WorldWideScience

Sample records for building entrances

  1. Persuasive Ways to Change Entrance Use of Buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de Johannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Teeuw, Wouter B.

    2014-01-01

    People tend to use the same door every time they enter and exit a building. When certain entrances are widely preferred over others, congestion can occur. This paper describes two interventions to persuade visitors to use another entrance. The first intervention used sensory deprivation (darkness),

  2. Work on the Building 4 car park and closure of Entrance A

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    From 6 July to 31 October 2015, the GS department will be carrying out renovation work on the car park next to Buildings 4 and 5. This work is aimed at improving safety on and around the car park for all users, particularly children attending the nursery school, pedestrians and cyclists.   Layout of the upcoming car park.   The work on the car park will be conducted in two stages so that half of the parking spaces will always be available, in order to limit the impact on users as much as possible (the closed-off areas will be clearly indicated). When the work is completed, the car park will have been completely renovated, with new surfacing and road markings, high-quality lighting and more parking spaces (+5%). During the work, part of the car park will be inaccessible, which is likely to make it more difficult to find a parking space. We therefore invite you to park in the Globe car park during this period. The renovation work will also affect Entrance A (Route Bell), which will be fitt...

  3. Inside and outside space-interpretation of city building entrance%解读城市建筑入口的内外空间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    富尔雅

    2015-01-01

    Combining with the function role of urban building entrance space,this paper elaborated the ambiguity of meaning,transition proper-ties,spatial range expressed by the urban entrance space,pointed out that the urban building entrance space as an unbounded space,made the architectural space and urban public space environment appeared the mutual infiltration,mutual fusion of development trend.%结合城市建筑入口空间的功能作用,对城市入口空间所表达的意义、过渡属性、空间范围的模糊性等进行了阐述,指出城市建筑入口空间作为一个无界的空间样态,使建筑空间与城市公共环境空间出现了相互融合、相互渗透的发展趋势。

  4. Evaluation of a natural gas compressor building with switch-back air inlet entrances and ventilated by compressor package coolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Timothy G. [HFP Acoustical Consultants Inc. (United States)], email: tim.simmons@hfpacoustical.com

    2011-07-01

    The booming natural gas market in the Marcellus shale region has seen the appearance of many oil and gas processing stations, the latter generating a great deal of noise, which disturbs local residents. The oil and gas companies have therefore developed a patchwork of noise reduction techniques, from basic mufflers to engineered, sound-proof buildings. This paper focuses on a compromise: a gas compressor station, located in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, encased in a light-weight, metal building with switch-back air inlet openings for cooling and noise reduction. This case study aims to measure the noise emissions of the compressor, and possibly propose solutions for its mitigation. Since Lycoming County has a fairly stringent policy on noise disturbance, especially for low-frequency sounds, noise emission results showed that switch-back openings and the walls of the compressor building must be mitigated and that action must be taken by the gas company to meet the noise ordinance requirements.

  5. Science for common entrance physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, WR

    2015-01-01

    Cover everything required for the 13+ Common Entrance Physics exam with clearly presented content, lively illustrations and challenging end-of-chapter questions. This challenging and stimulating Science course has been reviewed by the ISEB subject editor and covers the content of both Levels 1 and 2 of the 13+ Physics exam. Designed for pupils in Years 7 and 8, it is an indispensable resource that lays the foundations for Common Entrance success. - Explores every Level 1 and 2 topic with clear explanations and examples - Includes topic-based exercises and extension questions - Builds on p

  6. Development and application of a high-speed, high-resolution data acquisition system for monitoring power at the service entrance to buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, T.R.

    1995-02-01

    A non-intrusive load monitoring system (NILMS) was developed and tested to determine its capabilities and examine ways that the system can supplement the understanding of how energy is used in a building. The investigation of the system as a method for obtaining short-term building energy use and demand data faster, as less cost, with less complexity, and less intrusively than from conventional submetering is described in this report. Data acquisition hardware and software, a power transducer, and current transformers were assembled into a system that could be used to sample the instantaneous real and reactive power coming into a building. The system was used to collect power profiles at a commercial and a residential building. The NILMS can sample power at low speeds (one sample per hour or less) and at speeds exceeding 100 Hz. Large changes in building power such as those due to central heating and cooling systems, water heaters, or banks of lights can easily be discriminated from total building power profiles collected by the system. Smaller loads, less than 1 or 2 kW, can be resolved when there is little ``noise`` in the power profile. Very small loads, less than 100 W, can be resolved in a residential application. Resolution becomes more difficult as larger and more frequent fluctuations occur. The ability of the system to easily collect valuable, short-term building power profiles, which permit individual loads to be determined (resolved), makes the system attractive for a number of applications. The system could prove very useful for measuring short-term energy use and demand, assisting building energy auditors in assessing building deficiencies, providing short-term performance data for validating engineering-based savings estimates and calibrating computer-based building performance models, and for validating, developing, and/or improving building and building system operating strategies.

  7. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  8. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; Jimmy O. Ong; Sarah J. Patel; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2000-10-26

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstock. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing Plan (RD and T) for implementation in Phase II. The objective of Phase II is to implement the RD and T as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  9. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Earl R. Berry; Fred Brent; Belma Demirel; Ming He; Troy Raybold; Manuel E. Quintana; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly

    2003-06-09

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objectives of Phase I were to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

  10. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; David Mintner; Wendy Moore; Jimmy O. Ong; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kalapi D. Sheth; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2001-05-17

    The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The accomplishments of Phase I are discussed in detail in this Phase I Concept Report. A RD and T Plan and a preliminary project financing plan have been developed and are submitted separately from this report.

  11. Overhills: Entrance Compound. Historic Building Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    community at Overhills to be named Pinewild. The company hired Lewis H. Wise of New York to layout the proposed subdivision. A Fayetteville Observer...the North Carolina State Historic Preservation Office. Roberts, Claudia, and Jim Sumner . 1980. Currituck Shooting Club. Nomination to the National

  12. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Storm; Govanon Nongbri; Steve Decanio; Ming He; Lalit Shah; Charles Schrader; Earl Berry; Peter Ricci; Belma Demirel; Charles Benham; Mark Bohn

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc., GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I, a design basis for the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis section was developed based on limited experience with the specified feed gas and operating conditions. The objective of this Task in Phase II RD&T work was to confirm the performance of the F-T reactor at the set design conditions. Although much of the research, development, and testing work were done by TES outside of this project, several

  13. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Anderson; Charles Schrader

    2004-01-26

    In 1999, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Cooperative Agreement to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. to provide a preliminary engineering design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award, continuous and diligent work has been undertaken to achieve the design of an economical facility that makes strides toward attaining the goal of DOE's Vision 21 Program. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to power while coproducing transportation fuels, chemicals, and useful utilities such as steam. This objective is being pursued in a three-phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems, LLC. (TES), the successor to Texaco Energy Systems, Inc. The key subcontractors to TES include General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root. ChevronTexaco provided gasification technology and Rentech Inc.'s Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology that has been developed for non-natural gas sources. GE provided gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair provided air separation technology and KBR provided engineering to integrate the facility. A conceptual design was completed in Phase I and the report was accepted by the DOE in May 2001. The Phase I work identified risks and critical research, development, and testing that would improve the probability of technical success of the EECP. The objective of Phase II was to mitigate the risks by executing research, development, and testing. Results from the Phase II work are the subject of this report. As the work of Phase II concluded, it became evident that sufficient, but not necessarily complete, technical information and data would be available to begin Phase III - Preliminary Engineering Design. Work in Phase II requires additional technical development work to correctly apply technology at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and

  14. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Benham; Mark Bohn; John Anderson; Earl Berry; Fred Brent; Ming He; Randy Roberts; Lalit Shah; Marjan Roos

    2003-09-15

    The 1999 U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) award to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. (presently Texaco Energy Systems LLC, a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco) was made to provide a Preliminary Engineering Design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award presentation, work has been undertaken to achieve an economical concept design that makes strides toward the DOE Vision 21 goal. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to electric power plus transportation fuels, chemicals and useful utilities such as steam. The use of petroleum coke was added as a fuel to reduce the cost of feedstock and also to increase the probability of commercial implementation of the EECP concept. This objective has been pursued in a three phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems LLC and subcontractors General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR). ChevronTexaco is providing gasification technology and Rentech's Fischer-Tropsch technology that has been developed for non-natural gas feed sources. GE is providing gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering to integrate the facility. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was completed in 2000. The Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was prepared based on making

  15. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Anderson; Mark Anselmo; Earl Berry; Mark Bohn; Roko Bujas; Ming He; Ken Kwik; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit Shah; Dennis Slater; Donald Todd; Don Wall

    2003-08-21

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC (TES), a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco, General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc. GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems were assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified catalyst/wax separation as a potential technical and economic risk. To mitigate risks to the proposed EECP, Phase II RD&T included tests of an alternative (to Rentech's Dynamic Settler) primary catalyst

  16. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; Ming He; James F. Stevens; Centha A. Davis; Michael Henley; Jerome Mayer; Harry Tsang; Jimell Erwin; Jennifer Adams; Michael Tillman; Chris Taylor; Marjan J. Roos; Robert F. Earhart

    2004-01-27

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The potential technical and economic risks to the EECP from Task 2.5 can be mitigated by demonstrating that the end-use products derived from the upgrading of the F-T synthesis total liquid product can meet or exceed current specifications for the

  17. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids

  18. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids

  19. On the border. Value and function of museum’s entrance hall and its symbolic meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tarantino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to analyze the museum entrance halls, mainly from the point of view of the growing phenomenon of mass tourism. The entrance space is examined not only for its functional characters but also for its symbolic power in structuring or changing the historical and cultural identity of the entire museum’s building. Both in new projects and in restoration of ancient museum buildings, in fact, contemporary architects seems to be increasingly attracted by this design aspect.

  20. 47 CFR 69.110 - Entrance facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entrance facilities. 69.110 Section 69.110... Computation of Charges § 69.110 Entrance facilities. (a) A flat-rated entrance facilities charge expressed in... that use telephone company facilities between the interexchange carrier or other person's point...

  1. Science for common entrance physics : answers

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, W R

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Science for Common Entrance: Physics , which covers every Level 1 and 2 topic in the ISEB 13+ Physics Common Entrance exam syllabus. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. - Suitable for ISEB 13+ Mathematics Common Entrance exams taken from Autumn 2017 onwards. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Science for Common Entrance: Physics. - Science for Common Entrance: Biology. - Science for Common En

  2. Mathematics for common entrance three (extension) answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension) , which provides essential preparation for Level 3 of the ISEB 13+ Mathematics exam, as well as for CASE and other scholarship exams. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension). - Mathematics for Common Entrance One. - Mathematics for Common Entrance One Answers. - M

  3. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  4. Do university entrance exams predict academic achievement?

    OpenAIRE

    Häkkinen, Iida

    2004-01-01

    The study examines which factors predict academic performance at university and compares the predictive values of subject-related entrance exams and indicators of past school performance. The results show that in the fields of engineering and social sciences entrance exams predict both graduation and the number of study credits better than past performance. In education past school performance is a better predictor of graduation. Changing the admission rule to school grades would affect the a...

  5. Entrance C - Meyrin site: new access conditions

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Entrance C on the Meyrin site, which drivers of motorised vehicles can use Mondays to Fridays from 7 a.m. to 9 a.m. and from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m., has been altered to include a turnstile to allow cyclists and pedestrians to use their access card to get in and out of the site from 6 a.m. until 10 p.m.   The following video illustrates how to use the new turnstile: A new type of entrance gate fitted with a number plate reader similar to that installed at the entrance to the Prévessin site should, once fully tested, allow drivers of motorised vehicles to access the site. For the time being, the conditions of use of Entrance C remain unchanged. Further information on the entry into force of new arrangements will be issued in due course. For further information about CERN entrances: CERN opening hours CERN control access GS Department

  6. Mathematics for common entrance one answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams

  7. Mathematics for common entrance two answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams.

  8. Supercalculators and University Entrance Calculus Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye Yoon; Thomas, Mike; Kiernan, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of computer algebra systems could provide a significant advantage to students taking standard university entrance calculus examinations. Indicates that supercalculators would probably provide a significant advantage, particularly for lower-achieving students. Demonstrates that it is possible to write questions in which…

  9. 30 CFR 18.37 - Lead entrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... against loosening. (d) Compressed packing material shall be in contact with the cable jacket for a length... cable jacket and the nominal inside diameter of the packing material shall not exceed 1/32-inch, based... § 18.37 Lead entrances. (a) Insulated cable(s), which must extend through an outside wall of...

  10. An Entrance Region Mass Transfer Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment designed to reveal the consequences of the development of a concentration boundary layer. The rate of a mass transfer limited electrochemical reaction is measured and used to obtain the dependence of average Sherwood number on Reynolds number and entrance length. (Author/BB)

  11. 49 CFR 236.534 - Entrance to equipped territory; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entrance to equipped territory; requirements. 236... Entrance to equipped territory; requirements. Where trains are not required to stop at the entrance to equipped territory, except when leaving yards and stations and speed until entering equipped territory...

  12. Entrance Effects in Microchannel Gas Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Lewandowski; S. Jebauer; J. Czerwinska; P. Doerffer

    2009-01-01

    Motivation of this work has its origin in the boundary layer control for aeronautics and turbomachinery. For that purpose boundary layer can be modified by perforated plates with holes of specific sizes. The questions which rise in such configuration are related to the existence of optimal size of the holes and the influence of microscale phenomena on the global flow patterns. This paper concentrates on the issue of the entrance effects on the micro-channel flow. It is shown that mass flow rate is only insignificantly influenced by slip effects. Global parameters such as pressure difference and geometrical shape in more pronounced way alter flow behavior. In this paper we concentrate on the numerical investigation of the microchannel flow for Kn < 0.01 and Re < 500. The channel length is finite. Hence, entrance and outlet effects on microchannel flow can be studied.

  13. Entrance Length and Turbulence Transition in Microflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wereley, Steve; Lee, Sangyoup; Gui, Lichuan

    2002-11-01

    Since microfabrication techniques are typically planar processes, microchannel flows typically have significant predevelopment due to the upstream reservoir having the same height as the microchannel. The main concerns of the current study are categorized into finding the effects of typical microchannel geometry on the velocity entrance length in the laminar flow regime and providing the turbulence transitional Reynolds number range using the details of the velocity profile rather than global measurements of pressure drop. A rectangular micro-channel of aspect ratio 2.65 and the hydraulic diameter 380 um was used in this study. Micro particle image velocimetry measurement was performed to measure the velocity profiles. The entrance length is found to be reduced by about 45number occurs between 2100 and 2900-comparable to macroscale observations. Finally a new technique is proposed to measure the turbulence intensity of a flow directly from the PIV correlation function peak width. This new technique provides results comparable to traditional means of calculating turbulence intensity but is particularly useful in measuring microflows where the seeding density can be very low.

  14. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Buildings - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The approximate physical location of each individual Public Housing Building. If the building has more than one entrance or street address, the address of the...

  15. LITERACY SENSES: WRITING IN VESTIBULAR (ENTRANCE EXAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Wilson da Costa Coelho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to pose a reflection on explicit or underlying literacy practices in a literacy event such as the Brazilian university entrance exams (vestibular using, as an object of study, the essays written during that event. We aim to understand the educated writing culture, or Brazilian literacy, in its very extreme, that is, the end of High School, based on Bakhtin’s theory of enunciation. Despite pedagogical measures focused on elaborate (argumentative writing in view of college assessment exams and ENEM (National High School Exam, we know how unsatisfactory its results still are, in terms of the school literacy practices, which still remains to be sufficiently reflected on. It is also worth highlighting that we understand writing (school writing more as a set of social practices than as a set of skills alone.

  16. 9 CFR 354.220 - Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Buildings and Plant Facilities § 354... entrance of flies and other insects. (2) Outside doors, except in receiving rooms and live rabbit...

  17. Capturing blocked-entrance binaural signals from open-entrance recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2008-01-01

    interfering the individual's hearing and doing. In this work we propose a strategy for the recording of binaural audio with minimal hearing interference, and for transforming these recordings to blocked-entrance versions that are more suitable for analysis and reproduction of binaural audio in a more general...... context. To this purpose, equalization filters are derived from the ratio between blocked and open ear canal transfer functions. Different transfer-function measuring techniques and inverse filtering methods are evaluated....

  18. Gate C – Works on the Building 42

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Due to works being carried out on the new building 42, lorries transporting concrete will be entering and exiting the site via entrance C (during entrance C opening hours and between July and December 2009). The lorries have PRIORITY over other vehicles, please adapt your speed in consequence. We thank you in advance for your patience and vigilance when using this entrance. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  19. Traffic restrictions: Meyrin site and entrance of Prévessin site

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Between 10 April and 19 April 2010 a number of roads on the Meyrin site and at the entrance of the Prévessin site will be resurfaced. The work will be done by zones, as shown below: 12-14 April Intersection of Route Fermi and Route Gregory. Route Fermi, between Building 268 and Route Jentschke Route Fermi, Route Jentschke and Route Einstein, up to Building 593 and between Buildings 194 and 555. Plus Route Oppenheimer. 15 April Intersection of Route Bloch and Route Maxwell, and Route Maxwell itself. Route Sherrer between the overhead walkway (Building 50) and the exit from the carpark behind Building 4. 16 April and 19 April Route Fermi, Route Jentschke and Route Einstein, up to Building 593 and between Buildings 194 and 555. Prévessin site: from Route Adams to the access control Building. The construction works may result in some disruption to traffic. Users are requested to comply with the temporary traffic signs and arrangements.  Thank you for your understanding. GS/...

  20. Historical bathymetric changes near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, T.L.; Sherwood, C.R. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Large changes in the distribution of sediment near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington, have occurred since the long rock jetties were built to confine flow. Spits to the north and south of the entrance have grown, the entrance channel has deepened, and the outer bar has eroded and moved offshore. The shorelines of North Beach and South Beach have experienced significant amounts of both erosion and accretion since the jetties were constructed around the turn of the century. Recently, the erosion rate at South Beach has increased and, because Half Moon Bay is growing at the expense of the shoreward side of Point Chehalis, the vegetated portion of the spit is now less than 350 ft wide at the narrowest section. The US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District, requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory evaluate long-term trends in erosion near the entrance to Grays Harbor.

  1. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Entrance Fee Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Emergency Wetlands Resources Act of 1986 authorizes the Fish and Wildlife Service to collect entrance fees within selected units of the National Wildlife Refuge...

  2. Predicting Siltation in Entrance Channel Based on Wind Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The siltation induced by wind waves in an entrance channel is one of the prime factors influencing the operation efficiency of a port. It is necessary to predict the siltation accurately for dredging and ship operation passing through the entrance of the port. However, it is difficult to apply the traditional method to predicting entrance siltation because of its complex computational procedure and lacking the data of ocean dynamic elements in the specified sea area. From the view of energy conservation, a direct relationship between wind conditions and sediment deposition can be founded. On the basis of the above methodology, an empirical formula expressed by wind conditions for forecasting the siltation in the entrance channel is set up. The wind conditions are easily obtained from the local meteorological stations or weather maps, so the formula established in this paper is more convenient and practical than the traditional method. A case study is provided, in which the emopirical formula is calibrated and verified utilizing the measured wind and siltation conditions in the entrance channel of the port. Comparisons between computed values and measured data show satisfactory agreement.

  3. Optimal shape of entrances for a frictionless nanochannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, Christophe; Joly, Laurent; Detcheverry, François

    2016-09-01

    The nearly frictionless flow of water in narrow carbon nanotubes is a genuine nanofluidic phenomenon with many prospects of applications in membrane technology. When inner dissipation is vanishing, the limiting factor to high flux lies in the viscous dissipation occurring at the tube mouth. As shown by Gravelle et al. [Gravelle, Joly, Detcheverry, Ybert, Cottin-Bizonne, and Bocquet, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 16367 (2013), 10.1073/pnas.1306447110], these so-called end effects can be reduced by adding a conical entrance. In this work, we take a step further and search for the optimal entrance shape. We use finite element calculations to compute the hydrodynamic resistance of a frictionless tube with superellipse-shaped entrances and propose an approximate analytical model. If perfect slip applies on its wall, an optimal entrance which is only 10 tube radii in length is sufficient to reduce end effects by an order of magnitude, a performance almost three times better than the optimal cone. In the case of partial slip, the resistance decreases with the entrance length before reaching a plateau at an optimal length controlled by liquid-solid slip. Our results are discussed in connection with biological and artificial systems.

  4. Traffic disruption at Entrance B -TRAM- related work

    CERN Multimedia

    Infrastructure and General Services Department

    2010-01-01

    Due to work being carried out for the TRAM we inform you that vehicles coming from Geneva will be prohibited from turning left into Entrance B. This restriction will be in place for approx. 10 weeks*) starting from Monday 30 August 2010. You are highly recommended to enter CERN through Entrance A during this period even though a diversion will be put in place to allow access to CERN from Entrance B (as shown in the attached sketch). In addition, approx. 20 car parking spaces will be temporarily unavailable at the western end of the flags car park. We thank you in advance for your kind understanding. ______________ *) The exact end date of the work will be communicated in due course. GS-SEM Group

  5. Prévessin site – Pedestrian and cycle entrances

    CERN Document Server

    GS-IS

    2013-01-01

      A second entrance for pedestrians and cyclists on Route du Maroc will be opened and the existing entrance on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts will be re-opened: - for the period 2 April to 31 October 2013, - from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday). IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  6. Getting Interpersonal on a University Entrance Exam Impromptu Writing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myskow, Gordon; Gordon, Kana

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the types of audience engagement strategies used by a Japanese secondary school student in an after school course preparing for a high-stakes impromptu academic writing task on a university entrance exam. The study uses appraisal theory--the branch of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) concerned with the patterning of…

  7. Search for entrance channel effects in compound nuclear formation

    CERN Document Server

    Maj, A; Herskind, B; Bracco, A; Camera, F; Hagemann, G; Varmette, P

    1999-01-01

    The entrance channel effect was studied for the decay of sup 1 sup 7 sup 0 W formed in fusion reactions with different beam-target combinations. The average number of emitted neutrons suggest a lower effective excitation energy in the (alpha,xn) decay channel when more mass-symmetric reaction is used, especially at the highest angular momenta. The results are in qualitative agreement with predictions of the dissipative fusion model.

  8. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh B.P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ≈ 4-7MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones. This enhancement has been attributed due to incomplete fusion. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, fraction of incomplete fusion to the total fusion has been deduced and compared with 16O+159Tb and other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The fraction of incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile type, energy and entrance-channel mass-asymmetry.

  9. Substation interference on gas entrance of industrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Paulo Edmundo; Giacommelo, Claudinei [PAIOL Engenharia, Paulinia, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Industrial plants often have medium or high voltage electrical power entrance and also gas feeders. Often the main substation is located near the gas entrance, in the utilities area. When the occurrence of a phase to ground short-circuit in the substation, the pipeline and gas entrance that serves the plant may be exposed to high voltage soil potential, of the order of a few kilovolts, due to resistive coupling with the substation ground mesh. The consequences of this situation are reflected in various risks, with emphasis on: damage to the protective coating of the duct, due to the increased soil potential, in excess of its dielectric supportability (typically on the order of 5 kV); spread of potentially hazardous to duct exposed parts (valves, measuring place etc.); and damage to cathodic protection system components, as rectifier and insulating joins at gas entrance. This paper presents the investigations conducted in a factory that has a 69 kV main substation very close to the gas entrance, the order of a few meters away. The substation phase to ground short-circuit current is 7 kA, what causes a 9 kV soil potential near the gas pipe. It is presented the methodology for modeling the various elements involved in this process, the results of simulations made, arrangements been taken to reduce soil potential next to the duct to levels below 5 kV, and the measures for people and insulating joins protection. It is important to note that such problems usually will be solved with measures involving the entire grounding system of the industrial complex and also close to the duct (outside the industrial plant). The gas distribution companies should require from customers where this situation occurs, to ensure safety for people who have access to elements of its network, and for the integrity of their own ducts and cathodic protection components. The computer simulations developed for this work were made with the software Auto Grid, developed by the Canadian company Safe

  10. EnTranCe to the second life of gas : EnTranCe as source of innovation and human resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aué, Jan-jaap; Gemert, Wim van; Martinus, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The living lab EnTranCe provides a platform for open innovations. Stakeholders from large industry, SME’s, government and the research community team up to work on the future of the European energy system, with gas in a pivotal role. An important element of the innovation strength of EnTranCe is tha

  11. Loads on Entrance Platforms for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez;

    2010-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of the performed large scale tests in GWK, Hannover for studying wave run-up generated forces on wind turbine entrance platforms. The run-up height and velocity was measured by use of high speed video recordings supplemented by some wave gauges mounted...... at the pile. Hereafter, the run-up generated impact forces were measured on two types of grates and a solid plate. The pressure distribution was also measured for the solid plate. In addition to this the wave generated backfilling of an initial scour hole and the strength of the backfilling soil was studied...

  12. Prévessin site: Pedestrian and cycle entrance

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The entrance to the Prévessin site for pedestrians and cyclists on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts will be re-opened: from 7 April to 30 October 2015, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday).   IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  13. Prévessin site – Pedestrian and cycle entrances

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-DI

    2014-01-01

    Entrances for pedestrians and cyclists on Route du Maroc and on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts, in Prévessin, will be re-opened:   from 7 April to 31 October 2014, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday).   IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  14. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

  15. Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) entrance aperture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimets, P.; Park, S.; Bergner, H.; Chou, C.; Gates, R.; Honsa, M.; Podgorski, W.; Yanari, C.

    2014-07-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is a complementary follow-on to Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO-AIA) and funded as a member of the NASA SMEX program. This paper presents the thermal design of the IRIS telescope front end, with a focus on the IRIS door and entrance aperture assembly. The challenge of the IRIS entrance aperture, including the door design, was to manage the solar flux, both before and after the door was opened. This is especially a problem with instruments that are permanently pointed directly at the sun. Though there is an array of effective flux-rejecting coatings, they are expensive, hard to apply, harder to measure, delicate, prone to unpredictable performance decay with exposure, and very often a source of contamination. This paper presents a thermal control and protection method based on robust, inexpensive coatings and materials, combined to produce high thermal and structural isolation. The end result is a first line of thermal protection whose performance is easy to predict and well isolated from the instrument it is protecting.

  16. Entrance C - New Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Entrance C (Satigny) is now equipped with a latest-generation Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) system and a fast-action road gate.   During the month of August, Entrance C will be continuously open from 7.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. (working days only). The security guards will open the gate as usual from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. For the rest of the working day (9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.) the gate will operate automatically. Please observe the following points:       Stop at the STOP sign on the ground     Position yourself next to the card reader for optimal recognition     Motorcyclists must use their CERN card     Cyclists may not activate the gate and should use the bicycle turnstile     Keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front of you   If access is denied, please check that your vehicle regist...

  17. Evaluation of entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, L.; Lunelli, N.; Paschuk, S.; Oliveira, A.; Ferreira, J. L.; Schelin, H.; Miguel, C.; Denyak, V.; Kmiecik, C.; Tilly, J.; Khoury, H.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography. An evaluation of 301 radiographical examinations in anterior-posterior (AP) and posterior-anterior (PA) (166 examinations) and lateral (LAT) (135 examinations) projections was performed. The analyses were performed on patients grouped by age; the groups included ages 0-1 y, 1-5 y, 5-10 y, and 10-15 y. The entrance surface air kerma was determined with DoseCal software (Radiological Protection Center of Saint George's Hospital, London) and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Two different exposure techniques were compared. The doses received by patients who had undergone LAT examinations were 40% higher, on average, those in AP/PA examinations because of the difference in tube voltage. A large high-dose “tail” was observed for children up to 5 y old. An increase in tube potential and corresponding decrease in current lead to a significant dose reduction. The difference between the average dose values for different age ranges was not practically observed, implying that the exposure techniques are still not optimal. Exposure doses received using the higher tube voltage and lower current-time product correspond to the international diagnostic reference levels.

  18. Laminar flow in the entrance region of elliptical ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, M. S.

    1983-06-01

    A closed-form analytical solution is developed to hitherto unsolved problem of steady laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid in the entrance region of elliptical ducts. The analysis is based on the Karman-Pohlhausen integral method and entails solution of the integrated forms of the mass and the momentum balance equations. According to this analysis, the hydrodynamic entrance length based on 99 percent approach to the fully developed flow is equal to 0.5132 lambda/(l + lambda-squared) where lambda is the aspect ratio. Also, the fully developed incremental pressure defect is found to be 7/6 which is independent of the aspect ratio. In the limit when the flow becomes fully developed, the solution converges to the known exact asymptotic solution. Available, wide-ranging velocity measurements for a circular tube agree with the analytical predictions within 7 percent. Also, available pressure drop measurements near the inlet of a circular tube agree with the analytical predictions within 2 percent.

  19. Entrance, exit, and reentrance of one shot with a shotgun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmann, C; Hougen, H P

    1999-01-01

    The case being reported is one of a homicidal shotgun fatality with an unusual wound pattern. A 34-year-old man was shot at close range with a 12-gauge shotgun armed with No. 5 birdshot ammunition. The shot entered the left axillary region, exited through the left infraclavicular region, and ther......The case being reported is one of a homicidal shotgun fatality with an unusual wound pattern. A 34-year-old man was shot at close range with a 12-gauge shotgun armed with No. 5 birdshot ammunition. The shot entered the left axillary region, exited through the left infraclavicular region......, and thereafter penetrated the left side of the neck, causing tearing of the left common carotid artery and the right internal carotid artery. The entrance wound in the axilla was larger than the other wounds, and before autopsy it was believed that the shotgun had been fired twice, causing one wound in the neck...

  20. 46 CFR 111.83-5 - Bottom entrance and protected enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Shore Connection Boxes § 111.83-5 Bottom entrance and protected enclosures. Each shore connection box must have a bottom entrance for the shore connection cable. The box must provide protection to the shore connection when the connection is in use....

  1. University and the Entrance Examinations in a Greek Provincial Town: A Bottom-Up Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Luciana

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the cultural meaning of university education and of participation in the extremely competitive entrance examinations to university, as viewed from a Greek provincial town. Notes that despite high graduate unemployment, university education and sitting for entrance examinations have important social status implications. (DSK)

  2. Entrance surface dose in cerebral interventional radiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Rico, M.; Lopez-Rendon, X.; Rivera-Ordonez, C. E.; Gamboa-deBuen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suarez, 14269 DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 DF (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    At the Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia (INNN) diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures of interventional radiology are carried out. Since the procedures can last from some minutes to several hours, the absorbed dose for the patient could increase dangerously. An investigation had begun in order to determine the entrance surface dose (ESD) using 25 thermoluminiscent dosimeters TLD-100 and 8 strips of 15 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2} of Gafchromic XR-QA2 film bound in a holder of 15 Multiplication-Sign 15 cm{sup 2} in the posteroanterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) positions during all the procedure. The results show that maximum ESD could be from 0.9 to 2.9 Gy for the PA position and between 1.6 and 2.5 Gy for the lateral position. The average ESD was between 0.7 and 1.3 Gy for the PA position, and from 0.44 to 1.1 Gy for the lateral position in a therapeutic procedure.

  3. An effect of entrance length on development of velocity profile in channel of millimeter dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasikova, D.; Kotek, M.; Kopecky, V.

    2016-06-01

    Here we used modified PIV technique completed with long distance microscope probe for experimental investigation of the flow velocity profile in a rectangular duct. We came from the analytical and numerical prediction of the entrance length for fully developed velocity profile. The results of measurement completed knowledge about the flow stability and velocity profile shape in the channel of 0.00375 hydraulic diameters. There was marked a range of entrance length constant for the transient flow area. The presents of the fluctuating velocities in the transition flow is explained with POD snapshot and modes projection. The minimal entrance length for the laminar, transition, and turbulent flow is set.

  4. Similarity of Heat Transfer on Heat Source Elements in the Entrance Region in Electronic Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jane Z. Jiang; Sui Lin

    2001-01-01

    A similarity equation for heat transfer on heat source elements situated in the entrance region in electronic equipment is developed based on the experimental data obtained by Sparrow et al.[4]. The characteristic of the similarity equation is that the ratio of the heat transfer coefficient at the entrance region to that at the fully developed region is independent of the Reynolds number. It depends only on the row number of the elements situated in the entrance region. An example of the usefulness of the similarity equation is presented that determines the heat transfer on heat source elements in a power unit that contains only a small number of the heat source elements.

  5. Current variability at the Pacific entrance of the Indonesian Throughflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashino, Yuji; Watanabe, Hidetoshi; Herunadi, Bambang; Aoyama, Michio; Hartoyo, Djoko

    1999-05-01

    Current variability at the Pacific entrance of the Indonesian Throughflow is investigated using direct current and hydrographic measurements. Two moorings with three current meters (depths of 350, 550, and 1050 m) and one conductivity-temperature-depth profiler (260 m) were deployed at 4°1'N, 127°31'E and 3°11'N, 128°27'E between Talaud Islands and Morotai Island (Indonesia) from February 1994 to June 1995. Data from four hydrographic surveys conducted mainly between Mindanao and New Guinea from 1994 to 1996 are also used. The onset of a strong northwestward flow was observed at the southern mooring during boreal winter. In contrast, a southwestward flow containing salty South Pacific water was observed there during boreal summer. This current pattern change matched monsoon change around the mooring sites, suggesting that this variability is a seasonal signal in this region. This current change may occur because of the meridional shift of the Halmahera Eddy associated with an enlargement/diminishment of the Mindanao Dome. Our observation result during summer (the southwestward flow with the South Pacific water at the southern mooring) suggests that the Maluku Sea is one of the eastern routes of the Indonesian Throughflow. The current data also revealed that intraseasonal variability occurs in 50-day oscillations. Because the coherence between wind variability in the tropics with a period of 40-50 days (Madden-Julian Oscillation) and current variability with this period are >0.4, it is possible that the 50-day oscillation in the ocean current is induced by wind variability associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The ocean eddy activity with an intrinsic period in this region may also be related to this 50-day oscillation.

  6. Renovating the Main Building

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN's "Main Building" is exactly that. The Organization's central hub, with hundreds of staff and visitors passing through its doors every day, will soon be getting a well-earned facelift. Refurbishment work will proceed in phases, starting with the Salle des Pas Perdus, the concourse between the Council Chamber and the Main Auditorium. By the end of August, informal seating areas will be installed, electronic display panels will provide practical information and improved sound insulation will enhance conditions in the auditoria and surrounding meeting rooms.   In light green the area that will undergo the facelift. Work will start in July. The ground floor is home to the entrance to Restaurant No. 1, the bank, the post office, the travel agent, the Users Office, the Staff Association, the notice boards etc. Step up to the first floor to access CERN's largest lecture theatre, the Council Chamber and its "Pas Perdus" lobby. Everyone who works at or visits CERN i...

  7. Safety Evaluation of Highway Tunnel-Entrance Illuminance Transition Based on Eye-Pupil Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Du

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing the EMR-8B eye-tracker system, the pupil changes of eight drivers were monitored when they drove through 26 typical highway tunnels. Based on the test results, the driver’s pupil areas and pupil illuminance were found to be in a power function relationship at tunnel entrances. Furthermore, a quantitative relationship between the pupil area and its critical velocity was established, and the ratio of pupil area’s velocity in relation to its critical velocity was used to evaluate the lighting transitions and to establish the ideal curve of pupil illuminance at tunnel entrances. The results demonstrated that the relationship between the pupil illuminance of the tunnel entrance and the driver’s pupil areas conforms to the Stevens law found in experimental psychology; severe pupil illuminance transition within the range of 10 metres of the existing highway tunnel entrances, which results in great visual load, is in urgent need of improvement.

  8. A numerical solution for the entrance region of non-newtonian flow in annuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia M.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuity and momentum equations applied to the entrance region of an axial, incompressible, isothermal, laminar and steady flow of a power-law fluid in a concentric annulus, were solved by a finite difference implicit method. The Newtonian case was solved used for validation of the method and then compared to reported results. For the non-Newtonian case a pseudoplastic power-law model was assumed and the equations were transformed to obtain a pseudo-Newtonian system which enabled its solution using the same technique as that used for the Newtonian case. Comparison of the results for entrance length and pressure drop with those available in the literature showed a qualitative similarity, but significant quantitative differences. This can be attributed to the differences in entrance geometries and the definition of asymptotic entrance length.

  9. Should College Entrance Exam Results Be Made Public,or Kept Private?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The college entrance examination, usually called gaokao in China, is considered the most important test for middle school graduates. It’s the test that makes or breaks the futures of students as the outcome determines who

  10. Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Klemke, Roland; Westera, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P., Klemke, R., & Westera, W. (2011, 20-21 October). Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools. Presentation at 5th European Conference on Games Based Learning, Athens, Greece.

