfer coefficients strongly depend on the local air velocity, local temperature, water-material interactions...... and water content at the material surface and surface texture of the material. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the influence of the non-uniform local air velocity near the surface of a building component on the HAM conditions in the component. A case study and sensitivity study have been...

  5. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faakye, Omari [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Griffiths, Dianne [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-08

    “The cost for blower testing is high, because it is labor intensive, and it may disrupt occupants in multiple units. This high cost and disruption deter program participants, and dissuade them from pursuing energy improvements that would trigger air leakage testing, such as improvements to the building envelope.” This statement found in a 2012 report by Heschong Mahone Group for several California interests emphasizes the importance of reducing the cost and complexity of blower testing in multifamily buildings. Energy efficiency opportunities are being bypassed. The cost of single blower testing is on the order of $300. The cost for guarded blower door testing—the more appropriate test for assessing energy savings opportunities—could easily be six times that, and that’s only if you have the equipment and simultaneous access to multiple apartments. Thus, the proper test is simply not performed. This research seeks to provide an algorithm for predicting the guarded blower door test result based upon a single, total blower door test.

  6. Building community partnerships to implement the new Science and Engineering component of the NGSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. P.; Linn, F.

    2013-12-01

    Partnerships between science professionals in the community and professional educators can help facilitate the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Classroom teachers have been trained in content areas but may be less familiar with the new required Science and Engineering component of the NGSS. This presentation will offer a successful model for building classroom and community partnerships and highlight the particulars of a collaborative lesson taught to Rapid City High School students. Local environmental issues provided a framework for learning activities that encompassed several Crosscutting Concepts and Science and Engineering Practices for a lesson focused on Life Science Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics. Specifically, students studied local water quality impairments, collected and measured stream samples, and analyzed their data. A visiting hydrologist supplied additional water quality data from ongoing studies to extend the students' datasets both temporally and spatially, helping students to identify patterns and draw conclusions based on their findings. Context was provided through discussions of how science professionals collect and analyze data and communicate results to the public, using an example of a recent bacterial contamination of a local stream. Working with Rapid City High School students added additional challenges due to their high truancy and poverty rates. Creating a relevant classroom experience was especially critical for engaging these at-risk youth and demonstrating that science is a viable career path for them. Connecting science in the community with the problem-solving nature of engineering is a critical component of NGSS, and this presentation will elucidate strategies to help prospective partners maneuver through the challenges that we've encountered. We recognize that the successful implementation of the NGSS is a challenge that requires the support of the scientific community. This partnership

  7. Chinese wood frame buildings and the changing dimensions of their structural components in different time periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nujaba Binte Kabir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Features of the Chinese wood frame buildings are same in character from dynasty to dynasty. The study concentrates on 9 Chinese wood frame buildings from Tang to Yuan dynasty and tries to relate these buildings with the text described in a building manual book published in Song dynasty Yingzao fashi. The features of some buildings match with the text described in the book some do not. But on the other hand Liang Sicheng, scholar of Chinese architecture in his book claimed that Chinese wood frame architecture has a unique system of characteristics (Liang, 1984. The system of wood frame Chinese architecture did not change but the proportion of the features has changed in different dynasty. The aim of the paper is to compare the features of the buildings those have been studied according to Yingzao fashi with Liang's observation on the change of building style in different periods.

  8. Lab-on-a-Chip Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology Component in a Freshman Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Yosef; Tomasko, David L.; Trott, Bruce; Schlosser, Phil; Yang, Yong; Wilson, Tiffany M.; Merrill, John

    2008-01-01

    A micromanufacturing lab-on-a-chip project with a nanotechnology component was introduced as an alternate laboratory in the required first-year engineering curriculum at The Ohio State University. Nanotechnology is introduced in related reading and laboratory tours as well as laboratory activities including a quarter-length design, build, and test…

  9. Object-Oriented Database for Managing Building Modeling Components and Metadata: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, N.; Fleming, K.; Brackney, L.

    2011-12-01

    Building simulation enables users to explore and evaluate multiple building designs. When tools for optimization, parametrics, and uncertainty analysis are combined with analysis engines, the sheer number of discrete simulation datasets makes it difficult to keep track of the inputs. The integrity of the input data is critical to designers, engineers, and researchers for code compliance, validation, and building commissioning long after the simulations are finished. This paper discusses an application that stores inputs needed for building energy modeling in a searchable, indexable, flexible, and scalable database to help address the problem of managing simulation input data.

  10. IQ-test-improving quality in testing and evaluation of solar and thermal characteristics of building components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [BRE Scotland, East Kilbride (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    IQ-test is a Thematic Network supported by the European Community under the EESD Programme. The objective of IQ-test is to further the development of common quality procedures at the PASLINK test cell facilities in 12 European countries, for the assessment of the thermal characteristics of building components. This should consolidate the network, integrate the newer test sites and strengthen its common approach of support for new product developments in the field of innovative building components. Round robin tests are underway to assess both the inter-site quality of testing and analytical procedures of the participants. Two components were designed: (1) an opaque, well insulated, homogeneous panel and (2) a window, which is used to replace the central section of the first component. Common test and quality procedures have been implemented at each test site. The data sets generated by each team have been made available for cross-analysis by another team. The results available so far on the first component indicate good agreement between sites. This paper summarises the progress to date. Results are also presented from a training exercise which asked participants to identify the performance characteristics of an unknown component without providing any physical description of the component. (author)

  11. Towards the LIVING envelope: Biomimetics for building envelope adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badarnah Kadri, L.

    2012-01-01

    Several biomimetic design strategies are available for various applications, though the research on biomimetics as a design tool in architecture is still challenging. This is due to a lack of systematic design tools required for identifying relevant organisms, or natural systems, and abstracting the

  12. Solar active envelope module with an adjustable transmittance/absorptance

    OpenAIRE

    C. Villasante Villasante; I. del Hoyo; Pagola, I. (I.); Sanchez, M.; E. Aranzabe

    2015-01-01

    A solar active envelope module with a high flexibility degree is proposed in this paper. The transparent module controls the day-lighting of the room, improving the indoor environment, while absorbing the superfluous solar energy inside. That energy is used to increase the efficiency of heating, ventilation, and the air-conditioning (HVAC) system of the building. This is carried out through a fine control of the absorptance of the envelope module. The active envelope module consists of three ...

  13. Discussion on energy saving technology of building envelop enclosure structure exterior%谈建筑围护结构外墙节能技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晋凤

    2016-01-01

    介绍了建筑外墙结构的保温技术,论述了外墙外保温技术的优势,分析了聚苯板薄抹灰外墙外保温施工中的技术问题,总结出施工中的几点建议与技术措施,从而提高了建筑围护结构的节能水平,减少了资源浪费.%The paper introduced the thermal insulation technology of building exterior structure,discussed the advantages of external wall thermal insulation technology,analyzed the technical problems in polystyrene board external wall thermal insulation construction,summarized several sug-gestions and technical measures in construction,so as to improve the energy saving level of building exterior,reduced the resources waste.

  14. Systems and components for intelligent buildings; Sistemi e componenti per la domotica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzi, F. [Pavia Univ., Pavia (Italy). Dipt. di Elettronica

    2001-06-01

    The rapid development of automation and communication techniques involve also the intelligent buildings project. [Italian] Il rapido sviluppo delle tecniche di automazione e telecomunicazione investe anche la progettazione degli edifici intelligenti.

  15. 78 FR 9042 - Request for Information (RFI) for Commercial Building Energy Asset Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... description of building assets. The primary modeling output of the energy asset scoring tool is the energy use... provided for building components, including envelope (roof, wall, window), lighting, heating, cooling, and... will not affect the durability of the score. DOE will incorporate new software releases of...

  16. Envelopes of Commutative Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael PARRA; Manuel SAOR(I)N

    2012-01-01

    Given a significative class F of commutative rings,we study the precise conditions under which a commutative ring R has an F-envelope.A full answer is obtained when.F is the class of fields,semisimple commutative rings or integral domains.When F is the class of Noetherian rings,we give a full answer when the Krull dimension of R is zero and when the envelope is required to be epimorphic.The general problem is reduced to identifying the class of non-Noetherian rings having a monomorphic Noetherian envelope,which we conjecture is the empty class.

  17. Method for use of economical optimization in design of nearly zero energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    model of the energy use for each component, a function is set up that represents the relation of the marginal cost of conserved energy and the energy use for different qualities of the component. For building envelopes, the energy use will be the heat loss during heating season, and the main quality......Nearly zero energy buildings are to become a requirement as part of the European energy policy. There are many ways of designing buildings to become nearly zero energy buildings, but there is a lack of knowledge on how to do it in the most economical way. Therefore it is very important to develop...... methods of designing such buildings in an economical optimized way. A method of finding the economical optimal solutions has been set up based on use of the cost of conserved energy for each main building envelope part and building service system. By use of information on construction cost and a simple...

  18. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance – Part II: Development of an accelerated aging method for roofing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleiman, Mohamad [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kirchstetter, Thomas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Berdahl, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gilbert, Haley E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Quelen, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marlot, Lea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Preble, Chelsea V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Montalbano, Amandine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rosseler, Olivier [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Akbari, Hashem [Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Destaillats, Hugo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-09

    Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products₋single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles₋and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. In conclusion, this accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

  19. Variability of mammalian liver nuclear-envelope preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, P S; Gleed, C D

    1980-10-15

    The composition, density and enzymic activities of sheep liver nuclear-envelope preparations were found to vary markedly according to the concentrations of nuclei during the lysis stage. The effect of nuclear concentration on the properties of the purified envelopes could not be attributed to bound Mg2+ or to other ions, and appeared to result from some component of the nucleus which was not eluted during lysis. The implications of these findings for studies on the nuclear envelope are discussed.

  20. Building automation system of payment platform weight component for large spacecraft reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, I. V.; Badanina, J. O.

    2016-04-01

    Considered Design and the logic of opening large convertible antenna. The necessity of compensation weight component in the assembly and testing of the design. Given the logic of the movement elements of power spokes, concluded that the use of the tracking system to compensate for the weight component. The analysis of the existing equipment and control systems. Produced selection of the manufacturer of automated equipment that meets the stated objectives of management and control. It is concluded that the design component of the weight compensation system based on servo controllers and sensors combined platform automation, controlled by special software. The structure of the platform automation, consistent workflow testing. It defines the principles of interaction between subsystems of the weight compensation component for receiving, processing and monitoring of process parameters testing. It is concluded that the proposed system can be integrated into the automation system and the perspective of process control testing of disclosure of large spacecraft.

  1. TECHNIQUES OF 3D COMPONENT DATABASE ESTABLISHING AND QUALITY CONTROL FOR WOODEN BUILDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the architectural survey project of “the Chi Lin Nunnery Redevelopment "in Hong Kong,this paper attempts to investigate the techniques of building 3D digital document of large_scale timber structure and quality con trol during construction by computer_based 3D simulation for the whole project.T here were several key issues including primary data acquisition,3D modeling and display,pre_assembling the total building and quality examination,etc.In this pa per,some useful experiments,such as the new applications of CCD digital cameras,image and graph processing software packages (CAD,Photoshop,Photomod eler,Vexcel,etc.) to the architectures are also presented.These methods intr oduced in this paper are suitable for image and graph integrated database buildi ng of complicated architectures,and useful for conveniently maintaining and rec onstructing the ancient architectures.

  2. Building Blocks: Utilizing Component-Based Software Engineering in Developing Cross-Platform Mobile Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Oskar, Andersson

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary approaches to cross-platform mobile application development, such as hybrid apps from PhoneGap and generated native apps from Xamarin, show promise in reducing development time towards Android, iOS and other platforms. At the same time, studies show that there are various problems associated with these approaches, including suffering user experiences and codebases that are difficult to maintain and test properly. In this thesis, a novel prototype framework called Building Blocks ...

  3. Building a Successful Infection Prevention Program: Key Components, Processes, and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Sorabh; Cook, Evelyn; Oden, Mary; Kaye, Keith S

    2016-09-01

    Infection control is the discipline responsible for preventing health care-associated infections (HAIs) and has grown from an anonymous field, to a highly visible, multidisciplinary field of incredible importance. There has been increasing focus on prevention rather than control of HAIs. Infection prevention programs (IPPs) have enormous scope that spans multiple disciplines. Infection control and the prevention and elimination of HAIs can no longer be compartmentalized. This article discusses the structure and responsibilities of an IPP, the regulatory pressures and opportunities that these programs face, and how to build and manage a successful program. PMID:27515138

  4. Building up a collaborative article database out of Open Source components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kandera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of a Swiss, Austrian and German network of health care libraries planned to build a collaborative article reference database. Since different libraries were cataloging articles on their own, and many national health care journals can not be found in other repositories (free or commercial the goal was to merge existing collections and to enable participants to catalog articles on their own. As of November, 2010, the database http://bibnet.org contains 45,000 article references from 17 libraries. In this paper we will discuss how the software concept evolved and the problems we encountered during this process.

  5. Structural behavior and durability of multifunctional fiber-reinforced polymer components

    OpenAIRE

    Riebel, Florian

    2006-01-01

    In the context of sustainable development, building insulation represents a major concern as a means of increasing energy efficiency. In order to comply with new norms such as the Passive House standard, locations where load-bearing components must penetrate the building's insulating envelope, such as when cantilevered slabs (e.g. balconies) are anchored to building walls, constitute a particular challenge. With conventional steel reinforcement, thermal bridges are inevitable and insulation i...

  6. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Concrete containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the results of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Management of Ageing of Concrete Containment Buildings (CCBs) addressing current practices and techniques for assessing fitness-for-service and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of CANDU reactor, BWR reactor, PWR reactor and WWER plants. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues

  7. LEVEL OF PRESENCE IN TEAM-BUILDING ACTIVITIES: GAMING COMPONENT IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca De Leo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Historically the training of teams has been implemented using a face-to-face approach. In the past decade, on-line multiuser virtual environments have offered a solution for training teams whose members are geographically dispersed. In order to develop on effective team training activity, a high sense of presence among the participant needs to be reached. Previous research studies reported being able to reach a high level of presence even when using inexpensive technology such as laptop and headset. This study evaluates the level of presence of ten subjects who have to perform a team-building activity in a multi-user virtual environment using a laptop computer and a headset. The authors are interested in determining which user characterizes, such as gender, age and knowledge of computers, have a strong correlation with the level of sense of presence. The results of this study showed that female participants were more likely to engage in the activity and perceived fewer negative effects. Participants who reported less negative effects such as feeling tired, dizzy, or experiencing eye strain during the team-building activity reached a higher level of sense of presence.

  8. Experimental validation of coupled heat, air and moisture transfer modeling in multilayer building components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroukhi, M. Y.; Abahri, K.; Belarbi, R.; Limam, K.; Nouviaire, A.

    2016-10-01

    The present paper lies to study the coupled heat, air and moisture transfer in multi-layer building materials. Concerning the modeling part, the interest is to predict the hygrothermal behavior, by developing a macroscopic model that incorporates simultaneously the diffusive, convective and conductive effects on the building elements. Heat transfer is considered in the strongly coupled situation where the mass and heat flux are temperature, vapor pressure and total pressure dependents. The model input parameters are evaluated experimentally through the development of various experimental prototypes in the laboratory. Thereafter, an experimental setup has been established in order to evaluate the hygrothermal process of several multilayer walls configurations. The experimental procedure consists to follow the temperature and relative humidity evolutions within the samples thickness, submitted to controlled and fixed boundary conditions. This procedure points out diverging conclusion between different testing materials combinations (e.g. red-brick and polystyrene). In fact, the hygrothermal behavior of the tested configurations is completely dependent on both materials selection and their thermophysical properties. Finally, comparison between numerical and experimental results showed good agreement with acceptable errors margins with an average of 3 %.

  9. An Investigation of Envelope Situation and Simulation of Heating/Cooling Energy Consumption for Rural Residential Buildings in Shanghai%上海农村住宅围护结构现状调查与供暖空调能耗模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雨林; 林忠平; 王晓梅

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, based on the building envelope investigation results of 108 rural residential houses in Shanghai, the comparison work with the national standard of Hot Summer and Cold Winter Region Residential Building Design Standard was carried out. The envelope thermal performance of current rural residential buildings was obtained. Based on the investigation results and with the building energy simulation software of DesignBuilder, a basic model for Shanghai rural residential buildings was established.Furthermore, the heating and cooling energy consumption was simulated, and the energy consumption level was achieved. In addition, the importance of energy conservation of rural residential buildings was presented.%本文基于对108户上海农村住宅围护结构的实际调查结果,通过与(JGJ 134-2001)进行比较,分析得到了上海农村住宅围护结构的热工现状.而后以调查分析结果为基础,采用逐时能耗分析软件DesignBuilder建立了上海农村住宅的基本模型,通过对基本模型进行全年能耗模拟,获得了上海农村住宅的供暖空调能耗水平,并简要分析了农村住宅节能的重要性.

  10. Playing with the enveloping algebra of supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Cattaruzza, E

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show how to obtain from a scalar superfield its first component via a similarity transformation. We prove that in D=4 the generators of this similarity transformation live in the enveloping algebra of supersymmetry while for D=1 they belong to the basic algebra.

  11. Construction components and energy efficiency in buildings; Componentes de construccion y eficiencia energetica en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, N.K.; Bhandari, M.S.; Kummar, P.S. [Centro para el Estudio de Energia, Instituto Hindu de Tecnologia, Hauz Khas, Nueva Delhi (Indonesia)

    2005-01-15

    An energy efficiency analysis to a set of buildings was made in India to quantify the effects of the individual design concepts with respect to the energy system in general. The saving potential of energy of different concepts as well as the orientation, windows, air cavities, insulation, etc. was quantified for the different climatic conditions that prevail in most of the Central India regions. It is demonstrated that the specific requirement of heat energy can be reduced to 300 kWh/m{sup 2} a (U{sub edifice} = 2.13 W/m{sup 2} K) for a building of normal construction up to 143 kWh/m{sup 2} a (U{sub edifice} = 0.95 W/m{sup 2} K) when using ceiling insulation and walls and by means of the use of double glass windows. [Spanish] Se realizo el analisis de eficiencia de energia a un conjunto de edificios en la India, para cuantificar los efectos de los conceptos individuales de diseno respecto al sistema de energia en general. El potencial de ahorro de energia de distintos conceptos, como la orientacion, ventanas, cavidades de aire, aislamiento, etc. fue cuantificado para las distintas condiciones climaticas que prevalecen en la mayoria de las regiones de India central. Se demuestra que el requerimiento especifico de energia calorifica puede ser reducida de 300 kWh/m{sup 2} a (U{sub edificio} = 2.13 W/m{sup 2} K) para un edificio de construccion normal hasta 143 kWh/m{sup 2} a (U{sub edificio} = 0.95 W/m{sup 2} K) al usar un aislante en el techo, paredes y mediante el empleo de ventanas de doble vidrio.

  12. 严寒和寒冷地区农宅围护结构最优化参数及节能率研究%Study on Building Envelope Optimization Parameters and Energy-saving Rate of Rural Residential Buildings in Severe Cold and Cold Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李骥; 邹瑜; 刘晶

    2012-01-01

    本文建立了严寒和寒冷地区典型农宅模型,利用TRNSYS软件计算得到了基础耗热量指标,并使用最优化算法(PSO算法)结合全寿命周期成本理论,得到了该地区农宅全寿命周期成本最小情况下的围护结构传热系数限值以及节能率,为严寒和寒冷地区农宅围护结构节能和农村建筑经济效益最优化提供了依据.%In this paper, a model for typical rural residential building in severe cold and cold zones was developed. And then, the basic heat loss index was calculated using the software of TRNSYS. Furthermore, based on the PSO algorithm and life cycle cost theory, the limited value of heat transfer coefficient and energy-saving rate of building envelope with the minimum whole life cycle cost were obtained. Therefore,the references for energy efficiency and economic benefit optimization for rural residential buildings in severe cold and cold zones were provided.

  13. Vacuum Insulation Panels - Study on VIP-components and panels for service life prediction of VIP in building applications (Subtask A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmler, H.; Brunner, S. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Heinemann, U.; Schwab, H. [Bavarian Centre for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Garching (Germany); Kumaran, K.; Mukhopadhyaya, P. [National Research Council, Institute for Research in Construction (NRC-IRC), Ottawa (Canada); Quenard, D.; Sallee, H. [Scientific and Technical Centre for Construction (CSTB), Marne la Vallee (France); Noller, K.; Kuecuekpinar-Niarchos, E.; Stramm, C. [Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging (IVV), Freising (Germany); Tenpierik, M.; Cauberg, H. [Technical University of Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Erb, M. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG (Switzerland)

    2005-09-15

    This comprehensive paper takes a look at the properties of vacuum insulation panels (VIP) and was presented as a contribution to the IEA's ECBCS (Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems) Annex 39. The various institutions in Switzerland, Germany, Canada, France, Sweden and the Netherlands participating in the task and their activities are listed. The paper describes the concept of vacuum insulation for buildings and examines the physics involved and core materials that can be used. The physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the core materials are examined and the requirements placed on the envelope of the panels are looked at. Tests made on materials as well as on the complete vacuum insulation panels are described in detail. The results obtained are presented and reviewed. Service-life and quality assurance aspects are also discussed. A comprehensive appendix completes the report.

  14. 夏热冬冷地区体育馆建筑围护结构节能设计探析——以重庆北碚区缙云体育馆为例%The envelope energy--saving design analysis of gymnasium building in the hot Summer and cold winter region Case study on the Jinyun gymnasium of Beibei District of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林峰; 熊洪俊

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the gymnasium space and energy consumption characteristics,and from the perspective of a passive building energy efficiency design proposes building envelope design for energy efficiency measures.The first is to make reasonable planning and layout,and secondly to improve the external structure of the thermal insulation properties.And by in the above of two aspects analysis of energy-saving design of the building envelope of Jinyun Stadium of Beibei District of Chongqing.On the planning and layout,to creat a well the sunshine ventilated environment;On the outer envelope structure,to determine each part of the thermal performance,and to construction optimized design that don’t meet the provisions of the part of the index.ultimately,the building energy saving rate of 52.31% that meets regulatory requirements by a trade-off calculation.In summary,the energy-saving design of the building envelope is subject to many factors,energy efficient design is to minimize energy loss needing co-ordinate consider these factors.In addition to the energy-saving design of the building envelope in the Building energy efficiency design,including heating and air conditioning and lighting energy-saving design,it should be taken into account every aspect in order to be truly building energy efficiency design.%从被动式建筑节能设计的角度出发,根据体育馆的空间及其能耗特点,提出建筑围护结构节能设计的措施,并通过重庆北碚区缙云体育馆围护结构节能计算的数据来加强夏热冬冷地区体育馆围护结构节能设计措施的说服力。

  15. Level of Presence in Team-Building Activities: Gaming Component in Virtual Environments

    CERN Document Server

    De Leo, Gianluca; Radici, Elena; Secrhist, Scott R; Mastaglio, Thomas W

    2011-01-01

    Historically the training of teams has been implemented using a face-to-face approach. In the past decade, on-line multiuser virtual environments have offered a solution for training teams whose members are geographically dispersed. In order to develop on effective team training activity, a high sense of presence among the participant needs to be reached. Previous research studies reported being able to reach a high level of presence even when using inexpensive technology such as laptop and headset. This study evaluates the level of presence of ten subjects who have to perform a team-building activity in a multi-user virtual environment using a laptop computer and a headset. The authors are interested in determining which user characterizes, such as gender, age and knowledge of computers, have a strong correlation with the level of sense of presence. The results of this study showed that female participants were more likely to engage in the activity and perceived fewer negative effects. Participants who repor...

  16. The green building envelope: vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  17. Thermal Activated Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke

    2015-01-01

    search procedure, the combination of materials and their bonding temperature is found in relation to the envelope effect on a thermal environment inside a defined space. This allows the designer to articulate dynamic composites with time-based thermal functionality, related to the material dynamics...

  18. Elliptic stable envelope

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, Mina

    2016-01-01

    We construct stable envelopes in equivariant elliptic cohomology of Nakajima quiver varieties. In particular, this gives an elliptic generalization of the results of arXiv:1211.1287. We apply them to the computation of the monodromy of $q$-difference equations arising the enumerative K-theory of rational curves in Nakajima varieties, including the quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations.

  19. Economical optimization of building elements for use in design of nearly zero energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    for finding the economical optimal solutions based on the use of the cost of conserved energy for each main building envelope part and building service system and cost of produced energy for each energy producing system. By use of information on construction cost and developed models of the yearly energy use......Nearly zero energy buildings are to become a requirement as part of the European energy policy. There are many ways of designing nearly zero energy buildings, but there is a lack of knowledge on how to end up with the most economical optimal solution. Therefore this paper present a method...... for each component, a function is set up that represents the relation of the marginal cost of conserved energy and the energy use for different quantities and qualities of the components. The optimal mix of solutions for the whole building is found by selecting building parts with the same cost...

  20. Impact of UK Building Regulations on design and thermal performance of dwellings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIM; D; 姚润明

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at the progressive impact of UK Building Regulations (Part L) on the energy consumption of dwellings with respect to thermal performance of the building envelope. It provides an overview of building legislation,highlighting progressive improvement in building elemental U-values and compliance methods. The focus centres on Building Regulations from 1965 to 2006,at a time when energy conservation has become an integral component of building control due to environmental concerns. Simulation software is used to compare energy consumption for 5 typical UK dwelling types through a series of case studies which illustrate the rate of impact over recent years.

  1. (Quasi-)Poisson enveloping algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yan-Hong; Yuan YAO; Ye, Yu

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the quasi-Poisson enveloping algebra and Poisson enveloping algebra for a non-commutative Poisson algebra. We prove that for a non-commutative Poisson algebra, the category of quasi-Poisson modules is equivalent to the category of left modules over its quasi-Poisson enveloping algebra, and the category of Poisson modules is equivalent to the category of left modules over its Poisson enveloping algebra.

  2. Design methodologies for energy conservation and passive heating of buildings utilizing improved building components. Progress report No. 3, January 15--April 15, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habraken, N.J.; Johnson, T.E.

    1978-04-01

    The recently completed MIT Solar Building 5 demonstrates direct gain solar space heating through the use of new architectural finish materials. February 1978 measurements are summarized. Results indicate the building performed nearly as expected.

  3. Morphologically complex protostellar envelopes : structure and kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, John J.

    I present an in-depth study of protostars and their surrounding envelopes of dense gas and dust, using a multitude of observational methods to reveal new details of the star formation process. I use mid-infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, combined with photometry spanning the near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, to construct a model of the L1527 protostellar system. I modeled both the spectral energy distribution and resolved scattered light images to determine physical properties of the protostellar system. The nature of the apparent central point source in the Spitzer images was uncertain until high-resolution L-band imaging from the Gemini observatory resolved the point source into a disk in scattered light, having a radius of 200 AU. Protostellar envelopes are also often found to cast shadows against the 8 micron Galactic background in Spitzer imaging, enabling direct probes of envelope structure. The shadow images show that the dense envelopes around twenty-two Class 0 protostars are generally morphologically complex from 0.1 pc scales down to ˜1000 AU; they are often filamentary, and frequently non-axisymmetric. The observed envelope structure indicates a likely origin in turbulent cloud structure rather than a quasi-static/equilibrium formation. The complex envelope structure also may indicate an increased likelihood of fragmentation during collapse, forming close binaries. To further characterize these envelopes, I have observed them in the dense molecular gas tracers nthp and nht, both of which closely follow the 8 micron extinction morphology. The magnitude of the velocity gradients and envelope complexity on ˜10000 AU scales indicates that the velocity structure may reflect large-scale infall in addition to the often assumed rotation. Comparisons with three-dimensional filamentary and symmetric rotating collapse models reinforce the interpretation of velocities reflecting large-scale infall, showing that the structure of the envelope

  4. 太阳能建筑表皮设计策略*--以2013年中国国际太阳能十项全能竞赛作品为例%Solar Building Envelope Design Strategy:Case Study of Solar Decathlon China 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵学义; 王天珍; 丁玎

    2014-01-01

    建筑表皮除表现建筑外形特征,更是提高建筑性能的重要结构。在阐述太阳能十项全能竞赛的背景的基础上,介绍竞赛规则与往届典型作品。概述2013年竞赛作品在建筑外围护结构保温隔热效果优化、微气候优化及其余太阳能设备结合等方面所做的尝试。重点以山东建筑大学作品“工业魔方”为例,分析较低投资策略下的零能耗太阳能小住宅围护结构构造与相关技术应用,包括高性能外墙及其喷淋系统应用、自动化保温隔热门窗选型、多样化立体绿化方案设计、太阳能集热器与电池板遮阴等。%Building envelope is not only presentation of architectural appearance, but also vital struc-ture to improving building performance. The background of Solar Decathlon is introduced, as well as com-petition rules and typical entries of previous competitions. The paper summarizes attempts of entries of 2013 in the aspects of advanced building envelope and integration of solar devices with building skin. The I-Magic Cube, the entry of Shandong Jianzhu University for example, is analyzed on building envelope construction and relative technologies application of zero energy solar house on condition of low investment. Presentation of I-Magic Cube includes application of high-performance exterior wall and its spray system, model selection of automatic heat insulating exterior door and window, diversified design of vertical green-ing, solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic panels using as sunshade etc. New design deliverables of ad-vanced building envelope are demonstrated by utilizing abundant and lucid instances.

