WorldWideScience

Sample records for building entrances

  1. Entrances and entrance halls of residential buildings in Belgrade: 1918-1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putnik Vladana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Between the two world wars Belgrade saw a surge in housing construction, including many rental apartment buildings, so-called 'luxury city palaces'. In addition to richly decorated street façades in the style of academism, eclecticism and Art Deco, architects paid much attention to the design of entrances and entrance halls. The entrance frequently was the main element of the façade even in buildings in a moderate modernist style. Since this aspect of architectural design is scantily documented, this paper seeks to identify its main trends in the 1920s and 1930s and to establish a typology of entrances and entrance halls of residential buildings. It also outlines the parameters and social circumstances that played a role in giving special attention to this element of residential buildings, and examines whether Belgrade architects pursued a sort of total design inspired by European models.

  2. Retail Building Guide for Entrance Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J.; Kung, F.

    2012-03-01

    This booklet is based on the findings of an infiltration analysis for supermarkets and large retail buildings without refrigerated cases. It enables retail building managers and engineers to calculate the energy savings potential for vestibule additions for supermarkets; and bay door operation changes in large retail stores without refrigerated cases. Retail managers can use initial estimates to decide whether to engage vendors or contractors of vestibules for pricing or site-specific analyses, or to decide whether to test bay door operation changes in pilot stores, respectively.

  3. Fiber optic sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer for securing entrance areas of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Martinek, Radek; Mec, Pavel; Novak, Martin; Bednarek, Lukas; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Authors of this article focused on the utilization of fiber optic sensors based on interferometric measurements for securing entrance areas of buildings such as windows and doors. We described the implementation of the fiber-optic interferometer (type Mach-Zehnder) into the window frame or door, sensor sensitivity, analysis of the background noise and methods of signal evaluation. The advantage of presented solution is the use of standard telecommunication fiber standard G.652.D, high sensitivity, immunity of sensor to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and passivity of the sensor regarding power supply. Authors implemented the Graphical User Interface (GUI) which offers the possibility of remote monitoring presented sensing solution.

  4. Work on the Building 4 car park and closure of Entrance A

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    From 6 July to 31 October 2015, the GS department will be carrying out renovation work on the car park next to Buildings 4 and 5. This work is aimed at improving safety on and around the car park for all users, particularly children attending the nursery school, pedestrians and cyclists.   Layout of the upcoming car park.   The work on the car park will be conducted in two stages so that half of the parking spaces will always be available, in order to limit the impact on users as much as possible (the closed-off areas will be clearly indicated). When the work is completed, the car park will have been completely renovated, with new surfacing and road markings, high-quality lighting and more parking spaces (+5%). During the work, part of the car park will be inaccessible, which is likely to make it more difficult to find a parking space. We therefore invite you to park in the Globe car park during this period. The renovation work will also affect Entrance A (Route Bell), which will be fitt...

  5. Entrance and peripheral dose measurements during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Kappas, K.; Theodorou, K.

    2008-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry of entrance dose was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) in order to evaluate the clinical application of the build up caps in patient dose measurements and for different treatment techniques. Peripheral dose (thyroid and skin) was measured for patients during breast radiotherapy to evaluate the probability of secondary cancer induction. TLD-100 chips were used with different Copper build up caps (for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams from two linear accelerators. Entrance doses were measured for patients during radiotherapy course for breast, head and neck, abdomen and pelvis malignancies. The measured entrance dose for the different patients for 6 MV beams is found to be within the ±2.6% compared to the dose derived from theoretical estimation (normalized dose at D max ). The same measurements for 15 MV beams are found to be ±3 %. The perturbation value can reach up to 20% of the D max , which acts as a limitation for entrance dose measurements. An average thyroid skin dose of 3.7% of the prescribed dose was measured per treatment session while the mean skin dose breast treatment session is estimated to be 42% of D max , for both internal and external fields. These results are comparable in those of the in vivo of reported in literature. The risk of fatality due to thyroid cancer per treatment course is 3x10 -3

  6. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  7. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; David Mintner; Wendy Moore; Jimmy O. Ong; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kalapi D. Sheth; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2001-05-17

    The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The accomplishments of Phase I are discussed in detail in this Phase I Concept Report. A RD and T Plan and a preliminary project financing plan have been developed and are submitted separately from this report.

  8. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William K. Davis

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation

  9. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; Ming He; James F. Stevens; Centha A. Davis; Michael Henley; Jerome Mayer; Harry Tsang; Jimell Erwin; Jennifer Adams; Michael Tillman; Chris Taylor; Marjan J. Roos; Robert F. Earhart

    2004-01-27

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The potential technical and economic risks to the EECP from Task 2.5 can be mitigated by demonstrating that the end-use products derived from the upgrading of the F-T synthesis total liquid product can meet or exceed current specifications for the

  10. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids

  11. Temporary closure of Entrance A

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Entrance A to the CERN site will be temporarily closed to incoming traffic between 1.30 p.m. and 6.00 p.m. on Tuesday 30 January in order to allow the information signs to be changed. Thank you for your understanding. TS/CSE Group

  12. Entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallan, Richard A.

    1975-01-01

    Provides a brief sketch of the essential characteristics of new journalism, offers a rationale for calling it "new," and differentiates the new nonfiction from the broader concept of new journalism. See CS 702 359 for availability information.(RB)

  13. On the border. Value and function of museum’s entrance hall and its symbolic meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tarantino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to analyze the museum entrance halls, mainly from the point of view of the growing phenomenon of mass tourism. The entrance space is examined not only for its functional characters but also for its symbolic power in structuring or changing the historical and cultural identity of the entire museum’s building. Both in new projects and in restoration of ancient museum buildings, in fact, contemporary architects seems to be increasingly attracted by this design aspect.

  14. Science for common entrance physics : answers

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, W R

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Science for Common Entrance: Physics , which covers every Level 1 and 2 topic in the ISEB 13+ Physics Common Entrance exam syllabus. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. - Suitable for ISEB 13+ Mathematics Common Entrance exams taken from Autumn 2017 onwards. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Science for Common Entrance: Physics. - Science for Common Entrance: Biology. - Science for Common En

  15. A Comparative Study of Entrance in Traditional and Contemporary Houses of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Dehbandi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary houses in Iran, because of changes in the methods of designing and building houses, importance of entrance reduced to such level that now in contemporary houses entrance is just a door. Entrance correlates indoor safe space of house and outdoors. It`s importance lays in controlling entry, exit, territory and hierarchy. Since house owners were satisfied with traditional form of entrance, it is a good idea to learn from them in designing new entrances. The purpose of this research is to find a way for designing appropriate entrances for Iranian contemporary houses. To do this at first 40 traditional houses and 40 contemporary houses in Isfahan and Kashan were selected. These two cities are from margin of desert and the origin of traditional houses of Iran. Analysis showed that blockage of visual and phonic relation, creating a space between outdoor public space and indoor private space, creating access patterns to internal spaces and traits that separate in and out were the most significant properties of traditional entrances. All these traits are ignored in contemporary entrances. Suggestions made for design include creating public meeting space in yard and creating a separate entrance space for each house in apartments.

  16. Utility service entrance in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for utility service entrances to the repository. We determined the requirements for a repository utility supply. These requirements were defined as safety, maintainability, flexibility, reliability, cost efficiency, voltage regulation, and simplicity of operation. The study showed that repository shafts can best satisfy all requirements for location of the utility supply without the use of borehole penetrations into the repository. It is recommended that the shafts be utilized for utility distribution to the repository, and that the current NWTS program position to minimize the number of boreholes penetrating the repository horizon be maintained. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Mathematics for common entrance three (extension) answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension) , which provides essential preparation for Level 3 of the ISEB 13+ Mathematics exam, as well as for CASE and other scholarship exams. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension). - Mathematics for Common Entrance One. - Mathematics for Common Entrance One Answers. - M

  18. Energy saving in tunnel entrance lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A. & Swart, L.

    1993-01-01

    Tunnel entrances may present themselves during the day as a "black hole" in which no details can be perceived. In order to ensure safe and comfortable driving at high speeds, the entrance zone must be lit to a high luminance level. Modern tunnel lighting technology is focused on two aspects:

  19. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  20. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  1. Entrance C - Meyrin site: new access conditions

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Entrance C on the Meyrin site, which drivers of motorised vehicles can use Mondays to Fridays from 7 a.m. to 9 a.m. and from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m., has been altered to include a turnstile to allow cyclists and pedestrians to use their access card to get in and out of the site from 6 a.m. until 10 p.m.   The following video illustrates how to use the new turnstile: A new type of entrance gate fitted with a number plate reader similar to that installed at the entrance to the Prévessin site should, once fully tested, allow drivers of motorised vehicles to access the site. For the time being, the conditions of use of Entrance C remain unchanged. Further information on the entry into force of new arrangements will be issued in due course. For further information about CERN entrances: CERN opening hours CERN control access GS Department

  2. Active versus passive screening for entrance control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    The benefits of different entrance control actions are quantitatively assessed by defining a relative improvement index for the screening activity. Three classes of entrance control measures are investigated: the use of a purely active screening measure (such as a portal monitor), the use of a purely passive screening measure (such as personality typing), and the combined use of active and passive measures. Active entrance control measures have been studied previously [McCormick and Erdmann, Nucl. Mat. Manag. 4, (1975)] where it was determined that the relative improvement index is approximately related to the nondetection probability factor r for the protective system by (1-r + r ln r). It is shown here that the relative improvement index for a purely passive screening system also can be approximately expressed in a convenient manner. Because the probability is very small that a sabotage or diversion action would be attempted, the result for passive screening, multiplied by r, may be combined with the factor (1-r + r ln r) to give the relative improvement index for a combined, active-and-passive entrance control system. Results from simple example calculations indicate that passive screening of nuclear plant personnel or applicants for such positions is orders-of-magnitude less effective than portal monitors or reasonable improvements in them. 5 tables

  3. Mathematics for common entrance two answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams.

  4. Supercalculators and University Entrance Calculus Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye Yoon; Thomas, Mike; Kiernan, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of computer algebra systems could provide a significant advantage to students taking standard university entrance calculus examinations. Indicates that supercalculators would probably provide a significant advantage, particularly for lower-achieving students. Demonstrates that it is possible to write questions in which…

  5. Mathematics for common entrance one answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams

  6. SLAC divertor channel entrance thermal stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.; Stein, W.; Lu, S.C.; Riddle, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray beams emerging from the new SLAC electron-positron storage ring (PEP) impinge on the entrance to tangential divertor channels causing highly localized heating in the channel structure. Analyses were completed to determine the temperatures and thermally-induced stresses due to this heating. These parts are cooled with water flowing axially over them at 30 0 C. The current design and operating conditions should result in the entrance to the new divertor channel operating at a peak temperature of 123 0 C with a peak thermal stress at 91% of yield. Any micro-cracks that form due to thermally-induced stresses should not propagate to the coolant wall nor form a path for the coolant to leak into the storage ring vacuum. 34 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Fiber optic sensor system for entrance areas monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajkus, Marcel; Nedoma, Jan; Kepak, Stanislav; Cubik, Jakub; Jargus, Jan; Zboril, Ondřej; Martinek, Radek; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Authors of this article present the fiber-optic system based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) which are used to secure the entrance areas such as buildings, halls, warehouses, etc. The system uses the specially encapsulated sensory array of fiber Bragg gratings which are implemented into the floor or on the floor and allows for monitoring the area of 1 m2 up to 100 m2 depending on the number of FBG sensors. The sensory array is characterized by immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), passivity regarding electrical power supply, the possibility of remote evaluation (up to units of km) and high sensitivity. Proposed sensor system has detection capability greater than 99 % and furthermore, provides information about the weight load to an accuracy of +/- 5 kg. The concept has been tested in a real environment within the test polygon for several weeks. As the reference devices, we used the CCTV (Closed Circuit Television).

  8. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Buildings - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The approximate physical location of each individual Public Housing Building. If the building has more than one entrance or street address, the address of the...

  9. The relativistic titls of Giza pyramids' entrance-passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulfotouh, H.

    The tilts of Giza pyramids' entrance-passages have never been considered as if they were the result of relativistic mathematical equations, and never been thought to encode the Earth's obliquity parameters. This paper presents an attempt to retrieve the method of establishing the equations that the pyramids' designer used to quantify the entrance-passages' tilts of these architectonic masterpieces. It proves that the pyramids' designer was able to include the geographic, astronomical and time parameters in one relativistic equation, encoding the date of the design of the Giza pyramids in the tilt of the entrance passage of the great pyramid.

  10. Progressive activation of paratrigeminal nucleus during entrance to hibernation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilduff, T.S.; Sharp, F.R.; Heller, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    The paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) undergoes a progressive increase in its uptake of 2-[ 14 C]deoxyglucose (2DG) relative to other brain structures during entrance to hibernation in the ground squirrel. This highly significant increase results in the Pa5 becoming the most highly labeled brain region during hibernation, even though it exhibits one of the lowest levels of 2DG uptake in the brain during the nonhibernating state. The progressive activation of the Pa5 observed during entrance is reversed during arousal from hibernation. These observations and the neuroanatomical projections of the Pa5 implicate this nucleus as playing a role in the entrance and maintenance of the hibernating state

  11. patient entrance skin doses at minna and ibadan for common

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Entrance surface dose from two diagnostic x-ray centers in Nigeria for three common radiological examinations is .... typical ESD values for adult patients for three different ... TTX located in the region of Nigeria where regulatory activities have ...

  12. Traffic restrictions: Meyrin site and entrance of Prévessin site

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Between 10 April and 19 April 2010 a number of roads on the Meyrin site and at the entrance of the Prévessin site will be resurfaced. The work will be done by zones, as shown below: 12-14 April Intersection of Route Fermi and Route Gregory. Route Fermi, between Building 268 and Route Jentschke Route Fermi, Route Jentschke and Route Einstein, up to Building 593 and between Buildings 194 and 555. Plus Route Oppenheimer. 15 April Intersection of Route Bloch and Route Maxwell, and Route Maxwell itself. Route Sherrer between the overhead walkway (Building 50) and the exit from the carpark behind Building 4. 16 April and 19 April Route Fermi, Route Jentschke and Route Einstein, up to Building 593 and between Buildings 194 and 555. Prévessin site: from Route Adams to the access control Building. The construction works may result in some disruption to traffic. Users are requested to comply with the temporary traffic signs and arrangements.  Thank you for your understanding. GS/...

  13. Gate C – Works on the Building 42

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Due to works being carried out on the new building 42, lorries transporting concrete will be entering and exiting the site via entrance C (during entrance C opening hours and between July and December 2009). The lorries have PRIORITY over other vehicles, please adapt your speed in consequence. We thank you in advance for your patience and vigilance when using this entrance. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  14. Traffic disruption at Entrance B -TRAM- related work

    CERN Multimedia

    Infrastructure and General Services Department

    2010-01-01

    Due to work being carried out for the TRAM we inform you that vehicles coming from Geneva will be prohibited from turning left into Entrance B. This restriction will be in place for approx. 10 weeks*) starting from Monday 30 August 2010. You are highly recommended to enter CERN through Entrance A during this period even though a diversion will be put in place to allow access to CERN from Entrance B (as shown in the attached sketch). In addition, approx. 20 car parking spaces will be temporarily unavailable at the western end of the flags car park. We thank you in advance for your kind understanding. ______________ *) The exact end date of the work will be communicated in due course. GS-SEM Group

  15. The University Entrance Exam that Diversified and the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Osamu

    The percentage of students who go on to universities or junior colleges is over fifty percent which is more than half of high school students. However the nation's birthrate is in decline and the total number of university-age children shows a declining tendency. Hence we cannot expect an increase in the number of applicants in the future. On the other hand, the number of universities has been increasing year by year. The competition among universities to survive is very fierce. The diversification of entrance examination is a symbol of this competition. By diversifying entrance exams, universities aimed at the quality of excellent students in the beginning. However, they have changed their direction to pursue the quantity of students. As of Today the entrance examination is losing its original starting function which means most or all applicants can enter universities. It is time all of the universities return to its starting line.

  16. Prévessin site – Pedestrian and cycle entrances

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-IS

    2013-01-01

      A second entrance for pedestrians and cyclists on Route du Maroc will be opened and the existing entrance on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts will be re-opened: - for the period 2 April to 31 October 2013, - from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday). IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  17. 1979 National Unified Entrance Examination for Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The article presents translations of Chinese college entrance examinations in the fields of politics, Chinese language and literature, mathematics, humanities, physics, chemistry, history, geography, and English. Translations are also presented of the 1979 review syllabus for 1979 for the same subject areas. (DB)

  18. The English in Japanese University Entrance Examinations: A Sociocultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locastro, Virginia

    1990-01-01

    Sociocultural and historical examination of the kind of English used in Japanese university entrance examinations suggests that such usage mirrors and reinforces general Japanese attitudes about language, language learning, and national interests, resulting in a closed system highly resistant to change. (28 references) (Author/CB)

  19. Early College Entrance: How Will My Child Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Rachel U.; Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2014-01-01

    Early college entrance is a form of acceleration, or the process of advancing students in academic programs faster than their same-aged peers. Many early entrants have demonstrated academic ability to achieve at high levels but they exhibit tremendous variety in their age, specific abilities, social and emotional maturity, family support, and…

  20. China’s Entrance to the WTO and Financial Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Soon Park

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The openness and liberalization of China’s financial market is expected to accelerate with her entrance to the WTO. China plans to carry out liberalization measures, including the expansion of the Renminbi business scope. Openness and liberalization will expedite the integration of internal and external sectors, thereby making the domestic financial market more vulnerable to environmental changes. Consequently, China should establish a strong financial system to efficiently cope with the contagion effects of an external financial crisis. However, China’s financial system is still very weak, mainly due to the enormous bad loans to SOEs (state-owned enterprises. Accordingly, the Chinese government should carry out financial reform measures such as strengthening the financial supervision system, dealing with bad bank loans and restructuring the financial institutions. On the whole, China’s entrance to the WTO is expected to have a positive influence on her financial sector by accelerating such reform policies as financial reform and SOE reform. Entrance to the WTO will make society recognize the necessity of reform and openness. The Chinese government can decide to push some difficult reform policies which would not have been considered without WTO entrance.

  1. Modifications to improve entrance slit thermal stability for grasshopper monochromators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Daniel J.; Rogers, Gregory C.; Crossley, Sherry L.

    1994-08-01

    As new monochromators are designed for high-flux storage rings, computer modeling and thermal engineering can be done to process increased heat loads and achieve mechanical stability. Several older monochromators, such as the Mark 2 and Mark 5 Grasshopper monochromators, which were designed in 1974, have thermal instabilities in their entrance slit mechanisms. The Grasshoppers operating with narrow slits experience closure of the entrance slit from thermal expansion. In extreme cases, the thermal expansion of the precision components has caused permanent mechanical damage, leaving the slit uncalibrated and/or inoperable. For the Mark 2 and Mark 5 Grasshopper monochromators at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, the original 440 stainless steel entrance slit jaws were retrofitted with an Invar (low expansion Fe, Ni alloy) slit jaw. To transfer the heat from the critical components, two flexible heat straps of Cu were attached. These changes allow safe operation with a 10 μm entrance slit width where the previous limit was 30 μm. After an initial 2 min equilibration, the slit remains stable to 10%, with 100 mA of beam current. Additional improvements in slit thermal stability are planned for a third Grasshopper.

  2. Loads on Entrance Platforms for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of the performed large scale tests in GWK, Hannover for studying wave run-up generated forces on wind turbine entrance platforms. The run-up height and velocity was measured by use of high speed video recordings supplemented by some wave gauges mounted at the p...

  3. COMPARISON OF THE TEST VARIANTS IN ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLŮFA, Jindřich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of the differences of number of points in the test in mathematics between test variants, which were used in the entrance examinations at the Faculty of Business Administration at University of Economics in Prague in 2015. The differences may arise due to the varying difficulty of variants for students, but also because of the different level of knowledge of students who write these variants. This problem we shall study in present paper. The aim of this paper is to study dependence of the results of entrance examinations in mathematics on test variants. The results obtained will be used for further improvement of the admission process at University of Economics.

  4. Entrance channel systematics of pre-scission neutron multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shareef, M.; Prasad, E.; Chatterjee, A.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical model analysis has been performed for the available neutron multiplicity (ν_p_r_e) data in the literature. Larger ν_p_r_e values for more symmetric reactions have been observed in comparison with asymmetric reactions forming the same compound nucleus, in most cases. A reverse trend has also been noticed in a few cases. A systematic entrance channel dependence of fission timescale is brought out in this work. Fission timescales calculated using the experimental ν_p_r_e values fall into two distinct groups according to the entrance channel mass asymmetry of the reaction with respect to the Businaro-Gallone critical mass asymmetry. The difference in the delay between these two groups ranges between 20 and 100 zs, which is larger than that reported in some cases. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic re-entrance in intermediate valence compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allub, R.; Machiavelli, O.; Balseiro, C.; Alascio, B.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility is explored of magnetic re-entrance in intermediate valence compounds. Using a simplified Anderson-Lattice model the pressure-temperature magnetic phase diagram is obtained. This diagram shows that for some value of the microscopic parameters the temperature induced two transitions (non-magnetic to magnetically ordered to paramagnetic). The magnetization and the average occupation number of the localized state are calculated. Estimations of the observability of the effect in systems like CeAl 2 are made. (author)

  6. The creation of economic policy after the entrance to EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodzinská Vladimíra

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slovac republic, analogous to other countries which came in the Europe Union this year, is standing before solving the problem of real integration to the economic and monetary system.Submitted article shows, that preliminary transformation process of national economy, specially the privatization process of national property was remarked by influencies, which has led to the creation of social excessively high losts and very negative affected also for the creation and realization the economis policy of the state.In this signification remarked also bargaining position of Slovac republic in so called before entrance negotiations with the representants from Europe union as well the character of risks related to urgency subserve the main liability in conection with the entrance to the EU, i.e. the convergency criterias specified by maastrichts agreement.In this continuity becomes the cardinal problem of the economic policy of the state alternative modeling of exercitation its fiscal and monetary tools, which permits of such time and general harmonising of real and nominal processes convergency, which will have tenable social character.Videlicet, the entrance fixation of the Slovac republic to the ERM2 for the year 2006 and to the eurozone for the year 2008, or 2009 involves to assert the tools of economic policy as, that the economic increase couched in expected long tenable development of GDP, balance of payments, inflation and unemployment was social effective.In this signification are intraducing some risks and factors, which can work against these development.

  7. 30 CFR 18.29 - Access openings and covers, including unused lead-entrance holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lead-entrance holes. 18.29 Section 18.29 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... unused lead-entrance holes. (a) Access openings in explosion-proof enclosures will be permitted only... Figure 1 in Appendix II.) (c) Holes in enclosures that are provided for lead entrances but which are not...

  8. Ventilation of multi-entranced rodent burrows by boundary layer eddies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickner-Braun, Inbal; Zucker-Milwerger, Daniel; Braun, Avi; Turner, J Scott; Pinshow, Berry; Berliner, Pedro

    2014-12-01

    Rodent burrows are often assumed to be environments wherein the air has a high concentration of CO₂. Although high burrow [CO₂] has been recorded, many studies report burrow [CO₂] that differs only slightly from atmospheric concentrations. Here, we advocate that one of the reasons for these differences is the penetration into burrows of air gusts (eddies), which originate in the turbulent boundary layer and prevent build-up of CO₂. We have characterized the means by which burrows of Sundevall's jird, which are representative of the burrows of many rodent species with more than one entrance, are ventilated. Our results demonstrate that, even at low wind speeds, the random penetration of eddies into a burrow through its openings is sufficient to keep the burrow [CO₂] low enough to be physiologically inconsequential, even in its deep and remote parts. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Substation interference on gas entrance of industrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Paulo Edmundo; Giacommelo, Claudinei [PAIOL Engenharia, Paulinia, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Industrial plants often have medium or high voltage electrical power entrance and also gas feeders. Often the main substation is located near the gas entrance, in the utilities area. When the occurrence of a phase to ground short-circuit in the substation, the pipeline and gas entrance that serves the plant may be exposed to high voltage soil potential, of the order of a few kilovolts, due to resistive coupling with the substation ground mesh. The consequences of this situation are reflected in various risks, with emphasis on: damage to the protective coating of the duct, due to the increased soil potential, in excess of its dielectric supportability (typically on the order of 5 kV); spread of potentially hazardous to duct exposed parts (valves, measuring place etc.); and damage to cathodic protection system components, as rectifier and insulating joins at gas entrance. This paper presents the investigations conducted in a factory that has a 69 kV main substation very close to the gas entrance, the order of a few meters away. The substation phase to ground short-circuit current is 7 kA, what causes a 9 kV soil potential near the gas pipe. It is presented the methodology for modeling the various elements involved in this process, the results of simulations made, arrangements been taken to reduce soil potential next to the duct to levels below 5 kV, and the measures for people and insulating joins protection. It is important to note that such problems usually will be solved with measures involving the entire grounding system of the industrial complex and also close to the duct (outside the industrial plant). The gas distribution companies should require from customers where this situation occurs, to ensure safety for people who have access to elements of its network, and for the integrity of their own ducts and cathodic protection components. The computer simulations developed for this work were made with the software Auto Grid, developed by the Canadian company Safe

  10. Entrance doses during lateral lumbar spine and antero-posterior abdomen examinations: generator waveform dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, G.D.; Underwood, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    In North Trent, UK, an entrance dose survey of lateral lumbar spine and antero-posterior (AP) abdomen examinations has been carried out in 17 radiology departments. The survey comprised 294 lateral lumbar spine and 322 AP abdomen entrance dose measurements. The mean entrance doses were found to be approximately half of the relevant national reference entrance dose levels of 30 mGy and 10 mGy, respectively. The effect of generator waveform on entrance dose was studied by separating the generators into two types: ''pulsating potential'' (PP) generators and ''constant potential'' (CP) generators for each examination. PP generators comprised 23% of the total number of examinations. The mean entrance dose and radiographic exposure factors from CP generators were found to be significantly lower than those from PP generators. The use of CP type generators, together with low attenuation components can significantly reduce patient entrance doses for these examinations. (author)

  11. Evaluation of entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, L.; Lunelli, N.; Paschuk, S.; Oliveira, A.; Ferreira, J.L.; Schelin, H.; Miguel, C.; Denyak, V.; Kmiecik, C.; Tilly, J.; Khoury, H.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography. An evaluation of 301 radiographical examinations in anterior–posterior (AP) and posterior–anterior (PA) (166 examinations) and lateral (LAT) (135 examinations) projections was performed. The analyses were performed on patients grouped by age; the groups included ages 0–1 y, 1–5 y, 5–10 y, and 10–15 y. The entrance surface air kerma was determined with DoseCal software (Radiological Protection Center of Saint George's Hospital, London) and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Two different exposure techniques were compared. The doses received by patients who had undergone LAT examinations were 40% higher, on average, those in AP/PA examinations because of the difference in tube voltage. A large high-dose “tail” was observed for children up to 5 y old. An increase in tube potential and corresponding decrease in current lead to a significant dose reduction. The difference between the average dose values for different age ranges was not practically observed, implying that the exposure techniques are still not optimal. Exposure doses received using the higher tube voltage and lower current-time product correspond to the international diagnostic reference levels. - Highlights: • The entrance surface air kerma of chest X-ray examinations in pediatric patients was estimated. • The data were analyzed for patients aged up to 15 y, stratified by age. • The doses of LAT examinations were 40% higher than of AP/PA because of kV used. • An increase in kV with a decrease in mAs leads to significant dose reduction

  12. Prévessin site – Pedestrian and cycle entrances

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-DI

    2014-01-01

    Entrances for pedestrians and cyclists on Route du Maroc and on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts, in Prévessin, will be re-opened:   from 7 April to 31 October 2014, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday).   IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  13. Prévessin site: Pedestrian and cycle entrance

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The entrance to the Prévessin site for pedestrians and cyclists on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts will be re-opened: from 7 April to 30 October 2015, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday).   IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  14. Evaluation of entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, L.; Lunelli, N.; Paschuk, S.; Oliveira, A.; Ferreira, J. L.; Schelin, H.; Miguel, C.; Denyak, V.; Kmiecik, C.; Tilly, J.; Khoury, H.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography. An evaluation of 301 radiographical examinations in anterior-posterior (AP) and posterior-anterior (PA) (166 examinations) and lateral (LAT) (135 examinations) projections was performed. The analyses were performed on patients grouped by age; the groups included ages 0-1 y, 1-5 y, 5-10 y, and 10-15 y. The entrance surface air kerma was determined with DoseCal software (Radiological Protection Center of Saint George's Hospital, London) and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Two different exposure techniques were compared. The doses received by patients who had undergone LAT examinations were 40% higher, on average, those in AP/PA examinations because of the difference in tube voltage. A large high-dose “tail” was observed for children up to 5 y old. An increase in tube potential and corresponding decrease in current lead to a significant dose reduction. The difference between the average dose values for different age ranges was not practically observed, implying that the exposure techniques are still not optimal. Exposure doses received using the higher tube voltage and lower current-time product correspond to the international diagnostic reference levels.

  15. Entrance C - New Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Entrance C (Satigny) is now equipped with a latest-generation Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) system and a fast-action road gate.   During the month of August, Entrance C will be continuously open from 7.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. (working days only). The security guards will open the gate as usual from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. For the rest of the working day (9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.) the gate will operate automatically. Please observe the following points:       Stop at the STOP sign on the ground     Position yourself next to the card reader for optimal recognition     Motorcyclists must use their CERN card     Cyclists may not activate the gate and should use the bicycle turnstile     Keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front of you   If access is denied, please check that your vehicle regist...

  16. Heat transfer to liquid sodium in the thermal entrance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, R.

    1981-01-01

    It is well known that the convective heat transfer in the regions of duct systems where the thermal boundary layers are not yet established can be far superior to heat transfer in the fully developed regions. A quantitative understanding of heat transfer in the thermal entrance region is essential in designing high heat-flux nuclear reactors. More specifically, if the thermal boundary layers have not been fully established in the system, the forced-convection relations for the fully developed regions cannot be used to predict the heat transfer characteristics. The present work is characterized by the following: 1. The behaviours in the thermal entrance region have been examined more completely. 2. To obtain a higher accuracy of analyses, in present study the method of SPARROW et al. for pipe was improved for annulus by utilizing a finite difference technique. Furthermore, an asymptotic solution was developed. 3. This is, in our knowledge, the first experimental investigation about the thermal development effect on turbulent heat transfer from rod element to liquid sodium in annulus with fully developed flow. (MDC)

  17. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania

  18. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania.

  19. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

  20. Comparison of programmed and cabled re-entrance systems. Elaboration of cabled re-entrance system for a CII 90.40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraudeau, Jean

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to study problems related to re-entrance, and, more particularly, to study a re-entrance system for a CII 90.40 computer. Such a system can be realised under a programmed or cabled form, and both approaches are described and compared. A generalisation of this comparison is briefly proposed. As the computer already possesses a programmed re-entrance system, the author focuses on the study of the cabled re-entrance system which results in an improvement of performance and possibilities provided by this computer, particularly for its use in real time. The design, realisation and development of such a cabled system are reported. A first part reports a theoretical study on re-entrance (definition, problems, applications), a presentation of the computer, a description of the programmed re-entrance system, a presentation of the principle of the chosen cabled re-entrance system, a definition of the structure and operating mode of the cabled pile and a description of its various components, and a flowchart analysis of function execution. The second part reports the practical realisation: definition, technological overview, technology used in the cabled pile, sequencing and multiplexing principle, impulse transmission, logical layouts, and circuit adjustments. The third part presents practical example. An assessment and perspectives are finally discussed

  1. Effects of Magnetic Particles Entrance Arrangements on Mixing Efficiency of a Magnetic Bead Micromixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Kamali; Seyed Alireza Shekoohi; Alireza Binesh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a computer code is developed to numerically investigate a magnetic bead micromixer under different conditions. The micromixer consists of a microchannel and numerous micro magnetic particles which enter the micromixer by fluid flows and are actuated by an alternating magnetic field normal to the main flow. An important feature of micromixer which is not considered before by researchers is the particle entrance arrangement into the micromixer. This parameter could effectively affect the micromixer efficiency. There are two general micro magnetic particle entrance arrangements in magnetic bead micromixers: determined position entrance and random position entrance. In the case of determined position entrances, micro magnetic particles enter the micromixer at specific positions of entrance cross section. However, in a random position entrance,particles enter the microchannel with no order. In this study mixing efficiencies of identical magnetic bead micromixers which only differ in particle entrance arrangement are numerically investigated and compared.The results reported in this paper illustrate that the prepared computer code can be one of the most powerful and beneficial tools for the magnetic bead micromixer performance analysis. In addition, the results show that some features of the magnetic bead micromixer are strongly affected by the entrance arrangement of the particles.

  2. Entrance-channel effects in the population of superdeformed bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.; Haas, B.; Alderson, A.; Ali, I.; Beausang, C.W.; Bentley, M.A.; Dagnall, P.; Fallon, P.; de France, G.; Forsyth, P.D.; Huttmeier, U.; Romain, P.; Santos, D.; Twin, P.J.; Vivien, J.P. (Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom) Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, F-67037 Strasbourg CEDEX (France) Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-13

    In order to investigate whether entrance-channel effects influence the production of superdeformed nuclei, we have measured the yield of the yrast superdeformed band in {sup 152}Dy populated via nearly mass-symmetric ({sup 82}Se+{sup 74}Ge) and mass-asymmetric ({sup 48}Ca+{sup 108}Pd, {sup 36}S+{sup 120}Sn) fusion reactions leading to the same compound nucleus at similar excitation energies and angular momenta. Large differences in the relative intensity of the band compared with the total yield of the nucleus are observed in the various reactions. This effect indicates that the competition between fission and neutron evaporation is affected by the mode of formation of the fusing system.

  3. Radon Protection in the Technical Building Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frutos, B.; Garcia, J. P.; Martin, J. L.; Olaya, M.; Serrano, J I.; Suarez, E.; Fernandez, J. A.; Rodrigo, F.

    2003-01-01

    Building construction in areas with high radon gas contamination in land requires the incorporation of certain measures in order to prevent the accumulation of this gas on the inside of buildings. These measures should be considered primarily in the design and construction phases and should take the area of the country into consideration where the construction will take place depending on the potential risk of radon entrance. Within the Technical Building Code, radon protection has been considered through general classification of the country and specific areas where building construction is to take place, in different risk categories and in the introduction of building techniques appropriate for each area. (Author) 17 refs

  4. Proposals for Standardizing and Improving the Policy of Adding Points on the Entrance Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhong, Deng

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews policies for adding points on the College Entrance Examination. It analyzes the rationales and specific implementation strategies of various policies for adding points on the entrance exam, as well as their advantages and pitfalls. Based on these observations and analysis, the author also offers policy recommendations on the…

  5. Heat transfer in the thermal entrance region of a circular tube with axial heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Changquan.

    1985-01-01

    This paper recounts the effects of axial heat conduction and convective boundary conditions on the heat transfer in the thermal entrance region of a circular tube under uniform flow, and the corresponding calculation is made. It will be profitable for the heat transfer studies on the pipe entrance region of low Prandtl number (liquid metal), or flow of low Peclet number. (author)

  6. 50 CFR 25.53 - Establishment of single visit entrance fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fees. 25.53 Section 25.53 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Fees and Charges § 25.53 Establishment of single visit entrance fees. Entrance fees established for single visit...

  7. Determination of Entrance Skin Doses and Organ Doses for Medical X Ray Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, C.J.; Cheng, C.Y.; Chao, T.C.; Tsai, H.Y.

    1999-01-01

    A national survey of patient doses for diagnostic X ray radiographs is planned in Taiwan. Entrance skin doses and organ doses for all installed X ray machines will be investigated. A pilot study has been carried out for the national survey to develop a protocol for the dose assessment. Entrance skin doses and organ doses were measured by thermoluminescence dosemeters and calculated by Monte Carlo simulations for several X ray examinations. The conversion factor from free air entrance absorbed dose to entrance skin dose was derived. A formula for the computation of entrance skin doses from inputs of kV p , mA.s, source to skin distance, aluminium filtration, and generator rectifying was constructed. Organ doses were measured using a RANDO phantom and calculated using a mathematical phantom. All data will be passed to the Atomic Energy Council for developing a programme of national survey and regulatory controls for diagnostic X ray examinations. (author)

  8. Entrance and Exit CSR Impedance for Non-Ultrarelativistic Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rui; Tsai, Cheng Ying [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    For a high-brightness electron beam being transported through beamlines involving bending systems, the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and longitudinal space charge (LSC) interaction could often cause microbunching instability. The semi-analytical Vlasov solver for microbunching gain* depends on the impedances for the relevant collective effects. The existing results for CSR impedances are usually obtained for the ultrarelativistic limit. To extend the microbunching analysis to cases of low energies, such as the case of an ERL merger, or to density modulations at extremely small wavelength, it is necessary to extend the impedance analysis to the non-ultrarelativistic regime. In this study, we present the impedance analysis for the transient CSR interaction in the non-ultrarelativistic regime, for transients including both entrance to and exit from a magnetic dipole. These impedance results will be compared to their ultra-relativistic counterparts**, and the corresponding wakefield obtained from the impedance for low-energy beams will be compared with the existing results of transient CSR wakefield for general beam energies***.

  9. Entrance surface dose in cerebral interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera-Rico, M.; López-Rendón, X.; Rivera-Ordóñez, C. E.; Gamboa-deBuen, I.

    2012-01-01

    At the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (INNN) diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures of interventional radiology are carried out. Since the procedures can last from some minutes to several hours, the absorbed dose for the patient could increase dangerously. An investigation had begun in order to determine the entrance surface dose (ESD) using 25 thermoluminiscent dosimeters TLD-100 and 8 strips of 15 ×1 cm 2 of Gafchromic XR-QA2 film bound in a holder of 15×15 cm 2 in the posteroanterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) positions during all the procedure. The results show that maximum ESD could be from 0.9 to 2.9 Gy for the PA position and between 1.6 and 2.5 Gy for the lateral position. The average ESD was between 0.7 and 1.3 Gy for the PA position, and from 0.44 to 1.1 Gy for the lateral position in a therapeutic procedure.

  10. Entrance surface dose in cerebral interventional radiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Rico, M.; Lopez-Rendon, X.; Rivera-Ordonez, C. E.; Gamboa-deBuen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suarez, 14269 DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 DF (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    At the Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia (INNN) diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures of interventional radiology are carried out. Since the procedures can last from some minutes to several hours, the absorbed dose for the patient could increase dangerously. An investigation had begun in order to determine the entrance surface dose (ESD) using 25 thermoluminiscent dosimeters TLD-100 and 8 strips of 15 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2} of Gafchromic XR-QA2 film bound in a holder of 15 Multiplication-Sign 15 cm{sup 2} in the posteroanterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) positions during all the procedure. The results show that maximum ESD could be from 0.9 to 2.9 Gy for the PA position and between 1.6 and 2.5 Gy for the lateral position. The average ESD was between 0.7 and 1.3 Gy for the PA position, and from 0.44 to 1.1 Gy for the lateral position in a therapeutic procedure.

  11. Measuring hand hygiene compliance rates at hospital entrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidotas, Marina; Yokota, Paula Kiyomi Onaga; Marra, Alexandre R; Camargo, Thiago Zinsly Sampaio; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Gysi, Deisy Morselli; Leal, Flavio; Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos; Edmond, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in the health care setting, there are no studies evaluating hand hygiene compliance at hospital entrances. The study was prospectively performed over a 33-week period from March 30, 2014-November 15, 2014, to evaluate hand hygiene compliance in 2 hospital reception areas. We compared electronic handwash counters with the application of radiofrequency identification (GOJO SMARTLINK) (electronic observer) that counts each activation of alcohol gel dispensers to direct observation (human observer) via remote review of video surveillance. We found low hand hygiene compliance rates of 2.2% (99/4,412) and 1.7% (140/8,277), respectively, at reception areas A and D, detected by direct observation. Using the electronic observer, we measured rates of 17% (15,624/91,724) and 7.1% (51,605/730,357) at reception areas A and D, respectively. For the overall time period of simultaneous electronic and human observation, the human observer captured 1% of the hand hygiene episodes detected by the electronic observer. Our study showed very low hand hygiene compliance in hospital reception areas, and we found an electronic hand hygiene system to be a useful method to monitor hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Entrance surface dose measurements in mammography using thermoluminescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, T.; Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E; Azorin, J.; Gonzalez, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Of the various techniques that can be used for personnel dosimetry, thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) has emerged as a superior technique due to its manifold advantages over other methods of dose estimation. Various phosphors have been therefore investigated regarding their suitability for dosimetry. In this paper, a dosimetry system based on thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) from zirconium oxide phosphors embedded in polytetrafluorethylene (ZrO 2 +PTFE) was developed for entrance surface doses (ES) measurements in mammography. Small ZrO 2 pellets of 5 mm in diameter and 0.8 mm in thickness were used. The reproducibility of measurements and linearity of ZrO 2 were also studied. The results were compared with those obtained from LiF:Mg,Cu,P usually used for the determination of absorbed dose in mammography. Measurements both per unit air kerma and In vivo were performed using a mammography unit model DMR (General Electric). The results showed that ZrO 2 TLDs can be used for the same X-ray dosimetry applications as LiF:Mg,Cu,P, with each type having the disadvantage of a response dependent on energy, particularly at low energies. These results indicate a considerable potential for use in routine control and In vivo ES measurements in mammography. (Author)

  13. An Extra Push from Entrance-Channel Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grar, Nabila; Rowley, Neil

    2006-01-01

    The fusion probability for heavy symmetric systems is known to show certain very specific features. Apart from the large variance of the fusion barrier distribution, it is found that the energy at which the s-wave transmission is 0.5 is shifted to an energy significantly higher than the nominal (e.g. Bass) Coulomb barrier. This last feature is referred to in the literature as the 'extra push' effect. Many models have been devised to explain the origin of these findings. It is worth noting, however, that despite the extra push, the capture cross section is still greatly enhanced at the very lowest energies. This fact cannot be explained within the framework of macroscopic theories involving conditional saddle points or frictional forces. We have performed full coupled-channel calculations for heavy, symmetric systems treating correctly the long-range Coulomb excitations of the collective quadrupole- and octupole-phonon states in the target and projectile. The results obtained show that the extra push and the overall shape of the fusion probability are simply explained by these entrance-channel effects

  14. Novel spherical hohlraum with cylindrical laser entrance holes and shields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Ke [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zheng, Wudi [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Our recent works [K. Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 010704 (2014); K. Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 052704 (2014)] have shown that the octahedral spherical hohlraums are superior to the cylindrical hohlraums in both higher symmetry during the capsule implosion and lower backscatter without supplementary technology. However, both the coupling efficiency from the drive laser energy to the capsule and the capsule symmetry decrease remarkably when larger laser entrance holes (LEHs) are used. In addition, the laser beams injected at angles > 45° transport close to the hohlraum wall, thus the wall blowoff causes the LEH to close faster and results in strong laser plasma interactions inside the spherical hohlraums. In this letter, we propose a novel octahedral hohlraum with LEH shields and cylindrical LEHs to alleviate these problems. From our theoretical study, with the LEH shields, the laser coupling efficiency is significantly increased and the capsule symmetry is remarkably improved in the spherical hohlraums. The cylindrical LEHs take advantage of the cylindrical hohlraum near the LEH and mitigate the influence of the blowoff on laser transport inside a spherical hohlraum. The cylindrical LEHs can also be applied to the rugby and elliptical hohlraums.