  11. High endemism at cave entrances: a case study of spiders of the genus Uthina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Dong, Tingting; Zheng, Guo; Fu, Jinzhong; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Endemism, which is typically high on islands and in caves, has rarely been studied in the cave entrance ecotone. We investigated the endemism of the spider genus Uthina at cave entrances. Totally 212 spiders were sampled from 46 localities, from Seychelles across Southeast Asia to Fiji. They mostly occur at cave entrances but occasionally appear at various epigean environments. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data from COI and 28S genes suggested that Uthina was grouped into 13 well-supported clades. We used three methods, the Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes (bPTP) model, the Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography (BPP) method, and the general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) model, to investigate species boundaries. Both bPTP and BPP identified the 13 clades as 13 separate species, while GMYC identified 19 species. Furthermore, our results revealed high endemism at cave entrances. Of the 13 provisional species, twelve (one known and eleven new) are endemic to one or a cluster of caves, and all of them occurred only at cave entrances except for one population of one species. The only widely distributed species, U. luzonica, mostly occurred in epigean environments while three populations were found at cave entrances. Additionally, eleven new species of the genus are described. PMID:27775081

  12. The Entrance of Pyroclastic Flows into the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundt, A.

    2001-12-01

    Explosive volcanoes, especially in subduction-zone and ocean-island settings, can generate pyroclastic flows that enter the sea. Geologic constraints on the interaction mechanisms and hazards are poor since resulting deposits hardly survive coastal erosion. The entrance of hot pyroclastic flows into water has been observed experimentally by letting shooting granular flows of ignimbrite ash heated to up to 420oC run down a chute into a water-filled tank. Flows of relatively cool ash, less than 150oC, impulsively displace some near-shore water generating a tsunami wave and then separate into a fine-ash over-water surge formed near shore and the main, coarser and denser material penetrating the water surface to form a turbulent mixing zone which advances downstream as long as the granular flow is maintained. Pumice floats to the surface, lithics and coarse ash fall out onto the floor, but ash remaining in suspension forms a turbidity current flowing down the tank. At temperatures above 250oC, almost all ash is initially transported along the water surface, rather than immediately penetrating it. Transport over water is facilitated by steam explosions derived from mixing of some of the ash with water across the surface. Ash fountains throw dry ash forward before it contacts the water, triggering the next steam explosion farther away from shore where fountains collapse onto the water surface. Each time ash and heat are consumed by mixing; the distance to where explosions extend thus depends on initial mass flux and temperature. Most fine ash forms an ash-cloud surge travelling over water, loosing sediment plumes that unite on the tank floor to form a turbidity current. Tsunami waves generated by coastal impact appear to be additionally driven by surface-water displacement by massive ash-input from ash fountains. Grain size distribution is also critical in determining interaction processes. Moderately well sorted medium ash generates strong steam explosions and becomes

  13. Engineering geologic conditions at the sinkhole entrance to Logan Cave, Benton County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; McKenna, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    Logan Cave, located in Benton County, Arkansas, is inhabited by several endangered and threatened species. The cave and surrounding area was designated a National Wildlife Refuge under the control of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1989. Cave researchers access the cave through a steep-sided sinkhole entrance, which also is one of the two access points used by endangered bats. There is evidence of instability of one of the entrance slopes that has raised concerns that the entrance could close if slope failure was to occur. At the request of USFWS, we performed an engineering geologic investigation of the sinkhole to evaluate stability of this slope, which is comprised of soil, and other mechanisms of sediment transport into the cave entrance. The investigation included engineering geologic mapping, sampling and laboratory testing of subsurface geologic materials, and slope-stability analysis. We found that the sinkhole slope that extends into the entrance of the cave is comprised of sandy and gravelly soil to the depths explored (6.4 meters). This soil likely was deposited as alluvium within a previous, larger sinkhole. Based on properties of the alluvium, geometry of the slope, and results of finite-element slope-stability analyses, we conclude that the slope is marginally stable. Future failures of the slope probably would be relatively thin and small, thus several would be required to completely close the cave entrance. However, sediment is accumulating within the cave entrance due to foot traffic of those accessing the cave, surface-water erosion and transport, and shallow slope failures from the other sinkhole slopes. We conclude that the entrance will be closed by sediment in the future, similar to another entrance that we identified that completely closed in the past. Several measures could be taken to reduce the potential for closure of the cave entrance, including periodic sediment removal, installation of materials that reduce erosion by

  14. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Rich

    2003-12-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. The DOE/WMPI Cooperative Agreement was modified on May 2003 to expand the project team to include Shell Global Solutions, U.S. and Uhde GmbH as the engineering contractor. The addition of Shell and Uhde strengthen both the technical capability and financing ability of the project. Uhde, as the prime EPC contractor, has the responsibility to develop a LSTK (lump sum turnkey) engineering design package for the EECP leading to the eventual detailed engineering, construction and operation of the proposed concept. Major technical activities during the reporting

  15. Effects of nonuniform Mach-number entrance on scramjet nozzle flowfield and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pu; Xu, Jinglei; Quan, Zhibin; Mo, Jianwei

    2016-12-01

    Considering the non-uniformities of nozzle entrance influenced by the upstream, the effects of nonuniform Mach-number coupled with shock and expansion-wave on the flowfield and performances of single expansion ramp nozzle (SERN) are numerically studied using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The adopted Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methodology is validated by comparing the numerical results with the cold experimental data, and the average method used in this paper is discussed. Uniform and nonuniform facility nozzles are designed to generate different Mach-number profile for the inlet of SERN, which is direct-connected with different facility nozzle, and the whole flowfield is simulated. Because of the coupling of shock and expansion-wave, flow direction of nonuniform SERN entrance is distorted. Compared with Mach contour of uniform case, the line is more curved for coupling shock-wave entrance (SWE) case, and flatter for the coupling expansion-wave entrance (EWE) case. Wall pressure distribution of SWE case appears rising region, whereas decreases like stairs of EWE case. The numerical results reveal that the coupled shock and expansion-wave play significant roles on nozzle performances. Compared with the SERN performances of uniform entrance case at the same work conditions, the thrust of nonuniform entrance cases reduces by 3-6%, pitch moment decreases by 2.5-7%. The negative lift presents an incremental trend with EWE while the situation is the opposite with SWE. These results confirm that considering the entrance flow parameter nonuniformities of a scramjet nozzle coupled with shock or expansion-wave from the upstream is necessary.

  16. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT-DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-07-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from April 1, 2002 through June 30, 2002.

  17. Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building Materials Sub-council of CCPIT is the other sub-council in construction field. CCPIT Building Materials Sub-council (CCPITBM), as well as CCOIC Build-ing Materials Chamber of Commerce, is au-thorized by CCPIT and state administration of building materials industry in 1992. CCPITBM is a sub-organization of CCPIT and CCOIC.

  18. Squeezing at entrance of proton transport pathway in proton-translocating pyrophosphatase upon substrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Tzu; Liu, Tseng-Huang; Lin, Shih-Ming; Chen, Yen-Wei; Pan, Yih-Jiuan; Lee, Ching-Hung; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Pan, Rong-Long

    2013-07-05

    Homodimeric proton-translocating pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase; EC 3.6.1.1) is indispensable for many organisms in maintaining organellar pH homeostasis. This unique proton pump couples the hydrolysis of PPi to proton translocation across the membrane. H(+)-PPase consists of 14-16 relatively hydrophobic transmembrane domains presumably for proton translocation and hydrophilic loops primarily embedding a catalytic site. Several highly conserved polar residues located at or near the entrance of the transport pathway in H(+)-PPase are essential for proton pumping activity. In this investigation single molecule FRET was employed to dissect the action at the pathway entrance in homodimeric Clostridium tetani H(+)-PPase upon ligand binding. The presence of the substrate analog, imidodiphosphate mediated two sites at the pathway entrance moving toward each other. Moreover, single molecule FRET analyses after the mutation at the first proton-carrying residue (Arg-169) demonstrated that conformational changes at the entrance are conceivably essential for the initial step of H(+)-PPase proton translocation. A working model is accordingly proposed to illustrate the squeeze at the entrance of the transport pathway in H(+)-PPase upon substrate binding.

  19. Entrance channel effect with stable and radioactive beams using dynamical cluster decay model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Raj, E-mail: rajkumarfzr@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei” and INFN, University of Padova, Padova-35131 (Italy); Jain, Deepika [School of Physics and Material Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India)

    2014-09-15

    The decay of hot and rotating {sup 172}Yb*, formed in two entrance channels {sup 124}Sn + {sup 48}Ca and {sup 132}Sn + {sup 40}Ca, is studied using the dynamical cluster-decay model. The effect of entrance channel, deformations (up to β{sub 2}), barrier modification and fusion enhancement are addressed. The decay pattern of compound system, formed in different channels at comparable energy around the barrier, shows change in magnitude with structure remains almost same. There is an increase in the fusion probability with decrease in barrier modification, which leads to fusion enhancement at low energies. The higher ℓ values are contributing for {sup 132}Sn + {sup 40}Ca channel at lower energies as compare to {sup 124}Sn + {sup 48}Ca. It is inferred that with the use of stable and radioactive beam, forming same compound nucleus, the entrance channel dependence changes with the excitation energy.

  20. Effects of Magnetic Particles Entrance Arrange-ments on Mixing Efficiency of a Magnetic Bead Micromixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Kamali∗; Seyed Alireza Shekoohi; Alireza Binesh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a computer code is developed to numerically investigate a magnetic bead micromixer under different conditions. The micromixer consists of a microchannel and numerous micro magnetic particles which enter the micromixer by fluid flows and are actuated by an alternating magnetic field normal to the main flow. An important feature of micromixer which is not considered before by researchers is the particle entrance arrangement into the micromixer. This parameter could effectively affect the micromixer efficiency. There are two general micro magnetic particle entrance arrangements in magnetic bead micromixers: determined position entrance and random position entrance. In the case of determined position entrances, micro magnetic particles enter the micromixer at specific positions of entrance cross section. However, in a random position entrance, particles enter the microchannel with no order. In this study mixing efficiencies of identical magnetic bead micromixers which only differ in particle entrance arrangement are numerically investigated and compared. The results reported in this paper illustrate that the prepared computer code can be one of the most powerful and beneficial tools for the magnetic bead micromixer performance analysis. In addition, the results show that some features of the magnetic bead micromixer are strongly affected by the entrance arrangement of the particles.

  1. Investigating the Association between Turkish Freshman's Multiple Intelligence Profiles and University Entrance Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atas, Sait; Erisen, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Even though curriculum designers in Turkey considered Gardner's multiple intelligence theory as one of the most important theories during the curricula reform in 2005, the university entrance examination system is still on the basis of the two intelligence areas only, mathematical-logical and linguistics intelligence. The aim of this study was to…

  2. Gender Bias and Caste Exclusion in Engineering Admission: Inferences from the Engineering Entrance Examination in Kerala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasenan, D.

    2014-01-01

    The major problem of the engineering entrance examination is the exclusion of certain sections of the society in social, economic, regional and gender dimensions. This has seldom been taken for analysis towards policy correction. To lessen this problem a minor policy shift was prepared in the year 2011 with a 50-50 proportion in academic marks and…

  3. Sleep Patterns and Academic Performance during Preparation for College Entrance Exam in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghai; Ren, Fen; Liu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangxing; Jiang, Fan; Skora, Elizabeth; Lewin, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deficient sleep is linked to detrimental outcomes in health and school performance for adolescents. This study characterized sleep patterns in Chinese adolescents preparing for the College Entrance Exam (CEE) and evaluated the association between sleep patterns, self-rated academic performance, and the CEE scores. Methods: A sample of…

  4. Yersinia ruckeri infection of rainbow trout: entrance portals and spread in the host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, S.; Khimmakthong, U.; Chettri, J. K.;

    2013-01-01

    The portal of entrance of either formalin inactivated or live Yersinia ruckeri organism in rainbow trout fish was studied by applying immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization. The sequential study involved a specific monoclonal antibody and a specific oligonucleotide probe binding to Yersinia...

  5. 33 CFR 334.390 - Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 Atlantic Ocean south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A section... four (4) nautical miles. (3) Firing on the ranges will be suspended as long as any vessel is within...

  6. Search for entrance-channel dependence in the population of superdeformed bands in {sup 191}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soramel, F.; Khoo, T.L.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The population intensity of some SD bands in the mass 150 region were observed to depend on the mass symmetry of the entrance channel in the fusion reaction. The authors raised the possibility that the population of SD bands had a memory of the entrance channel. To check this interesting possibility, we made measurements of the population intensities of superdeformed (SD) bands in the {sup 160}Gd({sup 36}S,5n){sup 191}Hg and {sup 130}Te({sup 64}Ni,3n){sup 191}Hg reactions. To ensure that any observed effect was not due to a simple angular momentum difference in the entrance channels, we also measured the average entry points and spin distributions of normal and SD states in {sup 191}Hg in the two reactions. The entry points and spin distributions for {sup 191}Hg are the same and, indeed, so are the SD intensities in the two reactions. Hence, no entrance-channel effect is observed in the population of the SD band in {sup 191}Hg, in contrast with data for SD bands in the mass 150 regions. We suggest that the effect observed previously in the mass 150 region is due to an angular momentum effect. A letter reporting our results was submitted for publication.

  7. The Entrance and Exit Effects in Small Electrochemical Filter-Press Reactors Used in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Ferrer, Angel; Gonzalez-Garcia, Jose; Saez, Veronica; Exposito, Eduardo; Sanchez-Sanchez, Carlos M.; Mantiel, Vicente; Walsh, Frank C.; Aldaz, Antonio; Walsh, Frank C.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed to examine the entrance and exit effects in small electrochemical filter-press reactors used in the laboratory is presented. The single compartment of the filter-press reactor is filled with different turbulence promoters to study their influence as compared to the empty configuration.

  8. Toward Implementing Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Assessment in the Official Spanish University Entrance Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Ana Gimeno; Pavón, Ana Sevilla

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 the Spanish Government announced the inclusion of an oral section in the foreign language exam of the National University Entrance Examination during the year 2012 (Royal Decree 1892/2008, of 14 November 2008, Ministerio de Educación, Gobierno de España, 2008). Still awaiting the implementation of these changes, and in an attempt to offer…

  9. Entrance Exam Admission Policies on Ethnic Minorities and Equal Educational Rights for Minorities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei, Lang

    2010-01-01

    In 1977, the Chinese government reinstated the national unified college entrance exam enrollment system. As a part of this system, the government also implemented preferential policies on the enrollment of minorities that authorized the increase or decrease of exam scores and enrollment cutoff points; the policies were therefore seen as…

  10. Family Background and Students' Achievement on a University Entrance Exam in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Juliana; Sampaio, Breno

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of students' performance on the entrance test at Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil. Particular attention is paid to the importance of family background variables, such as parents' education and family income, on students' performance and how they relate to the probability of attending public schools…

  11. Spanish Pre-University Students' Use of English: CEA Results from the University Entrance Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Bedmar, Maria Belen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an updated overview of the main errors that Spanish students make when writing the English exam in the University Entrance Examination is provided. To do so, a Computer-aided Error Analysis (CEA) (Dagneaux, Denness & Granger, 1998) was conducted on a representative sample of the students who took the exam in June 2008 in Jaen,…

  12. Entrance Qualifications Affect the Performance of Nutrition Students at University: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Apenten, Richard; Xu, Wen Li

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of admissions qualifications on the subsequent academic performances of BSc nutrition students at a UK university. Entrance qualifications for three groups (Grp01, Grp02, Grp03) reading for a BSc(Hons) degree in, Dietetics, Food & Nutrition or Human Nutrition (n = 105) were determined from their UCAS (Universities…

  13. Effect of University Entrance Exam on Gifted High School Students’ Motivation Scrutinized: An Iranian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Passing University Entrance Exams (UEE successfully has long been a major concern for Iranian high school students. High Schools for the Gifted admit highly intelligent and hardworking students, who reportedly form a remarkable proportion of students admitted in best universities of Iran, through hard entrance exams. This study aimed to investigate attitudes of students educating in High Schools for the Gifted towards learning English, their dominant motivation type (instrumental or integrative, and the likely effect Iranian University Entrance Exam has on their motivation.  For the purpose of this investigation, 166 male and female participants educating in the four grades of high school were selected through Stratified Random Sampling Method from both boys’ and girls’ High Schools for the Gifted. A 26-item questioner previously developed by the researchers, investigating the participants’ attitudes towards English learning, their dominant motivation type, and the likely effect of Iranian UEE on their motivation was administered to them. Descriptive statistics and the analysis of variance were used to analyze the data, and the results revealed that all participants educating in the four grades of high school showed positive attitudes towards English learning, and that 1st and 2nd grade subjects were both instrumentally and integratively motivated, whereas 3rd and 4th graders were instrumentally motivated. The degree of subjects’ concern about the Iranian UEE significantly affected their motivational orientations and prioritization.Keywords: Motivation, Interest, Instrumental, Integrative, University Entrance Exam, Gifted Students

  14. Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group of…

  15. Predicting Success Using HESI A2 Entrance Tests in an Associate Degree Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodman, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A challenge presented to nurse educators is retention of nursing students. This has led nursing faculty to review admission requirements and question how well entrance tests predict success in Associate Degree Nursing Programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the HESI Admission Assessment Exam (HESI A2) and…

  16. Learning beyond graduation: exploring newly qualified specialists' entrance into daily practice from a learning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyvers, Katrien; Donche, Vincent; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2016-05-01

    The entrance of newly qualified medical specialists into daily practice is considered to be a stressful period in which curriculum support is absent. Although engaging in both personal and professional learning and development activities is recognized fundamental for lifelong professional competence, research on medical professionals' entrance into practice is scarce. This research aims to contribute to the framework of medical professionals' informal learning and outlines the results of an exploratory study on the nature of learning in daily practice beyond postgraduate training. Eleven newly qualified physicians from different specialized backgrounds participated in a phenomenographic study, using a critical incident method and a grounded theory approach. Results demonstrated that learning in the workplace is, to a large extent, informal and associated with a variety of learning experiences. Analysis shows that experiences related to diagnostics and treatments are important sources for learning. Furthermore, incidents related to communication, changing roles, policy and organization offer learning opportunities, and therefore categorized as learning experiences. A broad range of learning activities are identified in dealing with these learning experiences. More specifically, actively engaging in actions and interactions, especially with colleagues of the same specialty, are the most mentioned. Observing others, consulting written sources, and recognizing uncertainties, are also referred to as learning activities. In the study, interaction, solely or combined with other learning activities, are deemed as very important by specialists in the initial entrance into practice. These insights can be used to develop workplace structures to support the entrance into practice following postgraduate training.

  17. Historical Analysis of the Policy on the College Entrance System in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Jun; Park, Ji-Hye

    2013-01-01

    The national college admission system has quite frequently been altered in South Korea since Korea was liberated from Japanese colonial rule in 1945. Nonetheless, there are still many ways in which the national college entrance system can be improved. This article initially analysed and synthesized the issues associated with the Korean college…

  18. Personal Well-Being of Gifted Students Following Participation in an Early College-Entrance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boazman, Janette; Sayler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this study, life satisfaction and its correlates were explored through analysis of the experiences and psychological traits of highly gifted students who were accelerated into an early college-entrance program. Happiness, fulfillment in life, assuredness, and good dispositions are constructs that point toward positive character development and…

  19. Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Klemke, Roland; Westera, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P., Klemke, R., & Westera, W. (2011). Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools. In D. Gouscos, & M. Meimaris (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Games Based Learning (pp. 613-619), Athens, Greece. 20-21 October 2011.

  20. The MLA Survey of Postsecondary Entrance and Degree Requirements for Languages Other Than English, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusin, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Since 1953, the MLA has conducted a survey of entrance and degree requirements for languages other than English. The surveys reveal trends over time and show how colleges and universities in the United States have added, dropped, or changed their requirements. Entrance and degree requirements are one measure of the value that an institution…

  1. Comparative Analysis of Water Quality between the Runoff Entrance and Middle of Recycling Irrigation Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recycling irrigation reservoirs (RIRs are an emerging aquatic ecosystem of critical importance, for conserving and protecting increasingly scarce water resources. Here, we compare water quality between runoff entrance and middle of four RIRs in nurseries in Virginia (VA and Maryland (MD. Surface water temperature (T and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP were lower in the middle than at the entrance, while the trend was opposite for dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and chlorophyll a (Chla. The magnitude of these differences between the entrance and middle decreased with increasing depth. These differences were magnified by water stratification from April to October. Minimum differences were observed for electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS and turbidity (TUR. Cluster analyses were performed on water quality difference data to evaluate whether the differences vary with respect to reservoirs. Two clusters were formed with one consisting primarily of VA reservoirs, and the other consisting mostly of MD reservoirs in both years. Water quality in the middle and at the entrance of RIRs was expected to vary greatly because of runoff inflow. The two-point water quality differences observed here, although statistically significant, are not large enough to cause significant impact on crop health and productivity for most water quality parameters except pH. Additional analysis of outlet data shows that the range and magnitude of water quality difference between the middle and the outlet are comparable to those between the middle and entrance of RIRs. These results indicate that monitoring at a single point is sufficient to obtain reliable water quality estimates for most water quality parameters in RIRs except pH. This is important when considering the cost of labor and equipment necessary for documenting water quality in agricultural production systems. However, additional pH measurements are still necessary to make practical water quality

  2. A unified free-form representation applied to the shape optimization of the hohlraum with octahedral 6 laser entrance holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang, Yunbao, E-mail: Huangyblhy@gmail.com, E-mail: scmyking-2008@163.com; Li, Haiyan [Key Laboratory of Computer Integrated Manufacturing System, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Jing, Longfei, E-mail: Huangyblhy@gmail.com, E-mail: scmyking-2008@163.com; Huang, Tianxuan [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The hohlraum is very crucial for indirect laser driven Inertial Confinement Fusion. Usually, its shape is designed as sphere, cylinder, or rugby with some kind of fixed functions, such as ellipse or parabola. Recently, a spherical hohlraum with octahedral 6 laser entrance holes (LEHs) has been presented with high flux symmetry [Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 010704 (2014); 21, 052704 (2014)]. However, there is only one shape parameter, i.e., the hohlraum to capsule radius ratio, being optimized. In this paper, we build the hohlraum with octahedral 6LEHs with a unified free-form representation, in which, by varying additional shape parameters: (1) available hohlraum shapes can be uniformly and accurately represented, (2) it can be used to understand why the spherical hohlraum has higher flux symmetry, (3) it allows us to obtain a feasible shape design field satisfying flux symmetry constraints, and (4) a synthetically optimized hohlraum can be obtained with a tradeoff of flux symmetry and other hohlraum performance. Finally, the hohlraum with octahedral 6LEHs is modeled, analyzed, and then optimized based on the unified free-form representation. The results show that a feasible shape design field with flux asymmetry no more than 1% can be obtained, and over the feasible design field, the spherical hohlraum is validated to have the highest flux symmetry, and a synthetically optimal hohlraum can be found with closing flux symmetry but larger volume between laser spots and centrally located capsule.

  3. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  4. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  5. Estimation of suspended sediment flux from acoustic Doppler current profiling along the Jinhae Bay entrance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yaping; CHU Yong Shik; LEE Hee Jun; HAN Choong Keun; OH Byung Chul

    2005-01-01

    A Nortek acoustic Doppler current profiler (NDP) was installed on a moving vessel to survey the entrance to the Jinhae Bay on August 22~23, 2001. The current velocity and acoustic backscattering signal were collected along two cross-sections; water samples were also collected during the measurement. The acoustic signals were normalized to compensate for the loss incurred by acoustic beam spreading in the seawater. The in situ calibration shows that a significant relationship is present between suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) and normalized acoustic signals. Two acoustic parameters have been determined to construct an acoustic-concentration model.Using this derived model, the SSC patterns along the surveyed cross-sections were obtained by the conversion of acoustic data. Using the current velocity and SSC data, the flux of suspended sediment was estimated. It indicates that the sediment transport into the bay through the entrance has an order of magnitude of 100 t per tidal cycle.

  6. Exploring social patterns of participation in university-entrance level mathematics in England

    OpenAIRE

    Noyes, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    In recent years in England there has been considerable attention given to a range of apparent crises in mathematics education, one of which has been the long term decline of participation in university-entrance level (Advanced or A) mathematics. Given the negative impact upon mathematics participation of Curriculum 2000, together with the government’s emphasis on Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) subjects, the political intent to increase participation in Advanced level m...

  7. The Entrance Effect on Gases Flow Characteristics in Micro-tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengwen Li; Li Jia; Tiantian Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Entrance region may have important effect on gases flow characteristics in micro-channels. It's concluded in the available papers that the entrance effect causes significant difference. An experimental system of single-phase gas flow characteristics in microchannels was set up. Flow characteristics of nitrogen in PEEK polymer micro-tube (hydraulic diameter is 5531am) was studied experimentally. According to the data of nitrogen flow in the mi-cro-tube with the length ranging from 0.1m tol.524m, it is shown that the friction constant becomes higher when the tube becomes shorter. By using pipe cutting methods, it's confirmed that entrance effect is one of the key fac-tors that cause friction constant higher than conventional theory. It's found that friction constant of fully devel-oped flow is lower than the value predicted by conventional theory in turbulent region. The result indicates that the flow transition occurs at Reynolds number ranging from 1600-2000. The phenomenon of obvious early transi-tion is not found.

  8. SIMULATION OF THE PROCESS OF FLOW SEPARATION AT THE ENTRANCE OF SQUARE ASPIRATING PORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Averkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the flow at the inlet to the suction square hole with sharp edges, which is located in an infinite space. The purpose of this study is to construct a mathematical model of flow separation at the entrance to square suction canal with sharp edges, located in infinite space, by using square vortex frameworks. As a part of ideology of the method of discrete vortices in the non-stationary quasi-axisymmetric formulation, we constructed the mathematical model of separated flow at the inlet to the square aspirating pipe and its software-algorithmic implementation. We have determined the velocity field at the entrance to suction channel and a line of flow separation. Determine the velocity field in typical cross-sections of the suction channel, dimensions of the efficient absorption, compression ratio of the jet. Were received analytical formulas for calculating separation surfaces current. Profiling the entrance opening of the suction hole detected on the outlines separation surface will improve the acoustic and aerodynamic properties of the exhaust systems. The obtained results can be useful for designing of local exhaust ventilation of reduced energy consumption.

  9. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  10. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  11. Pressure drop measurements in the transition region for a circular tube with a square-edged entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghajar, Afshin J.; Augustine, Jody R.

    1990-06-01

    Pressure drop measurements were made in a horizontal circular straight tube with a square-edged entrance under isothermal flow conditions. The experiments covered a Reynolds number range from 512 to 14,970. A total of thirty-three sets of experimental data for the twenty pressure tap locations along the 20 ft length of the test section were gathered. For the square-edged entrance the range of Reynolds number for which transition flow exists was determined to be between 2070 to 2840. A correlation for prediction of fully developed skin friction coefficient in this region is recommended. In the entrance region the length required for the friction factor to become fully developed in both the laminar and turbulent regions was found to be inversely proportional to the Reynolds number, with the turbulent data showing a stronger dependency. A correlation for prediction of entrance length in the turbulent region is offered.

  12. The United States Military Entrance Processing Command (USMEPCOM) Uses Six Sigma Process to Develop and Improve Data Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    mecpom.army.mil Original title on 712 A/B: The United States Military Entrance Processing Command (USMEPCOM) uses Six Sigma process to develop and...Entrance Processing Command (USMEPCOM) uses Six Sigma Process to Develop and Improve Data Quality 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Processing Command (USMEPCOM) uses Six Sigma Process to Develop and Improve Data Quality 3 • USMEPCOM Overview/History • Purpose • Define: What is Important

  13. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Manually Coded English (MCE) Natural Gestures Speech Speech Reading (Lip Reading) Even though American Sign Language (ASL) is not a building block, it is sometimes used together with one or more building blocks. Close Information For... Media Policy Makers File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  14. Preliminary Tests of Nose- and Side- Entrance Blower Cooling Systems for Radial Engines, Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, David; Valentine, E. Floyd

    1939-01-01

    Two cowling systems intended to reduce the drag and improve the low-speed cooling characteristics of conventional radial engine cowlings were tested in model form to determine the practicability of the methods. One cowling included a blower mounted on the rear face of a large propeller spinner which drew cooling air in through side entrance ducts located behind the equivalent engine orifice plate. The air was passed through the equivalent engine orifice plate from rear to front and out through a slot between the spinner and the engine plate. The blower produced substantially all the power necessary to circulate the cooling air in some cases, so the quantity of air flowing was independent of the air speed, Two types of blowers were used, a centrifugal type and one using airfoil blades which forced the air outward from the center of rotation. The other cowling was similar to the conventional N.A.C.A. cowling except for the addition of a large propeller spinner nose. The spinner was provided with a hole in the nose to admit cooling air and blower blades to increase the pressure for cooling at low speeds. The tests show that with both cowling types the basic drag of the nacelle was reduced substantially below that for the N.A.C.A. cowling by virtue of the better nose shape made possible by the spinner . The drag due to the side-entrance ducts was nearly zero when the openings were closed or when the blower was drawing in a certain quantity of air in proportion to the air speed. The drag increased, however, when air mas allowed to spill from the openings. The nose-entrance blower showed considerable promise as a cooling means although the blower tested was relatively inefficient, owing to the fact that the blower compartments evidently were expanded too rapidly under the conditions imposed. by the design.

  15. Empirical models for liquid metal heat transfer in the entrance region of tubes and rod bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Wadim

    2016-10-01

    Experiments focusing on liquid metals heat transfer in pipes and rod bundles with thermally and hydraulically developing flow are reviewed. Empirical heat transfer correlations are developed for engineering applications. In the developing regions the heat transfer is in-stationary. The heat transfer at the entrance is around 100 % higher due to the developing process including the lateral exchange of energy and momentum than for developed flow. Developing flow is not physically considered in the framework of system codes, which are used for thermal-hydraulic analysis of power and process plants with a multitude of components like pipes, tanks, valves and heat exchangers. Therefore, the application to liquid metal flows is limited to developed flow, which is independent of the distance from the flow entrance. The heat transfer enhancement in developing flows is important for the optimization of components like heat exchangers and helps to reduce unnecessary conservatism. In this work, empirical models are developed to account for developing flows in pipes and rod bundles. A literature review is performed to collect available experimental data for developing flow in liquid metal heat transfer. The evaluation shows that the length for pure thermally developing pipe flow is much larger (20-30 hydraulic diameters) than for combined thermally and hydraulically developing flow (10-15 hydraulic diameters). In rod bundles, fully combined developed flow is established after 30-40 hydraulic diameters downstream of the entrance. The derived empirical models for the heat transfer enhancement in the developing regions are implemented into a best estimate system code. The validation of these models by means of post-test analyses of 16 experiments shows that they are very well able to represent the heat transfer in developing regions.

  16. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Rich

    2003-06-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from January 1, 2003 through March 31, 2003. Phase I Task 6 activities of Preliminary Site Analysis were documented and reported as a separate Topical Report on February 2003. Most of the other technical activities were on hold pending on DOE's announcement of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) awards. WMPI was awarded one of the CCPI projects in late January 2003 to engineer, construct and operate a first-of-kind gasification/liquefaction facility in the U.S. as a continued effort for the current WMPI EECP engineering feasibility study. Since then, project technical activities were focused on: (1

  17. L1 Writing Experiences and L2 Writing Instruction : University Entrance Exams in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Paul; Paul, ROSS

    2005-01-01

    This poper examines an L1 learning experience shared by many EFL students in Japan: writing an essay in Japanese on university entrance exams. The main purpose is to identify the features of the experience that L2 writing teachers need to address in their classrooms. The major issues that are investigated are 1) what kind of writing students are expected to do on the exams, 2) what the purpose of the essay question is, and 3) what kind of training students receive to improve their writing ski...

  18. Researches on evaluation of smooth entrance in cutting using electrical current. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diţu Valentin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At metal drilling, at the beginning of the process, the cutting tool in the chisel edge zone, frictions and plastically deforms the material, and then enters in cutting. If the drill is entered smoothly in cutting with a special device, its life is increased. The paper presents how the electrical current at cutting is used for the evaluation of smooth entrance in cutting in comparison with classical cutting. These are demonstrated for 41MoC11 steel drilled with a set of 30 tools having 8 mm diameter.

  19. Researches on evaluation of smooth entrance in cutting using electrical current. A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Diţu Valentin; Oancea Gheorghe; Daicu Raluca

    2017-01-01

    At metal drilling, at the beginning of the process, the cutting tool in the chisel edge zone, frictions and plastically deforms the material, and then enters in cutting. If the drill is entered smoothly in cutting with a special device, its life is increased. The paper presents how the electrical current at cutting is used for the evaluation of smooth entrance in cutting in comparison with classical cutting. These are demonstrated for 41MoC11 steel drilled with a set of 30 tools having 8 mm d...

  20. Building Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow

    2009-01-01

    The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion proje

  1. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings....

  2. Our Buildings, Ourselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodman, David Malin; Lenssen, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    Reviews in detail environmental impacts associated with buildings. Discusses building construction, internal environments, building life spans, building materials, protection from climate, and amenities. (LZ)

  3. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 interferes with gliadin peptides entrance in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Marco; Lania, Giuliana; Cuomo, Marialaura; Nigro, Federica; Passannanti, Francesca; Budelli, Andrea; Fasano, Francesca; Troncone, Riccardo; Auricchio, Salvatore; Barone, Maria Vittoria; Nigro, Roberto; Nanayakkara, Merlin

    2014-12-01

    Several recent reports describe a role of probiotics as a therapeutic approach for celiac disease (CD). Two undigested A-gliadin peptides, P31-43 and P57-68, are central to CD pathogenesis, inducing an innate and an adaptive immune response, respectively. They enter enterocytes and localize to vesicular compartment to induce their toxic/immunogenics effects. In this article, we tested the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei (LP) CBA L74 (International Depository Accession Number LMG P-24778), its supernatant and LP-fermented cereals on gliadin peptides, P31-43 and P57-68, entrance in Caco-2 cells. Both LP CBA L74 and its supernatant inhibit P31-43 (intensity of fluorescence; FI: 75%) and P57-68 (FI: 50%) entrance in Caco2 cells, indicating that this biological effect is due to some product included in LP CBA L74 supernatant. This effect was present also after fermentation of cereals. This study describes a novel effect of probiotics in the prevention of undigested gliadin peptides toxic effects.

  4. Effects of Wavy Channel Entrance Design on Streamwise Counter-rotating Vortices: a Visualization Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Christantho Budiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different channel entrance designs, code named Valley First (VF and Peak First (PF, were experimentally visualized by means of smoke-wire visualization technique to observe their effects towards the streamwise counter-rotating vortices generated. The spanwise wavelength of the vortices was pre-set by modifying the leading edge. The investigation was carried out on the laminar boundary-layer flow in a rectangular channel with one-sided wavy surface that has amplitude a and wavelength λ of 7.5 mm and 76 mm, respectively. The vortices in the channel with VF design preserve farther downstream than those on the PF design, which might be caused by the large favorable pressure gradient between the entrance flat plate and the first peak location. The counter-rotating vortices could still be observed at non-dimensionalized streamwise distance χ (= x/λ = 2.47 for Reynolds number Re (= UH/ν = 9900 in channel with VF design. For lower Re, the vortices could preserve further downstream. In contrast, in channel with PF design, the structures were only visible clearly up to approximately χ = 1.32 for Re = 4700 and χ = 0.39 for Re = 5200.

  5. In Rio de Janeiro public entrance areas disappeared behind railings out of fear of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Friedrich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for safety leads to an increasing fencing of entrance areas and to a structural spatial segregation in Rio de Janeiro. Today’s passerby moves along high grids instead of walking on lavishly planted ways along noble entrance areas. In the scale of urban development the stronger variant of spatial demarcation is taking place. Gated communities arise as a total spatial exclusion, in a safe distance to existing favelas and disposing of abundant safety equipment.Precisely because the need for safety is important in dwelling, both trends are problematic from the urban perspective. The increasing fencing and demarcating destroys pleasant urban atmospheres and fosters the spreading of mono-functional resp. mono-social areas. However, trust and a peaceful togetherness are required for a socially and functionally mixed and spatially diversified public space. But these conditions can only be realised in the context of the entire society.

  6. Skin tears away from the entrance wound in gunshots to the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller-Marquardt, M; Pollak, S

    2002-10-01

    The present investigation covers 116 contact shots to the head and shots into the mouth from the Freiburg forensic autopsy material including 20 gunshot wounds which showed stretchmark-like tears of the facial skin away from the entrance wound. In these cases the gunshot entrance wounds were localised either in the mouth, the forehead, or the submental region. The stretchmark-like tears were found in the region of the eyes and the nasolabial folds. Radial tears were seen on the lips and in the vicinity of the corners of the mouth, particularly in cases involving shots into the mouth. The stretchmark-like tears essentially followed the skin tension lines and the expression-related lines of the face. They were apparently caused by the subcutaneous or intraoral expansion of the muzzle gases and/or the radial forces of the bullet resulting in ballooning and overextension of the facial soft tissues. The weapons used were not only rifles and shotguns, but also revolvers and pistols.

  7. Influence of thermoluminescent dosimeters energy dependence on the measurement of entrance skin dose in radiographic procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mercia Liane de; Galindo, Renata Sales; Hazin, Clovis Abrahao, E-mail: mercial@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN/NE-CNEN/PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Maia, Ana Figueiredo [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nascimento, Natalia Cassia do Espirito Santo; Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: this study was aimed at evaluating the influence of the energy dependence of thermoluminescent materials on the determination of entrance skin dose in patients submitted to conventional radiographic studies (general radiology, mammography and dental radiology). Materials and methods: three different thermoluminescent materials were utilized: LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and CaSO{sub 4}:Dy. These materials were exposed to standardized sources of X and gamma radiation and clinical X-ray beams. Results: calibration and energy dependence curves were obtained. All the materials showed a linear response as a function of the air kerma. As far as energy dependence is concerned, the CaSO{sub 4}:Dy and LiF:Mg,Ti samples showed the greatest variation on thermoluminescent responses as a function of the effective radiation beam. Conclusion: the tested materials showed an appropriate performance for detecting X radiation on standard and clinical X-ray beams. Although CaSO{sub 4}:Dy and LiF:Mg,Ti samples present a significant energy dependence in the considered energy range, these materials can be utilized for measuring entrance skin doses, provided appropriate correction factors are applied (author)

  8. Studies on wind environment around high buildings in urban areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Huizhi; JIANG; Yujun; LIANG; Bin; ZHU; Fengrong; ZHAN

    2005-01-01

    High buildings or architectural complex in urban areas remarkably distort the urban surface wind fields. As the air flow approaches,local strong wind may appear around the buildings. The strong wind makes the pedestrians on sidewalks, entrances and terrace very uncomfortable and causes the pedestrian level wind environment problem. In this studies, hot-wire wind measurement, wind scouring in wind tunnel and numerical computation were carried out to evaluate the wind environment of tall buildings in the prevailing flow conditions in Beijing areas. The results obtained by three techniques were compared and mutually verified. The conclusions drawn from three approaches agree with each other. Also the advantages and limitations of each method were analyzed. It is suggested that the combination of different techniques may produce better assessment of wind environment around high buildings.

  9. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  10. Entrance-channel Mass-asymmetry Dependence of Compound-nucleus Formation Time in Light Heavy-ion Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Szanto de Toledo, A; Beck, C; Thoennessen, M

    1996-01-01

    The entrance-channel mass-asymmetry dependence of the compound nucleus formation time in light heavy-ion reactions has been investigated within the framework of semiclassical dissipative collision models. the model calculations have been succesfully applied to the formation of the $^{38}$Ar compound nucleus as populated via the $^{9}$Be+$^{29}$Si, $^{11}$B+$^{27}$Al, $^{12}$C+$^{26}$Mg and $^{19}$F+$^{19}$F entrance channels. The shape evolution of several other light composite systems appears to be consistent with the so-called "Fusion Inhibition Factor" which has been experimentally observed. As found previously in more massive systems for the fusion-evaporation process, the entrance-channel mass-asymmetry degree of freedom appears to determine the competition between the different mechanisms as well as the time scales involved.

  11. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which......, which gives the book a challenging contribution to the existing body of knowledge....

  12. Building Sandcastles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø; Korsgaard, Steffen; Shumar, Wes

    of entrepreneurship education. Our theoretical and methodological approach builds on Actor-Network Theory. The empirical settings of our study consist of two entrepreneurship courses which differ in terms of temporal extension and physical setting. Data is collected using observation and interview techniques. Our...

  13. Building Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, Mary J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Defines school-business partnerships and reviews changes in such partnerships over the past 25 years. Provides steps to building effective partnerships for school-to-work activities: review the school's mission; select partners that will bring strength to the relationship; set clearly defined, realistic goals; maintain the partnership; and…

  14. Entrance Channel Stereospecificity of Photoinitiated H-Atom Reactions in Weakly Bonded Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Koo; Chen, Y.; Oh, D.; Wittig, C.