  5. 太阳能建筑表皮设计策略*--以2013年中国国际太阳能十项全能竞赛作品为例%Solar Building Envelope Design Strategy:Case Study of Solar Decathlon China 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵学义; 王天珍; 丁玎

    2014-01-01

    Building envelope is not only presentation of architectural appearance, but also vital struc-ture to improving building performance. The background of Solar Decathlon is introduced, as well as com-petition rules and typical entries of previous competitions. The paper summarizes attempts of entries of 2013 in the aspects of advanced building envelope and integration of solar devices with building skin. The I-Magic Cube, the entry of Shandong Jianzhu University for example, is analyzed on building envelope construction and relative technologies application of zero energy solar house on condition of low investment. Presentation of I-Magic Cube includes application of high-performance exterior wall and its spray system, model selection of automatic heat insulating exterior door and window, diversified design of vertical green-ing, solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic panels using as sunshade etc. New design deliverables of ad-vanced building envelope are demonstrated by utilizing abundant and lucid instances.%建筑表皮除表现建筑外形特征,更是提高建筑性能的重要结构。在阐述太阳能十项全能竞赛的背景的基础上,介绍竞赛规则与往届典型作品。概述2013年竞赛作品在建筑外围护结构保温隔热效果优化、微气候优化及其余太阳能设备结合等方面所做的尝试。重点以山东建筑大学作品“工业魔方”为例,分析较低投资策略下的零能耗太阳能小住宅围护结构构造与相关技术应用,包括高性能外墙及其喷淋系统应用、自动化保温隔热门窗选型、多样化立体绿化方案设计、太阳能集热器与电池板遮阴等。

  6. Pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The post office on CERN's Prévessin site is still selling pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days. Hurry while stocks last!   The special envelopes, which are valid in France for non-priority letters weighing up to 20 grams, are ideal for your Christmas and New Year correspondence. A set of ten envelopes, each featuring a different image, costs € 8.70 or 10 CHF. The post office is located in Building 866 on the Prévessin site and is open Mondays to Thursdays from 9.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m.

  7. URGENT - Internal Mail Envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  8. Internal mail envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unusual stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  9. Data envelopment analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This review introduces the history and present status of data envelopment analysis (DEA) research, particularly the evaluation process. And extensions of some DEA models are also described. It is pointed out that mathematics, economics and management science are the main forces in the DEA development, optimization provides the fundamental method for the DEA research, and the wide range of applications enforces the rapid development of DEA.

  10. INTERNAL MAIL ENVELOPES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2001-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration.

  11. INTERNAL MAIL ENVELOPES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2002-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  12. INTERNAL MAIL ENVELOPES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2002-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration.   Mail Office

  13. INTERNAL MAIL ENVELOPES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2002-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration.

  14. INTERNAL CIRCULATION ENVELOPES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2001-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or a piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration.

  15. URGENT - Internal Mail Envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2004-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  16. Energy management systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lush, D.M.

    1979-07-01

    An investigation is made of the range of possibilities available from three types of systems (automatic control devices, building envelope, and the occupants) in buildings. The following subjects are discussed: general (buildings, design and personnel); new buildings (envelope, designers, energy and load calculations, plant design, general design parameters); existing buildings (conservation measures, general energy management, air conditioned buildings, industrial buildings); man and motivation (general, energy management and documentation, maintenance, motivation); automatic energy management systems (thermostatic controls, optimized plant start up, air conditioned and industrial buildings, building automatic systems). (MCW)

  17. Technical support document for proposed 1994 revision of the MEC thermal envelope requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the Council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1994 supplement to the 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for maximum component U{sub 0}-value. The 1994 amendments to the 1993 MEC were established in last year`s code change cycle and did not change the envelope requirements. The research underlying the proposed MEC revision was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Standards program. The goal of this research was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determines the most cost-effective (least total cost) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) (insulation levels and window types) for residential buildings. This least-cost set of ECMs was used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U{sub 0}-values (thermal transmittances). ECMs include window types (for example, double-pane vinyl) and insulation levels (for example, R-19) for ceilings, walls, and floors.

  18. Uncertain data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Meilin

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended to present the milestones in the progression of uncertain Data envelopment analysis (DEA). Chapter 1 gives some basic introduction to uncertain theories, including probability theory, credibility theory, uncertainty theory and chance theory. Chapter 2 presents a comprehensive review and discussion of basic DEA models. The stochastic DEA is introduced in Chapter 3, in which the inputs and outputs are assumed to be random variables. To obtain the probability distribution of a random variable, a lot of samples are needed to apply the statistics inference approach. Chapter 4

  19. Investigating the periodicity of transient-evoked otoacoustic emission envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the cochlear origin of the multiple temporal lobes that are often observed in the transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) envelope. This "waxing and waning" of the OAE amplitude can be observed in tone-burst (TB) OAEs and sometimes also in click-evoked (CE) OAEs. TBOAE...... and the middle-ear boundary may contribute to the TBOAE envelope periodicity, but were not the main modulation component in waxing and waning of the investigated TBOAEs....

  20. Thermal Responsive Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an architectural computational method and model, which, through additive and subtractive processes, create composite elements with bending behaviour based on thermal variations in the surrounding climatic environment. The present effort is focused on the manipulation of assembly...... composite layers and their relative layer lengths thereby embedding the merged material effect to create a responsive behavioural architectural envelope. Copper and polypropylene are used as base materials for the composite structure due to their high differences in thermal expansion, surface emissivity...... alterations, their respective durability and copper’s architectural (visual and transformative) aesthetic qualities. Through the use of an evolutionary solver, the composite structure of the elements are organised to find the bending behaviour specified by and for the thermal environments. The entire model...

  1. Build/Couple/Pair Strategy Combining the Petasis 3-Component Reaction with Ru-Catalyzed Ring-Closing Metathesis and Isomerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ascic, Erhad; Le Quement, Sebastian Thordal; Ishøy, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    A “build/couple/pair” pathway for the systematic synthesis of structurally diverse small molecules is presented. The Petasis 3-component reaction was used to synthesize anti-amino alcohols displaying pairwise reactive combinations of alkene moieties. Upon treatment with a ruthenium alkylidene...

  2. Categories with envelopes and imprints

    CERN Document Server

    Akbarov, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    An envelope in a category is a construction generalizing operations of "exterior completion", like completion of a locally convex space. Dually, an imprint generalizes operations of "interior enrichment", like saturation of a locally convex space. We give abstract definition for envelopes and imprints, prove existence of these objects in the categories of stereotype spaces and of stereotype algebras, and give some examples.

  3. Building envelope design for renewal of air by natural ventilation in moderate climates. Proposition of a designing methodology; Conception des enveloppes de batiments pour le renouvellement d'air par ventilation naturelle en climats temperes. Proposition d'une methodologie de conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansouri, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The subject of this research is to produce methods and methodological tools for the architects to support the integration of natural ventilation systems in the building envelope design. Our research is situated to the interface between the architectural practice and the physical research on natural ventilation. We are interested in phenomena that can influence or force the strategy of ventilation. A morphological analysis of naturally ventilated buildings concerning the integration modes of natural ventilation systems is done permitting US to propose a typology and a topology of ventilation systems. We define criteria in relation to the thermal comfort, to the quality of air and the economy of energy to assess air renewal techniques. In complement of the sizing tool, we elaborate a methodology of conception for the integration of passives ventilation systems. Design guidelines permit US to conclude on an effective natural ventilation system which is well adapted to collective habitat. (author)

  4. A longitudinal study of sick building syndrome among pupils in relation to microbial components in dust in schools in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin, E-mail: xinzhang0051@sxu.edu.cn [Research Center for Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanxi University, 030006 Taiyuan (China); Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University and University Hospital, 75185 Uppsala (Sweden); Zhao, Zhuohui [Department of Environmental Health, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, 030002 Shanghai (China); Nordquist, Tobias [Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University and University Hospital, 75185 Uppsala (Sweden); Larsson, Lennart; Sebastian, Aleksandra [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Medial Microbiology, University of Lund, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Norback, Dan [Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University and University Hospital, 75185 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    There are few longitudinal studies on sick building syndrome (SBS), which include ocular, nasal, throat, and dermal symptoms, headache, and fatigue. We studied the associations between selected microbial components, fungal DNA, furry pet allergens, and incidence and remission of SBS symptoms in schools in Taiyuan, China. The study was based on a two-year prospective analysis in pupils (N = 1143) in a random sample of schools in China. Settled dust in the classrooms was collected by vacuum cleaning and analyzed for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), muramic acid (MuA), and ergosterol (Erg). Airborne dust was collected in Petri dishes and analyzed for cat and dog allergens and fungal DNA. The relationship between the concentration of allergens and microbial compounds and new onset of SBS was analyzed by multi-level logistic regression. The prevalence of mucosal and general symptoms was 33% and 28%, respectively, at baseline, and increased during follow-up. At baseline, 27% reported at least one symptom that improved when away from school (school-related symptoms). New onset of mucosal symptoms was negatively associated with concentration of MuA, total LPS, and shorter lengths of 3-hydroxy fatty acids from LPS, C14, C16, and C18. Onset of general symptoms was negatively associated with C18 LPS. Onset of school-related symptoms was negatively associated with C16 LPS, but positively associated with total fungal DNA. In general, bacterial compounds (LPS and MuA) seem to protect against the development of mucosal and general symptoms, but fungal exposure measured as fungal DNA could increase the incidence of school-related symptoms. - Highlights: {yields} SBS symptoms increased during the two-year follow-up period in school children in Taiyuan, China {yields} We studied the associations between selected microbial components and incidence and remission of SBS symptoms. {yields} Bacterial compounds (LPS and MuA) seem to protect against the development of mucosal and general symptoms

  5. A longitudinal study of sick building syndrome among pupils in relation to microbial components in dust in schools in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are few longitudinal studies on sick building syndrome (SBS), which include ocular, nasal, throat, and dermal symptoms, headache, and fatigue. We studied the associations between selected microbial components, fungal DNA, furry pet allergens, and incidence and remission of SBS symptoms in schools in Taiyuan, China. The study was based on a two-year prospective analysis in pupils (N = 1143) in a random sample of schools in China. Settled dust in the classrooms was collected by vacuum cleaning and analyzed for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), muramic acid (MuA), and ergosterol (Erg). Airborne dust was collected in Petri dishes and analyzed for cat and dog allergens and fungal DNA. The relationship between the concentration of allergens and microbial compounds and new onset of SBS was analyzed by multi-level logistic regression. The prevalence of mucosal and general symptoms was 33% and 28%, respectively, at baseline, and increased during follow-up. At baseline, 27% reported at least one symptom that improved when away from school (school-related symptoms). New onset of mucosal symptoms was negatively associated with concentration of MuA, total LPS, and shorter lengths of 3-hydroxy fatty acids from LPS, C14, C16, and C18. Onset of general symptoms was negatively associated with C18 LPS. Onset of school-related symptoms was negatively associated with C16 LPS, but positively associated with total fungal DNA. In general, bacterial compounds (LPS and MuA) seem to protect against the development of mucosal and general symptoms, but fungal exposure measured as fungal DNA could increase the incidence of school-related symptoms. - Highlights: → SBS symptoms increased during the two-year follow-up period in school children in Taiyuan, China → We studied the associations between selected microbial components and incidence and remission of SBS symptoms. → Bacterial compounds (LPS and MuA) seem to protect against the development of mucosal and general symptoms. → Fungal

  6. Topographica: building and analyzing map-level simulations from Python, C/C++, MATLAB, NEST, or NEURON components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Bednar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Many neural regions are arranged into two-dimensional topographic maps, such as the retinotopic maps in mammalian visual cortex. Computational simulations have led to valuable insights about how cortical topography develops and functions, but further progress has been hindered by the lack of appropriate tools. It has been particularly difficult to bridge across levels of detail, because simulators are typically geared to a specific level, while interfacing between simulators has been a major technical challenge. In this paper, we show that the Python-based Topographica simulator makes it straightforward to build systems that cross levels of analysis, as well as providing a common framework for evaluating and comparing models implemented in other simulators. These results rely on the general-purpose abstractions around which Topographica is designed, along with the Python interfaces becoming available for many simulators. In particular, we present a detailed, general-purpose example of how to wrap an external spiking PyNN/NEST simulation as a Topographica component using only a dozen lines of Python code, making it possible to use any of the extensive input presentation, analysis, and plotting tools of Topographica. Additional examples show how to interface easily with models in other types of simulators. Researchers simulating topographic maps externally should consider using Topographica's analysis tools (such as preference map, receptive field, or tuning curve measurement to compare results consistently, and for connecting models at different levels. This seamless interoperability will help neuroscientists and computational scientists to work together to understand how neurons in topographic maps organize and operate.

  7. Transparent facades in low energy office buildings Numerical simulations and experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Grynning, Steinar

    2015-01-01

    Windows are a key component in the building envelope. They are often, thought of as energy drains and something associated with excessive energy demands in a building. However, in order to assess the energy performance of a window, several factors must be addressed. The most important issues to consider are energy losses due to heat transmission through windows, energy gains from solar radiation as well as transmitted visible light and the influence on artificial lighting deman...

  8. Plausibility in Early Stages of Architectural Design: A New Tool for High-Rise Residential Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dirk Donath; Danny Lobos

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problem of the design of envelopes for high-rise isolated residential build-ings. The phenomenon of envelope creation appears in the early stages of the architectural design. Vari-ables that influence the final shape and size of such envelopes are then identified. This paper presents the state-of-the-art tools for the current solutions at the commercial and academic/scientific level. The variables identified in this research are the client's needs, the urban code and architectural practice, and their specific components for the final creation of a new decision support system tool based on the building information modeling (BIM) software platform, to facilitate the work in the project development and drawing production stages. This tool generates several options for building envelopes according to the parameters required by the city Zoning Planning Commission. These options then lead to deliver reliable data and a geometry that can be analyzed in a timely fashion by the engineers, builders, architects, government, and clients in the early stages of the building's design. The results show that use of specific information and communication technologies (ICT) tools in the early stages of a building design helps reduce the working time, increases confidence in the generated solution, and contributes to the exploration of altematives in a short period of time.

  9. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...... efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies....

  10. The circumstellar envelope of the C-rich post-AGB star HD 56126

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hony, S; Tielens, AGGM; Waters, LBFM; de Koter, A

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the circumstellar envelope of the post-asymptotic giant branch "21 mum object" HD 56126. We build a detailed dust radiative transfer model of the circumstellar envelope in order to derive the dust composition and mass, and the mass-loss history of the star. To model th

  11. AM Envelope: The Potential of Additive Manufacturing for facade constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strauss, H.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous development of the building envelope over the past hundred years can be exemplified by a few ground-breaking inventions. Firstly, the separation of primary and secondary structure during the beginning of the 20th century; by implementing a curtain wall façade to physically separate th

  12. Method for a component-based economic optimisation in design of whole building renovation versus demolishing and rebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin; Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This paper presents a two-fold evaluation method determining whether to renovate an existing building or to demolish it and thereafter erect a new building. Scope: The method determines a combination of energy saving measures that have been optimised in regards to the future cost for energy....... Subsequently, the method evaluates the cost of undertaking the retrofit measures as compared to the cost of demolishing the existing building and thereafter erecting a new one. Several economically beneficial combinations of energy saving measures can be determined. All of them are a trade-off between...... investing in retrofit measures and buying renewable energy. The overall cost of the renovation considers the market value of the property, the investment in the renovation, the operational and maintenance costs. A multi-family building is used as an example to clearly illustrate the application...

  13. Method for component-based economical optimisation for use in design of new low-energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    and transparent economic optimisation method to find an initial design proposal near the economical optimum. The aim is to provide an expedient starting point for the building design process and more detailed economic optimisation. The method uses the energy frame concept to express the constraints...... of the optimisation problem, which is then solved by minimising the costs of conserving energy in all the individual energy-saving measures. A case example illustrates how the method enables designers to establish a qualified estimate of an economically optimal solution. Such an estimate gives a good starting point......Increasing requirements for energy performance in new buildings mean the cost of incorporating energy-saving in buildings is also increasing. Building designers thus need to be aware of the long-term cost-effectiveness of potential energy-conserving measures. This paper presents a simplified...

  14. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  15. An energy efficient building for the Arctic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladyková, Petra

    of a super energy efficient house in which the normal hydronic heating system can be omitted. The savings in investment for a traditional hydronic heating system are spent on energy conserving components such as increased insulation in a super airtight building shell, super efficient windows to produce...... usage of an extreme energy efficient building in the Arctic. The purpose of this Ph.D. study is to determine the optimal use of an energy efficient house in the Arctic derived from the fundamental definition of a passive house, investigations of building parameters including the building envelope...... in the Arctic needs to take into account also different socioeconomic conditions, building traditions and use of buildings, survival issue, sustainability and power supply, among others. In the Arctic, the energy efficient house based on a passive house concept offers a sustainable solution to the operation...

  16. Reuse and Upcycling of Municipal Waste for ZEB Envelope Design in European Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pennacchia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building energy efficiency and urban waste management are two focal issues for improving environmental status and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The main aim of this paper is to compare economic costs of new building envelope structures designed by authors reusing and upcycling municipal waste in order to decrease energy demand from the building sector and, at the same time, improve eco-friendly waste management at the local scale. The reuse of waste for building envelope structures is one of the main principles of the Earthship buildings model, based on the use of passive solar principles in autonomous earth-sheltered homes. This Earthship principle has been analyzed in order to optimize buildings’ energy performance and reuse municipal waste for new building envelope structures in urban areas. Indeed, the elaborated structures have been designed for urban contexts, with the aim of reuse waste coming from surrounding landfills. The methods include an analysis of thermal performance of urban waste for designing new building envelope structures realized by assembling waste and isolating materials not foreseen in Earthship buildings. The reused materials are: cardboard tubes, automobile tires, wood pallets, and plastic and glass bottles. Finally, comparing economic costs of these new building envelope structures, the obtained results highlight their economic feasibility compared to a traditional structure with similar thermal transmittance.

  17. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  18. The LHC in an envelope

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The series of envelopes featuring CERN issued this summer was a huge success. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex will shortly be launching the second set of pre-paid envelopes issued in collaboration with the Laboratory this year, this time highlighting the LHC. Five thousand envelopes describing the accelerator’s capabilities will go on sale on 12 November, and some of the packs will even contain a small sample of the cables from the heart of the LHC magnets. The sets of ten pre-paid envelopes will tell you everything about CERN’s flagship accelerator, from its astounding technical capabilities to its spin-offs in the fields of technology and human resources. Each envelope will feature a different attribute or spin-off of the LHC. People will be invited to consult CERN’s public website for more detailed explanations if they want to know more. The new envelopes will be available from five post offices in the Pays de Gex (Ferney-Voltaire, Prévessin...

  19. The LHC on an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The series of envelopes featuring CERN issued this summer was a huge success. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex will shortly be launching the second set of pre-paid envelopes issued in collaboration with the Laboratory this year, this time highlighting the LHC. Five thousand envelopes describing the accelerator’s capabilities will go on sale on 12 November, and some of the packs will even contain a small sample of the cables from the heart of the LHC magnets. The sets of ten pre-paid envelopes will tell you everything about CERN’s flagship accelerator, from its astounding technical capabilities to its spin-offs in the fields of technology and human resources. Each envelope will feature a different attribute or spin-off of the LHC. People will be invited to consult CERN’s public website for more detailed explanations if they want to know more. The new envelopes will be available from five post offices in the Pays ...

  20. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Griffiths, D. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the 2013 research project was to develop the model for predicting fully guarded test results (FGT), using unguarded test data and specific building features of apartment units. The model developed has a coefficient of determination R2 value of 0.53 with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.13. Both statistical metrics indicate that the model is relatively strong. When tested against data that was not included in the development of the model, prediction accuracy was within 19%, which is reasonable given that seasonal differences in blower door measurements can vary by as much as 25%.

  1. The South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Feaster, Toby D.; Caldwell, Andral

    2016-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, conducted a series of three field investigations to evaluate historical, riverine bridge scour in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of South Carolina. These investigations included data collected at 231 riverine bridges, which lead to the development of bridge-scour envelope curves for clear-water and live-bed components of scour. The application and limitations of the South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves were documented in four reports, each report addressing selected components of bridge scour. The current investigation (2016) synthesizes the findings of these previous reports into a guidance manual providing an integrated procedure for applying the envelope curves. Additionally, the investigation provides limited verification for selected bridge-scour envelope curves by comparing them to field data collected outside of South Carolina from previously published sources. Although the bridge-scour envelope curves have limitations, they are useful supplementary tools for assessing the potential for scour at riverine bridges in South Carolina.

  2. Parasitic Events in Envelope Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Doubek

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Envelope analysis allows fast fault location of individual gearboxes and parts of bearings by repetition frequency determination of the mechanical catch of an amplitude-modulated signal. Systematic faults arise when using envelope analysis on a signal with strong changes. The source of these events is the range of function definition of used in convolution integral definition. This integral is used for Hilbert image calculation of analyzed signal. Overshoots (almost similar to Gibbs events on a synthetic signal using the Fourier series are result from these faults. Overshoots are caused by parasitic spectral lines in the frequency domain, which can produce faulty diagnostic analysis.This paper describes systematic arising during faults rising by signal numerical calculation using envelope analysis with Hilbert transform. It goes on to offer a mathematical analysis of these systematic faults.

  3. Moisture meeting: Moisture in building materials and components. Measurement - calculation - application. Lectures and posters. Feuchtetag: Feuchtigkeit in Baustoffen und Bauteilen. Messen - Rechnen - Anwenden. Vortraege und Plakatberichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggenhauser, H. (ed.); Mueller, H.S. (ed.); Girlich, N. (ed.)

    1993-01-01

    In repairing damage due to humidity, and also with a view to preventing it, determining the moisture situation at the building site, knowledge of the transport phenomena occurring and suitable building protection measures and cleaning up techniques are of decisive importance. Promising new processes for measuring the humidity content of components have recently been developed. An improved knowledge of the transport mechanisms, together with the now available powerful computers, open up new possibilities for realistic calculations and descriptions of moisture transport processes. This volume recording the meeting combines all the lectures and all the posters (with one exception). This gives a survey of the present state of development and technique, particularly in the field of humidity measurement and the calculation of moisture transport. (orig./HP)

  4. The 2009 Space Science Component of UNH Project SMART and High School Students Building a High-Altitude Balloon Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. W.; Broad, L.; Chen, L.; Farrugia, C. J.; Frederick-Frost, K.; Goelzer, S.; Kucharek, H.; Messeder, R.; Moebius, E.; Puhl-Quinn, P. A.; Torbert, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    For the past 19 years the University of New Hampshire has offered a unique research and education opportunity to motivated high-school students called Project SMART (Science and Mathematics Achievement through Research Training). The Space Science module is strongly research based. Students work in teams of two on real research projects carved from the research programs of the faculty. The projects are carefully chosen to match the abilities of the students. The students receive classes in basic physics as well as lectures in space science to help them with their work. This year the research included the analysis of magnetic reconnection observations and Crater FTE observation, both by the CLUSTER spacecraft, the building of Faraday cups for thermal ion measurements in our thermal vacuum facility, and analysis of the IBEX star sensor. In addition to this, the students work on one combined project and for the past several years this project has been the building of a payload for a high-altitude balloon. The students learn to integrate telemetry and GPS location hardware while they build several small experiments that they then fly to the upper reaches of the Earth's atmosphere. This year the payload included a small video camera and the payload flew to 96,000 feet, capturing images of weather patterns as well as the curvature of the Earth, thickness of the atmosphere, and black space. In addition to still photos, we will be showing 2- and 7-minute versions of the 90-minute flight video that include footage from peak altitude, the bursting of the balloon, and initial descent.

  5. THE CONCEPT OF BUILDING THE MANAGER’S INFORMATIONAL COMPETENCY AS A BASIC COMPONENT OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Karpechenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a concept of building the future managers’ informational competency through an integrative course implemented in the educational process is presented. Here, importance and urgency of implementing such course is reasoned; described its goals and objectives, as well as cultural and professional competencies that will be built as a result of the study. The article describes the structure of the course, the main principles that serve as a basis for the program modeling and the course content, as well as the conditions of its organization, such as logistics support, methodical recommendations on how to organize the learning process, and modern and active training methods.

  6. Outliers In Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Khaleel Ahamed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Data Envelopment Analysis is a linear programming technique that assigns efficiency scores to firms engaged in producing similar outputs employing similar inputs. Extremely efficient firms are potential Outliers. The method developed detects Outliers, implementing Stochastic Threshold Value, with computational ease. It is useful in data filtering in BIG DATA problems.

  7. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  8. Envelope induced ionization dynamics beyond the dipole approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Simonsen, Aleksander Skjerlie; Førre, Morten; Lindroth, Eva; Selstø, Sølve

    2015-01-01

    When atoms and molecules are ionized by laser pulses of finite duration and increasingly high intensities, the validity of the much used dipole approximation, in which the spatial dependence and magnetic component of the external field are neglected, eventually breaks down. We report that when going beyond the dipole approximation for the description of atoms exposed to ultraviolet light, the spatial dependence of the pulse shape, the envelope, provides the dominant correction, while the spatial dependence of the carrier may safely be neglected in the general case. We present a first order beyond-dipole correction to the Hamiltonian which accounts exclusively for effects stemming from the carrier-envelope of the pulse. This much simpler form of the correction is further discussed in connection with various descriptions of the light-matter interaction. We demonstrate by ab initio calculations that this approximation, which we will refer to as the envelope approximation, reproduces the full interaction beyond t...

  9. Recommendation Method for Build-to-Order Products Considering Substitutability of Specifications and Stock Consumption Balance of Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Atsushi; Kosugi, Hidenori; Karino, Takafumi; Komoda, Norihisa

    This study focuses on a stock reduction method for build-to-order (BTO) products to flow surplus parts out to the market using sale by recommendation. A sale by recommendation is repeated in an each business negotiation using a recommended configuration selected from the inventory of parts to minimize the stock deficiency or excess at the end of a certain period of the production plan. The method is based on the potential of a customer specification to be replaced by an alternative one if the alternative one is close to the initial customer specification. A recommendation method is proposed that decides the recommended product configuration by balancing the part consumption so that the alternative specification of the configuration is close enough to the initial customer specification for substitutability. The method was evaluated by a simulation using real BTO manufacturing data and the result demonstrates that the unbalance of the consumption of parts inventory is improved.

  10. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the Building America expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  11. The envelopes of amphibian oocytes: physiological modifications in Bufo arenarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Mercedes

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A characterization of the Amphibian Bufo arenarum oocyte envelope is presented. It was made in different functional conditions of the oocyte: 1 when it has been released into the coelomic cavity during ovulation (surrounded by the coelomic envelope, (CE, 2 after it has passed through the oviduct and is deposed (surrounded by the viteline envelope, (VE, and 3 after oocyte activation (surrounded by the fertilization envelope, (FE. The characterization was made by SDS-PAGE followed by staining for protein and glycoproteins. Labeled lectins were used to identify glycosidic residues both in separated components on nitrocellulose membranes or in intact oocytes and embryos. Proteolytic properties of the content of the cortical granules were also analyzed. After SDS-PAGE of CE and VE, a different protein pattern was observed. This is probably due to the activity of a protease present in the pars recta of the oviduct. Comparison of the SDS-PAGE pattern of VE and FE showed a different mobility for one of the glycoproteins, gp75. VE and FE proved to have different sugar residues in their oligosaccharide chains. Mannose residues are only present in gp120 of the three envelopes. N-acetyl-galactosamine residues are present in all of the components, except for gp69 in the FE. Galactose residues are present mainly in gp120 of FE. Lectin-binding assays indicate the presence of glucosamine, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine residues and the absence (or non-availability of N-acetyl-glucosamine or fucose residues on the envelopes surface. The cortical granule product (CGP shows proteolytic activity on gp75 of the VE.

  12. Energy-saving material optimization of the envelop enclosure of residential buildings based on value analysis%基于价值分析的住宅建筑维护结构节能材料优选的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽妍; 石振武

    2015-01-01

    建筑业节能建筑、绿色建筑正在兴起,但由于成本相对较高,导致节能材料的应用并不普遍。根据价值工程理论,对现有的住宅建筑围护结构的节能材料进行价值分析,在外墙外保温系统材料和外门窗材料的多种方案中,优选出符合哈尔滨市地理气候特点的节能方案。优选出的方案在保证功能性的前提下提升使用价值,降低建造成本。%Nowadays , the construction industry is developing energy‐saving building , however , its relatively high cost has caused the uncommon application of energy‐saving materials . According to the theory of value engineering ,this paper proposes a value analysis of current energy‐saving materials of the envelop enclosure of residential buildings ,in order to select the energy‐saving solution w hich conforms with the geographical and climatic characteristics in Harbin among various schemes of the material of the exterior wall insulation system and external doors and windows .The optimum scheme is to promote the use value and reduce the building cost on the premise of guaranteed functionality .Also ,It will provide reference for the construction and development of Harbin ,in order to realize the sustainable development of construction industry .

  13. Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, Per; Andresen, Inger; Perino, Marco; van der Aa, Ad

    2006-01-01

    Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie with technologies that promote the integration of responsive building elements and building services in integrated building concepts. In order to address some of these issues an international research effort, IE...

  14. Chemical Models of Collapsing Envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Bergin, E A

    1999-01-01

    We discuss recent models of chemical evolution in the developing and collapsing protostellar envelopes associated with low-mass star formation. In particular, the effects of depletion of gas-phase molecules onto grain surfaces is considered. We show that during the middle to late evolutionary stages, prior to the formation of a protostar, various species selectively deplete from the gas phase. The principal pattern of selective depletions is the depletion of sulfur-bearing molecules relative to nitrogen-bearing species: NH3 and N2H+. This pattern is shown to be insensitive to the details of the dynamics and marginally sensitive to whether the grain mantle is dominated by polar or non-polar molecules. Based on these results we suggest that molecular ions are good tracers of collapsing envelopes. The effects of coupling chemistry and dynamics on the resulting physical evolution are also examined. Particular attention is paid to comparisons between models and observations.

  15. Solar envelope zoning: application to the city planning process. Los Angeles case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Solar envelope zoning represents a promising approach to solar access protection. A solar envelope defines the volume within which a building will not shade adjacent lots or buildings. Other solar access protection techniques, such as privately negotiated easements, continue to be tested and implemented but none offer the degree of comprehensiveness evident in this approach. Here, the City of Los Angeles, through the Mayor's Energy Office, the City Planning Department, and the City Attorney's Office, examine the feasibility of translating the concept of solar envelopes into zoning techniques. They concluded that envelope zoning is a fair and consistent method of guaranteeing solar access, but problems of complexity and uncertainty may limit its usefulness. Envelope zoning may be inappropriate for the development of high density centers and for more restrictive community plans. Aids or tools to administer envelope zoning need to be developed. Finally, some combination of approaches, including publicly recorded easements, subdivision approval and envelope zoning, need to be adopted to encourage solar use in cities. (MHR)

  16. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill

    2008-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant’s large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis.