  15. Novel spherical hohlraum with cylindrical laser entrance holes and shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Ke; Zheng, Wudi

    2014-01-01

    Our recent works [K. Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 010704 (2014); K. Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 052704 (2014)] have shown that the octahedral spherical hohlraums are superior to the cylindrical hohlraums in both higher symmetry during the capsule implosion and lower backscatter without supplementary technology. However, both the coupling efficiency from the drive laser energy to the capsule and the capsule symmetry decrease remarkably when larger laser entrance holes (LEHs) are used. In addition, the laser beams injected at angles > 45° transport close to the hohlraum wall, thus the wall blowoff causes the LEH to close faster and results in strong laser plasma interactions inside the spherical hohlraums. In this letter, we propose a novel octahedral hohlraum with LEH shields and cylindrical LEHs to alleviate these problems. From our theoretical study, with the LEH shields, the laser coupling efficiency is significantly increased and the capsule symmetry is remarkably improved in the spherical hohlraums. The cylindrical LEHs take advantage of the cylindrical hohlraum near the LEH and mitigate the influence of the blowoff on laser transport inside a spherical hohlraum. The cylindrical LEHs can also be applied to the rugby and elliptical hohlraums

  16. Preequilibrium GDR excitation and entrance channel angular momentum effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoli, M.; Campajola, L.; De Rosa, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; La Commara, M.; Ordine, A.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Roca, V.; Romano, M.; Romoli, M.; Terrasi, F.; Trotta, M.; Cardella, G.; Papa, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Rizzo, F.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Gillibert, A.

    1997-01-01

    The energy spectra of the γ-rays emitted in the 35 Cl+ 92 Mo reaction at incident energy E=260 MeV were measured in coincidence with the ejectiles produced in dissipative reaction events. The cumulative energy spectrum of the γ-rays coming from the decay of the ejectiles was calculated within the statistical model and its comparison to the experimental spectrum evidences an excess in the data for E γ =8 to 12 MeV. Such an excess, fitted with a Lorentz curve, is attributed to the preequilibrium GDR γ-decay of the intermediate dinuclear system. The centroid energy of the Lorentz curve corresponds to a dipole oscillation along the symmetry axis of the system and its width is found to be comparable to that of the ground state GDR low energy component of the deformed dinucleus. The small quantal dispersion Δl=(10.3±0.1)ℎ of the entrance channel angular momentum, determined by analysing the dissipative fragment angular distribution in the framework of the Strutinsky model, is suggested to limit the broadening of the preequilibrium GDR width. (orig.)

  17. Radioactive substances detection at solid waste incinerators entrance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourjat, V.; Carre, J.; Perrier-Rosset, A.

    2001-01-01

    SYCTOM'S incinerators, operated by TIRU will soon be fitted out with radioactivity control systems to prevent entrance of radioactive waste. Such implementation aims at reducing health risks due to exposition of operators working in incinerators or in sites receiving incineration residues. Radioactive wastes are supposed to be well managed: in the case where the radioactive elements period is short, they have to be stored for a precise time; in all the other cases, a statutory organism dealing with radioactive waste (ANDRA) has to take charge of them. Meanwhile they may arrived in incinerators by mistake. It's difficult to regulate radioactivity control systems for technical reasons; the measured values can be really different from these in the truck because of radiation decreasing; moreover it can't be correlated to an activity, hence it can't be compared to exemption values or to the limits that characterise a radioactive substance. It can explain why regulated documents don't indicate the way to fix alarm threshold. Implementing such a system is not sufficient: when the alarm sound, the following steps can be applied: checking the missing of interference, potential truck return to sender, putting the truck in quarantine, information of authorities and main actors, calling on a specialize company to locate, extract and package the radiation source, storage of this source and spectrometric analysis to identify and quantify the radioactive elements in order to determinate its way of elimination. (authors)

  18. Application of personal computer to development of entrance management system for radiating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Hirai, Shouji

    1989-01-01

    The report describes a system for managing the entrance and exit of personnel to radiating facilities. A personal computer is applied to its development. Major features of the system is outlined first. The computer is connected to the gate and two magnetic card readers provided at the gate. The gate, which is installed at the entrance to a room under control, opens only for those who have a valid card. The entrance-exit management program developed is described next. The following three files are used: ID master file (random file of the magnetic card number, name, qualification, etc., of each card carrier), entrance-exit management file (random file of time of entrance/exit, etc., updated everyday), and entrance-exit record file (sequential file of card number, name, date, etc.), which are stored on floppy disks. A display is provided to show various lists including a list of workers currently in the room and a list of workers who left the room at earlier times of the day. This system is useful for entrance management of a relatively small facility. Though small in required cost, it requires only a few operators to perform effective personnel management. (N.K.)

  19. Vehicle operation characteristic under different ramp entrance conditions in underground road: Analysis, simulation and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiming; Liu, Shuo; Liu, Yang

    2018-05-01

    An experimental design was used to study the vehicle operation characteristics of different ramp entrance conditions in underground road. With driving simulator, the experimental scenarios include left or right ramp with first, second and third service level, respectively, to collect vehicle speed, acceleration, lateral displacement and location information at the ramp entrance section. By using paired t-test and ANOVA, the influence factors of vehicle operating characteristics are studied. The result shows that effects of ramp layout and mainline traffic environment on vehicle operation characteristics are significant. The regression model of vehicle traveling distance on acceleration lane is established. Suggestions are made for ramp entrance design of underground road.

  20. Evaluation of skin entrance dose imparted on pediatric patients by thorax exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mercia L.; Khoury, Helen; Drexler, Guenter; GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg; Barros, Edison

    2001-01-01

    In this work the results of a survey of skin entrance dose imparted on pediatric patients are present. Positioning the thermo luminescence dosimeters in contact with the patient's skin, in the center of the incident X-ray beam, collected the skin entrance dose data. The patients were grouped in five age groups: infants, 1,1 to 4 years, 4,1 to 6 years, 6,1 to 10 years and older than 10 years. The results show that the average of skin entrance doses is very higher as compared to the European Community Commission reference levels and to other values found in literature. (author)

  1. The accumulation of a chemical cue: nest-entrance trail in the German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Jennifer M.; Curry, Christine; Hemauer, Sarah; Jeanne, Robert L.

    2005-05-01

    Vespine wasps have been shown to deposit an attractive chemical in the nest entrance. Foragers use this to help locate the nest when returning to it. We determined how many individuals need to track (pass through) the entrance before the chemical is recognized. We found a logistic response as the number of tracks increased. At 200 tracks and above there was a 75 90% positive response rate to the chemical. We found no evidence of trail-marking behavior performed by foragers inside the nest entrance. We conclude that the trail is not an evolved signal, but is a cue composed of an accumulation of hydrocarbons deposited from the legs or feet of workers as they walk on a substrate. This is the first quantitative measurement of the attractiveness of the nest-entrance chemical in a social wasp.

  2. Dosimetry of Occupationally Exposed Persons in Diagnostic and Interventional Arteriography. Part 1: Assessment of Entrance Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kicken, P.J.H.; Kemerink, G.J.; Engelshoven, J.M.A. van

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain representative quantitative information on exposure conditions and entrance doses of occupationally exposed persons (workers) in diagnostic and interventional arteriography. In a study in three hospitals all parameters of the X ray systems that are related to the exposure of workers were quantified with an automatic data acquisition system. Using LiF thermoluminescence dosemeters, entrance doses to workers were measured at the forehead, neck, thorax, abdomen, upper arms, hands and lower legs. Measurements were performed during 353 procedures, and it was found that exposure of workers was predominantly caused by fluoroscopy. Averaged over all procedures in the annual workload, entrance doses were below 120 μGy when an undercouch X ray tube and a mechanical contrast injector were used. For an overcouch tube the doses were higher. It is concluded that entrance doses are low, and that legally established annual dose limits are un-likely to be exceeded. (author)

  3. Entrance surface dose measurements in pediatric radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, L.A.; Yoshimura, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of pediatric radiological examinations was carried out in a reference pediatric hospital of the city of Sao Paulo, in order to investigate the doses to children undergoing conventional X-ray examinations. The results showed that the majority of pediatric patients are below 4 years, and that about 80% of the examinations correspond to chest projections. Doses to typical radiological examinations were measured in vivo with thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF: Mg, Ti and LiF: Mg, Cu, P) attached to the skin of the children to determine entrance surface dose (ESD). Also homogeneous phantoms were used to obtain ESD to younger children, because the technique uses a so small kVp that the dosimeters would produce an artifact image in the patient radiograph. Four kinds of pediatric examinations were investigated: three conventional examinations (chest, skull and abdomen) and a fluoroscopic procedure (barium swallow). Relevant information about kVp and mAs values used in the examinations was collected, and we discuss how these parameters can affect the ESD. The ESD values measured in this work are compared to reference levels published by the European Commission for pediatric patients. The results obtained (third-quartile of the ESD distribution) for chest AP examinations in three age groups were: 0.056 mGy (2-4 years old); 0.068 mGy (5-9 years old); 0.069 mGy (10-15 years old). All of them are below the European reference level (0.100 mGy). ESD values measured to the older age group in skull and abdomen AP radiographs (mean values 3.44 and 1.20 mGy, respectively) are above the European reference levels (1.5 mGy to skull and 1.0 mGy to abdomen). ESD values measured in the barium swallow examination reached 10 mGy in skin regions corresponding to thyroid and esophagus. It was noticed during this survey that some technicians use, improperly, X-ray fluoroscopy in conventional examinations to help them in positioning the patient. The results presented here are a

  4. Effect of private tutoring on university entrance examination performance in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel, Aysit; Bircan, Fatma

    2005-01-01

    There is an excess demand for university education in Turkey. Highly competitive university entrance examination which rations the available places at university programs is very central to the lives of young people. In order to increase the chances of success of their children in the university entrance examination parents spend large sums of money on private tutoring (dersane) of their children. In this study, we investigate the factors that determine participation in private tutoring and t...

  5. Does China¡¯s National College Entrance Exam Effectively Evaluate Applicants?

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Hu; Feng Li; Li Gan

    2014-01-01

    Based on micro-level student data from one Chinese academic institution, we study the validity of the national college entrance exam from the perspective of student performance in college and employment prospects after graduation. We find that the current college entrance exam could reflect the students¡¯ learning ability to a certain degree, providing a relatively valid evaluation. Demonstration of well-rounded development ability should be an important factor in the evaluation system. Based...

  6. Correlation and uncertainties evaluation in backscattering of entrance surface air kerma measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, G.J.; Sousa, C.H.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P., E-mail: gt@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The air kerma measurement is important to verify the applied doses in radiodiagnostic. The literature determines some methods to measure the entrance surface air kerma or entrance surface dose but some of this methods may increase the measurement with the backscattering. Were done setups of measurements to do correlations between them. The expanded uncertainty exceeded 5% for measurements with backscattering, reaching 8.36%, while in situations where the backscattering was avoided, the uncertainty was 3.43%. (author)

  7. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Waste Processors Management Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a cooperative agreement with the USDOE to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US that produces ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP will emphasize on reclaiming and gasifying low-cost coal waste and/or its mixture as the primary feedstocks. The project consists of three phases. Phase I objectives include conceptual development, technical assessment, feasibility design and economic evaluation of a Greenfield commercial co-production plant and a site specific demonstration EECP to be located adjacent to the existing WMPI Gilberton Power Station. There is very little foreseen design differences between the Greenfield commercial coproduction plant versus the EECP plant other than: The greenfield commercial plant will be a stand alone FT/power co-production plant, potentially larger in capacity to take full advantage of economy of scale, and to be located in either western Pennsylvania, West Virginia or Ohio, using bituminous coal waste (gob) and Pennsylvania No.8 coal or other comparable coal as the feedstock; The EECP plant, on the other hand, will be a nominal 5000 bpd plant, fully integrated into the Gilbertson Power Company's Cogeneration Plant to take advantage of the existing infrastructure to reduce cost and minimize project risk. The Gilberton EECP plant will be designed to use eastern Pennsylvania anthracite coal waste and/or its mixture as feedstock

  8. Engineering geologic conditions at the sinkhole entrance to Logan Cave, Benton County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; McKenna, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    Logan Cave, located in Benton County, Arkansas, is inhabited by several endangered and threatened species. The cave and surrounding area was designated a National Wildlife Refuge under the control of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1989. Cave researchers access the cave through a steep-sided sinkhole entrance, which also is one of the two access points used by endangered bats. There is evidence of instability of one of the entrance slopes that has raised concerns that the entrance could close if slope failure was to occur. At the request of USFWS, we performed an engineering geologic investigation of the sinkhole to evaluate stability of this slope, which is comprised of soil, and other mechanisms of sediment transport into the cave entrance. The investigation included engineering geologic mapping, sampling and laboratory testing of subsurface geologic materials, and slope-stability analysis. We found that the sinkhole slope that extends into the entrance of the cave is comprised of sandy and gravelly soil to the depths explored (6.4 meters). This soil likely was deposited as alluvium within a previous, larger sinkhole. Based on properties of the alluvium, geometry of the slope, and results of finite-element slope-stability analyses, we conclude that the slope is marginally stable. Future failures of the slope probably would be relatively thin and small, thus several would be required to completely close the cave entrance. However, sediment is accumulating within the cave entrance due to foot traffic of those accessing the cave, surface-water erosion and transport, and shallow slope failures from the other sinkhole slopes. We conclude that the entrance will be closed by sediment in the future, similar to another entrance that we identified that completely closed in the past. Several measures could be taken to reduce the potential for closure of the cave entrance, including periodic sediment removal, installation of materials that reduce erosion by

  9. Renovating the Main Building

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN's "Main Building" is exactly that. The Organization's central hub, with hundreds of staff and visitors passing through its doors every day, will soon be getting a well-earned facelift. Refurbishment work will proceed in phases, starting with the Salle des Pas Perdus, the concourse between the Council Chamber and the Main Auditorium. By the end of August, informal seating areas will be installed, electronic display panels will provide practical information and improved sound insulation will enhance conditions in the auditoria and surrounding meeting rooms.   In light green the area that will undergo the facelift. Work will start in July. The ground floor is home to the entrance to Restaurant No. 1, the bank, the post office, the travel agent, the Users Office, the Staff Association, the notice boards etc. Step up to the first floor to access CERN's largest lecture theatre, the Council Chamber and its "Pas Perdus" lobby. Everyone who works at or visits CERN i...

  10. The Effect of the Pore Entrance on Particle Motion in Slit Pores: Implications for Ultrathin Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Armin; Baltus, Ruth

    2017-08-10

    Membrane rejection models generally neglect the effect of the pore entrance on intrapore particle transport. However, entrance effects are expected to be particularly important with ultrathin membranes, where membrane thickness is typically comparable to pore size. In this work, a 2D model was developed to simulate particle motion for spherical particles moving at small Re and infinite Pe from the reservoir outside the pore into a slit pore. Using a finite element method, particles were tracked as they accelerated across the pore entrance until they reached a steady velocity in the pore. The axial position in the pore where particle motion becomes steady is defined as the particle entrance length (PEL). PELs were found to be comparable to the fluid entrance length, larger than the pore size and larger than the thickness typical of many ultrathin membranes. Results also show that, in the absence of particle diffusion, hydrodynamic particle-membrane interactions at the pore mouth result in particle "funneling" in the pore, yielding cross-pore particle concentration profiles focused at the pore centerline. The implications of these phenomena on rejection from ultrathin membranes are examined.

  11. Public Service Entrance Examinations for Executive Secretary Position in Federal Institutions of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Nunes de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The professional with a bachelor in Secretarial Science is increasingly placed on the labor market, both in the private and the public sector. However, recent public service entrance examination, on several occasions, offer positions for executive secretary – in which, neither the undergraduate degree in Secretarial Science nor the professional registry is mandatory, allowing undergraduates in different areas enter the public sector as executive secretaries. On the above, this article aims at identifying and introduce the public service entrance examinations for executive secretary, specifically in the Federal Institutions of Higher Education (IFES, from 2009 to 2015. It was identified 110 public service entrance examination rules which provided 531 positions. Of these, only 308 positions (from 57 public service entrance examination rules were exclusively intended for applicants professionally qualified according to the Law No 7.377 of September 30th, 1985. It was noted that some IFES did not demand, in their public service entrance examination rules, the professional qualification required by the Circular Letter No 015/2005 from MEC, causing a loss to the professionals with the professional qualification.

  12. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Rich

    2001-03-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co--product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases: Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's third quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from October 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001.

  13. A novel beam focus control at the entrance to the ANU 14UD accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cesare, M.; Weisser, D. C.; Fifield, L. K.; Tunningley, T. B.; Lobanov, N. R.

    2013-01-01

    Tandem electrostatic accelerators often require the flexibility to operate at variety of terminal voltages to cater for various user needs. However beam transmission will only be optimal for a limited range of terminal voltages. This paper describes a focussing system that greatly expands the range of terminal voltages for optimal transmission. This is achieved by controlling the gradient of the entrance of the low-energy tube providing an additional controllable focusing element. Up to 150 kV is applied to the fifth electrode of the first unit of the accelerator tube giving control of the tube entrance lens strength. Beam tests to confirm the efficacy of the lens have been performed. These tests demonstrate that the entrance lens control eliminates the need to short out sections of the tube for low terminal voltage operation. (authors)

  14. Investigation of entrance length in circular and noncircular conduits by computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimpun Tongpun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated entrance length of circular and noncircular conduits, including circle, triangle, square and hexagon cross-sectional conduit, by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. For simulation condition, the length of noncircular conduit was 10 m and the hydraulic diameter was 0.2 m. The laminar flow with Reynolds number of 500 and turbulent flow with Reynolds number of 50,000 were applied to investigate water flow in conduits. The governing equations were solved iteratively by using ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. For turbulent flow simulation, standard k-epsilon and RNG k-epsilon model were employed to simulate turbulence. The preliminary results were validated by comparison with theoretical data. At first, grid independency was evaluated to optimize the model. Norm* was employed to investigate the entrance length, which is related to velocity. The simulated results revealed that the entrance length for laminar flow was longer than turbulent flow.

  15. Safety Evaluation of the Lighting at the Entrance of a Very Long Road Tunnel: A Case Study in Ilam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mehri

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: A comparison between the results of the safe levels of lighting at the entrance of the tunnel and the De Boer scale showed that the phenomenon of black holes is created at the tunnel entrance. This may lead to a misadaptation of the drivers’ eyes to the change in luminance level at the entrance of the tunnel, thereby increasing the risk of road accidents in this zone.

  16. Prediction of midline dose from entrance ad exit dose using OSLD measurements for total irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Heon; Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Chun, Min Soo; Han, Ji Hye; Cho, Jin Dong; Kim, Jung In [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This study aims to predict the midline dose based on the entrance and exit doses from optically stimulated luminescence detector (OSLD) measurements for total body irradiation (TBI). For TBI treatment, beam data sets were measured for 6 MV and 15 MV beams. To evaluate the tissue lateral effect of various thicknesses, the midline dose and peak dose were measured using a solid water phantom (SWP) and ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were measured using OSLDs. OSLDs were attached onto the central beam axis at the entrance and exit surfaces of the phantom. The predicted midline dose was evaluated as the sum of the entrance and exit doses by OSLD measurement. The ratio of the entrance dose to the exit dose was evaluated at various thicknesses. The ratio of the peak dose to the midline dose was 1.12 for a 30 cm thick SWP at both energies. When the patient thickness is greater than 30 cm, the 15 MV should be used to ensure dose homogeneity. The ratio of the entrance dose to the exit dose was less than 1.0 for thicknesses of less than 30 cm and 40 cm at 6 MV and 15 MV, respectively. Therefore, the predicted midline dose can be underestimated for thinner body. At 15 MV, the ratios were approximately 1.06 for a thickness of 50 cm. In cases where adult patients are treated with the 15 MV photon beam, it is possible for the predicted midline dose to be overestimated for parts of the body with a thickness of 50 cm or greater. The predicted midline dose and OSLD-measured midline dose depend on the phantom thickness. For in-vivo dosimetry of TBI, the measurement dose should be corrected in order to accurately predict the midline dose.

  17. Effects of Magnetic Particles Entrance Arrange-ments on Mixing Efficiency of a Magnetic Bead Micromixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Kamali∗; Seyed Alireza Shekoohi; Alireza Binesh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a computer code is developed to numerically investigate a magnetic bead micromixer under different conditions. The micromixer consists of a microchannel and numerous micro magnetic particles which enter the micromixer by fluid flows and are actuated by an alternating magnetic field normal to the main flow. An important feature of micromixer which is not considered before by researchers is the particle entrance arrangement into the micromixer. This parameter could effectively affect the micromixer efficiency. There are two general micro magnetic particle entrance arrangements in magnetic bead micromixers: determined position entrance and random position entrance. In the case of determined position entrances, micro magnetic particles enter the micromixer at specific positions of entrance cross section. However, in a random position entrance, particles enter the microchannel with no order. In this study mixing efficiencies of identical magnetic bead micromixers which only differ in particle entrance arrangement are numerically investigated and compared. The results reported in this paper illustrate that the prepared computer code can be one of the most powerful and beneficial tools for the magnetic bead micromixer performance analysis. In addition, the results show that some features of the magnetic bead micromixer are strongly affected by the entrance arrangement of the particles.

  18. Analysis of the Existing Parameters of the Ports Entrances in the World in Terms of Their Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Kosc‐Pawlicka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the statistical parameters of waterways forming the entrance to the port and the construction of a model for determining the optimum parameters of the entrance to the port. It has been analyzed parameters of the entrances to the 100 selected global ports, based on the analysis it was examined the interdependence between certain parameters and the impact they have on the maximum size of the ship which can enter to the port. This analysis allowed to develop a model, which can possible to be applied to the entrance of initial port design.

  19. Why Do Some Estuaries Close: A Model of Estuary Entrance Morphodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, S. L.; Kennedy, D. M.; Rutherfurd, I.

    2014-12-01

    Intermittently Closed/Open Coastal Lakes/Lagoons (ICOLLs) are a form of wave-dominated, microtidal estuary that experience periodic closure in times of low river flow. ICOLL entrance morphodynamics are complex due to the interaction between wave, tidal and fluvial processes. Managers invest substantial funds to artificially open ICOLLs as they flood surrounding property and infrastructure, and have poor water quality. Existing studies examine broad scale processes but do not identify the main drivers of entrance condition. In this research, the changes in entrance geomorphology were surveyed before and after artificial entrance openings in three ICOLLs in Victoria, Australia. Changes in morphology were related to continuous measures of sediment volume, water level, tide and wave energy. A six-stage quantitative phase model of entrance geomorphology and hydrodynamics is presented to illustrate the spatio-temporal variability in ICOLL entrance morphodynamics. Phases include: breakout; channel expansion with rapid outflow; open with tidal exchange; initial berm rebuilding with tidal attenuation; partial berm recovery with rising water levels; closed with perched water levels. Entrance breakout initiates incision of a pilot channel to the ocean, whereby basin water levels then decline and channel expansion as the headcut migrates landwards. Peak outflow velocities of 5 m/s-3 were recorded and channel dimensions increased over 6 hrs to 3.5 m deep and 140 m wide. When tidal, a clear semi-diurnal signal is superimposed upon an otherwise stable water level. Deep-water wave energy was transferred 1.8 km upstream of the rivermouth with bores present in the basin. Berm rebuilding occurred by littoral drift and cross-shore transport once outflow ceased and microscale bedform features, particularly antidunes, contributed to sediment progradation. Phase duration is dependant on how high the estuary was perched above mean sea level, tidal prism extent, and onshore sediment supply

  20. Case Study: Wenduine, Belgium : Vulnerability of buildings on a coastal dike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    On coastal dikes in Belgium, many residential buildings are found. Most of the old buildings are masonry structures with two to three floors (Figure 1). The ground floors are always elevated (Figure 2), and the entrances of the basements are closed by shutters

  1. Sleep Patterns and Academic Performance during Preparation for College Entrance Exam in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghai; Ren, Fen; Liu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangxing; Jiang, Fan; Skora, Elizabeth; Lewin, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deficient sleep is linked to detrimental outcomes in health and school performance for adolescents. This study characterized sleep patterns in Chinese adolescents preparing for the College Entrance Exam (CEE) and evaluated the association between sleep patterns, self-rated academic performance, and the CEE scores. Methods: A sample of…

  2. Application of work load spectra for estimative of the skin entrance dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, P.A.A.; Furquim, T.A.C.; Costa, P.R.

    2004-01-01

    The present work refers to obtaining data for the determination of workload spectra related to the use of different radiological equipment. The obtained information was stored in a data base developed for this working program. Values of skin entrance dose were obtained bu using the results of the field research (performed in radiological clinics and hospitals of Sao Paulo). (author)

  3. Determination of entrance skin dose from diagnostic X-ray of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patient during x-ray examination in Federal Medical Centre, Keffi in Nasarawa state, Nigeria. Entrance skin doses (ESDs) for a common type of x-ray procedures, namely chest AP/PA (anterior/posterior) were measured. A total of 200 data were collected from patients who were exposed to diagnostic X-ray during their routine ...

  4. Learning beyond graduation: exploring newly qualified specialists' entrance into daily practice from a learning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyvers, Katrien; Donche, Vincent; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2016-05-01

    The entrance of newly qualified medical specialists into daily practice is considered to be a stressful period in which curriculum support is absent. Although engaging in both personal and professional learning and development activities is recognized fundamental for lifelong professional competence, research on medical professionals' entrance into practice is scarce. This research aims to contribute to the framework of medical professionals' informal learning and outlines the results of an exploratory study on the nature of learning in daily practice beyond postgraduate training. Eleven newly qualified physicians from different specialized backgrounds participated in a phenomenographic study, using a critical incident method and a grounded theory approach. Results demonstrated that learning in the workplace is, to a large extent, informal and associated with a variety of learning experiences. Analysis shows that experiences related to diagnostics and treatments are important sources for learning. Furthermore, incidents related to communication, changing roles, policy and organization offer learning opportunities, and therefore categorized as learning experiences. A broad range of learning activities are identified in dealing with these learning experiences. More specifically, actively engaging in actions and interactions, especially with colleagues of the same specialty, are the most mentioned. Observing others, consulting written sources, and recognizing uncertainties, are also referred to as learning activities. In the study, interaction, solely or combined with other learning activities, are deemed as very important by specialists in the initial entrance into practice. These insights can be used to develop workplace structures to support the entrance into practice following postgraduate training.

  5. Entrance Qualifications Affect the Performance of Nutrition Students at University: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Apenten, Richard; Xu, Wen Li

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of admissions qualifications on the subsequent academic performances of BSc nutrition students at a UK university. Entrance qualifications for three groups (Grp01, Grp02, Grp03) reading for a BSc(Hons) degree in, Dietetics, Food & Nutrition or Human Nutrition (n = 105) were determined from their UCAS…

  6. Mean temperature profile at the entrance of a thermoacoustic stacked screen heat exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bühler, Simon; wilcox, D; Oosterhuis, Joris; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2015-01-01

    In thermoacoustic devises, the thermoacoustic e ect occurs in the regenerator placed between two heat exchangers. The entrance e ects of such heat exchanger are investigated with two computational uid dynamics (CFD) test cases. The rst CFD test case models an ideal heat exchanger adjacent to an open

  7. Toward Implementing Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Assessment in the Official Spanish University Entrance Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Ana Gimeno; Pavón, Ana Sevilla

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 the Spanish Government announced the inclusion of an oral section in the foreign language exam of the National University Entrance Examination during the year 2012 (Royal Decree 1892/2008, of 14 November 2008, Ministerio de Educación, Gobierno de España, 2008). Still awaiting the implementation of these changes, and in an attempt to offer…

  8. 78 FR 64523 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Vessel Entrance or Clearance Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... respondents or record keepers from the collection of information (a total capital/startup costs and operations... vessel data at time of formal entrance and clearance in U.S. ports. The form allows the master to attest... Responses per Respondent: 22. Estimated Total Annual Responses: 264,000. Estimated Time per Response: 30...

  9. Investigating the Association between Turkish Freshman's Multiple Intelligence Profiles and University Entrance Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atas, Sait; Erisen, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Even though curriculum designers in Turkey considered Gardner's multiple intelligence theory as one of the most important theories during the curricula reform in 2005, the university entrance examination system is still on the basis of the two intelligence areas only, mathematical-logical and linguistics intelligence. The aim of this study was to…

  10. Skin entrance dose for digital and film radiography in Korean dental schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eun Sang; Choi, Kun Ho; Kim, Min Gyu; Lim, Hoi Jeong; Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    This study was aimed to compare skin entrance dose of digital radiography with that of film radiography and to show the dose reduction achievement with digital systems at 11 dental schools in Korea. Forty six intraoral radiographic systems in 11 dental schools were included in this study. Digital sensors were used in 33 systems and film was used in 13 systems. Researchers and the volunteer visited 11 dental schools in Korea. Researchers asked the radiologic technician at each school to set the exposure parameters and aiming the x-ray tube for the peri apical view of the mandibular molar of the volunteer. The skin entrance doses were measured at the same exposure parameters and distance by the technician for each system with a dosimeter (Multi-O-Meter; Unifors instruments, Billdal, Sweden). The median dose was 491.2 {mu}Gy for digital radiography and 1,205.0 {mu}Gy for film radiography. The skin entrance dose in digital radiography was significantly lower than that of film radiography (p<0.05). Fifty-nine percent skin entrance dose reduction with digital peri apical radiography was achieved over the film radiography in Korean dental schools.

  11. WIRED NEXTFest invites Virginia Tech architecture students, professor to create archway entrance to the festival

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2008-01-01

    An undergraduate student team from Virginia Tech's School of Architecture + Design in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies led by Terry Surjan, associate professor of architecture, is traveling to Chicago this month to erect and display an archway/pavilion entrance to WIRED magazine's highly acclaimed NEXTFest at Millennium Park.

  12. Protected area entrance fees in Tanzania: The search for competitiveness and value for money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Spenceley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available User fees charged by Tanzania’s Game Reserves (GR and Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs have not changed since 2008. Although previous research has been done on visitors’ willingness-to-pay to enter national parks in Tanzania, none has been conducted on GRs and WMAs. This article assesses the entrance fees in GRs and WMAs, by comparing them with equivalent fees charged in Tanzania (at national parks and the Ngorongoro Crater and also with regional protected areas in Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Based on 28 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholder institutions working on tourism and conservation and more than 50 online survey responses from Tanzanian tourism operators, the research reviews local opinion and issues relating to adjusting current entrance fees. The article considers that while one objective for generating revenue from entrance fees is for conservation management, it is difficult to establish appropriate fees where there are gaps in knowledge about existing levels of visitation, tourism revenue and associated management costs. Conservation implications: This article has implications for protected area management practices, as it provides information on processes by which managers can review and revise entrance fee values.

  13. Convergent evolution: floral guides, stingless bee nest entrances, and insectivorous pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Giurfa, Martin; Koedam, Dirk; Potts, Simon G.; Joel, Daniel M.; Dafni, Amots

    2005-09-01

    Several recent hypotheses, including sensory drive and sensory exploitation, suggest that receiver biases may drive selection of biological signals in the context of sexual selection. Here we suggest that a similar mechanism may have led to convergence of patterns in flowers, stingless bee nest entrances, and pitchers of insectivorous plants. A survey of these non-related visual stimuli shows that they share features such as stripes, dark centre, and peripheral dots. Next, we experimentally show that in stingless bees the close-up approach to a flower is guided by dark centre preference. Moreover, in the approach towards their nest entrance, they have a spontaneous preference for entrance patterns containing a dark centre and disrupted ornamentation. Together with existing empirical evidence on the honeybee's and other insects’ orientation to flowers, this suggests that the signal receivers of the natural patterns we examined, mainly Hymenoptera, have spontaneous preferences for radiating stripes, dark centres, and peripheral dots. These receiver biases may have evolved in other behavioural contexts in the ancestors of Hymenoptera, but our findings suggest that they have triggered the convergent evolution of visual stimuli in floral guides, stingless bee nest entrances, and insectivorous pitchers.

  14. Factors Affecting Individual Education Demand at the Entrance to University: Adnan Menderes University Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpkaya, Ruhi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the factors affecting individual education demands at the entrance to university. The research is in survey model. The universe of the study consists of 1630 freshmen at the faculties and vocational schools of Adnan Menderes University, Aydin. 574 students from 7 schools were included in the sample. The…

  15. Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group of…

  16. Skin entrance dose for digital and film radiography in Korean dental schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Eun Sang; Choi, Kun Ho; Kim, Min Gyu; Lim, Hoi Jeong; Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare skin entrance dose of digital radiography with that of film radiography and to show the dose reduction achievement with digital systems at 11 dental schools in Korea. Forty six intraoral radiographic systems in 11 dental schools were included in this study. Digital sensors were used in 33 systems and film was used in 13 systems. Researchers and the volunteer visited 11 dental schools in Korea. Researchers asked the radiologic technician at each school to set the exposure parameters and aiming the x-ray tube for the peri apical view of the mandibular molar of the volunteer. The skin entrance doses were measured at the same exposure parameters and distance by the technician for each system with a dosimeter (Multi-O-Meter; Unifors instruments, Billdal, Sweden). The median dose was 491.2 μGy for digital radiography and 1,205.0 μGy for film radiography. The skin entrance dose in digital radiography was significantly lower than that of film radiography (p<0.05). Fifty-nine percent skin entrance dose reduction with digital peri apical radiography was achieved over the film radiography in Korean dental schools.

  17. Entrance skin dose on patients undergoing X-ray examinations at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    survey was conducted on the Entrance Skin Dose (ESD) in patients undergoing X-ray examinations [Skull Postero-Anterior (PA), Skull Lateral (LAT), Chest Postero-Anterior (PA), Chest Lateral (LAT), Abdomen Antero-Posterior (AP) and Pelvis Antero-Posterior (AP)] in five hospitals/Xray centres in Yaba, Lagos State, Nigeria ...

  18. Calculation of midplane dose for total body irradiation from entrance and exit dose MOSFET measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satory, P R

    2012-03-01

    This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient.

  19. Family Background and Students' Achievement on a University Entrance Exam in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Juliana; Sampaio, Breno

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of students' performance on the entrance test at Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil. Particular attention is paid to the importance of family background variables, such as parents' education and family income, on students' performance and how they relate to the probability of attending public schools…

  20. Search for entrance-channel dependence in the population of superdeformed bands in {sup 191}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soramel, F.; Khoo, T.L.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The population intensity of some SD bands in the mass 150 region were observed to depend on the mass symmetry of the entrance channel in the fusion reaction. The authors raised the possibility that the population of SD bands had a memory of the entrance channel. To check this interesting possibility, we made measurements of the population intensities of superdeformed (SD) bands in the {sup 160}Gd({sup 36}S,5n){sup 191}Hg and {sup 130}Te({sup 64}Ni,3n){sup 191}Hg reactions. To ensure that any observed effect was not due to a simple angular momentum difference in the entrance channels, we also measured the average entry points and spin distributions of normal and SD states in {sup 191}Hg in the two reactions. The entry points and spin distributions for {sup 191}Hg are the same and, indeed, so are the SD intensities in the two reactions. Hence, no entrance-channel effect is observed in the population of the SD band in {sup 191}Hg, in contrast with data for SD bands in the mass 150 regions. We suggest that the effect observed previously in the mass 150 region is due to an angular momentum effect. A letter reporting our results was submitted for publication.

  1. Boundary conditions for plasma fluid models at the magnetic presheath entrance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loizu, J.; Ricci, P.; Halpern, F. D.; Jolliet, S.

    2012-01-01

    The proper boundary conditions at the magnetic presheath entrance for plasma fluid turbulence models based on the drift approximation are derived, focusing on a weakly collisional plasma sheath with T i ≪T e and a magnetic field oblique to a totally absorbing wall. First, the location of the magnetic presheath entrance is rigorously derived. Then boundary conditions at the magnetic presheath entrance are analytically deduced for v ||i , v ||e , n, φ, T e , and for the vorticity ω=∇ ⊥ 2 φ. The effects of E × B and diamagnetic drifts on the boundary conditions are also investigated. Kinetic simulations are performed that confirm the analytical results. Finally, the new set of boundary conditions is implemented in a three-dimensional global fluid code for the simulation of plasma turbulence and, as an example, the results of a tokamak scrape-off layer simulation are discussed. The framework presented can be generalized to obtain boundary conditions at the magnetic presheath entrance in more complex scenarios.

  2. Learning (Not) to become a Teacher: A Qualitative Analysis of the Job Entrance Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rots, Isabel; Kelchtermans, Geert; Aelterman, Antonia

    2012-01-01

    Reporting on 12 case studies of student teachers, this paper examines how experiences during teacher education affect graduates' decision on job entrance. Interpretative data-analysis reveals that powerful sources of the shift in motivation to enter teaching concern interactions in which the person of the teacher is at stake. These mainly involve…

  3. Prayer, Luck, and Spiritual Strength: The Desecularization of Entrance Examination Systems in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kangmin

    1996-01-01

    The socioeconomic importance and fierce competition related to high school and university entrance examinations in Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea lead students and their parents to seek spiritual support through prayer and religious rituals. Japanese students leave donations and written prayers and promises to the gods at Shinto shrines…

  4. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Water Quality between the Runoff Entrance and Middle of Recycling Irrigation Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recycling irrigation reservoirs (RIRs are an emerging aquatic ecosystem of critical importance, for conserving and protecting increasingly scarce water resources. Here, we compare water quality between runoff entrance and middle of four RIRs in nurseries in Virginia (VA and Maryland (MD. Surface water temperature (T and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP were lower in the middle than at the entrance, while the trend was opposite for dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and chlorophyll a (Chla. The magnitude of these differences between the entrance and middle decreased with increasing depth. These differences were magnified by water stratification from April to October. Minimum differences were observed for electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS and turbidity (TUR. Cluster analyses were performed on water quality difference data to evaluate whether the differences vary with respect to reservoirs. Two clusters were formed with one consisting primarily of VA reservoirs, and the other consisting mostly of MD reservoirs in both years. Water quality in the middle and at the entrance of RIRs was expected to vary greatly because of runoff inflow. The two-point water quality differences observed here, although statistically significant, are not large enough to cause significant impact on crop health and productivity for most water quality parameters except pH. Additional analysis of outlet data shows that the range and magnitude of water quality difference between the middle and the outlet are comparable to those between the middle and entrance of RIRs. These results indicate that monitoring at a single point is sufficient to obtain reliable water quality estimates for most water quality parameters in RIRs except pH. This is important when considering the cost of labor and equipment necessary for documenting water quality in agricultural production systems. However, additional pH measurements are still necessary to make practical water quality

  6. Changing Default Fluoroscopy Equipment Settings Decreases Entrance Skin Dose in Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Benjamin K; Sinclair, Lindsay; Kang, Diana; Mench, Anna M; Arreola, Manuel; Bird, Vincent G

    2016-04-01

    Proper fluoroscopic education and protocols may reduce the patient radiation dose but few prospective studies in urology have been performed. Using optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters we tested whether fluoroscopy time and/or entrance skin dose would decrease after educational and radiation reduction protocols. At default manufacturer settings fluoroscopy time and entrance skin dose were prospectively measured using optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters in patients undergoing ureteroscopy, retrograde pyelogram/stent or percutaneous nephrolithotomy with access for stone disease. A validated radiation safety competency test was administered to urology faculty and residents before and after web based, hands-on fluoroscopy training. Default fluoroscopy settings were changed from continuous to intermittent pulse rate and from standard to half-dose output. Fluoroscopy time and entrance skin dose were then measured again. The cohorts of 44 pre-protocol and 50 post-protocol patients with stones were similarly matched. The change in mean fluoroscopy time and entrance skin dose from pre-protocol to post-protocol was -0.6 minutes and -11.6 mGy (33%) for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (p = 0.62 and default settings to intermittent pulse rate (12 frames per second) and half-dose lowered the entrance skin dose by 30% across all endourology patients but most significantly during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. To limit patient radiation exposure fluoroscopy default settings should be decreased before all endourology procedures and image equipment manufacturers should consider lowering standard default renal settings. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Incidence of Intravascular Needle Entrance during Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Ebrahimi, Hooman; Mahdipour, Masoumeh; Pourshahidi, Sara; Amini, Parisa; Vatankhah, Mahdi

    2008-01-01

    Dentists administer thousands of local anesthetic injections every day. Injection to a highly vascular area such as pterygomandibular space during an inferior alveolar nerve block has a high risk of intravascular needle entrance. Accidental intravascular injection of local anesthetic agent with vasoconstrictor may result in cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity, as well as tachycardia and hypertension. There are reports that indicate aspiration is not performed in every injection. The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence of intravascular needle entrance in inferior alveolar nerve block injections. Three experienced oral and maxillofacial surgeons performed 359 inferior alveolar nerve block injections using direct or indirect techniques, and reported the results of aspiration. Aspirable syringes and 27 gauge long needles were used, and the method of aspiration was similar in all cases. Data were analyzed using t-test. 15.3% of inferior alveolar nerve block injections were aspiration positive. Intravascular needle entrance was seen in 14.2% of cases using direct and 23.3% of cases using indirect block injection techniques. Of all injections, 15.8% were intravascular on the right side and 14.8% were intravascular on the left. There were no statistically significant differences between direct or indirect block injection techniques (P = 0.127) and between right and left injection sites (P = 0.778). According to our findings, the incidence of intravascular needle entrance during inferior alveolar nerve block injection was relatively high. It seems that technique and maneuver of injection have no considerable effect in incidence of intravascular needle entrance.

  8. The Incidence of Intravascular Needle Entrance during Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pourshahidi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Dentists administer thousands of local anesthetic injections every day. Injection to a highly vascular area such as pterygomandibular space during an inferior alveolar nerve block has a high risk of intravascular needle entrance. Accidental intravascular injection of local anesthetic agent with vasoconstrictor may result in cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity, as well as tachycardia and hypertension. There are reports that indicate aspiration is not performed in every injection. The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence of intravascular needle entrance in inferior alveolar nerve block injections.

    Materials and methods. Three experienced oral and maxillofacial surgeons performed 359 inferior alveolar nerve block injections using direct or indirect techniques, and reported the results of aspiration. Aspirable syringes and 27 gauge long needles were used, and the method of aspiration was similar in all cases. Data were analyzed using t-test.

    Results. 15.3% of inferior alveolar nerve block injections were aspiration positive. Intravascular needle entrance was seen in 14.2% of cases using direct and 23.3% of cases using indirect block injection techniques. Of all injections, 15.8% were intravascular on the right side and 14.8% were intravascular on the left. There were no statistically significant differences between direct or indirect block injection techniques (P = 0.127 and between right and left injection sites (P = 0.778.

    Conclusion. According to our findings, the incidence of intravascular needle entrance during inferior alveolar nerve block injection was relatively high. It seems that technique and maneuver of injection have no considerable effect in incidence of intravascular needle entrance.

  9. The need for national diagnostic reference levels: entrance surface dose measurement in intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Shareghi, A.; Kavousi, A.; Ghiassi-Nejad, M.; Jafari-Zadeh, M.; Nazeri, F.; Mozdarani, H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Intraoral radiographies are the most frequent X-ray examinations in humans. According to International Commission on Radiation Protection recommendations, the selection of a diagnostic reference level should be specific to a country or region. Critical organs such as thyroid gland are exposed to X-rays in intraoral radiography and these exposures should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To assist the development of DRLs for intraoral radiography, a National Radiation Protection Department-sponsored pilot study was carried out. Materials and methods: thermoluminescent dosimetry is widely acknowledged to be the recommended method for measuring entrance surface doses. In this study, entrance surface doses was measured using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters on the skin (either mandibular or maxillary arcs) of 40 patients. Three thermoluminescent dosimetry chips were placed on the skin of each patient. The doses were averaged for each radiography and mean entrance surface doses of all patients calculated. Results: the mean ±SD entrance surface dose at the center of the beam on the patient's skin in intraoral radiography was 1.173 ±0.606 mGy (ranged from 0.01 o 0.40 m Gy). The mean entrance surface doses for male and female patients were 1.380± 0.823, and 1.004± 0.258 respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between these means. Despite its necessity , in national level , there is no published data on the diagnostic reference levels for intraoral radiography. However, the results obtained in this study are lower than those reported by investigators in other countries. Conclusion: in IR Iran , due to lack of large scale studies, no diagnostic reference levels have been set for X-ray diagnostic procedures. Due to lack of national diagnostic reference levels, it is not possible to clarify whether in intraoral radiographies any dose reduction techniques are needed. We intend to perform similar nationwide studies to set the

  10. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Information Information For… Media Policy Makers Building Languages Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Communicating ... any speech and only very loud sounds. Close × “Building Blocks” “Building Blocks” refers to the different skills ...