    1990-08-01

    Hot H-atom reactions photoinitiated in T-shaped CO2-HBr and nearly-linear CO2-HCl complexes show remarkably different reaction probabilities. Broadside H-atom approaches in CO2-HBr complexes are greatly favoured over the relatively endon approaches of CO2-HCl complexes, a striking steric effect. Photoinitiated hot H-atom reactions with N2O result in a much lower [NH]/[OH] ratio with N2O-HI complexes than under single-collision conditions at the same photolysis wavelength. In addition, OH rotational distributions differ markedly between bulk and complexed conditions, while NH rotational distributions are similar. These results can be interpreted in terms of entrance channel stereospecificity influencing chemically distinct product channels.

  15. Integral throat entrance development, qualification and production for the Antares 3 nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, F. I.; Dirling, R. B.; Eitman, D. A.; Loomis, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    Although design analyses of a G-90 graphite integral throat entrance for the Antares 3 solid rocket motor nozzle indicated acceptable margins of safety, the nozzle throat insert suffered a thermostructural failure during the first development firing. Subsequent re-analysis using properties measured on material from the same billet as the nozzle throat insert showed negative margins. Carbon-carbon was investigated and found to result in large positive margins of safety. The G-90 graphite was replaced by SAI fast processed 4-D material which uses Hercules HM 10000 fiber as the reinforcement. Its construction allows powder filling of the interstices after preform fabrication which accelerates the densification process. Allied 15V coal tar pitch is then used to complete densification. The properties were extensively characterized on this material and six nozzles were subjected to demonstration, development and qualification firings.

  16. Washback Effect of University Entrance exams in Applied Mathematics to Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Patricia; Mier, Verónica; Alonso, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Curricular issues of subject Applied Mathematics to Social Sciences are studied in relation to university entrance exams performed in several Spanish regions between 2009–2014. By using quantitative and qualitative analyses, it has been studied how these exams align with curriculum and how they produce a washback on curriculum and teachers’ work. Additionally, one questionnaire about teachers’ practices has been performed, in order to find out how the exams are influencing teaching methodology development. Main results obtained show that evaluation is producing a bias on the official curriculum, substantially simplifying the specific orientation that should guide applied mathematics. Furthermore, teachers’ practices are influenced by the exams, and they usually approach their teaching methodology to the frequent types of exams. Also, slight differences among the teachers lead to distinguish two behavioral subgroups. Results can also be useful in an international context, because of the importance of standardized exit exams in OECD countries. PMID:27936103

  17. Images of the laser entrance hole from the static x-ray imager at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M B; Jones, O S; Meezan, N B; Milovich, J L; Town, R P; Alvarez, S S; Beeler, R G; Bradley, D K; Celeste, J R; Dixit, S N; Edwards, M J; Haugh, M J; Kalantar, D H; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Michel, P; Moody, J D; Oberhelman, S K; Piston, K W; Pivovaroff, M J; Suter, L J; Teruya, A T; Thomas, C A; Vernon, S P; Warrick, A L; Widmann, K; Wood, R D; Young, B K

    2010-10-01

    The static x-ray imager at the National Ignition Facility is a pinhole camera using a CCD detector to obtain images of Hohlraum wall x-ray drive illumination patterns seen through the laser entrance hole (LEH). Carefully chosen filters, combined with the CCD response, allow recording images in the x-ray range of 3-5 keV with 60 μm spatial resolution. The routines used to obtain the apparent size of the backlit LEH and the location and intensity of beam spots are discussed and compared to predictions. A new soft x-ray channel centered at 870 eV (near the x-ray peak of a 300 eV temperature ignition Hohlraum) is discussed.

  18. In-Tunnel Blast Pressure Empirical Formulas for Detonations External, Internal and at the Tunnel Entrance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiudi; ZHENG Yingren

    2006-01-01

    In order to define the loading on protective doors of an underground tunnel,the exact knowledge of the blast propagation through tunnels is needed.Thirty-three scale high-explosive tests are conducted to obtain in-tunnel blast pressure for detonations external,internal and at the tunnel entrance.The cross section of the concrete model tunnel is 0.67 m2.Explosive charges of TNT,ranging in mass from 400 g to 4 600 g,are detonated at various positions along the central axis of the model tunnel.Blast gages are flush-installed in the interior surface of the tunnel to record side-on blast pressure as it propagates down the tunnel.The engineering empirical formulas for predicting blast peak pressure are evaluated,and are found to be reasonably accurate for in-tunnel pressure prediction.

  19. Dose-area product and entrance surface dose in paediatric radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servomaa, A.; Komppa, T.; Parviainen, T.; Heikkilae, M. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    Dose-area products (DAP) in paediatric radiography were measured in four university hospitals in Finland. The entrance surface dose (ESD) was calculated from the measured DAP value for each radiographic projection. The purpose was to combine the results with other European studies for development of diagnostic reference levels for paediatric X-ray examinations. The study included 740 paediatric patients, and a total of 1500 single projections were recorded, including 660 projections from extremities. Results were compared with recommended best practices and diagnostic reference levels for ESD. Ratios of DAP to ESD were studied to estimate the levels of DAP corresponding to recommended ESD reference levels. It is desirable for practical purposes that diagnostic reference levels for radiographic projections are also expressed in terms of dose-area product. (orig.)

  20. Application of Variational Methods to the Thermal Entrance Region of Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. M.; Siegel. R.

    1960-01-01

    A variational method is presented for solving eigenvalue problems which arise in connection with the analysis of convective heat transfer in the thermal entrance region of ducts. Consideration is given, to both situations where the temperature profile depends upon one cross-sectional coordinate (e.g. circular tube) or upon two cross-sectional coordinates (e.g. rectangular duct). The variational method is illustrated and verified by application to laminar heat transfer in a circular tube and a parallel-plate channel, and good agreement with existing numerical solutions is attained. Then, application is made to laminar heat transfer in a square duct as a check, an alternate computation for the square duct is made using a method indicated by Misaps and Pohihausen. The variational method can, in principle, also be applied to problems in turbulent heat transfer.

  1. A numerical study of entrance region in a curved annulus with an inward and outward eccentricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.H. Nobari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, developing incompressible fluid flow in a curved annulus with inward and outward eccentricities is studied numerically. To do so, a second order finite difference method based on the projection algorithm is employed to solve the governing equations written in a general bipolar–toroidal coordinate system using a three-dimensional staggered uniform grid. The effects of the governing dimensionless parameters such as the Dean number, Reynolds number, curvature ratio, aspect ratio, and eccentricity on the flow field pattern and friction factor are studied in the entrance region. The numerical results obtained indicate that the outward eccentricity significantly deforms the secondary flows and axial velocity profiles. Furthermore, as the eccentricity increases, the friction factor decreases due to the reduction of secondary flow intensity.

  2. Measurement of entrance skin dose and estimation of organ dose during pediatric chest radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, M; Kumar, Rajesh; Biju, K; Choubey, Ajay; Kantharia, S

    2011-06-01

    Entrance skin dose (ESD) was measured to calculate the organ doses from the anteroposterior (AP) and posteroanterior (PA) chest x-ray projections for pediatric patients in an Indian hospital. High sensitivity tissue-equivalent thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD, LiF: Mg, Cu, P chips) were used for measuring entrance skin dose. The respective organ doses were calculated using the Monte Carlo method (MCNP 3.1) to simulate the examination set-up and a three-dimensional mathematical phantom for representing an average 5-y-old Indian child. Using this method, conversion coefficients were derived for translating the measured ESD to organ doses. The average measured ESDs for the chest AP and PA projections were 0.305 mGy and 0.171 mGy, respectively. The average calculated organ doses in the AP and the PA projections were 0.196 and 0.086 mSv for the thyroid, 0.167 and 0.045 mSv for the trachea, 0.078 and 0.043 mSv for the lungs, 0.110 and 0.013 mSv for the liver, 0.002 and 0.016 mSv for the bone marrow, 0.024 and 0.002 mSv for the kidneys, and 0.109 and 0.023 mSv for the heart, respectively. The ESD and organ doses can be reduced significantly with the proper radiological technique. According to these results, the chest PA projection should be preferred over the AP projection in pediatric patients. The estimated organ doses for the chest AP and PA projections can be used for the estimation of the associated risk.

  3. Building Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Cabinet是种十分吸引人却很简单的衬线字体,是由一名匿名字体设计师专门为Building Letters最新的资金筹集活动所设计的。这个Building Letters包中包含一个CDROM,有32种字体,以及一本专门设计的杂志和两张由Eboy和Emigre所设计的海报。字体光盘样例是由世界顶级的字体设计师们设计的.

  4. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...... Belgrade), Leo Pekkala (Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media/MEKU), Julie Uldam (Network on Civic Engagement and Social Innovation) and Gabriella Velics (Community Media Forum Europe)....

  5. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  6. High-frequency vibration effects on hole entrance chipping in rotary ultrasonic drilling of BK7 glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dongxi; Zhang, Yuanming; Peng, Yunfeng

    2016-12-01

    This present investigation exhibited some fundamental information about the influence of the high-frequency vibration on the hole entrance chipping formation involved in rotary ultrasonic drilling (RUD) of BK7 glass process. The entrance chipping morphologies, produced with and without ultrasonic, were observed and evaluated with respect to the fracture mechanics of brittle material. Giving consideration to the variation characteristics of the plastic deformation region in the interior material induced by the specific kinematics principles of the abrasive, the ultrasonic effects on the chipping formation mechanisms were investigated by assessing the groove morphologies obtained in the scratching experiment utilizing the formation mechanisms of the lateral cracking. Furthermore, the formal confirmatory tests with and without ultrasonic were performed to validate these chipping formation mechanisms. It was found that the plastic deformed region reached its maximum at the trajectory bottom. Moreover, the propagation of the lateral cracking initially nucleated at the bottom of the ductile deformation zone resulted in the formation of the entrance chipping in formal RUD process. The slight deformation of the material at the two terminals of each groove produced with ultrasonic would provide the inhibitory effects to the further extending of the lateral cracks, which would shrink with the increased spindle speed, and the inhibitory effect dominated in determining the improvement effects on the hole entrance quality. Additionally, a theoretical relationship between the nucleation depth and the propagation length of the lateral cracking was developed for the conventional drilling (CD) process.

  7. Gender Gap in the National College Entrance Exam Performance in China: A Case Study of a Typical Chinese Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Tsang, Mun

    2015-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to investigate gender achievement gap in the National College Entrance Exam in a typical municipality in China, which is the crucial examination for the transition from high school to higher education in that country. Using ordinary least square model and quantile regression model, the study consistently finds that…

  8. Experiencing the Change and Continuity of the College Entrance Examination: A Case Study of "Gaokao" County, 1996-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Ross, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Employing data from three encounters, during 1996, 2001, and 2010, with students and teachers in Huining, gansu, China's "Gaokao county," known for its striking contrast between poverty and the remarkable achievements of its College Entrance Examination (CEE) candidates, we explore the lived experiences of Huining students and teachers…

  9. Comparison of experimental hut entrance and exit behavior between Anopheles darlingi from the Cayo District, Belize, and Zungarococha, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Paige; Diaz Rodriguez, Gloria Alicia; Briceno, Ireneo; King, Russell; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P

    2013-12-01

    Anopheles darlingi is a major vector for malaria in Central and South America. Behavioral, ecological, genetic, and morphologic variability has been observed across its wide distribution. Recent studies have documented that 2 distinct genotypes exist for An. darlingi: a northern lineage (Belize, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, and Panama) and a southern lineage (Amazonia and southern Brazil). In order to determine if these genotypes exhibited different behavioral traits, entrance and exit movement patterns between 2 field populations of An. darlingi that represented each genotype were evaluated using experimental huts. The Belize population exhibited bimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. and 5:00-6:00 a.m. and peak exiting occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. The Peru population exhibited unimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 10:00-11:00 p.m. and peak exiting occurring between 11:00-12:00 a.m. with a secondary smaller peak at 2:30 a.m. Entrance and exit behavioral patterns were significantly different between the Belize and Peru populations of An. darlingi (log-rank [Mantel-Cox] P < 0.001). Information from the present study will be used in the future to determine if there is a correlation between genotype and host-seeking behavior and can be used in the present for regional vector risk assessment.

  10. A Comparative Study of the College Entrance Examination Board Validity Study Service and Freshmen Cumulative Point Averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Joseph E.

    The success with which freshmen cumulative point averages may be predicted from a combination of a student's high school rank, Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score (Verbal) and SAT score (Mathematics) was investigated. A multiple regression formula developed by the College Entrance Examination Board was used to combine the three predictors into a…

  11. Identifying challenges and opportunities for residents in upernavik as oil companies are making a first entrance into baffin bay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild; Tejsner, Pelle

    2016-01-01

    While oil industry is making its first entrance offshore in Baffin Bay the Inuit hunters on the northwest coast of Greenland are struggling to uphold a traditional way of living. The oil industry is encouraged by the Government of Greenland to secure a high degree of local content in projects...

  12. Challenges and opportunities for residents in the Upernavik District while oil companies are making a first entrance in Baffin Bay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild; Tejsner, Pelle

    2016-01-01

    While oil industry is making its first entrance offshore in Baffin Bay the Inuit hunters on the northwest coast of Greenland are struggling to uphold a traditional way of living. The oil industry is encouraged by the Government of Greenland to secure a high degree of local content in projects...

  13. An Investigation of the Combined Assessments Used as Entrance Criteria for a Gifted English Middle School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Colleen D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the four assessments for entrance into an academic middle school gifted English program were accurately predicting success, as measured by students' grades each nine-week grading period. Some students were dismissed from the program each year because they could not maintain the required minimum average…

  14. Differential Predictive Validity of High School GPA and College Entrance Test Scores for University Students in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hattami, Abdulghani Ali Dawod

    2012-01-01

    High school grade point average and college entrance test scores are two admission criteria that are currently used by most colleges in Yemen to select their prospective students. Given their widespread use, it is important to investigate their predictive validity to ensure the accuracy of the admission decisions in these institutions. This study…

  15. Challenges and opportunities for residents in the Upernavik District while oil companies are making a first entrance in Baffin Bay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejsner, Pelle; Merrild, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The oil industry is making its first entrance offshore in Baffin Bay in a time where Inuit residents on the northwest coast of Greenland are struggling to uphold a traditional way of living. The operating oil companies are encouraged by the Government of Greenland to promote a high degree of local...... companies....

  16. The fresco at the entrance to Danilo II church of the Mother of God at Peć

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Painted around 1330, this fresco is located on a large section of the western façade of the church of the Mother of God Hodegetria at Peć above the entrance that leads from the monumental narthex into the interior of the building. It is a composition, joining the unusual image of the holy patroness of Archbishop Danilo II's ecclesiastical endowment, accompanied by two figures of angels in adoration, to create an iconographic whole with a twin presentation of the archpriests, St. Nicolas and Danilo II himself bowing in prayer. After giving a careful and detailed description of the entire content and setting of the painting, first of all, the paper discusses the content and message conveyed in the choice of the image of the Mother of God with Child, which, in the given assembly of figures, is distinguished by its central position and enlarged proportions. A perception of the views maintained so far, regarding the interpretation of this composition, and the specific points related to the choice of the central figure, when attempting to decipher its meaning, leads to considering that in a certain reinterpretation of the aforesaid, quite specific representation of the patroness of the Serbian archbishop's church endowment, there also lies the key for the explanation of the twin presentation of the two hierarchs in prayer, as well as for shedding light on the inter-relationship of all the figures involved in the painting, i.e. for perceiving the logic of uniting them in one composition. Even though a new attempt at comprehending the content and the subtle message of the fresco largely rests upon the examination and thorough research of comparative material that previous research workers have already noted as being significant for the examination of the given solution, this does not hold for the conclusions arising from the observation of that material. There is a critical review particularly of the previous conclusions that remain within the

  17. Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Dorsey; Nelson Vasquez

    2010-03-31

    Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago's recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work. The new green building houses the hospital's Family Medicine Residency Program and Specialty Medical Offices. The residency program has been vital in attracting new, young physicians to this medically underserved area. The new outpatient center will also help to allure needed medical providers to the community. The facility also has areas designated to women's health and community education. The Community Education Conference Room will provide learning opportunities to area residents. Emphasis will be placed on conserving resources and protecting our environment, as well as providing information on healthcare access and preventive medicine. The new Medical Office Building was constructed with numerous energy saving features. The exterior cladding of the building is an innovative, locally-manufactured precast concrete panel system with integral insulation that achieves an R-value in excess of building code requirements. The roof is a 'green roof' covered by native plantings, lessening the impact solar heat gain on the building, and reducing air conditioning requirements. The windows are low-E, tinted, and insulated to reduce cooling requirements in summer and heating requirements in winter. The main entrance has an air lock to prevent unconditioned air from entering the building and impacting interior air temperatures. Since much of the traffic in and out of the office building comes from the adjacent Jackson Park Hospital, a pedestrian bridge connects the two

  18. Thermal usage of drainage water at the southern entrance to the Gotthard base railway tunnel - Feasibility study, phase II; Waermenutzung Tunnelwasser Basistunnel Gotthard, Suedportal. Machbarkeitsstudie Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dups, Ch. [Gruneko AG, Basel (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report presents a review of the results of work done on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on research into the possible uses of the rock water collected behind the tunnel linings of the new Gotthard base tunnel under the Swiss Alps. This report regards only the southern entrance. Estimates of the quantity of drainage water and its temperature are presented, as are possible uses for the warm water as a basis for a tropical greenhouse, fish breeding, a wellness-spa, district heating, and individual heat-pumps as well as for heating the Alp Transit visitor centre. Figures are quoted on effective heating-energy costs and reductions to be obtained in fossil fuel use. The high sensitivity of the energy price with respect to electricity prices and the degree to which buildings are connected to a district heating system is discussed. Possible use of the tunnel water in other municipalities in the area are also listed. Figures on heating-power and heating-energy supply are quoted for several of the various possible projects.

  19. Thermal usage of drainage water at the northern entrance to the Gotthard base railway tunnel - Feasibility study, phase II; Waermenutzung Tunnelwasser Basistunnel Gotthard, Nordportal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dups, Ch. [Gruneko AG, Basel (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for 2004 presents a review of the results of work done on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on research into the possible uses of the rock water collected behind the tunnel linings of the new Gotthard base tunnel under the Swiss Alps. This report regards only the northern entrance. Estimates of the quantity of drainage water and its temperature are presented, as are possible uses for the warm water as a basis for district heating, individual heat-pumps as well as for greenhouses, fish breeding and mushroom farming. Figures are quoted on effective heating-energy costs and reductions in fossil-fuel use to be attained. The high sensitivity of the energy price to changes in electricity prices and to the degree to which buildings are connected to a district heating system is discussed. Possible use of the tunnel water in other municipalities in the area are also listed. Figures on heating-power and heating-energy supply are quoted for several of the various possible projects.

  20. MYCELIUM BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Jondelius, Olof

    2015-01-01

    This work is looking in to what possibilites and restrictions comes with using mycelium as a building material for a small house. It includes reasoning around solutions for some of the problems and presenting some ideas of how to use some of the materials properties in your favor. A general background of why we need to start look in to alternative materials for all petroleum materials are presented. Det här arbetet har varit inriktat på att se vilka möjligheter samt begränsningar det skul...

  1. The entrance system laboratory prototype for an advanced mass and ionic charge composition experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, F; Desai, M I; Livi, R; Livi, S; McComas, D J; Randol, B

    2009-10-01

    Electrostatic analyzers (ESA) have been used extensively for the characterization of plasmas in a variety of space environments. They vary in shape, geometry, and size and are adapted to the specific particle population to be measured and the configuration of the spacecraft. Their main function is to select the energy per charge of the particles within a passband. An energy-per-charge range larger than that of the passband can be sampled by varying the voltage difference between the ESA electrodes. The voltage sweep takes time and reduces the duty cycle for a particular energy-per-charge passband. Our design approach for an advanced mass and ionic charge composition experiment (AMICCE) has a novel electrostatic analyzer that essentially serves as a spectrograph and selects ions simultaneously over a broad range of energy-per-charge (E/q). Only three voltage settings are required to cover the entire range from approximately 10 to 270 keV/q, thus dramatically increasing the product of the geometric factor times the duty cycle when compared with other instruments. In this paper, we describe the AMICCE concept with particular emphasis on the prototype of the entrance system (ESA and collimator), which we designed, developed, and tested. We also present comparisons of the laboratory results with electrostatic simulations.

  2. Adaptive Beam Smoothing with Plasma-Pinholes for Laser-Entrance-Hole Transmission Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissel, Matthias; Ruggles, Lawrence E.; Smith, Ian C.; Shores, Jonathn E.; Speas, C. Shane; Porter, John L.

    2014-10-01

    The concept of Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) requires the deposition of laser energy into a fuel-filled cylinder that is exposed to a magnetic field. To improve process, it is essential to optimize transmission through the foil covered laser entrance hole (LEH), which involves minimizing laser-plasma-instabilities (LPI). Laser beam smoothing is the most common approach to minimize LPI. It typically involves a Random-Phase-Plate (RPP) and smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). This approach can still cause LPI issues due to intensity ``hot-spots'' on a ps-time scale, and it inconveniently fixes the usable spot size. Changing laser spot sizes requires multiple dedicated RPPs. To study ideal spot sizes on a MagLIF LEH, the RPP/SSD approach gets cost prohibitive. As alternative, we use sacrificial thin foils (500 nm or less) at the laser focus, which instantly turn into a plasma-pinhole, acting as spatial filter. The smoothed laser spot size grows linearly with distance from best focus. We present experimental data for smoothing performance and resulting LEH transmission. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. DOE's Nat'l Nucl. Sec. Admin. under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. X-ray tube output based calculation of patient entrance surface dose: validation of the method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harju, O.; Toivonen, M.; Tapiovaara, M.; Parviainen, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    X-ray departments need methods to monitor the doses delivered to the patients in order to be able to compare their dose level to established reference levels. For this purpose, patient dose per radiograph is described in terms of the entrance surface dose (ESD) or dose-area product (DAP). The actual measurement is often made by using a DAP-meter or thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The third possibility, the calculation of ESD from the examination technique factors, is likely to be a common method for x-ray departments that do not have the other methods at their disposal or for examinations where the dose may be too low to be measured by the other means (e.g. chest radiography). We have developed a program for the determination of ESD by the calculation method and analysed the accuracy that can be achieved by this indirect method. The program calculates the ESD from the current time product, x-ray tube voltage, beam filtration and focus- to-skin distance (FSD). Additionally, for calibrating the dose calculation method and thereby improving the accuracy of the calculation, the x-ray tube output should be measured for at least one x-ray tube voltage value in each x-ray unit. The aim of the present work is to point out the restrictions of the method and details of its practical application. The first experiences from the use of the method will be summarised. (orig.)

  4. Experimental study of pedestrian inflow in a room with a separate entrance and exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Song, Weiguo; Fu, Libi; Fang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Pedestrian inflow process frequently occurs in various pedestrian facilities in our daily life. Great importance should be attached to the study of this process. In this paper, we explore the pedestrian inflow process in a room with a separate entrance and exit. Two kinds of experiments are conducted: experiment 1 has no inactive persons and primarily focuses on analyzing the features of the normal pedestrian inflow process and analyzing the representative spatial parameters in the steady state, while experiment 2 involves the influence of the inactive persons. In order to quantitatively discuss the distribution of pedestrians in the steady state, we adopt several analytical methods, such as the Voronoi diagram method, proxemics, and point pattern analysis. Some features of the inflow process are captured. The distribution of pedestrians in the steady state is not uniform. The proxemics and attraction to the exit are both considered to affect pedestrians' distribution in the inflow process. The presence of inactive persons may have an impact on both the inflow and outflow processes. Practical suggestions are provided for the managers of pedestrian facilities.

  5. Optimal Coordinated Control of Power Extraction in LES of a Wind Farm with Entrance Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P. Goit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of optimal coordinated control techniques in large eddy simulations of wind farm boundary layer interaction with the aim of increasing the total energy extraction in wind farms. The individual wind turbines are considered as flow actuators, and their energy extraction is dynamically regulated in time, so as to optimally influence the flow field. We extend earlier work on wind farm optimal control in the fully-developed regime (Goit and Meyers 2015, J. Fluid Mech. 768, 5–50 to a ‘finite’ wind farm case, in which entrance effects play an important role. For the optimal control, a receding horizon framework is employed in which turbine thrust coefficients are optimized in time and per turbine. Optimization is performed with a conjugate gradient method, where gradients of the cost functional are obtained using adjoint large eddy simulations. Overall, the energy extraction is increased 7% by the optimal control. This increase in energy extraction is related to faster wake recovery throughout the farm. For the first row of turbines, the optimal control increases turbulence levels and Reynolds stresses in the wake, leading to better wake mixing and an inflow velocity for the second row that is significantly higher than in the uncontrolled case. For downstream rows, the optimal control mainly enhances the sideways mean transport of momentum. This is different from earlier observations by Goit and Meyers (2015 in the fully-developed regime, where mainly vertical transport was enhanced.

  6. New hadron discovered at Entrance B (mother and baby doing fine)

    CERN Multimedia

    James Gillies

    2013-01-01

    Hadron: A heavy, strongly interacting particle. So say the dictionaries, and the definition seems entirely appropriate for the latest addition to a particular family that was passing CERN’s Entrance B on Monday afternoon en route for the Hôpital de la Tour.   The father of the baby (left) and the members of the CERN Fire Brigade and Medical Service dealing with the unexpected happy event. (Photo by D. Pagnani, CERN Fireman. The photo is reproduced by the CERN Bulletin with the agreement of the di Castro family.) The new "hadron" certainly showed the strength of its desire to interact with the world in arriving a little earlier than expected, causing its fraught parents to pull up the car and seek help at the first port of call. Luckily for them, that turned out to be CERN. Our medical service and ambulance personnel proved to be entirely up to the task. The fire brigade provided first aid, and was soon joined by the medical service, which ensured that mot...

  7. On Implementation of Psychological Counseling of Students for College Entrance Exam or High School Entrance Exam%中高考学生考前心理辅导的实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉荣

    2015-01-01

    Based on the research and practical work of psychological counseling of students for college entrance exam or high school entrance exam,and on the constructive elements of counseling contents,the paper analyzes the application of multi measures and puts forward several issues to be aware of during counseling practice,aimed at improving counseling quality.%基于中高考学生考前心理辅导的研究与实践工作,依据中高考学生考前心理辅导内容的构成要素,分析了考前心理辅导多元手段的应用,并提出了辅导实践中应注意的事项,以提升辅导质量。

  8. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency improvement......This paper deals with the energy consumption of existing owner-occupied detached houses and the question of how they can be energy renovated. Data on the age of the Danish housing stock, and its energy consumption is presented. Research on the potential for energy reductions in the Danish housing...... sector is discussed, and it is shown that there is a huge potential for reductions. It is a well-known problem that even if there are relevant technical means and even if it is economically feasible, the majority of house owners do not energy renovate their homes. This paper intends to address what can...

  9. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...

  10. Training Skills of English Listening in College Entrance Examination%高考英语听力训练技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙佳辉

    2011-01-01

    本文就高考英语的听力训练以及解题技巧进行探析,学生在具备了一定的听力知识的基础上还应该掌握一些解题技巧。听力训练技巧的培养能让学生在高考英语的听力测试中得心应手。%In this paper, the author analyzes English listening and problem-solving skills training in college entrance examination, students have a certain knowledge on the basis of the hearing should also have some problem-solving skills. Listening skills training allows students to develop English listening test in the entrance examination in handy.

  11. Oil droplet behavior at a pore entrance in the presence of crossflow: Implications for microfiltration of oil-water dispersions

    CERN Document Server

    Darvishzadeh, Tohid; Priezjev, Nikolai V

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of an oil droplet pinned at the entrance of a micropore and subject to clossflow-induced shear is investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation. We found that in the absence of crossflow, the critical transmembrane pressure required to force the droplet into the pore is in excellent agreement with a theoretical prediction based on the Young-Laplace equation. With increasing shear rate, the critical pressure of permeation increases, and at sufficiently high shear rates the oil droplet breaks up into two segments. The results of numerical simulations indicate that droplet breakup at the pore entrance is facilitated at lower surface tension, higher oil-to-water viscosity ratio and larger droplet size but is insensitive to the value of the contact angle. Using simple force and torque balance arguments, an estimate for the increase in critical pressure due to crossflow and the breakup capillary number is obtained and validated for different viscosity ratios, surface tension coefficien...

  12. Spectroscopy of free radicals and radical containing entrance-channel complexes in superfluid helium nano-droplets

    CERN Document Server

    K"upper, J; K\\"upper, Jochen; Merritt, Jeremy M.

    2006-01-01

    The spectroscopy of free radicals and radical containing entrance-channel complexes embedded in superfluid helium nano-droplets is reviewed. The collection of dopants inside individual droplets in the beam represents a micro-canonical ensemble, and as such each droplet may be considered an isolated cryo-reactor. The unique properties of the droplets, namely their low temperature (0.4 K) and fast cooling rates ($\\sim10^{16}$ K s$^{-1}$) provides novel opportunities for the formation and high-resolution studies of molecular complexes containing one or more free radicals. The production methods of radicals are discussed in light of their applicability for embedding the radicals in helium droplets. The spectroscopic studies performed to date on molecular radicals and on entrance / exit-channel complexes of radicals with stable molecules are detailed. The observed complexes provide new information on the potential energy surfaces of several fundamental chemical reactions and on the intermolecular interactions pres...

  13. Learning from Our Students' Previous L2 Writing Experiences : The English Composition Question on University Entrance Exams

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Paul; Paul, ROSS

    2003-01-01

    This article attempts to help EFL writing teachers in Japan become more aware of the previous L2 writing experiences that their students may have had. Specifically, it discusses students' experiences preparing for the English composition question on university entrance exams and compares these with the writing experiences they are likely to encounter in a university-level EFL writing classroom. It will be shown that these two different writing experiences share some basic characteristics in c...

  14. Bolsa Bay, California, Proposed Ocean Entrance System Study. Report 2. Comprehensive Shoreline Response Computer Simulation, Bolsa Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    1980). 27. The success of the inlet channel at Agua Hedionda indicates that a stable non-navigable entrance at Bolsa Chica could be feasible provided a...dual jetty system similar to Agua Hedionda is incorporated into the design. However, structures that penetrate into the active surf zone are expected...and from the south in the summer months. i. The surfbreak rarely closes out. j. Surfing is best in the morning before the sea breeze becomes strong. 13

  15. The validity of Iran’s national university entrance examination (Konkoor) for predicting medical students’ academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokhi-Khajeh-Pasha Yasin; Nedjat Saharnaz; Mohammadi Aeen; Rad Elaheh; Majdzadeh Reza; Monajemi Farshid; Jamali Ehsan; Yazdani Shahryar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In Iran, admission to medical school is based solely on the results of the highly competitive, nationwide Konkoor examination. This paper examines the predictive validity of Konkoor scores, alone and in combination with high school grade point averages (hsGPAs), for the academic performance of public medical school students in Iran. Methods This study followed the cohort of 2003 matriculants at public medical schools in Iran from entrance through internship. The predictor ...

  16. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE POINTS OF UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE EXAMINATION AND EXPOSE OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS VIOLENCE OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Senih MAYDA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study is to explore certain factors effecting the points of university entrance examination of first class students, the relationship between the points and domestic violence the have been exposed last year and the attitudes of students towards domestic violence. Total 316 students were included in the study. The mean points of university entrance examination was found higher in girl students, students who do not smoke and graduated from Anatolian, Science and Private High Schools. 1/3rd of the the students included to the study was found that they were experienced or exposed domestic violence within last year and the violence was most often between parents and kids. It was determined that the students whose parents experienced domestic violence in the past has been exposed domestic violence more frequently. The students who think violence as a child education method were the students whose parents experienced domestic violence in the past, boy students and the students who somoke. The hypothesis “students exposed to domestic violence may have low points from the university entrance examination” can not be supported. Domestic violence in the students who smoke must be researched because of they think that violence may be a method in child education. This study reveals that who experiences domestic violence puts it in practice at later ages as if violence were a normal behaviour. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(3.000: 176-186

  18. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  19. Nearshore bedform instability in the eastern entrance to the Qiongzhou Strait,South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heqin CHENG; Jiufa LI; Daowei YIN; Maotian LI; Baocan WANG

    2008-01-01

    Six bathymetric transect profiles were drawn from the nautical charts of 1942,1962 and 1992 to show that the nearshore seabed remained unstable during the recent 50 Vears in the middie channel of the eastern entrance to the Oiongzhou Strait,South China Sea.Our results dem onstrate that the multi-year averaged seabed aggradational rate was 25 cm/a and erosion rate was 12.5 cm/a.Lateral migration rate of the sea bedform identified from the his torical contours was about 100 m/a in the SE direction. Bedform measurements were made using GPY Shallow Seismic Profiler in 1994 in the study area.The records revealed four types of distinctive bedforins that were com.Posed of fine and medium sands.The average spacing of large and small-scale sand dunes is 416 m and 144 m and the average height remains 8.8 m and 4.9 m.The spatial and temporal equilibrium-range spectra of numerical bedform records were applied to estimate short term celerity of bed form movement.Results indicate that large and small dunes migrated at an average celerity of 0.02 cm/hr eastward and 0.09 cm/hr westward in the calm sea weather,while their celerity can reach 53 cm/hr eastward during typhoon season and iS only 0.008 cm/hr westward when NNE winds prevail.The results also show that the larger the temporal and spa tial scale is.the smaller the bedform movement celerity appears.On the other hand,the smaller-scale bedform celerity of the present study is much greater than that of flume,empirical and theoretical data,but close to the wind tunnel and field-measured data of similar grain size.

  20. Nearshore bedform instability in the eastern entrance to the Qiongzhou Strait,South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barendra PURKAIT; Amitava MUKHERJEE

    2008-01-01

    Six bathymetric transect profiles were drawn from the nautical charts of 1942,1962 and 1992 to show that the nearshore seabed remained unstable during the recent 50 Vears in the middie channel of the eastern entrance to the Oiongzhou Strait,South China Sea.Our results dem onstrate that the multi-year averaged seabed aggradational rate was 25 cm/a and erosion rate was 12.5 cm/a.Lateral migration rate of the sea bedform identified from the his torical contours was about 100 m/a in the SE direction. Bedform measurements were made using GPY Shallow Seismic Profiler in 1994 in the study area.The records revealed four types of distinctive bedforins that were com. Posed of fine and medium sands.The average spacing of large and small-scale sand dunes is 416 m and 144 m and the average height remains 8.8 m and 4.9 m.The spatial and temporal equilibrium-range spectra of numerical bedform records were applied to estimate short term celerity of bed form movement.Results indicate that large and small dunes migrated at an average celerity of 0.02 cm/hr eastward and 0.09 cm/hr westward in the calm sea weather,while their celerity can reach 53 cm/hr eastward during typhoon season and iS only 0.008 cm/hr westward when NNE winds prevail. The results also show that the larger the temporal and spa tial scale is.the smaller the bedform movement celerity appears.On the other hand,the smaller-scale bedform celer ity of the present study is much greater than that of flume, empirical and theoretical data,but close to the wind tunnel and field-measured data of similar grain size.

  1. Entrance and survival of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages and epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett K Larsen

    Full Text Available Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis and cetaceans (B. ceti from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17 by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1, two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1, and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3 were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72-96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3, suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary.

  2. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_MINE_ENTRIES_IN: Underground Coal Mine Entrances in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SW_COAL_ENTRY, the predecessor of COAL_MINE_ENTRIES_IN, is a point- based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the locations of underground coal mine entrances in the...

  3. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  4. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  5. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  6. Staphylococcus aureus Entrance into the Dairy Chain: Tracking S. aureus from Dairy Cow to Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Judith; Stessl, Beatrix; Gonano, Monika; Walcher, Georg; Bereuter, Othmar; Fricker, Martina; Grunert, Tom; Wagner, Martin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. one thousand hundred seventy six one thousand hundred seventy six quarter milk (QM) samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294) and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM) of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing), dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day 14 of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej) of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus, our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires

  7. Spanish pre-university students' use of English: CEA results from the University Entrance Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Díez Bedmar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an updated overview of the main errors that Spanish students make when writing the English exam in the University Entrance Examination is provided. To do so, a Computer-aided Error Analysis (CEA (Dagneaux, Denness & Granger, 1998 was conducted on a representative sample of the students who took the exam in June 2008 in Jaén, and wrote a composition on the same topic. The use of the most widely-used error taxonomy, the Error Tagging Manual version 1.1. (Dagneaux, Denness, Granger & Meunier, 1996, and the analysis of the results by means of descriptive statistics foster the possibility to replicate this study and move forward in the description of the students’ written command in the foreign language at this stage. The comparison of the findings obtained in this study and those from previous (CEAs on the English exam reveals that some common tendencies may be shown.Este artículo aporta una visión general actualizada de los errores más importantes que los alumnos españoles cometen cuando escriben el examen de inglés de la Prueba de Acceso a la Universidad. Con este fin, se realizó un Análisis de Errores Informatizado (Dagneaux, Denness & Granger, 1998 en una muestra representativa de los estudiantes que realizaron el examen en Junio de 2008 en la Universidad de Jaén, y que escribieron sobre un mismo tema. El uso de la taxonomía de errores más usada, el Error Tagging Manual version 1.1. (Dagneaux, Denness, Granger & Meunier, 1996, y de la estadística descriptiva para analizar los resultados, favorecen la réplica de este estudio y la posibilidad de mejorar la descripción de la destreza escrita en la lengua extranjera. La comparación de los resultados en este artículo y otros Análisis de Errores (Informatizados previos muestran que se pueden exponer algunas tendencias comunes.

  8. Study of angular momentum variation due to entrance channel effect in heavy ion fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    2014-05-01

    A systematic investigation of the properties of hot nuclei may be studied by detecting the evaporated particles. These emissions reflect the behavior of the nucleus at various stages of the deexcitation cascade. When the nucleus is formed by the collision of a heavy nucleus with a light particle, the statistical model has done a good job of predicting the distribution of evaporated particles when reasonable choices were made for the level densities and yrast lines. Comparison to more specific measurements could, of course, provide a more severe test of the model and enable one to identify the deviations from the statistical model as the signature of other effects not included in the model. Some papers have claimed that experimental evaporation spectra from heavy-ion fusion reactions at higher excitation energies and angular momenta are no longer consistent with the predictions of the standard statistical model. In order to confirm this prediction we have employed two systems, a mass-symmetric (31P+45Sc) and a mass-asymmetric channel (12C+64Zn), leading to the same compound nucleus 76Kr* at the excitation energy of 75 MeV. Neutron energy spectra of the asymmetric system (12C+64Zn) at different angles are well described by the statistical model predictions using the normal value of the level density parameter a = A/8 MeV-1. However, in the case of the symmetric system (31P+45Sc), the statistical model interpretation of the data requires the change in the value of a = A/10 MeV-1. The delayed evolution of the compound system in case of the symmetric 31P+45Sc system may lead to the formation of a temperature equilibrated dinuclear complex, which may be responsible for the neutron emission at higher temperature, while the protons and alpha particles are evaporated after neutron emission when the system is sufficiently cooled down and the higher g-values do not contribute in the formation of the compound nucleus for the symmetric entrance channel in case of charged

  9. Measuring indoor occupancy in intelligent buildings using the fusion of vision sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dixin; Guan, Xiaohong; Du, Youtian; Zhao, Qianchuan

    2013-07-01

    In intelligent buildings, practical sensing systems designed to gather indoor occupancy information play an indispensable role in improving occupant comfort and energy efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel method for occupancy measurement based on the video surveillance now widely used in buildings. In our method, we analyze occupant detection both at the entrance and inside the room. A two-stage static detector is presented based on both appearances and shapes to find the human heads in rooms, and motion-based technology is used for occupant detection at the entrance. To model the change of occupancy and combine the detection results from multiple vision sensors located at entrances and inside rooms for more accurate occupancy estimation, we propose a dynamic Bayesian network-based method. The detection results of each vision sensor play the role of evidence nodes of this network, and thus, we can estimate the true occupancy at time t using the evidence prior to (and including) time t. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  10. Green building: sustainable building quality; Green Building: nachhaltige Gebaeudequalitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, R.