  17. The impact of roofing material on building energy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Ali

    The last decade has seen an increase in the efficient use of energy sources such as water, electricity, and natural gas as well as a variety of roofing materials, in the heating and cooling of both residential and commercial infrastructure. Oil costs, coal and natural gas prices remain high and unstable. All of these instabilities and increased costs have resulted in higher heating and cooling costs, and engineers are making an effort to keep them under control by using energy efficient building materials. The building envelope (that which separates the indoor and outdoor environments of a building) plays a significant role in the rate of building energy consumption. An appropriate architectural design of a building envelope can considerably lower the energy consumption during hot summers and cold winters, resulting in reduced HVAC loads. Several building components (walls, roofs, fenestration, foundations, thermal insulation, external shading devices, thermal mass, etc.) make up this essential part of a building. However, thermal insulation of a building's rooftop is the most essential part of a building envelope in that it reduces the incoming "heat flux" (defined as the amount of heat transferred per unit area per unit time from or to a surface) (Sadineni et al., 2011). Moreover, more than 60% of heat transfer occurs through the roof regardless of weather, since a roof is often the building surface that receives the largest amount of solar radiation per square annually (Suman, and Srivastava, 2009). Hence, an argument can be made that the emphasis on building energy efficiency has influenced roofing manufacturing more than any other building envelope component. This research project will address roofing energy performance as the source of nearly 60% of the building heat transfer (Suman, and Srivastava, 2009). We will also rank different roofing materials in terms of their energy performance. Other parts of the building envelope such as walls, foundation

  18. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF THE BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Bocharnikov, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    The subject of bachelor’s thesis is about energy efficiency of the building. Much attention is being paid to energy saving problems all over the world. In the first part it theoretic base for thermal performance requirements of buildings. It includes main positions of Russian requirements for thermal performance. Also it is about general types of building envelope. The second part is about energy audit of buildings. In this part there is an energy efficiency assessment methodology. Energy eff...

  19. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs

  20. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

    1989-10-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs.

  1. Introduction: The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX – multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research and capacity building initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX is a multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research, research infrastructure and capacity building program. PEEX has originated from a bottom-up approach by the science communities, and is aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in Earth System Science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions, as well as China. The vision of PEEX is to solve interlinked global grand challenges influencing human well-being and societies in northern Eurasia and China. Such challenges include climate change, air quality, biodiversity loss, urbanization, chemicalization, food and fresh water availability, energy production and use of natural resources by mining, industry, energy production and transport sectors. Our approach is integrative and supra-disciplinary, recognizing the important role of the Arctic and boreal ecosystems in the Earth system. The PEEX vision includes establishing and maintaining long-term, coherent and coordinated research activities as well as continuous, comprehensive research and educational infrastructures and related capacity building across the PEEX domain. In this paper we present the PEEX structure, summarize its motivation, objectives and future outlook.

  2. Introduction: The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) - multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research and capacity building initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, M.; Lappalainen, H. K.; Petäjä, T.; Kurten, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Viisanen, Y.; Hari, P.; Bondur, V.; Kasimov, N.; Kotlyakov, V.; Matvienko, G.; Baklanov, A.; Guo, H. D.; Ding, A.; Hansson, H.-C.; Zilitinkevich, S.

    2015-08-01

    The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research, research infrastructure and capacity building program. PEEX has originated from a bottom-up approach by the science communities, and is aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in Earth System Science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions, as well as China. The vision of PEEX is to solve interlinked global grand challenges influencing human well-being and societies in northern Eurasia and China. Such challenges include climate change, air quality, biodiversity loss, urbanization, chemicalization, food and fresh water availability, energy production and use of natural resources by mining, industry, energy production and transport sectors. Our approach is integrative and supra-disciplinary, recognizing the important role of the Arctic and boreal ecosystems in the Earth system. The PEEX vision includes establishing and maintaining long-term, coherent and coordinated research activities as well as continuous, comprehensive research and educational infrastructures and related capacity building across the PEEX domain. In this paper we present the PEEX structure, summarize its motivation, objectives and future outlook.

  3. Introducing the Adaptive Convex Enveloping

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Convexity, though extremely important in mathematical programming, has not drawn enough attention in the field of dynamic programming. This paper gives conditions for verifying convexity of the cost-to-go functions, and introduces an accurate, fast and reliable algorithm for solving convex dynamic programs with multivariate continuous states and actions, called Adaptive Convex Enveloping. This is a short introduction of the core technique created and used in my dissertation, so it is less formal, and misses some parts, such as literature review and reference, compared to a full journal paper.

  4. Build Less Code, Deliver More Science: An Experience Report on Composing Scientific Environments using Component-based and Commodity Software Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, Ian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Computational Sciences and Math Division; Liu, Yan [Concordia University Montreal, Quebec, (Canada).; Lansing, Carina S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Computational Sciences and Math Division; Elsethagen, Todd O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Computational Sciences and Math Division; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Computational Sciences and Math Division

    2013-07-17

    Modern scientific software is daunting in its diversity and complexity. From massively parallel simulations running on the world’s largest supercomputers, to visualizations and user support environments that manage ever growing complex data collections, the challenges for software engineers are plentiful. While high performance simulators are necessarily specialized codes to maximize performance on specific supercomputer architectures, we argue the vast majority of supporting infrastructure, data management and analysis tools can leverage commodity open source and component-based technologies. This approach can significantly drive down the effort and costs of building complex, collaborative scientific user environments, as well as increase their reliability and extensibility. In this paper we describe our experiences in creating an initial user environment for scientists involved in modeling the detailed effects of climate change on the environment of selected geographical regions. Our approach composes the user environment using the Velo scientific knowledge management platform and the MeDICi Integration Framework for scientific workflows. These established platforms leverage component-based technologies and extend commodity open source platforms with abstractions and capabilities that make them amenable for broad use in science. Using this approach we were able to deliver an operational user environment capable of running thousands of simulations in a 7 month period, and achieve significant software reuse.

  5. Different evolutionary patterns of classical swine fever virus envelope proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yang, Zexiao; Zhang, Mingwang

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever, which is a highly contagious disease of the domestic pig as well as wild boar. The proteins E(rns), E1, and E2 are components of the viral envelope membrane. They are also implicated in virus attachment and entry, replication, and (or) anti-immune response. Here, we studied the genetic variations of these envelope proteins in the evolution of CSFV. The results reveal that the envelope proteins underwent different evolutionary fates. In E(rns) and E1, but not E2, a number of amino acid sites experienced functional divergence. Furthermore, the diversification in E(rns) and E1 was generally episodic because the divergence-related changes of E1 only occurred with the separation of 2 major groups of CSFV and that of E(rns) took place with the division of 1 major group. The major divergence-related sites of E(rns) are located on one of the substrate-binding regions of the RNase domain and C-terminal extension. These functional domains have been reported to block activation of the innate immune system and attachment and entry into host cells, respectively. Our results may shed some light on the divergent roles of the envelope proteins. PMID:26911308

  6. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Metcalf

    2010-10-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details the additions to the advanced operating techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Research this year focused on combining disparate pieces of data together to maximize operating time with minimal downtime due to safeguards. A Chi-Square and Croiser's cumulative sum were both included as part of the new analysis. Because of a major issue with the original data, the implementation of the two new tests did not add to the existing set of tests, though limited one-variable optimization made a small increase in detection probability. Additional analysis was performed to determine if prior analysis would have caused a major security or safety operating envelope issue. It was determined that a safety issue would have resulted from the prior research, but that the security may have been increased under certain conditions.

  7. Circumplanetary disc or circumplanetary envelope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulágyi, J.; Masset, F.; Lega, E.; Crida, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Guillot, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present three-dimensional simulations with nested meshes of the dynamics of the gas around a Jupiter mass planet with the JUPITER and FARGOCA codes. We implemented a radiative transfer module into the JUPITER code to account for realistic heating and cooling of the gas. We focus on the circumplanetary gas flow, determining its characteristics at very high resolution (80 per cent of Jupiter's diameter). In our nominal simulation where the temperature evolves freely by the radiative module and reaches 13000 K at the planet, a circumplanetary envelope was formed filling the entire Roche lobe. Because of our equation of state is simplified and probably overestimates the temperature, we also performed simulations with limited maximal temperatures in the planet region (1000, 1500, and 2000 K). In these fixed temperature cases circumplanetary discs (CPDs) were formed. This suggests that the capability to form a CPD is not simply linked to the mass of the planet and its ability to open a gap. Instead, the gas temperature at the planet's location, which depends on its accretion history, plays also fundamental role. The CPDs in the simulations are hot and cooling very slowly, they have very steep temperature and density profiles, and are strongly sub-Keplerian. Moreover, the CPDs are fed by a strong vertical influx, which shocks on the CPD surfaces creating a hot and luminous shock-front. In contrast, the pressure supported circumplanetary envelope is characterized by internal convection and almost stalled rotation.

  8. Evolution of envelope solitons of ionization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time evolution of a particle-like envelope soliton of ionization waves in plasma was investigated theoretically. The hydrodynamic equations of one spatial dimension were solved and the nonlinear dispersion relation was derived. For the amplitude of the wave the nonlinear Schroedinger equation was derived. Its soliton solution was interpreted as the envelope soliton which was experimentally found. The damping rate of the envelope soliton was estimated. (D.Gy.)

  9. Adaptive Flight Envelope Estimation and Protection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Impact Technologies, in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology, proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative flight envelope estimation and...

  10. Nano insulating materials and energy retrofit of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, Marco

    2016-06-01

    The article offers an analysis of the use of nanotechnological insulation materials (NIMs) for energy upgrading of buildings, illustrating the possibility of their integration into the building envelope and the benefits achievable in terms of architectural quality, comfort and energy saving, within the new framework of European legislation aimed at achieving Zero energy buildings. Particular reference is given to Fibre Reinforced Aerogel Blankets for the building envelope, especially interesting for their wide possible applications even combined with phase change materials.

  11. The microtubule aster formation and its role in nuclear envelope assembly around the sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ning; CHEN Zhongcai; LU Ping; ZHANG Chuanmao; ZHAI Zhonghe; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear envelope is a dynamic structure in the cell cycle. At the beginning of mitosis, nuclear envelope breaks down and its components disperse into the cytoplasm. At the end of mitosis, nuclear envelope reassembles using the dispersed components. Searching for the mechanisms of the nuclear disassembly and reassembly has for a long time been one of the key projects for cell biologists. In this report we show that microtubules take a role in the nuclear envelope assembly around the sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts. Microtubule cytoskeleton has been demonstrated to take roles in the transport of intracellular membranes such as Golgi and ER vesicles. We found that the nuclear envelope assembly needs functional microtubules. At the beginning of the nuclear assembly, microtubules nucleated to form a microtubule aster around the centrosome at the base of the sperm head. Using the microtubule drug colchicine to disrupt the microtubule nucleation, nuclear envelope reassembly was seriously inhibited. If the microtubules were stabilized by taxol, another microtubule drug, the nuclear envelope reassembly was also interfered, although a significantly large aster formed around the chromatin. Based on these observations, we propose that microtubules play an important role in the nuclear envelope reassembly maybe by transporting the nuclear envelope precursors to the chromatin surfaces.

  12. Patoka Nature Center: a direct gain, passive solar building in southern Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller Moore, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Nature Center is a 3200 sq. ft. public building presently under construction and scheduled for completion in May 1979. The building's design includes an A-frame type roof with the south 1530 sq. ft. 60/sup 0/ roof slope double glazed with movable Beadwall insulation. This slope is fabricated using standard greenhouse components to form the Beadwall envelope. A commercially available acoustical tile, (with mirror-finish aluminized polyester film), is used on the north ceiling slope to reflect insolation to the thermal floor mass, minimizing diffuse ceiling reflection back through the south glass. Interior partitions formed by rows of fiberglass provide additional insolation thermal storage.

  13. Performance Based Envelopes: A Theory of Spatialized Skins and the Emergence of the Integrated Design Professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Trubiano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Realigning the design of building envelopes within the measures of air, light and heat has rendered possible an inventive form of practice whose benefits are far in excess of the metrics of data and analysis. For many of its most advanced practitioners, the contemporary design of facades engages the true potential of “performance” when it deepens, broadens and complicates the theoretical dimension of this most liminal of surfaces. Of particular interest to this paper is a discussion of new theoretical paradigms associated with the design and operation of high performance envelopes of which four characteristics of this emergent sub-discipline are herein examined. To begin with, the way in which building envelopes are no longer separators, dividers and barriers between a building’s interior and exterior conditions, but rather, “spatially” defined environments that fully engage the totality of a building’s engineering systems, is discussed. Cantilevered Louvers, Double Skin Facades and Hybrid Conditioned Atria are representative of this new paradigm as is the use of Responsive Technologies to optimize their behaviors. Lastly, the paper examines the rise of the new integrated design building envelope professional called upon to deliver ever-better performing skins, whether in the guise of energy modeler, climate engineer or façade construction specialist. Hence, this paper develops a theoretical structure within which to describe, analyze and interpret the values made possible by this new and expanding field of performance based envelopes.

  14. Reach Envelope of Human Extremities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jingzhou(杨景周); ZHANG Yunqing(张云清); CHEN Liping(陈立平); ABDEL-MALEK Karim

    2004-01-01

    Significant attention in recent years has been given to obtain a better understanding of human joint ranges, measurement, and functionality, especially in conjunction with commands issued by the central nervous system. While researchers have studied motor commands needed to drive a limb to follow a path trajectory, various computer algorithms have been reported that provide adequate analysis of limb modeling and motion. This paper uses a rigorous mathematical formulation to model human limbs, understand their reach envelope, delineate barriers therein where a trajectory becomes difficult to control, and help visualize these barriers. Workspaces of a typical forearm with 9 degrees of freedom, a typical finger modeled as a 4- degree-of-freedom system, and a lower extremity with 4 degrees of freedom are discussed. The results show that using the proposed formulation, joint limits play an important role in distinguishing the barriers.

  15. 14 CFR 23.333 - Flight envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight envelope. 23.333 Section 23.333... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.333 Flight envelope. (a) General. Compliance with the strength requirements of this subpart must be shown...

  16. Solar active envelope module with an adjustable transmittance/absorptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Villasante Villasante

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A solar active envelope module with a high flexibility degree is proposed in this paper. The transparent module controls the day-lighting of the room, improving the indoor environment, while absorbing the superfluous solar energy inside. That energy is used to increase the efficiency of heating, ventilation, and the air-conditioning (HVAC system of the building. This is carried out through a fine control of the absorptance of the envelope module. The active envelope module consists of three glazed chambers with advanced coatings and frames to assure a minimum thermal transmittance while allowing transparency. A fluid containing heat-absorbing nanoparticles flows inside the central chamber and is heated up due to the impinging solar energy. Unlike other systems proposed in the past, which included transparency control systems based on complex filters and chemical processes, the absorption of the module is controlled by the variation of the thickness of the central chamber with a mechanical device. That is, varying the thickness of the central chamber, it allows controlling the absorptance of the whole system and, as a result, indoor day-lighting and thermal loads. Therefore, a new system is proposed that enables to:  

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Responsive Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Foged, Isak Worre

    2011-01-01

    Recently we have seen an increasing variety of applications of adaptive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability....... The general scopes of this paper are to present the development and evaluation of a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure. This reconfigurable structure can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two...

  18. The isolation of nuclear envelopes. Effects of thiol-group oxidation and of calcium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, S A; McLuckie, I F; Gorman, M; Scott, K A; Agutter, P S

    1985-02-15

    The effects of (a) oxidative cross-linking of protein thiol groups and (b) the presence or absence of Ca2+ ions on rat liver nuclear-envelope isolation were studied. Two envelope-isolation procedures were compared: a well characterized low-ionic-strength method and a recently developed high-ionic-strength method. The latter method seems preferable to the former in respect of lower intranuclear contamination of the envelopes, suppression of endogenous serine proteinase, and maintenance of high specific activities of envelope-associated enzymes. In both procedures, however, the presence of Ca2+ gave rise to a rapid, apparently irreversible, contamination of the envelopes by intranuclear material. This effect was half-maximal at 20 microM-Ca2+. In addition, the envelopes became contaminated with intranuclear material by a Ca2+-independent mechanism, apparently resulting from N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive intermolecular disulphide-bond formation. This oxidative process seemed to have two major kinetic components (half-life, t1/2, approx. 2 min and 10 min). In view of these findings, it is recommended that (i) for most purposes, nuclear envelopes be isolated by the newly developed high-ionic-strength procedure, (ii) irrespective of the method used, Ca2+-chelators be included in all the buffers, (iii) thiol-group oxidation be prevented or reversed during the procedure.

  19. Simulating Convection in Stellar Envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Joel

    Understanding convection in stellar envelopes, and providing a mathematical description of it, would represent a substantial advance in stellar astrophysics. As one of the largest sources of uncertainty in stellar models, existing treatments of convection fail to account for many of the dynamical effects of convection, such as turbulent pressure and asymmetry in the velocity field. To better understand stellar convection, we must be able to study and examine it in detail, and one of the best tools for doing so is numerical simulation. Near the stellar surface, both convective and radiative process play a critical role in determining the structure and gas dynamics. By following these processes from first principles, convection can be simulated self-consistently and accurately, even in regions of inefficient energy transport where existing descriptions of convection fail. Our simulation code includes two radiative transfer solvers that are based on different assumptions and approximations. By comparing simulations that differ only in their respective radiative transfer methods, we are able to isolate the effect that radiative efficiency has on the structure of the superadiabatic layer. We find the simulations to be in good general agreement, but they show distinct differences in the thermal structure in the superadiabatic layer and atmosphere. Using the code to construct a grid of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the link between convection and various chemical compositions. The stellar parameters correspond to main-sequence stars at several surface gravities, and span a range in effective temperatures (4500 matches the thermodynamics of the simulations. In particular, we consider adjusting the mixing length parameter such that the specific entropy of the model matches that of an equivalent simulation eliminates the need to arbitrarily set the parameter, and in principle will produce stellar models with more accurate radii. By

  20. Spectral Envelopes - A Preliminary Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lawton, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    The spectral envelope S(F) of a subset of integers is the set of probability measures on the circle group that are weak star limits of squared moduli of trigonometric polynomials with frequencies in F. Fourier transforms of these measures are positive and supported in F - F but the converse generally fails. The characteristic function chiF of F is a binary sequence whose orbit closure gives a symbolic dynamical system O(F). Analytic properties of S(F) are related to dynamical properties of chiF. The Riemann-Lebesque lemma implies that if chiF is minimal, then S(F) is convex and hence S(F) is the closure of the convex hull of its extreme points Se(F). In this paper we (i) review the relationship between these concepts and the special case of the still open 1959 Kadison-Singer problem called Feichtinger's conjecture for exponential functions, (ii) partially characterize of elements in Se(F), for minimal chiF, in terms of ergodic properties of (O(F),lambda) where lambda is a shift invariant probability measure w...

  1. Circumplanetary disk or circumplanetary envelope?

    CERN Document Server

    Szulágyi, J; Lega, E; Crida, A; Morbidelli, A; Guillot, T

    2016-01-01

    We present three-dimensional simulations with nested meshes of the dynamics of the gas around a Jupiter mass planet with the JUPITER and FARGOCA codes. We implemented a radiative transfer module into the JUPITER code to account for realistic heating and cooling of the gas. We focus on the circumplanetary gas flow, determining its characteristics at very high resolution ($80\\%$ of Jupiter's diameter). In our nominal simulation where the temperature evolves freely by the radiative module and reaches 13000 K at the planet, a circumplanetary envelope was formed filling the entire Roche-lobe. Because of our equation of state is simplified and probably overestimates the temperature, we also performed simulations with limited maximal temperatures in the planet region (1000 K, 1500 K, and 2000 K). In these fixed temperature cases circumplanetary disks (CPDs) were formed. This suggests that the capability to form a circumplanetary disk is not simply linked to the mass of the planet and its ability to open a gap. Inste...

  2. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    OpenAIRE

    Marlen Lopez; Ramon Rubio; Santiago Martın; Ben Croxford; Richard Jackson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and nee...

  3. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Research and Development 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for research and development, including residential and commercial integration, lighting, HVAC and water heating, envelope, windows, and analysis tools.

  4. Pushing the Envelope: Dengue Viral Membrane Coaxed into Shape by Molecular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzinek, Jan K; Holdbrook, Daniel A; Huber, Roland G; Verma, Chandra; Bond, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Dengue virus is a flavivirus responsible for millions of infections per year. Its surface contains a phospholipid bilayer, within which are embedded the envelope (E) and membrane (M) proteins, arranged with icosahedral geometry. Exposure to low pH triggers the E proteins to undergo conformational changes, which precede fusion with the host cell membrane and release of the viral genome. The flavivirus membrane exhibits significant local curvature and deformation, as revealed by cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM), but its precise structure and interactions with envelope components remain unclear. We now report simulations of the dengue viral particle that refine its envelope structure in unprecedented detail. Our final models are morphologically consistent with cryo-EM data, and reveal the structural basis for membrane curvature. Electrostatic interactions increased envelope complex stability; this coupling has potential functional significance in the context of the viral fusion mechanism and infective states. PMID:27396828

  5. Column envelope meshing pair and its design method for single screw compressors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-feng WU; Quan-ke FENG

    2009-01-01

    A single screw compressor (SSC) is an important component found in many refrigeration systems. However, the durability is not so good because of the friction between its meshing pair. Therefore the column envelope meshing pair was pro-posed to prolong the operating life of SSCs, although it has not been applied to commercial refrigeration systems. To accelerate the industrial application, a mathematical model for analyzing the column envelope meshing pair is established based on the geometry and kinematics. Equations giving the flanks of column envelope grooves are obtained, and teeth flank meshing with the groove is designed. Results show that this model could be applicable in the design of the column envelope type SSC.

  6. Injection envelope matching in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shape and size of the transverse phase space injected into a storage ring can be deduced from turn-by-turn measurements of the transient behavior of the beam envelope in the ring. Envelope oscillations at 2 x the β-tron frequency indicate the presence of a β-mismatch, while envelope oscillations at the β-tron frequency are the signature of a dispersion function mismatch. Experiments in injection optimization using synchrotron radiation imaging of the beam and a fast-gated camera at the SLC damping rings are reported

  7. Design and performance of an integrated envelope/lighting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1997-04-01

    Dynamic envelope/lighting systems offer the potential to achieve a near optimum energy-efficient environment meeting occupant needs throughout the year by adapting to dynamic meteorological conditions and changing occupant preferences in real time. With the dramatic increased functionality of the microprocessor, there is an untapped potential to make dynamic envelop/lighting systems easier to use, diagnose, and monitor, and to integrate them as part of a sophisticated building-wide control system. This study addresses the complex relationship between this energy-efficiency technology and many of the non-energy issues related to its potential acceptance by the building industry, architects, owners, and users. The authors demonstrate the concept of integrated dynamic systems with a prototype motorized venetian blind operated in synchronization with electric lighting and daylighting controls via an intelligent control system. Research work conducted with simulation software and reduced-scale and full-scale field tests is summarized. Much of this work is directly relevant to other active shading and daylighting systems on the market today and to state-of-the-art window systems yet to come (i.e., electrochromics).

  8. Multiscale Analysis of RMS Envelope Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorova, A N; Fedorova, Antonina N.; Zeitlin, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    We present applications of variational -- wavelet approach to different forms of nonlinear (rational) rms envelope equations. We have the representation for beam bunch oscillations as a multiresolution (multiscales) expansion in the base of compactly supported wavelet bases.

  9. Local Analysis of Nonlinear RMS Envelope Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorova, A N; Fedorova, Antonina N.; Zeitlin, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    We present applications of variational -- wavelet approach to nonlinear (rational) rms envelope dynamics. We have the solution as a multiresolution (multiscales) expansion in the base of compactly supported wavelet basis.

  10. Diffusive heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Beznogov, M V; Yakovlev, D G

    2016-01-01

    We construct new models of outer heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars composed of binary ion mixtures (H - He, He - C, C - Fe) in and out of diffusive equilibrium. To this aim, we generalize our previous work on diffusion of ions in isothermal gaseous or Coulomb liquid plasmas to handle non-isothermal systems. We calculate the relations between the effective surface temperature Ts and the temperature Tb at the bottom of heat blanketing envelopes (at a density rhob= 1e8 -- 1e10 g/cc) for diffusively equilibrated and non-equilibrated distributions of ion species at different masses DeltaM of lighter ions in the envelope. Our principal result is that the Ts - Tb relations are fairly insensitive to detailed distribution of ion fractions over the envelope (diffusively equilibrated or not) and depend almost solely on DeltaM. The obtained relations are approximated by analytic expressions which are convenient for modeling the evolution of neutron stars.

  11. Enveloping Relief Surfaces of Landslide Terrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two relief surfaces that envelop the rock fall region in a part of Garhwal Himalayas around Chamoli have been identified. Relative relief and absolute relief have been analyzed and the enveloping surfaces recorded at two levels of relief in the landscape. All landslide activity lies within these surfaces. The lower enveloping surface (800 m) dips due south by 7-8 degrees, due to an elevation rise of 100 meters within 12 km from south to north, i.e., a gradient of 8 percent. The nature of the surface is smooth. The upper enveloping surface (> 2500 m) is almost parallel to the lower one but its surface is undulatory due to landslides and denudation. The area has been a seismically active region and has undergone seismic activity up until recently, as evidenced by the Chamoli earthquake of 29th March 1999. The effects of earthquakes are seen at higher levels in the form of landslide imprints on the terrain.

  12. An Envelope-Based Paradigm for Seismic Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cua, G. B.; Heaton, T. H.

    2003-12-01

    We present a waveform envelope-based paradigm for seismic early warning. As suggested by theoretical scaling relations and as observed from data, acceleration saturates with increasing magnitude at a faster rate than does velocity or displacement. Thus, ratios of velocity or displacement to acceleration should be indicative of the magnitude of an earthquake. We introduce an evenlope-based parameterization of ground motion, where the observed ground motion envelope is decomposed into independent P-wave, S-wave, and ambient noise envelopes. The body wave envelopes, in turn, are parameterized by a rise time, an amplitude, a duration, and two decay parameters. We apply this parameterization to a database of over 30,000 records of horizontal and vertical acceleration, velocity, and displacement recorded on digital Southern California Seismic Network stations within 200 km of 80 regional events ranging in magnitude from M2.0 to M7.3. We derive attenuation relationships that account for magnitude-dependent saturation for vertical and horizontal acceleration, velocity, and displacement for P- and S-wave amplitudes, obtain station corrections relative to the mean hard rock response, and use these relationships to examine trends with magnitude and distance of ratios of different components of ground motion. An important consequence of our parameterization is the insight it provides into P-wave characteristics. We find that various ratios of P-wave velocity and displacement to acceleration are indicative of magnitude, and may have potential as another quick method to estimate magnitude for seismic early warning.

  13. Survival of an Enveloped Virus on Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Richard L; Casanova, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    Children's toys may carry respiratory viruses. Inactivation of a lipid-enveloped bacteriophage, Φ6, was measured on a nonporous toy at indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH). Inactivation was approximately 2log10 after 24 hours at 60% RH and 6.8log10 at 10 hours at 40% RH. Enveloped viruses can potentially survive on toys long enough to result in exposures. PMID:27144972

  14. The Envelope of Projectile Trajectories in Midair

    CERN Document Server

    Chudinov, P

    2005-01-01

    A classic problem of the motion of a point mass (projectile) thrown at an angle to the horizon is reviewed. The air drag force is taken into account with the drag factor assumed to be constant. Analytic approach is used for investigation. Simple analytical formulas are used for the constructing the envelope of the family of the point mass trajectories. The equation of envelope is applied for determination of maximum range of flight. The motion of a baseball is presented as an example.

  15. Cooling of neutron stars with diffusive envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Beznogov, M V; Haensel, P; Yakovlev, D G; Zdunik, J L

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars on their cooling. To this aim, we perform cooling simulations using newly constructed models of the envelopes composed of binary ion mixtures (H--He, He--C, C--Fe) varying the mass of lighter ions (H, He or C) in the envelope. The results are compared with those calculated using the standard models of the envelopes which contain the layers of lighter (accreted) elements (H, He and C) on top of the Fe layer, varying the mass of accreted elements. The main effect is that the chemical composition of the envelopes influences their thermal conductivity and, hence, thermal insulation of the star. For illustration, we apply these results to estimate the internal temperature of the Vela pulsar and to study the cooling of neutron stars of ages of 0.1 - 1 Myr at the photon cooling stage. The uncertainties of the cooling models associated with our poor knowledge of chemical composition of the heat insulating envelopes strongly complicate theoretical reco...

  16. Genetic Diversity of Koala Retroviral Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqin Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity, attributable to the low fidelity of reverse transcription, recombination and mutation, is an important feature of infectious retroviruses. Under selective pressure, such as that imposed by superinfection interference, gammaretroviruses commonly adapt their envelope proteins to use alternative receptors to overcome this entry block. The first characterized koala retroviruses KoRV subgroup A (KoRV-A were remarkable in their absence of envelope genetic variability. Once it was determined that KoRV-A was present in all koalas in US zoos, regardless of their disease status, we sought to isolate a KoRV variant whose presence correlated with neoplastic malignancies. More than a decade after the identification of KoRV-A, we isolated a second subgroup of KoRV, KoRV-B from koalas with lymphomas. The envelope proteins of KoRV-A and KoRV-B are sufficiently divergent to confer the ability to bind and employ distinct receptors for infection. We have now obtained a number of additional KoRV envelope variants. In the present studies we report these variants, and show that they differ from KoRV-A and KoRV-B envelopes in their host range and superinfection interference properties. Thus, there appears to be considerable variation among KoRVs envelope genes suggesting genetic diversity is a factor following the KoRV-A infection process.