  11. A unified free-form representation applied to the shape optimization of the hohlraum with octahedral 6 laser entrance holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun; Huang, Yunbao; Li, Haiyan; Jing, Longfei; Huang, Tianxuan

    2016-01-01

    The hohlraum is very crucial for indirect laser driven Inertial Confinement Fusion. Usually, its shape is designed as sphere, cylinder, or rugby with some kind of fixed functions, such as ellipse or parabola. Recently, a spherical hohlraum with octahedral 6 laser entrance holes (LEHs) has been presented with high flux symmetry [Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 010704 (2014); 21, 052704 (2014)]. However, there is only one shape parameter, i.e., the hohlraum to capsule radius ratio, being optimized. In this paper, we build the hohlraum with octahedral 6LEHs with a unified free-form representation, in which, by varying additional shape parameters: (1) available hohlraum shapes can be uniformly and accurately represented, (2) it can be used to understand why the spherical hohlraum has higher flux symmetry, (3) it allows us to obtain a feasible shape design field satisfying flux symmetry constraints, and (4) a synthetically optimized hohlraum can be obtained with a tradeoff of flux symmetry and other hohlraum performance. Finally, the hohlraum with octahedral 6LEHs is modeled, analyzed, and then optimized based on the unified free-form representation. The results show that a feasible shape design field with flux asymmetry no more than 1% can be obtained, and over the feasible design field, the spherical hohlraum is validated to have the highest flux symmetry, and a synthetically optimal hohlraum can be found with closing flux symmetry but larger volume between laser spots and centrally located capsule

  12. A unified free-form representation applied to the shape optimization of the hohlraum with octahedral 6 laser entrance holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang, Yunbao, E-mail: Huangyblhy@gmail.com, E-mail: scmyking-2008@163.com; Li, Haiyan [Key Laboratory of Computer Integrated Manufacturing System, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Jing, Longfei, E-mail: Huangyblhy@gmail.com, E-mail: scmyking-2008@163.com; Huang, Tianxuan [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The hohlraum is very crucial for indirect laser driven Inertial Confinement Fusion. Usually, its shape is designed as sphere, cylinder, or rugby with some kind of fixed functions, such as ellipse or parabola. Recently, a spherical hohlraum with octahedral 6 laser entrance holes (LEHs) has been presented with high flux symmetry [Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 010704 (2014); 21, 052704 (2014)]. However, there is only one shape parameter, i.e., the hohlraum to capsule radius ratio, being optimized. In this paper, we build the hohlraum with octahedral 6LEHs with a unified free-form representation, in which, by varying additional shape parameters: (1) available hohlraum shapes can be uniformly and accurately represented, (2) it can be used to understand why the spherical hohlraum has higher flux symmetry, (3) it allows us to obtain a feasible shape design field satisfying flux symmetry constraints, and (4) a synthetically optimized hohlraum can be obtained with a tradeoff of flux symmetry and other hohlraum performance. Finally, the hohlraum with octahedral 6LEHs is modeled, analyzed, and then optimized based on the unified free-form representation. The results show that a feasible shape design field with flux asymmetry no more than 1% can be obtained, and over the feasible design field, the spherical hohlraum is validated to have the highest flux symmetry, and a synthetically optimal hohlraum can be found with closing flux symmetry but larger volume between laser spots and centrally located capsule.

  13. Defining a Structural Model for the Revitalization of the Lost Urban Spaces (City Entrances in Contemporary Urban Design Case Study: Entrance of Sanandaj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammadreza Khatibi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Not long ago, city gates and entryways had high spatial value and were among the landmarks for marking city boundaries. Today with cities having been expanded and developed, such aspect of the entrance concept is lost and entryways are turned to passages for transportation. In fact, the rich spatial value of such entrances has decreased as they are solely spaces for passing through out or into the city. The dissonant expansion of entryways causes irregularities in thresholds of urban structure. This is due to imprudent intrusion into city landscape entailed by ill-considered planning activities. The main problem is the lack of comprehensive visual or mental definitions in the field. In other words, the challenge includes improper sequencing, zoning, and lack of lucid scenario and interfere procedure. Through defining a scenario, this study aims to set a spatial hierarchy for urban entryways. It then uses a comparative study to examine the scenario for an existing case study. This study provides a new definition for designing and planning for the fields concerned with city entryways. This implies methods by which authorities can interfere in the process of urban design.

  14. Safety Evaluation of the Lighting at the Entrance of a Very Long Road Tunnel: A Case Study in Ilam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Ahmad; Hajizadeh, Roohalah; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Nassiri, Parvin; Jafari, Sayed Mohammad; Taheri, Fereshteh; Zakerian, Seyed Abolfazl

    2017-06-01

    At the entrance of a tunnel, reflection of sunlight from the surrounding environment and a lack of adequate lighting usually cause some vision problems. The purpose of this study was to perform a safety evaluation of lighting on a very long road in Ilam, Iran. The average luminance was measured using a luminance meter (model S3; Hagner, Solna, Sweden). A camera (model 108, 35-mm single-lens reflex; Yashica, Nagano, Japan) was used to take photographs of the safe stopping distance from the tunnel entrance. Equivalent luminance was determined according to the Holliday polar diagram. Considering the average luminance at the tunnel entrance (116.7 cd/m 2 ) and using Adrian's equation, the safe level of lighting at the entrance of the tunnel was determined to be 0.7. A comparison between the results of the safe levels of lighting at the entrance of the tunnel and the De Boer scale showed that the phenomenon of black holes is created at the tunnel entrance. This may lead to a misadaptation of the drivers' eyes to the change in luminance level at the entrance of the tunnel, thereby increasing the risk of road accidents in this zone.

  15. Evaluation of six TPS algorithms in computing entrance and exit doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwaly, Mohamed; Glegg, Martin; Baggarley, Shaun P.; Elliott, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Entrance and exit doses are commonly measured in in vivo dosimetry for comparison with expected values, usually generated by the treatment planning system (TPS), to verify accuracy of treatment delivery. This report aims to evaluate the accuracy of six TPS algorithms in computing entrance and exit doses for a 6 MV beam. The algorithms tested were: pencil beam convolution (Eclipse PBC), analytical anisotropic algorithm (Eclipse AAA), AcurosXB (Eclipse AXB), FFT convolution (XiO Convolution), multigrid superposition (XiO Superposition), and Monte Carlo photon (Monaco MC). Measurements with ionization chamber (IC) and diode detector in water phantoms were used as a reference. Comparisons were done in terms of central axis point dose, 1D relative profiles, and 2D absolute gamma analysis. Entrance doses computed by all TPS algorithms agreed to within 2% of the measured values. Exit doses computed by XiO Convolution, XiO Superposition, Eclipse AXB, and Monaco MC agreed with the IC measured doses to within 2%‐3%. Meanwhile, Eclipse PBC and Eclipse AAA computed exit doses were higher than the IC measured doses by up to 5.3% and 4.8%, respectively. Both algorithms assume that full backscatter exists even at the exit level, leading to an overestimation of exit doses. Despite good agreements at the central axis for Eclipse AXB and Monaco MC, 1D relative comparisons showed profiles mismatched at depths beyond 11.5 cm. Overall, the 2D absolute gamma (3%/3 mm) pass rates were better for Monaco MC, while Eclipse AXB failed mostly at the outer 20% of the field area. The findings of this study serve as a useful baseline for the implementation of entrance and exit in vivo dosimetry in clinical departments utilizing any of these six common TPS algorithms for reference comparison. PACS numbers: 87.55.‐x, 87.55.D‐, 87.55.N‐, 87.53.Bn PMID:24892349

  16. Paid parental leave to immigrants: An obstacle to labor market entrance?

    OpenAIRE

    Vikman, Ulrika

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates how access to paid parental leave affects labor market entrance for immigrating mothers with small children. Paid parental leave together with job protection may increase labor force participation among women but if it is too generous it may create incentives to stay out of the labor force. This incentive effect may be especially true for mothers immigrating to a country where having small children automatically makes the mothers eligible for the benefit. To evaluate the ...

  17. Search for entrance channel effects in fusion reactions via neutron evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajay Kumar; Kaur, J.; Kumar, A.; Singh, G.; Govil, I.M.; Rakesh Kumar; Datta, S.K.; Chatterjee, M.B.; Yogi, B.K.

    2001-01-01

    It is generally expected that the compound nuclei formed at the given excitation energies and the angular momenta follow a statistical decay pattern independent of a particular reaction that led to fusion. In order to search the entrance channel effects in the decay of compound nucleus, the reaction 16 O + 64 Zn at oxygen beam energy of 91 MeV and 95 MeV are investigated

  18. A conserved chloramphenicol binding site at the entrance to the ribosomal peptide exit tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Katherine S; Porse, Bo T

    2003-01-01

    , of E.coli 23S rRNA and G2084 (2058 in E.coli numbering) in domain V of H.halobium 23S rRNA. The modification sites overlap with a portion of the macrolide binding site and cluster at the entrance to the peptide exit tunnel. The data correlate with the recently reported chloramphenicol binding site...... on an archaeal ribosome and suggest that a similar binding site is present on the E.coli ribosome....

  19. Paternal Genetic Structure of Hainan Aborigines Isolated at the Entrance to East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongna; Li, Hui; Ou, Caiying; Lu, Yan; Sun, Yuantian; Yang, Bo; Qin, Zhendong; Zhou, Zhenjian; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li

    2008-01-01

    Background At the southern entrance to East Asia, early population migration has affected most of the Y-chromosome variations of East Asians. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the isolated genetic structure of Hainan Island and the original genetic structure at the southern entrance, we studied the Y chromosome diversity of 405 Hainan Island aborigines from all the six populations, who have little influence of the recent mainland population relocations and admixtures. Here we report that haplogroups O1a* and O2a* are dominant among Hainan aborigines. In addition, the frequency of the mainland dominant haplogroup O3 is quite low among these aborigines, indicating that they have lived rather isolated. Clustering analyses suggests that the Hainan aborigines have been segregated since about 20 thousand years ago, after two dominant haplogroups entered East Asia (31 to 36 thousand years ago). Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that Hainan aborigines have been isolated at the entrance to East Asia for about 20 thousand years, whose distinctive genetic characteristics could be used as important controls in many population genetic studies. PMID:18478090

  20. Radiotherapy verification film for estimating cumulative entrance skin exposure for fluoroscopic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geise, R.A.; Ansel, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of skin entrance exposures during fluoroscopic procedures is complicated by the use of automatic exposure control devices and the presence of contrast media. Due to variability in positioning spot films from patient to patient, standard dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent, cannot be properly placed on the skin prior to examination. Prepackaged film of the type used for portal verification in radiation therapy held next to the patient's skin in a specially modified patient examination gown was found to be useful for determining the entrance skin exposure from both fluoroscopy and spot films during air contrast barium enema exams. The usable sensitivity range of this film has been found satisfactory for exposure measurements at exposures and kVps typically used for gastrointestinal fluoroscopic procedures. Errors in exposure estimates due to changes in film speed and contrast with kVp are less than 5% for the range of kVps used. Errors from variations in beam quality due to the adjacency of scattering material are approximately 5%. Entrance exposures determined with film agreed with those determined from TLD measurements to within 21%, with an average difference of 9%

  1. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of the Hydrodynamic Entrance Region of Rectangular Microchannels in the Slip Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niya Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing a three-dimensional laminar flow in the entrance region of rectangular microchannels has been investigated in this paper. When the hydrodynamic development length is the same magnitude as the microchannel length, entrance effects have to be taken into account, especially in relatively short ducts. Simultaneously, there are a variety of non-continuum or rarefaction effects, such as velocity slip and temperature jump. The available data in the literature appearing on this issue is quite limited, the available study is the semi-theoretical approximate model to predict pressure drop of developing slip flow in rectangular microchannels with different aspect ratios. In this paper, we apply the lattice Boltzmann equation method (LBE to investigate the developing slip flow through a rectangular microchannel. The effects of the Reynolds number (1 < Re < 1000, channel aspect ratio (0 < ε < 1, and Knudsen number (0.001 < Kn < 0.1 on the dimensionless hydrodynamic entrance length, and the apparent friction factor, and Reynolds number product, are examined in detail. The numerical solution of LBM can recover excellent agreement with the available data in the literature, which proves its accuracy in capturing fundamental fluid characteristics in the slip-flow regime.

  2. In-vivo (entrance) dose measurements in external beam radiotherapy with aqueous FBX dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, M.K.; Thakur, P.K.; Bansal, A.K.; Vidyasagar, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    FBX aqueous chemical dosimetry system has been found useful in radiotherapy owing to its low dose measuring capability. In the present work, entrance dose measurements in external beam radiotherapy on a telecobalt machine were carried out with the system on 100 patients. Treatments involving simple beam arrangement of open parallel-opposed beams in cranial and pelvic irradiations were selected for this study. In place of a spectrophotometer, a simple and inexpensive colorimeter was used for absorbance measurements. The purpose was to assess the efficacy of the FBX system for in-vivo dose measurements. The results obtained show that the average discrepancy between the measured and expected dose for both categories of patients was 0.2% (standard deviation 3.2%) with a maximum of +1 0.3%. There were 5.5% cases showing more than ± 5% discrepancy. Comparison of the results obtained with published work on entrance dose measurements, with diode detectors, shows that the inexpensive FBX system can be used for in-vivo (entrance) dose measurements for simple beam arrangements in radiotherapy and can thus serve as a useful QA tool. (author)

  3. In vivo dosimetry with thermoluminescent dosimeters in radiotherapy: entrance and exit doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, C.; Lopes, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry, by entrance and exit dose measurements, is a vital part of a radiotherapy quality assurance program. The uncertainty associated with dose delivery is internationally accepted to be within 5% or inferior depending on the tumor pathology. Thermoluminescent dosimetry is one of the dosimetric techniques used to verify the agreement between delivered and prescribed doses. Nevertheless, it requires a very accurate calibration methodology. We have used LiF chips (4.5 mm diameter and 0.8 mm thick) calibrated towards a PTW ionization chamber of 0.3 cc, in three photon energies: Co-60, 4 and 6 MeV. The TLD reader used was a Rialto 688 from NE Technology and the annealing oven the Eurotherm type 815. The calibration methodology relies on the experimental determination of individual correction factors and on a correction factor derived from a control group of dosimeters. The exit and entrance dose measurements are performed in quite different situations. To be able to achieve those two quantities with TLD, these should be independently calibrated according to the measurement conditions. Alternatively, we can use a single calibration, in entrance dose, and convert the result to the exit dose value by introducing some correction factors. These corrections are related to the different measurement depths and to the different backscattering contributions. We have proved that within an acceptable error we can perform a single calibration and adopt the correction factors which are energy and field size dependent. (author)

  4. Wave Climate and Littoral Sediment Transport Potential, Cape Fear River Entrance and Smith Island to Ocean Isle Beach, North Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Numerical model studies were conducted to assist the U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington, in evaluating potential plans for modifying the Cape Fear River entrance channel and in preparing General Reevaluation Reports...

  5. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  6. Building calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Christian; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion......Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion...

  7. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  8. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available for use in the building. This is done through photovoltaic and solar water heating panels and wind turbines. Ideally these are integrated in the design of the building envelope to improve the aesthetic quality of the building and minimise material... are naturally ventilated. Renewable energy The building envelope includes renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics, wind turbines and solar water heaters and 10% of the building’s energy requirements are generated from these sources. Views All...

  9. Auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, I.; Lestyan, E.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear power station represents a complicated and a particular industrial project. Consequently, the design of the auxiliary buildings serving the power station (offices, kitchen, refreshment room, workshops, depots, water treatment plant building, boiler houses, etc.) requires more attention than usual. This chapter gives a short survey of the auxiliary buildings already completed and discusses the problems of their design, location and structure. (author)

  10. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Ouden, C.; Steemers, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  11. Building 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Ouden, C [EGM Engineering BV, Dordrecht (Netherlands); Steemers, T C [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1992-01-01

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues.

  12. Study of mass asymmetry effect in the entrance channel for deep inelastic collisions between heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    The reactions ( 52 Cr+ 56 Fe) and ( 16 O+ 92 Mo) were studied extensively to learn about the influence of the mass asymmetry of the entrance channel on Deep Inelastic Collisions (DIC). These two systems have very different entrance channel asymmetry but both of them lead to the same ensemble of nucleons. The incident energies were choosen to be 265 MeV for Cr and 187 MeV for O so that the maximum angular momentum is the same in both the cases. The experimental results of the quasi-symmetric system (Cr+Fe) show that a large number of fragments have the characteristic properties of fission fragments. However, comparison of these results with those of an asymmetric system (O+Mo), forming the same compound nucleus with higher excitation energy, leads to think that these events can not be accounted for fission. It has been shown that these events could be considered as DIC products. The distributions of different multidifferential observables were reproduced with the help of a diffusion model, and with the condition of introducing a notion of half life time of the composite system. The half-life, thus calculated, seems to vary as a function of mass asymmetry of the entrance channel: 20.10 -22 S for the system Cr+Fe, 2.10 -22 S for the system O+Mo and 10.10 -22 S for a third system 20 Ca+ 64 Ni which has an intermediate mass asymmetry. Further it seems that the evaporation residue cross section in symmetric systems is far less than what we can expect from classical calculations [fr

  13. Environmental Assessment for Demolition of Buildings 5303 and 5312

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Land Use ANSI S3.23-1980. Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics . 1981. Assessment of Community Noise Response to High-Energy...entirely renovated since its original construction. In 1950, a covered platform, stair , and door were added to the northeast side of the building. Several...transformation into the housing office. A replacement for the rear entrance porch and stairs , with an awning, was completed in 1995; new windows and

  14. Entrance channel dependent light-charged particle emission of the 156Er compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.F.; Bierman, J.D.; Kelly, M.P.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Vandenbosch, R.; van Schagen, J.P.S.

    1996-01-01

    Light-charged particle decay from the 156 Er compound nucleus, populated by 12 C+ 144 Sm and 60 Ni+ 96 Zr at the same excitation energy, were measured in coincidence with the evaporation residues. The high energy slope of charged particle spectra for the 60 Ni-induced reaction is steeper than for the 12 C-induced reaction. Model calculations including particle evaporation during compound nucleus formation result in good agreement with the data. This suggests that the difference in the charged particle spectra between the two entrance channels is due to a longer formation time in the 60 Ni-induced reaction. 14 refs., 3 figs

  15. Fusion-fission of heavy systems: influence of the entrance channel mass assymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivet, M.F.; Alami, R.; Borderie, B.; Fuchs, H.; Gardes, D.; Gauvin, H.

    1988-02-01

    The influence of the entrance channel on fission processes was studied by forming the same composite system by two different target-projectile combinations ( 40 Ar + 209 Bi and 56 Fe + 187 Re, respectively). Compound nucleus fission and quasi fission were observed and the analysis was performed in the framework of the extra-extra-push model, which provides a qualitative interpretation of the results; limits for the extra-extra-push threshold are given, but problems with quantitative predictions for the extra-push are noted

  16. 35% of fracture in one of the Embalse nuclear power plant's entrance collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, A.V.; Marinucci, L.N.M.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to simulate an accident of a 35% of fracture at the reactor's entrance collector with the FIREBIRD III code, Mod. 1.0, in order to compare the results obtained with those stated in the Safety Report, and besides, to verify the capacity to foresee the steam generator's secondary boundary behaviour on the basis of the actually available models. For this type of fractures, it is expected that this does not basically affect the Heat Transport Primary Loop behaviour since the main heat drain is the fracture. (Author)

  17. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Ouden, C.; Steemers, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This is the second volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this second rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In the first volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: schools, laboratories and universities, and sports and educational centres. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (11 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  18. Building 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Ouden, C [EGM Engineering BV, Dordrecht (Netherlands); Steemers, T C [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1992-01-01

    This is the second volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this second rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In the first volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: schools, laboratories and universities, and sports and educational centres. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (11 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues.

  19. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  20. Development of mathematical model for estimation of entrance surface dose in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgani, Yassir Mohammed Tahir

    2013-05-01

    Computer simulation is a convenient and frequently used tool in the study of x-ray mammography, for the design of novel detector systems, the evaluation of dose deposition, x-ray technique optimization, and other applications. An important component in the simulation process is the accurate computer generation of x-ray spectra. A computer model for the generation of x-ray spectra in the mammographic energy rang from 18 keV to 40 ke V has been developed by Boone et al. Due to the lack of QC and dose measurement tools, in addition to unavailability of medical physics, a mathematical tool was developed for estimation of patient exposure and entrance dose. The proposed model require no assumptions concerning the physics of x-ray production in an x-ray tube, but rather makes use of x-ray spectra recently measured experimentally by John M Boone (Department of Radiology, University of California). Using experimental dose measurements for specific tube voltage and tube current the generated x-ray spectra were calibrated. The spectrum calibration factors show a tube voltage dependency. From the calibrated x-ray spectrum, the exposure and entrance dose were estimated for different k Vp and m A. Results show good agreement between the measured and estimated values for tube voltage between 18 to 45 k Vp with a good correlation of nearly 1 and equal slope. The maximum estimated different between the measured and the simulated dose is approximately equal to 0.07%.(Author)

  1. The robustness in dynamics of out of equilibrium bidirectional transport systems with constrained entrances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Natasha; Verma, Atul Kumar; Gupta, Arvind Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Macroscopic and microscopic long-distance bidirectional transfer depends on connections between entrances and exits of various transport mediums. Persuaded by the associations, we introduce a small system module of Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process including oppositely directed species of particles moving on two parallel channels with constrained entrances. The dynamical rules which characterize the system obey symmetry between the two species and are identical for both the channels. The model displays a rich steady-state behavior, including symmetry breaking phenomenon. The phase diagram is analyzed theoretically within the mean-field approximation and substantiated with Monte Carlo simulations. Relevant mean-field calculations are also presented. We further compared the phase segregation with those observed in previous works, and it is examined that the structure of phase separation in proposed model is distinguished from earlier ones. Interestingly, for phases with broken symmetry, symmetry with respect to channels has been observed as the distinct particles behave differently while the similar type of particles exhibits the same conduct in the system. For symmetric phases, significant properties including currents and densities in the channels are identical for both types of particles. The effect of symmetry breaking occurrence on the Monte Carlo simulation results has also been examined based on particle density histograms. Finally, phase properties of the system having strong size dependency have been explored based on simulations findings.

  2. Using Mathematical Modeling Methods for Estimating Entrance Flow Heterogeneity Impact on Aviation GTE Parameters and Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Ezrokhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers methodological approaches to the mathematical models (MM of various levels, dedicated to estimate an impact of the entrance flow heterogeneity on the main parameters and performances of the aviation GTE and it units. By an example of calculation of a twin-shaft turbofan engine in cruiser mode, demonstrates engineering mathematical model capabilities to define the impact of the total pressure field distortion on engine trust and air flow parameters, and also gas dynamic stability margin of the both compressors.It is shown that the presented first level mathematical model allows us to estimate sufficiently the impact of entrance total pressure heterogeneity on the engine parameters. Here reliability of calculations is proved to be true by their comparison with the results, obtained owing to well fulfilled 2D & 3D mathematical models of the engine, which have been repeatedly identified by the results of experiments.It is shown that received results including those on decreasing values of stability margin of both compressors can be used for tentative estimates when choosing a desirable stability margin, providing steady operation of compressors and engine in an entire range of its operating modes. Carrying out a definitive testing calculation using the specialized engine MM of a higher level will not only confirm the results obtained, but also reduce their expected error with regard to the real values reached as a result of tests.

  3. In Rio de Janeiro public entrance areas disappeared behind railings out of fear of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Friedrich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for safety leads to an increasing fencing of entrance areas and to a structural spatial segregation in Rio de Janeiro. Today’s passerby moves along high grids instead of walking on lavishly planted ways along noble entrance areas. In the scale of urban development the stronger variant of spatial demarcation is taking place. Gated communities arise as a total spatial exclusion, in a safe distance to existing favelas and disposing of abundant safety equipment.Precisely because the need for safety is important in dwelling, both trends are problematic from the urban perspective. The increasing fencing and demarcating destroys pleasant urban atmospheres and fosters the spreading of mono-functional resp. mono-social areas. However, trust and a peaceful togetherness are required for a socially and functionally mixed and spatially diversified public space. But these conditions can only be realised in the context of the entire society.

  4. Evaluation of radiological protection and dose of skin entrance in paediatric dentistry examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Helen Jamil; Silveira, Marcia Maria Fonseca da; Couto, Geraldo Bosco Lindoso; Brasileiro, Izabela Vanderley

    2005-01-01

    In this work the radiological protection conditions and dose at the entrance of pediatric patients undergoing dental intraoral radiographs were evaluated. The study was conducted in two clinics of the dentistry course at the Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PB, Brazil, equipped with conventional X-ray apparatus, with 60 and 70 kV. 254 exams of 113 patients between the ages of 3 to 12 years were evaluated. The skin entrance dose was estimated using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. During the examination were also recorded information regarding the time of exposure, radiographic technique used, use of thyroid protectors and lead apron, angle and distance of the cone Locator to the patient's skin. The results showed that the input skin doses ranged from 0.3 mGy to 10mGy. The lead apron was used in 71% of exams while the thyroid shield was only used in 58% of the exams. The exposure times ranged from 0,5s to 1,5s. From the results it can be concluded that the radiological procedures are not optimized and that in some cases the patient dose is high.

  5. WASHBACK OF THE ENGLISH SECTION OF COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAM ON THE STUDENTS’ PRODUCTIVE AND RECEPTIVE SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Wulandari Wulandari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exam plays a powerful role in educational system and exerts significant washback onstudents’ learning. Washback, the impact of exams on education in general andlanguage examining in particular, has become a popular area of study withineducational research. This paper focuses on the washback effects of college entranceexam on students’ productive and receptive skills in STKIP MuhammadiyahPringsewu Lampung. The main concern of the study was to investigate the impact ofcollege entrance exam on productive and receptive language skills in STKIPMuhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung. 53 first year students at English EducationDepartment in the academic year of 2015-2016 of STKIP Muhammadiyah PringsewuLampung attended the study. A 26-item questionnaire was designed and administeredto 53 students. The data were analyzed using statistical analysis including descriptivestatistics (frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. It has been found outthat the exam has some negative effects on students’ language productive andreceptive skills on the first year students at English Education Department of STKIPMuhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung. Some changes to exam that might be gratefulare discussed in the last section of the paper.Keywords: washback effect, college entrance exam, students’ productive skills

  6. Building a capacity building manual

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clinton, DD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizations 2010 Building a capacity building manual Daniel D. Clinton, Jr., P.E., F.NSPE Chair, WFEO Capacity Building Committee Dr Andrew Cleland, FIPENZ, Chief Executive, IPENZ, NZ Eng David Botha, FSAICE, Executive Director, SAICE, SA Dawit... 2010 Tertiary level University curricula Coaches and mentors Facilities EXCeeD Remuneration of Academics Experiential training Outreach to Students Students chapters Young members forum World Federation of Engineering Organizations 2010 Post...

  7. Anatomical relation between S1 sacroiliac screws' entrance points and superior gluteal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; You, Libo; Lian, Wei; Zou, Dexin; Dong, Shengjie; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Shudong; Wang, Dan; Li, Jingning; Li, Wenliang; Zhao, Yuchi

    2018-01-18

    To conduct radiologic anatomical study on the relation between S1 sacroiliac screws' entry points and the route of the pelvic outer superior gluteal artery branches with the aim to provide the anatomical basis and technical reference for the avoidance of damage to the superior gluteal artery during the horizontal sacroiliac screw placement. Superior gluteal artery CTA (CT angiography) vascular imaging of 74 healthy adults (37 women and 37 men) was done with 128-slice spiral CT (computed tomography). The CT attendant-measuring software was used to portray the "safe bony entrance area" (hereinafter referred to as "Safe Area") of the S1 segment in the standard lateral pelvic view of three-dimensional reconstruction. The anatomical relation between S1 sacroiliac screws' Safe Area and the pelvic outer superior gluteal artery branches was observed and recorded. The number of cases in which artery branches intersected the Safe Area was counted. The cases in which superior gluteal artery branches disjointed from the Safe Area were identified, and the shortest distance between the Safe Area and the superior gluteal artery branch closest to the Safe Area was measured. Three cases out of the 74 sample cases were excluded from this study as they were found to have no bony space for horizontal screw placement in S1 segment. Among the remaining 71 sample cases, there are 32 cases (45.1%) where the deep superior branch of superior gluteal artery passes through the Safe Area of S1 entrance point. There was no distinguishing feature and rule on how the deep superior branches and the Safe Area overlapped. In the 39 cases in which superior gluteal artery branches disjointed from the Safe Area, the deep superior branches of superior gluteal artery were the branches closest to the Safe Area and the part of the branch closest to the Safe Area was located in front of the widest part of the Safe Area. The shortest distance between the deep superior branch and the Safe Area is 0.86

  8. Disproportionate entrance length in superfluid flows and the puzzle of counterflow instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolaccini, J.; Lévêque, E.; Roche, P.-E.

    2017-12-01

    Systematic simulations of the two-fluid model of superfluid helium (He-II) encompassing the Hall-Vinen-Bekharevich-Khalatnikov (HVBK) mutual coupling have been performed in two-dimensional pipe counterflows between 1.3 and 1.96 K. The numerical scheme relies on the lattice Boltzmann method. A Boussinesq-like hypothesis is introduced to omit temperature variations along the pipe. In return, the thermomechanical forcings of the normal and superfuid components are fueled by a pressure term related to their mass-density variations under an approximation of weak compressibility. This modeling framework reproduces the essential features of a thermally driven counterflow. A generalized definition of the entrance length is introduced to suitably compare entry effects (of different nature) at opposite ends of the pipe. This definition is related to the excess of pressure loss with respect to the developed Poiseuille-flow solution. At the heated end of the pipe, it is found that the entrance length for the normal fluid follows a classical law and increases linearly with the Reynolds number. At the cooled end, the entrance length for the superfluid is enhanced as compared to the normal fluid by up to one order of magnitude. At this end, the normal fluid flows into the cooling bath of He-II and produces large-scale superfluid vortical motions in the bath that partly re-enter the pipe along its sidewalls before being damped by mutual friction. In the superfluid entry region, the resulting frictional coupling in the superfluid boundary layer distorts the velocity profiles toward tail flattening for the normal fluid and tail raising for the superfluid. Eventually, a simple analytical model of entry effects allows us to re-examine the long-debated thresholds of T 1 and T 2 instabilities in superfluid counterflows. Inconsistencies in the T 1 thresholds reported since the 1960s disappear if an aspect-ratio criterion based on our modeling is used to discard data sets with the

  9. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae.

    1990-01-01

    At least one valve rack is disposed in a reactor building, on which pipeways to a main closure valve, valves and bypasses of turbines are placed and contained. The valve rack is fixed to the main body of the building or to a base mat. Since the reactor building is designed as class A earthquake-proofness and for maintaining the S 1 function, the valve rack can be fixed to the building main body or to the base mat. With such a constitution, the portions for maintaining the S 1 function are concentrated to the reactor building. As a result, the dispersion of structures of earthquake-proof portion corresponding to the reference earthquake vibration S 1 can be prevented. Accordingly, the conditions for the earthquake-proof design of the turbine building and the turbine/electric generator supporting rack are defined as only the class B earthquake-proof design conditions. In view of the above, the amount of building materials can be saved and the time for construction can be shortened. (I.S.)

  10. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available particu- lar social environment also being awarded. If a building can be used by the community after hours, it should be awarded extra points.” School sports facilities or meeting halls in corporate buildings, are some example. Multi-purpose use..., architect and senior researcher for the CSIR’s Built Environment Unit, the integra- tion of sustainability in building design cannot begin soon enough before it is too late. He says: “Unfortunately nothing is in place in South Africa. For a start...

  11. Building Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, James

    This chapter summarizes and explains key concepts of building acoustics. These issues include the behavior of sound waves in rooms, the most commonly used rating systems for sound and sound control in buildings, the most common noise sources found in buildings, practical noise control methods for these sources, and the specific topic of office acoustics. Common noise issues for multi-dwelling units can be derived from most of the sections of this chapter. Books can be and have been written on each of these topics, so the purpose of this chapter is to summarize this information and provide appropriate resources for further exploration of each topic.

  12. Effects of entrance configuration on pressure loss and heat transfer of transitional gas flow in a circular tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masuro; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    Pressure loss and heat transfer of a transitional gas flow are affected significantly by the entrance configuration. The friction factor and the heat transfer coefficient were measured using a circular tube with four different kinds of entrance configurations. The Reynolds number at the transition from laminar to intermittent flow was varied from about 1,940 to 9,120. The intermittency factor was measured for heated and unheated flows ; and the relation between the intermittency and the friction factor or heat transfer coefficient was examined. Several existing correlations were tested and found to correlate with the experimental results fairly well. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Kerma rate in the skin entrance in interventional procedures guided by fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; Alves, Fatima Faloppa Rodrigues; Ruberti Filha, Eny M.

    2005-01-01

    Interventional therapeutic procedures guided by fluoroscopy are responsible for delayed exposure to radiation of professionals and patients. The technology employed on generation of the pulsed fluoroscopy can be an important tool of protection used for reducing the exposure time. It generates constant width and varied frequency pulse or width pulse or varied frequency for a constant frequency. The typical doses into the skin and its relationship with the quality of the images in the various technical and operational conditions should be known by the professionals so that they can optimize them. Generated radiation doses were evaluated using the Toshiba Infinitix equipment used in invasive cardiology procedures and electrophysiological studies through the Kerma rate at the entrance of the patient's skin measured throughout the year of 2004. With these information shall be set out the criteria for the decision of the technical-operational conditions that allow minimizing of dose

  14. [Evaluation of music department students who passed the entrance exam with phonetogram (Voice Range Profile)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökdoğan, Çağıl; Gökdoğan, Ozan; Şahin, Esra; Yılmaz, Metin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate phonetogram data of the students in the department of music who passed the entrance exam. The phonetogram data of 44 individuals with a good voice quality in the department of music and age-matched individuals who were not trained in the field of music or not involved in music amateurish as the control group were compared. The voice of both groups were recorded using the voice range profile within the scope of Kay Elemetrics CSL (Model 4300 B) programmed. There was a significant difference in the voice range profile parameters including max Fo, Fo range, Fo range (St), min dB SPL, and max dB sound pressure level (pmusic is higher than the control group and that plays a major role in their acceptance to the department of music.

  15. An assessment of methods for monitoring entrance surface dose in fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, J.C.; Fitzgerald, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the light of a growing awareness of the risks of inducing skin injuries as a consequence of fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures (FGIPs), this paper compares three methods of monitoring entrance surface dose (ESD). It also reports measurements of ESDs made during the period August 1998 to June 1999 on 137 patients undergoing cardiac, neurological and general FGIPs. Although the sample is small, the results reinforce the need for routine assessments to be made of ESDs in FGIPs. At present, the most reliable and accurate form of ESD measurement would seem to be arrays of TLDs. However, transducer based methods, although likely to be less accurate, have considerable advantages in relation to a continuous monitoring programme. It is also suggested that there may be the potential locally for threshold dose area product (DAP) values to be set for specific procedures. These could be used to provide early warning of the potential for skin injuries. (author)

  16. Washback Effect of University Entrance exams in Applied Mathematics to Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Muñiz, Luis J; Díaz, Patricia; Mier, Verónica; Alonso, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Curricular issues of subject Applied Mathematics to Social Sciences are studied in relation to university entrance exams performed in several Spanish regions between 2009-2014. By using quantitative and qualitative analyses, it has been studied how these exams align with curriculum and how they produce a washback on curriculum and teachers' work. Additionally, one questionnaire about teachers' practices has been performed, in order to find out how the exams are influencing teaching methodology development. Main results obtained show that evaluation is producing a bias on the official curriculum, substantially simplifying the specific orientation that should guide applied mathematics. Furthermore, teachers' practices are influenced by the exams, and they usually approach their teaching methodology to the frequent types of exams. Also, slight differences among the teachers lead to distinguish two behavioral subgroups. Results can also be useful in an international context, because of the importance of standardized exit exams in OECD countries.

  17. Images of the laser entrance hole from the static x-ray imager at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M B; Jones, O S; Meezan, N B; Milovich, J L; Town, R P; Alvarez, S S; Beeler, R G; Bradley, D K; Celeste, J R; Dixit, S N; Edwards, M J; Haugh, M J; Kalantar, D H; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Michel, P; Moody, J D; Oberhelman, S K; Piston, K W; Pivovaroff, M J; Suter, L J; Teruya, A T; Thomas, C A; Vernon, S P; Warrick, A L; Widmann, K; Wood, R D; Young, B K

    2010-10-01

    The static x-ray imager at the National Ignition Facility is a pinhole camera using a CCD detector to obtain images of Hohlraum wall x-ray drive illumination patterns seen through the laser entrance hole (LEH). Carefully chosen filters, combined with the CCD response, allow recording images in the x-ray range of 3-5 keV with 60 μm spatial resolution. The routines used to obtain the apparent size of the backlit LEH and the location and intensity of beam spots are discussed and compared to predictions. A new soft x-ray channel centered at 870 eV (near the x-ray peak of a 300 eV temperature ignition Hohlraum) is discussed.

  18. Washback Effect of University Entrance exams in Applied Mathematics to Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Patricia; Mier, Verónica; Alonso, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Curricular issues of subject Applied Mathematics to Social Sciences are studied in relation to university entrance exams performed in several Spanish regions between 2009–2014. By using quantitative and qualitative analyses, it has been studied how these exams align with curriculum and how they produce a washback on curriculum and teachers’ work. Additionally, one questionnaire about teachers’ practices has been performed, in order to find out how the exams are influencing teaching methodology development. Main results obtained show that evaluation is producing a bias on the official curriculum, substantially simplifying the specific orientation that should guide applied mathematics. Furthermore, teachers’ practices are influenced by the exams, and they usually approach their teaching methodology to the frequent types of exams. Also, slight differences among the teachers lead to distinguish two behavioral subgroups. Results can also be useful in an international context, because of the importance of standardized exit exams in OECD countries. PMID:27936103

  19. Entrance channel effects and the superdeformed band in {sup 152}Dy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beausang, C W; Alderson, A; Ali, I; Dagnall, P J; Fallon, P; Forsyth, P D; Smith, G; Twin, P J [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom); France, G de; Duchene, G; Flibotte, S; Haas, B; Romain, P; Theisen, C H; Vivien, J P [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Bentley, M A [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1992-08-01

    Recent experiments on {sup 152}Dy indicate that the fraction of decays via the superdeformed (SD) band depends on the mass asymmetry in the entrance channel. Such results may indicate that the time scale for fusion is larger for mass symmetric reactions than for mass asymmetric ones, thus allowing neutron evaporation to compete better with fusion. To test this idea, one needs accurate intensity measurements of the highest member of the SD band, using a very large data set, so it is an ideal experiment for the Eurogam array. At the time of the conference, a series of experiments was being carried out using the {sup 36}S + {sup 120}Sn and {sup 82}Se + {sup 74}Ge reactions. Preliminary results were inconclusive. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Entrances skin dose distribution maps for interventional neuroradiological procedures: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampado, O.; Ropolo, R.

    2005-01-01

    Does estimation in interventional neuroradiology can be useful to limit skin radiation injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of entrance skin dose (ESD) maps in planning exposure condition optimisation. Thirteen cerebral angiography and five embolisation procedures were monitored, measuring ESD, dose-area product (DAP) and other operational parameters. A transmission ionisation chamber, simultaneously measuring air kerma and DAP, measured dose-related quantities. Data acquisition software collected dosimetric and geometrical data during the interventional procedure and provided a distribution map of ESD on a standard phantom digital image, with maximum value estimation. Values of 88-1710 mGy for maximum skin dose and 16.7-343 Gy cm 2 for DAP were found. These data confirm the possibility of deterministic effects during therapeutic interventional neuroradiological procedures like cerebral embolisation. ESD maps are useful to retrospectively study the exposure characteristics of a procedure and plan patient exposure optimisation. (authors)

  1. The influence of the entrance channel mass asymmetry on the reaction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.; Galin, J.; Gatty, B.; Guerreau, D.; Lefort, M.; Tarrago, X.; Babinet, R.; Girard, J.

    1980-01-01

    We have tried to investigate the influence of the entrance channel mass asymmetry on the reaction mechanisms associated with heavy ion collisions. Two systems, one very much asymmetric (O + Mo) and the other one almost symmetric (Cr + Fe), were studied in detail by measuring evaporation residues, deep inelastic collision products and fission fragments. An important fraction of the fragments observed in the Cr + Fe system exhibits all the characteristics of fission fragments. The analysis of these data seems to indicate that these fission like products are most likely emitted by a long lived composite system having not reached full statistical equilibrium for all the degrees of freedom. As a consequence, the fusion cross section for this symmetric system is too low as compared to predictions based on a critical distance approach for fusion, whereas the asymmetric system (O + Mo) is well understood in terms of the same model. (orig.)

  2. Sensitivity of low-energy incomplete fusion to various entrance-channel parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Harish; Tali, Suhail A.; Afzal Ansari, M.; Singh, D.; Ali, Rahbar; Kumar, Kamal; Sathik, N. P. M.; Ali, Asif; Parashari, Siddharth; Dubey, R.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.

    2018-03-01

    The disentangling of incomplete fusion dependence on various entrance channel parameters has been made from the forward recoil range distribution measurement for the 12C+175Lu system at ≈ 88 MeV energy. It gives the direct measure of full and/or partial linear momentum transfer from the projectile to the target nucleus. The comparison of observed recoil ranges with theoretical ranges calculated using the code SRIM infers the production of evaporation residues via complete and/or incomplete fusion process. Present results show that incomplete fusion process contributes significantly in the production of α xn and 2α xn emission channels. The deduced incomplete fusion probability (F_{ICF}) is compared with that obtained for systems available in the literature. An interesting behavior of F_{ICF} with ZP ZT is observed in the reinvestigation of incomplete fusion dependency with the Coulomb factor (ZPZT), contrary to the recent observations. The present results based on (ZPZT) are found in good agreement with recent observations of our group. A larger F_{ICF} value for 12C induced reactions is found than that for 13C, although both have the same ZPZT. A nonsystematic behavior of the incomplete fusion process with the target deformation parameter (β2) is observed, which is further correlated with a new parameter (ZP ZT . β2). The projectile α -Q-value is found to explain more clearly the discrepancy observed in incomplete fusion dependency with parameters ( ZPZT) and (ZP ZT . β2). It may be pointed out that any single entrance channel parameter (mass-asymmetry or (ZPZT) or β2 or projectile α-Q-value) may not be able to explain completely the incomplete fusion process.