    2010-07-01

    This article takes a look at the 'Portikon' office building near Zurich, Switzerland, that meets the 'Minergie-P' very low energy consumption requirements. The author is of the opinion that the project can be seen as a reference project for sustainable building technology. The structure of the seven-storey building with a central atrium is described and discussed. The 'Minergie-P' energy concept is discussed, as are the 1,100 square meters of photovoltaic panels on the roof of the building. Heating energy is provided by Zurich's waste incineration plant nearby. Electro-biological aspects in the building are taken care of by appropriate earthing and shielding of cables. The building's facility management system and the installations used are briefly discussed.

  11. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...... efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies....

  12. Danish building typologies and building stock analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    enough to meet the government’s plan to make Danish buildings free from use of fossil fuels by 2035. This will probably require around 50 % energy savings in the Danish building stock as a whole. However, the project has proven that dedicated engagement of locals can speed up market penetration...... energy savings in residential buildings. The intension with this analysis was to investigate the possible energy reduction in Denmark if the same approach had been taken for the entire Danish building stock. The report concludes that the ZeroHome initiative clearly results in energy savings, but far from...... for energy savings in the existing Building stock....

  13. Identification of genes associated with growth cessation and bud dormancy entrance using a dormancy-incapable tree mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reighard Gregory L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many tree species the perception of short days (SD can trigger growth cessation, dormancy entrance, and the establishment of a chilling requirement for bud break. The molecular mechanisms connecting photoperiod perception, growth cessation and dormancy entrance in perennials are not clearly understood. The peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] evergrowing (evg mutant fails to cease growth and therefore cannot enter dormancy under SD. We used the evg mutant to filter gene expression associated with growth cessation after exposure to SD. Wild-type and evg plants were grown under controlled conditions of long days (16 h/8 h followed by transfer to SD (8 h/16 h for eight weeks. Apical tissues were sampled at zero, one, two, four, and eight weeks of SD and suppression subtractive hybridization was performed between genotypes at the same time points. Results We identified 23 up-regulated genes in the wild-type with respect to the mutant during SD exposure. We used quantitative real-time PCR to verify the expression of the differentially expressed genes in wild-type tissues following the transition to SD treatment. Three general expression patterns were evident: one group of genes decreased at the time of growth cessation (after 2 weeks in SD, another that increased immediately after the SD exposure and then remained steady, and another that increased throughout SD exposure. Conclusions The use of the dormancy-incapable mutant evg has allowed us to reduce the number of genes typically detected by differential display techniques for SD experiments. These genes are candidates for involvement in the signalling pathway leading from photoperiod perception to growth cessation and dormancy entrance and will be the target of future investigations.

  14. Effect of plenum crossflow on heat (mass) transfer near and within the entrance of film cooling holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Cho, H.H. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Jabbari, M.Y. [Saginaw Valley State Univ., University Center, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Convective heat/mass transfer near and within the entrance region of film cooling holes supplied with air from an internal duct (plenum) behind the cooling holes has been measured using a naphthalene sublimation technique. The experiments are conducted for duct Reynolds number, based on the duct inlet flow condition, of 1,800 to 13,500, which results in a range of hole Reynolds numbers of 8000 to 30,000, close to actual engine operating conditions. The flow entering the hole can be considered a combination of flow along a 90 deg tube bend and a sudden contraction duct flow. The flow separates at the inner corner and a secondary flow is induced by the centrifugal force associated with the streamline curvature. The mass transfer coefficient for the duct wall (surface of film-cooled plate) with a cooling hole is three to five times higher than for a fully developed duct flow. With a smaller duct, the overall transfer coefficient on the hole entrance surface increases due to the higher duct Reynolds numbers, but the flow has less secondary flow effects within the smaller space. Generally, transfer coefficients on the hole entrance surface are largely unaffected by the duct end presence, but the transfer coefficient is larger downstream for a short distance from the center of the last hole to the duct end. In tests with multiple film cooling holes, the flow at the first hole is more of a curved duct flow (strong secondary flow) and the flow at the last hole is more of a sink-like flow. At the middle hole, the flow is a combination of both flows. The mass transfer rates on the inner hole surfaces are found to be the same for holes with corresponding positions relative to the duct end, although the total number of open holes is different.

  15. Under the Golden Gate bridge: views of the sea floor near the entrance to San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Barnard, Patrick L.; Chin, John L.; Hanes, Daniel; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Iampietro, Pat J.; Gardner, James V.

    2006-01-01

    San Francisco Bay in Northern California is one of the largest and most altered estuaries within the United States. The sea floor within the bay as well as at its entrance is constantly changing due to strong tidal currents, aggregate mining, dredge disposal, and the creation of new land using artificial fill. Understanding this dynamic sea floor is critical for addressing local environmental issues, which include defining pollution transport pathways, deciphering tectonics, and identifying benthic habitats. Mapping commercial interests such as safe ship navigation and dredge disposal is also significantly aided by such understanding. Over the past decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE) and the Center for Integrative Coastal Observation, Research and Education (CICORE) have partnered to map central San Francisco Bay and its entrance under the Golden Gate Bridge using multibeam echosounders. These sonar systems can continuously map to produce 100 percent coverage of the sea floor at meter-scale resolution and thus produce an unprecedented view of the floor of the bay. This poster shows views of the sea floor in west-central San Francisco Bay around Alcatraz and Angel Islands, underneath the Golden Gate Bridge, and through its entrance from the Pacific Ocean. The sea floor is portrayed as a shaded relief surface generated from the multibeam data color-coded for depth from light blues for the shallowest values to purples for the deepest. The land regions are portrayed by USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). The water depths have a 4x vertical exaggeration while the land areas have a 2x vertical exaggeration.

  16. Fundamental study of nanoDot OSL dosimeters for entrance skin dose measurement in diagnostic x-ray examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Tohru; Kobayashi, Ikuo [Nagase Landauer, Ltd., Tsukuba (Japan); Hayashi, Hiroaki; Takegami, Kazuki; Okino, Hiroki; Kimoto, Natsumi; Maehata, Itsumi [Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    In order to manage the patient exposure dose in X-ray diagnosis, it is preferred to evaluate the entrance skin dose; although there are some evaluations about entrance skin dose, a small number of report has been published for direct measurement of patient. We think that a small-type optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter, named nanoDot, can achieve a direct measurement. For evaluations, the corrections of angular and energy dependences play an important role. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the angular and the energy dependences of nanoDot. Materials and Methods We used commercially available X-ray diagnostic equipment. For angular dependence measurement, a relative response of every 15 degrees of nanoDot was measured in 40-140 kV X-ray. And for energy dependence measurement, mono-energetic characteristic X-rays were generated using several materials by irradiating the diagnostic X-rays, and the nanoDot was irradiated by the characteristic X-rays. We evaluated the measured response in an energy range of 8.1-75.5 keV. In addition, we performed Monte-Carlo simulation to compare experimental results. The experimental results were in good agreement with those of Monte-Carlo simulation. The angular dependence of nanoDot was almost steady with the response of 0 degrees except for 90 and 270 degrees. Furthermore, we found that difference of the response of nanoDot, where the nanoDot was irradiated from the randomly set directions, was estimated to be at most 5%. On the other hand, the response of nanoDot varies with the energy of incident X-rays; slightly increased to 20 keV and gradually decreased to 80 keV. These results are valuable to perform the precise evaluation of entrance skin dose with nanoDot in X-ray diagnosis. Conclusion The influence of angular dependence and energy dependence in X-ray diagnosis is not so large, and the nanoDot OSL dosimeter is considered to be suitable dosimeter for direct measurement of entrance surface dose of patient.

  17. The extracellular entrance provides selectivity to serotonin 5-HT7 receptor antagonists with antidepressant-like behavior in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Rocío A; Vázquez-Villa, Henar; Gómez-Tamayo, José C; Benhamú, Bellinda; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; de la Fuente, Tania; Caltabiano, Gianluigi; Hedlund, Peter B; Pardo, Leonardo; López-Rodríguez, María L

    2014-08-14

    The finding that ergotamine binds serotonin receptors in a less conserved extended binding pocket close to the extracellular entrance, in addition to the orthosteric site, allowed us to obtain 5-HT7R antagonist 6 endowed with high affinity (Ki=0.7 nM) and significant 5-HT1AR selectivity (ratio>1428). Compound 6 exhibits in vivo antidepressant-like effect (1 mg/kg, ip) mediated by the 5-HT7R, which reveals its interest as a putative research tool or pharmaceutical in depression disorders.

  18. Analysis of theoretical and real values of heat consumption in units of the apartment building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavloková, Petra; Richter, Aleš; Janša, Jan

    2016-06-01

    This article is focused on heat consumption in the apartment building and the factors affecting it. The apartment building has three entrances and four over ground floors and one underground floor. In the entire apartment building there are 24 flats, which they are identical (kitchen, bedroom, living room and bathroom). In flats on radiators were installed the ratio heat meters according to Act 318/2012 Coll. by the Metrology Act. The ratio heat meters are used for fair billing of the heat costs for all owners. Continuous monitoring of the actual heat consumption in the flats were collected data of the real heat consumption. The theoretical values of heat consumption were counted in software ENERGIE. The apartment building is divided into24 flats and the calculation was made for each of them. The theoretical and real heat consumption was compared.

  19. Global building physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote...... lecture and illustrates global relations to highlight some of the challenges that we see today....

  20. Global Building Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper......High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...

  1. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes and gives example on how Information and Communication, ICT, can and will enhance and support the building functional systems defined from client and end-user needs and requirements. The building systems may be derived from functional requirements on buildings such as usability...... and security on highest level with sub-systems definitions on lever levels. Building functional sub-systems may be defined for user comfort, indoor-climate, evacuation, space configuration, aesthetics, O&M etc. These building systems are supported by Information and Communication Technology, ICT, and building...... component systems that are accessed and integrated in the real world of building use in different contexts. The ICT systems may be physically or virtually embedded in the building. Already in 1982 AT&T established the 'intelligent buildings', IB, concept due to marketing reasons and the Informart building...

  2. Retrofitting Listed Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a case study where the energy demand for a listed building constructed in 1900 is reduced. Many older buildings are listed and have restrictions that include the entire building or that include only its exterior. For the building presented, only its exterior facade is listed...... of the local urban environment and therefore listed. The reduced energy demand, related to individual measures, is estimated and building physics requirements are addressed together with the economic options for evaluating the profitability....

  3. Gantry orientation effect on the neutron and capture gamma ray dose equivalent at the maze entrance door in radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiasi Hosein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of gantry orientation on the photoneutron and capture gamma dose calculations for maze entrance door was evaluated. A typical radiation therapy room made of ordinary concrete was simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Gantry rotation was simulated at eight different angles around the isocenter. Both neutron and capture gamma dose vary considerably with gantry angle. The ratios of the maximum to the minimum values for neutron and capture gamma dose equivalents were 1.9 and 1.4, respectively. On the other hand, comparison of the Monte Carlo calculated mean value over all orientations with Monte Carlo calculated neutron and gamma dose showed that the Wu-McGinley method differed by 5% and 2%, respectively. However, for more conservative shielding calculations, factors of 1.6 and 1.3 should be applied to the calculated neutron and capture gamma doses at downward irradiation. Finally, it can be concluded that the gantry angle influences neutron and capture gamma dose at the maze entrance door and it should be taken into account in shielding considerations.

  4. Theoretical study of effects of the entrance channel on the relative yield of complete fusion and quasifission in heavy-ion collisions within a dinuclear system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheyli, S.; Khanlari, M. Varasteh

    2016-09-01

    The relative yield of complete fusion and quasifission components for the 12C+204Pb , 19F+197Au , 30Si+186W , and 48Ca+168Er reactions which all lead to the compound nucleus 216Ra are analyzed to calculate the entrance channel effects by comparison of capture, complete fusion, and quasifission cross sections, emission barriers (Bfus*,Bq f ), as well as complete fusion probability estimated by statistical method within the framework of the dinuclear system model. The difference among complete fusion probabilities calculated by the dinuclear system model for different entrance channels can be explained by the hindrance to complete fusion due to the larger inner fusion barrier Bfus* for the transformation of the dinuclear system into a compound nucleus and the increase of the quasifission contribution due to the decreasing of the emission barrier Bq f of quasifission as a function of the angular momentum. Although these reactions with different entrance channels populate the same compound nucleus 216Ra at similar excitation energies, the model predicts the negligible quasifission probability for reactions having higher entrance channel mass asymmetry and the dominant decay channel is complete fission. For reactions induced by massive projectiles such as Si and Ca having lower entrance channel mass asymmetry, the quasifission component is dominant in the evolution of dinuclear system, and the fusion process is extremely hindered.

  5. Focal partial tears of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon at the entrance to the bicipital groove: MR imaging findings, surgical correlation, and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskin, Cree M.; Anderson, Mark W.; Choudhri, Asim [UVA Health System, Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Diduch, David R. [UVA Health System, Department of Orthopedics, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of the study was to depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps brachii tendon, occurring at the entrance to the bicipital groove, which can be difficult to detect with MRI. The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study; informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records in 16 consecutive patients (12 men, 4 women; mean age, 57 years) who had prospective MRI diagnoses of tendinopathy and/or partial tearing of the intra-articular segment of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) at the entrance to the bicipital groove (restricted to within 1 cm of the groove entrance) and who also had surgical correlation within 4 months of imaging. Focal intrasubstance signal abnormality was noted in the tendons of 16 out of 16 (100%) patients. Focal tendon enlargement was noted in 8 out of 16 patients (50%). Fifteen out of 16 biceps partial tears (94%) were treated surgically. Shoulder pathology was restricted to the groove entrance in 4 out of 16 patients (25%). We depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps tendon, which can be difficult to detect on MRI because of their anatomical location at the entrance to the bicipital groove. Although they may coexist with other causes of shoulder pain, these lesions can also occur in isolation. In either case, they are potential causes of pain that can be addressed surgically. (orig.)

  6. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... are going to consist of passive houses. The first sustainable buildings were built by their users, and the user – building interaction still play a decisive role for the performance of the present sustainable buildings. The users have to understand how the building functions. Urban design is essential...

  7. Importance of Building Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Banerjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non building structures. The main purpose of building codes are to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Building codes are generally intended to be applied by architects, engineers, constructors and regulators but are also used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, subcontractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers, tenants and others.

  8. Applied building physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hens, Hugo S L C

    2012-01-01

    The energy crises of the 1970s, persisting moisture problems, complaints about sick buildings, thermal, visual and olfactory discomfort, and the move towards more sustainability in building construction have pushed Building Physics to the forefront of building innovation. The societal pressure to diminish energy consumption in buildings without impairing usability acted as a trigger to activate the whole notion of performance based design and construction. As with all engineering sciences, Building Physics is oriented towards application, which is why, after a first book on fundamentals this s

  9. Evaluation of the entrance skin dose due to paediatric chest X-rays examinations carried out at a great hospital in Rio de Janeiro city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamadain, K.E.M. [Sudan Univ. of Science and Technology, Khartoum (Sudan). Faculty of Sciences. Physics Dept.; Azevedo, A.C.P. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Rosa, L.A.R. da; Mota, H.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Medica; Goncalves, O.D. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Guebel, M.R.N. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagao Gesteira

    2001-07-01

    A dosimetric survey in paediatric radiology is currently being carried out at the paediatric unit of a great hospital in Rio de Janeiro city, aiming the assessment of patient doses and image quality. The aim of this work was to estimate the entrance skin dose for frontal and lateral chest X-rays exposure to paediatric patients. Three examination techniques were investigated, namely PA, AP and lateral positions. For entrance skin dose evaluation, two different TL dosimeters were used, namely LiF:Mg,Ti and CaSO4:Dy. The age intervals considered were 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results obtained with both dosimeters are similar and the entrance skin dose values evaluated for the different age intervals considered are compared with previous values found in Brazil and also in Europe. (author)

  10. 物联网中RFID智能门禁系统研究%Research on RFID intelligent entrance guard system in the Internet of things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆璐

    2013-01-01

    针对传统的门禁系统结构和功能相对单一,处理效率较低,信息存储容量较小,难以满足物联网中安全技术防范领域对主动性、实时性及灵活性等需求的问题,文中基于物联网RFID技术,研究了RFID智能门禁系统,提出了RFID智能门禁系统架构,研究了智能门禁控制器和门禁管理系统等核心内容.物联网中RFID智能门禁系统不仅可用于重要进出口的安全管理,还有助于有序化管理.%In view of the traditional entrance guard system structure and function is relatively single,low processing efficiency,information storage capacity is small,it is difficult to meet in the Intemet of things security technology to prevent field of initiative,real-time and flexibility requirements,Based on Interact of REID technology,RFID intelligent entrance guard system is studied,including the proposed RFID intelligent entrance guard system architecture,the intelligent entrance guard controller and core content such as entrance guard management system.RFID in the Internet of things intelligent entrance guard system not only can be used for important import and export of security management,and also help ordering management.

  11. Search for an artificially buried karst cave entrance using ground penetrating radar: a successful case of locating the S-19 Cave in the Mt. Kanin massif (NW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gosar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The S-19 Cave was with its explored depth of 177 m one of the most important caves of the Mt. Kanin massif, but after its discovery in 1974, a huge snow avalanche protection dyke was constructed across the cave entrance. To excavate the buried cave, the accurate location of the cave had to be determined first. Since the entrance coordinates were incorrect and no markers were available, application of geophysical techniques was necessary to do this. A Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR with special 50 MHz rough terrain antennas was selected as the single suitable geophysical method for the given conditions where thick debris overlay a rugged limestone surface. Nevertheless, it was not possible to directly detect the relatively narrow cave entrance itself due to data resolution limits. However, a historical photo of the area showed that the cave entrance was located in a local depression, which therefore represented the main target of the GPR survey. Seven GPR profiles were measured across the rough and steep surface causing difficulties in traversing the area with sensitive research equipment. In all recorded radargrams a small depression was clearly imaged under debris, and recognized as a topographic feature with the cave entrance. Based on the GPR data interpretation, the exact location for digging was determined and the thickness of debris assessed at 6.5–7 m. A massive excavation by a dredger resulted in a successful opening of the cave entrance, confirming both its geophysically determined location and its estimated depth. The application of an advanced geophysical method was therefore proven successful in providing a solution to this specific case in karst exploration and an important cave was saved.

  12. Determining CO2-brine relative permeability and capillary pressure simultaneously: an insight to capillary entrance and end effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Kianinejad, A.; DiCarlo, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    CO2-brine relative permeability relations are important parameters in modeling scenarios such as CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers and CO2 enhanced recovery in oil reservoir. Many steady-state experimental studies on CO2-brine relative permeability showed that the CO2-brine relative permeability differs greatly from typical oil-brine relative permeability. Particularly, they reported a very small endpoint CO2 relative permeability of 0.1~0.2 at a relative high residual water saturation of 0.4~0.6. In this study, we hypothesize the measured low endpoint CO2 relative permeability in previous studies was an experimental artifact that is primary due to low CO2 viscosity. We conducted steady-state CO2 drainage experiments by co-injecting equlibrated CO2 and brine into a long (60.8 cm) and low permeability (116-mD) Berea sandstone core at 20 °C and 1500 psi. During every experiment, both the overall pressure drop across the core and the pressure drops of the five independent and continuous sections of the core were monitored. The in-situ saturation was measured with a medical X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) scanner. In the center three sections where saturation was uniform, we determined the relative permeability to both brine and CO2 phases. In the entrance and exit sections, both measured pressure gradients and saturation were non-uniform. To cope with this, we make several self-consistent assumptions that reveal the nature of capillary entrance and effect in steady-state two-phase core flooding experiments. Based on these assumptions we determined the relative permeability to CO2 and CO2-brine capillary pressure simultaneously using measured pressure drops. We found: (1) a much higher endpoint CO2 relative permeability of 0.58 at a water saturation of 48%, (2) the entrance region with non-uniform saturation expanded CO2 relative permeability data to much lower water saturation, (3) the determined CO2-brine capillary pressure curve is self-consistent and matches

  13. Building Design & Construction - Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-11-01

    Offers a brief history of green building; presents the results of a specially commissioned survey; and analyzes the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building.

  14. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  15. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  16. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go undetected...

  17. Building Services Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinzi, Michele; Romeo, Carlo; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2015-01-01

    This guideline on Building Services Systems is one of four guidelines produced by the School of the Future project. The other three guidelines cover: Building Construction Elements, Improved Indoor Environmental Quality and Concepts for Zero Emission Schools. This guideline consists...

  18. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically supp

  19. State Capitol Buildings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This shapefile will display the locations of the fifty state capitol buildings as well as the territorial capitol buildings for the US Virgin Islands, Guam, Northern...

  20. Comfort control in buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Maria del Mar; Rodriguez, Francisco de Asis

    2014-01-01

    This book describes both concepts and development of advanced comfort control systems in buildings, with significant energy saving, and attention to thermal, visual and indoor air quality. The concepts are proven through real tests in a bioclimatic building.

  1. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  2. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  3. Building a case for building performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, David

    2001-01-01

    You have seen the facts before. Americans make up less than 5% of the world’s population, yet consume 25% of the earth’s resources and create 25% of the world’s greenhouse gases. We are also told that the construction and operation of buildings are major contributors to this problem, and that as building industry professionals we have a major responsibility to improve the performance of the buildings and environments that we create. Although a growing number of states and municipalit...

  4. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  5. Future Green Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, David; Lund, Henrik

    Efficient buildings are essential for an affordable Danish energy supply in 2050. The purpose of this report is to describe the contribution and role of the building sector in a 100% renewable energy future, as well as the transitions that are necessary in the building sector to support this chan...

  6. Building the ISS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石继忠; 李秀霞

    2007-01-01

    Have you seen people building houses?To build a house,you need workers.They use their hands,tools and machines to put everything together. Building the ISS is almost the same.The difference is that the workers are astronauts.They

  7. Building with Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Gilbert

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the early use of straw in Africa and Europe as a building material. Provides background information and a basic framework for the straw bale project, and recommends supervision for young students. Lists objectives for building a straw bale bench and provides the building instructions which consist of three sessions. Includes four…

  8. Making Smart Building Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how a positive partnership with the architect can help one who is inexperienced in building design and construction make smart building decisions. Tips address how to prevent change orders, what red flags to look for in a building project, what the administrator should expect from the architect to make the project run smoothly, and what…

  9. The neutron dose equivalent evaluation and shielding at the maze entrance of a Varian Clinac 23EX treatment room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xudong; Esquivel, Carlos; Nes, Elena; Shi Chengyu; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Charlton, Michael [University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229 (United States); South Texas Accelerated Research Therapeutics (START) Center for Cancer Care, San Antonio, Texas 78229 (United States); University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the neutron and photon dose equivalent rate (H{sub n,D} and H{sub G}) at the outer maze entrance and the adjacent treatment console area after the installation of a Varian Clinac 23EX accelerator with a higher beam energy than its predecessor. The evaluation was based on measurements and comparison with several empirical calculations. The effectiveness of borated polyethylene (BPE) boards, as a maze wall lining material, on neutron dose and photon dose reduction is also reported. Methods: A single energy Varian 6 MV photon linear accelerator (linac) was replaced with a Varian Clinac 23EX accelerator capable of producing 18 MV photons in a vault originally designed for the former accelerator. In order to evaluate and redesign the shielding of the vault, the neutron dose equivalent H{sub n,D} was measured using an Andersson-Braun neutron Rem meter and the photon dose equivalent H{sub G} was measured using a Geiger Mueller and an ion chamber {gamma}-ray survey meter at the outer maze entrance. The measurement data were compared to semiempirical calculations such as the Kersey method, the modified Kersey method, and a newly proposed method by Falcao et al. Additional measurements were taken after BPE boards were installed on the maze walls as a neutron absorption lining material. Results: With the gantry head tilted close to the inner maze entrance and with the jaws closed, both neutron dose equivalent and photon dose equivalent reached their maximum. Compared to the measurement results, the Kersey method overestimates the neutron dose equivalent H{sub n,D} by about two to four times (calculation/measurement ratio{approx_equal}2.4-3.8). Falcao's method largely overestimates the H{sub n,D} (calculation/measurement ratio{approx_equal}3.9-5.5). The modified Kersey method has a calculation to measurement ratio about 0.6-0.9. The photon dose equivalent calculation including McGinley's capture gamma dose equivalent equation estimates about 77

  10. The Research of Mobile phone Entrance Guard System Model based on the Encryption Two-dimensional Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Jianli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article designs a new mobile-phone entrance guard system, uses the encryption two-dimensional code for identity authentication. Different from other similar products in the market, this system does not rely on specialized mobile phone card or NFC (near field communication module. It can be directly realized through mobile-phone software, and it can be operated simple and safer. This article designs the whole system model, includes structure, function and workflow. It also analyzes and researches the main algorithms used in the system, which include security policy algorithm, encryption two-dimensional code algorithm and image recognition algorithm. Finally, it provides the solution method for the problem in the experimental simulation. It also evaluated and summarized the experimental results.

  11. Investigate Factor Effecting Of Students’ Achievement on High School Entrance Exam-(SBS Respect to the Different Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa METİN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to investigate factor affecting of secondary school students’ achievement on high school entrance exam (SBS respect to the different variables. The study was carried out at fall semester of 2012 with 991 students educating primary schools in Artvin. In this study survey method was used and data gathered with questionnaire consists of 40 items. As a result of study, it was determinate that effects of family, educational facilities, teachers and personal characters on students’ achievement are at high level. There is no different between gender and students achievement (p>0.05, although there are different between grade level, family incomes, graduation types of mother and father and students achievement (p<0.05.

  12. Superconductivity-induced re-entrance of the orthorhombic distortion in Ba1-xKxFe2As2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmer, A E; Hardy, F; Wang, L; Wolf, T; Schweiss, P; Meingast, C

    2015-07-31

    Detailed knowledge of the phase diagram and the nature of the competing magnetic and superconducting phases is imperative for a deeper understanding of the physics of iron-based superconductivity. Magnetism in the iron-based superconductors is usually a stripe-type spin-density-wave, which breaks the tetragonal symmetry of the lattice, and is known to compete strongly with superconductivity. Recently, it was found that in some systems an additional spin-density-wave transition occurs, which restores this tetragonal symmetry, however, its interaction with superconductivity remains unclear. Here, using thermodynamic measurements on Ba1-xKxFe2As2 single crystals, we show that the spin-density-wave phase of tetragonal symmetry competes much stronger with superconductivity than the stripe-type spin-density-wave phase, which results in a novel re-entrance of the latter at or slightly below the superconducting transition.

  13. RESEARCH OF THE ENTRANCE ANGLE EFFECT ON THE REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF THE STAINLESS STEEL SURFACE OXIDIZED BY PULSED LASER RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Veiko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Oxide films on the metal surfaces can be obtained both by surface-uniform infrared heating and local laser treatment e.g. by sequence of nanosecond laser pulses. Due to interference in created films the coloration of treated area is observed. The present work shows the results of spectrophotometric measurements for various light entrance angles in the range of 10-60°. Method. AISI 304 stainless steel plates were oxidized by two methods: in muffle furnace FM - 10 (Т= 500-600° С, t = 5-7 min. and at line-by-line scanning by sequence of nanosecond laser pulses (λ = 1.06 μm, τ =100 ns, r = 25 μm,q=2.91∙107 W/cm2, Nx = 30, Ny = 1. Surface research in optical resolution was realized by Carl Zeiss Axio Imager A1M. Reflectance spectra were obtained with spectrophotometer Lambda Perkin 1050 with integrating sphere at different fixed light incidence angles. Topographic features were detected by scanning probe microscopy investigation with NanoEducator equipment. Main Results. The quantitative surface geometry characteristics of AISI 304 stainless steel patterns treated by different methods are obtained. It was found that the increase of light entrance angle has no influence on the form of reflection coefficient dependence from a wavelength, but a blue-shift occurs especially for the case of laser treatment. This difference can be caused by surface topology formed by laser heating and variety of oxide film thickness. This effect results in more significant change in observed sample color for laser treatment then for infrared heating. Practical Relevance. The results obtained in the present work can be used to implement a new element of product protection against forgery with the product marking.

  14. Site of entrance wound and direction of bullet path in firearm fatalities as indicators of homicide versus suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druid, H

    1997-08-04

    In a retrospective study, 288 firearm deaths were analysed to identify factors indicating homicide. The cases were classified as suicides (213), homicides (54), accidents (14) and undetermined cases (7). A number of factors, related to the circumstances and the autopsy findings, were studied. Whereas 41% of the homicide victims were females, women only constituted 1.4% of the suicide victims. The mean age was 37 and 50 years among homicide and suicide victims, respectively. Most suicides were committed at or in the vicinity of the residence, whereas a majority of the homicides occurred elsewhere. The majority of the suicide victims had either left a suicide note or had medical records of previous psychiatric illness. In all groups, shotguns were the most frequent weapon used. Fifty-seven percent of the homicide victims, but only three percent of the suicide victims had sustained more than one gunshot wound. One-third of the homicide victims were shot at close range. Alcohol was present in one-third of both homicide and suicide victims. Whereas 38% of the homicidal gunshot wounds had their entrances at anatomical regions typical of suicide, the direction of the bullet path often differed from the directions recorded in suicides. Hence, in this material, an entrance wound in the right temple indicated suicide, but in combination with a direction back-to-front, the wound was more likely to be homicidal. This study suggests that an estimation of the direction of the internal bullet path should be conducted in firearm fatalities, and that this factor may assist in the determination of the manner of death.

  15. Controlling the intelligent building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    Companies will be able to locate in intelligent buildings that offer access to a variety of sophisticated communications equipment, at the heart of which are building controls that ensure a comfortable and safe working environment for the occupants. Future buildings will include advanced telephones or workstations with built-in building control sensors for temperature, light level, and security. Advanced telecommunication systems may have telephone cabinets with built-in control functions which eliminate the need for discrete control systems. The owners and tenants will both enjoy benefits if the controls are carefully selected and designed so that they integrate into a single building package.

  16. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  17. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  18. New opening hours for the Reception foyer and the visitor facilities in Building 33

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    New hours for visitors Monday to FridayReception: 8:00 a.m. to 5:45 p.m.Microcosm: 8:15 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.Shop: 9:00 a.m. to 5:45 p.m. Globe: 2:00 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. (on days the Globe is open)SaturdayReception: 8:30 a.m. to 5:15 p.m. Microcosm: 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Shop: 9:00 a.m. to 5:15 p.m. Globe: 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (on days the Globe is open) The new opening hours will be displayed on both sides of the entrance to Building 33. People working at CERN should note the modified closing times: Access times for CERN staff Monday to Friday:\tThe foyer in Building 33 opens at 8:00 a.m. and closes at 5:45 p.m. Saturday:\tThe foyer in Building 33 opens at 8:30 a.m. and closes at 5:15 p.m. Outside these hours, CERN staff must use the small entrance that opens directly onto the car park.

  19. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.680 Section 334.680 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS...

  20. A Comparative Study of Martin Luther King Program and Randomly Selected Freshmen Entering the University of Minnesota in Fall, 1970: Entrance Data and Subsequent Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Roberta A.; Hall, William V.

    1976-01-01

    The Martin Luther King (MLK) Program was initiated at the university in the fall of 1968 to provide special academic and financial assistance to disadvantaged students, particularly those of minority ethnic background. MLK Program students and students not in the program (non-MLK) were followed up nearly five years after entrance to the College of…

  1. On Mathematics Topic Teaching for Entrance Examination for Senior High School%浅议中考数学专题教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    居法凤

    2011-01-01

    This paper makes an analysis of mathematics topic teaching for entrance examination for senior high school based on the specific teaching cases.%本文结合具体的教学案例对中考数学专题教学进行了分析。

  2. Effects of Clown Doctors on Child and Caregiver Anxiety at the Entrance to the Surgery Care Unit and Separation from Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Patrícia; Pacheco, Catarina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hospital Clown Doctors intervention on child and caregiver preoperative anxiety at the entrance to the surgery care unit and separation from caregivers. A total of 88 children (aged 4-12 years) were assigned to one of the following two groups: Clown Doctors intervention or control group (standard care).…

  3. 33 CFR 207.170d - Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee, Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.170d Taylor Creek, navigation...

  4. 高考中的四点共圆问题%The Problem of the "Four Nodes on Same Circle" in National College Entrance Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭光明

    2011-01-01

    " Round total of four points "is a junior high school mathematics, as a knowledge point of entrance test, and fully reflects the convergence of high and junior high school knowledge of the position in the entrance circle. College entrance examination this year, the grounds (12), reason (21) questions focused on examining the "four points of circle" of knowledge, the author of the College Entrance Examination by a further expression of the resolution "a given problem" , "a question to permit"thinking in the application of mathematics.%“四点共圆”是初中数学知识,高考作为一个知识点考查,充分体现高、初中知识的衔接以及圆在高考中的地位。今年高考的理(12)、理(21)题重点考查了“四点共圆”的知识,笔者通过对高考试题的剖析进一步表达“一题多解”、“一题多证”的思想在数学中的应用。

  5. The Effect of the Attachment Styles and Self-Efficacy of Adolescents Preparing for University Entrance Tests in Turkey on Predicting Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzen, Evren; Odaci, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of attachment styles and self-efficacy of adolescents preparing for university entrance exams in Turkey on predicting test anxieties. The study group consisted of 884 final-year high school students (423 female and 461 male) attending different types of high school, preparing for university…

  6. Green building performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, N. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A system for labelling buildings in a manner similar to product labelling already well established with respect to goods and materials in general, was proposed. The system envisaged would differ from existing labelling systems in that it would follow the principles incorporated into `Green Building Challenge `98`, (GBC`98) The GBC`98 is a two-year process of international building performance assessment, whose goal is to inform the international community of scientists, designers and builders about advances in green building performance. GBC`98 also aims to test and demonstrate an improved method for measuring building performance, establish international benchmarks for building performance while respecting regional and technical diversity, showcase `best-practice` examples of green buildings around the world, document successful elements in individual green buildings and offer direction to participating countries in the development of regionally sensitive assessment models. The genesis of GBC`98, its potential applications as a second generation tool for eco-labeling of buildings was summarized, along with a review of existing building performance assessment systems. 4 refs.

  7. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...... building operation as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using 'green accounting', by applying policies for sustainability etc. The paper is based on case studies...

  8. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  9. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  10. Ansiedade em vestibulandos: um estudo exploratório Anxiety in candidates for university entrance examinations: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Guzinski Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Apesar do crescente interesse e da literatura existente sobre adolescentes em preparação para o vestibular, ainda é escasso o conhecimento sobre essa população. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a prevalência de indicadores de ansiedade em alunos de cursos pré-vestibulares na cidade de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 1.046 estudantes que se preparavam para o vestibular; 390 (37,3% eram do sexo masculino e 656 (62,7%, do sexo feminino. A média de idade da amostra foi 18 anos (DP 2,71. Os participantes responderam a um questionário estruturado, com questões sociodemográficas, e à Escala Beck de Ansiedade. RESULTADOS: 23,5% dos vestibulandos apresentaram ansiedade considerada moderada ou grave; candidatas do sexo feminino apresentaram significativamente níveis mais elevados do que os candidatos do sexo masculino; os cursos cujos candidatos apresentaram maior ansiedade foram Publicidade e Propaganda, Farmácia, Medicina Veterinária, Medicina e Odontologia; a sensação de obrigação de prestar vestibular e o fato de considerá-lo como algo decisivo em sua vida fizeram que os adolescentes sentissem mais ansiedade. CONCLUSÕES: Há necessidade premente de atenção psiquiátrica/psicológica a esses candidatos. Outros estudos devem ser realizados, ampliando o conhecimento e baseando em evidências as futuras intervenções dirigidas a essa população.BACKGROUND: Despite the growing interest and the existing literature about adolescents in preparation for the university entrance examinations, the knowledge about this population is still scarce. OBJECTIVES: To verify the prevalence of anxiety indicators in students of courses for preparation for entrance examinations in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. METHODS: 1,046 students were evaluated who were preparing for the entrance exam, among them 390 (37.3% were male and 656 (62.7% were female. The average age for the sample was 18 years old (SD 2.71. The

  11. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  12. Building valve amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Building Valve Amplifiers is a unique hands-on guide for anyone working with tube audio equipment--as an electronics hobbyist, audiophile or audio engineer. This 2nd Edition builds on the success of the first with technology and technique revisions throughout and, significantly, a major new self-build project, worked through step-by-step, which puts into practice the principles and techniques introduced throughout the book. Particular attention has been paid to answering questions commonly asked by newcomers to the world of the valve, whether audio enthusiasts tackling their first build or

  13. Buildings behaving badly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, Jillian; Papyrakis, Elissaios; Beukering, van Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Heating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe’s energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for residential building

  14. Heat loss from Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...... project for calculations in the SESAM model....

  15. Reusing Old Manufacturing Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an interesting design challenge for students, one that will certainly let them integrate subject matter and get a sense of pride for doing something useful in their own community. The author would be willing to bet that the average town or city has some old red brick manufacturing building(s) that have seen much better days.…

  16. Dancing building prevents collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, R.

    2007-01-01

    In future, anybody caught inside a building during an earthquake need no longer fear the roof collapsing on them. Thanks to the use of composite materials, all the building will do is dance along, riding the waves of the earthquake. At least, according to Professor Ir. Adriaan Beukers of the Aerospa

  17. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  18. Behavioral Strategies: Building Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Charles J.

    Using a construction building analogy, this guide provides a plan for building a system of behavior strategies. These strategies are designed to assist behavior analysts of contracted provider agencies in the construction and maintenance of procedures which will help monitor and reduce the frequency of problematic behaviors in individuals with…

  19. Building: Food for thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraïm Rodríguez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sculpture presented by Efraïm Rodríguez for the conference is titled “pequeño arquitecto” (The Little Architect, a figure which represents a child building a tower with pieces of classical children’s block building toys; the child itself is built out of the same sculpted materials.

  20. Building a Better Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  1. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  2. Buildings behaving badly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, Jillian; Papyrakis, Elissaios; Beukering, van Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Heating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe’s energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for residential building

  3. Pollen Bearing Honey Bee Detection in Hive Entrance Video Recorded by Remote Embedded System for Pollination Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Z.; Pilipovic, R.; Risojevic, V.; Mirjanic, G.