  17. Genetic diversity of koala retroviral envelopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenqin; Gorman, Kristen; Santiago, Jan Clement; Kluska, Kristen; Eiden, Maribeth V

    2015-03-01

    Genetic diversity, attributable to the low fidelity of reverse transcription, recombination and mutation, is an important feature of infectious retroviruses. Under selective pressure, such as that imposed by superinfection interference, gammaretroviruses commonly adapt their envelope proteins to use alternative receptors to overcome this entry block. The first characterized koala retroviruses KoRV subgroup A (KoRV-A) were remarkable in their absence of envelope genetic variability. Once it was determined that KoRV-A was present in all koalas in US zoos, regardless of their disease status, we sought to isolate a KoRV variant whose presence correlated with neoplastic malignancies. More than a decade after the identification of KoRV-A, we isolated a second subgroup of KoRV, KoRV-B from koalas with lymphomas. The envelope proteins of KoRV-A and KoRV-B are sufficiently divergent to confer the ability to bind and employ distinct receptors for infection. We have now obtained a number of additional KoRV envelope variants. In the present studies we report these variants, and show that they differ from KoRV-A and KoRV-B envelopes in their host range and superinfection interference properties. Thus, there appears to be considerable variation among KoRVs envelope genes suggesting genetic diversity is a factor following the KoRV-A infection process.

  18. All the Universe in an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Do you know which force is hidden in an envelope or how many billions of years old are the atoms it contains? You will find the answers to these (curious) questions in a post office in the Pays de Gex. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex are again issuing pre-paid envelopes in collaboration with CERN (see Bulletin No. 24/2006). The new series presents some of the concepts of modern physics in an amazing way by showing what you can learn about the Universe with a single envelope. Packets of ten pre-stamped envelopes, each carrying a statement on fundamental physics, will be on sale from 7 July onwards. To learn more about the physics issues presented on the envelopes, people are invited to go to the CERN Web site where they will find the explanations. Five thousand envelopes will be put on sale in July and five thousand more during the French "Fête de la science" in October. They will be available from five post offices in the Pays de Gex (F...

  19. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  20. Solar building construction - new technologies; Solares Bauen - Neue Technologien fuer Gebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, J.; Voss, K.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. ``Thermische und Optische Systeme``

    1998-02-01

    There is an increasing demand for integrated building concepts in order to reduce energy consumption. Building design, construction and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) technology are decisive in this respect. Thus, an essentially higher energy efficiency is achieved and solar energy becomes the main energy source. An `active building envelope` assumes the task of controlling the energy flows between inside and outside. This paper reports on new components, system concepts and planning tools for solar building. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer zukuenftige Bauten werden in hohem Masse Forderungen nach integrierten Konzepten zur Begrenzung des Energieverbrauchs gestellt. Gestalt, Konstruktion und Klimatechnik sind dabei massgebliche Einflussfaktoren. Hierdurch wird eine wesentlich hoehere Energieeffizienz erzielt und Solarenergie kann die uebrigen Energiequellen zurueckdraengen. Eine `aktive Gebaeudehuelle` uebernimmt die Aufgabe, den Energiefluss zwischen Innen und Aussen zu steuern. Der Beitrag berichtet ueber neue Komponenten, Systemkonzepte und Planungswerkzeuge fuer das Solare Bauen. (orig.)

  1. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Whole-House Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective envelope designs that can be effectively integrated into the plant production process while meeting the thermal requirements of the 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing new envelope technologies. This work is part of a multi-phase effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three methods for building high performance walls. Phase 2 focused on developing viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped narrow the research focus to perfecting a stud wall design with exterior continuous insulation (CI). Phase 3, completed in two stages, continued the design development effort, exploring and evaluating a range or methods for applying CI to factory built homes. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing. During this phase, a home was built with CI, evaluated, and placed in service. The experience of building a mock up wall section with CI and then constructing on line a prototype home resolved important concerns about how to integrate the material into the production process. First steps were taken toward finding least expensive approaches for incorporating CI in standard factory building practices and a preliminary assessment suggested that even at this early stage the technology is attractive when viewed from a life cycle cost perspective.

  2. Renewable building energy systems and passive human comfort solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omer, Abdeen Mustafa [17 Juniper Court, Forest Road West, Nottingham NG7 4EU (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    With environmental protection posing as the number one global problem, man has no choice but to reduce his energy consumption. One way to accomplish this is to resort to passive and low-energy systems to maintain thermal comfort in buildings. The conventional and modern designs of wind towers can successfully be used in hot arid regions to maintain thermal comfort (with or without the use of ceiling fans) during all hours of the cooling season, or a fraction of it. Climatic design is one of the best approaches to reduce the energy cost in buildings. Proper design is the first step of defence against the stress of the climate. Buildings should be designed according to the climate of the site, reducing the need for mechanical heating or cooling. Hence maximum natural energy can be used for creating a pleasant environment inside the built envelope. Technology and industry progress in the last decade diffused electronic and informatics' devices in many human activities, and also in building construction. The utilisation and operating opportunities components, increase the reduction of heat losses by varying the thermal insulation, optimise the lighting distribution with louver screens and operate mechanical ventilation for coolness in indoor spaces. In addition to these parameters the intelligent envelope can act for security control and became an important part of the building domotic revolution. Application of simple passive cooling measure is effective in reducing the cooling load of buildings in hot and humid climates. Fourty-three percent reductions can be achieved using a combination of well-established technologies such as glazing, shading, insulation, and natural ventilation. More advanced passive cooling techniques such as roof pond, dynamic insulation, and evaporative water jacket need to be considered more closely. The building sector is a major consumer of both energy and materials worldwide, and that consumption is increasing. Most industrialised

  3. Architecture Building Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ Leading architectural design and engineering firm, Skidmore,Owings, & Merrill (SOM), is renowned for pushing the envelope, masterminding some of the world's most cutting edge and enduring structural masterpieces - America's tallest building, the Sears Tower,in the firm's home city of Chicago, the 88-story Jinmao Tower in Shanghai, and the Freedom Tower in New York City, successor to the fallen World Trade Center complex,are among the well known projects in its building portfolio. SOM's next high profile assignment, the Pearl River Tower, in Guangzhou is one no less worthy of this tradition.

  4. Cepheids at high angular resolution: circumstellar envelope and pulsation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenne, Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    In 2005, interferometric observations with VLTI/VINCI and CHARA/FLUOR revealed the existence of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) around some Cepheids. This surrounding material is particularly interesting for two reasons: it could have an impact on the distance estimates and could be linked to a past or on-going mass loss. The use of Baade-Wesselink methods for independent distance determinations could be significantly biased by the presence of these envelopes. Although their observations are difficult because of the high contrast between the photosphere of the star and the CSE, several observation techniques have the potential to improve our knowledge about their physical properties. In this thesis, I discuss in particular high angular resolution techniques that I applied to the study of several bright Galactic Cepheids. First, I used adaptive optic observations with NACO of the Cepheid RS Puppis, in order to deduce the flux ratio between the CSE and the photosphere of the star. In addition, I could carry out a statistical study of the speckle noise and inspect a possible asymmetry. Secondly, I analysed VISIR data to study the spectral energy distribution of a sample of Cepheids. These diffraction-limited images enabled me to carry out an accurate photometry in the N band and to detect an IR excess linked to the presence of a circumstellar component. On the other hand, applying a Fourier analysis I showed that some components are resolved. I then explored the K' band with the recombination instrument FLUOR for some bright Cepheids. Thanks to new set of data of Y Oph, I improved the study of its circumstellar envelope, using a ring-like model for the CSE. For two other Cepheids, U Vul and S Sge, I applied the interferometric Baade-Wesselink method in order to estimate their distance.

  5. Derivation of design response spectra for analysis and testing of components and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some institutions participating in the Benchmark Project performed parallel calculations for the WWER-1000 Kozloduy NPP. The investigations were based on various mathematical models and procedures for consideration of soil-structure interaction effects, simultaneously applying uniform soil dynamic and seismological input data. The methods, mathematical models and dynamic response results were evaluated and discussed in detail and finally compared by means of different structural models and soil representations with the aim of deriving final enveloped and smoothed dynamic response data (benchmark response spectra). This should be used for requalification by analysis testing of the mechanical and electrical components and systems located in this type of reactor building

  6. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm. These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.

  7. Research on Cost and Benefit Evaluation Method for Green Building Component Life Cycle%绿色建筑部品全生命周期成本与效益评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华; 张峰; 高立新; 毕既华

    2011-01-01

    提出全生命周期成本效益评价方法包括费用效益法和费用估算方法,以及这些方法的使用范围和使用现状.根据全生命周期评价理论与建筑部品全生命周期阶段划分,重点研究绿色建筑部品全生命周期评价技术路线,以及绿色建筑部品全生命周期各阶段成本与效益评价方法.得出科学的绿色建筑部品全生命周期成本和效益的评价方法有利于促进绿色建筑事业的长远健康发展.%Life cycle of cost and benefit evaluation method includes expenses benefit method and expenses assessment method,and their application range and status are introduced respectively. According to the life cycle assessment theory and the life cycle of construction component stage partitions, authors put the research focus on the technical route of the green building component life cycle, and the stage cost and benefit assessment method of each phase. The life cycle of cost and benefit evaluation method for green building component improves the development of green building.

  8. Common Exercises in Whole Building HAM Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Woloszyn, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Subtask 1 of the IEA Annex 41 project had the purpose to advance the development in modelling the integral heat, air and moisture transfer processes that take place in “whole buildings”. Such modelling comprises all relevant elements of buildings: The indoor air, the building envelope, the inside...

  9. Occupant behaviour and robustness of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buso, Tiziana; Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm;

    2015-01-01

    with alternating occupant behaviour patterns. The aim of this work was to investigate how alternating occupant behaviour patterns impact the performance of different envelope design solutions in terms of building robustness. Probabilistic models of occupants' window opening and use of shading were implemented......Occupant behaviour can cause major discrepancies between the designed and the real total energy use in buildings. A possible solution to reduce the differences between predictions and actual performances is designing robust buildings, i.e. buildings whose performances show little variations...... in a dynamic building energy simulation tool (IDA ICE). The analysis was carried out by simulating 15 building envelope designs in different thermal zones of an Office Reference Building in 3 climates: Stockholm, Frankfurt and Athens.In general, robustness towards changes in occupants' behaviour increased...

  10. Envelope broadening and scattering attenuation of a scalar wavelet in random media having power-law spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    Peak delay and envelope broadening of an S-wavelet with travel distance increasing are seen in short-period seismograms of small earthquakes. Those phenomena are results of scattering by random velocity inhomogeneities in the earth medium. As shown in sonic well-log data we may suppose that random velocity fluctuation has power-law spectra even in the seismic spectral range. As a simple mathematical model, we study how the envelope of a scalar wavelet varies in von Kármán-type random media, which have power-law spectra at large wavenumbers. Since the centre wavenumber of a wavelet is a unique scale in the power-law spectral range, using it as a reference, we divide the random media into the low-wavenumber spectral (long-scale) component and the high-wavenumber spectral (short-scale) component. For the wave propagation through the long-scale component of random media, we may apply the parabolic approximation to the wave equation. Using the Markov approximation, which is a stochastic extension of the phase screen method, we directly synthesize the energy density, which is the mean-square (MS) envelope of a wavelet in a given frequency band. The envelope duration increases according to the second power of travel distance. There is an additional factor, the wandering effect which increases the envelope duration according to the traveltime fluctuation. Wide angle scattering caused by the short-scale component of random media attenuates wave amplitude with travel distance increasing. We use the total scattering coefficient of the short-scale component as a measure of scattering attenuation per distance, which is well described by the Born approximation. Multiplying the exponential scattering attenuation factor by the MS envelope derived by the Markov approximation, we can synthesize the MS envelope reflecting all the spectral components of random media. When the random medium power spectra have a steep role-off at large wavenumbers, the envelope broadening is small and

  11. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Design Development and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Kessler, B.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  12. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3. Design Development and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Kessler, B. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Mullens, M. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  13. Simulating the Onset of Grazing Envelope Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Shiber, Sagiv; Soker, Noam

    2016-01-01

    We present the first three-dimensional gas-dynamical simulations of the grazing envelope evolution (GEE), with the goal of exploring the basic flow properties and the role of jets at the onset of the GEE. In the simulated runs, a secondary main-sequence star grazes the envelope of the primary asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. The orbit is circular at the radius of the AGB primary star on its equator. We inject two opposite jets perpendicular to the equatorial plane from the location of the secondary star, and follow the evolution for several orbital periods. We explore the flow pattern by which the jets eject the outskirts of the AGB envelope. After one orbit the jets start to interact with gas ejected in previous orbits and inflate hot low-density bubbles.

  14. Convection in stellar envelopes a changing paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Spruit, H C

    1996-01-01

    Progress in the theory of stellar convection over the past decade is reviewed. The similarities and differences between convection in stellar envelopes and laboratory convection at high Rayleigh numbers are discussed. Direct numerical simulation of the solar surface layers, with no other input than atomic physics, the equations of hydrodynamics and radiative transfer is now capable of reproducing the observed heat flux, convection velocities, granulation patterns and line profiles with remarkably accuracy. These results show that convection in stellar envelopes is an essentially non-local process, being driven by cooling at the surface. This differs distinctly from the traditional view of stellar convection in terms of local concepts such as cascades of eddies in a mean superadiabatic gradient. The consequences this has for our physical picture of processes in the convective envelope are illustrated with the problems of sunspot heat flux blocking, the eruption of magnetic flux from the base of the convection ...

  15. Envelope Solitons in Acoustically Dispersive Vitreous Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic radiation-induced static strains, displacements, and stresses are manifested as rectified or dc waveforms linked to the energy density of an acoustic wave or vibrational mode via the mode nonlinearity parameter of the material. An analytical model is developed for acoustically dispersive media that predicts the evolution of the energy density of an initial waveform into a series of energy solitons that generates a corresponding series of radiation-induced static strains (envelope solitons). The evolutionary characteristics of the envelope solitons are confirmed experimentally in Suprasil W1 vitreous silica. The value (-11.9 plus or minus 1.43) for the nonlinearity parameter, determined from displacement measurements of the envelope solitons via a capacitive transducer, is in good agreement with the value (-11.6 plus or minus 1.16) obtained independently from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The agreement provides strong, quantitative evidence for the validity of the model.

  16. Indonesian residential high rise buildings: A life cycle energy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utama, Agya; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2009-11-15

    This study evaluates the effect of building envelopes on the life cycle energy consumption of high rise residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia. For high rise residential buildings, the enclosures contribute 10-50% of the total building cost, 14-17% of the total material mass and 20-30% of the total heat gain. The direct as well as indirect influence of the envelope materials plays an important role in the life cycle energy consumption of buildings. The initial embodied energy of typical double wall and single wall envelopes for high residential buildings is 79.5 GJ and 76.3 GJ, respectively. Over an assumed life span of 40 years, double walls have better energy performance than single walls, 283 GJ versus 480 GJ, respectively. Material selection, which depends not only on embodied energy but also thermal properties, should, therefore, play a crucial role during the design of buildings. (author)

  17. Envelope tracking power amplifiers for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhancang

    2014-01-01

    Envelope tracking technology is seen as the most promising efficiency enhancement technology for RF power amplifiers for 4G and beyond wireless communications. More and more organizations are investing and researching on this topic with huge potential in academic and commercial areas.This is the first book on the market to offer complete introduction, theory, and design considerations on envelope tracking for wireless communications. This resource presents you with a full introduction to the subject and covers underlying theory and practical design considerations.

  18. Steel-framed buildings: Impacts of wall detail configurations on the whole wall thermal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, J.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Christian, J.E.

    1998-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is the influence of architectural wall details on the whole wall thermal performance. Whole wall thermal performance analysis was performed for six light gage steel-framed wall systems (some with wood components). For each wall system, all wall details were simulated using calibrated 3-D finite difference computer modeling. The thermal performance of the six steel-framed wall systems included various system details and the whole wall system thermal performance for a typical single-story ranch house. Currently, predicted heat losses through building walls are typically based on measurements of the wall system clear wall area using test methods such as ASTM C 236 or are calculated by one of the procedures recommended in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals that often is carried out for the clear wall area exclusively. In this paper, clear wall area is defined as the part of the wall system that is free of thermal anomalies due to building envelope details or thermally unaffected by intersections with other surfaces of the building envelope. Clear wall experiments or calculations normally do not include the effects of building envelope details such as corners, window and door openings, and structural intersections with roofs, floors, ceilings, and other walls. In steel-framed wall systems, these details typically consist of much more structural components than the clear wall. For this situation, the thermal properties measured or calculated for the clear wall area do not adequately represent the total wall system thermal performance. Factors that would impact the ability of today`s standard practice to accurately predict the total wall system thermal performance are the accuracy of the calculation methods, the area of the total wall that is clear wall, and the quantity and thermal performance of the various wall system details.

  19. GROWING ALTERNATIVE SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS: BIO-COMPOSITE PRODUCTS FROM NATURAL FIBER, BIODEGRADABLE AND RECYCLABLE POLYMER MATERIALS FOR LOAD-BEARING CONSTRUCTION COMPONENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The project is an integrative educational and research project that will revolutionize design and construction methods towards more sustainable buildings. The project will develop and test new product design concepts using bio-composite materials in load-bearing and fa&cced...

  20. Dynamic remodeling of the plastid envelope membranes – a tool for chloroplast envelope in vivo localizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique KH Breuers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two envelope membranes delimit plastids, the defining organelles of plant cells. The inner and outer envelope membranes are unique in their protein and lipid composition. Several studies have attempted to establish the proteome of these two membranes; however, differentiating between them is difficult due to their close proximity. Here, we describe a novel approach to distinguish the localization of proteins between the two membranes using a straightforward approach based on live cell imaging coupled with transient expression. We base our approach on analyses of the distribution of GFP-fusions, which were aimed to verify outer-envelope-membrane proteomics data. To distinguish between outer envelope and inner envelope protein localization, we used AtTOC64-GFP and AtTIC40-GFP, as respective controls. During our analyses, we observed membrane proliferations and loss of chloroplast shape in conditions of protein overexpression. The morphology of the proliferations varied in correlation with the suborganellar distribution of the overexpressed proteins. In particular, while layers of membranes built up in the inner envelope membrane, the outer envelope formed long extensions into the cytosol. Using electron microscopy, we showed that these extensions were stromules, a dynamic feature of plastids. Since the behavior of the membranes is different and is related to the protein localization, we propose that in vivo studies based on the analysis of morphological differences of the membranes can be used to distinguish between inner and outer envelope localizations of proteins. To demonstrate the applicability of this approach, we demonstrated the localization of AtLACS9 to the outer envelope membrane. We also discuss protein impact on membrane behavior and regulation of protein insertion into membranes, and provide new hypotheses on the formation of stromules.

  1. Multi-component optical solitary waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivshar, Y. S.; Sukhorukov, A. A.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.;

    2000-01-01

    We discuss several novel types of multi-component (temporal and spatial) envelope solitary waves that appear in fiber and waveguide nonlinear optics. In particular, we describe multi-channel solitary waves in bit-parallel-wavelength fiber transmission systems for highperformance computer networks......, multi-color parametric spatial solitary waves due to cascaded nonlinearities of quadratic materials, and quasiperiodic envelope solitons due to quasi-phase-matching in Fibonacci optical superlattices. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Lipid and fatty acid analysis of the Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus (PiGV) envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri-Bhalla, K.; Funk, C. J.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Virus envelope was isolated from Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus, produced in early fourth-instar larvae. Both polar and neutral lipids were analyzed by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Fatty acid composition of various individual neutral and polar lipids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The major components of envelope neutral lipid were diacylglycerols. Palmitic acid and stearic acid were the major saturated fatty acids in both polar and neutral lipids. Whereas palmitoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acids in neutral lipids, oleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid in the polar lipids.

  3. Performance demonstration and evaluation of the synergetic application of vanadium dioxide glazing and phase change material in passive buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • VO2 and PCM were combined in passive building application for the first time. • Synergetic performance of them is demonstrated in a full size room. • Synergetic application has a better performance than the solo ones. • The materials interact with each other in synergetic application. • ESI can be used to evaluate the performance of the synergetic application. - Abstract: One of the key methods to improve the energy saving performance of a building is to apply advanced materials or components to the building envelope. However, the two parts of a building’s envelope, the transparent one and the non-transparent one, are usually investigated individually by existing literature. In this study, vanadium dioxide (VO2) glazing, an advanced energy-efficient element applied to the transparent parts of the building envelope, and phase change material (PCM), a typical thermal storage material used to improve the non-transparent parts of the building envelope, were adopted simultaneously for the first time. The synergetic performance of VO2 glazing and PCM, demonstrated in a full-scale, lightweight, passive room, resulted in a significant improvement in the thermal comfort degree. The Energy Saving Index (ESI) is a simple and effective indicator that can be used to evaluate the passive application performance of a single energy-efficient material or component on a common standpoint. In this work, the index was broadened to evaluate the performance of more than one material, showing that ESI is feasible and favorable to analyze the coefficient application of several building materials and/or components. Using the ESI, the performance of the synergetic application was also compared with those of the sole materials, indicating that the synergetic application has a better performance during the cooling period. Furthermore the synergetic application involves an interplay rather than a simple combination of the energy-efficient materials. The application to

  4. The Story of the Red Envelopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Gordon

    This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English and designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. This booklet describes in narrative form the meaning of the red envelopes given with money gifts at Chinese New Year and other festivities. A page of…

  5. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  6. Tegument Assembly and Secondary Envelopment of Alphaherpesviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle J. Owen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alphaherpesviruses like herpes simplex virus are large DNA viruses characterized by their ability to establish lifelong latent infection in neurons. As for all herpesviruses, alphaherpesvirus virions contain a protein-rich layer called “tegument” that links the DNA-containing capsid to the glycoprotein-studded membrane envelope. Tegument proteins mediate a diverse range of functions during the virus lifecycle, including modulation of the host-cell environment immediately after entry, transport of virus capsids to the nucleus during infection, and wrapping of cytoplasmic capsids with membranes (secondary envelopment during virion assembly. Eleven tegument proteins that are conserved across alphaherpesviruses have been implicated in the formation of the tegument layer or in secondary envelopment. Tegument is assembled via a dense network of interactions between tegument proteins, with the redundancy of these interactions making it challenging to determine the precise function of any specific tegument protein. However, recent studies have made great headway in defining the interactions between tegument proteins, conserved across alphaherpesviruses, which facilitate tegument assembly and secondary envelopment. We summarize these recent advances and review what remains to be learned about the molecular interactions required to assemble mature alphaherpesvirus virions following the release of capsids from infected cell nuclei.

  7. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE: PREVIOUS WORK AND EXAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill; William Charlton; Robert Bean

    2008-07-01

    The future expansion of nuclear power will require not just electricity production but fuel cycle facilities such as fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. As large reprocessing facilities are built in various states, they must be built and operated in a manner to minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation. Process monitoring has returned to the spotlight as an added measure that can increase confidence in the safeguards of special nuclear material (SNM). Process monitoring can be demonstrated to lengthen the allowable inventory period by reducing accountancy requirements, and to reduce the false positive indications. The next logical step is the creation of a Safeguards Envelope, a set of operational parameters and models to maximize anomaly detection and inventory period by process monitoring while minimizing operator impact and false positive rates. A brief example of a rudimentary Safeguards Envelope is presented, and shown to detect synthetic diversions overlaying a measured processing plant data set. This demonstration Safeguards Envelope is shown to increase the confidence that no SNM has been diverted with minimal operator impact, even though it is based on an information sparse environment. While the foundation on which a full Safeguards Envelope can be built has been presented in historical demonstrations of process monitoring, several requirements remain yet unfulfilled. Future work will require reprocessing plant transient models, inclusion of “non-traditional” operating data, and exploration of new methods of identifying subtle events in transient processes.

  8. Discriminating Dysarthria Type from Envelope Modulation Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Julie M.; LeGendre, Sue; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research demonstrated the ability of temporally based rhythm metrics to distinguish among dysarthrias with different prosodic deficit profiles (J. M. Liss et al., 2009). The authors examined whether comparable results could be obtained by an automated analysis of speech envelope modulation spectra (EMS), which quantifies the…

  9. Connecting Structure of Steel Structure Building Component%钢结构建筑构件连接构造技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾立强

    2015-01-01

    钢材作为一种现代化的建筑材料,近年来得到了极大的发展。在钢结构建筑的应用和发展中,钢结构建筑构件连接构造技术占有十分重要的位置。通过对不同方面构件连接构造技术的研究,探讨了各种技术的优缺点和实际应用,以期更好地推动钢结构建筑的发展和进步。%As a kind of modern building materials, steel has been greatly developed in recent years. In the application and development of steel structure building, the connecting structure of steel structure construction technology is very important. Through the research on the construction technology of different aspects, the advantages and disadvantages of various techniques are discussed, and the practical application is discussed in order to promote the development and progress of steel structure building.

  10. Recent advances in the study of active endogenous retrovirus envelope glycoproteins in the mammalian placenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufei; Zhang; Jing; Shi; Shuying; Liu

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses(ERVs) are a component of the vertebrate genome and originate from exogenous infections of retroviruses in the germline of the host. ERVs have coevolved with their hosts over millions of years. Envelope glycoproteins of endogenous retroviruses are often expressed in the mammalian placenta, and their potential function has aroused considerable research interest, including the manipulation of maternal physiology to benefit the fetus. In most mammalian species, trophoblast fusion in the placenta is an important event, involving the formation of a multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast layer to fulfill essential fetomaternal exchange functions. The key function in this process derives from the envelope genes of endogenous retroviruses, namely syncytins, which show fusogenic properties and placenta-specific expression. This review discusses the important role of the recognized endogenous retrovirus envelope glycoproteins in the mammalian placenta.

  11. Weak fault feature extraction of rolling bearing based on cyclic Wiener filter and envelope spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yang; Chen, Jin; Dong, Guangming

    2011-07-01

    In vibration analysis, weak fault feature extraction under strong background noise is of great importance. A method based on cyclic Wiener filter and envelope spectrum analysis is proposed. Cyclic Wiener filter exploits the spectral coherence theory induced by the second-order cyclostationary signal. The original signal is duplicated and shifted in the frequency domain by amounts corresponding to the cyclic frequencies. The noise component is optimally filtered by a filter-bank. The filtered signal is analyzed by performing envelope spectrum. In the envelope spectrum, characteristic frequencies are quite clear. Then the most impactive part is effectively extracted for further fault diagnosis. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on both simulated signal and actual data from rolling bearing accelerated life test.

  12. The internal envelope. A new way to conceive the internal environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Conti; Massimo Rossetti

    2009-01-01

    The article investigates the most recent tendencies in terms of design experimentation and technological innovation concerning the technical elements of the internal envelope, focusing in particular to the mobile and dry-assembled systems as vertical partitions, raised floors and false ceilings, which show the tendency to become a sort of internal “shell”, separated from the structural systems of the building and equipped with all devices finalized to the generation and maintenance of the the...

  13. The universal enveloping TRO of a JB*-triple system

    CERN Document Server

    Bohle, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    We associate to every JB*-triple system a so-called universal enveloping TRO and show some functorial properties of this correspondence. We compute the universal enveloping TROs of the finite dimensional Cartan factors.

  14. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries....

  15. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries,...

  16. Hospitals Productivity Measurement Using Data Envelopment Analysis Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Torabipour

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the hospital productivity using data envelopment analysis (DEA technique and Malmquist indices.This is a cross sectional study in which the panel data were used in a 4 year period from 2007 to 2010. The research was implemented in 12 teaching and non-teaching hospitals of Ahvaz County. Data envelopment analysis technique and the Malmquist indices with an input-orientation approach, was used to analyze the data and estimation of productivity. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.18 and DEAP.2 software.Six hospitals (50% had a value lower than 1, which represents an increase in total productivity and other hospitals were non-productive. the average of total productivity factor (TPF was 1.024 for all hospitals, which represents a decrease in efficiency by 2.4% from 2007 to 2010. The average technical, technologic, scale and managerial efficiency change was 0.989, 1.008, 1.028, and 0.996 respectively. There was not a significant difference in mean productivity changes among teaching and non-teaching hospitals (P>0.05 (except in 2009 years.Productivity rate of hospitals had an increasing trend generally. However, the total average of productivity was decreased in hospitals. Besides, between the several components of total productivity, variation of technological efficiency had the highest impact on reduce of total average of productivity.

  17. Rational design of vaccines against enveloped RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, J R

    1985-03-01

    The enveloped RNA viruses are responsible for many important infectious diseases both in the UK and worldwide. The most familiar of these would probably be influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, rabies, dengue and yellow fever. Conventional vaccines against all of the most widespread diseases have been available for several years, although with widely varying degrees of safety and efficacy. Although vaccines against diseases such as measles, rubella, and yellow fever have been fairly successful, all vaccines against diseases caused by this group of viruses still have several drawbacks and are in need of improvement for a variety of reasons. During the past decade our knowledge in several diverse areas of the biological sciences has expanded to the extent that it can now be combined and serious attempts made to design and engineer biological molecules with immunogenic potential. First, significant advances have been made in elucidating the mechanisms operating in the immune defence network and in determining the structure of both immunogenic molecules and the components of the immune system with which they interact. Second, the development of recombinant DNA technology has enabled biological molecules to be synthesized under conditions not restricted by the characteristics of their parent organism. Such molecules can then be altered in such a way as to improve their efficiency and their level of production. It is the purpose of this paper to outline the problems associated with the production of vaccines against enveloped RNA viruses and to discuss how recent advances in knowledge and techniques can help to overcome these problems. PMID:2408398

  18. Focal Targeting of the Bacterial Envelope by Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi eRashid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are utilized by both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. AMPs such as the human beta defensins, human neutrophil peptides, human cathelicidin, and many bacterial bacteriocins are cationic and capable of binding to anionic regions of the bacterial surface. Cationic AMPs (CAMPs target anionic lipids (e.g. phosphatidylglycerol (PG and cardiolipins (CL in the cell membrane and anionic components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS and lipoteichoic acid (LTA of the cell envelope. Bacteria have evolved mechanisms to modify these same targets in order to resist CAMP killing, e.g. lysinylation of PG to yield cationic lysyl-PG and alanylation of LTA. Since CAMPs offer a promising therapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotics, which are becoming less effective due to rapidly emerging antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to improve our understanding about the AMP mechanism of action. Recent literature suggests that AMPs often interact with the bacterial cell envelope at discrete foci. Here we review recent AMP literature, with an emphasis on focal interactions with bacteria, including (1 CAMP disruption mechanisms, (2 delocalization of membrane proteins and lipids by CAMPs, and (3 CAMP sensing systems and resistance mechanisms. We conclude with new approaches for studying the bacterial membrane, e.g., lipidomics, high resolution imaging and non-detergent-based membrane domain extraction.