  3. Biletul de intrare şi marketingul muzeal / Entrance ticket and museum marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ploşniţa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Today the museum as an institution serving society is recognized as one of the largest educational and cultural resources, open to the public and having a huge impact on people. But nowadays the museum is also perceived as the market of cultural values. The activities of the modern museums are increasingly measured by economic criteria: profitability, efficiency, number of visitors, the cost of a visit, demand, cultural product, etc. And this happens not only in USA or Western Europe, but throughout the world, including the Republic of Moldova. In order to survive in the society of market economy, museums use marketing strategy, and marketing is increasingly seen as a very useful tool for the successful execution of their duties in the public interest. The purpose of marketing is to attract visitors by finding the best ways to meet their needs and desires. Since the entrance to most museums is paid, the author of this article examines the marketing function of a museum ticket as a museum product. For analysis several tickets of the museums of the Republic of Moldova, as well as from a number of European countries were taken. The objectives of the museum ticket are the same everywhere: little information for visitors, promotion of the museum, the museum advertising, and so on. Its development is a complex process that must be monitored and evaluated step by step. In fact, the ticket is a document of strict accountability, containing several mandatory attributes such as name, logo of the museum, contact information, and so on. As a result of the analysis, the author concludes that the ticket can do a lot of marketing functions: to promote the museum, to inform visitors, to promote public relations, act as a souvenir. One of the main functions of an entrance ticket is communication.

  4. Variability of the vertebral artery origin and transverse foramen entrance level - CT angiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujmilović, Siniša; Spasojević, Goran; Vujnović, Saša; Malobabić, Slobodan; Vujković, Zoran

    2018-04-13

    Vertebral artery (VA), the main element of the posterior brain circulation, has many anatomical variations which generally were widely investigated. However, available data vary in wide ranges, reflecting very different sample sizes, lack of data about left-right or sex differences, and about possible ethnic, regionally specific or genetic differences. Certain new findings suggest possible involvement of some environmental factors in VA variations. Accurate anatomical data about VA variations in different regions of the world, including Balkans countries, are still lacking. Therefore we investigated morphological variability of VA origin and its entrance level into cervical transverse foramina in population of Republika Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina), including data about the sex and side. Anatomy of VA was investigated in 112 persons (224 arteries) of both sexes (58 males, 54 females; age 19 - 83 years), using 64-slice CT scanner. Origin of VA from subclavian artery (SCA) we found in 95.08% of arteries (52 males, 49 females). Only in one male (0.45 %) left VA and left SCA had an specific origin from aortic arch (AA), which we named as an "common area of origin". All other observed variations in origin were only of left VA, originating from AA in 4.47 % (5 males, 5 females). Left VA Most often (usual) entrance level into transverse foramen we found at C6 (87.5%), followed by C5 (8.93 %), C4 (3.12 %), and in one case at level C7 (0.45 %). Entry levels at C5 both, on right and on the left side, were 3 times more frequent in males than in females. Wide ranges of differences between the data we obtained on a sample in Republika Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and the data from many other studies require further and wider investigations.

  5. Building Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — Explore real estate information about buildings in the Town of Cary.This file is created by the Town of Cary GIS Group. It contains data from both the Wake, Chatham...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (b) Definitions. As used in this section— COTP means the... person in charge of a vessel to which this notice applies shall obtain permission to cross within four... place during daylight hours, the vessel has only a single tow or no tow, the visibility at the bar is...

  7. Identifying Challenges and Opportunities for Residents in Upernavik as Oil Companies are Making a First Entrance into Baffin Bay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Anne; Tejsner, Pelle

    2016-01-01

    The oil industry is making its first entrance offshore in Baffin Bay in a time where Inuit residents on the northwest coast of Greenland are struggling to uphold a traditional way of living. The operating oil companies are encouraged by the Government of Greenland to promote a high degree of loca...

  8. Gender Gap in the National College Entrance Exam Performance in China: A Case Study of a Typical Chinese Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Tsang, Mun

    2015-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to investigate gender achievement gap in the National College Entrance Exam in a typical municipality in China, which is the crucial examination for the transition from high school to higher education in that country. Using ordinary least square model and quantile regression model, the study consistently finds that…

  9. A Time to Every Purpose: Understanding and Improving the Borrower Experience with Online Student Loan Entrance Counseling. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Legally mandated student loan entrance counseling attempts to prepare first-time borrowers of federal student loans for this challenge; yet, researchers hypothesized that the online modules most borrowers use for this purpose have significant shortcomings. This report (the third in a series of five from TG Research) describes a study in which…

  10. Entrance radiation doses during paediatric cardiac catheterizations performed for diagnosis or the treatment of congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulou, D.; Yakoumakis, Em; Sandilos, P.; Thanopoulos, V.; Makri, Tr; Gialousis, G.; Houndas, D.; Yakoumakis, N.; Georgiou, Ev

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the radiation exposure of children, during cardiac catheterizations for the diagnosis or treatment of congenital heart disease. Radiation doses were estimated for 45 children aged from 1 d to 13 y old. Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) were used to estimate the posterior entrance dose (D P ), the lateral entrance dose (D LAT ), the thyroid dose and the gonads dose. A dose-area product (DAP) meter was also attached externally to the tube of the angiographic system and gave a direct value in mGy cm 2 for each procedure. Posterior and lateral entrance dose values during cardiac catheterizations ranged from 1 to 197 mGy and from 1.1 to 250.3 mGy, respectively. Radiation exposure to the thyroid and the gonads ranged from 0.3 to 8.4 mGy to 0.1 and 0.7 mGy, respectively. Finally, the DAP meter values ranged between 360 and 33,200 mGy cm 2 . Radiation doses measured in this study are comparable with those reported to previous studies. Moreover, strong correlation was found between the DAP values and the entrance radiation dose measured with TLDs. (authors)

  11. Differential Predictive Validity of High School GPA and College Entrance Test Scores for University Students in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hattami, Abdulghani Ali Dawod

    2012-01-01

    High school grade point average and college entrance test scores are two admission criteria that are currently used by most colleges in Yemen to select their prospective students. Given their widespread use, it is important to investigate their predictive validity to ensure the accuracy of the admission decisions in these institutions. This study…

  12. A Computer Program Method for Estimation of Entrance Skin Dose for some Individuals Undergoing X-ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, T.M.; Allehyani, S.

    2012-01-01

    A computer program depends on practical measurements of entrance skin dose patients undergoing radiological examinations. Physical parameters such as field size, half value layer, backscatter factor, dose output, focal film distance, focal skin distance, normal operating conditions were taken into consideration for calculation entrance skin dose. It was measured by many techniques such as Thermo-luminescence dosimeters, ionization chambers. TLD technique characterized by high precision and reproducibility of dose measurement is checked by addressing pre-readout annealing, group sorting, dose evaluation, Fifty TLD chips were annealed for 1 hour at 400 degree C followed by 2 h at 100 degree C. After exposure to constant dose from X-ray generator. 0.6 cc Ionization chamber was located at surface of water chest phantom that has dimensions of 40 cm x 40 cm x 20 cm and connected with farmer dose master. Entrance Skin Dose was calculated using the generated software by changing the physical parameters and using the measured output doses. The obtained results were compared with the reference levels of International Atomic Energy Authority. The constructed computer program provides an easy and more practical mean of estimating skin dose even before exposure. They also provide the easiest and cheapest technique can be employed in any entrance skin dose measurement

  13. Comparison of experimental hut entrance and exit behavior between Anopheles darlingi from the Cayo District, Belize, and Zungarococha, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Paige; Diaz Rodriguez, Gloria Alicia; Briceno, Ireneo; King, Russell; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P

    2013-12-01

    Anopheles darlingi is a major vector for malaria in Central and South America. Behavioral, ecological, genetic, and morphologic variability has been observed across its wide distribution. Recent studies have documented that 2 distinct genotypes exist for An. darlingi: a northern lineage (Belize, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, and Panama) and a southern lineage (Amazonia and southern Brazil). In order to determine if these genotypes exhibited different behavioral traits, entrance and exit movement patterns between 2 field populations of An. darlingi that represented each genotype were evaluated using experimental huts. The Belize population exhibited bimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. and 5:00-6:00 a.m. and peak exiting occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. The Peru population exhibited unimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 10:00-11:00 p.m. and peak exiting occurring between 11:00-12:00 a.m. with a secondary smaller peak at 2:30 a.m. Entrance and exit behavioral patterns were significantly different between the Belize and Peru populations of An. darlingi (log-rank [Mantel-Cox] P < 0.001). Information from the present study will be used in the future to determine if there is a correlation between genotype and host-seeking behavior and can be used in the present for regional vector risk assessment.

  14. Wheelchair accessibility to public buildings in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evcil, A Nilay

    2009-03-01

    Accessibility to public environment is the human right and basic need of each citizen and is one of the fundamental considerations for urban planning. The aim of this study is to determine the compliance of public buildings in central business districts (CBD) of Istanbul, Turkey, to wheelchair accessibility to the guidelines of the instrument and identify architectural barriers faced by wheelchair users. This is a descriptive study of 26 public buildings in CBD of Istanbul. The instrument used is the adapted Useh, Moyo and Munyonga questionnaire to collect the data from direct observation and measurement. Descriptive statistics of simple percentages and means are used to explain the compliance to the guidelines of the instrument and wheelchair accessibility. The descriptive survey results indicate that wheelchair users experience many accessibility problems in public environment of the most urbanised city (cultural capital of Europe in 2010) in a developing country. It is found that the major architectural barrier is the public transportation items with the lowest mean compliance (25%). Beside this, the most compliant to the instrument is entrance to building items with 79% as mean percentage. It is also found that there is an intention to improve accessibility when building construction period is investigated. This article describes the example of the compliance of public buildings accessibility when the country has legislation, but lacking regulations about accessibility for the wheelchair users.

  15. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.680 Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance... the Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance within a rectangular area beginning at a...

  16. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences...... on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  17. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    evolves from a simple establishment of a contractual relationship to a central and strategic part of construction. The authors relate to cultural, ethical and social and behavioural sciences as the fundamental basis for analysis and understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the procurement system......‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which...

  18. The fresco at the entrance to Danilo II church of the Mother of God at Peć

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Painted around 1330, this fresco is located on a large section of the western façade of the church of the Mother of God Hodegetria at Peć above the entrance that leads from the monumental narthex into the interior of the building. It is a composition, joining the unusual image of the holy patroness of Archbishop Danilo II's ecclesiastical endowment, accompanied by two figures of angels in adoration, to create an iconographic whole with a twin presentation of the archpriests, St. Nicolas and Danilo II himself bowing in prayer. After giving a careful and detailed description of the entire content and setting of the painting, first of all, the paper discusses the content and message conveyed in the choice of the image of the Mother of God with Child, which, in the given assembly of figures, is distinguished by its central position and enlarged proportions. A perception of the views maintained so far, regarding the interpretation of this composition, and the specific points related to the choice of the central figure, when attempting to decipher its meaning, leads to considering that in a certain reinterpretation of the aforesaid, quite specific representation of the patroness of the Serbian archbishop's church endowment, there also lies the key for the explanation of the twin presentation of the two hierarchs in prayer, as well as for shedding light on the inter-relationship of all the figures involved in the painting, i.e. for perceiving the logic of uniting them in one composition. Even though a new attempt at comprehending the content and the subtle message of the fresco largely rests upon the examination and thorough research of comparative material that previous research workers have already noted as being significant for the examination of the given solution, this does not hold for the conclusions arising from the observation of that material. There is a critical review particularly of the previous conclusions that remain within the

  19. Estimating pediatric entrance skin dose from digital radiography examination using DICOM metadata: A quality assurance tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, S. L., E-mail: samuel.brady@stjude.org; Kaufman, R. A., E-mail: robert.kaufman@stjude.org [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated methodology to estimate patient examination dose in digital radiography (DR) imaging using DICOM metadata as a quality assurance (QA) tool. Methods: Patient examination and demographical information were gathered from metadata analysis of DICOM header data. The x-ray system radiation output (i.e., air KERMA) was characterized for all filter combinations used for patient examinations. Average patient thicknesses were measured for head, chest, abdomen, knees, and hands using volumetric images from CT. Backscatter factors (BSFs) were calculated from examination kVp. Patient entrance skin air KERMA (ESAK) was calculated by (1) looking up examination technique factors taken from DICOM header metadata (i.e., kVp and mA s) to derive an air KERMA (k{sub air}) value based on an x-ray characteristic radiation output curve; (2) scaling k{sub air} with a BSF value; and (3) correcting k{sub air} for patient thickness. Finally, patient entrance skin dose (ESD) was calculated by multiplying a mass–energy attenuation coefficient ratio by ESAK. Patient ESD calculations were computed for common DR examinations at our institution: dual view chest, anteroposterior (AP) abdomen, lateral (LAT) skull, dual view knee, and bone age (left hand only) examinations. Results: ESD was calculated for a total of 3794 patients; mean age was 11 ± 8 yr (range: 2 months to 55 yr). The mean ESD range was 0.19–0.42 mGy for dual view chest, 0.28–1.2 mGy for AP abdomen, 0.18–0.65 mGy for LAT view skull, 0.15–0.63 mGy for dual view knee, and 0.10–0.12 mGy for bone age (left hand) examinations. Conclusions: A methodology combining DICOM header metadata and basic x-ray tube characterization curves was demonstrated. In a regulatory era where patient dose reporting has become increasingly in demand, this methodology will allow a knowledgeable user the means to establish an automatable dose reporting program for DR and perform patient dose related QA testing for

  20. Differences in compliance with Surviving Sepsis Campaign recommendations according to hospital entrance time: day versus night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mónica; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Aragão, Irene; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Cardoso, Teresa

    2013-04-23

    Higher compliance with Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) recommendations has been associated with lower mortality. The authors evaluate differences in compliance with SSC 6-hour bundle according to hospital entrance time (day versus night) and its impact on hospital mortality. Prospective cohort study of all patients with community-acquired severe sepsis admitted to the intensive care unit of a large university tertiary care hospital, over 3.5 years with a follow-up until hospital discharge. Time to compliance with each recommendation of the SSC 6-hour bundle was calculated according to hospital entrance period: day (08:30 to 20:30) versus night (20:30 to 08:30). For the same periods, clinical staff composition and the number of patients attending the emergency department (ED) was also recorded. In this period 300 consecutive patients were included. Compliance rate was (night vs. day): serum lactate measurement 57% vs. 49% (P = 0.171), blood cultures drawn 59% vs. 37% (P 8 mmHg 45% vs. 29% (P = 0.021), and central venous oxygen saturation (SvcO₂) >70%, 7% vs. 2% (P = 0.082); fluids were administered in all patients with hypotension in both periods and vasopressors were administered in patients with hypotension not responsive to fluids in 100% vs. 99%. Time to get specific actions done was also different (night vs. day): serum lactate measurement (4.5 vs. 7 h, P = 0.018), blood cultures drawn (4 vs. 8 h, P night with a higher proportion of less differentiated doctors. The number of patients attending the Emergency Department was lower overnight. Hospital mortality rate was 34% in patients entering in the night period vs. 40% in those entering during the day (P = 0.281). Compliance with SSC recommendations was higher at night. A possible explanation might be the increased nurse to patient ratio in that period. Adjustment of the clinical team composition to the patients' demand is needed to increase compliance and improve prognosis.

  1. Thermal usage of drainage water at the northern entrance to the Gotthard base railway tunnel - Feasibility study, phase II; Waermenutzung Tunnelwasser Basistunnel Gotthard, Nordportal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dups, Ch. [Gruneko AG, Basel (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for 2004 presents a review of the results of work done on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on research into the possible uses of the rock water collected behind the tunnel linings of the new Gotthard base tunnel under the Swiss Alps. This report regards only the northern entrance. Estimates of the quantity of drainage water and its temperature are presented, as are possible uses for the warm water as a basis for district heating, individual heat-pumps as well as for greenhouses, fish breeding and mushroom farming. Figures are quoted on effective heating-energy costs and reductions in fossil-fuel use to be attained. The high sensitivity of the energy price to changes in electricity prices and to the degree to which buildings are connected to a district heating system is discussed. Possible use of the tunnel water in other municipalities in the area are also listed. Figures on heating-power and heating-energy supply are quoted for several of the various possible projects.

  2. Thermal usage of drainage water at the southern entrance to the Gotthard base railway tunnel - Feasibility study, phase II; Waermenutzung Tunnelwasser Basistunnel Gotthard, Suedportal. Machbarkeitsstudie Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dups, Ch. [Gruneko AG, Basel (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report presents a review of the results of work done on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on research into the possible uses of the rock water collected behind the tunnel linings of the new Gotthard base tunnel under the Swiss Alps. This report regards only the southern entrance. Estimates of the quantity of drainage water and its temperature are presented, as are possible uses for the warm water as a basis for a tropical greenhouse, fish breeding, a wellness-spa, district heating, and individual heat-pumps as well as for heating the Alp Transit visitor centre. Figures are quoted on effective heating-energy costs and reductions to be obtained in fossil fuel use. The high sensitivity of the energy price with respect to electricity prices and the degree to which buildings are connected to a district heating system is discussed. Possible use of the tunnel water in other municipalities in the area are also listed. Figures on heating-power and heating-energy supply are quoted for several of the various possible projects.

  3. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency improvement...

  4. Building Sandcastles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø; Korsgaard, Steffen; Shumar, Wes

    of entrepreneurship education. Our theoretical and methodological approach builds on Actor-Network Theory. The empirical settings of our study consist of two entrepreneurship courses which differ in terms of temporal extension and physical setting. Data is collected using observation and interview techniques. Our...

  5. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  6. Estimate of ovarian dose and entrance skin dose in uterine artery embolization procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcia C.; Nasser, Felipe; Affonso, Breno B.; Araujo Junior, Raimundo T.; Zlotnik, Eduardo; Messina, Marcos L.; Baracat, Edmund C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate the ovarian dose and entrance skin dose (ESD) of patients who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) procedure. To achieve this, 49 UAE procedures were accompanied where the parameters of image acquisition were recorded for the calculation of the DEP from the output of the X-ray tube. The estimation of the ovarian dose was carried out by the insertion of a vaginal probe containing 3 TLD's. The obtained values were compared with the results of other authors and a higher value of ovarian dose (28,97 cGy) and ESD (403,57 cGy) was found in this work. Analysis of the results allowed to observe that this result was obtained mainly as a result of the high number of arteriography series and the frames/second rates employed. Following on from these observations, the protocol of EMUT was altered reducing the frames/seg rate from 2 to 1. Efforts with a view to reducing the number of arteriography series also became part of the next proceedings. (author)

  7. New hadron discovered at Entrance B (mother and baby doing fine)

    CERN Multimedia

    James Gillies

    2013-01-01

    Hadron: A heavy, strongly interacting particle. So say the dictionaries, and the definition seems entirely appropriate for the latest addition to a particular family that was passing CERN’s Entrance B on Monday afternoon en route for the Hôpital de la Tour.   The father of the baby (left) and the members of the CERN Fire Brigade and Medical Service dealing with the unexpected happy event. (Photo by D. Pagnani, CERN Fireman. The photo is reproduced by the CERN Bulletin with the agreement of the di Castro family.) The new "hadron" certainly showed the strength of its desire to interact with the world in arriving a little earlier than expected, causing its fraught parents to pull up the car and seek help at the first port of call. Luckily for them, that turned out to be CERN. Our medical service and ambulance personnel proved to be entirely up to the task. The fire brigade provided first aid, and was soon joined by the medical service, which ensured that mot...

  8. Sleep Patterns and Academic Performance During Preparation for College Entrance Exam in Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghai; Ren, Fen; Liu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangxing; Jiang, Fan; Skora, Elizabeth; Lewin, Daniel S

    2016-04-01

    Deficient sleep is linked to detrimental outcomes in health and school performance for adolescents. This study characterized sleep patterns in Chinese adolescents preparing for the College Entrance Exam (CEE) and evaluated the association between sleep patterns, self-rated academic performance, and the CEE scores. A sample of 481 Chinese adolescents in 12th grade (ages 16-19 years) completed questionnaires about sleep patterns, academic performance, academic stress, and sociodemographic factors 4-6 weeks before the CEE in June 2013. The CEE scores for each student also were obtained. A total of 21% of the students had bedtimes after 12:00 am, 78.3% had sleep latency longer than 30 minutes, 14.6% had wake time earlier than 6:00 am, and the vast majority (94.4%) had sleep duration less than 8 hours. After adjusting for selected confounders such as academic stress, prolonged sleep latency was associated with poorer self-reported academic performance, and late bedtime was associated with higher CEE score. Our findings highlight the complex association between sleep and academic performance. Assessing and monitoring sleep patterns in adolescents during periods of high academic demand and stress may yield important recommendations for their health and safety as well as establishing optimal sleep and study habits. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  9. Pretreatment with oleic acid accelerates the entrance into the mitotic cycle of EGF-stimulated fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugaza, J L; Casabiell, X A; Bokser, L; Eiras, A; Beiras, A; Casanueva, F F

    1995-07-01

    We have previously demonstrated that pretreatment of several cell lines with cis-unsaturated fatty acids, like oleic acid, blocks epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced early ionic signals, and in particular the [Ca2+]i rise. In the present work we show that this blockade does not alter EGF-stimulated cellular proliferation evaluated by direct cell counting, but induces a powerful enhancement in the pulsed thymidine incorporation assay. The lack of effect of oleic acid on EGF-stimulated cellular proliferation was confirmed by repeated cell counts, cumulative thymidine incorporation, and protein synthesis, but a clear synergistic effect between oleic acid and EGF was again obtained by means of time course experiments with pulsed thymidine. Combined flow cytometry analysis and cell counts at earlier times in EGF-stimulated cells showed that oleic acids accelerates the entrance of cells into the replicative cycle leading to an earlier cell division. Afterward, these oleic acid-pretreated cells became delayed by an unknown compensatory mechanism in such a way that at 48 h post-EGF, the cell count in control and oleic acid-pretreated cells was equal. In conclusion (a) oleic acid accelerates or enhances the EGF mitogenic action and (b) in the long term cells compensate the initial perturbation with respect to untreated cells. As a side observation, the widely employed pulsed thymidine incorporation method as a measure of cell division could be extremely misleading unless experimental conditions are well controlled.

  10. Experimental study of fluid flow in the entrance of a sinusoidal channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oviedo-Tolentino, F.; Romero-Mendez, R.; Hernandez-Guerrero, A.; Giron-Palomares, B.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental flow visualization study of the entrance section of channels formed with sinusoidal plates was made. The experiments were conducted in a water tunnel and a laser illuminated particle tracking was used as the technique of flow visualization. The geometric parameters of the plates were maintained constant while the distance between plates, phase angle, and the Reynolds number were varied during the experiments. The flow regimes that were found in the experiments are steady, unsteady and significantly-mixed flows. Instabilities of the flow first appear near the exit of the channel, and move closer to the inlet waves as the Reynolds number grows, but in the first wave from inlet the flow is always steady. The results show that, for all other parameters fixed, the Reynolds number at which unsteady flow first appears grows with the distance between plates. The phase angle that best promotes unsteady flow depends on the average distance between plates: for certain average distance between plates, there is a phase angle that best disturbs the flow. For the set of parameters used in this experiment, a channel with eight waves is sufficiently long and the flow features presented in the first eight waves of a longer channel will be similar to what was observed here

  11. [The forensic medical characteristics of the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic rifles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legin, G A; Bondarchuk, A O; Perebetjuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the injurious action of three types of the bullets for the pneumatic weapons shot from different distances using the Gamo pump air pistol and the BAM B22-1 pneumatic rifle. The following four kinds of the bullets were tested: "the fireball", "Luman cap 0.3", "Luman Field Target 0.68" and "DIABOLO". It was experimentally shown that the injurious action of the bullets fired from the same distance from the pneumatic weapons depends on the type of both the bullet and the weapon, as well as the properties of the target material. Specifically, the action of bullets fired from the piston pneumatic rifle remained stable whereas that of the bullets shot from the gas-balloon air pistol decreased as the gas was exhausted. The studies by the contact-diffusion method have demonstrated that the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic weapons are surrounded by dispersed metal particles which makes it possible to estimate the shooting distance. Moreover, the bullets fired from the pneumatic weapons leave the muzzle face imprint on certain target materials.

  12. Optimal Coordinated Control of Power Extraction in LES of a Wind Farm with Entrance Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P. Goit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of optimal coordinated control techniques in large eddy simulations of wind farm boundary layer interaction with the aim of increasing the total energy extraction in wind farms. The individual wind turbines are considered as flow actuators, and their energy extraction is dynamically regulated in time, so as to optimally influence the flow field. We extend earlier work on wind farm optimal control in the fully-developed regime (Goit and Meyers 2015, J. Fluid Mech. 768, 5–50 to a ‘finite’ wind farm case, in which entrance effects play an important role. For the optimal control, a receding horizon framework is employed in which turbine thrust coefficients are optimized in time and per turbine. Optimization is performed with a conjugate gradient method, where gradients of the cost functional are obtained using adjoint large eddy simulations. Overall, the energy extraction is increased 7% by the optimal control. This increase in energy extraction is related to faster wake recovery throughout the farm. For the first row of turbines, the optimal control increases turbulence levels and Reynolds stresses in the wake, leading to better wake mixing and an inflow velocity for the second row that is significantly higher than in the uncontrolled case. For downstream rows, the optimal control mainly enhances the sideways mean transport of momentum. This is different from earlier observations by Goit and Meyers (2015 in the fully-developed regime, where mainly vertical transport was enhanced.

  13. Far-from-equilibrium bidirectional transport system with constrained entrances competing for pool of limited resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Atul Kumar; Sharma, Natasha; Gupta, Arvind Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by the wide occurrence of limited resources in many real-life systems, we investigate two-lane totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with constrained entrances under finite supply of particles. We analyze the system within the framework of mean-field theory and examine various complex phenomena, including phase separation, phase transition, and symmetry breaking. Based on the theoretical analysis, we analytically derive the phase boundaries for various symmetric as well as asymmetric phases. It has been observed that the symmetry-breaking phenomenon initiates even for very small number of particles in the system. The phases with broken symmetry originates as shock-low density phase under limited resources, which is in contrast to the scenario with infinite number of particles. As expected, the symmetry breaking continues to persist even for higher values of system particles. Seven stationary phases are observed, with three of them exhibiting symmetry-breaking phenomena. The critical values of a total number of system particles, beyond which various symmetrical and asymmetrical phases appear and disappear are identified. Theoretical outcomes are supported by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, the size-scaling effect and symmetry-breaking phenomenon on the simulation results have also been examined based on particle density histograms.

  14. Evaluation of entrance skin dose to the skull in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Anas Ali Elbushari

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic x-ray radiology is a common diagnostic practice.Despite of its increasing hazard to human beings, imaging procedures should be achieved with less radiation dose and sufficient image quality. The aim of this study was to estimate the entrance skin dose(ESD) for patients undergoing selected diagnostic x-ray examinations in four hospitals.The study included the examinations of the skull; posterior- anterior(PA) and lateral projections. Fifty patients were enrolled in this study. ESDs were estimated from patients specific exposure parameters using established relation between output (μGy/mAs) and tube voltage(kVp). The estimated ESDs ranged from 0.0097-0.1846 mGy for skull (PA), 0.0097-0.1399 mGy for skull (LAT). These values were acceptable as compared with the international reference dose levels. This study provides additional data that can help the regulatory authority to establish reference dose levels for diagnostic radiology in Sudan.(Author)

  15. Entrance channel influence on the formation and decay of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harar, S.

    1987-04-01

    Different entrance channels have been investigated to form very hot nuclei and to study their decay properties. i) Argon and Nickel projectiles accelerated around the Fermi energy show that central collisions induce momentum transfers to target nuclei which are proportional to the mass of the projectile and not to its velocities in the studied energy range. The preequilibrium model fits nicely the experimental results. The decay properties of the fission products for hot nuclei will be presented. Both head-on collisions and peripheral massive transfers contribute to the formation of very excited nuclei. The question of the influence of the energy deposit in the composite like system in limiting their yields is discussed. ii) Investigations have been also achieved with alpha projectiles at much higher incident energy (around 1 GeV/u). It is shown that hot and thermalized nuclei are also formed even when the nucleon-nucleon collisions are predominant. A sensitive parameter of the transition from binary fission to multifragmentation seems to be the energy deposit in the target residues rather than the projectile velocity

  16. Evaluation of a Model for Predicting the Tidal Velocity in Fjord Entrances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, Emilia [The Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Division of Electricity, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Thomassen, Paul [Team Ashes, Trondheim (Norway); Leijon, Mats [The Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Division of Electricity, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    Sufficiently accurate and low-cost estimation of tidal velocities is of importance when evaluating a potential site for a tidal energy farm. Here we suggest and evaluate a model to calculate the tidal velocity in fjord entrances. The model is compared with tidal velocities from Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements in the tidal channel Skarpsundet in Norway. The calculated velocity value from the model corresponded well with the measured cross-sectional average velocity, but was shown to underestimate the velocity in the centre of the channel. The effect of this was quantified by calculating the kinetic energy of the flow for a 14-day period. A numerical simulation using TELEMAC-2D was performed and validated with ADCP measurements. Velocity data from the simulation was used as input for calculating the kinetic energy at various locations in the channel. It was concluded that the model presented here is not accurate enough for assessing the tidal energy resource. However, the simplicity of the model was considered promising in the use of finding sites where further analyses can be made.

  17. Environmental Assessment for US 98 (SR 30) at the Entrance to Hurlburt Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ppm) VPH Proposed Action 2012 30/50 3,650 Hurlburt Field main gate 10.0 35 6.0 9.0 Proposed Action 2032 30/50 4,830 Hurlburt Field main...NAAQS & FAAQS 8-Hr (ppm) VPH No Build 2012 30/45 4,770 Hurlburt Field main gate 16.1 35 9.7 9 No Build 2032 30/45 5,460 Hurlburt Field main

  18. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience......, Brian O’Neill, Andra Siibak, Sascha Trültzsch-Wijnen, Nicoletta Vittadini, Igor Vobič and Frauke Zeller. Stakeholder feedback from: Michelle Arlotta (DeAgostini), Andreea M. Costache (Association of Consumers of Audiovisual Media in Catalonia/TAC), Francesco Diasio (AMARC Europe), Marius Dragomir (Open...

  19. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  20. Measurement and monitoring of entrance exposure dose rate in X-ray image intensifier television with dose rate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J [Bezirkskrankenhaus Brandenburg (German Democratic Republic)

    1981-03-01

    For X-ray image intensifier television operation very low entrance dose rates (about 5.2 nA/kg) are stated and demanded, respectively. These required values are often manifold exceeded in practice so that a check seems to be necessary. It is shown and proved how these measurements can be performed with simple, generally available means of measurement in the radiological practice. For ZnCdS-image intensifiers should be considered that about 13 nA/kg for the large entrance size are not to be exceeded; for the CsI type lower values (factor 1.5) are practicable because of the twofold quantum absorption efficiency. Furthermore, some tests for a semiquantitative function check of the automatic dose rate control are proposed.

  1. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgroun...

  2. A Two-Stage DEA to Analyze the Effect of Entrance Deregulation on Iranian Insurers: A Robust Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jalali Naini, Seyed Gholamreza; Nouralizadeh, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    We use two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) model to analyze the effects of entrance deregulation on the efficiency in the Iranian insurance market. In the first stage, we propose a robust optimization approach in order to overcome the sensitivity of DEA results to any uncertainty in the output parameters. Hence, the efficiency of each ongoing insurer is estimated using our proposed robust DEA model. The insurers are then ranked based on their relative efficiency scores for an eight-year...

  3. Evaluation of the Kerma at the entrance of the labyrin thin in facilities with Co-60 HDR brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujades, M. C.; Granero, D.; Ballester, F.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Vijande, J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the kerma's collision at the entrance of the labyrinth adapting the methodology of the NCRP-151 to a bunker of brachytherapy with Co-60, similar to the one carried out in a previous work with HDR Ir-192. To validate the result is simulated using techniques Monte Carlo (MC) two typical designs of HDR with Co-60 bunker. (Author)

  4. Bolsa Bay, California, Proposed Ocean Entrance System Study. Report 2. Comprehensive Shoreline Response Computer Simulation, Bolsa Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    Southern California Bight is affected by a land-sea breeze pattern. A variation in flow is caused by the heating of the land surface during the day, and...1980). 27. The success of the inlet channel at Agua Hedionda indicates that a stable non-navigable entrance at Bolsa Chica could be feasible provided a...dual jetty system similar to Agua Hedionda is incorporated into the design. However, structures that penetrate into the active surf zone are expected

  5. Estimation of entrance dose during selected fluoroscopic examinations in some hospitals in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Heba Abdalkareem Osman

    2016-01-01

    A diagnostic fluoroscopy is a modality that involves visualizing the anatomy using radiation in real time. Therefore, patients doses have a potential for being great, increasing the chance of the radiation induced carcinogenesis. The objective of this study was to determine the mean entrance surface dose (ESD) from selected fluoroscopic examinations namely, hysterosalpingography (HSG) and ascendingurethogram (ASU) in three hospitals in Khartoum State. A total of 87 and 110 patents for HSG and ASU respectively were examined. The data were collected over four months. The mean ESD for patients who underwent HSG were 16.2 mGy, 20.6 mGy and 25.9 mGY respectively, while the ESD for patient who underwent ascendingurethrogram for AP view were 3.5mGy, 2.9mGy and 11.9mGy and for OB view 15.9 mGy, 18.3 mGy and 25.4 mGy. Patient doses were calculated using mathematical equation and the results were compared with the ESDs calculated using mathematical equation and the results were found to be comparable with the ESDs reported in previous studies and within the guidance level established by the ICRP. Fluoroscopy time, operator skills, x-ray machine type and clinical complexity of the procedures were shown to be major contributors to the variations reported in the measured ESDs. The study demonstrated the need for standardization of techniques throughout the hospitals and suggested that there ia a need to optimize the procedures.(Author)

  6. Investigation of the Entrance Surface Dose and Dose to Different Organs in Lumbar Spine Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dose assessment using proper dosimeters is especially important in radiation protection optimization and imaging justification in diagnostic radiology. Objective: The aim of this study is to obtain the Entrance Skin Dose (ESD of patients undergoing lumbar spine imaging using two thermoluminescence dosimeters TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti and GR-200 (LiF: Mg, Cu, P and also to obtain the absorbed dose to different organs in lumbar spine imaging with several views. Methods: To measure the ESD values of the patients undergoing lumbar spine imaging, the two TLD types were put on their skin surface. The ESD values for different views of lumbar spine imaging were also measured by putting the TLDs at the surface of the Rando phantom. Several TLD chips were inserted inside different organs of Rando phantom to measure the absorbed dose to different organs in lumbar spine imaging. Results: The results indicate that there is a close agreement between the results of the two dosimeters. Based on the results of this experiment, the ESD dose of the 16 patients included in this study varied between 2.71 mGy and 26.29 mGy with the average of 11.89 mGy for TLD-100, and between 2.55 mGy and 27.41 mGy with the average of 12.32 mGy for GR-200 measurements. The ESDs obtained by putting the two types of TLDs at the surface of Rando phantom are in close agreement. Conclusion: According to the results, the GR200 has greater sensitivity than the TLD-100.

  7. Investigation of the Entrance Surface Dose and Dose to Different Organs in Lumbar Spine Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, S; Zeinali, B; Karimipoorfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Sadeghi, M; Zamani, E; Faghihi, R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dose assessment using proper dosimeters is especially important in radiation protection optimization and imaging justification in diagnostic radiology. Objective: The aim of this study is to obtain the Entrance Skin Dose (ESD) of patients undergoing lumbar spine imaging using two thermoluminescence dosimeters TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) and GR-200 (LiF: Mg, Cu, P) and also to obtain the absorbed dose to different organs in lumbar spine imaging with several views. Methods: To measure the ESD values of the patients undergoing lumbar spine imaging, the two TLD types were put on their skin surface. The ESD values for different views of lumbar spine imaging were also measured by putting the TLDs at the surface of the Rando phantom. Several TLD chips were inserted inside different organs of Rando phantom to measure the absorbed dose to different organs in lumbar spine imaging. Results: The results indicate that there is a close agreement between the results of the two dosimeters. Based on the results of this experiment, the ESD dose of the 16 patients included in this study varied between 2.71 mGy and 26.29 mGy with the average of 11.89 mGy for TLD-100, and between 2.55 mGy and 27.41 mGy with the average of 12.32 mGy for GR-200 measurements. The ESDs obtained by putting the two types of TLDs at the surface of Rando phantom are in close agreement. Conclusion: According to the results, the GR200 has greater sensitivity than the TLD-100. PMID:25599058

  8. Early entrance to the job market and its effect on adult health: evidence from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassouf, A L; McKee, M; Mossialos, E

    2001-03-01

    To determine the effect of employment in childhood on self-reported health in adulthood. A cross-sectional household survey, with households selected through two-stage sampling, in urban and rural areas in the northeast and southeast of Brazil. A total of 4940 individuals, aged between 18 and 65 years, were included. The main outcome measure was self-reported health. There has been a marked reduction in the proportion of people starting work during childhood although, even in the youngest age group, nearly 20% of males began work when under 10. Early entrance into the labour market is strongly associated with low levels of both education and income, with income differentials remaining at later ages. Age starting work is also linked to current household income, with approximately 35% of those starting work when 15 or over currently in the top quartile of household income, compared with 12% of those starting work when under 10. Males, those living in rural areas, and non-whites are most likely to start work early. In univariate analyses, the younger a person started working, the greater the probability of reporting less than good health status as an adult. This persists through all ages, although the difference attenuates with increasing age. In multivariate analyses, adjustment for education or household income substantially reduces the effect but fails to eliminate it in several age bands up to the age of 48, indicating that age starting work has an independent effect on self-reported health in adulthood. The debate about the appropriate policy response to child labour is complex, requiring a balance between protecting the health of the child and safeguarding the income of the family. These findings indicate the need for more research on the long-term sequelae of beginning work at an early age.

  9. OH vibrational activation and decay dynamics of CH4-OH entrance channel complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, Martyn D.; Tsiouris, Maria; Lester, Marsha I.; Lendvay, Gyoergy

    2000-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has been utilized to examine the structure and vibrational decay dynamics of CH 4 -OH complexes that have been stabilized in the entrance channel to the CH 4 +OH hydrogen abstraction reaction. Rotationally resolved infrared spectra of the CH 4 -OH complexes have been obtained in the OH fundamental and overtone regions using an IR-UV (infrared-ultraviolet) double-resonance technique. Pure OH stretching bands have been identified at 3563.45(5) and 6961.98(4) cm-1 (origins), along with combination bands involving the simultaneous excitation of OH stretching and intermolecular bending motions. The infrared spectra exhibit extensive homogeneous broadening arising from the rapid decay of vibrationally activated CH 4 -OH complexes due to vibrational relaxation and/or reaction. Lifetimes of 38(5) and 25(3) ps for CH 4 -OH prepared with one and two quanta of OH excitation, respectively, have been extracted from the infrared spectra. The nascent distribution of the OH products from vibrational predissociation has been evaluated by ultraviolet probe laser-induced fluorescence measurements. The dominant inelastic decay channel involves the transfer of one quantum of OH stretch to the pentad of CH 4 vibrational states with energies near 3000 cm-1. The experimental findings are compared with full collision studies of vibrationally excited OH with CH 4 . In addition, ab initio electronic structure calculations have been carried out to elucidate the minimum energy configuration of the CH 4 -OH complex. The calculations predict a C 3v geometry with the hydrogen of OH pointing toward one of four equivalent faces of the CH 4 tetrahedron, consistent with the analysis of the experimental infrared spectra. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. Entrance and Survival of Brucella pinnipedialis Hooded Seal Strain in Human Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K.; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72 – 96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  11. Direct measurement of a patient's entrance skin dose during pediatric cardiac catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Lue; Mizuno, Yusuke; Goto, Takahisa; Iwamoto, Mari; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Yuka; Tsuboi, Koji; Chida, Koichi; Moritake, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Children with complex congenital heart diseases often require repeated cardiac catheterization; however, children are more radiosensitive than adults. Therefore, radiation-induced carcinogenesis is an important consideration for children who undergo those procedures. We measured entrance skin doses (ESDs) using radio-photoluminescence dosimeter (RPLD) chips during cardiac catheterization for 15 pediatric patients (median age, 1.92 years; males, n = 9; females, n = 6) with cardiac diseases. Four RPLD chips were placed on the patient's posterior and right side of the chest. Correlations between maximum ESD and dose-area products (DAP), total number of frames, total fluoroscopic time, number of cine runs, cumulative dose at the interventional reference point (IRP), body weight, chest thickness, and height were analyzed. The maximum ESD was 80 ± 59 (mean ± standard deviation) mGy. Maximum ESD closely correlated with both DAP (r = 0.78) and cumulative dose at the IRP (r = 0.82). Maximum ESD for coiling and ballooning tended to be higher than that for ablation, balloon atrial septostomy, and diagnostic procedures. In conclusion, we directly measured ESD using RPLD chips and found that maximum ESD could be estimated in real-time using angiographic parameters, such as DAP and cumulative dose at the IRP. Children requiring repeated catheterizations would be exposed to high radiation levels throughout their lives, although treatment influences radiation dose. Therefore, the radiation dose associated with individual cardiac catheterizations should be analyzed, and the effects of radiation throughout the lives of such patients should be followed. (author)

  12. Entrance into elementary scholl at six age? What say childrens and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Raniro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available From the approval of the Law 11.114, published in 05/16/2005, which established enrolment in elementary school from children with six years, from Law 11.274, published in 02/06/2006, which extends the duration of elementary school for nine years and considering family and school with relevant figures to the life of the children, this article is aimed to divulge partial results with how understand parents and himself about insertion process of children with six years in the elementary school. This study is a qualitative nature and based in bioecological perspective of human development established by Bronfenbrenner (1996, whose emphasizes the interconnection between various levels of the ecological system. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen children and their parents, to understand perceptions of the individuals when entrance into elementary school. The interviews locations were a municipal school located in one city of the Sao Paulo State and the own residence of the parents. The data collection illustrated, predominantly, that parents and children agree with the insertion with six years in the elementary school. All seemed to have grown accustomed to the new model and are satisfied with previous results that it can offer nowadays. The students seemed to maintain a satisfactory relationship in school, are motivated, interested and want to read and write, an expectation that meets with parents affirmation. Whilst, sometimes, the children are tired, they value and have clarity of the importance of teaching-learning process. Attend the early childhood education seems to have contributed to the adaptation in elementary school. The family context reveals parents that are value and interested in the education of the children, trying to follow them, even when the family environment and disadvantaged by adverse situations. The results will certainly contribute to the Education School, mainly because there are few studies that

  13. 14C-2-deoxyglucose uptake in the ground squirrel brain during entrance to and arousal from hibernation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilduff, T.S.; Miller, J.D.; Radeke, C.M.; Sharp, F.R.; Heller, H.C.