    2016-06-01

    Honey bees have crucial role in pollination across the world. This paper presents a simple, non-invasive, system for pollen bearing honey bee detection in surveillance video obtained at the entrance of a hive. The proposed system can be used as a part of a more complex system for tracking and counting of honey bees with remote pollination monitoring as a final goal. The proposed method is executed in real time on embedded systems co-located with a hive. Background subtraction, color segmentation and morphology methods are used for segmentation of honey bees. Classification in two classes, pollen bearing honey bees and honey bees that do not have pollen load, is performed using nearest mean classifier, with a simple descriptor consisting of color variance and eccentricity features. On in-house data set we achieved correct classification rate of 88.7% with 50 training images per class. We show that the obtained classification results are not far behind from the results of state-of-the-art image classification methods. That favors the proposed method, particularly having in mind that real time video transmission to remote high performance computing workstation is still an issue, and transfer of obtained parameters of pollination process is much easier.

  4. Evaluation of entrance surface-skin doses in animals submitted on exams of abdomen in veterinary radiology using Tl dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneziani, G. R.; Matsushima, L. C.; Campos, L. L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Filho, A. M., E-mail: venezianigr@gmail.com [Centro Universitario de Rio Petro - UNIRP, Rodovia Br 153 (Transbrasiliana), Km. 69 Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The radiation protection has recently gained considerable attention in human medicine. In veterinary medicine has been some advances in radiodiagnostic and therapy for domestic animal like dogs and cats. It is notable the increase of the costs with domestic animals that are considered, by many people in the whole world, like members of family. However, an important parameter that must be taken into account is the increasing use of computed tomography and other equipment s that uses ionizing radiation, which may lead to comparatively high exposure of critical organs. The radiation dose is determined by the balance between therapeutic benefit and possible damage to surrounding normal tissues. This study aimed the evaluation of entrance surface-skin doses in dogs submitted to radiodiagnostic procedures of abdomen using the technique of thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). The radiation doses were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD 100) and a dog phantom made with a plastic container, proportional to the dog size, fulfilled with water. (Author)

  5. Entrance surface dose measurements using a small OSL dosimeter with a computed tomography scanner having 320 rows of detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegami, Kazuki; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Yamada, Kenji; Mihara, Yoshiki; Kimoto, Natsumi; Kanazawa, Yuki; Higashino, Kousaku; Yamashita, Kazuta; Hayashi, Fumio; Okazaki, Tohru; Hashizume, Takuya; Kobayashi, Ikuo

    2017-03-01

    Entrance surface dose (ESD) measurements are important in X-ray computed tomography (CT) for examination, but in clinical settings it is difficult to measure ESDs because of a lack of suitable dosimeters. We focus on the capability of a small optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter. The aim of this study is to propose a practical method for using an OSL dosimeter to measure the ESD when performing a CT examination. The small OSL dosimeter has an outer width of 10 mm; it is assumed that a partial dose may be measured because the slice thickness and helical pitch can be set to various values. To verify our method, we used a CT scanner having 320 rows of detectors and checked the consistencies of the ESDs measured using OSL dosimeters by comparing them with those measured using Gafchromic™ films. The films were calibrated using an ionization chamber on the basis of half-value layer estimation. On the other hand, the OSL dosimeter was appropriately calibrated using a practical calibration curve previously proposed by our group. The ESDs measured using the OSL dosimeters were in good agreement with the reference ESDs from the Gafchromic™ films. Using these data, we also estimated the uncertainty of ESDs measured with small OSL dosimeters. We concluded that a small OSL dosimeter can be considered suitable for measuring the ESD with an uncertainty of 30 % during CT examinations in which pitch factors below 1.000 are applied.

  6. Potential submarine geologic hazards at the entrance of the Pearl River Estuary in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wei, Zhiqiang; He, Huizhong; Wei, Wei; Qian, Libing; Li, Tuanjie

    2016-08-01

    The potential submarine geologic hazards were distinguished and categorized at the entrance of the Pearl River Estuary in the northern South China Sea, based upon the analysis of side scan sonar and sub-bottom profiler surveying data of about 2500 km long, in an area about 2000 km2 around the Wanshan Archipelago. The data obtained in the survey has the highest spatial resolution by far, which could reveal more detailed distributions and characteristics of the geologic hazards than before. In the study region, three paleo-channels that were buried about 10-30 m below the seabed were found; more than 10 shallow gas areas were discovered. The sand waves found in the region were generally small and located near the islands, and twenty pockmarks found on the seabed were mostly concentrated to north of Zhuzhou island. There are also many man-made obstacles in the region, such as wreckages, pipeline, etc. In this paper we provide a detailed distribution map of the submarine geologic hazards in this region for the first time, and discuss their formation and harmfulness, which will provide a scientific basis for marine engineering construction, marine geologic disaster prevention and mitigation.

  7. Measurement of Entrance Surface Dose on an Anthropomorphic Thorax Phantom Using a Miniature Fiber-Optic Dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Shin, Sang Hun; Jeon, Dayeong; Hong, Seunghan; Sim, Hyeok In; Kim, Seon Geun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Youn, Won Sik; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-01-01

    A miniature fiber-optic dosimeter (FOD) system was fabricated using a plastic scintillating fiber, a plastic optical fiber, and a multi-pixel photon counter to measure real-time entrance surface dose (ESD) during radiation diagnosis. Under varying exposure parameters of a digital radiography (DR) system, we measured the scintillating light related to the ESD using the sensing probe of the FOD, which was placed at the center of the beam field on an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. Also, we obtained DR images using a flat panel detector of the DR system to evaluate the effects of the dosimeter on image artifacts during posteroanterior (PA) chest radiography. From the experimental results, the scintillation output signals of the FOD were similar to the ESDs including backscatter simultaneously obtained using a semiconductor dosimeter. We demonstrated that the proposed miniature FOD can be used to measure real-time ESDs with minimization of DR image artifacts in the X-ray energy range of diagnostic radiology. PMID:24694678

  8. Measurement of Entrance Surface Dose on an Anthropomorphic Thorax Phantom Using a Miniature Fiber-Optic Dosimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jae Yoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A miniature fiber-optic dosimeter (FOD system was fabricated using a plastic scintillating fiber, a plastic optical fiber, and a multi-pixel photon counter to measure real-time entrance surface dose (ESD during radiation diagnosis. Under varying exposure parameters of a digital radiography (DR system, we measured the scintillating light related to the ESD using the sensing probe of the FOD, which was placed at the center of the beam field on an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. Also, we obtained DR images using a flat panel detector of the DR system to evaluate the effects of the dosimeter on image artifacts during posteroanterior (PA chest radiography. From the experimental results, the scintillation output signals of the FOD were similar to the ESDs including backscatter simultaneously obtained using a semiconductor dosimeter. We demonstrated that the proposed miniature FOD can be used to measure real-time ESDs with minimization of DR image artifacts in the X-ray energy range of diagnostic radiology.

  9. Entrance channel effects on the evaporation residue yields in reactions leading to the $^{220}$Th compound nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyungil; Mandaglio, Giuseppe; Giardina, Giorgio; Kim, Youngman

    2014-01-01

    The evaporation residue yields from compound nuclei $^{220}$Th formed in the $^{16}$O+$^{204}$Pb, $^{40}$Ar+$^{180}$Hf, $^{82}$Se+$^{138}$Ba, $^{124}$Sn+$^{96}$Zr reactions are analyzed to study the entrance channel effects by comparison of the capture, fusion and evaporation residue cross sections calculated by the combined dinuclear system (DNS) and advanced statistical models. The difference between evaporation residue (ER) cross sections can be related to the stages of compound nucleus formation or/and at its surviving against fission. The sensitivity of the both stages in the evolution of DNS up to the evaporation residue formation to the angular momentum of DNS is studied. The difference between fusion excitation functions are explained by the hindrance to complete fusion due to the larger intrinsic fusion barrier $B^*_{\\rm fus}$ for the transformation of the DNS into a compound nucleus and the increase of the quasifission contribution due to the decreasing of quasifission barrier $B_{\\rm qf}$ as a func...

  10. Technical Management for Buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Vairo, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of an 'instrument' for the optimization of the functionality and conservation of tertiary buildings. This technique has several different names: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Central Control and Monitoring System (CCMS) in English, and Gestion Technique du Bâtiment' (GTB) or Gestion Technique Centralisée (GTC) in French. With this technique it is possible to manage all the functions of a building, it is a modern instrument that introduces the concept of 'automation' in the operation of buildings using computerized procedures, earlier reserved for industrial processes. The system is structured with different automation levels with a distributed intelligence, each level characterized by a communication system (Fieldbus for the lowest and Ethernet for the highest level). In order to apply the BAS to CERN buildings it is necessary to evaluate the advantages, the CERN requirements and the integration with the several existing control and automation systems.

  11. CERN's newest building

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    With a growing number of users looking for offices, the shortage of space has become acute, particularly for physicists. Building 42, inaugurated on Friday 11 February, offers almost 300 new work-spaces and a particularly pleasant working environment.   Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research (left), Rolf Heuer , CERN Director-General (centre), and Mark Muller, President of the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and Head of the Department of Construction and Information Technology (right) at the opening of Building 42 on 11 February, 2011.   Construction work for the new Building 42 began in January 2009, thanks to support from the Swiss foundation FIPOI (Fondation des immeubles pour les organisations internationales). After two years of work, the building, an extension of Building 40, is ready to accommodate physicists from around the world who have come to work on the LHC. "We had more than 25 external contractors working...

  12. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  13. Knowledge formalization of intelligent building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.

  14. Building Software with Gradle

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Studer, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we will give an overview of the key concepts and main features of Gradle, the innovative build system that has become the de-facto standard in the enterprise. We will cover task declaration and task graph execution, incremental builds, multi-project builds, dependency management, applying plugins, extracting reusable build logic, bootstrapping a build, and using the Gradle daemon. By the end of this talk, you will have a good understanding of what makes Gradle so powerful yet easy to use. You will also understand why companies like Pivotal, LinkedIn, Google, and other giants with complex builds count on Gradle. About the speakers Etienne is leading the Tooling Team at Gradleware. He has been working as a developer, architect, project manager, and CTO over the past 15 years. He has spent most of his time building software products from the ground up and successfully shipping them to happy customers. He had ...

  15. Building Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Koukkari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D and standardization are thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the environmental methods. Other directions of research aim at performance-based design and methods to take regional and cultural aspects into account. In this paper, the perspectives of the sustainability assessment of a whole building are presented, based on a state of the art, feasibility study on performance analysis and the development of an extended life-cycle assessment for buildings. Using various tools, and based on the case studies of building sustainability assessment, environmental indicators were often shown to be of lesser importance than the other, soft ones. The first steps in the development of a building sustainability assessment method for Portuguese residential buildings will be presented and discussed in the end.

  16. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  17. Building Social Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Building a web application that attracts and retains regular visitors is tricky enough, but creating a social application that encourages visitors to interact with one another requires careful planning. This book provides practical solutions to the tough questions you'll face when building an effective community site -- one that makes visitors feel like they've found a new home on the Web. If your company is ready to take part in the social web, this book will help you get started. Whether you're creating a new site from scratch or reworking an existing site, Building Social Web Applications

  18. Integrated Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    In the first half of the 20th century, HVAC systems and artificial lighting were developed to meet indoor comfort needs. Before the introduction of mechanical systems, climate - not building style or appearance - was the major determinant of building form. Comfort was achieved through passive means...... and architectural features built into the design. However, with the advent of new technologies, architects were no longer constrained by the need to ensure that buildings had ample daylighting, remained airy and cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Since HVAC systems and artificial lighting could satisfy...

  19. INL Green Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  20. Mycotoxins in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    as in future energy efficient buildings. It brings together different disciplinary points of view on indoor mold, ranging from physics and material science to microbiology and health sciences. The contents have been outlined according to three main issues: Fundamentals, particularly addressing the crucial...... for avoiding adverse health effects is the prevention (or minimization) of persistent dampness and microbial growth on interior surfaces and in building structures. This book aims to describe the fundamentals of indoor mold growth as a prerequisite to tackle mold growth in the existing building stock as well...

  1. Estimation of entrance dose on chest radiographs according to the exposure index on Computerized Radiology System: preliminary results; Estimativa de dose de entrada a partir do indice de exposicao em sistema CR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donomai, Luana Kaoru; Jornada, Tiago da Silva; Daros, Kellen Adriana Curci, E-mail: luana.donomai@gmail.com, E-mail: tiagosjornada@gmail.com, E-mail: daros.kellen@unifesp.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Digital radiology has improved image quality in radiographs in comparison to screen/film systems though the visual control of the quantity of radiation involved on these exams became more demanding due to the low perception of over and underexposed images. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the exposure index (EI) from chest examinations and relate them to the entrance skin dose. Indices from 29 patients and kerma entrance dose were correlated. A correlation coefficient equal to 0,6881 was calculated. EI and entrance dose are correlated positive and moderately, indicating the relevance to deepen the subject. (author)

  2. Entrance and exit wounds of high velocity bullet: An autopsy analysis in the event of dispersing the mass rally in Bangkok Thailand, May 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peonim, Vichan; Srisont, Smith; Udnoon, Jitta; Wongwichai, Sompong; Thapon, Arisa; Worasuwannarak, Wisarn

    2016-11-01

    Fatal mass casualties by high velocity bullets (HVBs) are rare events in peaceful countries. This study presents 27 forensic autopsy cases with 32 shots fired by 5.56×45mm. HVB (M-16 rifle bullets) during the dispersing the mass rally in Bangkok Thailand, May 2010. It was found that twenty-three (71.88%) typical entrance HVB wounds had round sizes less than the bullet diameters. Most entrance wounds had microtears but no collar abrasion since a HVB has a small streamlined spitzer tip and full metal jacket. For exit wounds, there were various sizes and shapes depending on which section of wound ballistics presented when the bullet exited the body. If a bullet exited in the section of temporally cavity formation, there would be a large size exit wound in accordance with the degree of bullet yaw. This is different from civilian bullets whereby the shape looks like a cylindrical round nose and at low velocity that causes entrance wounds with a similar size to the bullet diameter and is usually round or oval shape with collar abrasion. The temporary cavity is not as large as in a HVB so exit wounds are not quite as large and present a ragged border compared to a HVB. We also reported 9 out of 32 shots (28.13%) of atypical entrance wounds that had various characteristics depending on site of injury and destabilization of bullets. These findings may be helpful to forensic pathologists and to give physicians, who need to diagnose HVB wounds, more confidence.

  3. Effects of Clown Doctors on child and caregiver anxiety at the entrance to the surgery care unit and separation from caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Arriaga; Catarina Pacheco

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hospital Clown Doctors intervention on child and caregiver preoperative anxiety at the entrance to the surgery care unit and separation from caregivers. A total of 88 children (aged 4-12 years) were assigned to one of the following two groups: Clown Doctors intervention or control group (standard care). Independent observational records using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale instrument assessed children’s anxiety, while the State-Trait Anxiet...

  4. “What do Ayurveda Postgraduate Entrance Examinations actually assess?” – Results of a five-year period question-paper analysis based on Bloom's taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Deepti Singh; Piyush Kumar Tripathi; Kishor Patwardhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The standards of Ayurveda education in India are being questioned in the recent years and many suggestions related to educational reforms are being put forth by educators and health policy experts. However, the Post Graduate Entrance Examinations (PGEEs) that are carried out to select the candidates to pursue postgraduate programs have received little attention in this context. Objectives: The objective of this study was to classify the Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) from Ayu...

  5. Reconstruction of the Old Residential Entrance Space Based on Modularization%基于模数化的旧住宅入口空间改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The old residential areas tend to appear dirty and ruined, lacking of vitality. The entrance, the most frequently used locations with a large crowd, has an important role in an old residential. To this end, we propose to convert the outside entrance of the old residential for the convenience of residents, thus stimulating vitality. By summarizing the common types of entrances, we selected the optimum function modules to redu-ce the costs of production and maintenance and to simplify the process of transportation and instal ation%  市区内的老旧住宅往往显得脏乱破败、活力缺失。而住宅的入口,是一个人流较大、使用最频繁的位置,对一栋旧住宅有着重要的作用。为此,我们提出改造旧住宅外部入口以达到方便居民、激发活力的目的。并通过总结旧住宅常见入口类型,选择适宜的功能模块进行模数化设计。降低生产维护成本,利于运输安装。

  6. Comparison of gunshot entrance morphologies caused by .40-caliber Smith & Wesson, .380-caliber, and 9-mm Luger bullets: a finite element analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ivo Matoso

    Full Text Available Firearms can cause fatal wounds, which can be identified by traces on or around the body. However, there are cases where neither the bullet nor gun is found at the crime scene. Ballistic research involving finite element models can reproduce computational biomechanical conditions, without compromising bioethics, as they involve no direct tests on animals or humans. This study aims to compare the morphologies of gunshot entrance holes caused by.40-caliber Smith & Wesson (S&W, .380-caliber, and 9×19-mm Luger bullets. A fully metal-jacketed.40 S&W projectile, a fully metal-jacketed.380 projectile, and a fully metal-jacketed 9×19-mm Luger projectile were computationally fired at the glabellar region of the finite element model from a distance of 10 cm, at perpendicular incidence. The results show different morphologies in the entrance holes produced by the three bullets, using the same skull at the same shot distance. The results and traits of the entrance holes are discussed. Finite element models allow feasible computational ballistic research, which may be useful to forensic experts when comparing and analyzing data related to gunshot wounds in the forehead.

  7. Comparison of Gunshot Entrance Morphologies Caused by .40-Caliber Smith & Wesson, .380-Caliber, and 9-mm Luger Bullets: A Finite Element Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoso, Rodrigo Ivo; Freire, Alexandre Rodrigues; Santos, Leonardo Soriano de Mello; Daruge Junior, Eduardo; Rossi, Ana Claudia; Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua

    2014-01-01

    Firearms can cause fatal wounds, which can be identified by traces on or around the body. However, there are cases where neither the bullet nor gun is found at the crime scene. Ballistic research involving finite element models can reproduce computational biomechanical conditions, without compromising bioethics, as they involve no direct tests on animals or humans. This study aims to compare the morphologies of gunshot entrance holes caused by.40-caliber Smith & Wesson (S&W), .380-caliber, and 9×19-mm Luger bullets. A fully metal-jacketed.40 S&W projectile, a fully metal-jacketed.380 projectile, and a fully metal-jacketed 9×19-mm Luger projectile were computationally fired at the glabellar region of the finite element model from a distance of 10 cm, at perpendicular incidence. The results show different morphologies in the entrance holes produced by the three bullets, using the same skull at the same shot distance. The results and traits of the entrance holes are discussed. Finite element models allow feasible computational ballistic research, which may be useful to forensic experts when comparing and analyzing data related to gunshot wounds in the forehead. PMID:25343337

  8. Suicidal single gunshot injury to the head: differences in site of entrance wound and direction of the bullet path between right- and left-handed--an autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Slobodan; Zivković, Vladimir; Babić, Dragan; Juković, Fehim

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the anatomical site of a gunshot entrance wound and the direction of the bullet path between right- and left-handed subjects who committed a suicide by a single gunshot injury to the head. The retrospective autopsy study was performed for a 10-year period, and it included selected cases of single suicidal gunshot head injury, committed by handguns. We considered only contact or near-contact wounds. The sample included 479 deceased, with average age 47.1 ± 19.1 years (range, 12-89 years): 432 males and 47 females, with 317 right-handed, 25 left-handed, and 137 subjects with unknown dominant hand. In our observed sample, most cases involved the right temple as the site of entrance gunshot wound (about 67%), followed by the mouth (16%), forehead (7%), left temple (6%), submental (2%), and parietal region (1%). The left temple, right temple, and forehead were the sites of the gunshot entrance wounds, which were the best predictors of the handedness of the deceased (Spearman ρ = 0.149, P = 0.006). Our study showed that the direction of the bullet intracranial path in cases of suicide was even a more potent predictor of the handedness of the deceased (Spearman ρ = 0.263, P = 0.000; Wald = 149.503, P = 0.000).

  9. The validity of Iran’s national university entrance examination (Konkoor for predicting medical students’ academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokhi-Khajeh-Pasha Yasin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Iran, admission to medical school is based solely on the results of the highly competitive, nationwide Konkoor examination. This paper examines the predictive validity of Konkoor scores, alone and in combination with high school grade point averages (hsGPAs, for the academic performance of public medical school students in Iran. Methods This study followed the cohort of 2003 matriculants at public medical schools in Iran from entrance through internship. The predictor variables were Konkoor total and subsection scores and hsGPAs. The outcome variables were (1 Comprehensive Basic Sciences Exam (CBSE scores; (2 Comprehensive Pre-Internship Exam (CPIE scores; and (3 medical school grade point averages (msGPAs for the courses taken before internship. Pearson correlation and regression analyses were used to assess the relationships between the selection criteria and academic performance. Results There were 2126 matriculants (1374 women and 752 men in 2003. Among the outcome variables, the CBSE had the strongest association with the Konkoor total score (r = 0.473, followed by msGPA (r = 0.339 and the CPIE (r = 0.326. While adding hsGPAs to the Konkoor total score almost doubled the power to predict msGPAs (R2 = 0.225, it did not have a substantial effect on CBSE or CPIE prediction. Conclusions The Konkoor alone, and even in combination with hsGPA, is a relatively poor predictor of medical students’ academic performance, and its predictive validity declines over the academic years of medical school. Care should be taken to develop comprehensive admissions criteria, covering both cognitive and non-cognitive factors, to identify the best applicants to become "good doctors" in the future. The findings of this study can be helpful for policy makers in the medical education field.

  10. The influence of laser clipped by the laser entrance hole on hohlraum radiation measurement on Shenguang-III prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Basic Plasma Physics and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Li, Zhichao; Guo, Liang; Li, Sanwei; Yi, Rongqing; Song, Tianming; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Zhebin; Jiang, Xiaohua; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China)

    2014-03-15

    Measuring the x-ray flux exiting the target's laser entrance hole (LEH) is the most common diagnostic that quantifies the x-ray intensity inside the laser-driven hohlraum. However, this signal accounts for only a small portion of the incident laser power and thus is likely to be affected by unwanted x-ray background from non-target area, leading to an overestimation of the hohlraum drive. Unwanted emission might be produced when the laser light is clipped by the LEH (LEH clipping) because of a lack of clearance for laser spot, or with a laser spot comprising of discrete structure, or even with a poor pointing accuracy. Its influence on the hohlraum radiation diagnostic is investigated on Shenguang-III prototype laser facility with the typical 1 ns square pulse. The experiment employed three types of targets to excite the unwanted x-ray background from LEH clipping, unconverted light, and both effects, respectively. This work gives an absolute evaluation of x-ray produced by the LEH clipping, which is measured by flat-response x-ray detectors (FXRD) at multiple view angles. The result indicates that there is little variation in measured emission to various view angles, because the unwanted x-rays are mainly generated at the side face of the LEH lip when laser is obliquely incident. Therefore, the LEH clipping brings more overestimation in hohlraum radiation measurement at larger view angle since the hohlraum LEH as an emitting source viewed by FXRD is decreased as the view angle increases. In our condition, the LEH clipping contributes 2%–3.5% overestimation to the hohlraum flux measurement.

  11. View of Building 40

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    Recently opened at CERN is this striking building for physicists, constructed with the help of the Swiss 'Fondation des Immeubles pour les Organisations Internationales', which has over the years added several major edifices to the Geneva landscape

  12. Building Songs 10

    OpenAIRE

    Zla ba sgrol ma

    2009-01-01

    Male villagers sing a building song This collection presents forty-nine audio files including: several folk song genres; folktales and; local history from the Sman shad Valley of Sde dge county World Oral Literature Project

  13. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... or environmental thinking and this finds expression in new approaches to the design of building facades, roofs, atria. Another is that new software simulation tools have changed energy assumptions and hence building forms. In a fast evolving arena, the book shows how architects are reshaping their practices....... Branding via LEED and BREEAM has taken green ideas to China and other emerging economies. The globalization of sustainability and of architectural practice is an important strand of the new edition....

  14. Flight Research Building (Hangar)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Glenn Flight Research Building is located at the NASA Glenn Research Center with aircraft access to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The facility is...

  15. Municipal Building Energy Usage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set contains energy use data from 2009-2014 for 139 municipally operated buildings. Metrics include: Site & Source EUI, annual electricity, natural...

  16. Buildings Sector Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  17. Assessment of building sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Bragança, L.; Mateus, Ricardo; Koukkari, Heli

    2007-01-01

    The concept of sustainable building is usually related to environmental characteristics although the social, economics and cultural indicators of the life-cycle impacts are of substancial importance. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects; emphasizing the qualitative criteria only increases confusion. The R&D and standardization is thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the enviromental methods. Other directions of research are aiming at...

  18. Building Materials in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    Building in the artic requires special attention on the appropriateness of building materials. The harsh climate makes execution difficult and sets unusual requirements for the pure material properties. In addition, there is a lack of choice of good, natural building materials in the arctic....... This results in high transport costs. The building materials situation in Greenland may potentially be improved by intensifying the reuse of building materials or by promoting the local production of building materials....

  19. Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

  20. WATER TEMPERATURE, SALINITY, and HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE collected from R/V Point Sur in Entrance to the Gulf of California from 2013-04-19 to 2013-05-02 (NCEI Accession 0131072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrographic data were collected in Pescadero Basin (at the entrance to the Gulf of California) and subsequently along the West Coast of Baja California and Southern...

  1. Specifying a green building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, F.; McGregor, A. [Ove Arup and Partners, (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The concept of a `green` building is defined as a building that works with, rather than in spite of, the local climate to minimize fossil fuel consumption. It minimizes water consumption and waste. It uses construction materials that have a long life, are non-toxic, and which require minimum energy to produce, deliver to the building site and install. It is sufficiently flexible to permit successive changes without major construction work. With this definition as the background, this paper concentrates on the reduction of fossil fuel energy consumption in commercial buildings, and the various means available to achieve it, such as natural ventilation, thermal storage, control of solar gain, maximizing the use of daylight for illumination, and passive and active solar energy collection. Also discussed are some of the reasons why some buildings fail to satisfy owners and occupants. A strategy involving performance-based contracting, elements of value engineering and occupant education to assure energy efficiency and owner/occupants satisfaction is presented. 15 refs.

  2. Final report of the radiological release survey of Building 19 at the Grand Junction Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.K.; Corle, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore concentrates and mill tailings during vanadium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District, and during sampling, assaying, pilot milling, storage, and brokerage activities conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJO Remedial Action Project (GJORAP) to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and underlying aquifer. WASTREN-Grand Junction is the site contractor for the facility and the remedial action contractor for GJORAP. Building 19 and the underlying soil were found not to be radiologically contaminated; therefore, the building can be released for unrestricted use. Placards have been placed at the building entrances indicating the completion of the radiological release survey and prohibiting the introduction of any radioactive materials within the building without written approvals from the GJO Facilities Operations Manager. This document was prepared in response to a DOE-GJO request for an individual final release report for each GJO building.

  3. Final report of the radiological release survey of Building 11 at the Grand Junction Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.K.; Corle, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore concentrates and mill tailings during vanadium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District, and during sampling, assaying, pilot milling, storage, and brokerage activities conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJO Remedial Action Project (GJORAP) to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and underlying aquifer. WASTREN-Grand Junction is the site contractor for the facility and the remedial action contractor for GJORAP. Building 11 and the underlying soil were found not to be radiologically contaminated; therefore, the building can be released for unrestricted use. Placards have been placed at the building entrances indicating the completion of the radiological release survey and prohibiting the introduction of any radioactive materials within the building without written approvals from the GJO Facilities Operations Manager. This document was prepared in response to a DOE-GJO request for an individual final release report for each GJO building.

  4. Final report of the radiological release survey of Building 29 at the Grand Junction Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.K.; Corle, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore concentrates and mill tailing during vanadium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District, and during sampling, assaying, pilot milling, storage, and brokerage activities conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJO Remedial Action Project (GJORAP) to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and underlying aquifer. WASTREN-Grand Junction is the site contractor for the facility and the remedial action contractor for GJORAP. Building 29 and the underlying soil were found not to be radiologically contaminated; therefore, the building can be released for unrestricted use. Placards have been placed at the building entrances indicating the completion of the radiological release survey and prohibiting the introduction of any radioactive materials within the building without written approvals from the GJO Facilities Operations Manager. This document was prepared in response to a DOE-GJO request for an individual final release report for each GJO building.

  5. The size and structure of the laser entrance hole in gas-filled hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M. B., E-mail: schneider5@llnl.gov; MacLaren, S. A.; Widmann, K.; Meezan, N. B.; Hammer, J. H.; Yoxall, B. E.; Bell, P. M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Döppner, T.; Eder, D. C.; Edwards, M. J.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hsing, W. W.; Kervin, M. L.; Landen, O. L.; Lindl, J. D.; May, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2015-12-15

    At the National Ignition Facility, a thermal X-ray drive is created by laser energy from 192 beams heating the inside walls of a gold cylinder called a “hohlraum.” The x-ray drive heats and implodes a fuel capsule. The laser beams enter the hohlraum via laser entrance holes (LEHs) at each end. The LEH radius decreases as heated plasma from the LEH material blows radially inward but this is largely balanced by hot plasma from the high-intensity region in the center of the LEH pushing radially outward. The x-ray drive on the capsule is deduced by measuring the time evolution and spectra of the x-radiation coming out of the LEH and correcting for geometry and for the radius of the LEH. Previously, the LEH radius was measured using time-integrated images in an x-ray band of 3–5 keV (outside the thermal x-ray region). For gas-filled hohlraums, the measurements showed that the LEH radius is larger than that predicted by the standard High Flux radiation-hydrodynamic model by about 10%. A new platform using a truncated hohlraum (“ViewFactor hohlraum”) is described, which allows time-resolved measurements of the LEH radius at thermal x-ray energies from two views, from outside the hohlraum and from inside the hohlraum. These measurements show that the LEH radius closes during the low power part of the pulse but opens up again at peak power. The LEH radius at peak power is larger than that predicted by the models by about 15%–20% and does not change very much with time. In addition, time-resolved images in a >4 keV (non-thermal) x-ray band show a ring of hot, optically thin gold plasma just inside the optically thick LEH plasma. The structure of this plasma varies with time and with Cross Beam Energy Transfer.

  6. Clumped-Isotope Thermometry and Oxygen Isotope Systematics in Speleothem Calcite From a Near Cave-Entrance Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, P. E.; Banner, J.; Breecker, D.; Affek, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    hourly temperatures. In temperate regions, seasonal temperature records are lacking. Our results suggest near-entrance speleothems may be a valuable proxy for seasonal temperatures, but may overestimate mean seasonal temperatures in seasonally resolved records due to KIE and/or temperature-dependent calcite growth rates.

  7. SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

  8. Buildings for advanced technology

    CERN Document Server

    Teague, E; Murday, James

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the design and construction of buildings for nanoscale science and engineering research. The information provided in this book is useful for designing and constructing buildings for such advanced technologies as nanotechnology, nanoelectronics and biotechnology. The book outlines the technology challenges unique to each of the building environmental challenges outlined below and provides best practices and examples of engineering approaches to address them: • Establishing and maintaining critical environments: temperature, humidity, and pressure • Structural vibration isolation • Airborne vibration isolation (acoustic noise) • Isolation of mechanical equipment-generated vibration/acoustic noise • Cost-effective power conditioning • Grounding facilities for low electrical interference • Electromagnetic interference (EMI)/Radio frequency interference (RFI) isolation • Airborne particulate contamination • Airborne organic and chemical contamination • Environment, safety a...

  9. GREEN BUILDING CHALLENGE 2005

    OpenAIRE

    López de Asiaín, Jaime; Alvarez-Ude, Luis

    2005-01-01

    Green Building Challenge 2005 forma part d'un projecte de cooperació entre diferents països (més de 20 en l'actualitat) que té per objectiu el desenvolupament d'una metodologia d'avaluació del comportament ecològic dels edificis i els resultats se presentaran en una conferència internacional a celebrar a Tòquio (Japó) a la finals de l'any 2005: Sustainable Building 2005. Green Building Challenge 2005 forma parte de un proyecto de cooperación entre distintos países (más de 20 en la actualid...

  10. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  11. On building Information Warehouses

    CERN Document Server

    Laha, Arijit

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals of information management (IM) is supporting the knowledge workers in performing their works. In this paper we examine issues of relevance, linkage and provenance of information, as accessed and used by the knowledge workers. These are usually not adequately addressed in most of the IT based solutions for IM. Here we propose a non-conventional approach for building information systems for supporting the knowledge workers which addresses these issues. The approach leads to the ideas of building Information Warehouses (IW) and Knowledge work Support Systems (KwSS). Such systems can open up potential for building innovative applications of significant impact, including those capable of helping organizations in implementing processes for double-loop learning.

  12. Building information deduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Myrup Jensen, Morten; Beetz, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show...... of a model, differences in separate models or models from different point of time. Current BIM tools support both modes only in a rudimentary form. This paper discusses current modes of information query within and across BIM models, shows beneficial scenarios for building and planning practice through...... that in practice models are no longer solely observed as culmination of knowledge in a 3d representation of future built structures, but as a source of information in itself. Experienced users of BIM want to Find Information within a model or across a set of these and Compare models in order to evaluate states...

  13. Carbon Efficient Building Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellervo Matilainen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the Finnish legislation have focused on energy use and especially on energy used for heating space in buildings. However, in many cases this does not lead to the optimal concept in respect to minimizing green house gases. This paper studies how CO2 emission levels are affected by different measures to reduce energy use in buildings. This paper presents two real apartment buildings with different options of energy efficiency and power sources. The calculations clearly show that in the future electricity and domestic hot water use will have high importance in respect to energy efficiency, and therefore also CO2 equivalent (eq emissions. The importance increases when the energy efficiency of the building increases. There are big differences between average Finnish production and individual power plants; CO2 eq emissions might nearly double depending on the energy source and the power plant type. Both a building with an efficient district heating as a power source, and a building with ground heat in addition to nuclear power electricity as a complimentary electricity source performed very similarly to each other in respect to CO2 eq emissions. However, it is dangerous to conclude that it is not important which energy source is chosen. If hypothetically, the use of district heating would dramatically drop, the primary energy factor and CO2 eq emissions from electricity would rise, which in turn would lead to the increase of the ground heat systems emissions. A problem in the yearly calculations is that the fact that it is very important, sometimes even crucial, when energy is needed, is always excluded.

  14. Climate Responsive Buildings in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, M.; Amato, A.; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work within the framework of the Annex44 of the International Energy Agency (IEA...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...

  15. Building a Circular Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Heidi; Guldager Jensen, Kasper; Sommer, John

    2016-01-01

    of the circular strategies is not only in the future. Increased flexibility, optimized operation and maintenance, as well as a healthier building, is low-hanging fruit that can be harvested today. The project’s principles can be implemented in industrialized construction in a large scale today. That is proven......Natural resources are scarce and construction accounts for 40 percent of the material and energy consumption in Europe. This means that a switch to a circular future is necessary. ’Building a Circular Future’ maps out where we are, where we are going, and what is needed for this conversion to take...

  16. Architecture Building Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ Leading architectural design and engineering firm, Skidmore,Owings, & Merrill (SOM), is renowned for pushing the envelope, masterminding some of the world's most cutting edge and enduring structural masterpieces - America's tallest building, the Sears Tower,in the firm's home city of Chicago, the 88-story Jinmao Tower in Shanghai, and the Freedom Tower in New York City, successor to the fallen World Trade Center complex,are among the well known projects in its building portfolio. SOM's next high profile assignment, the Pearl River Tower, in Guangzhou is one no less worthy of this tradition.

  17. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from......Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...

  18. Ecology Beyond Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    As the designers of the WWf building in Zeist, The Netherslands a CO2-neutral, self-sufficient office complex, RAU has set the bar for sustainable research and design. Guesteditor Terri Peters visited the firm's studio in Amsterdam to talk to principal Thomas Rau. As Peters relates, Rau prefers t...... to put on the dwindling supply of raw materials rather than the immidiate problems of energy consumption for which there are solutions within reach. With the emphasis on a more far-reaching approach, he places buildings in a wider context of ecological thinking and systems....

  19. Building UIs with Wijmo

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuguang

    2013-01-01

    Written with an example-based approach, Building UIs with Wijmo leads you step by step through the implementation and customization of each library component and its associated resources. Reference tables of each configuration option, method, and event for each component are provided, alongside detailed explanations of how each widget is used.Building UIs with Wijmo is targeted at readers who are familiar with HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and jQuery, and have a basic understanding of web development. Although knowledge of jQuery UI is not mandatory, it would be a bonus as it is quite similar to Wijm

  20. Building the perfect PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This popular Build-It-Yourself (BIY) PC book covers everything you want to know about building your own system: Planning and picking out the right components, step-by-step instructions for assembling your perfect PC, and an insightful discussion of why you'd want to do it in the first place. Most big brand computers from HP, Dell and others use lower-quality components so they can meet their aggressive pricing targets. But component manufacturers also make high-quality parts that you can either purchase directly, or obtain through distributors and resellers. Consumers and corporations

  1. Religious building energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielvogel, L.G.; Rudin, A.

    1988-02-01

    The Interfaith Coalition on Energy (ICE) was organized in 1980 by the Philadelphia area religious community and, funded in 1982 by local private foundations and corporations, began an energy management program for religious buildings whose utility bills are paid by congregations. Since that time, ICE has completed on-site energy audits for 226 congregations with a total of 546 buildings. Each audit report contains a description of the facilities and their energy systems, a baseline year of energy data, a computation of energy use per square foot, and a list of recommendations to reduce energy costs in order of simple payback.

  2. Joints in steel buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel F. Valencia Clement

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Masonry and steel components used in constructing buildings are in a constant state of motion. Volumetric changes are produced by temperature variation and deformation resulting from static or dynamic loading and in some materials, such as masonry, due to moisture content. This article addresses means of determining when expansion and seismic joints are required and how to proportion and design appropriate joints, specifically in steel buildings. It does not cover the study of expansion joints in concrete structures, in masonry construction or in non-structural (architectural elements.

  3. Building theory through design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with a fundamental matter of concern in research through design: how can design work lead to the building of new theory? Controversy exists about the balance between theory and design work in research through design. While some researchers see theory production as the scientific...

  4. Building with History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel; Adams, Charlotte; Green, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on interdisciplinary research focusing on Durham University estate, we describe how buildings constructed as part of an eighteenth century transition to a high carbon coal-based economy, are used and understood by their current inhabitants. Applied heritage research has tended to focus...

  5. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  6. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  7. Building with Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  8. Building a Better CTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Geoffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    This article features the new Framework of Essential Skills of the K-12 CTO of the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN). This latest, version 2.0 iteration of the skills framework builds upon work the organization did earlier this decade. This time CoSN, a professional association for district technology leaders, reached out to a variety of…

  9. References on Sustainable Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This web site is developed with the aim to promote sustainable design and planning of buildings. Selected references including books, reports, audio/visual materials and journals are listed. Most of the materials can be found in the HKU Libraries. To facilitate retrieval, links are provided to the library catalogue system for further information and study.