  19. Focal Targeting of the Bacterial Envelope by Antimicrobial Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Rafi; Veleba, Mark; Kline, Kimberly A

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are utilized by both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. AMPs such as the human beta defensins, human neutrophil peptides, human cathelicidin, and many bacterial bacteriocins are cationic and capable of binding to anionic regions of the bacterial surface. Cationic AMPs (CAMPs) target anionic lipids [e.g., phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipins (CL)] in the cell membrane and anionic components [e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA)] of the cell envelope. Bacteria have evolved mechanisms to modify these same targets in order to resist CAMP killing, e.g., lysinylation of PG to yield cationic lysyl-PG and alanylation of LTA. Since CAMPs offer a promising therapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotics, which are becoming less effective due to rapidly emerging antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to improve our understanding about the AMP mechanism of action. Recent literature suggests that AMPs often interact with the bacterial cell envelope at discrete foci. Here we review recent AMP literature, with an emphasis on focal interactions with bacteria, including (1) CAMP disruption mechanisms, (2) delocalization of membrane proteins and lipids by CAMPs, and (3) CAMP sensing systems and resistance mechanisms. We conclude with new approaches for studying the bacterial membrane, e.g., lipidomics, high resolution imaging, and non-detergent-based membrane domain extraction. PMID:27376064

  20. Envelope colour on thermal load in hot humid Hong Kong: Effect of hue, value, and chroma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VickyCHENG; EdwardNG

    2003-01-01

    Cooling energy consumption of a building can be significantly reduced by limiting solar heat gain through envelope, in which depends on the intensity of impinging solar radiation and on the colour of external surface. Albedo, from the thermal point of view, is the prime parameter of interest; however, it does appear to be too conceptual in practice. Architects, when considering choices of envelope colour, the actual decision is between various colours: yellow, blue, or green rather than a single numerical albedo. This study is to investigate the effect and magnitude of colour, in terms of visual qualities hue, value (lightness), and chroma (saturation), on thermal load of buildings. In the experiment, air temperatures inside test cells painted into different colours were measured, the results suggest that colour attribute: chroma has negligible effect on thermal performance of building envelope, while value has significant thermal effect. The effect of hue, as shown in this study, was insignificant, however further study might be needed as to obtain a clearer picture of its effect.

  1. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3. Whole-House Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Mullens, M. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), New York, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective envelope designs that can be effectively integrated into the plant production process while meeting the thermal requirements of the 2012 IECC standards. This work is part of a multiphase effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three methods for building high performance walls. Phase 2 focused on developing viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped narrow the research focus to perfecting a stud wall design with exterior continuous insulation (CI). This report describes Phase 3, which was completed in two stages and continued the design development effort, exploring and evaluating a range or methods for applying CI to factory built homes. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing. During this phase, a home was built with CI, evaluated, and placed in service. The experience of building a mock up wall section with CI and then constructing on line a prototype home resolved important concerns about how to integrate the material into the production process. First steps were taken toward finding least expensive approaches for incorporating CI in standard factory building practices and a preliminary assessment suggested that even at this early stage the technology is attractive when viewed from a life cycle cost perspective.

  2. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) privatization contractor samples waste envelope D material 241-C-106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-04-14

    This report represents the Final Analytical Report on Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Contractor Samples for Waste Envelope D. All work was conducted in accordance with ''Addendum 1 of the Letter of Instruction (LOI) for TWRS Privatization Contractor Samples Addressing Waste Envelope D Materials - Revision 0, Revision 1, and Revision 2.'' (Jones 1996, Wiemers 1996a, Wiemers 1996b) Tank 241-C-1 06 (C-106) was selected by TWRS Privatization for the Part 1A Envelope D high-level waste demonstration. Twenty bottles of Tank C-106 material were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company using a grab sampling technique and transferred to the 325 building for processing by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). At the 325 building, the contents of the twenty bottles were combined into a single Initial Composite Material. This composite was subsampled for the laboratory-scale screening test and characterization testing, and the remainder was transferred to the 324 building for bench-scale preparation of the Privatization Contractor samples.

  3. Constant Envelope Precoding for Power-Efficient Downlink Wireless Communication in Multi-User MIMO Systems Using Large Antenna Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammed, Saif Khan

    2011-01-01

    We consider downlink cellular multi-user communication between a base station (BS) having N antennas and M single-antenna users, i.e., an N X M Gaussian Broadcast Channel (GBC). Under an average only total transmit power constraint (APC), large antenna arrays at the BS (having tens to a few hundred antennas) have been recently shown to achieve remarkable multi-user interference (MUI) suppression with simple precoding techniques. However, building large arrays in practice, would require cheap/power-efficient Radio-Frequency(RF) electronic components. The type of transmitted signal that facilitates the use of most power-efficient RF components is a constant envelope (CE) signal. Under certain mild channel conditions (including i.i.d. fading), we analytically show that, even under the stringent per-antenna CE transmission constraint (compared to APC), MUI suppression can still be achieved with large antenna arrays. Our analysis also reveals that, with a fixed M and increasing N, the total transmitted power can b...

  4. Establishing a Program for Behaviorally Disordered Students: Alternatives to Consider, Components to Include, and Strategies for Building Support: Monograph 3. Monograph Series in Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Lanelle

    The types of programs that can be established for behaviorally disordered (BD) students are discussed, along with behavioral monitoring systems and approaches to establishing staff and administrative support for programs. In addition, a checklist of program components for BD students is included. The following program alternatives are described:…

  5. Selecting Nondestructive Methods for Testing Wood Components in Historical Buildings%古建筑木构件现场分类及其无损检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇平; 黎冬青; 李华; 张涛; 刘秀英

    2011-01-01

    The authors introduced the some basics for classifying wood components in historical buildings based on their appearance, characteristics and load-carrying capacity. Nondestructive testing methods, including point drilling, stress wave, and impulse tomography, were then selected accordingly to evaluate their structural performance.%介绍了古建筑勘查中木构件的现场分类,阐述了点探测技术、线探测技术、面探测技术等无损检测技术的特点,及其在古建筑木构件勘查中的应用.

  6. Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This paper considers allocation rules. First, we demonstrate that costs allocated by the Aumann-Shapley and the Friedman-Moulin cost allocation rules are easy to determine in practice using convex envelopment of registered cost data and parametric programming. Second, from the linear programming...... such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...... problems involved it becomes clear that the allocation rules, technically speaking, allocate the non-zero value of the dual variable for a convexity constraint on to the output vector. Hence, the allocation rules can also be used to allocate inefficiencies in non-parametric efficiency measurement models...

  7. Development of High Specific Strength Envelope Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Keiji; Sano, Masa-Aki; Kakuta, Yoshiaki

    Progress in materials technology has produced a much more durable synthetic fabric envelope for the non-rigid airship. Flexible materials are required to form airship envelopes, ballonets, load curtains, gas bags and covering rigid structures. Polybenzoxazole fiber (Zylon) and polyalirate fiber (Vectran) show high specific tensile strength, so that we developed membrane using these high specific tensile strength fibers as a load carrier. The main material developed is a Zylon or Vectran load carrier sealed internally with a polyurethane bonded inner gas retention film (EVOH). The external surface provides weather protecting with, for instance, a titanium oxide integrated polyurethane or Tedlar film. The mechanical test results show that tensile strength 1,000 N/cm is attained with weight less than 230g/m2. In addition to the mechanical properties, temperature dependence of the joint strength and solar absorptivity and emissivity of the surface are measured. 

  8. Task 5. Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems. International guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and grid-connected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W.

    2002-02-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme presents a guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and grid-connected systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and distributed PV power systems. This generic international guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and complete grid-connected photovoltaic systems describes a set of recommended methods and tests that may be used to verify the integrity of hardware and installations, compliance with applicable standards/codes and can be used to provide a measure of the performance of components or of entire systems. The guideline is to help ensure that photovoltaic installations are both safe for equipment as well as for personnel when used according to the applicable installation standards and codes. The guideline may be used in any country using the rules stipulated by the applicable standards and codes and by applying them to the guideline's recommended tests. This document uses examples for some tests but does not specify exact test set-ups, equipment accuracy, equipment manufacturers or calibration procedures.

  9. Nuclear envelope rupture and repair during cancer cell migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denais, Celine M.; Gilbert, Rachel M.; Isermann, Philipp; McGregor, Alexandra L.; te Lindert, Mariska; Weigelin, Bettina; Davidson, Patricia M.; Friedl, Peter; Wolf, Katarina; Lammerding, Jan

    2016-01-01

    During cancer metastasis, tumor cells penetrate tissues through tight interstitial spaces, requiring extensive deformation of the cell and its nucleus. Here, we investigated tumor cell migration in confining microenvironments in vitro and in vivo. Nuclear deformation caused localized loss of nuclear envelope (NE) integrity, which led to the uncontrolled exchange of nucleo-cytoplasmic content, herniation of chromatin across the NE, and DNA damage. The incidence of NE rupture increased with cell confinement and with depletion of nuclear lamins, NE proteins that structurally support the nucleus. Cells restored NE integrity using components of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport-III (ESCRT-III) machinery. Our findings indicate that cell migration incurs substantial physical stress on the NE and its content, requiring efficient NE and DNA damage repair for survival. PMID:27013428

  10. Envelope Soliton in Solar Radio Emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-Yu; Wangde; G. P. Chernov

    2000-01-01

    Several envelope soliton fine structures have been observed in solar radio metric-wave emission. We present amodel of 1ongitudinal modulational instability to explain these fine structures. It is found that this instability canonly occur in the condition of sound velocity being larger than Alfven velocity in corona. Therefore, the envelopesoliton fine structures should display in the coronal region with high temperature and low magnetic field, whichcorresponds to the solar radio emission in the region of meter and decameter wavelength.

  11. Transparent Helium in Stripped Envelope Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S.

    2014-01-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main S...

  12. Digital image envelope: method and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K.; Cao, Fei; Zhou, Michael Z.; Mogel, Greg T.; Liu, Brent J.; Zhou, Xiaoqiang

    2003-05-01

    Health data security, characterized in terms of data privacy, authenticity, and integrity, is a vital issue when digital images and other patient information are transmitted through public networks in telehealth applications such as teleradiology. Mandates for ensuring health data security have been extensively discussed (for example The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, HIPAA) and health informatics guidelines (such as the DICOM standard) are beginning to focus on issues of data continue to be published by organizing bodies in healthcare; however, there has not been a systematic method developed to ensure data security in medical imaging Because data privacy and authenticity are often managed primarily with firewall and password protection, we have focused our research and development on data integrity. We have developed a systematic method of ensuring medical image data integrity across public networks using the concept of the digital envelope. When a medical image is generated regardless of the modality, three processes are performed: the image signature is obtained, the DICOM image header is encrypted, and a digital envelope is formed by combining the signature and the encrypted header. The envelope is encrypted and embedded in the original image. This assures the security of both the image and the patient ID. The embedded image is encrypted again and transmitted across the network. The reverse process is performed at the receiving site. The result is two digital signatures, one from the original image before transmission, and second from the image after transmission. If the signatures are identical, there has been no alteration of the image. This paper concentrates in the method and evaluation of the digital image envelope.

  13. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes and gives example on how Information and Communication, ICT, can and will enhance and support the building functional systems defined from client and end-user needs and requirements. The building systems may be derived from functional requirements on buildings such as usability...... and security on highest level with sub-systems definitions on lever levels. Building functional sub-systems may be defined for user comfort, indoor-climate, evacuation, space configuration, aesthetics, O&M etc. These building systems are supported by Information and Communication Technology, ICT, and building...... with focus on virtual building models support, new services and user environment definitions and development, virtual spaces and augmented reality, intelligent building components, application ontologies, and ICT systems integration to illustrate ICT enhanced buildings potentials and R&D needs.  ...

  14. Impact of a Binary System Common Envelope on Mass Transfer through the Inner Lagrange Point

    CERN Document Server

    Bisikalo, D V; Kuznetsov, O A; Chechetkin, V M

    1997-01-01

    Results of numerical simulations of the impact of a common envelope on the matter flow pattern near the outflowing component in a semidetached binary system are presented. Three-dimensional modeling of the matter transfer gas dynamics in a low-mass X-ray binary X1822-371 enable investigation of the structure of flows in the vicinity of the inner Lagrange point L1. Taking into account the common envelope of the system substantially changes the flow pattern near the Roche surface of the outflowing component. In a stationary regime, accretion of common envelope gas is observed over a significant fraction of the donor star's surface, which inhibits the flow of gas along the Roche surface to L1. The change in the flow pattern is particularly significant near L1, where the stream of common envelope gas strips matter off the stellar surface. This, in turn, significantly increases (by an order of magnitude) the gas flow from the donor surface in comparison with the estimates of standard models.

  15. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  16. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  17. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  18. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; McJeon, Haewon C.; Shui, Bin; Lee, Seung Eon

    2009-04-17

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Korea, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial buildings in Korea.

  19. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  20. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-30

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

  1. Antiviral Activity of Graphene–Silver Nanocomposites against Non-Enveloped and Enveloped Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ning Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of novel antiviral materials is important because many infectious diseases are caused by viruses. Silver nanoparticles have demonstrated strong antiviral activity, and graphene is a potential antimicrobial material due to its large surface area, high carrier mobility, and biocompatibility. No studies on the antiviral activity of nanomaterials on non-enveloped viruses have been reported. To investigate the antiviral activity of graphene oxide (GO sheets and GO sheets with silver particles (GO-Ag against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, feline coronavirus (FCoV with an envelope and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV without an envelope were chosen. The morphology and sizes of GO and GO-Ag were characterized by transmission, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. A virus inhibition assay was used to identify the antiviral activity of GO and GO-Ag. Go-Ag inhibited 25% of infection by FCoV and 23% by IBDV, whereas GO only inhibited 16% of infection by FCoV but showed no antiviral activity against the infection by IBDV. Further application of GO and GO-Ag can be considered for personal protection equipment to decrease the transmission of viruses.

  2. The disappearing envelope around the transitional class I object L43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyamatsu, Shin [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Takakuwa, Shigehisa [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hayashi, Masahiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Mayama, Satoshi [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Ohashi, Nagayoshi, E-mail: shin.koyamatsu@nao.ac.jp [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We present Submillimeter Array interferometric observations of the {sup 12}CO (J = 2-1), {sup 13}CO (J = 2-1), and C{sup 18}O (J = 2-1) lines and 225 GHz continuum emission and Submillimeter Telescope single-dish observations of C{sup 18}O (J = 2-1) toward L43, a protostellar object in transition from Class I to II. The 225 GHz continuum emission shows a weak (∼23.6 mJy), compact (<1000 AU) component associated with the central protostar. Our simulated observations show that it can be explained by dust thermal emission arising from an envelope which has a hole or a constant intensity region within a few hundred AU of the protostar. This suggests the disappearance or a lower concentration distribution of the envelope on a small scale. The {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO emission exhibit molecular outflows to the south and north. The C{sup 18}O emission shows two molecular blobs, which correspond to the reflection nebulosity seen in near-infrared images, while there is no C{sup 18}O emission associated with the protostar. The near-infrared features are likely due to the scattering at the positions of the blobs. The visible scattering features should result from the optical thinness of the envelope material, which is consistent with the less-concentrated distribution in the continuum emission. From single-dish observations, we found that the mass of the envelope (∼1.5 M{sub ☉}) + protostar (∼0.5 M{sub ☉}) is comparable with the virial mass of M{sub vir} = 1.0 M{sub ☉} within 40''. This suggests that the envelope is likely gravitationally bound. We suggest that the protostellar envelope of L43 has been disappearing by consumption through accretion, at least in the close vicinity of the protostar.

  3. Russia’s R&D for Low Energy Buildings: Insights for Cooperation with Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaaf, Rebecca E.; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-05-01

    Russian buildings, Russian buildings sector energy consumption. Russian government has made R&D investment a priority again. The government and private sector both invest in a range of building energy technologies. In particular, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, district heating, building envelope, and lighting have active technology research projects and programs in Russia.

  4. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  5. Whole-Building Hygrothermal Modeling in IEA Annex 41

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Woloszyn, Monika

    2007-01-01

    Annex 41 of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems program (ECBCS) is a cooperative project on “Whole-Building Heat, Air, and Moisture Response” (MOIST-ENG). Subtask 1 of that project set out to advance development in modeling the ntegral heat......, air, and moisture transfer processes that take place in whole-buildings. Such modeling comprises all relevant elements of buildings: indoor air, the building envelope, inside constructions, furnishing, systems, and users. The building elements interact with each other and with the outside climate....... The IEA Annex 41 project runs from 2004–2007, coming to conclusion just before the Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings X conference. The Annex 41 project and its Subtask 1 do not aim to produce one state-of-the-art hygrothermal simulation model for whole buildings, but rather...

  6. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  7. Common envelope ejection in massive binary stars - Implications for the progenitors of GW150914 and GW151226

    CERN Document Server

    Kruckow, M U; Langer, N; Szecsi, D; Marchant, P; Podsiadlowski, Ph

    2016-01-01

    The recently detected gravitational wave signals (GW150914 and GW151226) of the merger event of a pair of relatively massive stellar-mass black holes (BHs) calls for an investigation of the formation of such progenitor systems in general. We analyse the common envelope (CE) stage of the "traditional" formation channel in binaries where the first-formed compact object undergoes an in-spiral inside the envelope of its evolved companion star and ejects the envelope in that process. We calculate envelope binding energies of donor stars with initial masses between 4 and 115 Msun for metallicities of Z=Zsun/2 and Z=Zsun/50, and derive minimum masses of in-spiralling objects needed to eject these envelopes. We find that CE evolution, besides from producing WD-WD and NS-NS binaries, may, in principle, also produce massive BH-BH systems with individual BH component masses up to ~50-60 Msun, in particular for donor stars evolved to giants. However, the physics of envelope ejection of massive stars remains uncertain. We...

  8. Envelope Reconstruction of the 0S2 - free Oscillation of the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Weidner, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The earthquake in December 2004 caused free oscillations of the Earth. Vibrates the earth in the football mode 0S2, splits the natural frequency due to rotation into five closely adjacent individual components. The sum of these spectral components in the frequency band near 309 {\\mu}Hz produces a beat that gives the overall amplitude envelope a characteristic, regular pattern. From the measured envelope the parameters frequency, amplitude, phase and damping of generating sinusoids can be reconstructed. Since the method is extremely sensitive to changes in frequency and phase, these quantities can be determined precisely. The results depend on the geographical location of the site. Further results are the half-life of the amplitude decrease and the resonator Q. It is shown that the interaction of the five individual frequencies can be interpreted as amplitude modulation, which requires a nonlinear process in the Earth's interior.

  9. Building integration of photovoltaic systems in cold climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Candanedo, José A.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents some of the research activities on building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems developed by the Solar and Daylighting Laboratory at Concordia University. BIPV systems offer considerable advantages as compared to stand-alone PV installations. For example, BIPV systems can play a role as essential components of the building envelope. BIPV systems operate as distributed power generators using the most widely available renewable source. Since BIPV systems do not require additional space, they are especially appropriate for urban environments. BIPV/Thermal (BIPV/T) systems may use exterior air to extract useful heat from the PV panels, cooling them and thereby improving their electric performance. The recovered thermal energy can then be used for space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) heating, supporting the utilization of BIVP/T as an appropriate technology for cold climates. BIPV and BIPV/T systems are the subject of several ongoing research and demonstration projects (in both residential and commercial buildings) led by Concordia University. The concept of integrated building design and operation is at the centre of these efforts: BIPV and BIPV/T systems must be treated as part of a comprehensive strategy taking into account energy conservation measures, passive solar design, efficient lighting and HVAC systems, and integration of other renewable energy systems (solar thermal, heat pumps, etc.). Concordia Solar Laboratory performs fundamental research on heat transfer and modeling of BIPV/T systems, numerical and experimental investigations on BIPV and BIPV/T in building energy systems and non-conventional applications (building-attached greenhouses), and the design and optimization of buildings and communities.

  10. Enveloping algebras of some quantum Lie algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Pourkia, Arash

    2014-01-01

    We define a family of Hopf algebra objects, $H$, in the braided category of $\\mathbb{Z}_n$-modules (known as anyonic vector spaces), for which the property $\\psi^2_{H\\otimes H}=id_{H\\otimes H}$ holds. We will show that these anyonic Hopf algebras are, in fact, the enveloping (Hopf) algebras of particular quantum Lie algebras, also with the property $\\psi^2=id$. Then we compute the braided periodic Hopf cyclic cohomology of these Hopf algebras. For that, we will show the following fact: analog...

  11. Computer Language Effciency via Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ellero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the computer language to adopt is usually driven by intuition and expertise, since it is very diffcult to compare languages taking into account all their characteristics. In this paper, we analyze the effciency of programming languages through Data Envelopment Analysis. We collected the input data from The Computer Language Benchmarks Game: we consider a large set of languages in terms of computational time, memory usage, and source code size. Various benchmark problems are tackled. We analyze the results first of all considering programming languages individually. Then, we evaluate families of them sharing some characteristics, for example, being compiled or interpreted.

  12. Evaluation on energy and thermal performance for residential envelopes in hot summer and cold winter zone of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of rapid economic growth in the last several decades, energy issue is becoming more and more important in today's world because of a possible energy shortage in the future; the usage of residential electricity has increased rapidly in China and building energy efficiency is included as one of the 10 key programs targeting energy efficiency improvement in the 11th Five-Year Plan. In response to the growing concerns about energy conservation in residential buildings and its implications for the environment, systematic evaluation on energy and thermal Performance for residential envelops (EETP) is put forward to assess the energy efficiency of envelop designs and to calculate the energy consumption of cooling and heating systems. Hot summer and cold winter zone of China was selected for EETP analysis because of its rigorous climatic and huge energy consumption. The correlations between EETPs and electricity consumptions in cooling season, heating season, and the whole year were built in Shanghai, Changsha, Shaoguan and Chengdu, which represent A, B, C and D subzone of hot summer and cold winter zone in China, respectively. Illustrations indicate that the algorithm is simple and effective, energy and thermal performance of residential envelopes can be evaluated easily. The maximum allowable values of EETPs were determined when just meeting the compulsory indices of Standard JGJ134-2001, the corresponding allowable EETPs were also gained when achieving different energy-saving degrees on basis of it. EETP method can suggest possible ways to improve the energy efficiency for envelope designs of new building and retrofits of existing buildings and provide governments some useful information for the establishment of new policy on energy efficiency buildings. It has important meanings to carry out sustainable residential building designs with high thermal comfort and low energy consumption.

  13. Status and prospects of building energy efficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONGWeiding; ZHOUHui

    2003-01-01

    The paper briefly describes situation of building energy consumption in China. The authors indicate some relations in building energy efficiency should be dealt with properly: energy saving and energy efficiency, envelopes and building services systems, energy use and indoor environment, electric power saving and energy saving, devices and system, energy efficiency at stable state and at dynamic state. The authors suggest to use Coefficient of Energy Consumption as a Indicator of building energy efficiency.

  14. Free-form architectural envelopes: Digital processes opportunities of industrial production at a reasonable price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castaneda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-form architecture is one of the major challenges for architects, engineers, and the building industry. This is due to the inherent difficulty of manufacturing double curvature facades at reasonable prices and quality. This paper discusses the possibilities of manufacturing free-form facade panels for architectural envelopes supported by recent advances in CAD/CAM systems and digital processes. These methods allow for no-mould processes, thus reducing the final price. Examples of actual constructions will be presented to prove the viability of computer numerically controlled (CNC fabrication technologies. Scientific literature will be reviewed. Promising fabrication methods (additive, subtractive, forming to accomplish this proposal will be discussed. This research will provide valuable information regarding the feasibility of manufacturing free-form panels for architectural envelopes at lower prices.  

  15. Effects of lyophilization on the infectivity of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenhaut, Christine; Dörner, Thomas; Pauli, Georg; Pruss, Axel

    2005-11-01

    Recently reported qualitative experiments proved that retroviral infectivity is not destroyed by lyophilization performed on systemically infected bone and tendon. The now accomplished quantitative determination of residual infectivity for enveloped and non-enveloped viruses allows a validation of the production process regarding viral safety in freeze-dried bone transplants. The lyophilization effect on the infectivity of two non-enveloped viruses (Maus Elberfeld virus, MEV; Porcine parvovirus, PPV) and one enveloped virus (Vesicular Stomatitis virus, VSV) was examined for virus-spiked bone material in comparison to lyophilized viruses, original virus stock, and air-dried viruses. All experiments were carried out with both cell-free and cell-associated virus. Significant differences were observed regarding the reduction of virus titers (TCID50). Infectivity of VSV was reduced by about 3-4 log10 using lyophilization in presence of bone matrix and of MEV by 6-7 log10, while no substantial reduction in virus titers was observed for PPV. Lyophilization of cell-free or cell-associated virus is not sufficient to inactivate viruses completely. However, lyophilization could have an additive effect in line with other production steps used in the manufacturing process.

  16. Functional organization of the HIV lipid envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarte, Nerea; Carravilla, Pablo; Cruz, Antonio; Lorizate, Maier; Nieto-Garai, Jon A.; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Requejo-Isidro, Jose; Nieva, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) membrane is critical for fusion and entry into target cells, suggesting that preservation of a functional lipid bilayer organization may be required for efficient infection. HIV-1 acquires its envelope from the host cell plasma membrane at sites enriched in raft-type lipids. Furthermore, infectious particles display aminophospholipids on their surface, indicative of dissipation of the inter-leaflet lipid asymmetry metabolically generated at cellular membranes. By combining two-photon excited Laurdan fluorescence imaging and atomic force microscopy, we have obtained unprecedented insights into the phase state of membranes reconstituted from viral lipids (i.e., extracted from infectious HIV-1 particles), established the role played by the different specimens in the mixtures, and characterized the effects of membrane-active virucidal agents on membrane organization. In determining the molecular basis underlying lipid packing and lateral heterogeneity of the HIV-1 membrane, our results may help develop compounds with antiviral activity acting by perturbing the functional organization of the lipid envelope. PMID:27678107

  17. TRANSPARENT HELIUM IN STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms

  18. Transparent Helium in Stripped Envelope Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Piro, Anthony L

    2014-01-01

    The light curves and velocity evolution of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) provide important clues to help constrain their progenitors. This may be especially important for stripped envelope SNe (Type Ib, Ic, and IIb), which have been elusive in providing direct connections with the massive stars that give rise to these explosions. Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves, we propose that many of these stripped envelope SNe show evidence that a significant fraction their helium is effectively transparent during the majority of their light curve evolution. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to constrain from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will help le...

  19. Enveloping actions and Takai duality for partial actions

    OpenAIRE

    Abadie, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    We show that any continuous partial action on a topological space has a unique enveloping action, i.e. it is the restriction of a global action. In the case of C^*-algebras we prove that any partial action has an enveloping action up to Morita equivalence. The study of enveloping actions up to Morita equivalence reveals the form that Takai duality takes for partial actions.

  20. BUILDING SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN: A RENOVATION PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan ÜNALAN,; Tokman, Leyla Y.

    2011-01-01

    Today, the conservation of energy and respect for the natural environment appears to be the most important phenomena in all areas. In this regard, "sustainability" concept emerged and the architectural platform "Sustainable Architecture" is composed of a research subject to the new and permanent. Architecture underlying the "design" as including also the new concept of "sustainable architectural design" has revealed that field. Sustainable architecture "building in-house", "building envelop...

  1. Multislice behavioral modeling based on envelope domain for power amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Huadong; Bao Jingfu; Wu Zhengde

    2009-01-01

    An envelope domain multislice behavioral modeling is introduced. The tradition AM-AM and AM-PM characteristics of power amplifiers are extended to envelope domain and base-band filter is applied to distortion complex envelope signal for description of the envelope memory effect. Using traditional one and two-tone tests, the coefficients of nonlinear model and the FIR filter can be extracted. At last the model has been applied to a 10 W WCDMA power amplifier to predict its output signal. And simulation results show that the model output conforms very well to the traditional transistor level simulation results.

  2. Semiparametric Power Envelopes for Tests of the Unit Root Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael

    This paper derives asymptotic power envelopes for tests of the unit root hypothesis in a zero-mean AR(1) model. The power envelopes are derived using the limits of experiments approach and are semiparametric in the sense that the underlying error distribution is treated as an unknown infinitedime......This paper derives asymptotic power envelopes for tests of the unit root hypothesis in a zero-mean AR(1) model. The power envelopes are derived using the limits of experiments approach and are semiparametric in the sense that the underlying error distribution is treated as an unknown...

  3. Electrical engineering. High and very high voltage substations. Metal envelope insulated substations; Genie electrique. Postes a haute et tres haute tensions. Poste sous enveloppe metallique (PSEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taillebois, J.P. [Centre National d' Expertise Reseaux du Gestionnaire du Reseau de Transport d' Electricite (France)

    2001-02-01

    Metal envelope substations with pressurized sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) allow to considerably reduce the insulation distances between the different components of high and very-high voltage substations (phases, ground, switches and circuit breakers), thus leading to compact power systems with reduced dimensions. This article presents the technical characteristics of metal envelope substations: design parameters and dimensioning, specific constraints, safety, technological solutions, characteristic values, diagnosis and monitoring methods, use of metal envelope substations in power distribution systems, perspectives of evolution. (J.S.)

  4. Simulation Tests in Whole Building Heat and Moisture Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Woloszyn, Monika

    2006-01-01

    An important part of the International Energy Agency project, ECBCS, Annex 41 is about modelling the integral heat, air and moisture transfer processes that take place in “whole buildings”. Such modelling deals with all most relevant elements of buildings: The indoor air, the building envelope...

  5. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Thermal and Hygrometric Characteristics of Building Structures Employing Recycled Plastic Aggregates and Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Colangelo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The correct estimation of building energy consumptions is assuming an always increasing importance, and a detailed reproduction of building structures, with all the single components involved, is necessary to achieve this aim. In addition, the current ecological development tries to limit the use of natural raw materials as building components, in favor of alternative (waste materials, which ensure significant advantages from the economic, energetic and environmental point of views. In this work, dynamic heat and vapor transport in a typical three-dimensional (3D building structure, involving different types of environmental-friendly concrete mixtures, have been simulated by using finite elements. In particular, the authors propose to substitute part of the aggregates with plastic waste and to use a fly ash based geopolymeric binder for the production of low conductivity concrete, to be employed in eco-efficient buildings. Concrete produced with natural limestone aggregates has been considered as the reference benchmark. The whole characterization of the different types of concrete tested in the present work has been obtained through laboratory experiments. The structure taken into account in the simulations is a 3D thermal bridge, typical of building envelopes. The thermal and hygrometric transient behavior of this structure, employing plastic waste in different percentages and geopolymer concrete, has been analyzed by the authors.