    1990-01-01

    Neuronal activity underlying various phases of the mammalian hibernation cycle was investigated using the 14 C-2-deoxyglucose (2DG) method. Relative 2DG uptake (R2DGU) values were computed for 96 brain regions across 7 phases of the hibernation cycle: euthermia, 3 body temperature (Tb) intervals during entrance into hibernation, stable deep hibernation, and 2 Tb intervals during arousal from hibernation. Multivariate statistical techniques were employed to identify objectively groups of brain regions whose R2DGU values showed a similar pattern across all phases of hibernation. Factor analysis revealed that most of the variability in R2DGU values for the 96 brain regions across the entire cycle could be accounted for by 3 principal factors. These factors could accurately discriminate the various phases of hibernation on the basis of the R2DGU values alone. Three hypothalamic and 3 cortical regions were identified as possibly mediating the entrance into hibernation because they underwent a change in R2DGU early in entrance into hibernation and loaded strongly on one of the principal factors. Another 4 hypothalamic regions were similarly identified as possibly causally involved in the arousal from hibernation. These results, coupled with characteristic changes in ordinal rank of the 96 brain regions in each phase of hibernation, support the concept that mammalian hibernation is an active, integrated orchestration of neurophysiological events rather than a state entered through a passive process

  14. Methods for implementation of in vivo dosimetry (entrance dose) using thermoluminescent dosimeters during radiotherapy treatment with photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsanelli, Cristiane

    2006-01-01

    Selection, calibration procedure to convert TLD signal into absorbed dose and physical characteristics at the thermoluminescent dosimeters, as well as the determination of correction factors and the methodology to determine expected entrance dose, are described in this work. Practical aspects and the utility of entrance dose measures with thermoluminescent dosimeters were investigated, as well as the exactness and the reproducibility of the daily dose release. The entrance dose measures were performed in five patients with diagnosis of breast cancer treated with a 6 MV photon beam. The measured dose and the expected dose values agreed in ± 5%, due to excellent treatment equipment stability, to automatic verification system and the good exactness in the daily treatment adjustment. Good precision can be achieved when the correction factors for each parameter of influence in the dosimeter response are carefully determined and applied to convert the thermoluminescent signal into absorbed dose. The study demonstrates the viability of thermoluminescent dosimeters use for in vivo dosimetry and its utility as part of a quality assurance program in a radiation therapy service. (author)

  15. Sustainable building versus ecological building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available and sensitivity to a site that are required to efficiently meet the energy needs of a building and occupants with renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal, etc), designers must apply holistic design principles and take advantage of the free, naturally... monumental waste: the product which they deliver requires resources such as energy and water to operate over its entire life-cycle, a period measured in decades, and often in centuries. Throughout this process, construction activities often result...

  16. Model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I begin with some general discussion of model building in particle theory, emphasizing the need for motivation and testability. Three illustrative examples are then described. The first is the Left-Right model which provides an explanation for the chirality of quarks and leptons. The second is the 331-model which offers a first step to understanding the three generations of quarks and leptons. Third and last is the SU(15) model which can accommodate the light leptoquarks possibly seen at HERA

  17. Model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I begin with some general discussion of model building in particle theory, emphasizing the need for motivation and testability. Three illustrative examples are then described. The first is the Left-Right model which provides an explanation for the chirality of quarks and leptons. The second is the 331-model which offers a first step to understanding the three generations of quarks and leptons. Third and last is the SU(15) model which can accommodate the light leptoquarks possibly seen at HERA. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  18. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  19. Applied electro-optics educational and training program with multiple entrance and exit pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Patricia; Zhou, Feng; Zilic, Dorothy

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents an innovative hands-on training program designed to create a pipeline of highly-skilled technical workers for today's workforce economy. The 2+2+2 Pennsylvania Integrated Workforce Leadership Program in Electro-Optics prepares students for a career in this new high-tech field. With seamless transition from high school into college, the program offers the versatility of multiple entrance and exit pathways. After completion of each educational level, students can exit the program with various skill levels, including certificates, an associate's degree, or a bachelor's degree. Launched by Indiana University of Pennsylvania (IUP) in partnership with Lenape Vocational School (Lenape), the 2+2+2 educational pathway program was implemented to promote early training of high-school students. During the first level, students in their junior and/or senior year enroll in four Electro-Optics courses at Lenape. Upon completion of these courses and an Advanced Placement Equivalency course with an appropriate exam score, students can earn a certificate from Lenape for the 15+ credits, which also can be articulated into IUP's associate degree program in Electro-Optics. During the second level, students can earn an associate's degree in Electro-Optics, offered only at the IUP Northpointe Campus. After completion of the Associate in Applied Science (A.A.S.), students are prepared to enter the workforce as senior technicians. During the third level, students who have completed the Associate of Science (A.S.) in Electro-Optics have the opportunity to matriculate at IUP's Indiana Campus to earn a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in Applied Physics with a track in Electro-Optics. Hence, the name 2+2+2 refers to getting started in high school, continuing the educational experience with an associate's degree program, and optionally moving on to a bachelor's degree. Consequently, students move from one educational level to the next with advanced credits toward the next

  20. Solar orbiter/PHI full disk telescope entrance window mechanical mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandiaran, J.; Zuluaga, P.; Fernandez, A. B.; Vera, I.; Garranzo, D.; Nuñez, A.; Bastide, L.; Royo, M. T.; Alvarez, A.

    2017-11-01

    PHI is a diffraction limited, wavelength tunable, quasi-monochromatic, and polarization sensitive imager. These capabilities are needed to infer the magnetic field and line-of-sight (LOS) velocity of the region targeted by the spacecraft (spacecraft (S/C)). PHI will consist of two telescopes: The High Resolution Telescope (HRT)[1] and the Full Disk Telescope (FDT). The HRT and the FDT will view the Sun through entrance windows located in the S/C heat shield. These windows act as heat rejecting filters with a transmission band of about 30 nm width centered on the science wavelength, such that the total transmittance (integral over the filter curve weighted with solar spectrum, including white leakage plus transmission profile of the pass band) does not exceed 4% of the total energy falling onto the window [2][3]. The HREW filter has been designed by SELEX in the framework of an ESA led technology development activity under original ESTEC contract No. 20018/06/NL/CP[4], and extensions thereof. For FDT HREW SLEX will provide the windows and it coatings. The HREW consists of two parallel-plane substrate plates (window 1 & window 2)[5] made of SUPRASIL 300 with a central thickness of 9 mm and a wedge of 30 arcsec each. These two substrates are each coated on both sides with four different coatings. These coatings and the choice of SUPRASIL help to minimize the optical absorptivity in the substrate and to radiatively decouple the HREW, which is expected to run at high temperatures during perihelion passages, from the PHI instrument cavity. The temperature distribution of the HREW is driven by two main factors: the mechanical mounting of the substrates to the feedthrough, and the radiative environment within the heat-shield/feedthrough assembly. The mechanical mount must ensure the correct integration of both suprasil substrates in its correct position and minimize the loads in windows due to thermal induced deformations and launching vibration environment. All the

  1. The Diversity Evaluation Model of the College Entrance Exam and the Implement Countermeasures about Hunan in New Curriculum Based on Secondary School Education Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Peilin Liu; Xiuying Shen; Huabai Bu

    2014-01-01

    The institution of the college entrance exam has been suffered criticisms and it partly reflects its disadvantages. It’s a desiderate problem that thinking about how to develop the institution which needs to be solved quickly by the administrator. The primary topic of this research is that analyze the fundamental theory of the diversity evaluation model and some successful experience happened in foreign countries. In addition, the research analyzes the structure model of the college entrance ...

  2. Identification of genes associated with growth cessation and bud dormancy entrance using a dormancy-incapable tree mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Sergio; Li, Zhigang; Reighard, Gregory L; Bielenberg, Douglas G

    2010-02-09

    In many tree species the perception of short days (SD) can trigger growth cessation, dormancy entrance, and the establishment of a chilling requirement for bud break. The molecular mechanisms connecting photoperiod perception, growth cessation and dormancy entrance in perennials are not clearly understood. The peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] evergrowing (evg) mutant fails to cease growth and therefore cannot enter dormancy under SD. We used the evg mutant to filter gene expression associated with growth cessation after exposure to SD. Wild-type and evg plants were grown under controlled conditions of long days (16 h/8 h) followed by transfer to SD (8 h/16 h) for eight weeks. Apical tissues were sampled at zero, one, two, four, and eight weeks of SD and suppression subtractive hybridization was performed between genotypes at the same time points. We identified 23 up-regulated genes in the wild-type with respect to the mutant during SD exposure. We used quantitative real-time PCR to verify the expression of the differentially expressed genes in wild-type tissues following the transition to SD treatment. Three general expression patterns were evident: one group of genes decreased at the time of growth cessation (after 2 weeks in SD), another that increased immediately after the SD exposure and then remained steady, and another that increased throughout SD exposure. The use of the dormancy-incapable mutant evg has allowed us to reduce the number of genes typically detected by differential display techniques for SD experiments. These genes are candidates for involvement in the signalling pathway leading from photoperiod perception to growth cessation and dormancy entrance and will be the target of future investigations.

  3. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toru; Murata, Ritsuko.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a spent fuel storage pool of a BWR type reactor is formed at an upper portion and enlarged in the size to effectively utilize the space of the building. Namely, a reactor chamber enhouses reactor facilities including a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container, and further, a spent fuel storage pool is formed thereabove. A second spent fuel storage pool is formed above the auxiliary reactor chamber at the periphery of the reactor chamber. The spent fuel storage pool and the second spent fuel storage pool are disposed in adjacent with each other. A wall between both of them is formed vertically movable. With such a constitution, the storage amount for spent fuels is increased thereby enabling to store the entire spent fuels generated during operation period of the plant. Further, since requirement of the storage for the spent fuels is increased stepwisely during periodical exchange operation, it can be used for other usage during the period when the enlarged portion is not used. (I.S.)

  4. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  5. Assessment of exit block following pulmonary vein isolation: far-field capture masquerading as entrance without exit block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi; Dandamudi, Gopi; Naperkowski, Angela; Oren, Jess; Storm, Randle; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2012-10-01

    Complete electrical isolation of pulmonary veins (PVs) remains the cornerstone of ablation therapy for atrial fibrillation. Entrance block without exit block has been reported to occur in 40% of the patients. Far-field capture (FFC) can occur during pacing from the superior PVs to assess exit block, and this may appear as persistent conduction from PV to left atrium (LA). To facilitate accurate assessment of exit block. Twenty consecutive patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation referred for ablation were included in the study. Once PV isolation (entrance block) was confirmed, pacing from all the bipoles on the Lasso catheter was used to assess exit block by using a pacing stimulus of 10 mA at 2 ms. Evidence for PV capture without conduction to LA was necessary to prove exit block. If conduction to LA was noticed, pacing output was decreased until there was PV capture without conduction to LA or no PV capture was noted to assess for far-field capture in both the upper PVs. All 20 patients underwent successful isolation (entrance block) of all 76 (4 left common PV) veins: mean age 58 ± 9 years; paroxysmal atrial fibrillation 40%; hypertension 70%, diabetes mellitus 30%, coronary artery disease 15%; left ventricular ejection fraction 55% ± 10%; LA size 42 ± 11 mm. Despite entrance block, exit block was absent in only 16% of the PVs, suggesting persistent PV to LA conduction. FFC of LA appendage was noted in 38% of the left superior PVs. FFC of the superior vena cava was noted in 30% of the right superior PVs. The mean pacing threshold for FFC was 7 ± 4 mA. Decreasing pacing output until only PV capture (loss of FFC) is noted was essential to confirm true exit block. FFC of LA appendage or superior vena cava can masquerade as persistent PV to LA conduction. A careful assessment for PV capture at decreasing pacing output is essential to exclude FFC. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Calculation of entrance exposed area from recorded images in cardiac diagnostic and interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibbo, G.; Balman, D.

    2000-01-01

    With increasing number of interventional radiological procedures performed on patients of all ages, it is important to determine the skin entrance dose of patients to limit the side effects of radiation. In most cases the skin dose is measured using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). However, these detectors need to be placed in the radiation field on the skin of the patient, which may interfere with the procedure. Also, not all radiological practices are equipped with TLD readers which are expensive or have staff with the appropriate knowledge and expertise to be able to make use of TLD. The alternative to TLD is to use the dose area product (DAP) measured with a diamentor fitted to the angiography x-ray equipment. The difficulties in using DAP to calculate skin dose is that the irradiated area of the skin is not known. The area could change in size and location during the procedure as the radiologist/medical specialist varies the collimation and region of interest. For angiography equipment the distance between the anode and image intensifier is variable, as is the height of the examination table. The only point of reference is the isocentre. With recorded images it is possible to determine the irradiated area of the patient at the isocentre plane using the stenosis algorithm. The recorded image is calibrated such that it corresponds to the physical size in the plane of the isocentre. For non-recorded images, it may be necessary to assume that collimation has not changed and that the irradiated area is the same as that shown on the recorded images. The Women's and Children's Hospital has a Toshiba DFP2000 Biplane Digital Imaging system used for all cardiac and general angiography and interventional procedures. With this system the exposure factors (kVp, mA, field sizes) are recorded with the images. The source to image distance (SID), magnification factor (calibration factor of the recorded images) and angle of rotation are displayed on the Display Panel of the

  7. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  8. Comparison of programmed and cabled re-entrance systems. Elaboration of cabled re-entrance system for a CII 90.40; Comparaison des systemes de reentrance programmes et cables. Realisation d'un systeme de reentrance cable pour un CII 90.40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perraudeau, Jean

    1976-11-26

    The objective of this research thesis is to study problems related to re-entrance, and, more particularly, to study a re-entrance system for a CII 90.40 computer. Such a system can be realised under a programmed or cabled form, and both approaches are described and compared. A generalisation of this comparison is briefly proposed. As the computer already possesses a programmed re-entrance system, the author focuses on the study of the cabled re-entrance system which results in an improvement of performance and possibilities provided by this computer, particularly for its use in real time. The design, realisation and development of such a cabled system are reported. A first part reports a theoretical study on re-entrance (definition, problems, applications), a presentation of the computer, a description of the programmed re-entrance system, a presentation of the principle of the chosen cabled re-entrance system, a definition of the structure and operating mode of the cabled pile and a description of its various components, and a flowchart analysis of function execution. The second part reports the practical realisation: definition, technological overview, technology used in the cabled pile, sequencing and multiplexing principle, impulse transmission, logical layouts, and circuit adjustments. The third part presents practical example. An assessment and perspectives are finally discussed.

  9. Building trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Meriel

    1995-01-01

    'Activate' is the energy magazine for secondary schools and is part of the Education Programme which is managed on behalf of the British Nuclear Industry Forum by AEA Technology. activate is the flagship communication device between the British Nuclear Industry Forum's Education Programme and secondary schools in the UK. It was developed from a previous publication, Nuclear Bulletin. There is a need for the nuclear industry to build trust with teachers and students in the UK, where for a long time, everything that the industry has said, written or printed has been disregarded by school teachers as propaganda. Over the last few years the industry has put in a great deal of effort to position itself as a provider of educationally sound and socially acceptable information. 'Activate' was an evolution of this idea and there was a hole in the market for a lively, activity and article based magazine that could be used in the classroom. The target audience is principally teachers of science, mathematics and geography, but also includes teachers of art,, English and history with students of between 11 and 18. The results were very positive in that teachers appreciated the colourful and lively nature of activate and they felt that it provided information and opinions in an un biased and non-propagandist way. Their comments about layout, number of activities style of presentation were taken into account and during the summer of 1994 activate was remodelled ready for re launch in September. The feedback so far is good with more teachers signing up every week to receive their own free copy

  10. Analysis on the entrance surface dose and contrast medium dose at computed tomography and angiography in cardiovascular examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young Hyun [Dept. of Cardiovascular Center, Yeocheon Jeonnam Hospital, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jae Bok; Choi, Nam Gil; Song, Jong Nam [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This study aimed to identify dose reduction measures by retrospectively analyzing the entrance surface dose at computed tomography and angiography in cardiovascular examination and to contribute the patients with renal impairmend and a high probability of side effects to determine the inspection's direction by measuring the contrast usages actually to active actions for the dose by actually measuring the contrast medium dose. The CTDIvol value and air kerma value, which are the entrance surface doses of the two examinations, and the contrast medium dose depending on the number of slides were compared and analyzed. This study was conducted in 21 subjects (11 males; 10 females) who underwent Cardiac Computed Tomographic Angiography (CCTA) and Coronary Angiography (CAG) in this hospital during the period from May 2014 to May 2016. The subject's age was 48-85 years old (mean 65±10 years old), and the weight was 37.6~83.3 kg (mean 63±6 kg). Dose reduction could be expected in the cardiovascular examination using CCTA rather than in the examination using CAG. In terms of contrast medium dose, CAG used a smaller dose than CCTA. In particular, as the number of slides increases at CAG, the contrast medium dose increases. Therefore, in order to reduce the contrast medium dose, the number of slides suitable for the scan range must be selected.

  11. A two-stage compound parabolic concentrator system with a large entrance over the exit aperture ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelescu, Tatiana; Radu, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    Certain optical designs in the field of high energy gamma ray astronomy components of the Cherenkov light, collected by the mirror of telescope, be concentrated on the photo-cathodes of the photomultiplier tubes, with the help of the light collectors having large entrance and small exit apertures. Mathematical restrictions imposed by the design of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) implied that for a given cut-off angle and an entrance aperture, the exit aperture of the CPC should not exceed a limit value. If this value is larger than the active diameter of the photocathode, an additional concentrator must be added to the system in order to transfer the light collected, from the exit aperture of the compound parabolic concentrator to the photocathode of the photomultiplier tube. Different designs of a two-stage system composed by a a hollow compound parabolic concentrator and a solid, dielectric filled concentrator are evaluated in this paper, from the point of view of optical efficiency and manufacturability. (authors)

  12. Design of twisted tape turbulator at different entrance angle for heat transfer enhancement in a solar heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvanjan Bhattacharyya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical investigation of heat transfer characteristics in a tube fitted with inserted twisted tape swirl generator is performed. The twisted tapes are separately inserted from the tube wall. The configuration parameters include the, entrance angle (α and pitch (H. Investigations have been done in the range of α = 180°, 160° and 140° with Reynolds number varying between 100 and 20,000. In this paper, transition – SST model which can predict the transition of flow regime from laminar through intermittent to turbulent has been utilized for numerical simulations. The computational results are in good agreement with experimental data. The results show that higher entrance angle yields a higher heat transfer value. The using of single twist twisted tape supplies considerable increase on heat transfer and pressure drop when compared with the conventional twisted tapes. A large data set has been generated for heat transfer and thermal-hydraulic performance which is useful for the design of solar thermal heaters and heat exchangers.

  13. A Two-Stage DEA to Analyze the Effect of Entrance Deregulation on Iranian Insurers: A Robust Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Gholamreza Jalali Naini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA model to analyze the effects of entrance deregulation on the efficiency in the Iranian insurance market. In the first stage, we propose a robust optimization approach in order to overcome the sensitivity of DEA results to any uncertainty in the output parameters. Hence, the efficiency of each ongoing insurer is estimated using our proposed robust DEA model. The insurers are then ranked based on their relative efficiency scores for an eight-year period from 2003 to 2010. In the second stage, a comprehensive statistical analysis using generalized estimating equations (GEE is conducted to analyze some other factors which could possibly affect the efficiency scores. The first results from DEA model indicate a decline in efficiency over the entrance deregulation period while further statistical analysis confirms that the solvency ignorance which is a widespread paradigm among state owned companies is one of the main drivers of efficiency in the Iranian insurance market.

  14. A Study of the Location of the Entrance of a Fishway in a Regulated River with CFD and ADCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders G. Andersson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation-driven design with computational fluid dynamics has been used to evaluate the flow downstream of a hydropower plant with regards to upstream migrating fish. Field measurements with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler were performed, and the measurements were used to validate the simulations. The measurements indicate a more unstable flow than the simulations, and the tailrace jet from the turbines is stronger in the simulations. A fishway entrance was included in the simulations, and the subsequent attraction water was evaluated for two positions and two angles of the entrance at different turbine discharges. Results show that both positions are viable and that a position where the flow from the fishway does not have to compete with the flow from the power plant will generate superior attraction water. Simulations were also performed for further downstream where the flow from the turbines meets the old river bed which is the current fish passage for upstream migrating fish. A modification of the old river bed was made in the model as one scenario to generate better attraction water. This considerably increases the attraction water although it cannot compete with the flow from the tailrace tunnel.

  15. Building integrated photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzen, M.J.; Vroon, Z.A.E.P.; Geurts, C.P.W.; Reinders, Angèle; Verlinden, Pierre; Sark, Wilfried; Freundlich, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations can be realized in different situations and on different scales, such as at a building level. PV installations at the building level can either be added to the building envelope, which is called building added PV (BAPV), or they can be integrated into the building

  16. The dural entrance of cerebral bridging veins into the superior sagittal sinus: an anatomical comparison between cadavers and digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Hui; Tao, Wei; Zhang, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Intracranial venous structures have received increasing attention due to improved neuroimaging techniques and increased awareness of cerebral venous disease. To date, few studies have attempted to investigate the dural entrance of the cerebral bridging vein (BV). The aim of this study was to use the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) as an example to identify anatomical features of the dural entrance of the BVs into the SSS in both human cadavers and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images. A total of 30 adult and 7 fetal human cadavers and 36 patients were examined with anatomical dissections, vascular casting and DSA. The number, diameter and angle of the BVs entering the SSS were measured and compared between the cadavers and DSA images. The results demonstrated that (1) the way a BV entered the SSS varied in three dimensions, and thus the BV dural entrance was difficult to precisely localize by DSA, (2) the distribution pattern of the dural entrance of the BVs into the SSS was relatively constant and a nontributary segment of the SSS was centered at the coronal suture and was identifiable by DSA, and (3) nearly all the BVs (97%, 561/581) entered the SSS at an angle opposite to the direction of blood flow. Unique anatomical features of the dural entrance of a BV into the SSS should be considered in neuroimaging interpretation of the sinus and its associated veins. (orig.)

  17. The natural history of nest defence in a stingless bee, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), with two distinct types of entrance guards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, C; Kärcher, M H; Ratnieks, F L W

    2011-01-01

    The stingless bee Tetragonsica angustula (Latreille) is the only social bee known that has two different types of nest entrance guards. As in other stingless bees and the honey bee one type stands on, in or near the nest entrance. The second type, so far only known in T. angustula, hovers near the nest entrance. In order to gain further understanding of this unique situation we studied guarding behaviour in both types of guards. Using marked bees, we found that individual worker bees guarded for a long time, up to 20 days, relative to their short, average c. 21 day, lifespan. Relatively few, 33%, individually marked guards were seen performing both types of guarding. The others only acted as standing guards. The bees that did perform both types did so over similar periods of their life. Hovering bouts were 57 min long, interrupted by breaks inside the hive of a few minutes (3.3 ± 1.5 min). Standing bouts were slightly longer (74 min) and also interrupted by short breaks (7.82 ± 6.45 min). Human breath, mimicking a vertebrate intruder, caused the guards to retreat into the nest rather than to attack the intruder. Some colonies protected themselves against intruders by closing the entrance during the night (32% and 56% of colonies during two nights). In summary, our results indicate that nest entrance guarding in T. angustula involves division of labour between the two types, in which most guarding individuals only act as standing guards.

  18. Building performance simulation for sustainable buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a general view of the background and current state of building performance simulation, which has the potential to deliver, directly or indirectly, substantial benefits to building stakeholders and to the environment. However the building simulation community faces many

  19. Measuring indoor occupancy in intelligent buildings using the fusion of vision sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dixin; Guan, Xiaohong; Du, Youtian; Zhao, Qianchuan

    2013-01-01

    In intelligent buildings, practical sensing systems designed to gather indoor occupancy information play an indispensable role in improving occupant comfort and energy efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel method for occupancy measurement based on the video surveillance now widely used in buildings. In our method, we analyze occupant detection both at the entrance and inside the room. A two-stage static detector is presented based on both appearances and shapes to find the human heads in rooms, and motion-based technology is used for occupant detection at the entrance. To model the change of occupancy and combine the detection results from multiple vision sensors located at entrances and inside rooms for more accurate occupancy estimation, we propose a dynamic Bayesian network-based method. The detection results of each vision sensor play the role of evidence nodes of this network, and thus, we can estimate the true occupancy at time t using the evidence prior to (and including) time t. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. (paper)

  20. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  1. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  2. Danish building typologies and building stock analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    energy savings in residential buildings. The intension with this analysis was to investigate the possible energy reduction in Denmark if the same approach had been taken for the entire Danish building stock. The report concludes that the ZeroHome initiative clearly results in energy savings, but far from...... enough to meet the government’s plan to make Danish buildings free from use of fossil fuels by 2035. This will probably require around 50 % energy savings in the Danish building stock as a whole. However, the project has proven that dedicated engagement of locals can speed up market penetration...... for energy savings in the existing Building stock....

  3. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...... efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies....

  4. Determining the Correlation Between Language Scores Obtained by Medical Students in their University Entrance and Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ahmadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Some professors and educators in the field of English language believe that the high grades attained by medical students in their Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exam (CMBSE are mainly a result of the students prior fluency in the language before entering medical colleges; they are of the opinion that these grades are not necessarily a result of the combined effort of the English teachers and students in language courses at the university. This research aimsat determining the correlation between the level of fluency in English of medical students prior to university entrance and the grades obtained by them in their CMBSE after 3 terms of language courses at the university.Methods: Seven of the major and smaller universities of medical sciences were selected. The language scores of 2426 students admitted to these universities during the three academic years of 1999 to 2002 in both the National University Entrance Examination (NUEE and the Comprehensive Medical Basic Sciences Exam (CMBSE were obtained from their related universities and from the secretariat of the Council of Medical Basic Sciences Education respectively. The language scores of each studentobtained in both NUEE and CMBSE were then matched. The related SPSS software was used to assess the level of correlation between these two groups of language scores for the students of each university, for each academic year and semester and also the overall score for the three years.Results: Overall a positive and moderately significant correlation was found between the NUEE language scores and those of the CMBSE of the students of the universities studied (P<0/001; R=443%. The level of correlation for the various universities studied differed (Max. 69%, min.27%.A comparison of the means of these two groups of scores also confirmed this correlation.Conclusion: students’ grades The NUEE language score was not the only factor affecting the student’s CMBSE score

  5. Transient forced convection with viscous dissipation to power-law fluids in thermal entrance region of circular ducts with constant wall heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehkordi, Asghar Molaei; Mohammadi, Ali Asghar

    2009-01-01

    A numerical investigation was conducted on the transient behavior of a hydrodynamically, fully developed, laminar flow of power-law fluids in the thermally developing entrance region of circular ducts taking into account the effect of viscous dissipation but neglecting the effect of axial conduction. In this regard, the unsteady state thermal energy equation was solved by using a finite difference method, whereas the steady state thermal energy equation without wall heat flux was solved analytically as the initial condition of the former. The effects of the power-law index and wall heat flux on the local Nusselt number and thermal entrance length were investigated. Moreover, the local Nusselt number of steady state conditions was correlated in terms of the power-law index and wall heat flux and compared with literature data, which were obtained by an analytic solution for Newtonian fluids. Furthermore, a relationship was proposed for the thermal entrance length

  6. Evaluation of the entrance skin dose due to paediatric chest X-rays examinations carried out at a great hospital in Rio de Janeiro city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamadain, K.E.M.; Azevedo, A.C.P.; Rosa, L.A.R. da; Mota, H.C.; Goncalves, O.D.; Guebel, M.R.N.

    2001-01-01

    A dosimetric survey in paediatric radiology is currently being carried out at the paediatric unit of a great hospital in Rio de Janeiro city, aiming the assessment of patient doses and image quality. The aim of this work was to estimate the entrance skin dose for frontal and lateral chest X-rays exposure to paediatric patients. Three examination techniques were investigated, namely PA, AP and lateral positions. For entrance skin dose evaluation, two different TL dosimeters were used, namely LiF:Mg,Ti and CaSO4:Dy. The age intervals considered were 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results obtained with both dosimeters are similar and the entrance skin dose values evaluated for the different age intervals considered are compared with previous values found in Brazil and also in Europe. (author)

  7. Fathers' characteristics and their children's scores on college entrance exams: a comparison of intact and divorced families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr, L A

    1998-01-01

    Previous research shows that the educational performance of children may be impaired when their parents divorce. However, noncustodial fathers' postdivorce behavior, especially compliance with child support orders, can greatly offset educational disadvantages. The present study investigated the impact of fathers' behavior on their children's performance on college entrance examinations (CEEs) in a sample of 231 college students. Results indicated that, in intact families, fathers' ethnicity and income were related to CEE scores. Further, when these students perceived their fathers as encouraging and involved in their education, their scores were higher. For students with divorced parents, however, noncustodial fathers' ethnicity, income, encouragement, involvement, child support compliance, and visitation were not statistically linked to CEE performance. These findings suggest that joint custodial arrangements, which may enhance the social relationships between fathers and their children, may lead to improved educational outcomes.

  8. Characteristic evaluation of a real-time silicon dosimeter and measurement of entrance surface dose at radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibuchi, Toshiou; Kato, Hideyuki; Hashimoto, Masatoshi; Abe, Yukinao; Kikawa, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    It is important to grasp how much radiation exposure has occurred through radiation diagnosis, in respect to patient explanations and radiation protection. In this examination, we used a patient skin dosimeter (PSD) that measures entrance surface dose (ESD) in real time using a fluoroscopy procedure. The PSD has the ability to display results beginning at 1 μGy. We focused our attention on the X-ray detectability of the PSD, and performed a representative evaluation with the X-ray equipment. We measured ESD under various radiographic parameters at our facility. Although the measurements were dependent on energy, we were able to measure ESD to within an accuracy of about a 5% error by putting a calibration value on energy. The PSD can measure ESD easily without requiring preparation. It is important to be aware of the exposure dose to the radiation staff, and the PSD is a very effective radiation dose-measuring tool when daily business is active. (author)

  9. Magnetic structure in the entrance region of spheromaks sustained by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun under long pulse operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, Naoyuki; Takaichi, Kazuaki; Katsurai, Makoto

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic structure in coaxial-gun-sustained spheromaks has been investigated. The plasma gun has been operated with a small axial/radial bias magnetic flux as compared to the azimuthal magnetic flux produced by the discharge current. Stronger magnetic field is observed in the entrance region (ER) than in the flux conserver (FC). In both ER and FC, the magnetic structure is nearly axisymmetric. The axial magnetic field in ER is amplified up to about sixteen times as large as the bias magnetic field. This amplification is limited by the drastic change in the magnetic structure, which occurs when the discharge current becomes very large. The magnetic structure before the drastic change is interpreted with the Bessel function model. The μ estimation shows that the magnetic structure is mainly determined by the boundary geometry, not by the external magnetic flux and current. (author)

  10. First demonstration of improving laser propagation inside the spherical hohlraums by using the cylindrical laser entrance hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Huo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The octahedral spherical hohlraums have natural superiority in maintaining high radiation symmetry during the entire capsule implosion process in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion. While, in contrast to the cylindrical hohlraums, the narrow space between the laser beams and the spherical hohlraum wall is usually commented. In this Letter, we address this crucial issue and report our experimental work conducted on the SGIII-prototype laser facility which unambiguously demonstrates that a simple design of cylindrical laser entrance hole (LEH can dramatically improve the laser propagation inside the spherical hohlraums. In addition, the laser beam deflection in the hohlraum is observed for the first time in the experiments. Our 2-dimensional simulation results also verify qualitatively the advantages of the spherical hohlraums with cylindrical LEHs. Our results imply the prospect of adopting the cylindrical LEHs in future spherical ignition hohlraum design.

  11. RESEARCH OF THE ENTRANCE ANGLE EFFECT ON THE REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF THE STAINLESS STEEL SURFACE OXIDIZED BY PULSED LASER RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Veiko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Oxide films on the metal surfaces can be obtained both by surface-uniform infrared heating and local laser treatment e.g. by sequence of nanosecond laser pulses. Due to interference in created films the coloration of treated area is observed. The present work shows the results of spectrophotometric measurements for various light entrance angles in the range of 10-60°. Method. AISI 304 stainless steel plates were oxidized by two methods: in muffle furnace FM - 10 (Т= 500-600° С, t = 5-7 min. and at line-by-line scanning by sequence of nanosecond laser pulses (λ = 1.06 μm, τ =100 ns, r = 25 μm,q=2.91∙107 W/cm2, Nx = 30, Ny = 1. Surface research in optical resolution was realized by Carl Zeiss Axio Imager A1M. Reflectance spectra were obtained with spectrophotometer Lambda Perkin 1050 with integrating sphere at different fixed light incidence angles. Topographic features were detected by scanning probe microscopy investigation with NanoEducator equipment. Main Results. The quantitative surface geometry characteristics of AISI 304 stainless steel patterns treated by different methods are obtained. It was found that the increase of light entrance angle has no influence on the form of reflection coefficient dependence from a wavelength, but a blue-shift occurs especially for the case of laser treatment. This difference can be caused by surface topology formed by laser heating and variety of oxide film thickness. This effect results in more significant change in observed sample color for laser treatment then for infrared heating. Practical Relevance. The results obtained in the present work can be used to implement a new element of product protection against forgery with the product marking.

  12. Factors influencing the imposition of a charge on the entrance to the interpretive trails in the large protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Navrátil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relation between the character of the interpretive trail and the imposition of a charge on the entrance. This was done using the discrete choice experiment that involves eight attributes, seven of which are with three levels: the overall character of the trail, the way that the route signs are used in the terrain, the ways of providing information, the length of the trail, the way of the routing, the focus of the trail, and the price of the entrance. There is also one with two levels that involves the existence of the places for rest. The fractional factorial design was used (the orthogonal main effects plan and the Multinomial Logit Model was used in analyzing the data. The 2,830 choices were done by random sampled visitors from eight tourist locations in the Tourist Regions of the Šumava Mts. and South Bohemia during the summer season 2012. The impact of the character of the trail was especially detected in the model. Except for that, the equipment of the trail and its length have had the fundamental impact on the choice of the trail as well. Those longer and worse equipped trails have a significantly lower degree of utility for the respondents. What is quite surprising is that the respondents refused the ecotourism elements of the interpretive trails, such as the possibility of going through the trail on horseback or the accompaniment of an expert who would provide some comments, as it is common to do this at historical attractions within those sightseeing paths.

  13. Computational and experimental studies of the flow field near the beam entrance window of a liquid metal target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geža, Vadims; Milenković, Rade Ž.; Kapulla, Ralf; Dementjevs, Sergejs; Jakovičs, Andris; Wohlmuther, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Water model of liquid metal target for validation of CFD models was built. • PIV measurements showed flow features in the region near beam entrance window. • The zones with high turbulence kinetic energy were distinguished. • Reasonable agreement between modeling and PIV data was obtained. - Abstract: After the first world liquid metal target has been successfully operated at the SINQ facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) for 6 months. The idea of having a reliable target with a bypass flow for cooling the beam entrance window, but with the bypass flow not driven by a separate pump, was examined within the project called LIMETS (Liquid Metal Target for SINQ). In designing of liquid metal targets, turbulence modelling is of high importance due to lack in methods for measuring the spatial distribution of flow and turbulence characteristics. In this study, validation of different turbulence models were performed in water model with hemispherical geometry using particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Two components of water flow velocity in plexiglas container with inner radius of 88 mm were measured in different cross sections, with the velocities varying from 1 to 10 m/s. Numerical calculations using large eddy simulation (LES) approach and Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models were carried out to validate their applicability and study performance issues. Mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy data were used for comparison of PIV and calculation results. Reasonable agreement was obtained for mean velocity data, with some discrepancies due to the limited length of the inlet tube. However, several discrepancies in turbulence characteristics were found in numerical results, especially in RANS model calculations

  14. Modern frame structure buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Першаков

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the design, construction and implementation of reinforced concrete frame structures with span 18, 21 m for agricultural production buildings, hall-premises of public buildings and buildings of agricultural aviation. Structures are prefabricated frame buildings and have such advantages as large space inside the structure and lower cost compared with other facilities with same purpose

  15. Retrofitting Listed Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a case study where the energy demand for a listed building constructed in 1900 is reduced. Many older buildings are listed and have restrictions that include the entire building or that include only its exterior. For the building presented, only its exterior facade is listed. T...

  16. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....

  17. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    component systems that are accessed and integrated in the real world of building use in different contexts. The ICT systems may be physically or virtually embedded in the building. Already in 1982 AT&T established the 'intelligent buildings', IB, concept due to marketing reasons and the Informart building...... with focus on virtual building models support, new services and user environment definitions and development, virtual spaces and augmented reality, intelligent building components, application ontologies, and ICT systems integration to illustrate ICT enhanced buildings potentials and R&D needs.  ...

  18. Global building physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote...

  19. Global Building Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper...

  20. A comparison of entrance skin dose delivered by clinical angiographic c-arms using the real-time dosimeter: the MOSkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, Nathan K.; Cutajar, Dean; Lian, Cheryl; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Pitney, Mark; Friedman, Daniel; Perevertaylo, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Coronary angiography is a procedure used in the diagnosis and intervention of coronary heart disease. The procedure is often considered one of the highest dose diagnostic procedures in clinical use. Despite this, there is minimal use of dosimeters within angiographic catheterisation laboratories due to challenges resulting from their implementation. The aim of this study was to compare entrance dose delivery across locally commissioned c-arms to assess the need for real-time dosimetry solutions during angiographic procedures. The secondary aim of this study was to establish a calibration method for the MOSkin dosimeter that accurately produces entrance dose values from the clinically sampled beam qualities and energies. The MOSkin is a real-time dosimeter used to measure the skin dose delivered by external radiation beams. The suitability of the MOSkin for measurements in the angiographic catheterisation laboratory was assessed. Measurements were performed using a 30 × 30 × 30cm 3 PMMA phantom positioned at the rotational isocenter of the c-arm gantry. The MOSkin calibration factor was established through comparison of the MOSkin response to EBT2 film response. Irradiation of the dosimeters was performed using several clinical beam qualities ranging in energy from 70 to 105 kVp. A total of four different interventional c-arm machines were surveyed and compared using the MOSkin dosimeter. The phantom was irradiated from a normal angle of incidence using clinically relevant protocols, field sizes and source to image detector distance values. The MOSkin was observed to be radiotranslucent to the c-arm beam in all clinical environments. The MOSkin response was reproducible to within 2 % of the average value across repeated measurements for each beam setting. There were large variations in entrance dose delivery to the phantom between the different c-arm machines with the highest observed cine-acquisition entrance dose rate measuring 326 % higher than the lowest

  1. Uncomfortable encounters between elite and “shadow education” in India—Indian Institutes of Technology and the Joint Entrance Examination coaching industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    2017-01-01

    India’s elite sector of engineering universities, Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), are seen as safe gateways to a life in the politically hyped “new India” of the global knowledge economy. The Indian entrance exam coaching industry each year enrolls hundreds of thousands of students...

  2. Survey of Foreign Language Entrance and Degree Requirements for the Bachelor of Arts Degree in United States Institutions of High Education, Fall 1974. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Richard I.

    This report presents the results of the ninth survey of foreign language entrance and degree requirements in United States colleges and universities that grant a bachelor of arts degree. The survey was conducted in 1974 by the Modern Language Association, and was directed at foreign language department chairmen. Responses were received from 98.8…

  3. 33 CFR 207.170d - Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee, Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.170d Taylor Creek, navigation lock...

  4. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... are going to consist of passive houses. The first sustainable buildings were built by their users, and the user – building interaction still play a decisive role for the performance of the present sustainable buildings. The users have to understand how the building functions. Urban design is essential...

  5. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put...

  6. Challenges in Commercial Buildings | Buildings | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    systems Assessing the energy and economic impacts of various technologies, giving priority to those that standardized language for commercial building energy audit data that can be used by software developers to exchange data between audit tools, and can be required by building owners and audit program managers to

  7. Bellanca building, Yellowknife : building envelope retrofit project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajewski, G. [A.D. Williams Engineering Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Bellanca building is a ten-story, commercial office building, located in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. The owner was concerned about annual fuel consumption, relative to other buildings of similar size. Tenants reported cold drafts and some ice build-up had been reported in the past, on the exterior of the cladding. In addition, some water penetration had occurred during rainfall. This presentation provided background information on the Bellanca building and discussed a building envelope retrofit project. A.D. Williams was hired in late 2006 in order to provide an opinion on the present condition of the building envelope. This presentation described the site investigation and presented an interior and exterior review of the building. It also presented a thermographic survey in order to map thermal anomalies and establish trends. Following acceptance of the report on findings, one of five options was selected for further development. This included removal of existing cladding, exterior gypsum wallboard, fiberglass insulation and application of BASF Walltite CT foam, sheathing, rigid insulation, drainage plane and new cladding. The preliminary design was then presented. This paper also described the tender and award of the contract; construction phase; and substantial completion of the project. tabs, figs.

  8. Comparison of entrance exposure and signal-to-noise ratio between an SBDX prototype and a wide-beam cardiac angiographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speidel, Michael A.; Wilfley, Brian P.; Star-Lack, Josh M.; Heanue, Joseph A.; Betts, Timothy D.; Van Lysel, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    The scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system uses an inverse geometry, narrow x-ray beam, and a 2-mm thick CdTe detector to improve the dose efficiency of the coronary angiographic procedure. Entrance exposure and large-area iodine signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured with the SBDX prototype and compared to that of a clinical cardiac interventional system with image intensifier (II) and charge coupled device (CCD) camera (Philips H5000, MRC-200 x-ray tube, 72 kWp max). Phantoms were 18.6-35.0 cm acrylic with an iohexol-equivalent disk placed at midthickness (35 mg/cm 2 iodine radiographic density). Imaging was performed at 15 frame/s, with the disk at mechanical isocenter and an 11-cm object-plane field width. The II/CCD system was operated in cine mode with automatic exposure control. With the SBDX prototype at maximum x-ray output (120 kVp, 24.3 kWp), the SBDX SNR was 107%-69% of the II/CCD SNR, depending on phantom thickness, and the SBDX entrance exposure rate was 10.7-9.3 R/min (9.4-8.2 cGy/min air kerma). For phantoms where an equal-kVp imaging comparison was possible (≥23.3 cm), the SBDX SNR ranged from 47% to 69% of the II/CCD SNR while delivering 6% to 9% of the II/CCD entrance exposure rate. From these measurements it was determined that the relative SBDX entrance exposure at equal SNR would be 31%-16%. Results were consistent with a model for relative entrance exposure at equal SNR, which predicted a 3-7 times reduction in entrance exposure due to SBDX's comparatively low scatter fraction (5.5%-8.1% measured, including off-focus radiation), high detector detective quantum efficiency (66%-73%, measured from 70 to 120 kVp), and large entrance field area (1.7x-2.3x, for the same object-plane field width). With improvements to the system geometry, detector, and x-ray source, SBDX technology is projected to achieve conventional cine-quality SNR over a full range of patient thicknesses, with 5-10 times lower skin dose

  9. Applied building physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hens, Hugo S L C

    2012-01-01

    The energy crises of the 1970s, persisting moisture problems, complaints about sick buildings, thermal, visual and olfactory discomfort, and the move towards more sustainability in building construction have pushed Building Physics to the forefront of building innovation. The societal pressure to diminish energy consumption in buildings without impairing usability acted as a trigger to activate the whole notion of performance based design and construction. As with all engineering sciences, Building Physics is oriented towards application, which is why, after a first book on fundamentals this s

  10. Influence of Vehicle Speed on the Characteristics of Driver's Eye Movement at a Highway Tunnel Entrance during Day and Night Conditions: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li; Dong, Li-Li; Xu, Wen-Hai; Zhang, Li-Dong; Leon, Arturo S

    2018-04-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate how vehicle speed influences the characteristics of driver's eye movement at highway tunnel entrances during day and night. In this study, six drivers' eye movement data (from 200 m before tunnel entrance to 200 m inside tunnel entrance) under five predetermined vehicle speeds (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 km/h) in the daytime and three predetermined vehicle speeds (40, 60 and 80 km/h) in the nighttime were recorded using the non-intrusive Dikablis Professional eye-tracking system. Pupil size, the average fixation duration time and the average number of fixation were analyzed and then the influence of the vehicle speed on these parameters was evaluated by means of IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0. The results for pupil size in daytime increased when approaching the tunnel entrance, while as for nighttime, pupil size decreased when approaching the tunnel entrance and then increased after entering the tunnel. The pupil size in daytime has a significant negative correlation with vehicle speed, while the pupil size in nighttime did not show a significant association with vehicle speed. Furthermore, the average fixation duration in daytime increased when entering the tunnel, and had a significant negative correlation with vehicle speed. Also, the average number of fixations in daytime decreased when entering the tunnel and has a significant negative correlation with vehicle speed. However, the average fixation duration and the average number of fixations in nighttime did not show any significant association with vehicle speed. Moreover, limitations and future directions of the study are discussed for the further investigation.