  10. Rapid Building Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    U.S. Department of Energy DPW OMD Directorate of Public Works Operations Maintenance Division ECM energy conservation measure EEB Hub Energy... EEB Hub). 5 For this project, FirstFuel worked with 11 DoD installations across the country to identify buildings for remote audit

  11. Building for International Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    When completed next August, the LG Beijing Tower project is sureto be one of the most high-end buildings in Beijing. With a meticulous attention to detail, planners know the ins and outs of the city's business momentum.The LG Beijing Tower will utilize an integrated networking system to ensure safety,efficiency and comfort.

  12. Energy efficient building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  13. Fire Protection for Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  14. Building a Twig Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    In this classroom activity, students build a phylogeny for woody plant species based on the morphology of their twigs. Using any available twigs, students can practice the process of cladistics to test evolutionary hypotheses for real organisms. They identify homologous characters, determine polarity through outgroup comparison, and construct a…

  15. Customer loyalty building

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on the customer loyalty. It gives an example of CRM project which aims to build the loyalty of customers to some brand or product so the customer would return to the company and would be satisfied with all products and services he get.

  16. Building Resilience in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D., MS Ed, FAAP, a pediatrician specializing in adolescent medicine at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), has joined forces with the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to author A Parent’s Guide to Building Resilience in Children and Teens: Giving Your Child Roots ...

  17. Sustainable Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Charney

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The intended audience for this webliography is librarians, both in the sciences and in other disciplines, and others that are new to the field such as students and members of the general public who are interested in this topic. Sustainable building practitioners may find parts useful as well.

  18. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  19. Building Bridges to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Stephanie; Scott, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes a theme cycle called "Building Bridges to China" developed for third grade students that focuses on the similarities between the lives of children and families in China and the United States. Explains that the theme cycle addresses the National Geography Standards and three of the National Council for the Social Studies standards. (CMK)

  20. Entrance dose measurements for in-vivo diode dosimetry: Comparison of correction factors for two types of commercial silicon diode detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X R

    2000-01-01

    Silicon diode dosimeters have been used routinely for in-vivo dosimetry. Despite their popularity, an appropriate implementation of an in-vivo dosimetry program using diode detectors remains a challenge for clinical physicists. One common approach is to relate the diode readout to the entrance dose, that is, dose to the reference depth of maximum dose such as d(max) for the 10x10 cm(2) field. Various correction factors are needed in order to properly infer the entrance dose from the diode readout, depending on field sizes, target-to-surface distances (TSD), and accessories (such as wedges and compensate filters). In some clinical practices, however, no correction factor is used. In this case, a diode-dosimeter-based in-vivo dosimetry program may not serve the purpose effectively; that is, to provide an overall check of the dosimetry procedure. In this paper, we provide a formula to relate the diode readout to the entrance dose. Correction factors for TSD, field size, and wedges used in this formula are also clearly defined. Two types of commercial diode detectors, ISORAD (n-type) and the newly available QED (p-type) (Sun Nuclear Corporation), are studied. We compared correction factors for TSDs, field sizes, and wedges. Our results are consistent with the theory of radiation damage of silicon diodes. Radiation damage has been shown to be more serious for n-type than for p-type detectors. In general, both types of diode dosimeters require correction factors depending on beam energy, TSD, field size, and wedge. The magnitudes of corrections for QED (p-type) diodes are smaller than ISORAD detectors.

  1. Spatial and temporal changes in invertebrate assemblage structure from the entrance to deep-cave zone of a temperate marble cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Tobin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality in surface weather results in seasonal temperature and humidity changes in caves. Ecological and physiological differences among trogloxenes, troglophiles, and troglobionts result in species-dependent responses to this variability. To investigate these responses, we conducted five biological inventories in a marble cave in the Sierra Nevada Range, California, USA between May and December 2010. The cave was divided into six quadrats and temperature was continuously logged in each (humidity was logged at the entrance and in the deep cave. With increasing distance from the entrance, temperature changes were increasingly attenuated and lagged relative to surface temperature. Linear regressions were created to determine the relationship between measured environmental variables and diversity for cavernicoles (troglobionts and troglophiles and trogloxenes cave– wide and in the transition zone. Diversity for cavernicoles and trogloxenes peaked in the entrance and deep cave zones, respectively. Quadrat, date, 2-week antecedent temperature average, 2-week antecedent temperature range, and trogloxene abundance explained 76% of cavernicole diversity variability. Quadrat explained 55% of trogloxene diversity variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene abundance explained 26% of cavernicole variability and 2-week antecedent temperature and 2-week antecedent temperature range explained 40% of trogloxene variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene diversity was inversely related to 2-week antecedent temperature average and 2-week antecedent temperature range, suggesting that species were moving into the transition zone when temperature was most stable. In a CCA of cavernicoles distribution data and environmental variables, 35% of variation in species-specific distributions was attributable to quadrat, and non-significant percentages were explained by date and environmental variables. Differences in assemblage structure among quadrats were

  2. 健全党员能进能出机制研究%A Study of Perfecting the Party Member Entrance - Exit Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国井冈山干部学院课题组

    2014-01-01

    健全党员能进能出机制,是加强党的先进性纯洁性建设,永葆生机活力的重要举措。鉴于当前党员发展和管理工作中存在的主要问题,健全党员进出机制必须从两方面着手:一是要适度控制党员发展规模;二是要提升党员管理手段。近年来,各地从实际情况出发进行了有益的探索,积累了一定经验,无疑对健全党员能进能出机制提供了有益参考。%To perfect the party member entrance - exit mechanism is an important measure for strengthening the advanced nature and purity of the Party and maintaining the Party’s vitality and energy. Considering the main problems in the current work of party member development and management,we must perfect the party member entrance - exit mechanism from two aspects:on the one hand,properly control the scale of party member;and on the other hand,improve the means of party membership management. Recently,some localities have explored in this work according to the actual circumstances,and accumulated some experiences,undoubtedly providing some beneficial references for perfecting the party member entrance - exit mechanism.

  3. Efficient Review of Experimental Research in Mathematics College Entrance Pro Forma%数学高考备考中的高效复习实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟进均

    2013-01-01

    College entrance pro forma is important high school math teaching activities and a crucial stage of the high school students' mathematics learning process. The researchers used literature, observation, interviews and educational experiment on the efficient review of the mathematics college entrance pro forma. Practice has proved that the mathematical communication, fine pro forma, fill in students’ test cases,the feedback form, confidence and education pro forma way can promote a significant increase in mathematics achievement, enhance students’ interest in learning mathematics and awareness of active learning, which also greatly enhance the penetration in the classroom mathematics and the efficiency of the college entrance examination pro forma.%高考备考是高中数学教学的重要活动,是高中学生数学学习过程的重要阶段。利用文献研究法、观察法、访谈法和教育实验法对数学高考备考的高效复习方式进行研究,可以得出:数学交流活动、精细化教学管理、填写学生测试情况反馈表、在课堂渗透自信心教育等备考方式能促进数学学习成绩显著提高,增强学生的数学学习兴趣和主动学习意识,大大提高数学高考备考的效率。

  4. The Entrance test of physics and Workbook in teaching of physics at secondary vocational school within long-term pedagogical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlínová, Věra

    2017-01-01

    Within the long-term pedagogical research ongoing since the school year 2008/2009 to 2015/2016 at the secondary vocational school in Bohumín was through of Entrance test of physics, which included curriculum of the sixth to ninth year of elementary school, regularly finding out, in which parts of Entrance test - Unit conversions, International System of Units, Properties of matter, Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Electricity and Magnetism, Optics, Atoms and Universe - pupils of the 1st years of secondary vocational school, technical and non-technical, reach a higher number of correct answers, in which dominates the wrong answers and which parts of the test pupils are better left out completely. It turned out that the results of these tests are very informative not only for theoretical and practical teaching, but also technical and other science subjects. The results of the Entrance tests are also a valuable source of information for continuous innovation Workbook of Physics - Mechanics for the 1st year of secondary vocational schools [1] - whose the first version began during the school year 2007/2008 and which was tested within pre-research in school years 2008/2009, 2009/2010 and within research in school year 2010/2011. On the basis of feedbacks getting from research the Workbook is regularly expanded, innovated and updated. The Workbook consists of parts dedicated to physical concepts, physical tasks, proposals to physical experiments, pupils comments from viewed video projection and documentary films, examples from the world of science and technology, examples from practice and real life, physical terminology in English, quizzes, competitions, interesting things and links related to discussed curriculum. The Workbook is divided into thematic sections, chapters and subchapters similar as physics textbooks for pupils of the 1st years of Secondary Schools in the Czech Republic. In the Workbook there are included tasks on fill in the words, polynomial tasks with

  5. Coping e saúde mental de adolescentes vestibulandos Coping and mental health in adolescents preparing for the Brazilian university entrance examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Soares Dias e Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o uso de estratégias de enfrentamento de problemas (coping por adolescentes vestibulandos e sua possível repercussão na saúde mental desses indivíduos. Participaram deste estudo 292 estudantes, sendo 59,6% mulheres e 38,0% homens com idades entre 16 e 19 anos (M = 17,09; DP = 0,71, contatados em escolas públicas, particulares e conveniadas, que declararam intenção de realizar o processo seletivo vestibular. Foram utilizados o Coping Response Inventory Youth Form (CRI-Y para avaliar as estratégias de coping e o Youth Self Report (YSR para avaliar as psicopatologias. O estudo demonstrou que os adolescentes avaliaram o vestibular como evento estressante, e aqueles que utilizaram mais estratégias de coping de aproximação para enfrentá-lo relataram menos psicopatologias. Os resultados deste estudo põem em evidência a relação entre vestibular como evento estressante e saúde mental dos adolescentes.This study aimed to investigate the use of coping strategies by adolescents preparing to take the Brazilian university entrance exam and its possible repercussion on their mental health. A total of 292 students participated in the study, 59.6% women and 38.0% men, aged between 16 and 19 years (M = 17.09; SD = 0.71, contacted in public, private, and private schools with state government covenant, who declared the intention to take the Brazilian university entrance exam. The Coping Response Inventory Youth Form (CRI-Y was used to assess coping strategies and the Youth Self Report (YSR to evaluate psychopathologies. The study demonstrated that the adolescents' appraise the Brazilian university entrance exam as a stressful event, and those who used more approach coping strategies reported less psychopathologies. The results of this study highlighted the relationship between the Brazilian university entrance exam as a stressful event and the adolescents' mental health.

  6. 异地高考政策输入过程研究--基于政策过程理论的分析%Research on the Input Process of“Offsite College Entrance Examination”Policy---Analysis Based on the Theory of Policy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾美勤

    2015-01-01

    Policy input is a sub-process of the policy process,it is regarded as the founding stage of the policy pro-cess,and it includes the policy issue confirmation and setting the policy agenda. The policy issue confirmation of “Offsite College Entrance Examination”experienced four stages:problem perceived,problem description,problem analysis and poli-cy definition. The building processes of the public policy agenda,the professional policy agenda,the media policy agenda and the government policy agenda were also analyzed. The demands of emerging classes for “Offsite College Entrance Ex-amination”need government departments pay attention.%政策输入是政策过程的子过程,被视为政策过程的创始阶段,包括政策问题的确认与政策议程的设置。异地高考政策问题确认经历了问题察觉、问题描述、问题分析、问题界定四个阶段,异地高考政策议程的设置包括公众性政策议程、专业性政策议程、传媒性政策议程的构建以及政府政策议程的建立。新兴阶层在异地高考政策输入中的政策诉求需要引起政府决策部门的重视。

  7. Government Buildings, Owned, government buildings, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Buildings, Owned dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'government buildings'....

  8. Development of two Danish building typologies for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present two Danish typologies for residential buildings developed in the EU-financed project TABULA. The building typologies focus on energy performance and can be used in the analyses of, e.g., political strategies for planning the future upgrading of the energy...... performance of the residential building stock. Overall, the typologies consist of two types of building models—real example models and average designed models. The main purpose of developing the building typologies was to establish a tool able to calculate different energy-saving scenarios for the entire...... residential building stock. To make such calculations of scenarios, similar average designed building models were established based on extracted average values from the Danish Energy Performance Certification Scheme database. The two building typologies had the same overall composition, i.e., three main...

  9. Body Build Satisfaction and the Congruency of Body Build Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Norman E.; Bailey, Roger C.

    1979-01-01

    Females were administered the somatotype rating scale. Satisfied subjects showed greater congruency between their own and wished-for body build, and greater congruency between their own and friend/date body builds, but less congruency between their own body build and the female stereotype. (Author/BEF)

  10. Building perservation practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    Cultural Heritage sites are in the current practice, defined as everything you find on a site within a delimited selected area. Written sources and guidelines for the preservation of the cultural heritage, written by the public authorities or professionals describe them as places that tell a story...... of architects and planners is primarily to reconcile the conservation prospects with the future use of buildings and sites. They intermediary the site through selections of the narratives, and in practice the restoration or transformation projects becomes a communication of the selected story, utilized....... The currently focus on the experience economic potentials of the cultural heritage, raises the expectation of a economic gain of the transformation projects, which can cause decisions made under pressure that cannot be reversed in the future. Industrial sites and buildings, who needs a significant...

  11. Building a Model Astrolabe

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hands-on introduction to the medieval astrolabe, based around a working model which can be constructed from photocopies of the supplied figures. As well as describing how to assemble the model, I also provide a brief explanation of how each of its various parts might be used. The printed version of this paper includes only the parts needed to build a single model prepared for use at latitudes around 52{\\deg}N, but an accompanying electronic file archive includes equivalent images which can be used to build models prepared for use at any other latitude. The vector graphics scripts used to generate the models are also available for download, allowing customised astrolabes to be made.

  12. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... and how the Net ZEB status should be calculated differs in most countries. This paper presents an overview of Net ZEBs energy calculation methodologies proposed by organisations representing eight different countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Norway, Switzerland and the USA. The different...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  13. Building and using binoscopes

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on both homemade and commercial products, this book provides the reader with simple and straightforward information about the modelling and building of binoscopes. Binoscopes can be thought of as binoculars enlarged to the size of telescopes: essentially, a combination of the two. Constructing a binoscope is easier than most people think, but it still demands attention to detail and proper background knowledge. The author goes on to provide additional information about how to understand the products currently on the market, should the reader choose to purchase a binoscope instead of building one. Lastly, the book also compares binoscopes with telescopes in great detail, outlining the differences the reader can expect to see in the night sky from using both. The celestial views obtained with a binoscope, compared to a single telescope of the same aperture, are a very different experience and well worth the effort.

  14. APAKAH PERSONAL INITIATIVE MAHASISWA DAPAT DIKEMBANGKAN DENGAN MATA KULIAH CHARACTER BUILDING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Pantja Juni Wulandari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Personal initiative is an active behavior to achieve works target, influenced by self-starting aspects, proactive, and toughness in overcoming some constraints. Article presented on how to achieve effectiveness in Character Building subject on personal initiative development based on a research using different group test method. Compared groups were students having finished Character Building subject and not yet followed with the amount of 103 students. Questionnaires consisting of 43 items using semantic different scale were distributed to them. The results indicate that Character Building subject is not effective to develop personal initiative. These are caused by changing happened to students who have followed Character Building subject has not been identified in their personal initiatives, but in the lessening of bad habits in campus life. The students get initiative ability from their personal experience since children to adult. This finding is in line with their participation in organization activities, entrance grade, parents jobs, and high school majority which correlating to personal initiative.

  15. Final report of the radiological release survey of Building 54 at the Grand Junction Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.K.; Corle, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore concentrates and mill tailings during vanadium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District, and during sampling, assaying, pilot milling, storage, and brokerage activities conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJO Remedial Action Project (GJORAP) to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and underlying aquifer. WASTREN-Grand Junction is the site contractor for the facility and the remedial action contractor for GJORAP. Building 54 and the underlying soil were found not to be radiologically contaminated, and can be released for unrestricted use. Placards have been placed at the building entrances indicating the completion of the radiological release survey and prohibiting the introduction of any radioactive materials within the building without written approvals from the GJO Facilities Operations Manager. This document was prepared in response to a DOE-GJO request for an individual release report for each GJO building.

  16. Work at Building 513

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2006-01-01

    As part of IT's preparations to meet the challenge of LHC computing, a new chilled water production unit is being constructed for the Computer Centre. The air conditioning work will start in mid-January and last until June 2006. During this period, access to the car park of Building 513 will be restricted. Please consult the plan for details of the area affected by the work. With apologies for the inconvenience. IT Department

  17. Work at Building 513

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2006-01-01

    As part of IT's preparations to meet the challenge of LHC computing, a new chilled water production unit is being constructed for the Computer Centre. The air conditioning work will start in mid-January and last until June 2006. During this period access to the car park of Building 513 will be restricted. Please consult the plan for details of the area affected by the work. With apologies for the inconvenience, IT Department

  18. Life between buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan

    2001-01-01

    A classic is republished. Life between Buildings was first published in 1971. This book - frequently revised over the years - is still the best source for understanding how people use public spaces in our cities. Published in many languages, it is a standard textbook in Architecture and Planning...... Schools around the world, and continues to be the undisputed basic introduction to the interplay between public space design and social life. This book is now available in its third English language version....

  19. Green building financing

    OpenAIRE

    Brunko, Pavlo

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of green buildings financing. It is noted that bank lending can be a major source of funds for construction. However, current trends in the economy of Ukraine shows that credit, especially lending to construction, is in poor condition. Accordingly, there is a need to explore the possibility of additional measures that can be applied to bringing financial resources into the construction.The author brings evidence in favor of feasibility of raising funds fo...

  20. Not Just New Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the past decade, China could be dubbed a huge construction site in the eyes of many Westerners. Beginning this year, the infrastructure boom will spread from cities to the countryside. Building a "new socialist countryside" has become a hot topic in the last three months, as it was specified in the country's 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-10) for economic and social development.

  1. Building Partner Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In a similar manner, globalization has also created new realities, such as in the case of food production where choice now affects demand as much as...quantity did in the past. “Two major factors drive food requirements [and market prices]: a growing global population and prosperity that expands...argued earlier, to expend effort in other nations without consideration of building capacity and resiliency risks strategic failure and wastage of

  2. Building Company Loyalty System

    OpenAIRE

    Haniková, Alžběta

    2010-01-01

    The thesis discusses the importance of loyal customers, and loyalty system as a tool for building loyalty. It defines loyalty and customer satisfaction, it deals with the issue of customer retention. It describes the history and types of loyalty programs, important factors for deciding on their implementation and problems associated with them. The practical part is concerned with the clothing market, Orsay company and its Orsay Club loyalty systeme. The work also includes a survey of the loya...

  3. BUILD UP Skills Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsingdal, Charlotte Vartou; Lauridsen, Vagn Holk; Hougaard, Karsten Frøhlich

    opfyldelsen af 2020-målene, skal de rette kompetencer inden for energief-fektivitet og brug af vedvarende energi være til stede blandt de udførende i bygge- og an-lægsbranchen. Det er på denne baggrund, at Europa-Kommissionen har igangsat Build Up Skills projektet på tværs af Europa. Formålet med denne...

  4. Building retrofit for cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, H.

    1979-11-01

    The impact of high fuel prices on retrofit in the urban sector is discussed. Then, the benefits of a strong urban retrofit program are enumerated. Institutional, financial, informational, and attitudinal barriers that stand in the way of widespread implementation of energy conservation retrofit are discussed. Policy tools which can be used to implement a retrofit program consist of tax breaks, financing arrangements, mandatory building efficiency standards, and education programs.

  5. Numerical Analysis on the Large Span Beam in Subway Station Entrance%地铁出入口大跨度接口梁数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林蓼

    2012-01-01

    By means of an FE space model, the internal force of large span beam at subway station entrance have been found and compared with the internal force of the traditional planar model, the result shows that the internal force of the space calculation model is closer to the real strained condition than to the traditional planar model. The torque moment of the large span beam at metro entrance is not the dominant element, while the bending moment is similar to the elastomeric supported beam.%建立空间计算模型对地铁出入口大跨度接口梁的内力等进行数值分析,提出接口梁空间计算模型及其内力计算结果,对比传统平面简化计算模型的内力结果,得知空间计算模型结果更接近接口梁的真实受力状态,接口梁的扭矩不是受力的控制性因素,而接口梁的弯矩接近弹性支座梁的弯矩.

  6. Study on How to Improve English Listening Level of the University Entrance Exam%浅析如何提高高考英语听力水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏金铭

    2014-01-01

    英语的听力在高考中占有很大的比例,在各种考试中也具有很重要的地位,高考英语听力成绩的提高需要学生平时在教师的指导下进行基础扎实的训练和技巧的测试培训。该文对教师英语听力教学的策略、听力应试的技巧以及学生英语听力练习的方法进行探讨,为如何提高高考英语听力水平的难题解决建言献策。%English listening comprehension occupies large proportion in the college entrance examination, also has very impor-tant status in the various exams. students usually need to make solid training and skill test training under the guidance of the teach-ers, then their English listening score will improve. The paper will discuss the teachers English listening teaching strategy, listen-ing test techniques, and the practice method of students' English listening and give valuable advices on how to improve English listening level of the university entrance exam.

  7. The Analysis On The Steps In The Entrance Of Museums%台阶在展览建筑入口空间的运用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峥

    2016-01-01

    The research objective of this study are steps in the entrance of museums. Firstly, the study analyses the components of the steps. Secondly, the diferent kinds of functions of the steps are deeply discussed based on the theories and cases. At last, according to these diferent types of functions, the strategies which focus on designing steps are provided for architectures aiming to give them guidelines and inspiration to make some improvements on designing steps in the entrance of museums in the future.%本文以展览建筑入口空间中的台阶为研究对象。探讨了台阶的构成要素,采用了理论与实际案例相结合的方式研究了入口台阶的作用,并基于台阶的各种作用类型,归纳总结了相应的设计策略,为今后展览建筑入口空间的台阶设计提供相关的指导和启示。

  8. Evaluation of the Entrance Skin Dose in Animals Undergoing Diagnostic Radiology Using LiF, Mg, Ti Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD-100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Sina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction According to the International Commission on Radiological Protection publication numbers 60 and 21, the environmental control standards should ensure human and other species protection to a desirable degree. Since application of radiographic procedures in Veterinary Medicine has increased significantly, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the entrance skin dose to the animals (e.g., dogs, cats, horses, and birds undergoing diagnostic radiology. Materials and Methods The entrance skin dose to the animals in different radiology procedures were estimated through a indirect estimation using the output of X-ray tubes and b direct measurement using LiF:Mg, Ti  (TLD-100  thermoluminescence dosimeter. Regression analysis was performed for comparison of the two methods. The animals included in this study were cats, dogs, small birds, horses, parrots, and chough. Results The dose received by the animals varied from 20 mGy to 1189.2 mGy, depending on the animal thickness, focal spot to surface distance, imaging technique, and animal type. Conclusion Optimized procedures are suggested for obtaining high-quality images, with a reasonably low dose imposed to the animals.

  9. 中国高考与社会分层关系研究%Study on the Relationship between College Entrance Examination and Social Stratification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华

    2013-01-01

      Examination is the tipical contradiction of educational evaluation. As the largest and most influential education examination nationaly, college entrance examination is closely related with social stratification beyond educational field.This paper analyzes the mechanism of social stratification of college entrance examination and have the functional evaluation about it.%  考试是教育评价中极为矛盾的典型,高考作为全国规模最大、影响最广的一项国家级教育考试,其影响范围早已超出了教育领域而与社会分层息息相关,本文主要运用文献法、统计学从社会学角度分析了高考对个人和社会的分层机制,并对此做了功能评述。

  10. Last millennium sedimentation in the Gulf of Cariaco (NE Venezuela): Evidence for morphological changes of gulf entrance and possible relations with large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Iliana; Beck, Christian; Audemard, Franck; Develle, Anne-Lise; Boussafir, Mohammed; Campos, Corina; Crouzet, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The Cariaco Basin and the Gulf of Cariaco in Venezuela are two major basins along the seismogenic El Pilar right lateral fault, among which the Cariaco Basin is a pull-apart. Both basins are sites of anoxia and organic-rich deposits. To examine whether the sediments in the Gulf of Cariaco have recorded traces of historical or prehistorical earthquakes, we extracted and analyzed twelve 1 m-long gravity cores, sampling the last millennium sedimentation. We focused on analyzing the sediment sources with different techniques (particle size analysis, XRF, loss on ignition tests, magnetic properties, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, 14C dating). The results confirm that major upwelling occurs at the western gulf entrance and makes deep water flowing from the Cariaco Basin into the Gulf of Cariaco. These flows carry an organic-rich suspended load. Furthermore, we found evidence of a particular, widespread fine-grained siliciclastic deposit (named SiCL3) within the gulf, whose age suggests that it likely formed during the large 1853 AD earthquake that stroke the Cumaná city. We suggest that the earthquake-induced large submarine landslides that modified the topography of the gulf's entrance, which in turn promoted upwelling and open marine water flows from the Cariaco Basin. The layer SiCL3 would be the sediment load remobilized during this chain of events.

  11. 美国ACT课程调查对我国高考改革的启示%Focusing on College Entrance Examination Reform: Implications of ACT NCS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关丹丹; 向冠春

    2012-01-01

    美国ACT对教授英语/写作、数学、阅读和科学四个内容领域的初中、高中和大学教师定期开展全国课程调查。本文介绍了2009年课程调查的对象、任务、结果和结论。ACT通过课程调查改进考试的做法值得我们借鉴学习,针对高中、大学开展全国高考课程调查,或许能为高考改革找到一个突破口。%The ACT National Curriculum Survey is a survey of educational practices and expectations conducted by ACT. ACT surveys thousands of middle school, high school, and postsecondary teachers in English/writing, reading, mathematics, and science for the purpose of determining what skills and knowledge are currently being taught, and which are considered important for success at each grade level for college readiness. This paper introduces the survey participants, tasks, results and conclusions in 2009. Surveying high school and postsecondary teachers on college entrance examination in China similarly, that may open a window for the reform of college entrance examination.

  12. Allegheny County Building Footprint Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled roof outlines of buildings. All near orthogonal corners are square. Buildings that are less than 400 square feet...

  13. BUILDING "BRIDGES" WITH QUALITY ASSURANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The papr describes how, rather than building "bridges" across centuries, quality assurance (QA) personnel have the opportunity to build bridges across technical disciplines, between public and private organizations, and between different QA groups. As reviewers and auditors of a...

  14. Dynamic optimization of building performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslesa, Esmir; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Birkved, Morten;

    D develops a methodological basis and purpose-based software for simultaneous calculation of total value and environmental performance of non-residential buildings. So far, a literature study has identified 8 indicator categories that should be considered when addressing environmental performance of building....... The next step of the project combines research and practice through various case studies in which environmental building performance of non-residential buildings will be studied. Case studies will investigate which environmental indicators are used in practice and why, and disclose how building data...... management, energy management, asset management etc. The research focus of this industrial PhD is to study how these different building data sets can be used and combined for improving total value of buildings, with special emphasis on environmental building performance from lifecycle perspective...

  15. The Preservation of Adobe Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Plian

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether built in the 17th or in the 20th centuries, adobe buildings share common problems of maintenance and deterioration. These types of buildings represent today in Romania a traditional house for country people. It also makes recommendations for preserving adobe buildings. By its composition, adobe construction is inclined to deteriorate; however, the buildings can be made durable and renewable when properly maintained.

  16. Upcoming renovations in Building 63

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    La Poste will close its doors in Building 63 on Friday, 28 November. It moves to Building 510 and where it will open on 1 December (see picture).   UNIQA will close its HelpDesk in Building 63 on Wednesday, 26 November and will re-open the next day in Building 510. La Poste and UNIQA are expected to return to their renovated office space between April and May 2015.

  17. Appropriate schemata and building blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haijun; Li Minqiang

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate schemata as a novel concept to characterize building blocks are introduced, and then, the traits of appropriate schemata are presented. The effects of building blocks by search operators are analyzed. Hence, the experiments on RR-8X8 are employed to verify that appropriate schemata construct the building blocks. The validity of appropriate schemata and building blocks from the views of theory and practice is presented.

  18. DoD Sustainable Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 DoD Sustainable Buildings Overview  Sustainability Drivers  Green Building Requirements...generation = reduced energy bill = more $ available for “tooth”  More $ available for “tooth” = enhanced operational capability Green Building Requirements...Weather Agency; Offutt AFB, NE LEED Gold Certified Green Building Requirements The Guiding Principles (GP’s)  The 5 GP’s  Employ Integrated Design

  19. Hawaii-Okinawa Building Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Salasovich, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL conducted energy evaluations at the Itoman City Hall building in Itoman, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the Hawaii State Capitol building in Honolulu, Hawaii. This report summarizes the findings from the evaluations, including the best practices identified at each site and opportunities for improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. The findings from this evaluation are intended to inform energy efficient building design, energy efficiency technology, and management protocols for buildings in subtropical climates.

  20. Building Construction Elements, Building Envelope and Method for Constructing a Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    High-strength concrete building system and method of assembly for construction a buiding envelope.......High-strength concrete building system and method of assembly for construction a buiding envelope....

  1. Asymptotic Ruin Probabilities of an Entrance Processes Based Risk Model with Interest Force and Regularly Varying Claims%基于进入过程具有常利率和正则变化索赔的风险模型的渐近破产概率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鸿民; 唐加山

    2009-01-01

    Investigated in this paper is an insurance risk model with a constant interest force and the claim process being driven by an entrance process. Under the conditions that the entrance process is a renewal process and the claim size is of regularly varying tailed, the asymptotic behavior for the ruin probability as the initial capital tends to infinity is obtained. A similar result also holds for the case that the entrance process is a homogeneous Poisson process.

  2. US green building conference - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanney, A.H.; Whitter, K.M.; Traugott, A.E.; Simon, L.N. [eds.

    1994-12-31

    This report constitutes the proceedings of the Green Building Conference held in Gaithersburg, Maryland, February 16-17, 1994. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the US Green Building Council (USGBC). Over 450 individuals attended the conference representing building product manufacturers, building owners and managers, environmental groups, utilities, contractors, builders, architects, engineers, and the local, state, and the federal governments. The conference provided an opportunity to acquire practical, useful information on green buildings, resources, and guidelines. Eighteen papers were presented at the conference. Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. ECONOMY "SMART BUILDINGS" HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Djurić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of ensuring national security and the security of energy supply and energy sources, such as liquid fuels and gas, as well as energy independence from energy imports and energy, the focus of our strategy to shift towards renewable energy sources. In fact, whether a state of more or less energy-independent, to a large extent can be determined by the percentage participation renewable energy in meeting the total energy requirements. So, the consumption of renewable energy source (solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, hydropower and small watercourses, biomass and biogas is put in relation with the amount of power and energy which are imported from foreign countries (liquid fuels and gas. Based on data published by the European statistics agency, in developed European countries is the fact that renewable energy sources accounted for 10-12% of the total energy balance of individual countries. Here, the situation is very worrying, given that renewable energy resources still account for only 1% in the energy balance, which is negligible and intolerable little. On the other hand, environmental awareness that is constantly improving and developing required to behave and act in accordance with the capabilities and resources of nature and the natural environment. As the largest building and construction consume energy and also the biggest polluters of the environment, point to the request to change the method of construction and thus to change the way of life on the planet. Poor and inadequate access to the building and construction industry certainly is recognized as the most important factor in global warming. The progress of civilization, especially in terms of technical and technological innovation brings the design and construction of facilities that will be compatible with the environment. For designers and investors is to develop, design and build "green".

  4. Building a leadership brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2007-01-01

    How do some firms produce a pipeline of consistently excellent managers? Instead of concentrating merely on strengthening the skills of individuals, these companies focus on building a broad organizational leadership capability. It's what Ulrich and Smallwood--cofounders of the RBL Group, a leadership development consultancy--call a leadership brand. Organizations with leadership brands take an "outside-in" approach to executive development. They begin with a clear statement of what they want to be known for by customers and then link it with a required set of management skills. The Lexus division of Toyota, for instance, translates its tagline--"The pursuit of perfection"--into an expectation that its leaders excel at managing quality processes. The slogan of Bon Secours Health System is "Good help to those in need." It demands that its managers balance business skills with compassion and caring. The outside-in approach helps firms build a reputation for high-quality leaders whom customers trust to deliver on the company's promises. In examining 150 companies with strong leadership capabilities, the authors found that the organizations follow five strategies. First, make sure managers master the basics of leadership--for example, setting strategy and grooming talent. Second, ensure that leaders internalize customers' high expectations. Third, incorporate customer feedback into evaluations of executives. Fourth, invest in programs that help managers hone the right skills, by tapping customers to participate in such programs. Finally, track the success of efforts to build leadership bench strength over the long-term. The result is outstanding management that persists even when individual executives leave. In fact, companies with the strongest leadership brands often become "leader feeders"--firms that regularly graduate leaders who go on to head other companies.

  5. Building Web Reputation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Randy

    2010-01-01

    What do Amazon's product reviews, eBay's feedback score system, Slashdot's Karma System, and Xbox Live's Achievements have in common? They're all examples of successful reputation systems that enable consumer websites to manage and present user contributions most effectively. This book shows you how to design and develop reputation systems for your own sites or web applications, written by experts who have designed web communities for Yahoo! and other prominent sites. Building Web Reputation Systems helps you ask the hard questions about these underlying mechanisms, and why they're critical

  6. Building Regional Competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    a dominating position in the global marketfor industrial enzymes from 1870-2004. The case of industrial enzymes shows how aregion has been able to build sustainable competitive advantages from its distinctivecompetencies. This is done through a mixture of outsourcing and in sourcing ofcompetencies, knowledge...... and technologies from other regions in a ramified set ofinteracting networks. The key personnel within the regions firms are deliberatelyallowed to engage in the formations of these non-disclosure network activities so thatprofessional knowledge communities has been established across regional boundariesand...

  7. Building Project Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Wiewiora, Anna

    This research investigates the development of project competence, and particularly, three related dynamic capabilities (shifting, adapting, leveraging) that contribute to project competence development. In doing so, we make use of the emerging literature on knowledge governance and theorize how...... knowledge governance mechanisms can move the organization towards desired knowledge-based goals. A multiple-case study comprising 23 cases advances our understanding of the elements that trigger, enable, hamper, and drive shifting, leveraging and adapting. Finally, the paper offers a tentative framework...... of dynamic capability building promoting project competence development....

  8. Building Brands Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ind, Nicholas; Iglesias, Oriol; Schultz, Majken

    2013-01-01

    Co-creation is a rapidly emerging area of research. However, there is a lack of understanding as to how organizations use co-creation to build relationships and generate value. How does participation emerge and what outcomes does it deliver? To generate insight into the co-creation process, we...... created an online brand community. Our findings show that people participate in a community because it offers them the chance to find fulfillment, to express their creativity, and to socialize. The findings have significant implications for marketing, branding, and research professionals because...... the research shows that managers have to see participants as integral to the brand....

  9. Building Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    We will in this paper approach the challenge of building integrated environmental studies by presenting a crude frame of analysis which take into account both the physical aspects and the social-discursive articulations of environmental problems. This framework partly mirrors the approach of our...... department (Dept. of Environment, Technology and Social Studies, Roskilde University), and has originally in another version been presented in the book “Miljøregulering - tværvidenskabelige studier (Environmental Regulation. Interdisciplinary Studies)” (Holm, Kjærgård & Pedersen eds. 1997, in Danish) written...

  10. Sustainable Development and Green Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Sinha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Global sustainability goals have led to the development of the green building movement. The Green Building Program, stemming from the movement, has had unprecedented success as it provides a quantifiable metric to people’s efforts towards sustainable development. Sustainable development and green buildings are often used interchangeably. Although, sustainable development and green buildings are related, they are not the same. This paper provides an overview of how green building relates to sustainable development practices. Sustainability also governs decisions concerning building materials. A comprehensive explanation of what constitutes a green building material is discussed and how renewable material like wood fare in the deciding criteria. There are many green building rating systems in place. United States Green Building Council administered Leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED is the global market leader in the rating systems. LEED is a commendable and grand effort in moving towards sustainable development by converting the built environment green. However, it does have certain pitfalls and challenges. Some of these challenges are with respect to policies on material selection and performance monitoring. The materials used in a project are considered at a common starting point and no consideration is given to the life cycle performance of the material. Statements concerning sustainability require validation, and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA is a tool that can provide such validity. This paper presents how beneficial it can be, when included, in the bigger scheme of green building rating systems and introduces an integrated design concept for green buildings.

  11. Thermal testing of building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, O.; Kirzhanov, D.; Avramenko, V.; Budadin, O.

    2006-04-01

    Averaged heat transfer resistance of the building envelope is the primary parameter that determines the energy saving characteristics of the building. At the phase of the building design it is usually taken into account that building must preserve heat effectively. It is mostly important in northern countries where cold seasons last for more than a half of year. Usually infrared methods are used to find mechanical defects of the building envelope. In this article an alternative way to describe the building envelope using infrared camera is presented. The method includes the determination of local heat engineering characteristics of the envelope using contact measurements and the determination of averaged heat transfer resistance of the buildings envelope using its infrared image.

  12. Tropical Zero Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter; Kristensen, Poul Erik

    2006-01-01

    of the building, so that windows are only towards the north and south, in order to reduce the solar heat gains. In order to reduce the loss of cooling through the building envelope, the walls and the roofs are heavily insulated, and the windows have double low energy glazing. The building will be lit primarily...... lighting. These measures include the use of high efficient lighting controlled according to demand, high efficiency pumps and fans, a high efficiency chiller, and use of energy efficient office equipment. The buildings PV system is connected to the grid. Solar electricity is exported to the grid during......The new headquarter for Pusat Tenaga Malaysia is designed to be a Zero Emission Office Building (ZEO). A full range of passive and active energy efficiency measures are implemented such that the building will need no more electricity than what can be produced via its own Building Integrated PV...