  6. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U{sub o}-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for ``group R`` residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  7. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials' (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U[sub o]-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for group R'' residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  8. Dynamic Component Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efim Grinkrug

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to dynamic component composition that facilitates creating new composed components using existing ones at runtime and without any code generation. The dynamic abilities are supported by extended type notion and implementation based on additional superstructure provided with its Java API and corresponding JavaBeans components. The new component composition is performed by building the composed prototype object that can be dynamically transformed into the new instantiable type (component. That approach demonstrates interrelations between prototype-based and class-based component-oriented programming. The component model proposed can be used when implementing user-defined types in declarative languages for event-driven applications programming.

  9. Enveloping branes and brane-world singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Klaoudatou, Ifigeneia

    2014-01-01

    The existence of envelopes is studied for systems of differential equations in connection with the method of asymptotic splittings which allows to determine the singularity structure of the solutions. The result is applied to braneworlds consisting of a 3-brane in a five-dimensional bulk, in the presence of an analog of a bulk perfect fluid parametrizing a generic class of bulk matter. We find that all flat brane solutions suffer from a finite distance singularity contrary to previous claims. We then study the possibility of avoiding finite distance singularities by cutting the bulk and gluing regular solutions at the position of the brane. Further imposing physical conditions such as finite Planck mass on the brane and positive energy conditions on the bulk fluid, excludes however this possibility, as well.

  10. Antireflection Pyrex envelopes for parabolic solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollister, H. L.; Pettit, R. B.

    1983-11-01

    Antireflective (AR) coatings, applied to the glass envelopes used in parabolic trough solar collectors around the receiver tube in order to reduce thermal losses, can increase solar transmittance by 7 percent. An AR surface has been formed on Pyrex by first heat treating the glass to cause a compositional phase separation, removing a surface layer after heat treatment through the use of a preetching solution, and finally etching in a solution that contains hydrofluorosilic and ammonium bifluoride acids. AR-coated samples with solar transmittance values of more than 0.97, by comparison to an untreated sample value of 0.91, have been obtained for the 560-630 C range of heat treatment temperatures. Optimum values have also been determined for the other processing parameters.

  11. Enveloping branes and brane-world singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros [CERN-Theory Division, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Klaoudatou, Ifigeneia [University of the Aegean, Research Group of Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Cosmology, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, Samos (Greece)

    2014-12-01

    The existence of envelopes is studied for systems of differential equations in connection with the method of asymptotic splittings which allows one to determine the singularity structure of the solutions. The result is applied to brane-worlds consisting of a 3-brane in a five-dimensional bulk, in the presence of an analog of a bulk perfect fluid parameterizing a generic class of bulk matter. We find that all flat brane solutions suffer from a finite-distance singularity contrary to previous claims. We then study the possibility of avoiding finite-distance singularities by cutting the bulk and gluing regular solutions at the position of the brane. Further imposing physical conditions such as finite Planck mass on the brane and positive energy conditions on the bulk fluid, excludes, however, this possibility as well. (orig.)

  12. The circumstellar envelope of AFGL 4106

    CERN Document Server

    Van Loon, J T; Van Winckel, H; Waters, L B F M; Loon, Jacco Th. van; Winckel, Hans van

    1999-01-01

    We present new imaging and spectroscopy of the post-red supergiant binary AFGL 4106. Coronographic imaging in H-alpha reveals the shape and extent of the ionized region in the circumstellar envelope (CSE). Echelle spectroscopy with the slit covering almost the entire extent of the CSE is used to derive the physical conditions in the ionized region and the optical depth of the dust contained within the CSE. The dust shell around AFGL 4106 is clumpy and mixed with ionized gas. H-alpha and [N II] emission is brightest from a thin bow-shaped layer just outside of the detached dust shell. On-going mass loss is traced by [Ca II] emission and blue-shifted absorption in lines of low-ionization species. A simple model is used to interpret the spatial distribution of the circumstellar extinction and the dust emission in a consistent way.

  13. Performance measurement with fuzzy data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavana, Madjid

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of global competition and ever-increasing economic uncertainties has led organizations to search for more efficient and effective ways to manage their business operations.  Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been widely used as a conceptually simple yet powerful tool for evaluating organizational productivity and performance. Fuzzy DEA (FDEA) is a promising extension of the conventional DEA proposed for dealing with imprecise and ambiguous data in performance measurement problems. This book is the first volume in the literature to present the state-of-the-art developments and applications of FDEA. It is designed for students, educators, researchers, consultants and practicing managers in business, industry, and government with a basic understanding of the DEA and fuzzy logic concepts.

  14. Data envelopment analysis of randomized ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sant'Anna Annibal P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Probabilities and odds, derived from vectors of ranks, are here compared as measures of efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs. These measures are computed with the goal of providing preliminary information before starting a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA or the application of any other evaluation or composition of preferences methodology. Preferences, quality and productivity evaluations are usually measured with errors or subject to influence of other random disturbances. Reducing evaluations to ranks and treating the ranks as estimates of location parameters of random variables, we are able to compute the probability of each DMU being classified as the best according to the consumption of each input and the production of each output. Employing the probabilities of being the best as efficiency measures, we stretch distances between the most efficient units. We combine these partial probabilities in a global efficiency score determined in terms of proximity to the efficiency frontier.

  15. Furin is involved in baculovirus envelope fusion protein activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, M.; Wang, H.; IJkel, W.F.J.; Goldbach, R.W.; Vlak, J.M.; Zuidema, D.

    2002-01-01

    The Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) Se8 gene was recently shown to encode the viral envelope fusion (F) protein. A 60-kDa C-terminal subunit (F1) of the 76-kDa primary translation product of this gene was found to be the major envelope protein of SeMNPV budded virus (BV)

  16. RELAXATION OF FUNCTIONALS INVOLVING HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTIONS AND INVARIANCE OF ENVELOPES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The authors compute the quasiconvex envelope of certain functions defined on the space Mmn of real m× n matrices via a homogeneous function on Mmn. They also deduce invariance properties for various convex envelopes from corresponding invariance properties satisfied by a function. Some applications related in particular to nonlinear elasticity are given.

  17. Neural representation in the auditory midbrain of the envelope of vocalizations based on a peripheral ear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo eRode

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The auditory midbrain implant (AMI consists of a single shank array (20 sites for stimulation along the tonotopic axis of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC and has been safely implanted in deaf patients who cannot benefit from a cochlear implant (CI. The AMI improves lip-reading abilities and environmental awareness in the implanted patients. However, the AMI cannot achieve the high levels of speech perception possible with the CI. It appears the AMI can transmit sufficient spectral cues but with limited temporal cues required for speech understanding. Currently, the AMI uses a CI-based strategy, which was originally designed to stimulate each frequency region along the cochlea with amplitude-modulated pulse trains matching the envelope of the bandpass-filtered sound components. However, it is unclear if this type of stimulation with only a single site within each frequency lamina of the ICC can elicit sufficient temporal cues for speech perception. At least speech understanding in quiet is still possible with envelope cues as low as 50 Hz. Therefore, we investigated how ICC neurons follow the bandpass-filtered envelope structure of natural stimuli in ketamine-anesthetized guinea pigs. We identified a subset of ICC neurons that could closely follow the envelope structure (up to ~100 Hz of a diverse set of species-specific calls, which was revealed by using a peripheral ear model to estimate the true bandpass-filtered envelopes observed by the brain. Although previous studies have suggested a complex neural transformation from the auditory nerve to the ICC, our data suggest that the brain maintains a robust temporal code in a subset of ICC neurons matching the envelope structure of natural stimuli. Clinically, these findings suggest that a CI-based strategy may still be effective for the AMI if the appropriate neurons are entrained to the envelope of the acoustic stimulus and can transmit sufficient temporal cues to higher

  18. Modeling the physical and excitation conditions of the molecular envelope of NGC 7027

    CERN Document Server

    Santander-García, M; Alcolea, J

    2012-01-01

    The link between the shaping of bipolar planetary nebulae and the mass ejection activity of their central stars is still poorly understood. Appropriately characterizing the evolution of the shells ejected during the late stages of evolution is vital to gain insight into the mechanism of nebular shaping. Herschel/HIFI provides an invaluable tool by opening a new window from which to probe warm molecular gas (~50-1000 K). We present a radiative-transfer, spatio-kinematic modeling of the molecular envelope of the young planetary nebula NGC 7027 in high- and low-J 12CO and 13CO transitions observed by Herschel/HIFI and IRAM 30-m, and discuss the structure and dynamics of the molecular envelope. We have developed a code which, used along with the existing SHAPE software, implements spatio-kinematic modeling with accurate non-LTE calculations of line excitation and radiative transfer in molecular species. We have used this code to build a relatively simple "russian doll" model of the molecular envelope of NGC 7027....

  19. A Fault Diagnosis Approach for Broken Rotor Bars Based on EMD and Envelope Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-wen; ZHU Ning-hui; YANG Li; YAO Qi; LU Qing

    2007-01-01

    Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) used to deal with non-linear and non-stable signals, is a time-frequency analytical method that has been developed recently. In this paper the EMD method is used to filter the noise from the stator current signal that arises when rotor bars break. Then a Hilbert Transform is used to extract the envelope from the filtered signal. With the EMD method again, the frequency band containing the fault characteristic-frequency components, 2sf, can be extracted from the signal's envelope. The last step is to use a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method to extract the fault characteristic frequency. This frequency can be detected in actual data from a faulty motor, as shown by example. Compared to the Extend Park Vector method this method is proved to be more sensitive under light motor load.

  20. The Rolling Bearing Fault Feature Extraction Based on the LMD and Envelope Demodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the working process of rolling bearings is a complex and nonstationary dynamic process, the common time and frequency characteristics of vibration signals are submerged in the noise. Thus, it is the key of fault diagnosis to extract the fault feature from vibration signal. Therefore, a fault feature extraction method for the rolling bearing based on the local mean decomposition (LMD and envelope demodulation is proposed. Firstly, decompose the original vibration signal by LMD to get a series of production functions (PFs. Then dispose the envelope demodulation analysis on PF component. Finally, perform Fourier Transform on the demodulation signals and judge failure condition according to the dominant frequency of the spectrum. The results show that the proposed method can correctly extract the fault characteristics to diagnose faults.

  1. The Problem and Needs of Existing Urban Multifamily Building Estates in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Adam; Rybka, Sławomir

    2012-06-01

    The present paper explains in a descriptive way the findings and derivations, concerning the various needs, solutions and priorities which are identified in existing urban building envelopes of Poland, especially in Rzeszow housing estates.

  2. 个性化构件建模在建筑结构识图教学中的应用%Application of Personalized Component Modeling in the Building Structure Knowledge Map Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞锡钢

    2015-01-01

    Read construction drawings architectural engineering students must possess core competencies. Reinforced con-crete building is covered by a node surface decoration, difficult for students to understand the node configuration. From se-curity considerations, the project is difficult to accept a large number of students to visit to get perceptions. School training in addition to a large operation area, the large amount of material cost is high. Vocational colleges knowledge map structures to carry out school-enterprise cooperation, combining learning with great difficulty. In the concrete structure diagram teach-ing knowledge, build "project component-based, drawing whiteboard, modeling personalized, assessment process"of the four modernizations teaching model will improve the effectiveness of classroom teaching.%识读施工图是建筑工程类专业学生必须具备的核心能力。建筑的钢筋混凝土节点被表面装饰装修所覆盖,学生很难理解节点构造。从安全等因素考虑,项目部很难接纳大量学生参观获得感性认识。校内实训除了需要庞大的操作场地外,材料用量大成本高。高职院校的建筑结构识图开展校企合作,工学结合有很大困难。在混凝土结构识图教学中,构建“项目构件化,绘图白板化,建模个性化,考核过程化”的四化教学模式将有利于提高课堂教学成效。

  3. Envelope enhancement increases cortical sensitivity to interaural envelope delays with acoustic and electric hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas E H Hartley

    Full Text Available Evidence from human psychophysical and animal electrophysiological studies suggests that sensitivity to interaural time delay (ITD in the modulating envelope of a high-frequency carrier can be enhanced using half-wave rectified stimuli. Recent evidence has shown potential benefits of equivalent electrical stimuli to deaf individuals with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs. In the current study we assessed the effects of envelope shape on ITD sensitivity in the primary auditory cortex of normal-hearing ferrets, and profoundly-deaf animals with bilateral CIs. In normal-hearing animals, cortical sensitivity to ITDs (±1 ms in 0.1-ms steps was assessed in response to dichotically-presented i sinusoidal amplitude-modulated (SAM and ii half-wave rectified (HWR tones (100-ms duration; 70 dB SPL presented at the best-frequency of the unit over a range of modulation frequencies. In separate experiments, adult ferrets were deafened with neomycin administration and bilaterally-implanted with intra-cochlear electrode arrays. Electrically-evoked auditory brainstem responses (EABRs were recorded in response to bipolar electrical stimulation of the apical pair of electrodes with singe biphasic current pulses (40 µs per phase over a range of current levels to measure hearing thresholds. Subsequently, we recorded cortical sensitivity to ITDs (±800 µs in 80-µs steps within the envelope of SAM and HWR biphasic-pulse trains (40 µs per phase; 6000 pulses per second, 100-ms duration over a range of modulation frequencies. In normal-hearing animals, nearly a third of cortical neurons were sensitive to envelope-ITDs in response to SAM tones. In deaf animals with bilateral CI, the proportion of ITD-sensitive cortical neurons was approximately a fifth in response to SAM pulse trains. In normal-hearing and deaf animals with bilateral CI the proportion of ITD sensitive units and neural sensitivity to ITDs increased in response to HWR, compared with SAM stimuli

  4. Building the perfect PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This popular Build-It-Yourself (BIY) PC book covers everything you want to know about building your own system: Planning and picking out the right components, step-by-step instructions for assembling your perfect PC, and an insightful discussion of why you'd want to do it in the first place. Most big brand computers from HP, Dell and others use lower-quality components so they can meet their aggressive pricing targets. But component manufacturers also make high-quality parts that you can either purchase directly, or obtain through distributors and resellers. Consumers and corporations

  5. Moisture effect on thermal conductivity of some major elements of a typical Libyan house envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Bashir M.

    2006-02-01

    The thermal conductivity and the assessment of moisture effect on building materials are essential for the calculation of the thermal loads on houses. Building materials such as simple units e.g. bricks, tiles, cement plasters, mortar and ground soils are investigated in this work. In the eastern coastal province of Libya, old buildings have thick walls (more than 50 cm thick made of mixed clay and stones) and consequently have good capacitive insulation. On the other hand, the relatively new houses have thin walls and need the addition of insulating materials. Unfortunately, these new houses were constructed without having enough technical data on the thermal properties of building materials and thermal loads were not considered. This leads to uncomfortable living conditions during hot and humid summers and cold and wet winters. This article reports the thermal conductivity values of three types of locally produced building materials used in the construction of a typical Libyan house envelope and gives suggestions to improve the thermal performance of such envelopes. The transient plane source technique (TPS) is used to measure the thermal conductivity of these materials at an average room temperature of 25 °C. The TPS technique uses a resistive heater pattern (TPS element) that is cut from a thin sheet of metal and covered on both sides with thin layers of an insulating material. The TPS element/sensor is used both as a heat source and as a temperature sensor. This technique has the dual advantage of short measuring time and low temperature rise (around 1 K) across the sample. This will prevent a non-uniform moisture distribution that may arise when the temperature difference across the wet samples is maintained for a long time. In addition, the flat thin shape of the TPS element substantially reduces the contact resistance between the sample and the sensor. More details about the TPS technique are included.

  6. Moisture effect on thermal conductivity of some major elements of a typical Libyan house envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal conductivity and the assessment of moisture effect on building materials are essential for the calculation of the thermal loads on houses. Building materials such as simple units e.g. bricks, tiles, cement plasters, mortar and ground soils are investigated in this work. In the eastern coastal province of Libya, old buildings have thick walls (more than 50 cm thick made of mixed clay and stones) and consequently have good capacitive insulation. On the other hand, the relatively new houses have thin walls and need the addition of insulating materials. Unfortunately, these new houses were constructed without having enough technical data on the thermal properties of building materials and thermal loads were not considered. This leads to uncomfortable living conditions during hot and humid summers and cold and wet winters. This article reports the thermal conductivity values of three types of locally produced building materials used in the construction of a typical Libyan house envelope and gives suggestions to improve the thermal performance of such envelopes. The transient plane source technique (TPS) is used to measure the thermal conductivity of these materials at an average room temperature of 25 deg. C. The TPS technique uses a resistive heater pattern (TPS element) that is cut from a thin sheet of metal and covered on both sides with thin layers of an insulating material. The TPS element/sensor is used both as a heat source and as a temperature sensor. This technique has the dual advantage of short measuring time and low temperature rise (around 1 K) across the sample. This will prevent a non-uniform moisture distribution that may arise when the temperature difference across the wet samples is maintained for a long time. In addition, the flat thin shape of the TPS element substantially reduces the contact resistance between the sample and the sensor. More details about the TPS technique are included

  7. Comparison of envelope detection techniques in coherence scanning interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianto, G; Salzenstein, F; Montgomery, P

    2016-08-20

    The aim of this work is to make a comparison of the most current signal processing techniques used to analyze the fringe signal in coherence scanning interferometry (CSI), a major technique for optical surface roughness measurements. We focus here on classical AM-FM signal-processing algorithms such as the Hilbert transform (HT), the five-sample adaptive (FSA), and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). We have recently also introduced a new family of compact and robust algorithms using the Teager-Kaiser energy operator (TKEO). We propose an improved version of TKEO using a combination of different techniques of pre-filtering and demodulation processing to remove the noise and offset component and to retrieve the fringe envelope to either determine the surface height information or to separate adjacent transparent layers. In particular, as a pre-filtering approach, we have focused on empirical mode decomposition in combination with the Savitzky-Golay filter. An added Gaussian post-filtering is helpful for a precise peak extraction. The experimental results show that TKEO performs better than CWT in terms of computation time and provides a better surface extraction than HT and FSA. Results have been obtained on synthetic and real data taken from a layer of resin on a silicon substrate. PMID:27557001

  8. Office Building, Roskilde, Denmark. Parkvænget 25, 4000 Roskilde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    Built in 1968 the office building was a typical precast concrete building with a very limited level of insulation. In 1991 the building envelope was renovated and insulation was added to the wall (175 mm) and windows were replaced with traditional double-glazed windows. The main objective...

  9. Building thermography as a tool in energy audits and building commissioning procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Timo

    2007-04-01

    A Building Commissioning-project (ToVa) was launched in Finland in the year 2003. A comprehensive commissioning procedure, including the building process and operation stage was developed in the project. This procedure will confirm the precise documentation of client's goals, definition of planning goals and the performance of the building. It is rather usual, that within 1-2 years after introduction the users complain about the defects or performance malfunctions of the building. Thermography is one important manual tool in verifying the thermal performance of the building envelope. In this paper the results of one pilot building (a school) will be presented. In surveying the condition and energy efficiency of buildings, various auxiliary means are needed. We can compare the consumption data of the target building with other, same type of buildings by benchmarking. Energy audit helps to localize and determine the energy saving potential. The most general and also most effective auxiliary means in monitoring the thermal performance of building envelopes is an infrared camera. In this presentation some examples of the use of thermography in energy audits are presented.

  10. Evaluation of fault-normal/fault-parallel directions rotated ground motions for response history analysis of an instrumented six-story building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2012-01-01

    According to regulatory building codes in United States (for example, 2010 California Building Code), at least two horizontal ground-motion components are required for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of buildings. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHA analyses should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with the transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here using a 3D computer model of a six-story reinforced-concrete instrumented building subjected to an ensemble of bidirectional near-fault ground motions. Peak responses of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were obtained for rotation angles ranging from 0° through 180° for evaluating the FN/FP directions. It is demonstrated that rotating ground motions to FN/FP directions (1) does not always lead to the maximum responses over all angles, (2) does not always envelope the range of possible responses, and (3) does not provide maximum responses for all EDPs simultaneously even if it provides a maximum response for a specific EDP.

  11. Geometric and Kinematic Structure of the Outflow/Envelope System of L1527 Revealed by Subarcsecond-resolution Observation of CS

    CERN Document Server

    Oya, Yoko; Lefloch, Bertrand; López-Sepulvre, Ana; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Subarcsecond-resolution images of the rotational line emissions of CS and c-C$_3$H$_2$ obtained toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 04368$+$2557 in L1527 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array are investigated to constrain the orientation of the outflow/envelope system. The distribution of CS consists of an envelope component extending from north to south and a faint butterfly-shaped outflow component. The kinematic structure of the envelope is well reproduced by a simple ballistic model of an infalling rotating envelope. Although the envelope has a nearly edge-on configuration, the inclination angle of the rotation axis from the plane of the sky is found to be 5$^\\circ$, where we find that the western side of the envelope faces the observer. This configuration is opposite to the direction of the large-scale ($\\sim$ 10$^4$ AU) outflow suggested previously from the $^{12}$CO ($J$=3$-$2) observation, and to the morphology of infrared reflection near the protostar ($\\sim$ 200 AU). The latter discre...

  12. Impact of Air Tightness on the Evaluation of Building Energy Performance in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Šadauskienė; Valdas Paukštys; Lina Šeduikytė; Karolis Banionis

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfil the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requirements for the reduction of energy consumption, European national requirements have been created for building envelope thermal properties and calculation methodology to determine if building energy efficiency is created. This is however not true in all methodologies. The necessity of building air tightness appears only for new A class buildings, and there are no requirements for air tightness for other buil...

  13. APPLICATION OF DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS IN THE ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF BUILDINGS

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGICEVIC SNEZANA M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most commonly used methods for improving energy performances of buildings is reducing heating energy consumption. This paper shows a comparative analysis of building energy demand for space heating based on case studies in which building modifications were made with insulating materials of building envelopes and with different window types. For the analysis, a public building with 6 floors, located in Belgrade, was selected. For a dynamical simulation and evaluation of the applied ...

  14. Laboratory tests of short intense envelope solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slunyaev, A.; Clauss, G. F.; Klein, M.; Onorato, M.

    2012-04-01

    Stability of short intense nonlinear wave groups propagating over deep water is tested in laboratory runs which are performed in the facility of the Technical University of Berlin. The strongly nonlinear simulation of quasi-steady nonlinear wave groups within the framework of the Euler equations is used to generate the surface elevation time series at a border of the water tank. Besides, the exact analytic solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation is used for this purpose. The time series is then transformed to a wave maker signal with use of a designed transfer algorithm. Wave group propagation along the tank was recorded by 4 distant gauges and by an array of 6 densely situated gauges. This setup allows to consider the wave evolution from 10 to 85 m from the wave maker, and to obtain the wave envelope shape directly from the instrumental data. In the experiments wave groups were characterized by the steepness values up to kAcr A.I. Dyachenko, A.O. Prokofiev, Eur. J. Mech. B / Fluids 25, 677 (2006). [2] A.I. Dyachenko, V.E. Zakharov, JETP Lett. 88, 307 (2008). [3] A.V. Slunyaev, JETP 109, 676 (2009).

  15. The progenitors of stripped-envelope supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Rosa, N.

    2013-05-01

    The type Ib/c SNe are those explosions which come from massive star populations, but lack hydrogen and helium. These have been proposed to originate in the explosions of massive Wolf-Rayet stars, and we should easily be able to detect the very luminous, young progenitors if they exist. However, there has not been any detection of progenitors so far. I present the study of two extinguished Type Ic SNe 2003jg and 2004cc. In both cases there is no clear evidence of a direct detection of their progenitors in deep pre-explosion images. Upper limits derived by inserting artificial stars of known brightness at random positions around the progenitor positions (M_v>-8.8 and M_v>-9 magnitudes for the progenitors of SN 2003jg and SN 2004cc, respectively) are brighter than those expected for a massive WC (Wolf-Rayet, carbon-rich) or WO (Wolf-Rayet, oxygen-rich) (e.g., approximately between -3 and -6 in the LMC). Therefore, this is perhaps further evidence that the most massive stars may give rise to black-holes forming SNe, or it is an undetected, compact massive star hidden by a thick dust lane. However the extinction toward these SNe is currently one of the largest known. Even if these results do not directly reveal the nature of the type Ic SN progenitors, they can help to characterize the dusty environment which surrounded the progenitor of the stripped-envelope CC-SNe.

  16. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  17. Functional dissection of nuclear envelope mRNA translocation system: effects of phorbol ester and a monoclonal antibody recognizing cytoskeletal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, H C; Diehl-Seifert, B; Rottmann, M; Messer, R; Bryson, B A; Agutter, P S; Müller, W E

    1988-03-01

    Unidirectional transport of poly(A)-containing mRNA [poly(A)+ mRNA] through the nuclear envelope pore complex is thought to be an energy (ATP or GTP)-dependent process which involves a nuclear envelope nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase). In the intact envelope, this enzyme is regulatable by poly(A) binding and by poly(A)-dependent phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of other components of the mRNA translocation system, which are as yet unidentified. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were elicited against the poly(A) binding nuclear envelope fraction isolated from rat liver. The mAbs were screened for their modulatory effects on mRNA transport in vitro. One stable clone decreased the efflux of rapidly labeled RNA and of one specific mRNA (ovalbumin) from isolated nuclei. It increased the binding of poly(A) to the envelope and increased the maximal catalytic rate of the NTPase, but it did not alter the apparent Km of the enzyme or the extent of its stimulation by poly(A). The nuclear envelope-associated protein kinase that down-regulates the NTPase was inhibited by the antibody, while other protein kinases were not affected. Because both the NTPase and mRNA efflux were inhibited by the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, the sensitive kinase is probably protein kinase C. Protein kinase C was found to be associated with the isolated nuclear envelope. The antibody reacted with both a Mr 83,000 and a Mr 65,000 nuclear envelope polypeptide from rat liver and other tissues. By immunofluorescence microscopy in CV-1 cells, the antibody localized to the nuclear envelope and, in addition, to cytoplasmic filaments which show some superposition with the microfilament network.

  18. DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS OF BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rashedul Hoque

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector of Bangladesh is flourishing and contributing to its economy. In this aspect measuring efficiency is important. Data Envelopment Analysis technique is used for this purpose. The data are collected from the annual reports of twenty four different banks in Bangladesh. Data Envelopment Analysis is mainly of two types - constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale. Since this study attempts to maximize output, so the output oriented Data Envelopment Analysis is used. The most efficient bank is one that obtains the highest efficiency score.

  19. Revisiting the envelope approximation: gravitational waves from bubble collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, David J

    2016-01-01

    We study the envelope approximation and its applicability to first-order phase transitions in the early universe. We demonstrate that the power laws seen in previous studies exist independent of the nucleation rate. We also compare the envelope approximation prediction to results from large-scale phase transition simulations. For phase transitions where the contribution to gravitational waves from scalar fields dominates over that from the coupled plasma of light particles, the envelope approximation is in agreement, giving a power spectrum of the same form and order of magnitude. In all other cases the form and amplitude of the gravitational wave power spectrum is markedly different and new techniques are required.

  20. Revisiting the envelope approximation: Gravitational waves from bubble collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, David J.

    2016-06-01

    We study the envelope approximation and its applicability to first-order phase transitions in the early Universe. We demonstrate that the power laws seen in previous studies exist independently of the nucleation rate. We also compare the envelope approximation prediction to results from large-scale phase transition simulations. For phase transitions where the contribution to gravitational waves from scalar fields dominates over that from the coupled plasma of light particles, the envelope approximation is in agreement, giving a power spectrum of the same form and order of magnitude. In all other cases the form and amplitude of the gravitational wave power spectrum is markedly different and new techniques are required.

  1. Building America Case Study: Field Trial of an Aerosol-Based Enclosure Sealing Technology, Clovis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    This report presents the results from several demonstrations of a new method for sealing building envelope air leaks using an aerosol sealing process developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at UC Davis. The process involves pressurizing a building while applying an aerosol sealant to the interior. As air escapes through leaks in the building envelope, the aerosol particles are transported to the leaks where they collect and form a seal that blocks the leak. Standard blower door technology is used to facilitate the building pressurization, which allows the installer to track the sealing progress during the installation and automatically verify the final building tightness. Each aerosol envelope sealing installation was performed after drywall was installed and taped, and the process did not appear to interrupt the construction schedule or interfere with other trades working in the homes. The labor needed to physically seal bulk air leaks in typical construction will not be replaced by this technology. However, this technology is capable of bringing the air leakage of a building that was built with standard construction techniques and HERS-verified sealing down to levels that would meet DOE Zero Energy Ready Homes program requirements. When a developer is striving to meet a tighter envelope leakage specification, this technology could greatly reduce the cost to achieve that goal by providing a simple and relatively low cost method for reducing the air leakage of a building envelope with little to no change in their common building practices.

  2. Main building complex WWER 440/213 upper range design response spectra for soft soil site conditions (Paks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Benchmark studies parallel investigation were prepared for the main building complex of the WWER-440/213 Paks NPP by several participating institutions. The investigations were based on various mathematical models and procedures but all had the same seismological data as input. The calculation methods as well as software tools were different. This report covers the enveloped response results which were the basis for the benchmark studies and which should be used for upgrading of mechanical and electrical components and systems which will follow. These response spectra which consider a certain conservatism namely neglecting the frequency independence of the stiffness and the cut-off of damping values are named 'Upper Range design Benchmark Response Spectra' for the main building of Paks NPP

  3. A method for optimizing the performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes a method for optimizing the performance of buildings. Design decisions made in early stages of the building design process have a significant impact on the performance of buildings, for instance, the performance with respect to the energy consumption, economical aspects......, and the indoor environment. The method is intended for supporting design decisions for buildings, by combining methods for calculating the performance of buildings with numerical optimization methods. The method is able to find optimum values of decision variables representing different features of the building......, such as its shape, the amount and type of windows used, and the amount of insulation used in the building envelope. The parties who influence design decisions for buildings, such as building owners, building users, architects, consulting engineers, contractors, etc., often have different and to some extent...