  11. Waves and tides responsible for the intermittent closure of the entrance of a small, sheltered tidal wetland at San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, D.M.; Ward, K.; Erikson, L.H.

    2011-01-01

    Crissy Field Marsh (CFM; http://www.nps.gov/prsf/planyourvisit/crissy-field-marsh-and-beach.htm) is a small, restored tidal wetland located in the entrance to San Francisco Bay just east of the Golden Gate. The marsh is small but otherwise fairly typical of many such restored wetlands worldwide. The marsh is hydraulically connected to the bay and the adjacent Pacific Ocean by a narrow sandy channel. The channel often migrates and sometimes closes completely, which effectively blocks the tidal connection to the ocean and disrupts the hydraulics and ecology of the marsh. Field measurements of waves and tides have been examined in order to evaluate the conditions responsible for the intermittent closure of the marsh entrance. The most important factor found to bring about the entrance channel closure is the occurrence of large ocean waves. However, there were also a few closure events during times with relatively small offshore waves. Examination of the deep-water directional wave spectra during these times indicates the presence of a small secondary peak corresponding to long period swell from the southern hemisphere, indicating that CFM and San Francisco Bay in general may be more susceptible to long period ocean swell emanating from the south or southwest than the more common ocean waves coming from the northwest. The tidal records during closure events show no strong relationship between closures and tides, other than that closures tend to occur during multi-day periods with successively increasing high tides. It can be inferred from these findings that the most important process to the intermittent closure of the entrance to CFM is littoral sediment transport driven by the influence of ocean swell waves breaking along the CFM shoreline at oblique angles. During periods of large, oblique waves the littoral transport of sand likely overwhelms the scour potential of the tidal flow in the entrance channel. ?? 2011.

  12. Ansiedade em vestibulandos: um estudo exploratório Anxiety in candidates for university entrance examinations: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Guzinski Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Apesar do crescente interesse e da literatura existente sobre adolescentes em preparação para o vestibular, ainda é escasso o conhecimento sobre essa população. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a prevalência de indicadores de ansiedade em alunos de cursos pré-vestibulares na cidade de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 1.046 estudantes que se preparavam para o vestibular; 390 (37,3% eram do sexo masculino e 656 (62,7%, do sexo feminino. A média de idade da amostra foi 18 anos (DP 2,71. Os participantes responderam a um questionário estruturado, com questões sociodemográficas, e à Escala Beck de Ansiedade. RESULTADOS: 23,5% dos vestibulandos apresentaram ansiedade considerada moderada ou grave; candidatas do sexo feminino apresentaram significativamente níveis mais elevados do que os candidatos do sexo masculino; os cursos cujos candidatos apresentaram maior ansiedade foram Publicidade e Propaganda, Farmácia, Medicina Veterinária, Medicina e Odontologia; a sensação de obrigação de prestar vestibular e o fato de considerá-lo como algo decisivo em sua vida fizeram que os adolescentes sentissem mais ansiedade. CONCLUSÕES: Há necessidade premente de atenção psiquiátrica/psicológica a esses candidatos. Outros estudos devem ser realizados, ampliando o conhecimento e baseando em evidências as futuras intervenções dirigidas a essa população.BACKGROUND: Despite the growing interest and the existing literature about adolescents in preparation for the university entrance examinations, the knowledge about this population is still scarce. OBJECTIVES: To verify the prevalence of anxiety indicators in students of courses for preparation for entrance examinations in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. METHODS: 1,046 students were evaluated who were preparing for the entrance exam, among them 390 (37.3% were male and 656 (62.7% were female. The average age for the sample was 18 years old (SD 2.71. The

  13. Geleneksel Niğde Evleri Giriş Düzenlemeleri Traditional Niğde Houses Entrance Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huriye ALTUNER

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to group the entrance arrangements oftraditional Niğde architecture, to define its place in the sidearrangement, and to evaluate within the common ornamentunderstanding occurring in the region in Niğde and itssurroundings. For this, it was determined that in which section ofthe structures the main entrances stand and according to what thisplace is chosen. Then, the entrance arrangements of the houseswere divided into two groups as “arrangements enabling directentrance to the structure” and “yard-garden entrances”.Entrance arrangements in Niğde traditional houses arearchitectural elements that are included in the monumental gatetradition and they show the wealth, life style, belief etc. of thehouse owner. Garden and yard entrances of the houses aregenerally dipterous to facilitate meeting daily needs and dimensionsare arranged according to this. The most notable factor in theentrance arrangements is that, if the door enables direct entranceto the structure, there is a window to enlighten the entrance hall(stony place in the upper part and if the door is opened to a yard,garden or an yard like garden, there is a geometrically formed,profiled rubbed arrangement to enable the flow from top to bottomand to right and left right under the fronton like triangle window.These arrangements in the middle of the high walls separating thestructure, thus the daily life of family are the first notable factorsas symbols of being monumental and beauty of the structure at thebasement level.Niğde traditional houses have an understanding in accordancewith the Turkish house architecture, in which the Stone material isused masterfully. It particularly shows great similarity with theCappadocia region house architecture. House entrancearrangements are similar in this region apart from small differencesand they are the product of a shared admiration. This admirationwas repeated in other structures starting from 18th century to

  14. Energy saving technologies of the decentralized ventilation of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurov, R. Sh; Rafalskaya, T. A.

    2017-11-01

    The growing aspiration to energy saving and efficiency of energy leads to necessity to build tight enough buildings. As a result of this the quantity of infiltration air appears insufficient for realization of necessary air exchange in. One of decisions of the given problem is development and application for ventilation of premises of the decentralized forced-air and exhaust systems (DFAES) with recuperative or regenerative heat-exchangers. For an estimation of efficiency of DFAES following basic parameters have been certain: factor of energy saving; factor of efficiency of energy; factor of a heat transfer; factor of an effective utilization of a surface of heat exchange. Were estimated temperature of forced air; actual speed of an air jet on an entrance in a served zone; actual noise level; the charge of external air. Tests of DFAES were spent in natural conditions at which DFAES influenced all set of factors both an external climate, and an internal microclimate of a premise, and also the arrangement on a wind side or behind wind side of a building, influence of surrounding building, fluctuation of temperature of external air is considered. Proceeding from results and the analysis of the lead researches recommendations have been developed for development and manufacture of new sample of DFAES.

  15. HBsAg seroprevalence in students for college entrance examination from 2006 to 2014 in Qidong of Jiangsu Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI Zhengping

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the HBsAg seroprevalence in the young generation in Qidong of Jiangsu Province, China. MethodsA total of 15 534 students for college entrance examination from 2006 to 2014 were randomly selected from three secondary schools in Qidong as student group. Some of them had hepatitis B vaccination at birth. A total of 1208 adults who had their routine checkups in our hospital from 2007 to 2013 were selected as adult group. It was confirmed that all of them did not have hepatitis B vaccination at birth. Serum HBsAg levels of the two groups were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the seroprevalence was analyzed. Comparison of data between the two groups was made by chi-square test. Results In the 9 years from 2007 to 2013, the seroprevalence rates of HBsAg in the student group were 4.2%(75/1794, 4.3%(77/1797, 4.4%(82/1858, 4.3%(82/1903, 3.4%(56/1627, 2.6%(46/1768, 1.6%(29/1778, 1.6%(27/1642, and 1.8%(24/1367, respectively. The mean HBsAg seroprevalence of the student group was 3.2%(498/15534, significantly lower compared with 7.1% (86/1208 of the adult group (χ2= 59.986, P<0.001. In both of the student group and the adult group, the males had a significantly higher HBsAg seroprevalence than the females (χ2=10.521, P=0.001; χ2=8.452, P=0.004 and the values were 3.7%(266/7236 vs 2.8%(229/8298 and 8.8%(66/750 vs 4.4%(20/458, respectively. Among male subjects, the HBsAg seroprevalence of the adult group was 2.4 times that of the student group; among female subjects, the HBsAg seroprevalence of the adult group was 1.6 times that of the student group. ConclusionIn the recent 9 years from 2006 to 2014, the HBsAg seroprevalence in students for college entrance examination declined continuously. The goal set by the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region in 2010 had been achieved ahead of the schedule that the HBsAg seroprevalence should be controlled below 2% in children aged less than 5.

  16. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  17. Green Building Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  18. Introduction: Green Building Handbook

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By recognising the specific environmental challenges facing South Africa, mindful of the government‘s commitment to reducing South Africa‘s Greenhouse gas emissions, and acknowledging the need to build social cohesion, the Green Building Handbook...

  19. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go undetected...

  20. Building the Korogwe Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Richard, Jean Pierre

    2011-01-01

    An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania.......An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania....

  1. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    of sustainable building operation and a survey amongst building administrators from the private and the social housing sector. Our results show that there are many good examples on sustainable building operation in Danish housing estates, where local building managers, residents etc. have gained impressive......Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...

  2. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically

  3. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  4. Building Design & Construction - Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-11-01

    Offers a brief history of green building; presents the results of a specially commissioned survey; and analyzes the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building.

  5. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  6. Building 431 fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Ford, H.W.; Magee, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    An extensive discussion of considerations for fire protection in the LLL mirror fusion test facility (MFTF) is presented. Because of the large volume and high bays of the building, sufficient data on fire detection is unavailable. Results of fire detection tests using controlled fire sources in the building are presented. Extensive data concerning the behavior of the building atmosphere are included. Candidate fire detection instrumentation and extinguishing systems for use in the building are briefly reviewed

  7. Dutch Building Decree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.

    2000-01-01

    On the 1 October 1992 a change in the Dutch building legislation took effect: the revised Housing Act, the Building Decree and the technical documents related to this legislation came into force. This publication contains an English translation of the Building Decree. In order to give an idea of the

  8. Building founding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Seiya; Hirako, Shizuka.

    1996-01-01

    The lower portion of a reactor building is buried at a level of a base rock. In the step of building construction, the base rock around the building is dug of keeping a construction space. The base rock present between the digging line and the building is replaced with an artificial base rock comprising aggregates and cement having a building constraining force substantially equal with that of the lower supporting base rock to obtain constraining force for the side portion of the building. The building itself is made of concrete steels. As the material for replacing the base rock between the digging line and the building, non-reinforced concrete having no steels may provide sufficient function. The burying depth is determined so as to align the surface of the base rock with the level of the base floor of the building. With such procedures, since it is not necessary to increase the area of the lower portion of the building, the amount of the materials for the building can be reduced. In addition, the earthquakes stability can be ensured without changing the shape of the building. (I.N.)

  9. Management Of Building Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Niko Majdandzic; Tadija Lovric; Vido Peric

    2006-01-01

    In this work we have shown the concept of logistic support in management in building production and in building of objects, which is realised in Enterprise resource Planning – ERP system ERPINSG, developed in Informatic firm Informatic engineering – ININ in Slavonski Brod, and in cooperation with scientists of catedra for informatics of Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and users from building firms.

  10. Concepts in Building Firesafety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, M. David

    The goal of this book is to present in a graphical format the principles of design for building firesafety. The book's more than 270 illustrations represent the core of its coverage of factors affecting fire ignition and spread in buildings, building site planning for fire suppression and occupant rescue operations, protection by building…

  11. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  12. Evaluation of entrance surface-skin doses in animals submitted on exams of abdomen in veterinary radiology using Tl dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziani, G. R.; Matsushima, L. C.; Campos, L. L.; Filho, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    The radiation protection has recently gained considerable attention in human medicine. In veterinary medicine has been some advances in radiodiagnostic and therapy for domestic animal like dogs and cats. It is notable the increase of the costs with domestic animals that are considered, by many people in the whole world, like members of family. However, an important parameter that must be taken into account is the increasing use of computed tomography and other equipment s that uses ionizing radiation, which may lead to comparatively high exposure of critical organs. The radiation dose is determined by the balance between therapeutic benefit and possible damage to surrounding normal tissues. This study aimed the evaluation of entrance surface-skin doses in dogs submitted to radiodiagnostic procedures of abdomen using the technique of thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). The radiation doses were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD 100) and a dog phantom made with a plastic container, proportional to the dog size, fulfilled with water. (Author)

  13. The narrow entrance door of Brazil's national health system (SUS: an evaluation of accessibility in the family health strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Martins de Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has the purpose of analyzing users' perception of the accessibility to Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF - Family Health Strategy in its geographical, organizational, socio-cultural and economic dimensions. Process evaluation with qualitative approach through open interview, direct observation and documental analysis was performed in the city of Recife, northeastern Brazil. The main problems were: the deficient referral and counter-referral system; delayed return of laboratory test results; excessive number of families per team; difficulties in scheduling medical consultations; expenditures on medicines. Facilities were observed in the professional-user relationship, as well as in the geographical proximity of the health unit. ESF proved to be a narrow entrance door to Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - Brazil's National Health System. Therefore, it deserves to be evaluated with a more critical look that takes into account, as a starting point, the needs of individuals who request its actions, as well as the reasoning which guides the actions of the subjects involved in care.

  14. Measurement of entrance surface dose on an anthropomorphic thorax phantom using a miniature fiber-optic dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Shin, Sang Hun; Jeon, Dayeong; Hong, Seunghan; Sim, Hyeok In; Kim, Seon Geun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Youn, Won Sik; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-04-01

    A miniature fiber-optic dosimeter (FOD) system was fabricated using a plastic scintillating fiber, a plastic optical fiber, and a multi-pixel photon counter to measure real-time entrance surface dose (ESD) during radiation diagnosis. Under varying exposure parameters of a digital radiography (DR) system, we measured the scintillating light related to the ESD using the sensing probe of the FOD, which was placed at the center of the beam field on an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. Also, we obtained DR images using a flat panel detector of the DR system to evaluate the effects of the dosimeter on image artifacts during posteroanterior (PA) chest radiography. From the experimental results, the scintillation output signals of the FOD were similar to the ESDs including backscatter simultaneously obtained using a semiconductor dosimeter. We demonstrated that the proposed miniature FOD can be used to measure real-time ESDs with minimization of DR image artifacts in the X-ray energy range of diagnostic radiology.

  15. Clinical results of entrance dose in vivo dosimetry for high energy photons in external beam radiotherapy using MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, J. P.; Bhat, M.; Williams, T.; Kovendy, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Thomson and Nielsen T N -502 R D MOSFETs were used for entrance dose in vivo dosimetry for 6 and 10 MV photons. A total of 24 patients were tested, 10 breast. 8 prostate, 5 lung and 1 head and neck. For prostates three fields were checked. For all other plans all fields were checked. An action threshold of 8% was set for any one field and 5% for all fields combined. The total number of fields tested was 56, with a mean discrepancy of 1.4% and S.D. of 2.6%. Breasts had a mean discrepancy of 1.8% and S.D. of 2.8%. Prostates had a mean discrepancy of 1.3% and S.D. of 2.9%. For 3 fields combined, prostates had a mean of 1.3% and S.D. of 1.8%. These results are similar to results obtained with diodes and TLDs for the same techniques.

  16. Response studies of three different dosimeters for skin entrance dose measurements using diagnostic X-ray machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonawane, A.U.; Kulkarni, Arti; Shirva, V.K.; Butani, M.L.; Pradhan, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    A TLD method based on CaSO 4 :Dy Teflon discs developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai has been extensively used for various applications in diagnostic radiology in India. This method was recently used for evaluation of radiation quality and measurement of skin entrance doses (SEDs) in various hospitals for different diagnostic examinations. The use of TLD discs for these applications involves the process of preparation of TLD discs with different combination of filters and then measurement of TL output under different combinations of filters. The measurement of SEDs in diagnostic radiology is also carried out instantaneously and accurately by using very user friendly and compact state-of-art instruments. These consist of kVp Test-O-Meter (ToM) (Model RADIFLU-9001) and the dose ToM (Model 6001) manufactured by M/s UNFORS, Sweden. The kVp meter automatically calculates kVp and updates it every second in the range from 55 to 145 kVp with the resolution of 0.1 kV. The dose ToM incorporates sealed silicon detector having lead shield under and around, which prevents backscattered radiation from influencing the measurement. The dose Test-O-Meter has excellent energy independence in the range from 50 to 150 kVp and inaccuracy not exceeding 5 % at 70 k Vp. The dose meter is capable of measuring doses up to 9999 μGy

  17. Multicenter study on evaluation of the entrance skin dose by a direct measurement method in cardiac interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Mamoru; Chida, Koichi; Moritake, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Deterministic effects have been reported in cardiac interventional procedures. To prevent radiation skin injuries in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), it is necessary to measure accurate patient entrance skin dose (ESD) and maximum skin absorbed dose (MSD). We measured the MSD on 62 patients in four facilities by using the Chest-RADIREC system. The correlation between MSD and fluoroscopic time, dose area product (DAP), and cumulative air kerma (AK) showed good results, with the correlation between MSD and AK being the strongest. The regression lines using MSD as an outcome value (y) and AK as predictor variables (x) was y=1.18x (R 2 =0.787). From the linear regression equation, MSD is estimated to be about 1.18 times that of AK in real time. The Japan diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) 2015 for IVR was established by the use of dose rates using acrylic plates (20 cm thick) at the interventional reference point. Preliminary reference levels proposed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were provided using DAP. In this study, AK showed good correlation most of all. Hence we think that Japanese DRLs for IVR should reconsider by clinical patients' exposure dose such as AK. (author)

  18. Assessment of the relationship between stress and temporomandibular joint disorder in female students before university entrance exam (Konkour exam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghi, Ahmad; Razavi, S Mohammad; Pozveh, Elham Zamani; Jahangirmoghaddam, Milad

    2011-12-01

    Temporomandibular joint is one of the most complicated joints of the body and plays an important role in the head and neck system. One of the factors affecting the temporomandibular joint and lead to temporomandibular disorder is anxiety with all the events causing it. The aim of this study was to determine a relationship between anxiety and temporomandibular disorders. In this prospective study, subjects were randomly selected. One hundred and thirty pre-university students in Isfahan were evaluated with Ketel's test of anxiety, exam stress test and temporomandibular disorder questionnaires. The evaluation was done in two stages 10 months and 1 month prior to the university entrance exam (Konkour), clinical assessments consisted of masticatory muscles and sternocleidomastoid muscle palpation, temporomandibular joint palpation for pain and noise and its movement, and mouth opening limitations. The Wilcoxon rank test and paired t-test were used to analyze the data and the P value under 0.05 was considered significant. The level of anxiety and occurrence of temporomandibular disorders were increased between two stages and had the highest level in the second stage. There was a significant increase between two stages (Ptemporomandibular disorders and anxiety between the two stages can suggest a possible relationship between anxiety and temporomandibular disorders. Therefore, the effect of anxiety in triggering temporomandibular disorder symptoms is probable.

  19. Influence of the entrance channel in the fusion reaction 318 MeV 74Ge+74Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, L.H.; Cinausero, M.; Angelis, G. de; De Poli, M.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Napoli, D.R.; Prete, G.; Lucarelli, F.

    1998-01-01

    Entrance channel effects in the fusion of heavy ions have been studied by using the 74 Ge+ 74 Ge reaction at 318 MeV. The population of the yrast superdeformed band in 144 Gd shows an increase when compared with the results obtained in the more asymmetric 48 Ti+ 100 Mo reaction at 215 MeV. The relative yields of the different evaporation residues produced in the 74 Ge+ 74 Ge and in the 48 Ti+ 100 Mo reactions are very similar, with the exception of the 145,144 Gd residual nuclei (3n and 4n decay channels) which are populated with a larger yield in the symmetric reaction. Statistical model calculations reproduce qualitatively such effect if a fission delay is explicitly taken into account. Effects related to fusion barrier fluctuations seem to be important in determining the spin distributions of the compound nucleus. The spectra of the high energy γ-rays emitted in the 74 Ge+ 74 Ge reaction have been measured as a function of the γ-ray multiplicity as well as in coincidence with selected evaporation residues. They are reproduced by standard statistical model calculations with GDR parameters taken from systematics, demonstrating that, in agreement with dynamical model prediction, the emission of γ-rays from the dinucleus formed in the earlier stage of the collision is unimportant. (orig.)

  20. Measurement of Entrance Surface Dose on an Anthropomorphic Thorax Phantom Using a Miniature Fiber-Optic Dosimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jae Yoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A miniature fiber-optic dosimeter (FOD system was fabricated using a plastic scintillating fiber, a plastic optical fiber, and a multi-pixel photon counter to measure real-time entrance surface dose (ESD during radiation diagnosis. Under varying exposure parameters of a digital radiography (DR system, we measured the scintillating light related to the ESD using the sensing probe of the FOD, which was placed at the center of the beam field on an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. Also, we obtained DR images using a flat panel detector of the DR system to evaluate the effects of the dosimeter on image artifacts during posteroanterior (PA chest radiography. From the experimental results, the scintillation output signals of the FOD were similar to the ESDs including backscatter simultaneously obtained using a semiconductor dosimeter. We demonstrated that the proposed miniature FOD can be used to measure real-time ESDs with minimization of DR image artifacts in the X-ray energy range of diagnostic radiology.

  1. Rice Cellulose SynthaseA8 Plant-Conserved Region Is a Coiled-Coil at the Catalytic Core Entrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, Phillip S.; Olek, Anna T.; Makowski, Lee; Badger, John; Steussy, C. Nicklaus; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Stauffacher, Cynthia V. (NEU); (Purdue)

    2016-11-22

    The crystallographic structure of a rice (Oryza sativa) cellulose synthase, OsCesA8, plant-conserved region (P-CR), one of two unique domains in the catalytic domain of plant CesAs, was solved to 2.4 Å resolution. Two antiparallel α-helices form a coiled-coil domain linked by a large extended connector loop containing a conserved trio of aromatic residues. The P-CR structure was fit into a molecular envelope for the P-CR domain derived from small-angle X-ray scattering data. The P-CR structure and molecular envelope, combined with a homology-based chain trace of the CesA8 catalytic core, were modeled into a previously determined CesA8 small-angle X-ray scattering molecular envelope to produce a detailed topological model of the CesA8 catalytic domain. The predicted position for the P-CR domain from the molecular docking models places the P-CR connector loop into a hydrophobic pocket of the catalytic core, with the coiled-coil aligned near the entrance of the substrate UDP-glucose into the active site. In this configuration, the P-CR coiled-coil alone is unlikely to regulate substrate access to the active site, but it could interact with other domains of CesA, accessory proteins, or other CesA catalytic domains to control substrate delivery.

  2. Evaluation of the Entrance Surface Dose (ESD and Radiation Dose to the Radiosensitive Organs in Pediatric Pelvic Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Karami

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients' dosimetry is crucial in order to enhance radiation protection optimization and to deliver low radiation dose to the patients in a radiological procedure. The aim of this study was to assess the entrance surface dose (ESD and radiation dose to the radiosensitive organs in pediatric pelvic radiography. Materials and Methods The studied population included 98 pediatric patients of both genders referred to anteroposterior (AP projection of pelvic radiography. The radiation dose was directly measured using high radiosensitive cylindrical lithium fluoride thermo-luminescent dosimeters (TLD-GR200. Two TLDs were placed at the center point of the radiation field to measure the ESD of pelvis. Moreover for each patient, 2 TLDs were placed upon each eyelid, 2 TLDs upon each breast, 2 TLDs upon the surface anatomical position of the thyroid gland and finally 2 TLDs at the surface anatomical position of the gonads to measure the received dose. Results The ESD ± standard deviation for AP pelvic radiography was obtained 591.7±76 µGy. Statistically significant difference was obtained between organs located outside and inside of the radiation field with respect to dose received (P

  3. Pollen Bearing Honey Bee Detection in Hive Entrance Video Recorded by Remote Embedded System for Pollination Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Z.; Pilipovic, R.; Risojevic, V.; Mirjanic, G.

    2016-06-01

    Honey bees have crucial role in pollination across the world. This paper presents a simple, non-invasive, system for pollen bearing honey bee detection in surveillance video obtained at the entrance of a hive. The proposed system can be used as a part of a more complex system for tracking and counting of honey bees with remote pollination monitoring as a final goal. The proposed method is executed in real time on embedded systems co-located with a hive. Background subtraction, color segmentation and morphology methods are used for segmentation of honey bees. Classification in two classes, pollen bearing honey bees and honey bees that do not have pollen load, is performed using nearest mean classifier, with a simple descriptor consisting of color variance and eccentricity features. On in-house data set we achieved correct classification rate of 88.7% with 50 training images per class. We show that the obtained classification results are not far behind from the results of state-of-the-art image classification methods. That favors the proposed method, particularly having in mind that real time video transmission to remote high performance computing workstation is still an issue, and transfer of obtained parameters of pollination process is much easier.

  4. Evaluation of entrance surface-skin doses in animals submitted on exams of abdomen in veterinary radiology using Tl dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneziani, G. R.; Matsushima, L. C.; Campos, L. L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Filho, A. M., E-mail: venezianigr@gmail.com [Centro Universitario de Rio Petro - UNIRP, Rodovia Br 153 (Transbrasiliana), Km. 69 Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The radiation protection has recently gained considerable attention in human medicine. In veterinary medicine has been some advances in radiodiagnostic and therapy for domestic animal like dogs and cats. It is notable the increase of the costs with domestic animals that are considered, by many people in the whole world, like members of family. However, an important parameter that must be taken into account is the increasing use of computed tomography and other equipment s that uses ionizing radiation, which may lead to comparatively high exposure of critical organs. The radiation dose is determined by the balance between therapeutic benefit and possible damage to surrounding normal tissues. This study aimed the evaluation of entrance surface-skin doses in dogs submitted to radiodiagnostic procedures of abdomen using the technique of thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). The radiation doses were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD 100) and a dog phantom made with a plastic container, proportional to the dog size, fulfilled with water. (Author)

  5. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  6. Assessment of entrance skin doses for patients undergoing diagnostic X-ray examinations in some major hospitals of Uttarakhand, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniyal, S.C.; Prasad, V.; Chaturvedi, V.; Raghuvanshi, S.; Sharma, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Entrance skin dose (ESD) was calculated based on the X-ray beam output, the exposure parameters used for the actual examination and the standard value of backscatter factor. Descriptive statistics were generated from the data by using Microsoft Excel 2010. The third quartile values of ESDs obtained in this study for different X-ray projections of chest anterior-posterior (AP), chest posterior-anterior (PA), cervical spine, thoracic spine, lumber spine AP, lumber spine lateral, abdomen, KUB, pelvis, skull and knee joint were 0.79, 0.28, 1.20, 2.80, 4.26, 9.82, 2.68, 3.21, 2.69, 2.21 and 0.55 mGy respectively. The ratio of maximum to minimum ESD values ranges from 5.2 for thoracic spine to 19.76 for chest AP X-ray examinations. In general, the obtained ESD values were found to be either lower than or in agreement with the reported national/international values

  7. Evaluation of pediatrics entrance surface air kerma during chest X-ray examinations in some Khartoum hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Hassan Ishag Yahya

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the amount of entrance surface air kerma dose in air that can reflect the amount of the risk that the children, are subjected to. The parameters that are involved in this project are x-ray tube current (mA), exposure time (sec.), and focal skin distance (FSD) in cm. ESAK is calculated using the equation: ESAK=(Output (mGy/mAs) x (100/FSD) 2 X mAs) for different examination of different patients. 65 cases were involved in this study, the results show that the ESAK mean value (0.18±0.07) mGy, (0.06±0.07) mGy, (0.045±0.017) mGy and (0.049±0.013) mGy at the hospitals (IBNIOF Omdurman, police, clinic doctor) respectively. IBNIOF presented the highest ESAK (0.18±0.07) mGy, while it was lowest in police (0.045±0.017) mGy. The estimated ESAK value were within the established international reference dose values and also the values obtained in pervious studies however, variations were observed in ESAK values among hospitals under study which could be due to the differences in exposure parameters used. Also tube output has some effect on obtained ESAK. (author)

  8. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2012-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

  9. Courthouse Prototype Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    As part of DOE's support of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 and IECC, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) apply a suite of prototype buildings covering 80% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S. for new construction. Efforts have started on expanding the prototype building suite to cover 90% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S., by developing prototype models for additional building types including place of worship, public order and safety, public assembly. Courthouse is courthouse is a sub-category under the “Public Order and Safety" building type category; other sub-categories include police station, fire station, and jail, reformatory or penitentiary.ORNL used building design guides, databases, and documented courthouse projects, supplemented by personal communication with courthouse facility planning and design experts, to systematically conduct research on the courthouse building and system characteristics. This report documents the research conducted for the courthouse building type and proposes building and system characteristics for developing a prototype building energy model to be included in the Commercial Building Prototype Model suite. According to the 2012 CBECS, courthouses occupy a total of 436 million sqft of floor space or 0.5% of the total floor space in all commercial buildings in the US, next to fast food (0.35%), grocery store or food market (0.88%), and restaurant or cafeteria (1.2%) building types currently included in the Commercial Prototype Building Model suite. Considering aggregated average, courthouse falls among the larger with a mean floor area of 69,400 sqft smaller fuel consumption intensity building types and an average of 94.7 kBtu/sqft compared to 77.8 kBtu/sqft for office and 80 kBtu/sqft for all commercial buildings.Courthouses range in size from 1000 sqft to over a million square foot building gross square feet and 1 courtroom to over 100 courtrooms. Small courthouses

  10. New opening hours for the Reception foyer and the visitor facilities in Building 33

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    New hours for visitors Monday to FridayReception: 8:00 a.m. to 5:45 p.m.Microcosm: 8:15 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.Shop: 9:00 a.m. to 5:45 p.m. Globe: 2:00 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. (on days the Globe is open)SaturdayReception: 8:30 a.m. to 5:15 p.m. Microcosm: 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Shop: 9:00 a.m. to 5:15 p.m. Globe: 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (on days the Globe is open) The new opening hours will be displayed on both sides of the entrance to Building 33. People working at CERN should note the modified closing times: Access times for CERN staff Monday to Friday:\tThe foyer in Building 33 opens at 8:00 a.m. and closes at 5:45 p.m. Saturday:\tThe foyer in Building 33 opens at 8:30 a.m. and closes at 5:15 p.m. Outside these hours, CERN staff must use the small entrance that opens directly onto the car park.

  11. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  12. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  13. Smart buildings: Energy efficient conditioning of building occupants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Houten, van M.A.; Boxem, G.; Vehler, R.; Verhoeven, M.; Fremouw, M.

    2009-01-01

    To further optimize energy performance of buildings, intelligent building control offers new possibilities. Intelligent Software Agents (ISA) can be implemented at different levels of building automation. Individual agents for individual climate control for each user of the building in combination

  14. Residential and commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Svend; Furbo, S.

    2012-11-15

    Low-energy buildings can make a major contribution to general sustainable development by providing a solution to problems related to the use of fossil fuels. The EPBD (EU Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings) requirements that by 2020 new building shall be constructed to use nearly zero energy, and no fossil fuels, can be accomplished by combining low-energy buildings with renewable energy via low-temperature district heating in cities and suburbs, and via heat pumps for low-density settlements. Based on experience with passive houses, low-energy buildings meeting the energy performance requirements of 2020 are expected to cost only a few percent more than conventional buildings. The very large and rapid changes needed in the energy performance of buildings is a challenge for the building sector, but one that can be overcome by better methods of developing products and designing, constructing and operating buildings. Simulation-based analysis and optimisation, and considerations of durability, will be important here. Building may thus be transformed from an experience-based sector to one based on knowledge and research, with high-quality sustainable products and good business opportunities. (Author)

  15. Improved transmission of electrostatic accelerator in a wide range of terminal voltages by controlling the focal strength of entrance acceleration tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, Nikolai R.; Tunningley, Thomas; Linardakis, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Tandem electrostatic accelerators often require the flexibility to operate at a variety of terminal voltages to accommodate various user requirements. However, the ion beam transmission will only be optimal for a limited range of terminal voltages. This paper describes the operational performance of a novel focusing system that expands the range of terminal voltages for optimal transmission. This is accomplished by controlling the gradient of the entrance of the low-energy tube, providing an additional focusing element. In this specific case it is achieved by applying up to 150 kV to the fifth electrode of the first unit of the accelerator tube. Numerical simulations and beam transmission tests have been performed to confirm the effectiveness of the lens. An analytical expression has been derived describing its focal properties. These tests demonstrate that the entrance lens control eliminates the need to short out sections of the tube for operation at low terminal voltage.

  16. Green Building Tools for Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribal green building tools and funding information to support tribal building code adoption, healthy building, siting, energy efficiency, renewable energy, water conservation, green building materials, recycling and adaptation and resilience.

  17. Evaluation of entrance skin air kerma in digital and conventional pediatric chest examinations performed in Parana-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana L.R.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Lunelli, Neuri; Paschuk, Sergei; Tilly Jr, Joao G.; Rogacheski, Enio; Khoury, Helen J.; Ferreira, Jose R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In pediatric radiology it is important to evaluate patient exposure due to the high sensitivity of his/her tissue and his/her relatively longer life expectancy, which may increase the chance of radiogenic cancer development. Special attention is necessary when digital systems are used since a high dosage level for the patient may go unnoticed because the resulting image is not overexposed. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the Entrance Skin Air Kerma (ESAK) in pediatric patients submitted to digital and conventional chest examinations performed in the State of Parana, located in the Southern region of Brazil. The survey was performed in two hospitals, one located in Curitiba, the Capital of the State (A) and the other in the city of Cascavel (B). Hospital A uses a conventional image system and Hospital B uses a CR digital system. The study group consisted of 50 patients (from 2 days to six years of age) undergoing chest PA/AP examinations. At the time of the examination, the exposure parameters (kV, mAs, focal-film distance, etc) and the gender, height, weight and age of the patient were recorded. To evaluate the Entrance Skin Air Kerma (ESAK), two TLD-100 dosimeters were packaged in a polyethylene case, heat sealed and placed on the surface of each patient. The TLDs were calibrated the Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation of the Federal University of Pernambuco. The TLDs were processed on a Victoreen readout system model 2800M. The results showed that the kilovoltage values used in Hospital A are in the range of 46 to 65 kV with the average value of 51,7 kV, while the ones in Hospital B are in the range of 65 to 80 kV. On the other hand, even though hospital B uses the CR system, the mAs used for the chest exams are 4 times higher than the ones used in Hospital A. For Hospital A, the mean ESAK value was 0.044 mGy (min: 0.08 and max 0.146 mGy), and for Hospital B the mean ESAK value was 0.368 mGy (min: 0.021 and max 1.21mGy). The results made

  18. Application of the resistivity method to study ground water potentialities on a part of the entrance of wadi el-assiuti, Eastern desert, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Bekheit, A. A. [ابو ضيف عبلا العال بخيت; Senosy, M. A.; Riad, S.; Omran, A. A.; Ibrahim, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    Wadi El-Assiuti is located east of Assiut city and extends in almost northeast direction. The entrance of the wadi is suitable site for reclamation and city planning projects. Consequently, it is very important to study the groundwater potentialities of this part of Assiut governorate. Electrical resistivity measurements included 29 vertical electrical sounding (VES) applying Schlumberger layout were carried out. The obtained VES-curves were quantitatively interpreted to deduce the correspond...

  19. Study of incomplete fusion reaction dynamics in 13C +165 Ho system and its dependence on various entrance channel parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tali, Suhail A.; Kumar, Harish; Ansari, M. Afzal; Ali, Asif; Singh, D.; Ali, Rahbar; Giri, Pankaj K.; Linda, Sneha B.; Parashari, Siddharth; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.

    2018-02-01

    The excitation functions for the evaporation residues populated in the interaction of 13C +165 Ho system have been measured at projectile energies ≈ 4-7 MeV/nucleon. Stacked foil activation technique followed by off-line γ-ray spectroscopy have been employed in the present work. The experimentally measured cross-sections are analyzed in the frame work of statistical model code PACE4, which takes into account only the complete fusion reaction cross-sections. The evaporation residues populated via xn and pxn channels were found to be in good agreement with the PACE4 predictions, while a significant enhancement in the measured cross-sections over PACE4 predictions is observed in case of α-emitting channels, which may be attributed to the incomplete fusion process. For the better understanding of incomplete fusion dynamics, the incomplete fusion fraction has also been deduced and its sensitivity with various entrance channel parameters like: projectile energy, mass-asymmetry, projectile structure in terms of Qα-value and Coulomb effect has been studied in the present work. The incomplete fusion fraction is found to increase with increasing the projectile energy and a strong projectile structure dependent mass-asymmetry systematic is also observed. The incomplete fusion fraction is also found to be small for more negative Qα-value projectile (13C) induced reactions as compared to less negative Qα-value projectiles (12C, 16O and 20Ne) induced reactions with the same target nucleus 165Ho. An interesting trend is obtained on further investigation of incomplete fusion dependence on Coulomb effect (ZPZT).

  20. Raised crosswalks on entrance to the roundabout-a case study on effectiveness of treatment on pedestrian safety and convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candappa, Nimmi; Stephan, Karen; Fotheringham, Nicola; Lenné, Michael G; Corben, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A common concern in the use of a roundabout is providing adequately for the pedestrian. This unique roundabout layout, which introduces raised crosswalks directly at the roundabout entrance, as opposed to at a car length back, aims at improving safety and convenience for pedestrians at roundabouts. A preliminary evaluation of the layout was undertaken to establish its effectiveness in meeting study objectives. A quasi-experimental before-and-after study design was used to compare speeds on approach and immediately prior to the crossing to ascertain potential impact speed and implications for pedestrian safety. Compliance to crossing and crossing time were also compared in relation to safety and convenience outcomes. A questionnaire assessed pedestrian perception of the safety and convenience at the roundabout before and after treatment. Results from this case study indicate that mean approach speeds (free speeds 30 m from crossing) reduced from 32.7 to 30.7 km/h and immediately prior to crossing, mean speeds reduced from 19.1 to 16.3 km/h. There was also a marked reduction in proportions of vehicles traveling at speeds that could elevate risk to pedestrians. Total crossing time after treatment reduced by around 4 s, and crossing compliance increased from approximately half to approximately 90 percent. Survey of pedestrians indicated positive response to the perceived safety and convenience posttreatment. Preliminary results of the case study suggest positive safety and convenience outcomes. Implications for pedestrian safety include less exposure to traffic and lower risk of serious injury, particularly for elderly pedestrians; convenience outcomes include shorter waiting times to cross and greater compliance to the crossing. A larger study is required to substantiate the findings.

  1. Assessment of Patients’ Entrance Skin Dose from Diagnostic X-ray Examinations at Public Hospitals of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esen Nsikan U

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High doses of ionizing radiation can lead to adverse health outcomes such as cancer induction in humans. Although the consequences are less evident at very low radiation doses, the associated risks are of societal importance. This study aimed at assessing entrance skin doses (ESDs in patients undergoing selected diagnostic X-ray examinations at public hospitals of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods In total, six examinations were performed on 720 patients in this study.   CALDose_X5 software program was used in estimating ESDs based on patients’ information and technical exposure parameters. Results The estimated ESDs ranged from 0.59 to 0.61 mGy for PA and RLAT projections of the thorax, respectively. ESDs for the AP and RLAT projections of the cranium were 1.65 and 1.48 mGy, respectively. Also, ESD values for the AP view of the abdomen and pelvis were 1.89 and 1.88 mGy, respectively. The mean effective dose was within the range of 0.021-0.075 mGy for the thorax (mean= 0.037, 0.008-0.045 mGy for the cranium (mean= 0.016, 0.215-0.225 mGy for the abdomen (mean= 0.219 and 0.101-0.119 mGy for the pelvis (mean= 0.112. Conclusion The obtained results were comparable to the international reference dose levels, except for the PA projection of the thorax. Therefore, quality assurance programs are required in diagnostic X-ray units of Nigeria hospitals. The obtained findings add to the available data and can help authorities establish reference dose levels for diagnostic radiography in Nigeria.

  2. Calculation of the uncertainty associated to the result of entrance surface air kerma for conventional radiology patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, D.; Mora, P.; Khoury, H.; Fabri, D.; Leyton, F.; Cardenas, J.; Blanco, S.; Kodlulovich, S.; Roas, N.; Benavente, T.; Ortiz Lopez, P.; Ramirez, R.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation doses from diagnostic radiology are the largest contribution to the collective dose and the use of guidance (reference levels) has proven to be a tool for optimization of protection. Recently, with the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), eight countries of the Latin-American region have been working together on a programme to test methodologies for determining preliminary values of guidance levels for X-ray chest, lumbar spine and breast examinations. The approach used was to obtain entrance surface air kerma from measurements of X-ray tube outputs, corrected for distance and backscatter and later for real exposure parameters used with patients. For quality control, some of these values for a reduced number of patients were compared with direct TLD measurements directly placed on the patient during exposure. Given the number of parameters involved in the two methods, relatively large differences are deemed to be found in the comparison. The only way of deciding if measurements and calculations are outliers, for example, due to a systematic error or a mistake, is to compare these differences with the combined uncertainty. The aim of this paper is to present (in a detailed way) the methodology used in the pilot program ARCAL LXXV, the analyses of data performed within the survey and the estimated uncertainty. The parameters analyzed were: precision of the readings, positioning of the detector, reproducibility of the mAs and kV, long term stability of the instrument, radiation quality, kerma rate, radiation incidence, field size and field homogeneity, calibration factor of the equipment, temperature and pressure measurement, X-ray tube output curve adjustment, backscatter factor and focus-patient distance. The combined standard uncertainty for Ke in chest radiography in adult patients of standard complexion, was 12%, and the expanded uncertainty (k=2) was 24%. (author)

  3. Similarity solution and Runge Kutta method to a thermal boundary layer model at the entrance region of a circular tube: The Lévêque Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Belhocine

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the thermal entrance region, a thermal boundary layer develops and also reaches the circular tube center. The fully developed region is the zone in which the flow is both hydrodynamically and thermally developed. The heat flux will be higher near the inlet because the heat transfer coefficient is highest at the tube inlet where the thickness of the thermal boundary layer is zero and decreases gradually to the fully developed value. In this paper, the assumptions implicit in Leveque's approximation are re-examined, and the analytical solution of the problem with additional boundary conditions, for the temperature field and the boundary layer thickness through the long tube is presented. By defining a similarity variable, the governing equations are reduced to a dimensionless equation with an analytic solution in the entrance region. This report gives justification for the similarity variable via scaling analysis, details the process of converting to a similarity form, and presents a similarity solution. The analytical solutions are then checked against numerical solution programming by Fortran code obtained via using Runge-Kutta fourth order (RK4 method. Finally, others important thermal results obtained from this analysis, such as; approximate Nusselt number in the thermal entrance region was discussed in detail.

  4. Experimental analysis of considering the sound pressure distribution pattern at the ear canal entrance as an unrevealed head-related localization clue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Xin; QI Na; MENG Zihou

    2018-01-01

    By analyzing the differences between binaural recording and real listening,it was deduced that there were some unrevealed auditory localization clues,and the sound pressure distribution pattern at the entrance of ear canal was probably a clue.It was proved through the listening test that the unrevealed auditory localization clues really exist with the reduction to absurdity.And the effective frequency bands of the unrevealed localization clues were induced and summed.The result of finite element based simulations showed that the pressure distribution at the entrance of ear canal was non-uniform,and the pattern was related to the direction of sound source.And it was proved that the sound pressure distribution pattern at the entrance of the ear canal carried the sound source direction information and could be used as an unrevealed localization cluc.The frequency bands in which the sound pressure distribution patterns had significant differences between front and back sound source directions were roughly matched with the effective frequency bands of unrevealed localization clues obtained from the listening tests.To some extent,it supports the hypothesis that the sound pressure distribution pattern could be a kind of unrevealed auditory localization clues.