  13. Building energy governance in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, YiHsiu Michelle

    With Asia's surging economies and urbanization, the region is adding to its built environment at an unprecedented rate, especially those population centers in China and India. With numerous existing buildings, plus a new building boom, construction in these major Asian cities has caused momentous sustainability challenges. This dissertation focuses on China's leading city, Shanghai, to explore and assess its existing commercial building energy policies and practices. Research estimates that Shanghai's commercial buildings might become a key challenge with regard to energy use and CO2 emissions as compared to other major Asian cities. Relevant building energy policy instruments at national and local levels for commercial buildings are reviewed. In addition, two benchmarks are established to further assess building energy policies in Shanghai. The first benchmark is based on the synthesis of relevant criteria and policy instruments as recommended by professional organizations, while the second practical benchmark is drawn from an analysis of three global cities: New York, London and Tokyo. Moreover, two large-scale commercial building sites - Shanghai IKEA and Plaza 66 - are selected for investigation and assessment of their efforts on building energy saving measures. Detailed building energy savings, CO2 reductions, and management cost reductions based on data availability and calculations are presented with the co-benefits approach. The research additionally analyzes different interventions and factors that facilitate or constrain the implementation process of building energy saving measures in each case. Furthermore, a multi-scale analytical framework is employed to investigate relevant stakeholders that shape Shanghai's commercial building energy governance. Research findings and policy recommendations are offered at the close of this dissertation. Findings and policy recommendations are intended to facilitate commercial building energy governance in Shanghai and

  14. Visual Adaptability at Urban Tunnel Entrance and Exit%城市隧道出入口视觉适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 潘晓东; 付志斌; 邱汉骐

    2014-01-01

    车辆由城市道路进入城市隧道时,驾驶员的视觉环境变化较为剧烈,行车环境的突变是城市隧道成为事故多发路段的重要原因之一。采用行车实验与理论分析相结合的方法,研究了城市隧道出入口驾驶员的生理特性,分析了隧道出入口亮度变化、视觉适应性对隧道入口障碍物视认距离的影响。研究结果表明:城市隧道进口一般路段瞳孔直径稳定在1.8mm左右,暗适应区间瞳孔直径从约1.9mm变化到约4.7mm,到完全适应时稳定在4.5mm左右,直至出口位置。%When a vehicle enters a tunnel from general section, the driver′s visual environment produces dramatical changes. The mutation of driving environment is one of the important reasons that urban tunnel becomes accident frequently-occurring section. The article combines driving experimental analysis with theoretical analysis, studies drivers′psychological and physiological characteristics both inside and out-side the city tunnel entrances, and analyzes changes of brightness, visual adaptability impact on obstacle distance of visual cognition at the tunnel entrance. The study indicates that on general sections of tunnel entrance pupil diameter stabilizes at about 1.8mm;in dark adaptation interval pupil diameter varies from about 1.9mm to about 4.7mm; when pupil fully adapts to the dark, pupil diameter stabilizes at about 4.5mm, until to the export position.

  15. Comparison of radon levels in building basements and above- ground floors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazula, C.; Campos, M.; Mazzilli, B. [IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Radon-222, a decay product of Ra-226, is a natural radioactive noble gas that can be found in soil, water and air. Radon and its short-lived decay products in the atmosphere are the most important contributors to human exposure from natural sources. Radon is recognized as the second most significant risk for lung cancer after tobacco smoking. The World Health Organization established a concentration of 100 Bq m{sup -3} for radon in air, in order to limit its hazards. The main source of radon exposition indoors comes from Ra-226, a decay product of the U-238 natural series, present in rocks and soils underneath the building and, to a lesser extent, in the building materials. The dynamics of radon production in rocks and soil and its subsequent indoors emanation is quite complex. It is controlled by factors such as soil permeability and water content, meteorological variability, building foundation characteristics and the usual positive differential pressure between the soil and the indoor environment. This is normally sufficient to bring soil gas from the ground into the building. Radon gas can enter a building by several mechanisms, but the most significant ones are diffusion and pressure-driven flow from the ground. Usually, cracks and holes in the floor and walls and gaps around service pipes are the main entrance for the radon gas. Studies indicated that indoor radon concentration present significant variation on the basement, ground floor and upper floors. The aim of this study is to determine the radon levels in building basements and above- ground floors in the city of Sao Paulo. Radon measurements were carried out through the passive method with solid-state nuclear- track detectors (CR-39), because of their simplicity and long-term integrated read-out. The exposure period was, at least, three months, covering one year minimum, in order to determine the seasonal variation of indoor radon concentration. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  16. Masonry building envelope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Phillip C.

    1993-04-01

    Over the past five years, infrared thermography has proven an effective tool to assist in required inspections on new masonry construction. However, with more thermographers providing this inspection service, establishing a standard for conducting these inspections is imperative. To attempt to standardize these inspections, it is important to understand the nature of the inspection as well as the context in which the inspection is typically conducted. The inspection focuses on evaluating masonry construction for compliance with the design specifications with regard to structural components and thermal performance of the building envelope. The thermal performance of the building includes both the thermal resistance of the material as well as infiltration/exfiltration characteristics. Given that the inspections occur in the 'field' rather than the controlled environment of a laboratory, there are numerous variables to be considered when undertaking this type of inspection. Both weather and site conditions at the time of the inspection can vary greatly. In this paper we will look at the variables encountered during recent inspections. Additionally, the author will present the standard which was employed in collecting this field data. This method is being incorporated into a new standard to be included in the revised version of 'Guidelines for Specifying and Performing Infrared Inspections' developed by the Infraspection Institute.

  17. ECOLOGICAL BUILDING DESIGN DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vakili-Ardebili

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable building design process is driven on the basis of a range of design eco-indicators. Consideration of a multitude of eco-determinants, such as environment, economy, resources, energy consumption and society values in addition to design characteristics and contexts, makes the process of ecological design even more complex. A large number of eco-drivers are extracted from the literature and current design practices. To gain a better insight on eco-design determinants, a survey focusing on the use of eco-design drivers has been conducted with various architects in the UK. The factor analysis method was used to remove redundant data from the survey. Through the factor analysis approach, 115 eco-determinants are grouped into six main clusters. This article presents the process, analysis and findings of this work. The extracted eco-indicators and their associated clusters can be used to improve the process of ecological building design. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2008.0096 Source: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, Volume 6, Number 2, 2010 , pp. 111-131(21

  18. Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Andresen, Inger; Perino, Marco;

    2006-01-01

    Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie with techno...

  19. Analisa Life Cycle Cost pada Green Building Diamond Building Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Trixy Firsani; Christiono Utomo

    2012-01-01

    Mengingat kenyataan bahwa seluruh emisi CO2 yang ada di dunia lebih dari sepertiganya dihasilkan oleh bangunan[1], maka dibutuhkan suatu antispasi untuk mengeliminir akan fakta tersebut, yaitu melalui penerapan suatu konsep bangunan ramah lingkungan atau biasa disebut dengan konsep green building. Salah satu bangunan yang mengadopsi konsep green building tersebut adalah Diamond Building Malaysia. Bangunan ini menghabiskan biaya yang relatif tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan biaya pada pembangun...

  20. Irregular Shaped Building Design Optimization with Building Information Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Xia Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is to recognise the function of Building Information Modelling (BIM in design optimization for irregular shaped buildings. The study focuses on a conceptual irregular shaped “twisted” building design similar to some existing sculpture-like architectures. Form and function are the two most important aspects of new buildings, which are becoming more sophisticated as parts of equally sophisticated “systems” that we are living in. Nowadays, it is common to have irregular shaped or sculpture-like buildings which are very different when compared to regular buildings. Construction industry stakeholders are facing stiff challenges in many aspects such as buildability, cost effectiveness, delivery time and facility management when dealing with irregular shaped building projects. Building Information Modelling (BIM is being utilized to enable architects, engineers and constructors to gain improved visualization for irregular shaped buildings; this has a purpose of identifying critical issues before initiating physical construction work. In this study, three variations of design options differing in rotating angle: 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees are created to conduct quantifiable comparisons. Discussions are focused on three major aspects including structural planning, usable building space, and structural constructability. This research concludes that Building Information Modelling is instrumental in facilitating design optimization for irregular shaped building. In the process of comparing different design variations, instead of just giving “yes or no” type of response, stakeholders can now easily visualize, evaluate and decide to achieve the right balance based on their own criteria. Therefore, construction project stakeholders are empowered with superior evaluation and decision making capability.

  1. Effects of Clown Doctors on child and caregiver anxiety at the entrance to the surgery care unit and separation from caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Arriaga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of hospital Clown Doctors intervention on child and caregiver preoperative anxiety at the entrance to the surgery care unit and separation from caregivers. A total of 88 children (aged 4-12 years were assigned to one of the following two groups: Clown Doctors intervention or control group (standard care. Independent observational records using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale instrument assessed children’s anxiety, while the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measured caregiver’s state anxiety. In addition, caregivers assessed the children’s functional health problems by completing the Functional Status Questionnaire. Although no effects of Clown Doctors were found on children’s anxiety, results showed that both low functional health problems and Clown Doctors intervention were significant predictors of lower caregiver anxiety. Caregivers also reported being very satisfied with their intervention. Overall, this study demonstrated the positive role of Clown Doctors for caregivers at a specific paediatric hospital setting.

  2. Infrared Stark and Zeeman spectroscopy of OH-CO: The entrance channel complex along the OH + CO → trans-HOCO reaction pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Joseph T.; Liang, Tao; Raston, Paul L.; McCoy, Anne B.; Douberly, Gary E.

    2016-09-01

    Sequential capture of OH and CO by superfluid helium droplets leads exclusively to the formation of the linear, entrance-channel complex, OH-CO. This species is characterized by infrared laser Stark and Zeeman spectroscopy via measurements of the fundamental OH stretching vibration. Experimental dipole moments are in disagreement with ab initio calculations at the equilibrium geometry, indicating large-amplitude motion on the ground state potential energy surface. Vibrational averaging along the hydroxyl bending coordinate recovers 80% of the observed deviation from the equilibrium dipole moment. Inhomogeneous line broadening in the zero-field spectrum is modeled with an effective Hamiltonian approach that aims to account for the anisotropic molecule-helium interaction potential that arises as the OH-CO complex is displaced from the center of the droplet.

  3. A Mathematical Model For Sorting the Grades 3 + X Entrance Examination%高考3+X成绩排序的一个数学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢乐军; 李伟良; 陈永辉; 李海荣

    2001-01-01

    建立了高考3+x成绩一个排序模型,模型的参数便于高等院校根据学校的特点确定其取值.且该模型给出了考生的一个模型分数,按此分数排序决定考生录取次序,可做到"公平公正、择优录取"%This paper built a mathematical model for sorting the grades of 3 + X entrance examination. Themodel parameters are designed for colleges easy to select examinees. In order to sort the examinees this model set ex-aminee a model grade. This grade may do fair and square in justice to examinees.

  4. 浅析中考数学游戏中的概率问题%Probability Problem of Mathematical Games in the Senior High School Entrance Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春霞; 李锋

    2014-01-01

    以游戏为载体的概率问题在中考数学试题中经常出现。这些题目新颖有趣,既能极大地调动学生的学习积极性,又能较好地考查学生应用数学知识分析问题、解决问题的能力。%Probability problem taking the game as the carrier often appear in the math test in the senior high school entrance examination. The topics are novel and interesting,not only can greatly mobilize students’ learning initiative, but also can better examine the ability of appli-cating mathematical knowledge to analyze and solve problems.

  5. Rumen ciliates in the African (Cape) buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booyse, Dirk G; Dehority, Burk A; Reininghaus, Björn

    2014-07-31

    Samples of rumen contents were obtained from 10 African (Cape) buffalo living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park in South Africa. Total number of ciliate protozoa per animal ranged from 3.15 to 23.25 x 103. Forty three different species and forms were observed, of which 35 are a new host record. The total number of species and forms per animal varied from 10 to 17. Eudiplodinium maggii occurred in all 10 animals, followed by Dasytricha ruminantium in nine animals. Diplodinium posterovesiculatum, Eudiplodinium magnodentatum and Ostracodinium mammosum were present in seven animals with all other species and forms occurring in five or less animals. 

  6. Final report of the radiological release survey of Building 30B at the Grand Junction Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauland, P.A.; Corle, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore concentrates and mill tailings during vanadium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District, and during sampling, assaying, pilot milling, storage, and brokerage activities conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJO Remedial Action Project (GJORAP) to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and underlying aquifer. WASTREN-Grand Junction is the site contractor for the facility and the remedial action contractor for GJORAP. Building 30B and the underlying soil were found not to be radiologically contaminated; therefore, the building can be released for unrestricted use. Placards have been placed at the building entrances indicating the completion of the radiological release survey and prohibiting the introduction of any radioactive materials within the building without written approvals from the GJO Facilities Operations Manager. This document was prepared in response to a DOE-GJO request for an individual final release report for each GJO building.

  7. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  8. Parameters of Upgrading Existing Building into a Green Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Rupali Kapure

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Before turning to specific programs for upgrading buildings, it’s important to understand the market dynamics of greening existing buildings. From a macroeconomic perspective, energy efficiency upgrades represent the most cost-effective way to meet growing energy demands. From a microeconomic perspective, recent studies have shown that energy-efficient and certified green buildings merit higher market values, greater rents, and higher occupancies. From a corporate sustainability viewpoint, greening existing buildings is a direct way to reduce a company’s carbon footprint. As a result, corporate real estate managers in the United States have begun to decide in favour of greening both owned and leased buildings, seeing many economic benefits from this switch. Green buildings offer many marketing benefits for building owners and tenants, including opportunities for creating new green “brands” and also “future-proofing” their real estate against both future energy price increases and also value erosion as the trend toward green buildings continues to grow. Marketing benefits will vary by geographic location, building and tenant type, and other factors, but they are present in all privately owned real estate.

  9. Building America Case Study: Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Aldrich and J. Williamson

    2016-05-01

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: (1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads. (2.) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes. (3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating. (4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support form the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  10. Comparison of DNA breaks at entrance channel and Bragg peak induced by fast C6+ ions--influence of the addition of platinum atoms on DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Noriko; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Porcel, Erika; Lacombe, Sandrine; Le Sech, Claude

    2010-01-01

    When energetic carbon ion beam (GeV range) goes through the matter, inelastic processes such as electronic ionization, molecular and nuclear fragmentation occur. For carbontherapy (hadrontherapy) purpose, it is of interest to compare the number of DNA breaks -single SSB or double DSB- for a given dose at the entrance channel and at the Bragg peak to look for a possible differential effect in the number of DNA breaks induced at these two locations. Samples of free plasmids DNA and complexes of plasmids DNA added with molecules containing platinum have been placed at different locations of an experimental setup simulating penetration depths of the ion beam in water and irradiated by carbon ions 290 MeV/amu. The DNA breaks have been quantified by subsequent electrophoresis on agarose gels. To disentangle the respective role of the direct and indirect effect, a free radical scavenger of hydroxyl radicals HO degree-dimethylsulfoxide DMSO- has been added in some of the experiments. In the range of Linear Energy Transfer-LET 13 - 110 keV/microm-, the number of the DSB was found to be constant versus the LET for a given dose. Contrary, the number of the SSB decreases at the Bragg peak compared to the entrance channel. In the presence of platinum, the number of single and double breaks was considerably enhanced, and follows a similar behaviour than in the free-DNA experiments. Quantitative results on DNA damages do not show significant enhancement due to the nuclear or to the molecular fragmentation in the present experiments.

  11. 浅议高考议论文的点题方法%Discussion on the theme of college entrance examination argumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕瑜

    2014-01-01

    The examination composition is different from literary creation. It has specific length, time limitation and other writing requirements. In the examination composition, the most important factor to get high score is whether the composition is accord with the theme and related closely to the theme or not. Especially in the college entrance examination writing, digressing from the subject or unconcern to the theme is much worse than that of language expression or structure fault. Accordingly, in the college entrance examination writing, the key to get high score is accord with the theme and raising the subject. So it is necessary to point out the theme in order to raise the subject. This thesis is discussing about the normal methods to raising the subject of argumentation.%考场作文不同于一般文学创作,它有特定的的篇幅,特定的写作时间和其它特定的写作要求。在应试作文中,是否符合题意和紧扣中心是决定得分的重要因素。特别是在高考作文里,学生因离题或扣题不紧远比语言表达或结构失误失分更为严重。因此,高考作文的写作中,符合题意并突出中心是得分的关键,而要突出中心,点题是必不可少的。文章主要谈一谈议论文点题的几种常用方法。

  12. Guidelines for Building Science Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rashkin, Samuel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huelman, Pat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) residential research and demonstration program, Building America, has triumphed through 20 years of innovation. Partnering with researchers, builders, remodelers, and manufacturers to develop innovative processes like advanced framing and ventilation standards, Building America has proven an energy efficient design can be more cost effective, healthy, and durable than a standard house. As Building America partners continue to achieve their stretch goals, they have found that the barrier to true market transformation for high performance homes is the limited knowledge-base of the professionals working in the building industry. With dozens of professionals taking part in the design and execution of building and selling homes, each person should have basic building science knowledge relevant to their role, and an understanding of how various home components interface with each other. Instead, our industry typically experiences a fragmented approach to home building and design. After obtaining important input from stakeholders at the Building Science Education Kick-Off Meeting, DOE created a building science education strategy addressing education issues preventing the widespread adoption of high performance homes. This strategy targets the next generation and provides valuable guidance for the current workforce. The initiative includes: • Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Engages universities and provides students who will be the next generation of architects, engineers, construction managers and entrepreneurs with the necessary skills and experience they need to begin careers in clean energy and generate creative solutions to real world problems. • Building Science to Sales Translator: Simplifies building science into compelling sales language and tools to sell high performance homes to their customers. • Building Science Education Guidance: Brings together industry and academia to solve problems related to

  13. Guidelines for Building Science Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Cheryn E.; Rashkin, Samuel; Huelman, Pat

    2015-03-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) residential research and demonstration program, Building America, has triumphed through 20 years of innovation. Partnering with researchers, builders, remodelers, and manufacturers to develop innovative processes like advanced framing and ventilation standards, Building America has proven an energy efficient design can be more cost effective, healthy, and durable than a standard house. As Building America partners continue to achieve their stretch goals, they have found that the barrier to true market transformation for high performance homes is the limited knowledge-base of the professionals working in the building industry. With dozens of professionals taking part in the design and execution of building and selling homes, each person should have basic building science knowledge relevant to their role, and an understanding of how various home components interface with each other. Instead, our industry typically experiences a fragmented approach to home building and design. After obtaining important input from stakeholders at the Building Science Education Kick-Off Meeting, DOE created a building science education strategy addressing education issues preventing the widespread adoption of high performance homes. This strategy targets the next generation and provides valuable guidance for the current workforce. The initiative includes: • Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Engages universities and provides students who will be the next generation of architects, engineers, construction managers and entrepreneurs with the necessary skills and experience they need to begin careers in clean energy and generate creative solutions to real world problems. • Building Science to Sales Translator: Simplifies building science into compelling sales language and tools to sell high performance homes to their customers. • Building Science Education Guidance: Brings together industry and academia to solve problems related to

  14. Spintronics: Conceptual Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    The purpose of this introduction to spintronics is to provide some elementary description of its conceptual building blocks. Thus, it is intended for a newcomer to the field. After recalling rudimentary descriptions of spin precession and spin relaxation, spin-dependent transport is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. This suffices to introduce key notions such as the spin asymmetry of the conductivities in the two-current model, the spin diffusion length, and spin accumulation. Two basic mechanisms of spin relaxation are then presented, one arising from spin-orbit scattering and the other from electron-magnon collisions. Finally, the action of a spin-polarized current on magnetization is presented in a thermodynamics framework. This introduces the notion of spin torque and the characteristic length scale over which the transverse spin polarization of conduction electron decays as it is injected into a magnet.

  15. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...... efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...

  16. Can we build inclusion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    building and the strategies the pedagogues develop to fulfil their pedagogical intentions. But in one respect, the results gave more and other knowledge than anticipated at the setup of the project: By analysing the interviews, it became clear that especially for a group of children with special......A society is known by how it cares for the weak. This may be how it cares for wheel chair users but is may also be how it includes some children with special requirements in kindergartens or whether they are referred to special institutions. We expect most people would say that they go...... for an inclusive society – e.g. that a kindergarten should be for all children. But in practice this intention may be met by considerable challenges. So many factors influence the process. In this paper the question is raised, whether the physical frame of the kindergartens makes a difference for daily life...

  17. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... and judicial setting of the individual country. However, in spite of the different origins, the systems seem to merge into a global model serving some basic societal needs. The paper presents an outline of this development towards a global model for sustainable land administration infrastructures...... of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional...

  18. Creative Building Design for Innovative Earth Science Teaching and Outreach (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Earth Science departments can blend the physical “bricks and mortar” facility with programs and educational displays to create a facility that is a permanent outreach tool and a welcoming home for teaching and research. The new Frederick Albert Sutton building at the University of Utah is one of the first LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified Earth Science buildings in the country. Throughout the structure, creative architectural designs are combined with sustainability, artful geologic displays, and community partnerships. Distinctive features of the building include: 1) Unique, inviting geologic designs such as cross bedding pattern in the concrete foundation; “a river runs through it” (a pebble tile “stream” inside the entrance); “confluence” lobby with spectacular Eocene Green River fossil fish and plant walls; polished rock slabs; and many natural stone elements. All displays are also designed as teaching tools. 2) Student-generated, energy efficient, sustainable projects such as: solar tube lights, xeriscape & rock monoliths, rainwater collection, roof garden, pervious cement, and energy monitoring. 3) Reinforced concrete foundation for vibration-free analytical measurements, and exposed lab ceilings for duct work and infrastructure adaptability. The spectacular displays for this special project were made possible by new partnerships within the community. Companies participated with generous, in-kind donations (e.g., services, stone flooring and slabs, and landscape rocks). They received recognition in the building and in literature acknowledging donors. A beautiful built environment creates space that students, faculty, and staff are proud of. People feel good about coming to work, and they are happy about their surroundings. This makes a strong recruiting tool, with more productive and satisfied employees. Buildings with architectural interest and displays can showcase geology as art and science, while highlighting

  19. The NIST Green Building Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J.E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    For over 2 decades, NIST has been involved in energy conservation programs. NIST`s current programs broadly span the areas from waste minimization to air, soil, water, indoor air quality, ozone depletion, and global warming. The latest endeavor NIST is undertaking is the {open_quotes}Green Building Program{close_quotes} in which NIST is at the forefront of designing buildings using environmentally safe materials. NIST`s program has two components. The laboratory-based activities involve NIST staff working directly with manufacturers and designers to develop technologies conducive to energy efficiency. The second component, demonstration buildings, includes environmentally safe buildings which are monuments to green technologies. These buildings not only demonstrate cost effectiveness and evaluate green technologies, they also identify new technologies needed to develop an effective green building.

  20. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...... development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures.    This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi...

  1. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  2. User Driven Innovative Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Sørensen, Kristian Birch; Steffensen, K. G.

    2009-01-01

    to the broad introduction of advanced information and communication technology (ICT). VICMET is a general method for user involvement in every phase of the construction process and with a unique setup for each type of user. VICMET can use already created information in the building process and emphasis...... that the users are the key to next level of successful building projects. VICMET defines four spaces to support the activities in a innovative/creative design process; The Contextual Inquiry Space, the Conceptual Modeling and Game Space, the Functional Building Systems (FBS) Consolidation Space, and the Solution......During recent years there has been an ever-increasing focus on the possibilities to change the building process to raise quality on the final building products as well as on the activities of actors involved in the building process. One reason for this interest is the new opportunities evolving due...

  3. Building better boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, David A

    2004-05-01

    Companies facing new requirements for governance are scrambling to buttress financial-reporting systems, overhaul board structures--whatever it takes to comply. But there are limits to how much good governance can be imposed from the outside. Boards know what they ought to be: seats of challenge and inquiry that add value without meddling and make CEOs more effective but not all-powerful. A board can reach that goal only if it functions as a high-performance team, one that is competent, coordinated, collegial, and focused on an unambiguous goal. Such entities don't just evolve; they must be constructed to an exacting blueprint--what the author calls board building. In this article, Nadler offers an agenda and a set of tools that boards can use to define and achieve their objectives. It's important for a board to conduct regular self-assessments and to pay attention to the results of those analyses. As a first step, the directors and the CEO should agree on which of the following common board models best fits the company: passive, certifying, engaged, intervening, or operating. The directors and the CEO should then analyze which business tasks are most important and allot sufficient time and resources to them. Next, the board should take inventory of each director's strengths to ensure that the group as a whole possesses the skills necessary to do its work. Directors must exert more influence over meeting agendas and make sure they have the right information at the right time and in the right format to perform their duties. Finally, the board needs to foster an engaged culture characterized by candor and a willingness to challenge. An ambitious board-building process, devised and endorsed both by directors and by management, can potentially turn a good board into a great one.

  4. NAVIGATION IN LARGE-FORMAT BUILDINGS BASED ON RFID SENSORS AND QR AND AR MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Szymczyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors address the problem of passive navigation in large buildings. Based on the example of several interconnected buildings housing departments of the Lublin University of Technology, as well as the conceptual navigation system, the paper presents one of the possible ways of leading the user from the entrance of the building to a particular room. An analysis of different types of users is made and different (best for them ways of navigating the intricate corridors are proposed. Three ways of user localisation are suggested: RFID, AR and QR markers. A graph of connections between specific rooms was made and weights proposed, representing “the difficulty of covering a given distance”. In the process of navigation Dijkstra’s algorithm was used. The road is indicated as multimedia information: a voice-over or animated arrow showing the direction displayed on the smart phone screen with proprietary software installed. It is also possible to inform the user of the position of the location in which he currently is, based on the static information stored in the QR code.

  5. Buildings Lean Maintenance Implementation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Antonio; Calado, João; Requeijo, José

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, companies in global markets have to achieve high levels of performance and competitiveness to stay "alive".Within this assumption, the building maintenance cannot be done in a casual and improvised way due to the costs related. Starting with some discussion about lean management and building maintenance, this paper introduces a model to support the Lean Building Maintenance (LBM) approach. Finally based on a real case study from a Portuguese company, the benefits, challenges and difficulties are presented and discussed.

  6. Building Evacuation with Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population and increasingly dense settlements demand ever-larger and more complex buildings from today's engineers. In comparison to this technological progress, a building's equipment for emergency evacuation has been hardly developed further. This work presents a concept for a building evacuation system based on mobile devices. Furthermore, various algorithms for route planning with mobile devices and for indoor localization of mobile devices are addressed.

  7. Lifetime environmental impact of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Mequignon, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the impact of the life of buildings on? sustainable development methods.?The study of the lifespan of the building is used to assess and?manage the environmental impacts associated?with all the stages of a product's life, from raw material extraction?through to repair, maintenance and?? 'end of life' scenarios. While several papers have discussed thegreenhouse gas emissions of buildings,?less research has been done on how these are affected by the lifespan?of the building. This book serves to?highlight the pertinence of this factor and contributes to providing?new ideas on

  8. Energy Innovations for Healthy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Healthy buildings provide high indoor environmental quality for occupants while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. This project advanced the development and marketability of envisioned healthy, energy-efficient buildings through studies that evaluated the use of emerging technologies in commercial and residential buildings. The project also provided resources required for homebuilders to participate in DOE’s Builders Challenge, concomitant with the goal to reduce energy consumption in homes by at least 30% as a first step toward achieving envisioned widespread availability of net-zero energy homes by 2030. In addition, the project included outreach and education concerning energy efficiency in buildings.

  9. Electric Propulsion Research Building (EPRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electric Propulsion Research Building (EPRB) capability centers on its suite of vacuum chambers, which are configured to meet the unique requirements related to...

  10. Perencanaan Dengan Konsep Sustainable Building

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Yulesta

    2004-01-01

    Di beberapa Negara maju pada tahun 2000 telah mengeluarkan peraturan tentang penerapan konsep sustainable building yang merupakan bagian dari program management lingkungan kota, oleh Yulesta Putra 04015309

  11. Descent in buildings (AM-190)

    CERN Document Server

    Mühlherr, Bernhard; Weiss, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Descent in Buildings begins with the resolution of a major open question about the local structure of Bruhat-Tits buildings. The authors then put their algebraic solution into a geometric context by developing a general fixed point theory for groups acting on buildings of arbitrary type, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for the residues fixed by a group to form a kind of subbuilding or "form" of the original building. At the center of this theory is the notion of a Tits index, a combinatorial version of the notion of an index in the relative theory of algebraic groups. These results

  12. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    U.S. and China are the world’s top two economics. Together they consumed one-third of the world’s primary energy. It is an unprecedented opportunity and challenge for governments, researchers and industries in both countries to join together to address energy issues and global climate change. Such joint collaboration has huge potential in creating new jobs in energy technologies and services. Buildings in the US and China consumed about 40% and 25% of the primary energy in both countries in 2010 respectively. Worldwide, the building sector is the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas emission. Better understanding and improving the energy performance of buildings is a critical step towards sustainable development and mitigation of global climate change. This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  13. Building guide : how to build Xyce from source code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric Richard; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Sholander, Peter E.; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Verley, Jason C.

    2013-08-01

    While Xyce uses the Autoconf and Automake system to configure builds, it is often necessary to perform more than the customary %E2%80%9C./configure%E2%80%9D builds many open source users have come to expect. This document describes the steps needed to get Xyce built on a number of common platforms.

  14. Seismic vulnerability assessments administrative building and human resources building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, F.E.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to identify probable life safety structural and non-structural building damage and its impact on the safety of the occupants of the subject buildings during an earthquake which has a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years in the Fernald, Ohio area. 2 figs.

  15. Better Buildings NW Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Kevin [Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-03-04

    When the Toledo Lucas County Port Authority (TLCPA) filed for the Department of Energy EECBG grant in late 2009, it was part of a strategic and Board backed objective to expand the organization’s economic development and financing programs into alternative energy and energy efficiency. This plan was filed with the knowledge and support of the areas key economic development agencies. The City of Toledo was also a key partner with the Mayor designating a committee to develop a Strategic Energy Policy for the City. This would later give rise to a Community Sustainability Strategic Plan for Toledo, Lucas County and the surrounding region with energy efficiency as a key pillar. When the TLCPA signed the grant documents with the DOE in June of 2010, the geographic area was severely distressed economically, in the early stages of a recovery from over a 30% drop in business activity and high unemployment. The TLCPA and its partners began identifying potential project areas well before the filing of the application, continuing to work diligently before the formal award and signing of the grant documents. Strong implementation and actions plans and business and financing models were developed and revised throughout the 3 year grant period with the long term goal of creating a sustainable program. The TLCPA and the City of Toledo demonstrated early leadership by forming the energy improvement district and evaluating buildings under their control including transportation infrastructure and logistics, government services buildings and buildings which housed several for profit and not for profit tenants while completing significant energy efficiency projects that created public awareness and confidence and solid examples of various technologies and energy savings. As was stated in the DOE Award Summary, the undertaking was focused as a commercial program delving into Alternative Energy Utility Districts; what are referred to in Ohio Statute as Energy Special Improvement

  16. Virtual building environments (VBE) - Applying information modeling to buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2004-06-21

    A Virtual Building Environment (VBE) is a ''place'' where building industry project staffs can get help in creating Building Information Models (BIM) and in the use of virtual buildings. It consists of a group of industry software that is operated by industry experts who are also experts in the use of that software. The purpose of a VBE is to facilitate expert use of appropriate software applications in conjunction with each other to efficiently support multidisciplinary work. This paper defines BIM and virtual buildings, and describes VBE objectives, set-up and characteristics of operation. It informs about the VBE Initiative and the benefits from a couple of early VBE projects.

  17. 高考完形填空的特点及备考策略%The Characteristics of the Gestalt Fills up the College Entrance Examination and Test Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远清

    2014-01-01

    完形填空在高考试卷上占很大分值,叙述了完形填空的特点、解题步骤和解题技巧。%Cloze tests account for a big score in the college entrance examination, this article relates characteristics of cloze tests and procedures and skills of solving problems.

  18. Ruin Probability of One Kind of Entrance Processes Based Insurance Risk Models%一类基于进入过程保险风险模型的破产概率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鸿民; 唐加山

    2011-01-01

    In this note, one kind of insurance risk models with the policies having multiple validity times are investigated. Explicit expressions for the ruin probabilities are obtained by using the martingale method. As a consequence, the obtained probability serves as an upper bound for the ruin probability of a newly developed entrance processes based risk model.

  19. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  20. Capacity building for HIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gulis PhD

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.

    Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.

    Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this

  1. Comparison and Analysis about Anxiety and Depression of Medical Students during Entrance and Graduation Stage%医学生入学和毕业阶段焦虑、抑郁调查结果对比及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽梅; 乔雪

    2011-01-01

    目的 以高等医学院校五年制医学生为对象调查分析同一样本在新生和毕业生两阶段的焦虑、抑郁情况,总结各阶段特点并针对其不同阶段下的转变进行分析,采取相应的教育对策.方法 应用分层抽样办法抽取医学院校五年制本科同一年级不同专业的学生,在其大一入学和大五临近毕业时应用Zung焦虑抑郁自评量表(SAS、SDS)进行问卷调查,经spss12.0软件建立数据库进行数据分析,再同得分较高的部分个体进行访谈.结果 2005年、2009年SAS值分别为37.55、37.04,SDS值分别为39.84、40.18,两者比例接近.入学时男、女生SAS值分别为38.42和36.68,没有显著差异;男、女生SDS值分别为41.35和38.33,P<0.05,存在显著差异,高分人数均为23人,占各自总人数的28.5%和17.83%.毕业时男、女生SAS值分别为37.07和37.02,男、女生SDS值分别为40.55和39.90,均没有显著差异,高分人数分别为21和37,占各自总人数的26.58%和34.26%,其中轻度抑郁人数分布女性多于男性,差异显著.结论 医学生情绪状态整体水平稳定尚可,少数学生偏离正常.应在不同阶段针对不同性别进行素质教育,开展心理咨询,引导学生建立良好的压力应对机制,为其提供更完善的就业服务体系.%Objective Putting five-year system medical students in advance medical college as subject analyze their anxiety and depression during entrace and graduatino stage.To summarize the characteristic of two stages analyze the transformation at different phases, adopting relevant education counterm easures.Methods Students from different major in the same grade in five-year system medical college are selected by stratified sampling.Having a questinnaire by self-rating anxiety/depression scale (SAS, SDS ) at their entrance and before graduation analyzes the data through building database by SPSS12.0, in terviewing partial person getting higher score.Results SAS in 2005 and 2009 are

  2. Energy efficiency of building envelope

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    November, 12-13th, in Saint-Petersburg the 7th International congress "Energy efficiency. XXI century" took place. The reports were done in breakuo groups according to the various aspects of energy efficiency challenge: HVAC systems, water supply and sewerage systems, gas supply, energy metering. One of the grourps was devoted to thermophysics of buildings and energy effective design of building envelope.

  3. IN SPHERE OF ROAD BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhov Oleg Fedorovich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, it is necessary to use concession bases of development of national transport systems more widely considering the importance of road building, and also that fact that interests of the state and managing subjects - participants of investment building activity have differently directed vectors.

  4. Summary of Green Building Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-08-01

    In early 2002, the National Association of Home Builders completed a census of residential green building programs across the United States to assess differences and similarities among programs. This report catalogs different ways that builders participate in residential green building programs.

  5. Simplified building model of districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, F.G.H.; Bakker, L.G.; Lanceta, D.; Narmsara, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the setting of this paper, a building is represented by a simple model consisting of two thermal masses. Generic values were obtained for two unknown parameters in the model, capable of representing an office building, a single family dwelling and a multifamily dwelling, at three levels of therma

  6. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

  7. Embodied Energy in Sustainable Buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokkos, A.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. A direct contribution to getting a more sustainable world is to reduce the energy consumption. Much is done in the operational energy of buildings. The embodied energy, used during the construction of a build

  8. CREDITWORTHINESS OF MACHINE BUILDING ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Freimanis, Tālis; Svarinskis, Leonārs

    2009-01-01

    The previous research showed that the Latvian machine building enterprises experienced regular liquidity problems at the end of each year. Therefore to ensure their development the constant access to bank credits is a necessity. For that reason the analysis and evaluation of machine building enterprises creditworthiness was performed.

  9. SOLVENCY OF MACHINE BUILDING ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Freimanis, Tālis; Svarinskis, Leonārs

    2009-01-01

    Machine building as a competative exporting industry plays an important role in the Latvian national open market economy. The further development of machine building is possible under the conditions of the stable solvency. Therefore, it is crucial to perform the solvency analysis of the industry enterprises and give its evaluation.

  10. Simulating Building Fires for Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo C.; Johnson, Randall P.

    1987-01-01

    Fire scenes for cinematography staged at relatively low cost in method that combines several existing techniques. Nearly realistic scenes, suitable for firefighter training, produced with little specialized equipment. Sequences of scenes set up quickly and easily, without compromising safety because model not burned. Images of fire, steam, and smoke superimposed on image of building to simulate burning of building.

  11. To Remodel or To Build?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The question of remodeling an existing house to make it wheelchair accessible or building a new barrier-free house is a difficult decision. This article presents some initial questions and considerations followed by a list of pros and cons for remodeling an existing house vs. building a new house.

  12. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  13. Energy Performance of Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    "Sustainable development" has been defined best by the Brundtland Commission as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Adequate and affordable energy supplies have been key to economic development and are c......"Sustainable development" has been defined best by the Brundtland Commission as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Adequate and affordable energy supplies have been key to economic development...... and are central to improving social and economic well- being, and human welfare and raising living standards. Even if energy is essential for development, it is only a means to an end. The end is good health, high living standards, a sustainable economy and a clean environment. The European Climate change...... programme (ECCP) was established in June 2000 to help identify the most environmentally cost-effective measures enabling the EU to meet its target under the Kyoto Protocol, namely an 8% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by 2012. Energy use in buildings accounts for almost half of all CO...

  14. Strengthening Building Retrofit Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, Mary [Michigan Saves; Jackson, Robert [Michigan Energy Office

    2014-04-15

    The Business Energy Financing (BEF) program offered commercial businesses in Michigan affordable financing options and other incentives designed to support energy efficiency improvements. We worked through partnerships with Michigan utilities, lenders, building contractors, trade associations, and other community organizations to offer competitive interest rates and flexible financing terms to support energy efficiency projects that otherwise would not have happened. The BEF program targeted the retail food market, including restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, and wholesale food vendors, with the goal of achieving energy efficiency retrofits for 2 percent of the target market. We offered low interest rates, flexible payments, easy applications and approval processes, and access to other incentives and rebates. Through these efforts, we sought to help customers strive for energy savings retrofits that would save 20 percent or more on their energy use. This program helped Michigan businesses reduce costs by financing energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling systems, insulation, refrigeration, equipment upgrades, and more. Businesses completed the upgrades with the help of our authorized contractors, and, through our lending partners, we provided affordable financing options.

  15. Building a crystal palace

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The end-caps of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) take shape as the first quadrant was completed on Wednesday 3 October. 1831 crystals, organised into five by five blocks named ‘supercrystals’, make up the first quadrant of Dee 1.With the 61,200-crystal barrel of its electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) complete, CMS is now building the endcaps, on the tenth anniversary of their initial design. Crystals for the endcaps were the last to be made, so the race is now on to have them all in place and ready for the turn-on of the LHC next year. Assembly of the first of eight quadrants began in June and crystal mounting was completed on Wednesday 3 October. Each crystal is transparent, has a volume just larger than a CERN coffee cup yet weighs a huge 1.5kg. 1831 of these lead tungstate crystals went into the first quadrant from a total 14,648 in the endcaps. The lead and tungsten account for 86% of each crystal’s weight, but as project leader Dave Cockerill expl...