  4. Dissection of the protostellar envelope surrounding IRAS 05173-0555 in L1634

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, M T; Ho, P T P; Estalella, R; Fuller, G; Wootten, A

    2008-01-01

    Context. The youngest protostars that power energetic outflows are surrounded by infalling and rotating envelopes that contain most of the mass of the system. Aims. To study the properties and kinematics of the protostellar envelope surrounding the embedded source IRAS 05173-0555 in L1634. Methods. We carried out VLA ammonia observations at 1.3 cm with the VLA in the D configuration to map the gas towards the core of L1634. Results. The NH3 emission towards IRAS 05173-0555 is resolved and shows two components clearly distinguishable morphologically: a cross-like structure, roughly elongated in the direction of the HH 240/241 outflow and associated with IRAS 05173-0555, plus an arc-like stream elongated towards the north. The properties and kinematics of the gas suggest that the origin of the cross-like morphology could be the interaction between the outflow and the envelope. A more compact and flattened structure, which could be undergoing rotation about the axis of the outflow, has been detected towards the ...

  5. Sorting nexin 6 enhances lamin a synthesis and incorporation into the nuclear envelope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M González-Granado

    Full Text Available Nuclear lamins are important structural and functional proteins in mammalian cells, but little is known about the mechanisms and cofactors that regulate their traffic into the nucleus. Here, we demonstrate that trafficking of lamin A, but not lamin B1, and its assembly into the nuclear envelope are regulated by sorting nexin 6 (SNX6, a major component of the retromer that targets proteins and other molecules to specific subcellular locations. SNX6 interacts with lamin A in vitro and in vivo and links it to the outer surface of the endoplasmic reticulum in human and mouse cells. SNX6 transports its lamin A cargo to the nuclear envelope in a process that takes several hours. Lamin A protein levels in the nucleus augment or decrease, respectively, upon gain or loss of SNX6 function. We further show that SNX6-dependent lamin A nuclear import occurs across the nuclear pore complex via a RAN-GTP-dependent mechanism. These results identify SNX6 as a key regulator of lamin A synthesis and incorporation into the nuclear envelope.

  6. Thermal Bridges in Building Construction - Measurements and Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    The thesis investigates detailed calculation methods for evaluating heat loss through building envelope constructions, or more specific, thermal bridges. First a detailed description of the calculation methods, i.e. both calculation programs and guidelines, for calculating typical thermal bridges...... in building envelope constructions is given. After this a validation of both programs and guidelines is presented. The validation is performed by comparing calculated U-values with Guarded Hot Box measurements. The last part of the thesis discusses the possibilities of utilising the results of detailed...

  7. Opacities in the massive stellar envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pennec, Maëlle; TURCK-CHIEZE, Sylvaine; SALMON, Sébastien; CONSORTIUM, OPAC

    2015-08-01

    Helio and asteroseismology (SoHo, CoRoT, KEPLER...) have produced observed acoustic oscillations of thousands of stars. The characteristics of these oscillations are deeply linked to the transport of radiation inside the stars. However, the comparisons of seismic data of Sun and stars with model predictions have led to significant discrepancies, which could be due to a bad knowledge of production and transport of energy.We will focus here on the case of β-Cephei.β-Cephei are pulsating stars, progenitor of supernovae and thus deeply linked to our understanding of stellar medium enrichment. Their study has shown some difficulty to predict the observed oscillation modes, which are directly linked to a bump of the opacity of the elements of the iron group (Cr, Fe, Ni) at log T=5.25 through their pulsating mechanism called the κ-mechanism. We will show that the different parameters of the stars (mass, age, metallicity) have a great influence on the amplitude of the bump, and then on the structure of the considered star.The mastery of the κ-mechanism that produces the pulsation of these stars supposes a fine determination of the peak opacity of the iron group in their envelope. We will present the final results of an experiment conducted at LULI 2000 in 2011 on Cr, Fe and Ni and compare them to OP and ATOMIC, SCO-RCG codes. We will show how to improve the opacity in the range of temperature around log T= 5.3.

  8. Low Permeation Envelope Material Development for Titan Aerobot Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerobot vehicles for missions on Titan require envelope materials that are strong, light and durable. In particular they must be able to withstand flexing at liquid...

  9. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Plant parameters envelope report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Early Site Permit (ESP) Demonstration Program is the nuclear industry's initiative for piloting the early resolution of siting-related issues before the detailed design proceedings of the combined operating license review. The ESP Demonstration Program consists of three phases. The plant parameters envelopes task is part of Phase 1, which addresses the generic review of applicable federal regulations and develops criteria for safety and environmental assessment of potential sites. The plant parameters envelopes identify parameters that characterize the interface between an ALWR design and a potential site, and quantify the interface through values selected from the Utility Requirements Documents, vendor design information, or engineering assessments. When augmented with site-specific information, the plant parameters envelopes provide sufficient information to allow ESPs to be granted based on individual ALWR design information or enveloping design information for the evolutionary, passive, or generic ALWR plants. This document is expected to become a living document when used by future applicants

  10. Envelope order tracking for fault detection in rolling element bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Liu, Ting-Wei; Na, Jing; Fung, Rong-Fong

    2012-12-01

    An envelope order tracking analysis scheme is proposed in the paper for the fault detection of rolling element bearing (REB) under varying-speed running condition. The developed method takes the advantages of order tracking, envelope analysis and spectral kurtosis. The fast kurtogram algorithm is utilized to obtain both optimal center frequency and bandwidth of the band-pass filter based on the maximum spectral kurtosis. The envelope containing vibration features of the incipient REB fault can be extracted adaptively. The envelope is re-sampled by the even-angle sampling scheme, and thus the non-stationary signal in the time domain is represented as a quasi-stationary signal in the angular domain. As a result, the frequency-smear problem can be eliminated in order spectrum and the fault diagnosis of REB in the varying-speed running condition of the rotating machinery is achieved. Experiments are conducted to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  11. Low Permeation Envelope Material Development for Titan Aerobot Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerobot vehicles for missions on Titan require envelope materials that are strong, light and durable. Unlike terrestrial balloon materials, these must be able to...

  12. Polarimetry and the Envelopes of Magellanic B[e] Supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Magalhães, A M; Melgarejo, R; Pereyra, A

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the nature of the circumstellar envelopes around the B[e] supergiants (B[e]SG) in the Magellanic Clouds (MC). Contrary to those in the Galaxy, the MC B[e]SG have a well defined luminosity and can be considered members of a well defined class. We discuss spectroscopy and optical broadband polarimetry and spectropolarimetry data. These data show for the first time detailed changes in the polarization across several spectral features. We show that the envelopes of the B[e]SG are generally variable. Broadband polarimetry data show that the envelopes are definitely non-spherically symmetric and large non-axisymmetric ejections may occur. In addition to that, spectropolarimetry is coming of age as a tool to study the B[e]SG envelope structure.

  13. Beam envelope calculations in general linear coupled lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Moses, E-mail: mchung@unist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Qin, Hong [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Groening, Lars; Xiao, Chen [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Davidson, Ronald C. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    The envelope equations and Twiss parameters (β and α) provide important bases for uncoupled linear beam dynamics. For sophisticated beam manipulations, however, coupling elements between two transverse planes are intentionally introduced. The recently developed generalized Courant-Snyder theory offers an effective way of describing the linear beam dynamics in such coupled systems with a remarkably similar mathematical structure to the original Courant-Snyder theory. In this work, we present numerical solutions to the symmetrized matrix envelope equation for β which removes the gauge freedom in the matrix envelope equation for w. Furthermore, we construct the transfer and beam matrices in terms of the generalized Twiss parameters, which enables calculation of the beam envelopes in arbitrary linear coupled systems.

  14. Transport of Ions Across the Inner Envelope Membrane of Chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, R. E.

    2004-06-02

    The technical report outlines the results of nine years of research on how ions cross the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The ions include protons, nitrite, calcium and ferrous iron. Bicarbonate transport was also studied.

  15. Photon Bubbles in the Circumstellar Envelopes of Young Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, N J; Yorke, H W

    2007-01-01

    We show that the optically-thick dusty envelopes surrounding young high-mass stars are subject to the photon bubble instability. The infrared radiation passing through the envelope amplifies magnetosonic disturbances, with growth rates in our local numerical radiation MHD calculations that are consistent with a linear analysis. Modes with wavelengths comparable to the gas pressure scale height grow by more than two orders of magnitude in a thousand years, reaching non-linear amplitudes within the envelope lifetime. If the magnetic pressure in the envelope exceeds the gas pressure, the instability develops into trains of propagating shocks. Radiation escapes readily through the low-density material between the shocks, enabling accretion to continue despite the Eddington limit imposed by the dust opacity. The supersonic motions arising from the photon bubble instability can help explain the large velocity dispersions of hot molecular cores, while conditions in the shocked gas are suitable for maser emission. We...

  16. Torsin Mediates Primary Envelopment of Large Ribonucleoprotein Granules at the Nuclear Envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahbiz Jokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A previously unrecognized mechanism through which large ribonucleoprotein (megaRNP granules exit the nucleus is by budding through the nuclear envelope (NE. This mechanism is akin to the nuclear egress of herpes-type viruses and is essential for proper synapse development. However, the molecular machinery required to remodel the NE during this process is unknown. Here, we identify Torsin, an AAA-ATPase that in humans is linked to dystonia, as a major mediator of primary megaRNP envelopment during NE budding. In torsin mutants, megaRNPs accumulate within the perinuclear space, and the messenger RNAs contained within fail to reach synaptic sites, preventing normal synaptic protein synthesis and thus proper synaptic bouton development. These studies begin to establish the cellular machinery underlying the exit of megaRNPs via budding, offer an explanation for the “nuclear blebbing” phenotype found in dystonia models, and provide an important link between Torsin and the synaptic phenotypes observed in dystonia.

  17. Structure of the Jovian envelope from Pioneer 10 gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. D.; Hubbard, W. B.; Slattery, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    Measurement of Jupiter's zonal harmonics J2 and J4 by the celestial mechanics experiment on Pioneer 10 may be used to obtain a constraint on the structure of the outer envelope of Jupiter, using an inversion technique which is insensitive to the structure of the deep interior for a plausible class of planetary models. The derived structure is consistent with an adiabatic, solar-composition envelope with a starting temperature of 250 plus or minus 40 K at 1 bar pressure.

  18. Representation Theory of Quantized Enveloping Algebras with Interpolating Real Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny De Commer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Let g be a compact simple Lie algebra. We modify the quantized enveloping ∗-algebra associated to g by a real-valued character on the positive part of the root lattice. We study the ensuing Verma module theory, and the associated quotients of these modified quantized enveloping ∗-algebras. Restricting to the locally finite part by means of a natural adjoint action, we obtain in particular examples of quantum homogeneous spaces in the operator algebraic setting.

  19. The Nonlinear Analytical Envelope Equation in quadratic nonlinear crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Bache, Morten

    2016-01-01

    We here derive the so-called Nonlinear Analytical Envelope Equation (NAEE) inspired by the work of Conforti et al. [M. Conforti, A. Marini, T. X. Tran, D. Faccio, and F. Biancalana, "Interaction between optical fields and their conjugates in nonlinear media," Opt. Express 21, 31239-31252 (2013)], whose notation we follow. We present a complete model that includes $\\chi^{(2)}$ terms [M. Conforti, F. Baronio, and C. De Angelis, "Nonlinear envelope equation for broadband optical pulses in quadra...

  20. Virulence Properties of the Legionella Pneumophila Cell Envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchuk, Olga; Jäger, Jens; Steinert, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial envelope plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the structure and molecular composition of the Legionella pneumophila cell envelope. We describe lipopolysaccharides biosynthesis and the biological activities of membrane and periplasmic proteins and discuss their decisive functions during the pathogen–host interaction. In addition to adherence, invasion, and intracellular survival of L. pneumophila, s...

  1. Virulence properties of the Legionella pneumophila cell envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Olga eShevchuk; Jens eJäger; Michael eSteinert

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial envelope plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the structure and molecular composition of the Legionella pneumophila cell envelope. We describe LPS biosynthesis and the biological activities of membrane and periplasmic proteins and discuss their decisive functions during the pathogen-host interaction. In addition to adherence, invasion and intracellular survival of L. pneumophila, special emphasis i...

  2. Incorporation of cellular proteins into enveloped virus particles

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarstedt, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This thesis work aimed to investigate the assembly and budding of enveloped virus particles with focus on the fate of cellular proteins, present in or near the plasma membrane (PM) where the budding occurs. It was previously shown that compact viruses, like alphaviruses, with a covering outer protein coat, did not contain any cellular proteins in the envelope. However, cellular proteins were found in purified retroviral preparations and these proteins were thought to be spec...

  3. Building Performance Simulation tools for planning of energy efficiency retrofits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondrup, Thomas Fænø; Karlshøj, Jan; Vestergaard, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Designing energy efficiency retrofits for existing buildings will bring environmental, economic, social, and health benefits. However, selecting specific retrofit strategies is complex and requires careful planning. In this study, we describe a methodology for adopting Building Performance...... to energy efficiency retrofits in social housing. To generate energy savings, we focus on optimizing the building envelope. We evaluate alternative building envelope actions using procedural solar radiation and daylight simulations. In addition, we identify the digital information flow and the information...... Simulation (BPS) tools as energy and environmentally conscious decision-making aids. The methodology has been developed to screen buildings for potential improvements and to support the development of retrofit strategies. We present a case study of a Danish renovation project, implementing BPS approaches...

  4. Characterizing the spatiotemporal evolution of building-stock age in Poultney, Vermont: a GIS-based approach to improve thermal efficiency in historical buildings

    OpenAIRE

    John Van Hoesen; Steven Letendre

    2013-01-01

    Many industrialized countries are exploring ways to facilitate the prioritization of efforts targeting improved thermal efficiency in an aging building stock. Older buildings, typically, have inefficient building envelopes and higher energy-consumption patterns relative to new construction, which contributes to higher overall energy consumption at the local and regional scale. Reducing energy consumption by increasing the efficiency of older buildings will result in lower anthropogenic greenh...

  5. Dynamics of a Supernova Envelope in a Cloudy Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Korolev, V V; Kovalenko, I G; Shchekinov, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of a supernova remnant in a cloudy medium as a function of the volume filling factor of the clouds is studied in a three-dimensional axially symmetrical model. The model includes the mixing of heavy elements (metals) ejected by the supernova and their contribution to radiative losses. The interaction of the supernova envelope with the cloudy phase of the interstellar medium leads to nonsimultaneous, and on average earlier, onsets of the radiative phase in different parts of the supernova envelope. Growth in the volume filling factor $f$ leads to a decrease in the time for the transition of the envelope to the radiative phase and a decrease in the envelope's mean radius, due to the increased energy losses by the envelope in the cloudy medium. When the development of hydrodynamical instabilities in the supernova envelope is efficient, the thermal energy falls as $E_t\\sim t^{-2.3}$, for the propagation of the supernova remnant through either a homogeneous or a cloudy medium. When the volume filling...

  6. Planet formation with envelope enrichment: new insights on planetary diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Venturini, Julia; Benz, Willy

    2016-01-01

    We compute, for the first time, self-consistent models of planet growth including the effect of envelope enrichment. The change of envelope metallicity is assumed to be the result of planetesimal disruption or icy pebble sublimation. We solve internal structure equations taking into account global energy conservation for the envelope to compute in-situ planetary growth. We consider different opacities and equations of state suited for a wide range of metallicities. We find that envelope enrichment speeds up the formation of gas giants. It also explains naturally the formation of low and intermediate mass objects with large fractions of H-He (~ 20 - 30 % in mass). High opacity models explain well the metallicity of the giant planets of the solar system, whereas low opacity models are suited for forming small mass objects with thick H-He envelopes and gas giants with sub-solar envelope metallicities. We find good agreement between our models and the estimated water abundance for WASP-43b. For HD 189733b, HD 209...

  7. Multicriteria approach to data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio Vieira Junior

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of making Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA more acceptable to the managers' community, the Weights Restrictions approaches were born. They allow DEA to not dispose of any data and permit the Decision Maker (DM to have some management over the method. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a Weights Restrictions DEA model that incorporates the DM preference. In order to perform that, we employed the MACBETH methodology as a tool to find out the bounds of the weights to be used in a Weights Restrictions approach named Virtual Weights Restrictions. Our proposal achieved an outcome that has an expressive correlation with three widely used decision-aids methodologies: the ELECTRE III, the SMART and the PROMETHEE I and II. In addition, our approach was able to join the most significant outcomes of all the above three Multicriteria decision-aids methodologies in one unique outcome.Com o objetivo de fazer a Análise Envoltória de Dados (DEA mais aceitável pela comunidade gerencial, as abordagens de Restrição aos Pesos foram criadas. Estas abordagens fazem com que a DEA não descarte nenhum dado e permitem que o Decisor (DM tenha alguma gerência sobre o método. O objetivo deste artigo é sugerir um modelo de restrição aos pesos que incorpore as preferências do DM. Para realizar isto, nós empregamos a metodologia MACBETH como ferramenta para descobrir os limites dos pesos a serem utilizados na abordagem de restrição aos pesos chamada "Restrição aos Pesos Virtuais". Nossa proposta alcançou um resultado que apresenta uma correlação expressiva com três metodologias de apoio à decisão amplamente utilizadas: o ELECTRE III, o SMART e o PROMETHEE I e II. Adicionalmente, nossa abordagem foi capaz de reunir os resultados mais significativos de todas estas três metodologias de apoio à decisão em um único resultado.

  8. The Velocity Structure of SN 1987A's Outer Circumstellar Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotts, A. P. S.; Heathcote, S. R.

    1997-12-01

    We present high-resolution optical spectroscopy, (obtained with the CTIO 4-meter/echelle spectrograph over many epochs between 1989 and 1997) of the circumstellar nebula of SN 1987A, including the outer rings (within 3 arcsec of the SN), the inner (equatorial) ring, and fainter features at larger radii never studied before spectroscopically. We report velocity displacements for portions of the outer rings, up to 26 km s(-1) with respect the SN centroid velocity, with blueshifted components in the location of the southern outer ring and the redshifted portions of the northern outer ring. The largest shifts are near the SN, as predicted by a model in which the outer rings are the crowns of an expanding, bipolar nebula with the inner ring at its waist. We also confirm that the inner ring shows a velocity full-width of about 13 km s(-1) , which, along with the geometry of the rings and our outer ring velocity measurements, allows us to estimate a characteristic timescale of about 20,000 y for each of the three rings, implying that all are coeval. This contrasts with measurements by others of compositional ratios in the inner versus outer rings indicating that they were, perhaps, ejected at different times from the progenitor's star's outer envelope. Additionally, we measure the velocity of low surface brightness features at larger radii indicating that circumstellar material even farther from the SN was ejected up to 400,000 y before the explosion. Finally, we note the presence of transient emission features within the circumstellar nebula and describe their behaviour, and consider what implications our observations may have for the coming transformation of this nebula into Supernova Remnant 1987A.

  9. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  10. Combining Infrared Thermography and Numerical Analysis for Evaluating Thermal Bridges In Buildings: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Nardi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy dispersions for transmission in buildings with highly insulated envelope are mainly due to thermal bridges. And because the energy certification of buildings shall be based on real thermal performance and not on theoretical components, nowadays their incidence on energy saving is relevant. Currently, infrared thermography is considered exclusively as a qualitative tool to detect thermal irregularities in buildings, but thermographic inspection allows not only the localization of thermal bridges, but also the identification of temperature field and, therefore, the quantization of the energy losses through such elements of discontinuities. This approach marks a shift from a qualitative to a quantitative analysis of the thermographic image of a building. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of three different types of thermal bridge, estimated as a percentage increase of the homogeneous wall thermal transmittance. Results are obtained exclusively with thermographic surveys without further information on the wall stratigraphy. Finally, the methodology has been validated by comparing with the results obtained by numerical calculation.

  11. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  12. School Building Defect Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahli M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In providing a conducive learning environment for the student, the school building must be in good condition. This paper is evaluating the existing condition of primary school building in Sarawak, Malaysia. It focuses on building defects pattern for school building. The primary data collection is from the school building condition survey with involvement of 24 primary schools. The schools have been selected using simple random sampling and stratified sampling (of school age as the variable of selection. The reporting method is based on Condition Survey Protocol (CSP 1 Matrix. Data analysis covers descriptive and inferential statistics. The analysis carried out found that the overall 4,725 defects have been identified. The building defect pattern is mainly on Ground Level of 3,176 defects, the highest number of defects components found on walls (798. 16.2% defects are cracks from 11 common defects and most of all the highest score of defects based on age of the building were the building in the range of 11 to 20 years.

  13. An Assessment of Envelope Measures in Mild Climate Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Energy end-uses and interior comfort conditions have been monitored in 11 Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) in a mild marine climate. Two broad categories of DER envelope were identified: first, bringing homes up to current code levels of insulation and airtightness, and second, enhanced retrofits that go beyond these code requirements. The efficacy of envelope measures in DERs was difficult to determine, due to the intermingled effects of enclosure improvements, HVAC system upgrades and changes in interior comfort conditions. While energy reductions in these project homes could not be assigned to specific improvements, the combined effects of changes in enclosure, HVAC system and comfort led to average heating energy reductions of 76percent (12,937 kWh) in the five DERs with pre-retrofit data, or 80percent (5.9 kWh/ft2) when normalized by floor area. Overall, net-site energy reductions averaged 58percent (15,966 kWh; n=5), and DERs with code-style envelopes achieved average net-site energy reductions of 65percent (18,923 kWh; n=4). In some homes, the heating energy reductions were actually larger than the whole house reductions that were achieved, which suggests that substantial additional energy uses were added to the home during the retrofit that offset some heating savings. Heating system operation and energy use was shown to vary inconsistently with outdoor conditions, suggesting that most DERs were not thermostatically controlled and that occupants were engaged in managing the indoor environmental conditions. Indoor temperatures maintained in these DERs were highly variable, and no project home consistently provided conditions within the ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 heating season comfort zone. Thermal comfort and heating system operation had a large impact on performance and were found to depend upon the occupant activities, so DERs should be designed with the occupants needs and patterns of consumption in mind. Beyond-code building envelopes were not found to be

  14. Advances in Thermal Insulation. Vacuum Insulation Panels and Thermal Efficiency to Reduce Energy Usage in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsell, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    We are coming to realize that there is an urgent need to reduce energy usage in buildings and it has to be done in a sustainable way. This thesis focuses on the performance of the building envelope; more precisely thermal performance of walls and super insulation material in the form of vacuum insulation. However, the building envelope is just one part of the whole building system, and super insulators have one major flaw: they are easily adversely affected by other problems in the built environment. Vacuum Insulation Panels are one fresh addition to the arsenal of insulation materials available to the building industry. They are composite material with a core and an enclosure which, as a composite, can reach thermal conductivities as low as 0.004 W/(mK). However, the exceptional performance relies on the barrier material preventing gas permeation, maintaining a near vacuum into the core and a minimized thermal bridge effect from the wrapping of barrier material round the edge of a panel. A serpentine edge is proposed to decrease the heat loss at the edge. Modeling and testing shows a reduction of 60 % if a reasonable serpentine edge is used. A diffusion model of permeation through multilayered barrier films with metallization coatings was developed to predict ultimate service life. The model combines numerical calculations with analytical field theory allowing for more precise determination than current models. The results using the proposed model indicate that it is possible to manufacture panels with lifetimes exceeding 50 years with existing manufacturing. Switching from the component scale to the building scale; an approach of integrated testing and modeling is proposed. Four wall types have been tested in a large range of environments with the aim to assess the hydrothermal nature and significance of thermal bridges and air leakages. The test procedure was also examined as a means for a more representative performance indicator than R-value (in USA). The

  15. Dynamic thermal behavior of building using phase change materials for latent heat storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selka Ghouti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a two-dimensional model with a real size home composed of two-storey (ground and first floor spaces separated by a slab, enveloped by a wall with rectangular section containing phase change material (PCM in order to minimize energy consumption in the buildings. The main objective of the PCM-wall system is to decrease the temperature change from outdoor space before it reaches the indoor space during the daytime. The numerical approach uses effective heat capacity Ceff model with realistic outdoor climatic conditions of Tlemcen city, Algeria. The numerical results showed that by using PCM in wall as energy storage components may reduce the room temperature by about 6 to 7°C of temperature depending on the floor level (first floor spaces or ground floor spaces.

  16. Performance analysis of an energy efficient building prototype by using TRNSYS

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Kun; Wang, Wen; Giles, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Buildings section accouts for a large part of the total primary energy consumption. This paper reports a simulative study on an energy efficient building prototype named MIDMOD by using TRNSYS program. The prototype is a new genre of affordable medium density building concepts that are more adaptable, durable, and energy efficient as whole-life housing typologies than those currently available.The building envelope thermal insulation and air tightness are enhanced to reduce heat loss. Several...

  17. Nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features of the EPR concerning the fabrication of the reactor are: -) the size of the components, -) the modification of the design compared with classical PWR, and -) an intensive use of forging (in particular the cold and hot legs of the primary circuit are forged). This series of slides overviews the fabrication of the components for the EPR by highlighting the differences with the previous generation of reactors. 4 types of components are reviewed: the reactor vessel and internals, steam generators, primary circuit pipes, and primary coolant pumps. (A.C.)

  18. X-ray Evidence of the Common Envelope Phase of V471 Tauri

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, J J; Drake, Jeremy J.; Sarna, Marek J.

    2003-01-01

    Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrograph observations of the pre-cataclysmic binary V471 Tau have been used to estimate the C/N abundance ratio of the K dwarf component for the first time. While the white dwarf component dominates the spectrum longward of 50 AA, at shorter wavelengths the observed X-ray emission is entirely due to coronal emission from the K dwarf. The H-like resonance lines of C and N yield an estimate of their logarithmic abundance ratio relative to the Sun of [C/N]=-0.38+/-0.15 - half of the currently accepted solar value. We interpret this result as the first clear observational evidence for the presumed common envelope phase of this system, during which the surface of the K dwarf was contaminated by CN-cycle processed material dredged up into the red giant envelope. We use the measured C/N ratio to deduce that 0.015-0.04 Msun was accreted by the K dwarf while engulfed, and show that this is consistent with a recent tentative detection of 13C in the K dwarf photosphere, and wi...

  19. Analysis of the documents about the core envelopment of nuclear reactor at the Laguna Verde U-1 power plant; Analisis de documentos de los materiales de la envolvente del nucleo del reactor nuclear de la CLV U-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora R, L.; Medina F, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The degradation of internal components at BWR type reactors is an important subject to consider in the performance availability of the power plant. The Wuergassen nuclear reactor license was confiscated due to the presence of cracking in the core envelopment. In consequence it is necessary carrying out a detailed study with the purpose to avoid these problems in the future. This report presents a review and analysis of documents and technical information referring to the core envelopment of a BWR/5/6 and the Laguna Verde Unit 1 nuclear reactor in Mexico. In this document are presented design data, documents about fabrication processes, and manufacturing of core envelopment. (Author)

  20. AN EFFICIENT SIMULATION OF MULTIPLE CORRELATED RAYLEIGH FADING ENVELOPES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Ke; Cao Shike; Song Rongfang

    2008-01-01

    In order to better assess the performance of wireless communication systems,it is desirable to produce multiple Rayleigh fading envelopes with specified correlations. In this paper,we analyze theoretically a procedure which generates correlated Gaussian random variables from independent Gaussian random variables and give a physical explanation for the limitation of this procedure. Then,based on some uncorrelated Rayleigh fading envelopes,a simple but efficient procedure for generating an arbitrary number of cross-correlated Rayleigh fading envelopes is proposed. Simulation results and computational complexity analysis are presented,which show that the proposed method has some advantages,such as high accuracy,low computational complexity and easy implementation,over the conventional simulation method.

  1. Experimental evaluation of envelope tracking techniques for voltage disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marei, Mostafa I. [Electrical Power and Machines Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, 1 El-Sarayat St., Abbasia, 11517 Cairo (Egypt); El-Saadany, Ehab F.; Salama, Magdy M.A. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept., University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    In this paper a digital signal processor (DSP) based real time voltage envelope tracking system is developed and examined. The ADAptive LINEar neuron (ADALINE) and the Recursive Least Square (RLS) algorithms are adopted for envelope tracking. The proposed ADALINE and RLS algorithms give accurate results even under rapid dynamic changes. The paper investigates the effects of different parameters on the performance of the ADALINE algorithm and that of the RLS algorithm. The experimental system is cantered around a Texas Instrument 16 bit fixed-point arithmetic (TMS320LF2407A) evaluation board. Both the ADALINE and the RLS tracking algorithms are developed using the DSP-assembly language. A simple voltage flicker generator is implemented to produce various voltage disturbances. Extensive tests of the proposed envelope tracking algorithms are conducted to evaluate their dynamic performance. (author)

  2. An adaptive envelope spectrum technique for bearing fault detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, an adaptive envelope spectrum (AES) technique is proposed for bearing fault detection, especially for analyzing signals with transient events. The proposed AES technique first modulates the signal using the empirical mode decomposition to formulate the representative intrinsic mode functions (IMF), and then a novel IMF reconstruction method is proposed based on a correlation analysis of the envelope spectra. The reconstructed signal is post-processed by using an adaptive filter to enhance impulsive signatures, where the filter length is optimized by the proposed sparsity analysis technique. Bearing health conditions are diagnosed by examining bearing characteristic frequency information on the envelope power spectrum. The effectiveness of the proposed fault detection technique is verified by a series of experimental tests corresponding to different bearing conditions. (paper)

  3. The Binding Energy Parameter for Common Envelope Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The binding energy parameter $\\lambda$ plays a vital role in common envelope evolution. Though it is well known that $\\lambda$ takes different values for stars with different masses and varies during stellar evolution, it has been erroneously adopted as a constant in most of the population synthesis calculations. We have systematically calculated the values of $\\lambda$ for stars of masses $1-60\\,M_{\\odot}$ by use of an updated stellar evolution code, taking into account contribution from both gravitational energy and internal energy to the binding energy of the envelope. We adopt the criterion for the core-envelope boundary advocated by \\citet{Ivanova2011}. A new kind of $\\lambda$ with the enthalpy prescription is also investigated. We present fitting formulae for the calculated values of various kinds of $\\lambda$, which can be used in future population synthesis studies.