  5. Cave Entrance dependent Spore Dispersion of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Various Sediments of Iron Ore Cave in Brazil: a colloquy on human threats while caving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Linzi Silva Taylor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Caves are stable environments with characteristics favoring the development of fungi. The fungal community present in a cave also includes pathogenic and opportunistic species out of which some are also served as energy sources in such energy stared ecosystems. Studies on microbial diversity and their role on such energy starved ecosystem are scarce. The present study was aimed to identify the cultivable filamentous fungi present in the various sediment of an iron ore cave and to recognize them as pathogenic and/or opportunistic species. Further the impact of cave entrance on the spore depositions on various distances dependent sediments were analyzed. The results suggest a diverse microbial community inhabiting the cave and an influence of cave entrance over spore deposition on various sediments. We counted a total of 4,549 filamentous fungi that included 34 species of 12 genera: Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Paecilomyces, Purpureocillium, Penicillium, Torula, Trichoderma, Mucor and Rhizopus. A positive significant relation was observed between spore deposition and distance from cave entrance (p= 0.001. Areas of potential mycoses risks were recognized. This is the first study on microbiological community of an iron ore cave in the country.

  6. Estimation of entrance dose on chest radiographs according to the exposure index on Computerized Radiology System: preliminary results; Estimativa de dose de entrada a partir do indice de exposicao em sistema CR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donomai, Luana Kaoru; Jornada, Tiago da Silva; Daros, Kellen Adriana Curci, E-mail: luana.donomai@gmail.com, E-mail: tiagosjornada@gmail.com, E-mail: daros.kellen@unifesp.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Digital radiology has improved image quality in radiographs in comparison to screen/film systems though the visual control of the quantity of radiation involved on these exams became more demanding due to the low perception of over and underexposed images. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the exposure index (EI) from chest examinations and relate them to the entrance skin dose. Indices from 29 patients and kerma entrance dose were correlated. A correlation coefficient equal to 0,6881 was calculated. EI and entrance dose are correlated positive and moderately, indicating the relevance to deepen the subject. (author)

  7. Net positive energy buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.; Barreiro, E.; Sanchez Zabala, V.

    2010-01-01

    Buildings are great consumers of energy, being responsible for almost 36% of CO2 emissions in Europe. Though there are many initiatives towards the reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in buildings, many of the alternatives are diminished due to a lack of a unique and holistic approach to the problem. This paper reports a new innovative concept of Positive Energy Buildings (EB+), as well as an integral methodology that covers the overall design process for achieving them. The methodology evaluates energy efficiency solutions at different scales, from building site to generation systems. An educational building design in Navarra serves as a case study to check the feasibility of the proposed methodology. The study concludes that the key to achieve a Positive Energy Building is a minimized energy demand, complemented by efficient facilities and enhanced by distributed power generation from renewable sources. (Author).

  8. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... that environmental design has altered how we design, construct and manage buildings. The book has relevance to those who not only design and engineer buildings but to those who commission architecture and those who occupy the products of this process. Hence, the user is a key consideration. The book examines via...... a number of LEED and BREEAM cases the buildings which flow from corporate environmental responsibility. A number of office and university buildings are examined from three main perspectives- the architect, client and user. One key finding is that architectural innovation has been driven by ecological...

  9. Building materials. Stichwort Baustoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohwer, W

    1981-01-01

    To handle building materials properly, one must know about their characteristics. This pocket book will be of help: structured like a glossary, it gives brief descriptions of the most common building materials. It is small and handy enough to be a constant companion to resident engineers, foremen, gangers, building tradesmen, and construction workers and an aid in their training. The following groups of building materials are discussed: Natural stone; units for brick walls, floors, and roofs; mortar and concrete (definitions, binders, aggregates, additives, admixtures, mixing water); special types of plaster and rendering; light-weight building boards and wood wool basis; multilayer light-weight building boards; gypsum plasterboards; chimney construction; sewers; thermal insulation and sound section; structural steels; plastics.

  10. Trends in building materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mapiravana, Joseph

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available , steel and composites research. Analysis of the building materials market situation in South Africa identified the major building material cost drivers as cement and concrete and steel. For South Africa, research and development focus has been... in South Africa be cement and concrete, light-weight steel construction, smart tiles and composite materials. Nanotechnology materials should be used for property enhancement. The building materials developed should be modularised and/or panelised...

  11. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, householders and other building owners about the radon problem and to help in deciding if there is need to take any action to reduce radon levels in their homes or other buildings.It explains what radon is, how it enters buildings and what effect it may have on health. Reference is made to some of the usual ways of reducing the level of radon and guidance is given on some sources of assistance

  12. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.M.; Finn, M.

    1995-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, contractors, householders and other building owners about radon in buildings and to provide guidance where it has been decided to take action to reduce radon levels. It gives some pointers to good practice insofar as it relates to non complex buildings of normal design and construction. Reference is made to the usual ways of reducing l;levels of radon and guidance is given on sources of further information. I

  13. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  14. Healthy Buildings '88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, B.; Lindvall, T.; Maansson, L.G.

    1988-06-01

    The Healthy Buildings '88 Conference focuses on the technical solutions and functional requirements contributing to Healthy Buildings for people to live and work in. The main object of the Conference is to give architects, consultants, real-estate owners and manufacturers of building materials recommendations on choice of materials and choice of systems and on how to combine materials and systems. The program includes overview lectures, plenary symposia with invited speakers, workshops, poster presentations and an exhibition of scientific, educational and technical material. One part of the conference is devoted to the problem of radon in residential buildings

  15. Radon in large buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, considerable research has been devoted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and others to develop radon sampling protocols for single family residences and schools. However, very little research has been performed on measuring radon in the work place. To evaluate possible sampling protocols, 833 buildings throughout the United States were selected for extensive radon testing. The buildings tested (warehouses, production plants and office buildings) were representative of commercial buildings across the country both in design, size and use. Based on the results, preliminary radon sampling protocols for the work place have been developed. (orig.). (5 refs., 3 figs.)

  16. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Gustavsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...

  17. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  18. Building valve amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Building Valve Amplifiers is a unique hands-on guide for anyone working with tube audio equipment--as an electronics hobbyist, audiophile or audio engineer. This 2nd Edition builds on the success of the first with technology and technique revisions throughout and, significantly, a major new self-build project, worked through step-by-step, which puts into practice the principles and techniques introduced throughout the book. Particular attention has been paid to answering questions commonly asked by newcomers to the world of the valve, whether audio enthusiasts tackling their first build or

  19. Electromagnetically shielded building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Nakamura, M.; Yabana, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Nagata, K.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs

  20. Reusing Old Manufacturing Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an interesting design challenge for students, one that will certainly let them integrate subject matter and get a sense of pride for doing something useful in their own community. The author would be willing to bet that the average town or city has some old red brick manufacturing building(s) that have seen much better days.…

  1. Building a Data Warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elliott

    2002-01-01

    Describes how to build a data warehouse, using the Schools Interoperability Framework (www.sifinfo.org), that supports data-driven decision making and complies with the Freedom of Information Act. Provides several suggestions for building and maintaining a data warehouse. (PKP)

  2. Electromagnetically shielded building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T; Nakamura, M; Yabana, Y; Ishikawa, T; Nagata, K

    1992-04-21

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs.

  3. Building a Better Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  4. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  5. Building information modelling (BIM)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a Building Information Model (BIM) also known as a Building Product Model (BPM) is nothing new. A short article on BIM will never cover the entire filed, because it is a particularly complex filed that is recently beginning to receive...

  6. Heat loss from Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...

  7. SUSY GUT Model Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raby, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    In this talk I discuss the evolution of SUSY GUT model building as I see it. Starting with 4 dimensional model building, I then consider orbifold GUTs in 5 dimensions and finally orbifold GUTs embedded into the E 8 xE 8 heterotic string.

  8. Building Maintenance Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Joseph; Messier, Joseph

    Building maintenance is a basic two-year trade education course requiring 2 1/2 hours of study on each of 160 teaching days per year. Student abilities should range from those capable of the simplest custodial work to those who may eventually be superintendents of building complexes. The syllabus is organized in sections by traditional skills…

  9. Building Global Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas; Buchem, Ilona; Camacho, Mar; Cronin, Catherine; Gordon, Averill; Keegan, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC) for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning…

  10. WATER TEMPERATURE, SALINITY, and HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE collected from R/V Point Sur in Entrance to the Gulf of California from 2013-04-19 to 2013-05-02 (NCEI Accession 0131072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrographic data were collected in Pescadero Basin (at the entrance to the Gulf of California) and subsequently along the West Coast of Baja California and Southern...

  11. Future Green Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, David; Lund, Henrik

    an energy system integration perspective, heat savings, electricity savings, and user behavioural aspects as well as energy storage and household level flexibility. Many reports on green or sustainable buildings focus only on savings levels and disregard the cost of renewable energy production. Some reports......Efficient buildings are essential for an affordable Danish energy supply in 2050. The purpose of this report is to describe the contribution and role of the building sector in a 100% renewable energy future, as well as the transitions that are necessary in the building sector to support this change....... The report builds on a literature review encompassing more than 50 reports and research papers over the last 10 years and more than a two decades knowledge about the interactions between different components of the energy sector. The review has been focused on aspects such as cost-effective solutions from...

  12. Building perservation practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    , and they indicate the importance of this story to be preserved. The professionals, who cooperate on the preservation efforts for the cultural environments today, all emphasizes the communication of the story, but using different approaches towards the processes of reading, interpreting and communicating. The role...... planning? In this paper I will focus on the communication of the architects working with building preservation and planning, how they communicate the building, the interventions and the storytelling in practice. The methods used by the architects are based on a practice, where some skills are learned...... through education, such as documentation of buildings and the restoration as a way of communicating the architect's intervention on the building, meanwhile the communication of the buildings history is seen as a "natural" skill and the methods are not questioned in the practice. The storytelling has today...

  13. CERN's newest building

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    With a growing number of users looking for offices, the shortage of space has become acute, particularly for physicists. Building 42, inaugurated on Friday 11 February, offers almost 300 new work-spaces and a particularly pleasant working environment.   Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research (left), Rolf Heuer , CERN Director-General (centre), and Mark Muller, President of the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and Head of the Department of Construction and Information Technology (right) at the opening of Building 42 on 11 February, 2011.   Construction work for the new Building 42 began in January 2009, thanks to support from the Swiss foundation FIPOI (Fondation des immeubles pour les organisations internationales). After two years of work, the building, an extension of Building 40, is ready to accommodate physicists from around the world who have come to work on the LHC. "We had more than 25 external contractors working...

  14. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  15. An investigation of entrance surface dose calculations for diagnostic radiology using Monte Carlo simulations and radiotherapy dosimetry formalisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omrane, L Ben; Verhaegen, F; Chahed, N; Mtimet, S

    2003-01-01

    Our aim in this work was to investigate the methodology used in the determination of the entrance surface dose (ESD) in diagnostic radiology. In kV x-rays for low-energy photons (tube potential up to 160 kV, HVL: 1-8 mm Al), the ESD is based on the use of the ratio of mass-energy absorption coefficients and backscatter factors. A full simulation of the photon and electron transport in a kilovoltage x-ray unit, using the Monte Carlo code BEAM/EGS4, was performed to obtain an accurate beam phase space for use in dose calculation. The modelled phase space was experimentally validated for the beam qualities (measured HVL: 3.3 mm Al-2.2 mm Cu) and showed good agreement between calculated and measured HVLs, air kerma and relative dose distributions. We have computed the conversion factors from air kerma to water or soft tissue absorbed dose at the surface of a phantom for beam qualities (HVL: 3.3-8.35 mm Al). The same model was also used to calculate the ESD in water and in soft tissue for the low-energy photon range considered. The results show that the numerical differences between the air kerma and the water kerma based backscatter factors are insignificant. The same conclusion was reached for the (μ en /ρ) ratios, for soft tissue to air, evaluated using either the primary photon spectra or the spectra at the surface of a phantom. Furthermore, the good agreement obtained for the computation of the conversion factors with a full BEAM/EGS4 model confirms the previous studies which are based on different sources for the spectral distribution and different beam geometries (pencil beam or point source assumptions). On the other hand, the ESD in water or soft tissue is well described either with the B air or the B w formalism. Conversion factors from air kerma to ESD in these media are proposed in this work for several beam qualities in diagnostic radiology

  16. The size and structure of the laser entrance hole in gas-filled hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M. B., E-mail: schneider5@llnl.gov; MacLaren, S. A.; Widmann, K.; Meezan, N. B.; Hammer, J. H.; Yoxall, B. E.; Bell, P. M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Döppner, T.; Eder, D. C.; Edwards, M. J.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hsing, W. W.; Kervin, M. L.; Landen, O. L.; Lindl, J. D.; May, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2015-12-15

    At the National Ignition Facility, a thermal X-ray drive is created by laser energy from 192 beams heating the inside walls of a gold cylinder called a “hohlraum.” The x-ray drive heats and implodes a fuel capsule. The laser beams enter the hohlraum via laser entrance holes (LEHs) at each end. The LEH radius decreases as heated plasma from the LEH material blows radially inward but this is largely balanced by hot plasma from the high-intensity region in the center of the LEH pushing radially outward. The x-ray drive on the capsule is deduced by measuring the time evolution and spectra of the x-radiation coming out of the LEH and correcting for geometry and for the radius of the LEH. Previously, the LEH radius was measured using time-integrated images in an x-ray band of 3–5 keV (outside the thermal x-ray region). For gas-filled hohlraums, the measurements showed that the LEH radius is larger than that predicted by the standard High Flux radiation-hydrodynamic model by about 10%. A new platform using a truncated hohlraum (“ViewFactor hohlraum”) is described, which allows time-resolved measurements of the LEH radius at thermal x-ray energies from two views, from outside the hohlraum and from inside the hohlraum. These measurements show that the LEH radius closes during the low power part of the pulse but opens up again at peak power. The LEH radius at peak power is larger than that predicted by the models by about 15%–20% and does not change very much with time. In addition, time-resolved images in a >4 keV (non-thermal) x-ray band show a ring of hot, optically thin gold plasma just inside the optically thick LEH plasma. The structure of this plasma varies with time and with Cross Beam Energy Transfer.

  17. Specific recognition of reproductive parasite workers by nest-entrance guards in the bumble bee Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacher, Pierre; Boreggio, Laurie; Leroy, Chloé; Devienne, Paul; Châline, Nicolas; Chameron, Stéphane

    2013-12-10

    The impact of social parasites on their hosts' fitness is a strong selective pressure that can lead to the evolution of adapted defence strategies. Guarding the nest to prevent the intrusion of parasites is a widespread response of host species. If absolute rejection of strangers provides the best protection against parasites, more fine-tuned strategies can prove more adaptive. Guarding is indeed costly and not all strangers constitute a real threat. That is particularly true for worker reproductive parasitism in social insects since only a fraction of non-nestmate visitors, the fertile ones, can readily engage in parasitic reproduction. Guards should thus be more restrictive towards fertile than sterile non-nestmate workers. We here tested this hypothesis by examining the reaction of nest-entrance guards towards nestmate and non-nestmate workers with varying fertility levels in the bumble bee Bombus terrestris. Because social recognition in social insects mainly relies on cuticular lipids (CLs), chemical analysis was also conducted to examine whether workers' CLs could convey the relevant information upon which guards could base their decision. We thus aimed to determine whether an adapted defensive strategy to worker reproductive parasitism has evolved in B. terrestris colonies. Chemical analysis revealed that the cuticular chemical profiles of workers encode information about both their colony membership and their current fertility, therefore providing potential recognition cues for a suitable adjustment of the guards' defensive decisions. We found that guards were similarly tolerant towards sterile non-nestmate workers than towards nestmate workers. However, as predicted, guards responded more aggressively towards fertile non-nestmates. Our results show that B. terrestris guards discriminate non-nestmates that differ in their reproductive potential and respond more strongly to the individuals that are a greatest threat for the colony. Cuticular hydrocarbons are

  18. Building Chaotic Model From Incomplete Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siek, Michael; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a number of novel techniques for building a predictive chaotic model from incomplete time series. A predictive chaotic model is built by reconstructing the time-delayed phase space from observed time series and the prediction is made by a global model or adaptive local models based on the dynamical neighbors found in the reconstructed phase space. In general, the building of any data-driven models depends on the completeness and quality of the data itself. However, the completeness of the data availability can not always be guaranteed since the measurement or data transmission is intermittently not working properly due to some reasons. We propose two main solutions dealing with incomplete time series: using imputing and non-imputing methods. For imputing methods, we utilized the interpolation methods (weighted sum of linear interpolations, Bayesian principle component analysis and cubic spline interpolation) and predictive models (neural network, kernel machine, chaotic model) for estimating the missing values. After imputing the missing values, the phase space reconstruction and chaotic model prediction are executed as a standard procedure. For non-imputing methods, we reconstructed the time-delayed phase space from observed time series with missing values. This reconstruction results in non-continuous trajectories. However, the local model prediction can still be made from the other dynamical neighbors reconstructed from non-missing values. We implemented and tested these methods to construct a chaotic model for predicting storm surges at Hoek van Holland as the entrance of Rotterdam Port. The hourly surge time series is available for duration of 1990-1996. For measuring the performance of the proposed methods, a synthetic time series with missing values generated by a particular random variable to the original (complete) time series is utilized. There exist two main performance measures used in this work: (1) error measures between the actual

  19. Building Software with Gradle

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Studer, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we will give an overview of the key concepts and main features of Gradle, the innovative build system that has become the de-facto standard in the enterprise. We will cover task declaration and task graph execution, incremental builds, multi-project builds, dependency management, applying plugins, extracting reusable build logic, bootstrapping a build, and using the Gradle daemon. By the end of this talk, you will have a good understanding of what makes Gradle so powerful yet easy to use. You will also understand why companies like Pivotal, LinkedIn, Google, and other giants with complex builds count on Gradle. About the speakers Etienne is leading the Tooling Team at Gradleware. He has been working as a developer, architect, project manager, and CTO over the past 15 years. He has spent most of his time building software products from the ground up and successfully shipping them to happy customers. He had ...

  20. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  1. Energy management systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lush, D. M.

    1979-07-01

    An investigation is made of the range of possibilities available from three types of systems (automatic control devices, building envelope, and the occupants) in buildings. The following subjects are discussed: general (buildings, design and personnel); new buildings (envelope, designers, energy and load calculations, plant design, general design parameters); existing buildings (conservation measures, general energy management, air conditioned buildings, industrial buildings); man and motivation (general, energy management and documentation, maintenance, motivation); automatic energy management systems (thermostatic controls, optimized plant start up, air conditioned and industrial buildings, building automatic systems). (MCW)

  2. Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Bourrelle, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Zero Energy Building (ZEB) has gained wide international attention during last few years and is now seen as the future target for the design of buildings. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires......, (4) the type of energy balance, (5) the accepted renewable energy supply options, (6) the connection to the energy infrastructure and (7) the requirements for the energy efficiency, the indoor climate and in case of gird connected ZEB for the building–grid interaction. This paper focuses...

  3. Integrated Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    In the first half of the 20th century, HVAC systems and artificial lighting were developed to meet indoor comfort needs. Before the introduction of mechanical systems, climate - not building style or appearance - was the major determinant of building form. Comfort was achieved through passive means...... and architectural features built into the design. However, with the advent of new technologies, architects were no longer constrained by the need to ensure that buildings had ample daylighting, remained airy and cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Since HVAC systems and artificial lighting could satisfy...

  4. Building Social Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Building a web application that attracts and retains regular visitors is tricky enough, but creating a social application that encourages visitors to interact with one another requires careful planning. This book provides practical solutions to the tough questions you'll face when building an effective community site -- one that makes visitors feel like they've found a new home on the Web. If your company is ready to take part in the social web, this book will help you get started. Whether you're creating a new site from scratch or reworking an existing site, Building Social Web Applications

  5. A novel method for patient exit and entrance dose prediction based on water equivalent path length measured with an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuma, Awusi; Glegg, Martin; Metwaly, Mohamed; Currie, Garry; Elliott, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry is one of the quality assurance tools used in radiotherapy to monitor the dose delivered to the patient. Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images for a set of solid water phantoms of varying thicknesses were acquired and the data fitted onto a quadratic equation, which relates the reduction in photon beam intensity to the attenuation coefficient and material thickness at a reference condition. The quadratic model is used to convert the measured grey scale value into water equivalent path length (EPL) at each pixel for any material imaged by the detector. For any other non-reference conditions, scatter, field size and MU variation effects on the image were corrected by relative measurements using an ionization chamber and an EPID. The 2D EPL is linked to the percentage exit dose table, for different thicknesses and field sizes, thereby converting the plane pixel values at each point into a 2D dose map. The off-axis ratio is corrected using envelope and boundary profiles generated from the treatment planning system (TPS). The method requires field size, monitor unit and source-to-surface distance (SSD) as clinical input parameters to predict the exit dose, which is then used to determine the entrance dose. The measured pixel dose maps were compared with calculated doses from TPS for both entrance and exit depth of phantom. The gamma index at 3% dose difference (DD) and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA) resulted in an average of 97% passing for the square fields of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm. The exit dose EPID dose distributions predicted by the algorithm were in better agreement with TPS-calculated doses than phantom entrance dose distributions.

  6. Spatial and temporal changes in invertebrate assemblage structure from the entrance to deep-cave zone of a temperate marble cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Tobin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality in surface weather results in seasonal temperature and humidity changes in caves. Ecological and physiological differences among trogloxenes, troglophiles, and troglobionts result in species-dependent responses to this variability. To investigate these responses, we conducted five biological inventories in a marble cave in the Sierra Nevada Range, California, USA between May and December 2010. The cave was divided into six quadrats and temperature was continuously logged in each (humidity was logged at the entrance and in the deep cave. With increasing distance from the entrance, temperature changes were increasingly attenuated and lagged relative to surface temperature. Linear regressions were created to determine the relationship between measured environmental variables and diversity for cavernicoles (troglobionts and troglophiles and trogloxenes cave– wide and in the transition zone. Diversity for cavernicoles and trogloxenes peaked in the entrance and deep cave zones, respectively. Quadrat, date, 2-week antecedent temperature average, 2-week antecedent temperature range, and trogloxene abundance explained 76% of cavernicole diversity variability. Quadrat explained 55% of trogloxene diversity variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene abundance explained 26% of cavernicole variability and 2-week antecedent temperature and 2-week antecedent temperature range explained 40% of trogloxene variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene diversity was inversely related to 2-week antecedent temperature average and 2-week antecedent temperature range, suggesting that species were moving into the transition zone when temperature was most stable. In a CCA of cavernicoles distribution data and environmental variables, 35% of variation in species-specific distributions was attributable to quadrat, and non-significant percentages were explained by date and environmental variables. Differences in assemblage structure among quadrats were

  7. Commissioning for Humidified Buildings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deal, Brian

    1998-01-01

    .... Although proper commissioning procedures have been noted to reduce the potential for approximately 70 percent of these claims, no standards exist for the control of moisture migration in building...

  8. Greening Existing Tribal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance about improving sustainability in existing tribal casinos and manufactured homes. Many steps can be taken to make existing buildings greener and healthier. They may also reduce utility and medical costs.

  9. Net-zero building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In its experimental work on research and development of innovative technologies for low income housing on the Innovation Site on the CSIR campus in Pretoria, the Building Science and Technology (BST) competence area identified a number...

  10. Building and Contents Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, William C.

    Insurance coverage of school buildings and contents is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain, and increases of 50 percent or more in the premium are not uncommon. Methods of reducing premium increases are outlined in this speech. (MLF)

  11. Research Staff | Buildings | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Staff Research Staff Photo of Roderick Jackson Roderick Jackson Laboratory Program Manager -related research at NREL. He works closely with senior laboratory management to set the strategic agenda for NREL's buildings portfolio, including all research, development, and market implementation

  12. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, S.

    Whenever we shop, the products we consider buying are labelled with the economical price we have to pay if we want to purchase them - an important parameter in our decisions as purchasers. The increrasing awareness for environmental limits and backlashes of human activities also in the building...... sector have fostered the wish to define 'the ecological price' of a building as a help for environmental conscious decision-making. In a social constructivist approach this Ph.D. thesis looks across and beyond the manifold existing approaches for environmental indicators for buildings. It acknowledges...... in the Netherlands. It identifies lines of conflict and areas of consent betweeen the relevant actors and elaborates scenarios for a possible closure of ongoing debate about environmental indicators for buildings....

  13. Building a Circular Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Natural resources are scarce and construction accounts for 40 percent of the material and energy consumption in Europe. This means that a switch to a circular future is necessary. ’Building a Circular Future’ maps out where we are, where we are going, and what is needed for this conversion to take...... on the project’s strategies. The financial result is a profit of DKK 35 million on the structure alone in the demolition of a building built for the cost of DKK 860 million. The total potential for the whole building, calculated in projected material prices, is estimated to be up to 16% of the total construction...... of the circular strategies is not only in the future. Increased flexibility, optimized operation and maintenance, as well as a healthier building, is low-hanging fruit that can be harvested today. The project’s principles can be implemented in industrialized construction in a large scale today. That is proven...

  14. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  15. Municipal Building Energy Usage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set contains energy use data from 2009-2014 for 139 municipally operated buildings. Metrics include: Site & Source EUI, annual electricity, natural...

  16. Radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terpakova, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the gamma-spectrometric determination of natural radioactivity in the different building materials and wares applied in Slovakia was performed. The specific activities for potassium-40, thorium, radium as well as the equivalent specific activities are presented

  17. Plataforma smart building

    OpenAIRE

    Cidrera Lopez, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The overall project is a system (hardware + software) that allows monitoring and control in a building / office different security systems, energy, communications, home automation, PKI's overall business that will increase all the efficiency of the building and the business and ensure the continuity of it. My participation in this Project will mainly focus on the development of hardware components, monitoring and control system (home automation, energy, safety control elements ...) and softwa...

  18. BUILDING MECHATRONICS SIMULATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    HUSI Géza; SZÁSZ Csaba; HASHIMOTO Hideki; NIITSUMA Mihoko

    2014-01-01

    In international references a net zero-energy building (NZEB) is defined as a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs through efficiency gains such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied with renewable technologies. According to this general term definition, the essence of the concept is that by using low-cost and locally available nonpolluting sources, they generate energy onsite, in a quantity equal or greater than the total amo...

  19. The Entrance test of physics and Workbook in teaching of physics at secondary vocational school within long-term pedagogical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlínová, Věra

    2017-01-01

    Within the long-term pedagogical research ongoing since the school year 2008/2009 to 2015/2016 at the secondary vocational school in Bohumín was through of Entrance test of physics, which included curriculum of the sixth to ninth year of elementary school, regularly finding out, in which parts of Entrance test - Unit conversions, International System of Units, Properties of matter, Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Electricity and Magnetism, Optics, Atoms and Universe - pupils of the 1st years of secondary vocational school, technical and non-technical, reach a higher number of correct answers, in which dominates the wrong answers and which parts of the test pupils are better left out completely. It turned out that the results of these tests are very informative not only for theoretical and practical teaching, but also technical and other science subjects. The results of the Entrance tests are also a valuable source of information for continuous innovation Workbook of Physics - Mechanics for the 1st year of secondary vocational schools [1] - whose the first version began during the school year 2007/2008 and which was tested within pre-research in school years 2008/2009, 2009/2010 and within research in school year 2010/2011. On the basis of feedbacks getting from research the Workbook is regularly expanded, innovated and updated. The Workbook consists of parts dedicated to physical concepts, physical tasks, proposals to physical experiments, pupils comments from viewed video projection and documentary films, examples from the world of science and technology, examples from practice and real life, physical terminology in English, quizzes, competitions, interesting things and links related to discussed curriculum. The Workbook is divided into thematic sections, chapters and subchapters similar as physics textbooks for pupils of the 1st years of Secondary Schools in the Czech Republic. In the Workbook there are included tasks on fill in the words, polynomial tasks with

  20. Entrance channel dependence in the population of the superdeformed bands in {sup 191}Hg and a model for the feeding mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T; Soramel, F; Khoo, T L; Janssens, R V.F.; Ahmad, I; Carpenter, M P; Liang, Y [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fornal, B; Bearden, I; Benet, Ph; Daley, P; Grabowski, Z W; Maier, R [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Ye, D; Garg, U; Reviol, W [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States); Drigert, M W [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The population of the superdeformed bands in {sup 191} Hg has been measured for two reactions with different mass asymmetry. No entrance channel effect was observed, in contrast to similar measurements in the A=150 region. To further elucidate this problem, the entry distribution for the superdeformed band in {sup 192}Hg was measured and a monte Carlo model for the feeding was developed. The simulations suggest that the decision on trapping in the superdeformed well is made at the barrier between the normal and superdeformed wells rather than at the entry point. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs.

  1. National Tribal Building Codes Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tribal Building Codes summit statement developed to support tribes interested in adopting green and culturally-appropriate building systems to ensure safe, sustainable, affordable, and culturally-appropriate buildings on tribal lands.

  2. Diffusion in building wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-03-01

    Straight-line Gaussian models adequately describe atmospheric diffusion for many applications. They have been modified for use in estimating diffusion in building wakes by adding terms that include projected building area and by redefining the diffusion coefficients so that the coefficients have minimum values that are related to building dimensions. In a recent study, Ramsdell reviewed the building-wake dispersion models used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its control room habitability assessments. The review included comparison of model estimates of centerline concentrations with concentrations observed in experiments at seven nuclear reactors. In general, the models are conservative in that they tend to predict concentrations that are greater than those actually observed. However, the models show little skill in accounting for variations in the observed concentrations. Subsequently, the experimental data and multiples linear regression techniques have been used to develop a new building wake diffusion model. This paper describes the new building wake model and compares it with other models. 8 refs., 2 figs

  3. Building Canada: Phase One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-04-15

    The 'Building Canada' program modelled after the 'Building America' program, aims at increasing energy efficiency and affordability, primarily for single family homes. The program takes a holistic and whole house view, employing a systems approach and is committed to continuous improvement through testing, evaluation, retesting and novel construction practices. The program's objective is to re-engineer house designs so that builders can take advantage of advanced products and achieve maximum efficiency. Building Canada aims to achieve its objectives through partnership with the housing industry, focusing on increasing energy efficiency while reducing construction time, using and wasting fewer materials, forestalling call backs, and reducing overall costs. The Building Canada procedures encompass marketing, research of builder's operations, re-engineering mechanical systems, framing components and techniques, moisture control and thermal performance, construction, resolution of problems in re-engineered homes, and discussion of results in demonstration homes. The program as a whole is built on the feasibility study of a Building Canada program carried out in Nova Scotia and Ontario. Some of the results of this pilot study summarized in this report indicate that the Building Canada is not suitable for use by small builders. Benefits are most likely to be realized by only by builders constructing more than 100 homes annually.

  4. Fish pass assessment by remote control: a novel framework for quantifying the hydraulics at fish pass entrances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Blackburn, Kim; Gill, Andrew; Breckon, Toby; Everard, Nick; Wright, Ros; Rivas Casado, Monica

    2014-05-01

    may distract fish away from fish pass entrances. The initial steps of the framework development have focused on the challenge of precise spatial data referencing in areas with limited sky view to navigation satellites. Platform tracking with a motorised Total Station, various satellite-based positioning solutions and simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) based on stereo images have been tested. The effect of errors in spatial data referencing on ADCP-derived maps of flow features and bathymetry will be quantified through simultaneous deployment of these navigation technologies and the ADCP. This will inform the selection of a cost-effective platform positioning system in practice. Further steps will cover the quantification of uncertainties in ADCP data caused by highly turbulent flows and the identification of suitable ADCP data sampling strategies at fish passes. The final framework for fish pass assessment can contribute to an improved understanding of the interaction of fish and the complex hydraulic river environment.

  5. Building Services Requests Subsystem (BSRS) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Lotus Notes workflow application used for the submission, processing, tracking and reporting of building service related requiests. Enables regional office building...

  6. Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

  7. Scan Quality and Entrance Skin Dose in Thoracic CT: A Comparison between Bismuth Breast Shield and Posteriorly Centered Partial CT Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappouni, Rafel; Mathers, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of the bismuth breast shield and partial CT scan in reducing entrance skin dose and to evaluate the effect of the breast shield on image quality (IQ). Methods. Nanodots were placed on an adult anthropomorphic phantom. Standard chest CT, CT with shield, and partial CT were performed. Nanodot readings and effective doses were recorded. 50 patients with chest CTs obtained both with and without breast shields were reviewed. IQ was evaluated by two radiologists and by measuring Hounsfield units (HUs) and standard deviation (SD) of HU in anterior subcutaneous region. Results. Breast shield and the partial CT scans reduced radiation to the anterior chest by 38% and 16%, respectively. Partial CT increased dose to the posterior chest by 37% and effective dose by 8%. Change in IQ in shield CT was observed in the anterior chest wall. Significant change in IQ was observed in 5/50 cases. The shield caused an increase of 20 HU (P = 0.021) and a 1.86 reduction in SD of HU (P = 0.027) in the anterior compared to posterior subcutaneous regions. Summary. Bismuth breast shield is more effective than the partial CT in reducing entrance skin dose while maintaining image quality

  8. Last millennium sedimentation in the Gulf of Cariaco (NE Venezuela): Evidence for morphological changes of gulf entrance and possible relations with large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Iliana; Beck, Christian; Audemard, Franck; Develle, Anne-Lise; Boussafir, Mohammed; Campos, Corina; Crouzet, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The Cariaco Basin and the Gulf of Cariaco in Venezuela are two major basins along the seismogenic El Pilar right lateral fault, among which the Cariaco Basin is a pull-apart. Both basins are sites of anoxia and organic-rich deposits. To examine whether the sediments in the Gulf of Cariaco have recorded traces of historical or prehistorical earthquakes, we extracted and analyzed twelve 1 m-long gravity cores, sampling the last millennium sedimentation. We focused on analyzing the sediment sources with different techniques (particle size analysis, XRF, loss on ignition tests, magnetic properties, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, 14C dating). The results confirm that major upwelling occurs at the western gulf entrance and makes deep water flowing from the Cariaco Basin into the Gulf of Cariaco. These flows carry an organic-rich suspended load. Furthermore, we found evidence of a particular, widespread fine-grained siliciclastic deposit (named SiCL3) within the gulf, whose age suggests that it likely formed during the large 1853 AD earthquake that stroke the Cumaná city. We suggest that the earthquake-induced large submarine landslides that modified the topography of the gulf's entrance, which in turn promoted upwelling and open marine water flows from the Cariaco Basin. The layer SiCL3 would be the sediment load remobilized during this chain of events.

  9. Building air exhaustion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Seijiro.

    1995-01-01

    An opening is formed on the side wall of a building such as of a nuclear power plant, and a blow out panel is held (supported) by a clip for closing the opening. A large-diameter pipeline is connected at one end to the opening so as to cover the blow out panel, and immersed at the other end in a pool water. When a pipeline such as of main steam pipelines is ruptured in the building, high temperature and high pressure coolants are flown out from the ruptured port, and the pressure in the building is elevated. The blow out panel falls off from the side of the building by the elevation of the pressure in the building. Steams or compressed air discharged from the opening is introduced to the pool through the large diameter pipeline, then the steams are condensed by the pool water and radioactive materials contained in the condensed steams are kept in the pool water. Radioactive materials contained in the released compression air are also removed into the pool water. (I.N.)

  10. Nuclear reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Shoji; Kato, Ryoichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the cost of reactor buildings and satisfy the severe seismic demands in tank type FBR type reactors. Constitution: In usual nuclear reactor buildings of a flat bottom embedding structure, the flat bottom is entirely embedded into the rock below the soils down to the deck level of the nuclear reactor. As a result, although the weight of the seismic structure can be decreased, the amount of excavating the cavity is significantly increased to inevitably increase the plant construction cost. Cross-like intersecting foundation mats are embedded to the building rock into a thickness capable withstanding to earthquakes while maintaining the arrangement of equipments around the reactor core in the nuclear buildings required by the system design, such as vertical relationship between the equipments, fuel exchange systems and sponteneous drainings. Since the rock is hard and less deformable, the rigidity of the walls and the support structures of the reactor buildings can be increased by the embedding into the rock substrate and floor responsivity can be reduced. This enables to reduce the cost and increasing the seismic proofness. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Noise, buildings and people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croome, D J

    1977-01-01

    This book covers the physics of acoustics necessary to understand the analytical aspects of acoustical design and noise control in buildings. The major part is devoted to the problems of noise and man, and other chapters cover features of noise control in and around buildings. In an introduction, building environmental engineering is dealth with in general terms of architecture, creativity, systms design, etc. Aspects of the acoustical environment, noise sources in buildings, control of airborne and structure-borne noise and acoustical design techniques are covered in Part II. Items include: comfort, physiological response to noise and vibrations, noise criteria, human performance, speech communication, landscaped offices, sound generation by air-conditioning and heating equipment, building structure and noise attenuation, acoustical design. Part III gives some fundamentals of acoustics; mechanical vibration, wave motion, propagation of sound, structure-borne sound, behavior of sound in rooms, transmission of sound through structure. References include lists of British standards and booklets on health and safety at work.

  12. Building information deduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Myrup Jensen, Morten; Beetz, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show that in p......In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show...... that in practice models are no longer solely observed as culmination of knowledge in a 3d representation of future built structures, but as a source of information in itself. Experienced users of BIM want to Find Information within a model or across a set of these and Compare models in order to evaluate states...... of a model, differences in separate models or models from different point of time. Current BIM tools support both modes only in a rudimentary form. This paper discusses current modes of information query within and across BIM models, shows beneficial scenarios for building and planning practice through...

  13. Final report of the radiological release survey of Building 11 at the Grand Junction Office Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.K.; Corle, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore concentrates and mill tailings during vanadium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District, and during sampling, assaying, pilot milling, storage, and brokerage activities conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJO Remedial Action Project (GJORAP) to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and underlying aquifer. WASTREN-Grand Junction is the site contractor for the facility and the remedial action contractor for GJORAP. Building 11 and the underlying soil were found not to be radiologically contaminated; therefore, the building can be released for unrestricted use. Placards have been placed at the building entrances indicating the completion of the radiological release survey and prohibiting the introduction of any radioactive materials within the building without written approvals from the GJO Facilities Operations Manager. This document was prepared in response to a DOE-GJO request for an individual final release report for each GJO building

  14. Final report of the radiological release survey of Building 29 at the Grand Junction Office Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.K.; Corle, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore concentrates and mill tailing during vanadium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District, and during sampling, assaying, pilot milling, storage, and brokerage activities conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJO Remedial Action Project (GJORAP) to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and underlying aquifer. WASTREN-Grand Junction is the site contractor for the facility and the remedial action contractor for GJORAP. Building 29 and the underlying soil were found not to be radiologically contaminated; therefore, the building can be released for unrestricted use. Placards have been placed at the building entrances indicating the completion of the radiological release survey and prohibiting the introduction of any radioactive materials within the building without written approvals from the GJO Facilities Operations Manager. This document was prepared in response to a DOE-GJO request for an individual final release report for each GJO building

  15. Final report of the radiological release survey of Building 19 at the Grand Junction Office Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.K.; Corle, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore concentrates and mill tailings during vanadium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District, and during sampling, assaying, pilot milling, storage, and brokerage activities conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJO Remedial Action Project (GJORAP) to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and underlying aquifer. WASTREN-Grand Junction is the site contractor for the facility and the remedial action contractor for GJORAP. Building 19 and the underlying soil were found not to be radiologically contaminated; therefore, the building can be released for unrestricted use. Placards have been placed at the building entrances indicating the completion of the radiological release survey and prohibiting the introduction of any radioactive materials within the building without written approvals from the GJO Facilities Operations Manager. This document was prepared in response to a DOE-GJO request for an individual final release report for each GJO building

  16. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  17. Buildings for advanced technology

    CERN Document Server

    Teague, E; Murday, James

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the design and construction of buildings for nanoscale science and engineering research. The information provided in this book is useful for designing and constructing buildings for such advanced technologies as nanotechnology, nanoelectronics and biotechnology. The book outlines the technology challenges unique to each of the building environmental challenges outlined below and provides best practices and examples of engineering approaches to address them: • Establishing and maintaining critical environments: temperature, humidity, and pressure • Structural vibration isolation • Airborne vibration isolation (acoustic noise) • Isolation of mechanical equipment-generated vibration/acoustic noise • Cost-effective power conditioning • Grounding facilities for low electrical interference • Electromagnetic interference (EMI)/Radio frequency interference (RFI) isolation • Airborne particulate contamination • Airborne organic and chemical contamination • Environment, safety a...

  18. Intermittent heating of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohonen, K

    1983-02-01

    Conditions for intermittent heating of buildings are considered both theoretically and experimentally. Thermal behaviour of buildings adn rooms in intermittent heating is simulated by a program based on the convective heat balance equation and by simplified RC-models. The preheat times and the heating energy savings compared with continuous heating are presented for typical lightweight, mediumweight and heavyweight classroom and office modules. Formulaes for estimating the oversizing of the radiator network, the maximum heat output of heat exchangers in district heating and the efficiency of heating boilers in intermittent heating are presented. The preheat times and heating energy savings with different heating control systems are determined also experimentally in eight existing buildings. In addition some principles for the planning and application of intermittent heating systems are suggested.

  19. RESRAD-BUILD verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.; Biwer, B. M.; Klett, T.

    2002-01-01

    The results generated by the RESRAD-BUILD code (version 3.0) were verified with hand or spreadsheet calculations using equations given in the RESRAD-BUILD manual for different pathways. For verification purposes, different radionuclides--H-3, C-14, Na-22, Al-26, Cl-36, Mn-54, Co-60, Au-195, Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, and U-238--were chosen to test all pathways and models. Tritium, Ra-226, and Th-228 were chosen because of the special tritium and radon models in the RESRAD-BUILD code. Other radionuclides were selected to represent a spectrum of radiation types and energies. Verification of the RESRAD-BUILD code was conducted with an initial check of all the input parameters for correctness against their original source documents. Verification of the calculations was performed external to the RESRAD-BUILD code with Microsoft Excel to verify all the major portions of the code. In some cases, RESRAD-BUILD results were compared with those of external codes, such as MCNP (Monte Carlo N-particle) and RESRAD. The verification was conducted on a step-by-step basis and used different test cases as templates. The following types of calculations were investigated: (1) source injection rate, (2) air concentration in the room, (3) air particulate deposition, (4) radon pathway model, (5) tritium model for volume source, (6) external exposure model, (7) different pathway doses, and (8) time dependence of dose. Some minor errors were identified in version 3.0; these errors have been corrected in later versions of the code. Some possible improvements in the code were also identified

  20. Carbon Efficient Building Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellervo Matilainen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the Finnish legislation have focused on energy use and especially on energy used for heating space in buildings. However, in many cases this does not lead to the optimal concept in respect to minimizing green house gases. This paper studies how CO2 emission levels are affected by different measures to reduce energy use in buildings. This paper presents two real apartment buildings with different options of energy efficiency and power sources. The calculations clearly show that in the future electricity and domestic hot water use will have high importance in respect to energy efficiency, and therefore also CO2 equivalent (eq emissions. The importance increases when the energy efficiency of the building increases. There are big differences between average Finnish production and individual power plants; CO2 eq emissions might nearly double depending on the energy source and the power plant type. Both a building with an efficient district heating as a power source, and a building with ground heat in addition to nuclear power electricity as a complimentary electricity source performed very similarly to each other in respect to CO2 eq emissions. However, it is dangerous to conclude that it is not important which energy source is chosen. If hypothetically, the use of district heating would dramatically drop, the primary energy factor and CO2 eq emissions from electricity would rise, which in turn would lead to the increase of the ground heat systems emissions. A problem in the yearly calculations is that the fact that it is very important, sometimes even crucial, when energy is needed, is always excluded.