  16. 关于高考数学选择题解题技巧的探讨%Exploration on the Problem-solving Skills of the Choices in Entrance Mathematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林培国

    2011-01-01

    The main entrance mathematics multiple-choice basic knowledge test the candidate's understanding and grasp of the basic problem-solving skills,proficiency with the use of basic computing accuracy and speed of thinking and other aspects of comprehensive and rigorous content,so the candidates should have the necessary solution of choice problem skills,problem-solving in order to improve the accuracy and speed,make sure to obtain high scores on multiple-choice questions.This multiple-choice math college entrance examination conducted by a brief introduction,and then summed up the choice of college entrance math problem-solving skills,and over the years the college entrance examination multiple choice math questions,for example,or simulation of multiple-choice math problem-solving skills in the entrance depth in the concrete application discussed.%高考数学选择题主要考察考生基础知识的理解与掌握、基本解题技能的熟练与运用、基本计算的准确与速度、思考问题的全面与严谨等方面内容,所以,考生应掌握选择题必要的解题技巧,以此提高解题的准确性和速度,确保在选择题上取得高分。本文通过对高考数学选择题进行简要介绍,进而总结出高考数学选择的解题技巧,并以历年高考数学选择题或模拟试题为例,对解题技巧在高考数学选择题中的具体运用进行深入探讨。

  17. The Analysis of Recruitment Fairness in College Entrance Examination from Social Mobility Perspective%社会流动视角下的高考录取公平问题初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴德平

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment in college entrance examination is unfair in some extent as an important mechanism for selecting talent and promoting social mobility. The recruitment fairness in college entrance examination mainly reflects the balance in social mobility. The unfairness recruitment in college entrance examination is attributed to lack of balance in the social structure. Great attention should be paid to the social mobility and the recruitment fairness in college entrance examination by means of systematic reform of the social support system and optimization of social structure. The reforming plan about how to construct a fair recruitment system in college entrance examination should consider the actual situation in China, it is necessary not only to consider the prospective situation, but also to implement it step by step based on the comprehensive research and long-term planning.%高考录取作为国家选拔人才、促进社会流动的重要机制,在公平性方面仍然存在着明显的缺失。高考录取公平主要表现为社会流动的均衡,而录取公平缺失主要归因为社会结构的失衡。要实现社会流动均衡、高考录取公平的核。心和主要途径是改革社会配套制度、优化社会结构。高考录取制度的改革应该在考虑中国国情基础上,考虑到前瞻性,在全面研究和长期规划的基础上逐步推进。

  18. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  19. Data management for biofied building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kohta; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Smart houses have been studied by many researchers to satisfy individual demands of residents. However, they are not feasible yet as they are very costly and require many sensors to be embedded into houses. Therefore, we suggest "Biofied Building". In Biofied Building, sensor agent robots conduct sensing, actuation, and control in their house. The robots monitor many parameters of human lives such as walking postures and emotion continuously. In this paper, a prototype network system and a data model for practical application for Biofied Building is pro-posed. In the system, functions of robots and servers are divided according to service flows in Biofield Buildings. The data model is designed to accumulate both the building data and the residents' data. Data sent from the robots and data analyzed in the servers are automatically registered into the database. Lastly, feasibility of this system is verified through lighting control simulation performed in an office space.

  20. Integrated Building Management System (IBMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anita Lewis

    2012-07-01

    This project provides a combination of software and services that more easily and cost-effectively help to achieve optimized building performance and energy efficiency. Featuring an open-platform, cloud- hosted application suite and an intuitive user experience, this solution simplifies a traditionally very complex process by collecting data from disparate building systems and creating a single, integrated view of building and system performance. The Fault Detection and Diagnostics algorithms developed within the IBMS have been designed and tested as an integrated component of the control algorithms running the equipment being monitored. The algorithms identify the normal control behaviors of the equipment without interfering with the equipment control sequences. The algorithms also work without interfering with any cooperative control sequences operating between different pieces of equipment or building systems. In this manner the FDD algorithms create an integrated building management system.

  1. Augmented reality building operations tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2014-09-09

    A method (700) for providing an augmented reality operations tool to a mobile client (642) positioned in a building (604). The method (700) includes, with a server (660), receiving (720) from the client (642) an augmented reality request for building system equipment (612) managed by an energy management system (EMS) (620). The method (700) includes transmitting (740) a data request for the equipment (612) to the EMS (620) and receiving (750) building management data (634) for the equipment (612). The method (700) includes generating (760) an overlay (656) with an object created based on the building management data (634), which may be sensor data, diagnostic procedures, or the like. The overlay (656) is configured for concurrent display on a display screen (652) of the client (642) with a real-time image of the building equipment (612). The method (700) includes transmitting (770) the overlay (656) to the client (642).

  2. 大學多元入學制度:學生家庭社經背景與學業成就之比較 Multi-Channel College Entrance System: Relationship between Family Background, Academic Achievement and Entrance Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    田芳華 Fang-Hua Tien

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available 本文分析不同入學管道之大學生社經背景差異,並比較其學業成就。研究採問卷調查蒐集資料,調查母體為十二所大學之大一學生,並運用多項勝算對數模型和區間迴歸進行資料分析。研究發現為:一、在考慮性別、父母親籍貫、父親教育程度和職業及領域的情形下,母親教育程度較高者經由個人申請管道入學之機率較考試分發入學的機率大;二、當其他變項條件相同時,與攻讀人文社會領域者相比,攻讀自然理工領域者經個人申請或學校推薦管道入學的可能性較考試分發高;三、在控制性別、家庭社經地位、領域、公私立學校和學習主動性後,個人申請和推薦入學者的學業表現比考試分發者來得好。 Purposes of this research are: (1 Analyzing differences of family background among students who were admitted to colleges via different entrance channels; (2 Comparing academic achievement of college students who are enrolled via different entrance channels. A survey was conducted. The survey population is defined as the first year college students enrolling in twelve universities. Statistical methods employed in this study include multinomial logit regression and interval regression. The main findings are: (1 After controlling for the effects of gender, father’s ethnicity, mother’s ethnicity, father’s occupation, father’s education, and the respondents’ major, students of better educated mother tend to have higher chances of entering colleges via applying for admissions rather than taking entrance examination. (2 Holding other variables constant, the odds of applying for admissions to enter college compare to taking united entrance examination channel are higher among natural science and engineering students than humanities and social sciences students. (3 After considering the effects of gender, family socioeconomic status, majors, public or

  3. Building America Expert Meeting Report: Hydronic Heating in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.

    2011-10-01

    The topic of this expert meeting was cost-effective controls and distribution retrofit options for hot water and steam space heating systems in multi-family buildings with the goals of reducing energy waste and improving occupant comfort. The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program develops technologies with the goal of reducing energy use by 30% to 50% in residential buildings. Toward this goal, the program sponsors 'Expert Meetings' focused on specific building technology topics. The meetings are intended to sharpen Building America research priorities, create a forum for sharing information among industry leaders and build partnerships with professionals and others that can help support the program's research needs and objectives. The topic of this expert meeting was cost-effective controls and distribution retrofit options for hot water and steam space heating systems in multifamily buildings with the goals of reducing energy waste and improving occupant comfort. The objectives of the meeting were to: (1) Share knowledge and experience on new and existing solutions: what works, what doesn't and why, and what's new; (2) Understand the market barriers to currently offered solutions: what disconnects exist in the market and what is needed to overcome or bridge these gaps; and (3) Identify research needs.

  4. Analisa Life Cycle Cost pada Green Building Diamond Building Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trixy Firsani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mengingat kenyataan bahwa seluruh emisi CO2 yang ada di dunia lebih dari sepertiganya dihasilkan oleh bangunan[1], maka dibutuhkan suatu antispasi untuk mengeliminir akan fakta tersebut, yaitu melalui penerapan suatu konsep bangunan ramah lingkungan atau biasa disebut dengan konsep green building. Salah satu bangunan yang mengadopsi konsep green building tersebut adalah Diamond Building Malaysia. Bangunan ini menghabiskan biaya yang relatif tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan biaya pada pembangunan konvensional. Namun, dengan konsep green building yang memfokuskan pada pengefisiensi energi sepanjang siklus hidup proyek, penerapan konsep tersebut tentunya akan berbalik menjadi suatu keuntungan yang berkesinambungan pada biaya operasionalnya. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan suatu studi analisa Life Cycle Cost untuk melihat seberapa besar biaya yang dikeluarkan oleh suatu bangunan berkonsep green building selama periode yang ditetapkan. Dalam melakukan analisa Life Cycle Cost dibutuhkan biaya-biaya yang relevan, antara lain Biaya Awal, Biaya Operasional dan Perawatan, Biaya Energi, Biaya Penggantian, dan Nilai Sisa. Analisa dilakukan dengan menggunakan Present Worth Methode, dimana periode analisa ditentukan selama 10 tahun. Dari hasil analisa Life Cycle Cost dengan kategori biaya yang terdiri dari Biaya Awal, Biaya Energi, Biaya Operasional dan Pemeliharaan, serta Biaya Penggantian, diperoleh total biaya siklus Diamond Building Malaysia adalah sebesar RM 235.096.883atau sebesar Rp 759.290.649.000. Jika memasukkan Nilai Sisa dalam kategori biaya Life Cycle Cost tersebut, total biaya hidup Diamond Building menjadi RM 186.646.883 atau sebesar Rp 559.940.649.000.

  5. Energy use in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This is the report on Task IB, Familiarization with Additional Data Collection Plans of Annual Survey of BOMA Member and Non-Member Buildings in 20 Cities, of the Energy Use in Office Buildings project. The purpose of the work was to monitor and understand the efforts of the Building Owners and Managers Association International (BOMA) in gathering an energy-use-oriented data base. In order to obtain an improved data base encompassing a broad spectrum of office space and with information suitable for energy analysis in greater detail than is currently available, BOMA undertook a major data-collection effort. Based on a consideration of geographic area, climate, population, and availability of data, BOMA selected twenty cities for data collection. BOMA listed all of the major office space - buildings in excess of 40,000 square feet - in each of the cities. Tax-assessment records, local maps, Chamber of Commerce data, recent industrial-development programs, results of related studies, and local-realtor input were used in an effort to assemble a comprehensive office-building inventory. In order to verify the accuracy and completeness of the building lists, BOMA assembled an Ad-Hoc Review Committee in each city to review the assembled inventory of space. A questionnaire on office-building energy use and building characteristics was developed. In each city BOMA assembled a data collection team operating under the supervision of its regional affiliate to gather the data. For each city a random sample of buildings was selected, and data were gathered. Responses for over 1000 buildings were obtained.

  6. Building effectiveness communication ratios for improved building life cycle management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, E.; Keane, M.; McCarthy, J. [Ireland National Univ., Cork (Ireland). IRUSE; O' Donnell, J. [Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Ireland National Univ., Cork (Ireland). IRUSE

    2005-07-01

    The construction and operation of buildings consumes 35 per cent of total U.S. energy production. Although the application of building energy simulation models in early design stages can significantly increase performance throughout the building life cycle, energy simulation modeling has not been widely adopted by the design community. The complexity and length of time needed to prepare energy models are considered to be barriers, as well as the lack of energy appraisal tools capable of modeling a wide spectrum of hybrid heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. A performance-based strategy using building effectiveness communication ratios stored in Building Information Models (BIM) was presented in this paper. The strategy aimed to link currently fragmented stages within the building life cycle. It was suggested that the ability to share and exchange information will reduce the amount of user time required for building simulation models. The proposed Building Energy Monitoring Analyzing and Communication (BEMAC) framework is an integrated environment that allows users to share data with other applications through an integrated data model. The data models allow each participant to employ tools specific to their needs without compromising or corrupting project data. Data values elicited from the model act as best-possible values. It was anticipated that by assigning spaces within the simulation model with proposed HVAC systems, reproductions of the energy use by these mechanical systems can contribute to overall energy data representation and analysis. Idealized Effectiveness Ratios and Performance Effectiveness Ratios were discussed in relation to a case study of the Glucksman Art Gallery at the National University of Ireland. Results indicated that the Idealized Effectiveness Ratio is applicable across the entire building life cycle, while the Performance Effectiveness Ratio allows facility managers to investigate the energy saving potential of the

  7. Berkeley Lab to Help Build Straw Bale Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsham, S.A.; Van Mechelen, G.

    1998-12-01

    The Shorebird Environmental Learning Center (SELC) is a new straw bale building that will showcase current and future technologies and techniques that will reduce the environmental impacts of building construction and operations. The building will also serve as a living laboratory to test systems and monitor their performance. The project will be the model for a building process that stops using our precious resources and reduces waste pollution. The rice straw that will be used for the bale construction is generally waste material that is typically burned--millions of tons of it a year--especially in California's San Joaquin Valley. Buildings have significant impacts on the overall environment. Building operations, including lighting, heating, and cooling, consume about 30% of the energy used in the United States. Building construction and the processes into making building materials consume an additional 8% of total energy. Construction also accounts for 39% of wood consumed in the U S, while 25% of solid waste volume is construction and demolition (C &D) debris. The SELC will incorporate a variety of materials and techniques that will address these and other issues, while providing a model of environmentally considered design for Bay Area residents and builders. Environmental considerations include energy use in construction and operations, selection of materials, waste minimization, and indoor air quality. We have developed five major environmental goals for this project: (1) Minimize energy use in construction and operations; (2) Employ material sources that are renewable, salvaged, recycled, and/or recyclable; (3) Increase building lifespan with durable materials and designs that permit flexibility and modification with minimal demolition; (4) Reduce and strive to eliminate construction debris; and (5) Avoid products that create toxic pollutants and make a healthy indoor environment.

  8. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  9. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: BetterBuildings Lowell Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heslin, Thomas

    2014-01-31

    The City of Lowell set four goals at the beginning of the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: 1. Improve the Downtown Historic Park District’s Carbon Footprint 2. Develop a sustainable and replicable model for energy efficiency in historic buildings 3. Create and retain jobs 4. Promote multi-stakeholder partnerships The City of Lowell, MA was awarded $5 million in May 2010 to conduct energy efficiency retrofits within the downtown National Historical Park (NHP). The City’s target was to complete retrofits in 200,000 square feet of commercial space and create 280 jobs, while adhering to the strict historical preservation regulations that govern the NHP. The development of a model for energy efficiency in historic buildings was successfully accomplished. BetterBuildings Lowell’s success in energy efficiency in historic buildings was due to the simplicity of the program. We relied strongly on the replacement of antiquated HVAC systems and air sealing and a handful of talented energy auditors and contractors. BetterBuildings Lowell was unique for the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program because it was the only program that focused solely on commercial properties. BetterBuildings Lowell did target multi-family properties, which were reported as commercial, but the majority of the building types and uses were commercial. Property types targeted were restaurants, office buildings, museums, sections of larger buildings, mixed use buildings, and multifamily buildings. This unique fabric of building type and use allows for a deeper understanding to how different properties use energy. Because of the National Historical Park designation of downtown Lowell, being able to implement energy efficiency projects within a highly regulated historical district also provided valuable research and precedent proving energy efficiency projects can be successfully completed in historical districts and historical buildings. Our program was very successful in working with the local

  10. NASA, Building Tomorrow's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward

    2011-01-01

    We, as NASA, continue to Dare Mighty Things. Here we are in October. In my country, the United States of America, we celebrate the anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas, which occurred on October 12, 1492. His story, although happening over 500 years ago, is still very valid today. It is a part of the American spirit; part of the international human spirit. Columbus is famous for discovering the new world we now call America, but he probably never envisioned what great discoveries would be revealed many generations later. But in order for Columbus to begin his great adventure, he needed a business plan. Ho would he go about obtaining the funds and support necessary to build, supply, and man the ships required for his travels? He had a lot of obstacles and distractions. He needed a strong, internal drive to achieve his plans and recruit a willing crew of explorers also ready to risk their all for the unknown journey ahead. As Columbus set sail, he said "By prevailing over all obstacles and distractions, one may unfailingly arrive at his chosen goal or destination." Columbus may not have known he was on a journey for all human exploration. Recently, Charlie Bolden, the NASA Administrator, said, "Human exploration is and has always been about making life better for humans on Earth." Today, NASA and the U.S. human spaceflight program hold many of the same attributes as did Columbus and his contemporaries - a willing, can-do spirit. We are on the threshold of exciting new times in space exploration. Like Columbus, we need a business plan to take us into the future. We need to design the best ships and utilize the best designers, with their past knowledge and experience, to build those ships. We need funding and support from governments to achieve these goals of space exploration into the unknown. NASA does have that business plan, and it is an ambitious plan for human spaceflight and exploration. Today, we have a magnificent spaceflight

  11. BUILDING MATERIALS RECLAMATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Weggel; Shen-En Chen; Helene Hilger; Fabien Besnard; Tara Cavalline; Brett Tempest; Adam Alvey; Madeleine Grimmer; Rebecca Turner

    2010-08-31

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C&D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C&D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C&D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C&D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  12. Building damage in Dujiangyan during Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Minzheng; Jin Yingjie

    2008-01-01

    A field damage survey of 1,005 buildings damaged by the Wenchuan Earthquake in Dujiangyan City was carried out and the resulting data was analyzed using the statistical method. It is shown that buildings that were seismically designed achieved the desired seismic fortification target; they sustained less damage than the non-seismically designed buildings. Among the seismically designed buildings investigated, RC frame buildings performed the best in terms of seismic resistance. Masonry buildings with a ground story of RC frame structure were the second best, and masonry buildings performed the worst. Considering building height, multistory buildings sustained more severe damage than high-rise buildings and 2-and 3-story buildings. Compared to residential buildings, public buildings, such as schools and hospitals, suffered more severe damage.

  13. Hidden Anxieties of College Entrance Examination Reform%高考双轨制改革的双层隐忧﹡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璞; 傅慧慧

    2015-01-01

    Along with the readjustment of industrial structure, the role of vocational and technical education has become increasingly prominent. In order to adapt to the social and economic development, develop professional and technical personnel more effectively, our country has proposed to implement a two-track system in college entrance examination. One is academic examination; the other is skill-based examination, in order to achieve a reasonable drain of talent and training. However, due to the severe inequality of resources in academic institutions and application-oriented universities, the transition to match the type of secondary education has not yet completed. Under the influence of the traditional concept of stressing academics and overlooking vocational training, the two-track system of college entrance examination will enlarge the differences between the choices of social classes in a short time, push students’ life choices ahead of time and solidified. On the whole, it would not help the underprivileged class to get accesses to quality education resources.%随着我国产业结构的调整,职业技术教育的作用日益凸显。为了适应社会经济发展,更有效地培养职业技术人才,我国拟实行高考双轨制,将高考分为学术型高考与技能型高考,以期实现人才的合理分流和培养。但由于学术型高校和应用型高校资源的严重不均,以及与技能型高考相匹配的中学教育还未完成转型,在原本就重学术教育轻职业教育的传统观念影响下,高考分轨在短期内将进一步地放大社会阶层之间的选择差异,促使学生人生选择的提前和固化,整体上不利于社会弱势阶层获得优质的教育资源。

  14. Consideraciones sobre pruebas de selectividad de español como lengua extranjera Considerations regarding university entrance exams of spanish as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gretel María Eres Fernández

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresentamos uma síntese de pesquisa que realizamos sobre provas de vestibular de espanhol como língua estrangeira propostas por algumas instituições de ensino superior da região sudeste brasileira. À luz de algumas concepções teóricas sobre o processo de compreensão textual (KATO, 1999; KLEIMAN, 2004; SOLÉ, 1998 e considerando pressupostos sobre compreensão leitora constantes nos documentos oficiais brasileiros para o ensino médio, analisamos 23 provas que integraram nossa amostra. Entre outras constatações, averiguamos que, embora, grande parte das questões fizesse referência a um texto, muitas provas continuam avaliando somente o domínio do léxico e de regras gramaticais o que, de certa forma, reduz o ensino e aprendizagem de idiomas a esses dois aspectos. Além disso, alertamos para o fato de que existe uma lacuna - às vezes intransponível - entre os documentos legais que orientam e regulam o ensino médio e os exames de vestibular em língua estrangeira.In this article we present a synthesis of research regarding university entrance exams of Spanish as a foreign language, available in some universities from the Southeast region of Brazil. According to theoretical conceptions about the process of textual comprehension (KATO, 1999; KLEIMAN, 2004; SOLÉ, 1998 and considering reading comprehension assumptions in official Brazilian high school documents, we analyzed 23 exams integrating our collected material. We verified, among other observations, that although most test questions were connected with the text, many of them assessed only lexical knowledge and the mastery of grammatical rules which reduces, in some way, the teaching and learning of these two aspects. In addition, we note the fact that there is a gap - sometimes insurmontable - between legal documents which guide and regulate high school and university entrance exams in a foreign language.

  15. 思想政治科高考的德育功能%Moral Education Function in Politics Subject of College Entrance Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡传勇

    2015-01-01

    高中思想政治课程的教育教学是发展学生道德品质、提升学生政治素质、促进学生思想观念成熟的主渠道主阵地,具有重要的德育功能。思想政治科高考是检验学习成果、评价学生认知水平的测评活动,是学科教育的有机组成部分,因而具有特殊的德育功能。思想政治科高考是通过科学公平的考试、凝聚并反映社会“正能量”的试题素材、突出价值导向的考核内容等形式来体现其德育功能的。当前发挥思想政治科高考的德育功能,重点要从认知能力培养的角度,加强社会主义核心价值观等方面的考核。%The teaching on politics curriculum in high school is the main channel and main territory to develop students’moral character, to increase students’politics quality and to promote students' ideological maturity, which has the important moral education function. The politics subject of college entrance examination on is an evaluation activity about examining the study achievement and appraising the cognition level, and it is also the organic construct of the curriculum education, so it has a special moral education function. Through the scientific fair test, the test question source material which reflects society“energy”, the content which gives prominence to value orientation, this examination manifest its moral education function. Today, to display the moral education function in politics subject of college entrance examination, the most important thing is to raise the cognition ability, and strengthen the inspections about the core socialist values and so on.

  16. Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)

  17. Building 774: open for business

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    In July 2012, the demolition of Building 936 on the Prévessin site marked the start of the Building 774 project. On 23 February, less than three years later, the new 3900 m2 building was handed over to the BE department.   The brand new Building 774. (Credits: Francesco Soppelsa) Located near to the CERN Control Centre, Building 774 contains offices, laboratories and meeting rooms, as well as a huge public area consisting of a 104-seat auditorium, a changing room/shower area in the basement and a pleasant cafeteria open from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., offering a wide range of refreshments including hot meals at lunchtime. “There were a few twists and turns during the construction of this building, but it all turned out well in the end!" says Michael Poehler, a member of the GS-SE group and the technical coordinator of the project. (Credits: Francesco Soppelsa) The 120 occupants of the building have just moved into their brand new home, bringing all the members of the...

  18. Material Efficiency of Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Ruuska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Better construction and use of buildings in the European Union would influence 42% of final energy consumption, about 35% of our greenhouse gas emissions and more than 50% of all extracted materials. It could also help to save up to 30% of water consumption. This paper outlines and draws conclusions about different aspects of the material efficiency of buildings and assesses the significance of different building materials on the material efficiency. The research uses an extensive literature study and a case-study in order to assess: should the depletion of materials be ignored in the environmental or sustainability assessment of buildings, are the related effects on land use, energy use and/or harmful emissions significant, should related indicators (such as GHGs be used to indicate the material efficiency of buildings, and what is the significance of scarce materials, compared to the use of other building materials. This research suggests that the material efficiency should focus on the significant global impacts of material efficiency; not on the individual factors of it. At present global warming and greenhouse gas emissions are among the biggest global problems on which material efficiency has a direct impact on. Therefore, this paper suggests that greenhouse gas emissions could be used as an indicator for material efficiency in building.

  19. Cognitive Study of Building Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛惠君

    2015-01-01

    Metaphor is a universal phenomenon,the traditional metaphor studies it as a means of rhetoric,but metaphor of modern sees it as a cognitive phenomenon.In our life most of the everyday language is metaphor,our mind is also the metaphor.Meta-phor has become an indispensable tool for understanding the world.There are a lot of “building”metaphorical expressions in the life, construction is an important component of people’s lives. K?vecses (2002)discussed briefly some conceptual metaphors of the construction in English,Deignan (2001)make a compre-hensive study on building metaphors which underlie some metaphor expression of “building and construction”.Lan Chun (2003)only referred to “theory is building”,but the concept of “life,relationships”can be understood through building concept,these relative ab-stract concepts can be understood by clear concrete building concept.Hence the studies of building metaphors have not been systematic and comprehensive,people seldom study it.We plan to give a contrastive study of building metaphors.This will further deepen peo-ple’s understanding of building metaphors and enrich the cognitive studies of metaphor.

  20. Digital Handover of Data from Building Projects to Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2006-01-01

    The development of computer based facilities management has not developed as rapid as expected by most professionals, mainly due to lack of interoperability between IT sys-tems. This is particularly a problem with the transfer of data between IT systems used on the one side in building design...... and construction and on the other side in building opera-tion and facilities management. In Denmark the government has launched a development program called Digital Construction and one of the projects concerns specifying require-ments for building clients in relation to digital handover of data from construction...... pro-jects to building operation. This project started in 2004 with research and analyses fol-lowed by development of a proposal for client requirements and in 2005 a first test on a real construction project has been carried out. After revision of the requirements a second test will be started early...

  1. Buildings-to-Grid Technical Opportunities: From the Buildings Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-03-28

    This paper describes technologies and systems needed to transform buildings from the current state of siloed resources into transparent, reliable resources that participate in and benefit from an integrated "transactive energy" system.

  2. Local Jurisdictions and Active Shooters: Building Networks, Building Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    AND ACTIVE SHOOTERS: BUILDING NETWORKS, BUILDING CAPACITIES by Tracy L. Frazzano December 2010 Thesis Advisors: Sam Clovis , Jr...SCHOOL December 2010 Author: Tracy L. Frazzano Approved by: Sam H. Clovis ., Jr. Thesis Advisor Lauren Fernandez Co-Advisor...thesis in and of itself, so I will try and limit it as best I can. To my advisors, Lauren Fernandez and Samuel Clovis , I would like to thank you for

  3. Straw insulated buildings. Nature building materials; Strohgedaemmte Gebaeude. Naturbaustoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Straw is one of the major agricultural by-products and is mainly used as litter in animal husbandry and to compensate the balance of humus. A relatively recent development is the use of straw bales for the construction of buildings. The brochure under consideration documents the technical development of straw construction in Germany. Possibilities of the use of straw in single family homes up to commercial buildings are described.

  4. State building energy codes status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

  5. National Green Building Standard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Building America Program is a research and development program to improve the energy performance of new and existing homes. The ultimate goal of the Building America Program is to achieve examples of cost-effective, energy efficient solutions for all U.S. climate zones. Periodic maintenance of an ANSI standard by review of the entire document and action to revise or reaffirm it on a schedule not to exceed five years is required by ANSI. In compliance, a consensus group has once again been formed and the National Green Building Standard is currently being reviewed to comply with the periodic maintenance requirement of an ANSI standard.

  6. Radio Propagation into Modern Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Jørgensen, Niels T.K.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-efficient buildings are gaining momentum in order to comply with the new energy regulations. Especially in northern cold countries, thick reinforced walls and energy-efficient windows composed of several layers of glass plus metal coating are becoming the de facto elements in modern building...... compared to an old building. The measurements are performed for frequencies from 800 MHz to 18 GHz with the aim of identifying the frequency dependence and the impact of the new materials on not only the cellular frequency bands used today (mainly below 3 GHz), but also the potential future bands (above 3...... presented along the paper are useful for future radio network planning considerations....

  7. WAT Office building, Karlsruhe, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, the WAT (Wasser-und Abfalltechnik GmbH) office building, with various energy-saving features, was erected in Karlsruhe, Germany. The office building, net area 1,500 m{sup 2}, incorporates: facade-integrated solar air collectors preheating the ventilation air; exhaust air extraction through a solar chimney; heat recovery from ventilation air; concrete floors with integrated air ducts and no suspended ceilings. During the design phase, TRNSYS was used to determine the performance of the building and the solar system. (author)

  8. Building and Testing with Gradle

    CERN Document Server

    Berglund, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Build and test software written in Java and many other languages with Gradle, the open source project automation tool that's getting a lot of attention. This concise introduction provides numerous code examples to help you explore Gradle, both as a build tool and as a complete solution for automating the compilation, test, and release process of simple and enterprise-level applications. Discover how Gradle improves on the best ideas of Ant, Maven, and other build tools, with standards for developers who want them and lots of flexibility for those who prefer less structure. Use Gradle with Gr

  9. What makes a building green?[Green building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariah, J.L.; Kennedy, C.; Pressnail, K. [University of Toronto (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The terms 'sustainable architecture', 'green building' and 'ecological design' have emerged, along with a host of similar permutations, in recent practice as environmentally friendly modes of design, construction and operation geared towards producing healthy enduring communities. However, the terms are still vague and lead to much ambiguity in their implementation. This paper consolidates the current foci of sustainable architecture through a review of several projects and institutional guidelines that are geared towards achieving sustainability in the built environment. A contemporary checklist of desirable design strategies and building practices for a green building is presented. Consideration is given to attempts at ranking the importance of these strategies. While it is concluded that the implementation of green building design cannot be prescriptive, the checklist is intended to be an awareness-raising tool that provides the foundation for greater innovation in the designer's approach to building projects. The concept of a 'healing building' is proposed as perhaps the next level of sustainable architecture. (author)

  10. Competence building capacity shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather

  11. 77 FR 2296 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee... provides the schedule for three teleconference meetings of the Green Building Advisory Committee (the..., Designated Federal Officer, Office of Federal High Performance Green Buildings, Office of...

  12. Consideration on earth-covering building landscape design and its application%覆土建筑景观设计的思考及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志宏

    2015-01-01

    对覆土建筑景观设计的基本内容和覆土建筑景观设计的重要价值进行了概述,同时具体探讨了覆土建筑景观设计过程中入口、道路、植物景观等的设计手法,旨在为我国现代化建设提供更多的理论依据。%The paper describes basic earth-covering building landscape design contents and its important value,and specifically explores earth-covering building landscape design methods including entrance,road and plant landscape and so on,with a view to provide more theoretical basis for domestic construction.

  13. HIV-1 frameshift efficiency is primarily determined by the stability of base pairs positioned at the mRNA entrance channel of the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzakis, Kathryn D; Lang, Andrew L; Vander Meulen, Kirk A; Easterday, Preston D; Butcher, Samuel E

    2013-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) requires a programmed -1 ribosomal frameshift for Pol gene expression. The HIV frameshift site consists of a heptanucleotide slippery sequence (UUUUUUA) followed by a spacer region and a downstream RNA stem-loop structure. Here we investigate the role of the RNA structure in promoting the -1 frameshift. The stem-loop was systematically altered to decouple the contributions of local and overall thermodynamic stability towards frameshift efficiency. No correlation between overall stability and frameshift efficiency is observed. In contrast, there is a strong correlation between frameshift efficiency and the local thermodynamic stability of the first 3-4 bp in the stem-loop, which are predicted to reside at the opening of the mRNA entrance channel when the ribosome is paused at the slippery site. Insertion or deletions in the spacer region appear to correspondingly change the identity of the base pairs encountered 8 nt downstream of the slippery site. Finally, the role of the surrounding genomic secondary structure was investigated and found to have a modest impact on frameshift efficiency, consistent with the hypothesis that the genomic secondary structure attenuates frameshifting by affecting the overall rate of translation.

  14. A quantitative and comparative study of radionuclidic and chemical impurities in water samples irradiated in a niobium target with Havar vs. niobium-sputtered Havar as entrance foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila-Rodriguez, Miguel A. [Edmonton PET Centre, Cross Cancer Institute, Alberta Cancer Board, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada)], E-mail: Miguel.Avila-Rodriguez@utu.fi; Wilson, John S.; McQuarrie, Steve A. [Edmonton PET Centre, Cross Cancer Institute, Alberta Cancer Board, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Enriched and natural abundance water samples were irradiated in a niobium (Nb) chamber target with Havar and Nb-sputtered Havar foils. Irradiations were performed with 17.5 MeV protons at currents from 35 to 100 {mu}A lasting for 1-2.5 h. Radionuclidic and chemical (cationic) impurities were determined via gamma spectroscopy and ICP-MS, respectively. Anionic impurities were evaluated by ion chromatography. Impurities in water samples irradiated with the Havar-Nb foils were much lower than the samples irradiated with an unmodified Havar foil. No significant differences were observed in the impurity levels between samples of H{sub 2}{sup 18}O-enriched and natural abundance water. Radionuclidic impurities were observed to decrease after 3-4 irradiations on a fresh Havar entrance foil, and reached a constant value for subsequent irradiations with the same integrated current. For targets covered with Havar foil, radionuclidic impurities were found to be proportional to the beam-integrated current regardless of the beam power and, unexpectedly, dependant of the beam power when using a Havar-Nb foil.

  15. A quantitative and comparative study of radionuclidic and chemical impurities in water samples irradiated in a niobium target with Havar vs. niobium-sputtered Havar as entrance foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Rodriguez, Miguel A; Wilson, John S; McQuarrie, Steve A

    2008-12-01

    Enriched and natural abundance water samples were irradiated in a niobium (Nb) chamber target with Havar and Nb-sputtered Havar foils. Irradiations were performed with 17.5MeV protons at currents from 35 to 100microA lasting for 1-2.5h. Radionuclidic and chemical (cationic) impurities were determined via gamma spectroscopy and ICP-MS, respectively. Anionic impurities were evaluated by ion chromatography. Impurities in water samples irradiated with the Havar-Nb foils were much lower than the samples irradiated with an unmodified Havar foil. No significant differences were observed in the impurity levels between samples of H(2)(18)O-enriched and natural abundance water. Radionuclidic impurities were observed to decrease after 3-4 irradiations on a fresh Havar entrance foil, and reached a constant value for subsequent irradiations with the same integrated current. For targets covered with Havar foil, radionuclidic impurities were found to be proportional to the beam-integrated current regardless of the beam power and, unexpectedly, dependant of the beam power when using a Havar-Nb foil.

  16. 高考题型“听说考试”的应对措施%Response measures of College Entrance Examination "Listening and Speaking Test"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红英

    2012-01-01

    Guangdong Province common entrance examination in English examinations from 2011, has written and listening and speaking exam. Teaching high school English had a tremendous impact on teaching and learning of teachers and students a more comprehensive, but also impact on a lot of teaching in schools poses a challenge, especially heard the teaching and equipment are not a great the mountains of school, it is faced with great difficulties. This paper discusses the results to improve their English listening and speaking in the third year of teaching practices, in order to improve.%广东省普通高考英语科考试从2011年开始分别进行笔试与听说考试。这对高中英语的教学产生了极大的影响,对老师和学生的教与学的要求更全面了,也由此对不少学校的教学提出了挑战,尤其是听说教学和设备都不大好的山区学校,更是面临很大的困难。本文主要探讨了高三教学中提高英语听说成绩的一些做法,以期共同提高。

  17. Rice Cellulose SynthaseA8 Plant-Conserved Region Is a Coiled-Coil at the Catalytic Core Entrance1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Phillip S.; Olek, Anna T.; Makowski, Lee; Badger, John

    2017-01-01

    The crystallographic structure of a rice (Oryza sativa) cellulose synthase, OsCesA8, plant-conserved region (P-CR), one of two unique domains in the catalytic domain of plant CesAs, was solved to 2.4 Å resolution. Two antiparallel α-helices form a coiled-coil domain linked by a large extended connector loop containing a conserved trio of aromatic residues. The P-CR structure was fit into a molecular envelope for the P-CR domain derived from small-angle X-ray scattering data. The P-CR structure and molecular envelope, combined with a homology-based chain trace of the CesA8 catalytic core, were modeled into a previously determined CesA8 small-angle X-ray scattering molecular envelope to produce a detailed topological model of the CesA8 catalytic domain. The predicted position for the P-CR domain from the molecular docking models places the P-CR connector loop into a hydrophobic pocket of the catalytic core, with the coiled-coil aligned near the entrance of the substrate UDP-glucose into the active site. In this configuration, the P-CR coiled-coil alone is unlikely to regulate substrate access to the active site, but it could interact with other domains of CesA, accessory proteins, or other CesA catalytic domains to control substrate delivery. PMID:27879387

  18. 体育纳入高考制度的理性思考%Rational thinking about including physical education in the National College Entrance Examination system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周茗

    2012-01-01

      我国高考的目的是选拔德、智、体全面发展的社会主义建设者和接班人。将体育纳入高考的改革,有利于落实国家相关政策,保持基础教育阶段学生健康教育的连续性,加强素质教育,促进学校体育地位的提高和体育活动的开展,但也受到政治、经济、社会、技术等因素的制约。%  The purpose of National College Entrance Examination (NCEE) in China is to select morally, intellectu-ally and physically developed socialist constructors and successors. Including physical education in the reform of NCEE is conducive to implementing related state policies, maintaining the continuity of student health education at the basic education stage, enhancing makings education, and boosting the promotion of school physical education status and the development of physical education activities, but also affected and restricted by factors such as poli-tics, economy, society, technology etc.

  19. Numerical analysis of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for forced convection-radiation in entrance region of an internally finned tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hi Yong; Choi, Moon Suk [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyoung Woo [LGIS Co., Ltd., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    The flow and heat transfer characteristics of combined forced convection and radiation in the entrance region of internally finned tubes are investigated numerically in this paper. The uniform flow is considered for an inlet flow condition. A three dimensional parabolic problem is solved by a marching-type procedure envolving a series of two dimensional elliptic problems in the cross-stream plane. The SIMPLER-algorithm and Raithby's pressure-velocity coupling method are employed to analyze the flow and heat transfer characteristics. For the calculation of radiative heat transfer, the P{sub 1}-approximation and the Weighted Sum of Gray Gases Method (WSGGM) are used. The effects of fin height, number of fins, optical thickness, reference temperature, and Planck number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are examined. It was found that the effect of fin-height on the heat transfer characteristic is more dominant than that of number of fins. The present results show that the optimal non-dimensional fin height and number of fins are 0.4 and 16, respectively.

  20. Nanometer scale pores similar in size to the entrance of the ribosomal exit cavity are a common feature of large RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Mario; Tran, Quyen; Fox, George E.

    2013-01-01

    The highly conserved peptidyl transferase center (PTC) of the ribosome contains an RNA pore that serves as the entrance to the exit tunnel. Analysis of available ribosome crystal structures has revealed the presence of multiple additional well-defined pores of comparable size in the ribosomal (rRNA) RNAs. These typically have dimensions of 1–2 nm, with a total area of ∼100 Å2 or more, and most are associated with one or more ribosomal proteins. The PTC example and the other rRNA pores result from the packing of helices. However, in the non-PTC cases the nitrogenous bases do not protrude into the pore, thereby limiting the potential for hydrogen bonding within the pore. Instead, it is the RNA backbone that largely defines the pore likely resulting in a negatively charged environment. In many but not all cases, ribosomal proteins are associated with the pores to a greater or lesser extent. With the exception of the PTC case, the large subunit pores are not found in what are thought to be the evolutionarily oldest regions of the 23S rRNA. The unusual nature of the PTC pore may reflect a history of being created by hybridization between two or more RNAs early in evolution rather than simple folding of a single RNA. An initial survey of nonribosomal RNA crystal structures revealed additional pores, thereby showing that they are likely a general feature of RNA tertiary structure. PMID:23940386