  4. Efficiency of Planetesimal Ablation in Giant Planetary Envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pinhas, Arazi; Clarke, Cathie

    2016-01-01

    Observations of exoplanetary spectra are leading to unprecedented constraints on their atmospheric elemental abundances, particularly O/H, C/H, and C/O ratios. Recent studies suggest that elemental ratios could provide important constraints on formation and migration mechanisms of giant exoplanets. A fundamental assumption in such studies is that the chemical composition of the planetary envelope represents the sum-total of compositions of the accreted gas and solids during the formation history of the planet. We investigate the efficiency with which accreted planetesimals ablate in a giant planetary envelope thereby contributing to its composition rather than sinking to the core. From considerations of aerodynamic drag causing `frictional ablation' and the envelope temperature structure causing `thermal ablation', we compute mass ablations for impacting planetesimals of radii 30 m to 1 km for different compositions (ice to iron) and a wide range of velocities and impact angles, assuming spherical symmetry. I...

  5. Intermediate luminosity optical transients during the grazing envelope evolution (GEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Noam

    2016-08-01

    By comparing photon diffusion time with gas outflow time, I argue that a large fraction of the energy carried by the jets during the grazing envelope evolution (GEE) might end in radiation, hence leading to an intermediate luminosity optical transient (ILOT). In the GEE a companion orbiting near the outskirts of the larger primary star accretes mass through an accretion disk, and launches jets that efficiently remove the envelope gas from the vicinity of the secondary star. In cases of high mass accretion rates onto the stellar companion the energy carried by the jets surpass the recombination energy from the ejected mass, and when the primary star is a giant this energy surpasses also the gravitational binding energy of the binary system. Some future ILOTs of giant stars might be better explained by the GEE than by merger and common envelope evolution without jets.

  6. The envelope Hamiltonian for electron interaction with ultrashort pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Toyota, Koudai; Rost, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    For ultrashort VUV pulses with a pulse length comparable to the orbital time of the bound electrons they couple to we propose a simplified envelope Hamiltonian. It is based on the Kramers-Henneberger representation in connection with a Floquet expansion of the strong-field dynamics but keeps the time dependence of the pulse envelope explicit. Thereby, the envelope Hamiltonian captures the essence of the physics, -- light-induced shifts of bound states, single-photon absorption, and non-adiabatic electronic transitions. It delivers quantitatively accurate ionization dynamics and allows for physical insight into the processes occurring. Its minimal requirements for construction in terms of laser parameters make it ideally suited for a large class of atomic and molecular problems.

  7. The binding energy parameter for common envelope evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Jia, Kun; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The binding energy parameter λ plays a vital role in common envelope evolution. Though it is well known that λ takes different values for stars with different masses and varies during stellar evolution, it has been erroneously adopted as a constant in most population synthesis calculations. We have systematically calculated the values of λ for stars of masses 1 – 60 M ⊙ by use of an updated stellar evolution code, taking into account the contribution from both gravitational energy and internal energy to the binding energy of the envelope. We adopt the criterion for the core-envelope boundary advocated by Ivanova. A new kind of λ with an enthalpy prescription is also investigated. We present fitting formulae for the calculated values of various kinds of λ, which can be used in future population synthesis studies.

  8. Intermediate luminosity optical transients during the grazing envelope evolution (GEE)

    CERN Document Server

    Soker, Noam

    2016-01-01

    By comparing photon diffusion time with gas outflow time, I argue that a large fraction of the energy carried by the jets during the grazing envelope evolution (GEE) might end in radiation, hence leading to an intermediate luminosity optical transient (ILOT). In the GEE a companion orbiting near the outskirts of the larger primary star accretes mass through an accretion disk, and launches jets that efficiently remove the envelope gas in the vicinity of the secondary star. In cases of high mass accretion rates onto the stellar companion the energy carried by the jets surpass the recombination energy from the ejected mass, and when the primary star is a giant this energy surpasses also the gravitational energy of the binary system. Some future ILOTs of giant stars might be better explained by the GEE than by merger and common envelope evolution without jets.

  9. Planetary Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Using Envelope Manifold Demodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigang Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The important issue in planetary gear fault diagnosis is to extract the dependable fault characteristics from the noisy vibration signal of planetary gearbox. To address this critical problem, an envelope manifold demodulation method is proposed for planetary gear fault detection in the paper. This method combines complex wavelet, manifold learning, and frequency spectrogram to implement planetary gear fault characteristic extraction. The vibration signal of planetary gear is demodulated by wavelet enveloping. The envelope energy is adopted as an indicator to select meshing frequency band. Manifold learning is utilized to reduce the effect of noise within meshing frequency band. The fault characteristic frequency of the planetary gear is shown by spectrogram. The planetary gearbox model and test rig are established and experiments with planet gear faults are conducted for verification. All results of experiment analysis demonstrate its effectiveness and reliability.

  10. The circumstellar envelope of the C-rich post-AGB star HD 56126

    CERN Document Server

    Hony, S; Waters, L B F M; De Koter, A

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the circumstellar envelope of the post-asymptotic giant branch ``21 micron object'' HD 56126. We build a detailed dust radiative transfer model of the circumstellar envelope in order to derive the dust composition and mass, and the mass-loss history of the star. To model the emission of the dust we use amorphous carbon, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, magnesium sulfide and titanium carbide. We present a detailed parametrisation of the optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbon as a function of H/C content. The mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy is best reproduced by a single dust shell from 1.2 to 2.6 arcsec radius around the central star. This shell originates from a short period during which the mass-loss rate exceeded 10^(-4) M_sun/yr. We find that the strength of the ``21'' micron feature poses a problem for the TiC identification. The low abundance of Ti requires very high absorption cross-sections in the ultraviolet and visible wavelength range to explain the st...

  11. Energy-efficient timber buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Zbašnik-Senegačnik, Martina; Kitek Kuzman, Manja

    2015-01-01

    The choice of materials for a building with high energy efficiency becomes much more important and strategies for reducing the use of primary energy for the production of materials and components becomes key. The positive trend towards wooden construction is dictated by international guidelines, where a wooden building is an important starting point, not only for low-energy, but also low-emission building with exceptional health and safety aspects. In Europe, the most comprehensiv...

  12. Topological ∗-algebras with *-enveloping Algebras II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Bhatt

    2001-02-01

    Universal *-algebras *() exist for certain topological ∗-algebras called algebras with a *-enveloping algebra. A Frechet ∗-algebra has a *-enveloping algebra if and only if every operator representation of maps into bounded operators. This is proved by showing that every unbounded operator representation , continuous in the uniform topology, of a topological ∗-algebra , which is an inverse limit of Banach ∗-algebras, is a direct sum of bounded operator representations, thereby factoring through the enveloping pro-* algebra () of . Given a *-dynamical system (, , ), any topological ∗-algebra containing (, ) as a dense ∗-subalgebra and contained in the crossed product *-algebra *(, , ) satisfies ()=*(, , ). If $G = \\mathbb{R}$, if is an -invariant dense Frechet ∗-subalgebra of such that () = , and if the action on is -tempered, smooth and by continuous ∗-automorphisms: then the smooth Schwartz crossed product $S(\\mathbb{R}, B, )$ satisfies $E(S(\\mathbb{R}, B, )) = C^*(\\mathbb{R}, A, )$. When is a Lie group, the ∞-elements ∞(), the analytic elements () as well as the entire analytic elements () carry natural topologies making them algebras with a *-enveloping algebra. Given a non-unital *-algebra , an inductive system of ideals is constructed satisfying $A = C^*-\\mathrm{ind} \\lim I_$; and the locally convex inductive limit $\\mathrm{ind}\\lim I_$ is an -convex algebra with the *-enveloping algebra and containing the Pedersen ideal of . Given generators with weakly Banach admissible relations , we construct universal topological ∗-algebra (, ) and show that it has a *-enveloping algebra if and only if (, ) is *-admissible.

  13. Efficiency of Planetesimal Ablation in Giant Planetary Envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas, Arazi; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Clarke, Cathie

    2016-09-01

    Observations of exoplanetary spectra are leading to unprecedented constraints on their atmospheric elemental abundances, particularly O/H, C/H, and C/O ratios. Recent studies suggest that elemental ratios could provide important constraints on formation and migration mechanisms of giant exoplanets. A fundamental assumption in such studies is that the chemical composition of the planetary envelope represents the sum-total of compositions of the accreted gas and solids during the formation history of the planet. We investigate the efficiency with which accreted planetesimals ablate in a giant planetary envelope thereby contributing to its composition rather than sinking to the core. From considerations of aerodynamic drag causing `frictional ablation' and the envelope temperature structure causing `thermal ablation', we compute mass ablations for impacting planetesimals of radii 30 m to 1 km for different compositions (ice to iron) and a wide range of velocities and impact angles, assuming spherical symmetry. Icy impactors are fully ablated in the outer envelope for a wide range of parameters. Even for Fe impactors substantial ablation occurs in the envelope for a wide range of sizes and velocities. For example, iron impactors of sizes below ˜0.5 km and velocities above ˜30 km/s are found to ablate by ˜ 60-80% within the outer envelope at pressures below 103 bar due to frictional ablation alone. For deeper pressures (˜107 bar), substantial ablation happens over a wider range of parameters. Therefore, our exploratory study suggests that atmospheric abundances of volatile elements in giant planets reflect their accretion history during formation.

  14. Component reliability for electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bajenescu, Titu-Marius I

    2010-01-01

    The main reason for the premature breakdown of today's electronic products (computers, cars, tools, appliances, etc.) is the failure of the components used to build these products. Today professionals are looking for effective ways to minimize the degradation of electronic components to help ensure longer-lasting, more technically sound products and systems. This practical book offers engineers specific guidance on how to design more reliable components and build more reliable electronic systems. Professionals learn how to optimize a virtual component prototype, accurately monitor product reliability during the entire production process, and add the burn-in and selection procedures that are the most appropriate for the intended applications. Moreover, the book helps system designers ensure that all components are correctly applied, margins are adequate, wear-out failure modes are prevented during the expected duration of life, and system interfaces cannot lead to failure.

  15. Chaetomium and Stachybotrys in water-damaged buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Lewinska, Anna Malgorzata; Nielsen, Jakob Blæsbjerg;

    Fungal growth occurs when parts of the building envelope get very wet due to unfortunate combinations of factors, e.g. thermal bridges/lack of ventilation, shoddy foundations/flooding or leaks in build-in pipes. Chaetomium and Stachybotrys are not as abundant as Penicillium and Aspergillus (Table......), however, they may produce volatiles and microparticles that can cause health problems. They are common in wet walls constructed of wood fibre board (OSB/plywood) and gypsum board....

  16. Calculation of CWKB envelope in boson and fermion productions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Biswas; I Chowdhury

    2007-01-01

    We present the calculation of envelope of boson and of both low- and high- mass fermion production at the end of inflation when the coherently oscillating inflatons decay into bosons and fermions. We consider three different models of inflation and use CWKB technique to calculate the envelope to understand the structure of resonance band formation. We observe that though low-mass fermion production is not effective in pre-heating because of Pauli blocking, it is quite probable for high-mass fermion to take part in pre-heating.

  17. Structural plasticity of the nuclear envelope and the endoplasmic reticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheval E. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure, continuous with endoplasmic reticulum, and the morphological organization of both these structures is quite conservative. However, nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum demonstrate distinct structural plasticity, i. e., based on common organization, cells may form various non-canonical membrane structures that are observed only in specialized types of cells or appear in different pathologies. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms of the biogenesis of such non-canonical structures, and the possible role of this plasticity in the development of pathological processes.

  18. Method of accurate grinding for single enveloping TI worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuehai; ZHENG Huijiang; BI Qingzhen; WANG Shuren

    2005-01-01

    TI worm drive consists of involute helical gear and its enveloping Hourglass worm. Accurate grinding for TI worm is the key manufacture technology for TI worm gearing being popularized and applied. According to the theory of gear mesh, the equations of tooth surface of worm drive are gained, and the equation of the axial section profile of grinding wheel that can accurately grind TI worm is extracted. Simultaneously,the relation of position and motion between TI worm and grinding wheel are expounded.The method for precisely grinding single enveloping TI worm is obtained.

  19. Formation of Jupiter's Core and Early Stages of Envelope Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, G.; Weidenschilling, S.; Lissauer, J. J.; Bodenheimer, P.; Hubickyj, O.

    2012-12-01

    We are performing calculations of the formation of Jupiter via core nucleated accretion and gas capture. The core starts as a seed body of a few hundred kilometers in radius and orbits within a swarm of planetesimals whose initial size distribution ranges from ~10 m to ~100 km. The planetesimals are immersed in a gaseous disk, representative of an early solar nebula. The evolution of the swarm of planetesimals accounts for collisions and gravitational stirring due to mutual interactions among bodies, and for migration and velocity damping due to interactions with the nebula gas. Collisions among planetesimals lead to growth and/or fragmentation, altering the size distribution of the swarm over time. Collisions of planetesimals with the seed body lead to its growth, resulting in the formation of a planetary core. Gas capture by the core leads to the accumulation of a tenuous atmosphere, which later becomes a massive envelope, increasing the size-dependent effective cross-section of the planet for planetesimals' accretion. Planetesimals that travel through the core's envelope release energy, affecting the thermal budget of the envelope, and deliver mass, affecting the opacity of the envelope. The calculation of dust opacity, which is especially important for envelope contraction, is performed self-consistently, accounting for coagulation and sedimentation of dust and small particles that are released in the envelope as passing planetesimals are ablated. We find that, in a disk of planetesimals with a surface density of about 10 g/cm2 at 5.2 AU, a one Earth mass core accumulates in less than 1e5 years, and that it takes over 1.5e6 years to accumulate a core of 3 Earth masses, when the core's geometrical cross-section is used for the accretion of planetesimals. Gas drag in the core's envelope increases the ability of the planet to accrete planetesimals. Smaller planetesimals are affected to a greater extent than are larger planetesimals. We find that the effective

  20. Revealing Carrier-Envelope Phase through Frequency Mixing and Interference in Frequency Resolved Optical Gating

    CERN Document Server

    Snedden, Edward W; Jamison, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that full temporal characterisation of few-cycle electromagnetic pulses, including retrieval of the carrier envelope phase (CEP), can be directly obtained from Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (FROG) techniques in which the interference between non-linear frequency mixing processes is resolved. We derive a framework for this scheme, defined Real Domain-FROG (ReD-FROG), as applied to the cases of interference between sum and difference frequency components and between fundamental and sum/difference frequency components. A successful numerical demonstration of ReD-FROG as applied to the case of a self-referenced measurement is provided. A proof-of-principle experiment is performed in which the CEP of a single-cycle THz pulse is accurately obtained and demonstrates the possibility for THz detection beyond the bandwidth limitations of electro-optic sampling.

  1. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test

  2. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  3. Immunobiology of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope and its relationship to vaccine strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, D P

    1990-02-01

    The envelope of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an essential building block of the virus and it plays a major role in its life-cycle, particularly during the early stages of infection. It very likely determines, at least in part, the host range and tissue specificity of HIV, participates in pathogenic processes mediated by the virus and can itself be immunosuppressive. Because of its strategic location on the outer surface of the virion and the infected cell, it also represents an optimal (although not the only) target for immune attack and thus a prime candidate for development of vaccine and therapeutic strategies. Efforts to better understand its structural, functional and antigenic properties will thus be well worthwhile. Some of its principal features are reviewed herein and its role in vaccine strategies is discussed. PMID:2182967

  4. Field investigation survey of airtightness, air movement and indoor air quality of high rise apartment buildings, prairie region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulay, B.W.; Stewart, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    A field investigation survey was conducted to determine exfiltration rates through the building envelope, inter-suite air leakage, and indoor air quality in two 13-storey high-rise apartment buildings located in Winnipeg. The survey also established the effect the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system has on the pressure differential across the building envelope. Building residents were surveyed to establish the general environmental conditions, and five specific pollutants were identified and quantified. The applicability of procedures used was documented for use in future investigations and as candidate procedures for a standardized testing protocol.

  5. A Model for Air Flow in Ventilated Cavities Implemented in a Tool for Whole-Building Hygrothermal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau, Karl; Rode, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    A model for calculating air flows in ventilated cavities has been implemented in the whole-building hygrothermal simulation tool BSim. The tool is able to predict indoor humidity conditions using a transient model for the moisture conditions in the building envelope.......A model for calculating air flows in ventilated cavities has been implemented in the whole-building hygrothermal simulation tool BSim. The tool is able to predict indoor humidity conditions using a transient model for the moisture conditions in the building envelope....

  6. Building Behavior Simulation by Means of Artificial Neural Network in Summer Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies in Italy showed that buildings are responsible for about 40% of total energy consumption, due to worsening performance of building envelope; in fact, a great number of Italian buildings were built before the 1970s and 80s. In particular, the energy consumptions for cooling are considerably increased with respect to the ones for heating. In order to reduce the cooling energy demand, ensuring indoor thermal comfort, a careful study on building envelope performance is necessary. Different dynamic software could be used in order to evaluate and to improve the building envelope during the cooling period, but much time and an accurate validation of the model are required. However, when a wide experimental data is available, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN can be an alternative, simple and fast tool to use. In the present study, the indoor thermal conditions in many dwellings built in Umbria Region were investigated in order to evaluate the envelope performance. They were recently built and have very low energy consumptions. Based on the experimental data, a feed forward network was trained, in order to evaluate the different envelopes performance. As input parameters the outdoor climatic conditions and the thermal characteristics of building envelopes were set, while, as a target parameter, the indoor air temperature was provided. A good training of network was obtained with a high regression value (0.9625 and a very small error (0.007 °C on air temperature. The network was also used to simulate the envelope behavior with new innovative glazing systems, in order to evaluate and to improve the energy performance.

  7. Repairing oxidized proteins in the bacterial envelope using respiratory chain electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaris, Alexandra; Ezraty, Benjamin; Henry, Camille; Agrebi, Rym; Vergnes, Alexandra; Oheix, Emmanuel; Bos, Julia; Leverrier, Pauline; Espinosa, Leon; Szewczyk, Joanna; Vertommen, Didier; Iranzo, Olga; Collet, Jean-François; Barras, Frédéric

    2015-12-17

    The reactive species of oxygen and chlorine damage cellular components, potentially leading to cell death. In proteins, the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine is converted to methionine sulfoxide, which can cause a loss of biological activity. To rescue proteins with methionine sulfoxide residues, living cells express methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) in most subcellular compartments, including the cytosol, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Here we report the identification of an enzymatic system, MsrPQ, repairing proteins containing methionine sulfoxide in the bacterial cell envelope, a compartment particularly exposed to the reactive species of oxygen and chlorine generated by the host defence mechanisms. MsrP, a molybdo-enzyme, and MsrQ, a haem-binding membrane protein, are widely conserved throughout Gram-negative bacteria, including major human pathogens. MsrPQ synthesis is induced by hypochlorous acid, a powerful antimicrobial released by neutrophils. Consistently, MsrPQ is essential for the maintenance of envelope integrity under bleach stress, rescuing a wide series of structurally unrelated periplasmic proteins from methionine oxidation, including the primary periplasmic chaperone SurA. For this activity, MsrPQ uses electrons from the respiratory chain, which represents a novel mechanism to import reducing equivalents into the bacterial cell envelope. A remarkable feature of MsrPQ is its capacity to reduce both rectus (R-) and sinister (S-) diastereoisomers of methionine sulfoxide, making this oxidoreductase complex functionally different from previously identified Msrs. The discovery that a large class of bacteria contain a single, non-stereospecific enzymatic complex fully protecting methionine residues from oxidation should prompt a search for similar systems in eukaryotic subcellular oxidizing compartments, including the endoplasmic reticulum.

  8. New build: Materials, techniques, skills and innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition to secure, sustainable, low-energy systems will have a significant effect on the way in which we design and construct new buildings. In turn, the new buildings that are constructed will play a critical role in delivering the better performance that would be expected from such a transition. Buildings account for about half of UK carbon dioxide (CO2) production. So it is urgent to ensure that energy is used efficiently in existing buildings and that new building stock is better able to cope with whatever the future holds. Most energy used in buildings goes towards heating, lighting and cooling, but a growing percentage is consumed by domestic appliances, computers and other electrical equipment. Actual energy consumption is the product of a number of factors, including individual behaviours and expectations, the energy efficiency of appliances and the building envelope. This review focuses on the third of these, the building itself, and its design and construction. It discusses the issues faced by the construction industry today, suggesting that major changes are needed relating to materials, techniques, skills and innovation. It moves on to consider future advances to 2050 and beyond, including developments in ICT, novel materials, skills and automation, servitisation (the trend for manufacturers to offer lifetime services rather than simple products), performance measurement and reporting, and resilience. We present a vision of the new build construction industry in 2050 and recommendations for policy makers, industry organisations and construction companies

  9. Aspects for Run-time Component Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truyen, Eddy; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Joosen, Wouter;

    2000-01-01

    Component framework technology has become the cornerstone of building a family of systems and applications. A component framework defines a generic architecture into which specialized components can be plugged. As such, the component framework leverages the glue that connects the different insert...... dynamically integrate into the architecture of middleware systems new services that support non-functional aspects such as security, transactions, real-time.......Component framework technology has become the cornerstone of building a family of systems and applications. A component framework defines a generic architecture into which specialized components can be plugged. As such, the component framework leverages the glue that connects the different inserted...... components together. We have examined a middle ground between aspect-oriented programming and computational reflection that improves the dynamics of this gluing process such that interaction between components can be refined at run-time. In this paper, we show how we have used this middle ground to...

  10. Envelope-Law and Geometric-Mean STAP Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Srinivasan, R.; Rangaswamy, M.

    2010-01-01

    Two detectors for space-time adaptive processing (STAP) are proposed here. These are variants that use envelope-law and geometric-mean (GM) (or logarithmic) processing, both being well-known concepts from conventional constant false alarm rate (CFAR) square-law radar detection [212]. The variants ar

  11. Neural coding of sound envelope in reverberant environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Michaël C C; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2015-03-11

    Speech reception depends critically on temporal modulations in the amplitude envelope of the speech signal. Reverberation encountered in everyday environments can substantially attenuate these modulations. To assess the effect of reverberation on the neural coding of amplitude envelope, we recorded from single units in the inferior colliculus (IC) of unanesthetized rabbit using sinusoidally amplitude modulated (AM) broadband noise stimuli presented in simulated anechoic and reverberant environments. Although reverberation degraded both rate and temporal coding of AM in IC neurons, in most neurons, the degradation in temporal coding was smaller than the AM attenuation in the stimulus. This compensation could largely be accounted for by the compressive shape of the modulation input-output function (MIOF), which describes the nonlinear transformation of modulation depth from acoustic stimuli into neural responses. Additionally, in a subset of neurons, the temporal coding of AM was better for reverberant stimuli than for anechoic stimuli having the same modulation depth at the ear. Using hybrid anechoic stimuli that selectively possess certain properties of reverberant sounds, we show that this reverberant advantage is not caused by envelope distortion, static interaural decorrelation, or spectral coloration. Overall, our results suggest that the auditory system may possess dual mechanisms that make the coding of amplitude envelope relatively robust in reverberation: one general mechanism operating for all stimuli with small modulation depths, and another mechanism dependent on very specific properties of reverberant stimuli, possibly the periodic fluctuations in interaural correlation at the modulation frequency.

  12. Variational-Wavelet Approach to RMS Envelope Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorova, A N; Fedorova, Antonina N.; Zeitlin, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    We present applications of variational-wavelet approach to nonlinear (rational) rms envelope equations. We have the solution as a multiresolution (multiscales) expansion in the base of compactly supported wavelet basis. We give extension of our results to the cases of periodic beam motion and arbitrary variable coefficients. Also we consider more flexible variational method which is based on biorthogonal wavelet approach.

  13. Design, Testing, and Realisation of a Medium Size Aerostat Envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design, testing and realisation aspects during the development of a medium size aerostat envelope in the present work. The payload capacity of this aerostat is 300 kg at 1 km above mean sea level. The aerostat envelope is the aerodynamically shaped fabric enclosure part of the aerostat which generally uses helium for lifting useful payloads to a specified height. The envelope volume estimation technique is discussed which provides the basis for sizing. The design, material selection, testing and realisation aspects of this aerostat envelope are also discussed. The empirical formulas and finite element analysis are used to estimate the aerodynamic, structural and other design related parameters of the aerostat. Equilibrium studies are then explained for balancing forces and moments in static conditions. The tether profile estimation technique is discussed to estimate blow by distance and tether length. A comparison of estimated and measured performance parameters during trials has also been discussed.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 2, March 2016, pp.93-99, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9291

  14. Instabilities in the Envelopes and Winds of Very Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Owocki, Stanley P

    2014-01-01

    The high luminosity of Very Massive Stars (VMS) means that radiative forces play an important, dynamical role both in the structure and stability of their stellar envelope, and in driving strong stellar-wind mass loss. Focusing on the interplay of radiative flux and opacity, with emphasis on key distinctions between continuum vs. line opacity, this chapter reviews instabilities in the envelopes and winds of VMS. Specifically, we discuss how: 1) the iron opacity bump can induce an extensive inflation of the stellar envelope; 2) the density dependence of mean opacity leads to strange mode instabilities in the outer envelope; 3) desaturation of line-opacity by acceleration of near-surface layers initiates and sustains a line-driven stellar wind outflow; 4) an associated line-deshadowing instability leads to extensive small-scale structure in the outer regions of such line-driven winds; 5) a star with super-Eddington luminosity can develop extensive atmospheric structure from photon bubble instabilities, or from ...

  15. Republic of Armenia Public Expenditure Review : Expanding the Fiscal Envelope

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Armenia's small revenue and spending envelopes limit the government's ability to influence the economy, even while its influence through laws, rules, and regulations is significant. The government has an important role to play to reduce poverty and boost shared prosperity, and needs fiscal space. This public expenditure review (PER) analyzes and provides recommendations for the different d...

  16. Enveloped virus-like particles as vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod-borne arboviruses form a continuous threat to human and animal health, but few arboviral vaccines are currently available. Advances in expression technology for complex, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) create new opportunities to develop potent vaccines against pathogenic arboviruse

  17. Traffic to the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laba, Justyna K.; Steen, Anton; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has yielded valuable insight into the mechanisms that regulate the nuclear transport of soluble molecules like transcription factors and mRNA. Much less is known about the mechanisms responsible for the transportation of membrane proteins to the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope.

  18. User Participation in the Building Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Sørensen, Kristian Birch;

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Innovation in Construction (VIC) is a project aiming to develop an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported methodology VIC-MET, to involve building end-users in a creative innovation process together with building designers, and to capture and formulate end-user needs...... be established and conceptual building designs be illustrated. This is done in (2) 'Conceptual modelling space'. Here the VIC-MET proposes different tools and processes to build up a common understanding of end-user needs and values. In (3) 'Functional consolidation space', needs are linked to functional...... building systems (FBS), which are realized as component building systems (CBS), which will form parts in the total building solution. The formulated needs provide input to specific requirements in order to assure expected performance of the building components. The final virtual building model or part...

  19. Efflux of RNA from resealed nuclear envelope ghosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnow, D; Thomson, M; Schröder, H C; Müller, W E; Agutter, P S

    1994-08-01

    mRNA translocation across the nuclear envelope and the appropriate signal-receptor interactions have been studied using resealed rat liver nuclear envelope ghosts (RNEG). We compared export kinetics of nonadenylated (tRNAs, histone-2 poly(A)- mRNA), and adenylated RNAs (poly(A)+ tRNAs, synthetic histone-2 poly(A) +mRNA, albumin mRNA, beta-globin poly(A) +mRNA and a total poly(A) + mRNA extract from rat liver cells). ATP-dependent export of mRNAs and of total poly(A)+ RNA was prevented by inhibitors of a nuclear envelope NTPase. All adenylated RNA species competed with each other for export, but nonadenylated RNAs did not. This indicates the existence of different translocation mechanisms for different RNA species with their appropriate nuclear envelope associated RNA receptors involved in export. The attachment of a poly(A)250 sequence at the 3'-end of tRNA or histone messenger masks the intrinsic RNA export signal of nonadenylated RNAs and results in efflux comparable to that of beta-globin poly(A)+ mRNA. The attachment on oligo(A)5 does not have any comparable effect of nonadenylated RNA translocation. Export of all polyadenylated RNAs from RNEGs is blocked by a monoclonal antibody, which is directed against an intranuclear envelope poly(A) binding protein. The results suggest that the pore complexes do not select RNAs for export to the cytoplasm and are therefore not responsible for nuclear restriction of mRNA precursors.

  20. The psychic envelopes in psychoanalytic theories of infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eMellier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the topic of psychic envelopes and to sketch the main outlines of this concept in infancy. We first explore the origins of the concept in Freud's 'protective shield' and then its development in adult psychoanalysis before going on to see how this fits in infancy with post-Bionian psychoanalysis and development. Four central notions guide this review:1 Freud's protective shield describes a barrier to protect the psychic apparatus against potentially overflowing trauma. It is a core notion which highlights a serious clinical challenge for patients for whom the shield is damaged or faulty: the risk of confusion of borders between the internal/external world, conscious/unconscious, mind/body, or self-conservation/sexuality.2 Anzieu's Skin-Ego is defined by the different senses of the body. The different layers of experienced sensation, of this body-ego, go on to form the psychic envelope. This theory contributes to our understanding of how early trauma, due to the failures of maternal care, can continue to have an impact in adult life. 3 Bick's psychic skin establishes the concept in relation to infancy. The mother’s containing functions allow a first psychic skin to develop, which then defines an infant’s psychic space and affords the infant a degree of self-containment. Houzel then conceptualized this process as a stabilization of drive forces.4 Stern's narrative envelope derives from the intersection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. It gives us another way to conceptualise the development of pre-verbal communication. It may also pave the way for a finer distinction of different types of envelopes.Ultimately, in this review we find that psychic envelopes in infancy can be viewed from four different perspectives (economic, topographical, dynamic and genetic and recommend further investigation.