  1. Building UIs with Wijmo

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuguang

    2013-01-01

    Written with an example-based approach, Building UIs with Wijmo leads you step by step through the implementation and customization of each library component and its associated resources. Reference tables of each configuration option, method, and event for each component are provided, alongside detailed explanations of how each widget is used.Building UIs with Wijmo is targeted at readers who are familiar with HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and jQuery, and have a basic understanding of web development. Although knowledge of jQuery UI is not mandatory, it would be a bonus as it is quite similar to Wijm

  2. Moisture conditions in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can be the re......Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can...

  3. Building global learning communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averill Gordon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning communities around a community of practice of learning researchers and practitioners. The results include the development of a framework for utilising mobile social media to support collaborative curriculum development across international boundaries. We conclude that this framework is potentially transferrable to a range of educational contexts where the focus is upon student-generated mobile social media projects.

  4. PV cool-build

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, B.; Nuh, D.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project to develop a method for calculating the operating temperature of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) modules/laminates which are estimated to operate above ambient temperature. The aim of the study was to minimise the temperature of the BIPV in order to increase the production of clean electricity. Details are given of a series of indoor experiments, computer modelling, and outdoor measurements. The production of a readily available, user-friendly design guide for architects and building designers is discussed.

  5. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  6. Ecology Beyond Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    As the designers of the WWf building in Zeist, The Netherslands a CO2-neutral, self-sufficient office complex, RAU has set the bar for sustainable research and design. Guesteditor Terri Peters visited the firm's studio in Amsterdam to talk to principal Thomas Rau. As Peters relates, Rau prefers t...... to put on the dwindling supply of raw materials rather than the immidiate problems of energy consumption for which there are solutions within reach. With the emphasis on a more far-reaching approach, he places buildings in a wider context of ecological thinking and systems....

  7. Building the perfect PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This popular Build-It-Yourself (BIY) PC book covers everything you want to know about building your own system: Planning and picking out the right components, step-by-step instructions for assembling your perfect PC, and an insightful discussion of why you'd want to do it in the first place. Most big brand computers from HP, Dell and others use lower-quality components so they can meet their aggressive pricing targets. But component manufacturers also make high-quality parts that you can either purchase directly, or obtain through distributors and resellers. Consumers and corporations

  8. LHCb Dockerized Build Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemencic, M.; Belin, M.; Closier, J.; Couturier, B.

    2017-10-01

    Used as lightweight virtual machines or as enhanced chroot environments, Linux containers, and in particular the Docker abstraction over them, are more and more popular in the virtualization communities. The LHCb Core Software team decided to investigate how to use Docker containers to provide stable and reliable build environments for the different supported platforms, including the obsolete ones which cannot be installed on modern hardware, to be used in integration builds, releases and by any developer. We present here the techniques and procedures set up to define and maintain the Docker images and how these images can be used to develop on modern Linux distributions for platforms otherwise not accessible.

  9. Sustainable building organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.

    1998-01-01

    Sustainable Development and Sustainable Building is mainly a question of (human) environmentally-conscious Organisation and Management Criteria are needed in order to capture the best practices in the field. Therefore we developed modells and methods, which help to choose the most adequate

  10. Building Project Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Wiewiora, Anna

    This research investigates the development of project competence, and particularly, three related dynamic capabilities (shifting, adapting, leveraging) that contribute to project competence development. In doing so, we make use of the emerging literature on knowledge governance and theorize how...... of dynamic capability building promoting project competence development....

  11. Building Codes and Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John L.

    The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

  12. Sick building syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.; Stenner, R.D.; Peterson, M.R.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses the aspect of indoor air pollution referred to as sick building syndrome. Covered are sources and health effects of various indoor air pollutants, and methods for mitigation of the problem, plus suggested analytical methods for environmental carcinogens found in indoor air

  13. Building Open in Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Devin

    2018-01-01

    A description of ongoing efforts to build a culture for open in engineering. I will overview some of the tools that have been developed to promote open practices in engineering and discuss some of the barriers to adoption within the field.Presented 27 March 2018 at the "E"ffordabilitiy Summit, Menomonie, WI.

  14. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The present report, drawn up at the request of the former Minister of Public Health and Environmental Affairs of the Netherlands, discusses the potential radiological consequences for the population of the Netherlands of using waste materials as building materials in housing construction. (Auth.)

  15. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  16. Building the quantum network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Chip

    2002-01-01

    We show how quantum key distribution (QKD) techniques can be employed within realistic, highly secure communications systems, using the internet architecture for a specific example. We also discuss how certain drawbacks in existing QKD point-to-point links can be mitigated by building QKD networks, where such networks can be composed of trusted relays or untrusted photonic switches. (author)

  17. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  18. Building Automation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A number of different automation systems for use in monitoring and controlling building equipment are described in this brochure. The system functions include--(1) collection of information, (2) processing and display of data at a central panel, and (3) taking corrective action by sounding alarms, making adjustments, or automatically starting and…

  19. Building with History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel; Adams, Charlotte; Green, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on interdisciplinary research focusing on Durham University estate, we describe how buildings constructed as part of an eighteenth century transition to a high carbon coal-based economy, are used and understood by their current inhabitants. Applied heritage research has tended to focus on...

  20. Buildings behaving badly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, Jillian; Papyrakis, Elissaios; Beukering, van Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Heating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe’s energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for residential

  1. Early Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Development of a design methodology that can handle the vast design space in early building design. •A global design space is modelled from extensive Monte Carlo simulations. •Sensitivity analysis methods applied to guide decision-makers. •Interactive visualizations help the multi-act...

  2. Tall Buildings Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiative 2017 TBI Guidelines Version 2.03 Now Available Screen Shot 2017-10-10 at 3.05.10 PM PEER has just initiative to develop design criteria that will ensure safe and usable tall buildings following future earthquakes. Download the primary product of this initiative: Guidelines for Performance-Based Seismic Design

  3. LARGE BUILDING HVAC SIMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the monitoring and collection of data relating to indoor pressures and radon concentrations under several test conditions in a large school building in Bartow, Florida. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) used an integrated computational software, FSEC 3.0...

  4. Radon in public buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, H.; Flesch, K.; Hermann, E.; Loebner, W.; Leissring, B.

    2009-01-01

    From the Free State of Saxony, a study was commissioned to survey how reliable measurements to characterize the radon situation in public buildings at a reasonable financial and human effort can be carried out to reduce radiation exposure in public buildings. The study approach was for 6 objects. To characterize the radon situation the time evolution measurement of radon concentrations of more than 1 to 2 weeks turned out to be sufficient. A novel data analysis enables the identification of a ''typical daily alteration of the radon concentration'' depending on the ventilation conditions and the daily use of the offices or class rooms. The identification of typical diurnal radon variations for the working time and weekends or holidays is of fundamental importance for assessing the exposure situation in public buildings. It was shown that the radon concentration during working time are in general much lower than in the times when the buildings (offices) are unused. It turned out that the long-term radon measurements with nuclear track detectors within distinct time regimes (day / night, working hours / leisure time) by utilizing switch modules are very efficient to estimate the actual exposure. (orig.)

  5. Building a Twig Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    In this classroom activity, students build a phylogeny for woody plant species based on the morphology of their twigs. Using any available twigs, students can practice the process of cladistics to test evolutionary hypotheses for real organisms. They identify homologous characters, determine polarity through outgroup comparison, and construct a…

  6. Financing medical office buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J W

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses financing medical office buildings. In particular, financing and ownership options from a not-for-profit health care system perspective are reviewed, including use of tax-exempt debt, taxable debt, limited partnerships, sale, and real estate investment trusts (REITs).

  7. Deactivation of Building 7602

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, H.R.; Barnett, J.R.; Collins, T.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored research and development programs in Building 7602 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1984. This work focused on development of advanced technology for processing nuclear fuels. Building 7602 was used for engineering-scale tests using depleted and natural uranium to simulate the nuclear fuel. In April 1994 the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) sent supplemental FY 1994 guidance to ORNL stating that in FY 1995 and beyond, Building 7602 is considered surplus to NE programs and missions and shall be shut down (deactivated) and maintained in a radiologically and industrially safe condition with minimal surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M). DOE-NE subsequently provided FY 1995 funding to support the deactivation activities. Deactivation of Building 7602 was initiated on October 1, 1994. The principal activity during the first quarter of FY 1995 was removal of process materials (chemicals and uranium) from the systems. The process systems were operated to achieve chemical solution concentrations needed for reuse or disposal of the solutions prior to removal of the materials from the systems. During this phase of deactivation the process materials processed and removed were: (1) Uranyl nitrate solution 30,178 L containing 4490 kg of uranium; (2) Nitric acid (neutralized) 9850 L containing less than 0.013 kg of uranium; (3) Organic solution 3346 L containing 265 kg of uranium; (4) Uranium oxide powder 95 kg; and (5) Miscellaneous chemicals. At the end of December 1994, the process systems and control systems were shut down and deactivated. Disposition of the process materials removed from the process systems in Building 7602 proved to be the most difficult part of the deactivation. An operational stand down and funding reductions at Y-12 prevented planned conversion of the uranyl nitrate solution to depleted uranium oxide powder. This led to disposal of the uranyl nitrate solution as waste

  8. Modelling the distribution of 222Rn concentration in a multi level, general purpose building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Laszlo; Noditi, Mihaela; Gheorghe, Raluca; Gheorghe, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The importance of 222 Rn (radon) in the indoor air related to the exposure form natural sources is relatively well documented. About 30% of the individual effective dose from natural sources is coming from the inhalation of 222 Rn and his short lived daughters. In unfavorable conditions given by the soil porosity and the existence of upward air movement in the soil there is a possibility to have unusually high radon concentration in houses even on soil with 'normal' 226 Ra content. Some construction solutions (high indoor spaces) should generate a significant indoor-outdoor negative pressure differences and consequently upward air currents (stack effect) which will facilitate the entrance of radon in the building. This effect will multiply the possibility of migration of radon in the building. The difficulty of the prediction of radon migration in the soil-building system increase the importance of the mathematical modelling of the behavior of radon-soil emission, infiltration and migration in the building - in areas with high radon potential. For one level simple buildings there are several models in the literature but the information regarding the multilevel building models are relatively scarce. Two different approaches used to describe the behavior of the radon gas in large (mainly high) buildings have been analyzed: Direct approach: computational fluid dynamics, solving the transport equations for the whole building (the domain of the solution of the transport and flow equations is delimited by the building envelope - the external walls); the openings (internal and external) and ventilation are defined by the boundary conditions. This approach is quite complex, the equations are solved (numerically) for highly inhomogeneous medium but is based on the fundamental processes governing the transport. In the same time it gives the possibility to obtain a concentration pattern in every part of the building. Multi-zone approach treating the building as interconnected

  9. Fundamental study on the characteristics of a radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeter with no energy compensation filter for measuring patient entrance doses in cardiac interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Mamoru; Chida, Koichi; Moritake, Takashi; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Sato, Tadaya; Kadowaki, Ken; Oosaka, Hajime; Tosa, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac interventional procedures have been increasing year by year. However, radiation skin injuries have been still reported. There is a necessity to measure the patient entrance skin dose (ESD), but an accurate dose measurement method has not been established. To measure the ESD, a lot of radiophotoluminescence dosemeters (RPLDs) provide an accurate measurement of the direct actual ESD at the points they are arrayed. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of RPLD to measure the ESD. As a result, X-ray permeable RPLD (with no tin filter) did not interfere with the percutaneous coronary intervention procedure. The RPLD also had good fundamental performance characteristics. Although the RPLD had a little energy dependence, it showed excellent dose and dose-rate linearity, and good angular dependence. In conclusion, by calibrating the energy dependence, RPLDs are useful dosemeter to measure the ESD in cardiac intervention. (authors)

  10. Towards a converged barrier height for the entrance channel transition state of the N( 2D) + CH 4 reaction and its implication for the chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouk, Chanda-Malis; Zvereva-Loëte, Natalia; Bussery-Honvault, Béatrice

    2011-10-01

    The N( 2D) + CH 4 reaction appears to be a key reaction for the chemistry of Titan's atmosphere, opening the door to nitrile formation as recently observed by the Cassini-Huygens mission. Faced to the controversy concerning the existence or not of a potential barrier for this reaction, we have carried out accurate ab initio calculations by means of multi-state multi-reference configuration interaction (MS-MR-SDCI) method. These calculations have been partially corrected for the size-consistency errors (SCE) by Davidson, Pople or AQCC corrections. We suggest a barrier height of 3.86 ± 0.84 kJ/mol, including ZPE, for the entrance transition state, in good agreement with the experimental value. Its implication in Titan's atmopsheric chemistry is discussed.

  11. Analysis of entrance skin radiation dose in mammography equipment in Rio Grande do Sul state (Ijui municipality and surroundings) and Rio de Janeiro (metropolitan area)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Geovane Silva; Padilha Filho, Lucas Gomes; Sousa, Carlos Henrique Simoes de; Feldmann, Gerson; Albrecht, Marcos R.A.; Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes de

    2016-01-01

    Mammography is the technique widely used to the early detection of breast cancer, despite of not being a consensus the ideal age to initiate the radiologic examinations, it is recommended that women with the age of forty realize the examinations periodically. With the objective to analyze the entrance skin dose (ESD) in different mammography equipment, Were analyzed in the Estate of Rio Grande do Sul (Ijui City and neighborhoods) and in Rio de Janeiro (metropolitan area) 24 mammography equipment. Among them included in the study, just one presented ESD higher than the established limit of ANVISA. It was observed in the mammography equipment of Ijui and neighborhoods high levels of mAs to achieve the values of ESD next to the limit. (author)

  12. Trial use of the Personal Qualities Assessment (PQA) in the entrance examination of a Japanese medical university: similarities to the results in western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yuriko; Noda, Saeko; Okada, Midori; Mihara, Nakako; Kawakami, Yoriko; Bore, Miles; Munro, Don; Powis, David

    2014-01-01

    The Personal Qualities Assessment (PQA), developed by the University of Newcastle, Australia to assess the aptitude of future medical professionals, has been used in Western countries. The objective was to investigate whether the PQA is appropriate for Japanese medical school applicants. Two of the PQA tests, Libertarian-Dual-Communitarian moral orientations (Mojac) and Narcissism, Aloofness, Confidence, and Empathy (NACE), were translated into Japanese, and administered at the Tokyo Women's Medical University entrance examinations from 2007 to 2009. The distributions of the applicants' Mojac and NACE scores were close to the normal distribution, and the mean scores did not exhibit a large difference from those in Western countries. The only significant difference was that the mean score of the NACE test was slightly lower than the Western norm. The translated PQA tests may be appropriate for use with Japanese applicants, though further research considering cultural differences is required.

  13. Effects of Clown Doctors on child and caregiver anxiety at the entrance to the surgery care unit and separation from caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Arriaga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of hospital Clown Doctors intervention on child and caregiver preoperative anxiety at the entrance to the surgery care unit and separation from caregivers. A total of 88 children (aged 4-12 years were assigned to one of the following two groups: Clown Doctors intervention or control group (standard care. Independent observational records using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale instrument assessed children’s anxiety, while the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measured caregiver’s state anxiety. In addition, caregivers assessed the children’s functional health problems by completing the Functional Status Questionnaire. Although no effects of Clown Doctors were found on children’s anxiety, results showed that both low functional health problems and Clown Doctors intervention were significant predictors of lower caregiver anxiety. Caregivers also reported being very satisfied with their intervention. Overall, this study demonstrated the positive role of Clown Doctors for caregivers at a specific paediatric hospital setting.

  14. ANALYZING SHORT (100 METERS AND MIDDLE DISTANCE (800 - 1200 METERS RUNNING AND COORDINATION VALUES ACCORDING TO SPORTS BRANCHES OF STUDENTS WHO TAKE ENTRANCE EXAMS TO SPORTS HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yılmaz ALBAYRAK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, t h e p u r p o s e was to determine the changes in accordance with running and coordination values of children who took the entrance examinations of sports high scholl in the 5 year period and assess them according to the branches as 100 and 800 meters running for female, 100 and 1200 meters running for men. In accordance with this aim, test values of total 1306 students (m = 1061, f = 245, average age = 14 who participated in entrance examinations in a 5 years duration including 2008, 2 009, 2010, 2011, 2012 years in the region of Antalya for sports high school were analyzed. As an statistical analyze, One way ANOVA and multiple comparison tests (which are LSD, Least Significant Difference tests were used. As a result of statistical anal yses, although the candidates who took the tests in the region of Antalya, change along 5 years duration, while obtaining a statistically significant difference in the running values of male children (p0,05. Likewise, while obtaining a statistically significant difference in 100 meters running values of female children (p0,05. In addition there was no any statistically significant difference in 100, 800 meters running values and coordination values of female children according to branches (p>0,05. Consequently, it can be suggested that there were no changes in speed times of both male and female children in along 5 years duration in region of Antalya. It can be inferred that while there is a significant change in values of running and coordination of males, the reason why female children were not able to show c hanges in their values should be because they show less imrovement in sports branches. In addition, male students in track and field branch gained the highest degrees both in 100 m and coordination tracks. Thus, it can be said that someone having good spee d has good coordination too.

  15. DGNB Building Certification Companion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Renate Skovgaard; Rhodes, Michael K.; Larsen, Tine Steen

    2017-01-01

    for sustainable buildings. The literature describes several barriers of entry preventing actors in the industry from seeking sustainability certifications and prioritizing design methods, supporting sustainability in greater numbers. In the newly developed tool, “DGNB building certification companion: Sustainable......-language, easily digestible summaries of various topics regarding sustainability and the DGNB certification scheme. The identified barriers are described in the tool followed by a solution to overcome them. The tool, tested at multiple stages of development and moulded by many individuals both within and outside...... was that this is a desired product on the market. This new approach is expected to dramatically reduce misunderstandings, conflicts, and mistakes during a sustainable design process, helping the design team plan a project to possibly obtain the highest DGNB score if desired and properly documented....

  16. DGNB BUILDING CERTIFICATION COMPANION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Renate Skovgaard; Rhodes, Michael K.; Larsen, Tine Steen

    2018-01-01

    for sustainable buildings. The literature describes several barriers of entry preventing actors in the industry from seeking sustainability certifications and prioritizing design methods, supporting sustainability in greater numbers. In the newly developed tool, “DGNB building certification companion: Sustainable......-language, easily digestible summaries of various topics regarding sustainability and the DGNB certification scheme. The identified barriers are described in the tool followed by a solution to overcome them. The tool, tested at multiple stages of development and moulded by many individuals both within and outside...... was that this is a desired product on the market. This new approach is expected to dramatically reduce misunderstandings, conflicts, and mistakes during a sustainable design process, helping the design team plan a project to possibly obtain the highest DGNB score if desired and properly documented....

  17. Building and using binoscopes

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on both homemade and commercial products, this book provides the reader with simple and straightforward information about the modelling and building of binoscopes. Binoscopes can be thought of as binoculars enlarged to the size of telescopes: essentially, a combination of the two. Constructing a binoscope is easier than most people think, but it still demands attention to detail and proper background knowledge. The author goes on to provide additional information about how to understand the products currently on the market, should the reader choose to purchase a binoscope instead of building one. Lastly, the book also compares binoscopes with telescopes in great detail, outlining the differences the reader can expect to see in the night sky from using both. The celestial views obtained with a binoscope, compared to a single telescope of the same aperture, are a very different experience and well worth the effort.

  18. Can we build inclusion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    of some children with special needs. Hence the title – can we build inclusion? In the literature of Universal Design, accommodation and design features seldom reflect the less visible disabilities. The paper is based on a research project initiated to investigate how more or less space influences daily......Inclusion of children with special needs in kindergartens and preschools may be approached from different angles. This paper raises the question of whether the physical framework of kindergartens makes any difference for daily life at the kindergarten at all, and whether it can support inclusion...... on the answers in the interviews, we found support for answering the question in the title in the affirmative; we can build inclusion! This is because the teachers' experience indicated that, if there was sufficient space per child, there were fewer conflicts and the children managed to stay in the same activity...

  19. License to build

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntelaar, Mark; Vos, Renate de; Roobol, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A new license under the nuclear power act is applied for at the Dutch Government for the building of a High Active Repackaging Unit (HAVA-VU in Dutch) at NRG in Petten, The Netherlands. This new building is necessary to comply with our nuclear license to dispose of high active nuclear waste at Petten to the intermediate storage facility (COVRA). In the first part of this paper attention is given to the formal procedure followed by the Government, what type of documents are to be submitted, what time frames are followed, how citizen participation is organized, and as final result a new license. In the second part more detailed information is given about the present license renewal needed for the High Active Repackaging Unit

  20. Building Company Loyalty System

    OpenAIRE

    Haniková, Alžběta

    2010-01-01

    The thesis discusses the importance of loyal customers, and loyalty system as a tool for building loyalty. It defines loyalty and customer satisfaction, it deals with the issue of customer retention. It describes the history and types of loyalty programs, important factors for deciding on their implementation and problems associated with them. The practical part is concerned with the clothing market, Orsay company and its Orsay Club loyalty systeme. The work also includes a survey of the loya...

  1. Mycotoxins in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    as in future energy efficient buildings. It brings together different disciplinary points of view on indoor mold, ranging from physics and material science to microbiology and health sciences. The contents have been outlined according to three main issues: Fundamentals, particularly addressing the crucial...... roles of water and materials, Health, including a state-of-the-art description of the health-related effects of indoor molds, and Strategies, integrating remediation, prevention and policies....

  2. BALKANS: Building bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    At a time when upheaval and political unrest in some Balkan countries gives cause for concern, it is good to know that physics, once again, is building bridges between nations. The new international mobility in the region was marked by a major activity of the Balkan Physical Union - the first Balkan School of Physics, held on the banks of the Bosphorus during the first two weeks of September

  3. Life between buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan

    2001-01-01

    A classic is republished. Life between Buildings was first published in 1971. This book - frequently revised over the years - is still the best source for understanding how people use public spaces in our cities. Published in many languages, it is a standard textbook in Architecture and Planning...... Schools around the world, and continues to be the undisputed basic introduction to the interplay between public space design and social life. This book is now available in its third English language version....

  4. Surfaces of Building Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Surynková, Petra

    2009-01-01

    My diploma thesis Surfaces of Building Practice deals with the basic properties of surfaces, their mathematical description, categorization, and application in technical practice. Each studied surface is defined and its process of construction and parametrical description is listed. The thesis studies selected types of surfaces in details - these surfaces include surfaces of revolution, ruled surfaces, screw surfaces, and translational surfaces. An application of each studied surfaces is show...

  5. Building our stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tourism transforms people and places. New stakeholders are emerging, landscapes of power are shifting, and lines of responsibilities are being redrawn. Everyday stories of coping, success, empowerment, nurturing, relationship building and activism are important tools for reflection and learning...... for our first TEFI regional conference. Storytelling is a powerful way of exploring, linking and crafting values, articulating them is such a way as to instil action. This conference proceedings assembles 31research stories of sustainable, caring and ethical worldmaking in tourism....

  6. Work at Building 513

    CERN Document Server

    IT Department

    2006-01-01

    As part of IT's preparations to meet the challenge of LHC computing, a new chilled water production unit is being constructed for the Computer Centre. The air conditioning work will start in mid-January and last until June 2006. During this period access to the car park of Building 513 will be restricted. Please consult the plan for details of the area affected by the work. With apologies for the inconvenience, IT Department

  7. Work at Building 513

    CERN Document Server

    IT Department

    2006-01-01

    As part of IT's preparations to meet the challenge of LHC computing, a new chilled water production unit is being constructed for the Computer Centre. The air conditioning work will start in mid-January and last until June 2006. During this period, access to the car park of Building 513 will be restricted. Please consult the plan for details of the area affected by the work. With apologies for the inconvenience. IT Department

  8. BUILDING e-CLUSTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Davidovic

    2013-01-01

    E-clusters are strategic alliance in TIMES technology sector (Telecommunication, Information technology, Multimedia, Entertainment, Security) where products and processes are digitalized. They enable horizontal and vertical integration of small and medium companies and establish new added value e-chains. E-clusters also build supply chains based on cooperation relationship, innovation, organizational knowledge and compliance of intellectual properties. As an innovative approach for economic p...

  9. BUILD UP Skills Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsingdal, Charlotte Vartou; Lauridsen, Vagn Holk; Hougaard, Karsten Frøhlich

    opfyldelsen af 2020-målene, skal de rette kompetencer inden for energief-fektivitet og brug af vedvarende energi være til stede blandt de udførende i bygge- og an-lægsbranchen. Det er på denne baggrund, at Europa-Kommissionen har igangsat Build Up Skills projektet på tværs af Europa. Formålet med denne...

  10. NRC new sustainable building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semczyszyn, D.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The National Research Council Institute For Fuel Cell Innovation is relocating to a purpose-built 71,343 sq. Ft. (6598 sq. M) Research, Testing, Evaluation, and Industry Incubation Facility in the spring of 2006. The new facility will contain Hydrogen-ready laboratories, the existing relocated Hydrogen Safe Environmental Test Chamber, a hydrogen vehicle maintenance bay, a hydrogen vehicle refuelling station, and the following demonstration projects and features: 1. A Ground Source Heat Pump: This long-proven natural-source heating and cooling technology to provide climate control for the new IFCI's atrium and galleria. It is being designed by Keen Engineering of North Vancouver, BC. 2. 5 KW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System: Fuelled by natural gas and in the future, from biomass, the fuel cell will also produce approximately 15 kW of waste heat, which will be captured and used to supply heat for the building. The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell will be supplied by Fuel Cell Technologies in Kingston, ON. 3. LEED Building certification: Attaining LEED 'green building' certification is considered an important complement to the plans for the new NRC-IFCI, because it will provide respected third-party verification of government's commitment to efficient building design and construction. Project architects Bunting Coady of Vancouver, BC believe the IFCI has strong potential to earn gold LEED certification. 4. Photovoltaic hydrogen source for back-up power fuel cell system: A photovoltaic array will capture energy from sunlight to power an electrolyzer that will produce and store hydrogen for a PEM fuel cell emergency backup power system. The electrolyzer will be provided by Hydrogenics of Mississauga, ON. Photovoltaics are being designed and installed by the British Columbia Institute of Technology. (author)

  11. Public building retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report demonstrates the economic viability of cost effective, energy efficient retrofitting of a public building. The Whitehorse Chamber of Commerce in conjunction with the Canada/Yukon Conservation and Renewable Energy Demonstration Project undertook the demonstration project. The energy conservation features included increasing the insulation in the walls and ceiling, providing a 6 mm polyethylene air-vapour barrier and installing triple glazed windows on the north side. Also, an air-to-air heat exchanger and a combination wood/oil furnace were installed. However, neither of these latter features have been used since the completion of the renovations. In total, the features cost approximately $26,300. The energy conservation measures yielded less energy savings than expected. Although the T.C. Richard building is now consuming less heating oil (33% less); the amount of electricity used has increased by 146.6%. Overall the building achieved a 23% reduction in heating consumption (this figure takes into account the heat energy generated from the lighting system). Reasons for the low yield in energy savings can be attributed to the improper installation of the air-vapour barrier and not using the existing wood boiler. 1 fig. 5 tabs.

  12. Sick building syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyre, S

    1990-10-01

    Recently, there has been an upsurge in public awareness about the hazards of indoor air pollution. It is documented that respiratory tract infections, a common result of poor air quality, account for approximately 150 million lost work days, $15-billion of direct medical costs, and at least $59-billion of indirect costs of absenteeism per year. Indoor air pollutants result from a number of different sources including common office supplies and equipment, cleaning supplies, pesticides, clothing, furnishings, draperies and carpets. A recent summary of findings by Healthy Buildings International has found the three most common problems to be: poor ventilation, inadequate filtration and lack of hygiene. Only 25% of the buildings studied were well ventilated and 75% of the problems with contaminated air were due to ignorance of correct operating practices. Currently, there are no uniformly accepted regulations for environmental quality in buildings in Canada. Some approaches to this problem are discussed and it is noted that the solution to indoor air quality problems is prevention or proactive monitoring. The key to a successful monitoring program is that improvements made by implementing remedial actions can be quantified, and to place the focus of the program on the ventilation system. 1 fig.

  13. Nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Nobuaki.

    1991-01-01

    The secondary container in a nuclear reactor building is made of a transparent structure having a shielding performance such as lead glass, by which the inside of the secondary container can be seen without undergoing radiation exposure. In addition, an operator transportation facility capable of carrying about 5 to 10 operators at one time is disposed, and the side of the facility on the secondary container is constituted with a transparent material such as glass, to provide a structure capable of observing the inside of the secondary container. The ventilation and air conditioning in the operator's transportation facility is in communication with the atmosphere of a not-controlled area. Accordingly, operators at the outside of the reactor building can reach the operator's transportation facility without taking and procedures for entering the controlled area and without undergoing radiation exposure. The inside of the secondary container in the reactor building can be seen from various directions through the transparent structure having the shielding performance. (N.H.)

  14. Building Performance Simulation for Sustainable Energy Use in Buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a general view of the background and current state of building performance simulation, which has the potential to deliver, directly or indirectly, substantial benefits to building stakeholders and to the environment. However the building simulation community faces many

  15. Building performance simulation for sustainable building design and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a general view of the background and current state of building performance simulation, which has the potential to deliver, directly or indirectly, substantial benefits to building stakeholders and to the environment. However the building simulation community faces many

  16. Final report of the radiological release survey of Building 54 at the Grand Junction Office Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.K.; Corle, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore concentrates and mill tailings during vanadium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District, and during sampling, assaying, pilot milling, storage, and brokerage activities conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJO Remedial Action Project (GJORAP) to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and underlying aquifer. WASTREN-Grand Junction is the site contractor for the facility and the remedial action contractor for GJORAP. Building 54 and the underlying soil were found not to be radiologically contaminated, and can be released for unrestricted use. Placards have been placed at the building entrances indicating the completion of the radiological release survey and prohibiting the introduction of any radioactive materials within the building without written approvals from the GJO Facilities Operations Manager. This document was prepared in response to a DOE-GJO request for an individual release report for each GJO building

  17. BUILDING "BRIDGES" WITH QUALITY ASSURANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The papr describes how, rather than building "bridges" across centuries, quality assurance (QA) personnel have the opportunity to build bridges across technical disciplines, between public and private organizations, and between different QA groups. As reviewers and auditors of a...

  18. Allegheny County Building Footprint Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled roof outlines of buildings. All near orthogonal corners are square. Buildings that are less than 400 square feet...

  19. Site Characterization Plan for decontamination and decommissioning of Buildings 3506 and 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Buildings 3506, the Waste Evaporator Facility, and 3515, the Fission Product Pilot Plant, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), are scheduled for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). This Site Characterization Plan (SCP) presents the strategy and techniques to be used to characterize Buildings 3506/3515 for the purpose of planning D and D activities. The elements of the site characterization for Buildings 3506/3515 are planning and preparation, field investigation, and characterization reporting. Other level of effort activities will include management and oversight, project controls, meetings, and progress reporting. The objective of the site characterization is to determine the nature and extent of radioactive and hazardous materials and other industrial hazards in and around the buildings. This information will be used in subsequent planning to develop a detailed approach for final decommissioning of the facilities: (1) to evaluate decommissioning alternatives and design the most cost-effective D and D approach; (2) to determine the level and type of protection necessary for D and D workers; and (3) to estimate the types and volumes of wastes generated during D and D activities. The current D and D characterization scope includes the entire building, including the foundation and equipment or materials within the building. To estimate potential worker exposure from the soil during D and D, some subfoundation soil sample collection is planned. Buildings 3506/3515 are located in the ORNL main plant area, to the west and east, respectively, of the South Tank Farm. Building 3506 was built in 1949 to house a liquid waste evaporator and was subsequently used for an incinerator experiment. Partial D and D was done prior to abandonment, and most equipment has been removed. Building 3515 was built in 1948 to house fission product separation equipment. In about 1960, all entrances were sealed with concrete block and mortar. Building 3515 is expected to be

  20. Radon: the building industry view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, K.G.R.

    1992-01-01

    Guidance on radon preventive measures in new dwellings is covered by the Building Regulations, and adequate guidance has been published by the Building Research Establishment. This is a satisfactory state of affairs which, unfortunately, is not the case for remedial work in existing buildings. Work in existing buildings should be incorporated in Regulations and adequate funding should be provided by government for the training of builders. (Author)

  1. Hawaii-Okinawa Building Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Salasovich, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL conducted energy evaluations at the Itoman City Hall building in Itoman, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the Hawaii State Capitol building in Honolulu, Hawaii. This report summarizes the findings from the evaluations, including the best practices identified at each site and opportunities for improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. The findings from this evaluation are intended to inform energy efficient building design, energy efficiency technology, and management protocols for buildings in subtropical climates.

  2. Building Materials in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    Building in the artic requires special attention on the appropriateness of building materials. The harsh climate makes execution difficult and sets unusual requirements for the pure material properties. In addition, there is a lack of choice of good, natural building materials in the arctic...

  3. Green Building Adoption Index 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Nils

    2017-01-01

    In the early 2000s, energy efficiency was for the committed few, and “green” building was a niche concept. But with the advent of strong tenant and investor interest in constructing, operating, and occupying better buildings, the concept of energy efficiency and sustainability in buildings has taken

  4. Educational Dimensions of School Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Jan, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In all modern societies almost everyone of their citizens have spent many years in school buildings, and the largest professional group in modern societies, teachers, is working every day during the working year in school buildings. In spite of this, we know surprisingly little about the influence of school buildings on the people who use them and…

  5. Compliance with building energy regulations for new-build dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Wei; Garmston, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasingly stringent building energy regulations worldwide, non-compliance exists in practice. This paper examines the profile of compliance with building energy regulations for new-build dwellings. In total 404 new-build dwellings completed in the UK from 2006 to 2009 were investigated. Only a third of these dwellings were evidenced as being compliant with Building Regulations Part L (England and Wales). Such low compliance casts a serious concern over the achievability of the UK Government's target for all new-build homes to be ‘zero carbon’ from 2016. Clearly evidenced was a lack of knowledge of Part L and its compliance requirements among the supply and building control sides of new-build dwellings. The results also indicate that the compliance profile was influenced by factors including Standard Assessment Procedure (UK Government's methodology for energy efficiency) calculation submissions, learning and experience of builders and building controls with Part L, use of Part L1A checklist, the introduction of energy performance certificate (EPC), build method, dwelling type, and project size. Better compliance was associated with flats over houses and timber frame over masonry. The use of EPC and Part L1A checklist should be encouraged. Key to addressing the lack of compliance with building energy regulations is training. -- Highlights: ► There exists a lack of compliance, worldwide, with building energy regulations. ► The implementation of England and Wales building energy regulations is problematic. ► Training, learning and experience of builders and building control are critical. ► Energy performance certificate and Part L 2006 checklist helped achieve compliance. ► Flats achieved better compliance over houses; and timber frame over masonry.

  6. Building a leadership brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2007-01-01

    How do some firms produce a pipeline of consistently excellent managers? Instead of concentrating merely on strengthening the skills of individuals, these companies focus on building a broad organizational leadership capability. It's what Ulrich and Smallwood--cofounders of the RBL Group, a leadership development consultancy--call a leadership brand. Organizations with leadership brands take an "outside-in" approach to executive development. They begin with a clear statement of what they want to be known for by customers and then link it with a required set of management skills. The Lexus division of Toyota, for instance, translates its tagline--"The pursuit of perfection"--into an expectation that its leaders excel at managing quality processes. The slogan of Bon Secours Health System is "Good help to those in need." It demands that its managers balance business skills with compassion and caring. The outside-in approach helps firms build a reputation for high-quality leaders whom customers trust to deliver on the company's promises. In examining 150 companies with strong leadership capabilities, the authors found that the organizations follow five strategies. First, make sure managers master the basics of leadership--for example, setting strategy and grooming talent. Second, ensure that leaders internalize customers' high expectations. Third, incorporate customer feedback into evaluations of executives. Fourth, invest in programs that help managers hone the right skills, by tapping customers to participate in such programs. Finally, track the success of efforts to build leadership bench strength over the long-term. The result is outstanding management that persists even when individual executives leave. In fact, companies with the strongest leadership brands often become "leader feeders"--firms that regularly graduate leaders who go on to head other companies.

  7. Refurbishment of industrial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge

    2006-01-01

    When a building is subject for refurbishment, there is a golden opportunity to change its behavior as an energy system. This paper shows the importance of careful investigations of the processes, the climate shield and the heating systems already present in the building before measures are implemented in reality. A case study is presented dealing with a carpentry factory. The building is poorly insulated according to standards today, and initially it was assumed that a better thermal shield would be of vital importance in order to reach optimal conditions. Instead, it is shown that the main problem is the ordinary heating system. This uses steam from a wood chips boiler and the wood chips come from the manufacturing processes. These wood chips are, therefore, a very cheap fuel. The boiler had, during decades of use, slowly degraded into a poor state. Hence, aero-tempers using expensive electricity have been installed to remedy the situation. These use not only expensive kWh but also very expensive kW due to the electricity tariff. It is shown that electricity for heating purposes must be abandoned and further, that this could be achieved at a surprisingly small cost. By stopping a large waste of steam, it was possible to find resources, in the form of unspent money, for further mending the existing heating system. Not only economy but also environmental hazards in the form of CO 2 emissions urges us to abandon electricity and instead use heat from cheap biomass fired boilers. Such equipment saves environment at the same time it saves money

  8. Foundation helps refurbish buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camenzind, B.

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at the activities of the Swiss 'Climate-Cent' foundation, which is helping support the energetic refurbishment of building envelopes. The conditions which have to be fulfilled to receive grants are explained. Work supported includes the replacement of windows and the insulation of roofs and attics as well as outside walls. Details on the financial support provided and examples of projects supported are given. The source of the finance needed to provide such support - a voluntary levy on petrol - and further support provided in certain Swiss cantons is commented on

  9. Building perservation practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    Cultural Heritage sites are in the current practice, defined as everything you find on a site within a delimited selected area. Written sources and guidelines for the preservation of the cultural heritage, written by the public authorities or professionals describe them as places that tell a story...... of architects and planners is primarily to reconcile the conservation prospects with the future use of buildings and sites. They intermediary the site through selections of the narratives, and in practice the restoration or transformation projects becomes a communication of the selected story, utilized...

  10. Sustainable building; Duurzaam bouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Ch.F. [ed.] [Interfacultair Onderzoek Centrum ' De Ecologische Stad' DIOC, Delft (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    A complete overview is given of starting points and targets for the sustainable construction of buildings. The notion of sustainable indicates the necessity of managing specific flows: materials, energy, water and transport (traffic). Also, the monitoring and calculation of environmental effects must be clarified by the generally accepted method of life cycle analysis. This book is for the larger part the result of research carried out at the Interdepartmental Research Centre 'The Ecological City' at the Delft University of Technology in Delft, Netherlands. refs.

  11. Building Regional Competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the foundations of regional knowledge and its long-term impact onthe region's companies' and how a particular knowledge has developed an ability tostay competitive within a specific technological field. The case illustrates how theCopenhagen region has been able to develop...... a dominating position in the global marketfor industrial enzymes from 1870-2004. The case of industrial enzymes shows how aregion has been able to build sustainable competitive advantages from its distinctivecompetencies. This is done through a mixture of outsourcing and in sourcing ofcompetencies, knowledge...

  12. Building Brands Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ind, Nicholas; Iglesias, Oriol; Schultz, Majken

    2013-01-01

    created an online brand community. Our findings show that people participate in a community because it offers them the chance to find fulfillment, to express their creativity, and to socialize. The findings have significant implications for marketing, branding, and research professionals because......Co-creation is a rapidly emerging area of research. However, there is a lack of understanding as to how organizations use co-creation to build relationships and generate value. How does participation emerge and what outcomes does it deliver? To generate insight into the co-creation process, we...

  13. Building Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    We will in this paper approach the challenge of building integrated environmental studies by presenting a crude frame of analysis which take into account both the physical aspects and the social-discursive articulations of environmental problems. This framework partly mirrors the approach of our...... department (Dept. of Environment, Technology and Social Studies, Roskilde University), and has originally in another version been presented in the book “Miljøregulering - tværvidenskabelige studier (Environmental Regulation. Interdisciplinary Studies)” (Holm, Kjærgård & Pedersen eds. 1997, in Danish) written...

  14. Building the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Christine

    1985-01-01

    The book 'In Building the Universe' contains a collection of articles from the magazine 'New Scientist', compiled and edited to provide an overview of the field of particle physics. A picture of the basic constituents of matter (quarks and leptons) is given, together with the four fundamental forces that hold them together. The operation of these forces in the first instance of the hot young Universe is described. Also, the development of the accelerators and detectors used in elementary particle physics, is discussed. (UK)

  15. Building doctoral ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard

    2018-01-01

    heavily from the support from informal and extra-curricular researcher communities and non-formal support systems even beyond the institution in the private and societal lifeworlds. The chapter describes and analyses such forms of organizational and existential darkness within doctoral education...... and professionalization of doctoral education, with Graduate schools increasing in size and organizational complexity. Paradoxically, we see in contemporary research into doctoral students’ learning experiences that the students do not favour the formalized support systems and supervision, but on the contrary draw most......, and discusses how institutions and doctoral programmes could use such sprawling spaces for learning to build doctoral ecologies and to strengthening existentially based pedagogies within doctoral education....

  16. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1979-01-01

    The object of this brief report is to make the pollution inspectorate aware of the radiation hazards involved in new building materials, such as gypsum boards and alum slate based concrete blocks whose radium content is high. Experience in Swedish housebuilding has shown that a significant increase in the radiation dose to the occupants can occur. Improved insulation and elimination of draughts in fuel conservation accentuate the problem. Norwegian investigations are referred to and OECD and Scandinavian discussions aiming at recommendations and standards are mentioned. Suggested measures by the Norwegian authorities are given. (JIW)

  17. Building Web Reputation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Randy

    2010-01-01

    What do Amazon's product reviews, eBay's feedback score system, Slashdot's Karma System, and Xbox Live's Achievements have in common? They're all examples of successful reputation systems that enable consumer websites to manage and present user contributions most effectively. This book shows you how to design and develop reputation systems for your own sites or web applications, written by experts who have designed web communities for Yahoo! and other prominent sites. Building Web Reputation Systems helps you ask the hard questions about these underlying mechanisms, and why they're critical

  18. The Structure of Affine Buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard M

    2009-01-01

    In The Structure of Affine Buildings, Richard Weiss gives a detailed presentation of the complete proof of the classification of Bruhat-Tits buildings first completed by Jacques Tits in 1986. The book includes numerous results about automorphisms, completions, and residues of these buildings. It also includes tables correlating the results in the locally finite case with the results of Tits's classification of absolutely simple algebraic groups defined over a local field. A companion to Weiss's The Structure of Spherical Buildings, The Structure of Affine Buildings is organized around the clas

  19. Geomatics applied to building management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascon, M.

    1998-01-01

    An integrated information system at an educational facility which has the capacity to monitor relative data pertaining to the spatial characteristics of a building was demonstrated. The system was instrumental in optimizing building management by making use of geomatics technology. Geomatics establishes relations between geo-reference data (plans) and an actual data base. Such a system has the capability to integrate and assess all data relative to building management. The information allows building managers to rationalize exploitation costs and to coordinate energy use with the activities in the building

  20. The integration of solar power plants for domestic water services in buildings; Integracion de calderas y calentadores individuales en las instalaciones de ACS con energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J. V.; Garcia, R.; Lopez de Subijana, R.; Casado, J. M.

    2004-07-01

    The integration of solar power plants for domestic water services in buildings with individual heating and domestic water facilities has some problems which must be solved by the manufacturers of boilers and individual heaters; the most important is the water temperature in the entrance to the individual equipment because of solar heating. Therefore, we must care about materials in boilers and heaters, and temperature control systems of domestic water production. We analyse the technical conditions which appear in these equipment in the usual schemes: Centralized accumulation, distributed accumulation, serial heating, etc., and propose some elements which can be integrated in these facilities to obtain a better operation. (Author)